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Sample records for fast ion behavior

  1. Fast ion atomic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, H.G.; Young, L.; Goodman, L.S.; Somerville, L.P.; Hardis, J.; Neek, D.

    1984-01-01

    We have set up two collinear fast beam/laser excitation systems, one at the Argonne Dynamitron Accelerator (0.5 to 5.0 MeV beam energy) and another at a small electrostatic accelerator (20 to 130 keV). Our objective is to study fine structure, hyperfine structure and QED effects in ions of a few electrons. Initial projects underway include studies of multi-excited transitions in Li/sup -/ and Li/sup 0/, and transitions to high Rydberg states in H/sup 0/ and He/sup 0/. We have simultaneously excited a sodium jet with a laser at the resonance wavelength (D/sub 1/ or D/sub 2/ lines) and a 1-MeV He/sup +/ beam to produce excitation to autoionizing Na and Na/sup +/ states. The Auger electron spectra are compared to spectra obtained without laser excitation, and indicate strong variations in final state populations. 17 references.

  2. Scaling of Kinetic Instability Induced Fast Ion Losses in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.D. Fredrickson; D. Darrow; S. Medley; J. Menard; H. Park; L. Roquemore; D. Stutman; K. Tritz; S. Kubota; K.C. Lee

    2005-06-24

    During neutral beam injection (NBI) in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), a wide variety of fast ion driven instabilities is excited by the large ratio of fast ion velocity to Alfven velocity, together with the relatively high fast ion beta, beta(sub)f. The fast ion instabilities have frequencies ranging from a few kilohertz to the ion cyclotron frequency. The modes can be divided roughly into three categories, starting with Energetic Particle Modes (EPM) in the lowest frequency range (0 to 120 kHz), the Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) in the intermediate frequency range (50 to 200 kHz) and the Compressional and Global Alfven Eigenmodes (CAE and GAE, respectively) from approximately equal to 300 kHz up to the ion cyclotron frequency. Each of these categories of modes exhibits a wide range of behavior, including quasi-continuous oscillation, bursting, chirping and, except for the lower frequency range, turbulence.

  3. Fast ion loss diagnostic plans for NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrow, D. S.; Bell, R.; Johnson, R.; Kugel, H.; Wilson, J. R.; Cecil, F. E.; Maingi, R.; Krasilnikov, A.; Alekseyev, A.

    2000-01-01

    The prompt loss of neutral beam ions from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is expected to be between 12% and 42% of the total 5 MW of beam power. There may, in addition, be losses of fast ions arising from high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating. Most of the lost ions will strike the HHFW antenna or the neutral beam dump. To measure these losses in the 2000 experimental campaign, thermocouples in the antenna, several infrared camera views, and a Faraday cup lost ion probe will be employed. The probe will measure loss of fast ions with E > 1 keV at three radial locations, giving the scrape-off length of the fast ions

  4. Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation and Conductivity Studies of the Non-Arrhenius Conductivity Behavior in Lithium Fast Ion Conducting Sulfide Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Benjamin Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    As time progresses, the world is using up more of the planet's natural resources. Without technological advances, the day will eventually arrive when these natural resources will no longer be sufficient to supply all of the energy needs. As a result, society is seeing a push for the development of alternative fuel sources such as wind power, solar power, fuel cells, and etc. These pursuits are even occurring in the state of Iowa with increasing social pressure to incorporate larger percentages of ethanol in gasoline. Consumers are increasingly demanding that energy sources be more powerful, more durable, and, ultimately, more cost efficient. Fast Ionic Conducting (FIC) glasses are a material that offers great potential for the development of new batteries and/or fuel cells to help inspire the energy density of battery power supplies. This dissertation probes the mechanisms by which ions conduct in these glasses. A variety of different experimental techniques give a better understanding of the interesting materials science taking place within these systems. This dissertation discusses Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques performed on FIC glasses over the past few years. These NMR results have been complimented with other measurement techniques, primarily impedance spectroscopy, to develop models that describe the mechanisms by which ionic conduction takes place and the dependence of the ion dynamics on the local structure of the glass. The aim of these measurements was to probe the cause of a non-Arrhenius behavior of the conductivity which has been seen at high temperatures in the silver thio-borosilicate glasses. One aspect that will be addressed is if this behavior is unique to silver containing fast ion conducting glasses. more specifically, this study will determine if a non-Arrhenius correlation time, τ, can be observed in the Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation (NSLR) measurements. If so, then can this behavior be modeled with a new single

  5. ITER Fast Ion Collective Thomson Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, Henrik; Larsen, Axel Wright; Meo, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    The EFDA Contract 04-1213 with Risø National Laboratory concerning a detailed integrated design of a Fast Ion Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostic for ITER was signed on 31 December 2004. In 2003 the Risø CTS group finished a feasibility study and a conceptual design of an ITER Fast Ion...... Collective Thomson Scattering System (Contract 01.654) [1, 2]. The purpose of the CTS diagnostic is to measure the distribution function of fast ions in the plasma. The feasibility study demonstrated that the only system that can fully meet the ITER measurement requirements for confined fusion alphas is a 60...... GHz system. The study showed that with two powerful microwave sources of this frequency (gyrotron) and two antenna systems, one on the low field side (LFS) and one on the high field side (HFS), it should be possible to resolve the distribution function of fast ions both for perpendicular and parallel...

  6. Fast-ion dynamics in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, H.; Nielsen, S.K.; Porte, L.

    2006-01-01

    and ion cyclotron resonance heating. The temporal behavior of the spatially resolved fast-ion velocity distribution is inferred from the received scattered radiation. The fast-ion dynamics at sawteeth and the slowdown after switch off of auxiliary heating is resolved in time. The latter is shown...

  7. Fast Quantum Rabi Model with Trapped Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Cessa, Héctor M

    2016-12-12

    We show how to produce a fast quantum Rabi model with trapped ions. Its importance resides not only in the acceleration of the phenomena that may be achieved with these systems, from quantum gates to the generation of nonclassical states of the vibrational motion of the ion, but also in reducing unwanted effects such as the decay of coherences that may appear in such systems.

  8. Physics in the fast lane: rotors, fast ions and mobile fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.-L.

    1996-09-01

    Dynamic disorder in the high-temperature solid phases of the Zintl compounds CsPb and NaSn is characterized by. fast orientational motions of the polyanions and coupled motions of the cations Melting is characterized by slow translational motions of the centers of mass of the polyanions. The dynamic behavior of the ions is associated with dramatic increases in electrical conductivity characteristic of the behavior expected of a mixed conductor

  9. Electron spectroscopy with fast heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.

    1983-01-01

    Since about 1970 the spectroscopy of Auger-electrons and characteristic x-rays following energetic ion-atom collisions has received a great deal of attention. An increasing number of accelerators, capable of providing a large number of projectile ion species over a wide range of projectile energies, became available for studying ion-atom collision phenomena. Many charged particles from protons up to heavy ions like uranium can be accelerated to energies ranging over six orders of magnitude. This allows us to study systematically a great variety of effects accompanied by dynamic excitation processes of the atomic shells in either the projectile- or target-atoms. The studies yield fundamental information regarding the excitation mechanism (e.g., Coulomb and quasi-molecular excitation) and allow sensitive tests of atomic structure theories. This information in turn is valuable to other fields in physics like plasma-, astro-, or solid-state (surface) physics. It is a characteristic feature of fast heavy-ion accelerators that they can produce highly stripped ion species which have in turn the capability to highly ionize neutral target atoms or molecules in a single collision. The ionization process, mainly due to the strong electrical fields that are involved, allows us to study few-electron atoms with high atomic numbers Z. High resolution spectroscopy performed with these atoms allows a particularly good test of relativistic and QED effects. The probability of producing these few electron systems is determined by the charge state and the velocity of the projectile ions. In this contribution the possibilities of using electron spectroscopy as a tool to investigate fast ion-atom collisions is discussed and demonstrated with a few examples. 30 references

  10. Fast sodium ion conductivity in supertetrahedral phosphidosilicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johrendt, Dirk; Haffner, Arthur; Hatz, Anna Katharina; Moudrakovski, Igor; Lotsch, Bettina Valeska

    2018-04-03

    Fast sodium ion conductors are key components of sodium-based all-solid-state batteries which hold promise as safe systems for large-scale storage of electrical power. Here, we report the synthesis, crystal structure determination and Na+ ion conductivities of six new sodium ion conductors, the phosphidosilicates Na19Si13P25, Na23Si19P33, Na23Si28P45, Na23Si37P57, LT-NaSi2P3 and HT-NaSi2P3, which are entirely based on earth-abundant elements. The new structures exhibit SiP4 tetrahedra assembling interpenetrating networks of T3 to T5 supertetrahedral clusters which can be hierarchically assigned to sphalerite- or diamond-type structures. 23Na solid-state NMR spectra and geometrical pathway analysis indicate Na+ ion mobility between the supertetrahedral cluster networks. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed Na+ ion conductivities up to σ (Na+) = 4 ∙ 10-4 Scm-1 with an activation energy of Ea = 0.25 eV in HT-NaSi2P3 at 25 °C. The conductivities increase with the size of the supertetrahedral clusters due to the dilution of Na+ ions as the charge density of the anionic supertetrahedral networks decreases. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Ion beam heating for fast ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kov, S.Yu.; Limpouch, J.; Klimo, O.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The characteristics features of the formation of the spatial distribution of the energy transferred to the plasma from a beam of ions with different initial energies, masses and charges under fast ignition conditions are determined. The motion of the Bragg peak is extended with respect to the spatial distribution of the temperature of the ion-beam-heated medium. The parameters of the ion beams are determined to initiate different regimes of fast ignition of thermonuclear fuel precompressed to a density of 300-500 g/cm 3 - the edge regime, in which the ignition region is formed at the outer boundary of the fuel, and the internal regime, in which the ignition region is formed in central parts of the fuel. The conclusion on the requirements for fast ignition by light and heavy ion beams is presented. It is shown that the edge heating with negative temperature gradient is described by a self-similar solution. Such a temperature distribution is the reason of the fact that the ignited beam energy at the edge heating is larger than the minimal ignition energy by factor 1.65. The temperature Bragg peak may be produced by ion beam heating in the reactor scale targets with pR-parameter larger than 3-4 g/cm 2 . In particular, for central ignition of the targets with pR-parameters in the range of 4-8 g/cm 2 the ion beam energy should be, respectively, from 5 to 7 times larger than the minimal ignition energy. The work by S.Ye. Gus'kov, D.V. Il'in, and V.E. Sherman was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation under the program 'Development of the Scientific Potential of High Education for 2009-2010' (project no. 2.1.1/1505) and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 08-02-01394 a ). The work by J. Limpouch and O. Klimo was supported by the Czech Ministry of Education (project no. LC528, MSM6840770022).

  12. Relaxation behavior of ion conducting glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunde, A.; Dieterich, W.; Maass, P.; Meyer, M.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate by Monte Carlo simulations the diffusion of ions in an energetically disordered lattice, where the Coulomb interaction between the mobile ions is explicitly taken into account. We show that the combined effect of Coulomb interaction and disorder can account for the ionic ac-conductivity in glasses and the recently discovered non-Arrhenius behavior of the dc-conductivity in glassy fast ionic conductors. Our results suggest that glassy ionic conductors can be optimized by lowering the strength of the energetic disorder but that the ionic interaction effects set an upper bound for the conductivity at high temperatures. (author)

  13. Electrical studies on silver based fast ion conducting glassy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B. Appa; Kumar, E. Ramesh; Kumari, K. Rajani; Bhikshamaiah, G.

    2014-01-01

    Among all the available fast ion conductors, silver based glasses exhibit high conductivity. Further, glasses containing silver iodide enhances fast ion conducting behavior at room temperature. Glasses of various compositions of silver based fast ion conductors in the AgI−Ag 2 O−[(1−x)B 2 O 3 −xTeO 2 ] (x=0 to1 mol% in steps of 0.2) glassy system have been prepared by melt quenching method. The glassy nature of the compounds has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The electrical conductivity (AC) measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 1 KHz–3MHz by Impedance Analyzer in the temperature range 303–423K. The DC conductivity measurements were also carried out in the temperature range 300–523K. From both AC and DC conductivity studies, it is found that the conductivity increases and activation energy decreases with increasing the concentration of TeO 2 as well as with temperature. The conductivity of the present glass system is found to be of the order of 10 −2 S/cm at room temperature. The ionic transport number of these glasses is found to be 0.999 indicating that these glasses can be used as electrolyte in batteries

  14. Fast ions and momentum transport in JET tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmi, A.

    2012-07-01

    Fast ions are an inseparable part of fusion plasmas. They can be generated using electromagnetic waves or injected into plasmas as neutrals to heat the bulk plasma and to drive toroidal rotation and current. In future power plants fusion born fast ions deliver the main heating into the plasma. Understanding and controlling the fast ions is of crucial importance for the operation of a power plant. Furthermore, fast ions provide ways to probe the properties of the thermal plasma and get insight of its confinement properties. In this thesis, numerical code packages are used and developed to simulate JET experiments for a range of physics issues related to fast ions. Namely, the clamping fast ion distribution at high energies with RF heating, fast ion ripple torque generation and the toroidal momentum transport properties using NBI modulation technique are investigated. Through a comparison of numerical simulations and the JET experimental data it is shown that the finite Larmor radius effects in ion cyclotron resonance heating are important and that they can prevent fast ion tail formation beyond certain energy. The identified mechanism could be used for tailoring the fast ion distribution in future experiments. Secondly, ASCOT simulations of NBI ions in a ripple field showed that most of the reduction of the toroidal rotation that has been observed in the JET enhanced ripple experiments could be attributed to fast ion ripple torque. Finally, fast ion torque calculations together with momentum transport analysis have led to the conclusion that momentum transport in not purely diffusive but that a convective component, which increases monotonically in radius, exists in a wide range of JET plasmas. Using parameter scans, the convective transport has been shown to be insensitive to collisionality and q-profile but to increase strongly against density gradient. (orig.)

  15. Fast Ion Collective Thomson Scattering Diagnostic for ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Bindslev, Henrik; Furtula, Vedran

    2008-01-01

    In the era of high power and burning plasma fusion experiments with significant populations of fast particles, the diagnosis of fast ion dynamics becomes an important topic. In ITER, populations of fast ions due to ICRH and NBI, as well as fusion born alphas will carry a significant fraction of t...... of mock-up measurements have brought the design towards a four mirror quasi-optical solution. The development as well as the present design will be presented....

  16. A fast beam-ion instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupakov, G.V. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The ionization of residual gas by an electron beam in an accelerator generates ions that can resonantly couple to the beam through a wave propagating in the beam-ion system. Results of the study of a beam-ion instability are presented for a multi-bunch train taking into account the decoherence of ion oscillations due to the ion frequency spread and spatial variation of the ion frequency. It is shown that the combination of both effects can substantially reduce the growth rate of the instability. (author)

  17. Fast ion absorption of lower hybrid power in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, M.C.R.; Brusati, M.

    1993-01-01

    The first experimental evidence at JET on the interaction of fast minority ions with LH is reported. An increase of approximately 20% on the fast ion energy content was observed in the presence of LH, with an estimated LH absorbed power of approximately 20% for 2 MW of LH power and plasma densities of 2.0 to 2.4 x 10 19 m -3 with central temperatures γ ray and neutron rates also show that absorption of LH waves by the fast minority ions is taking place. FFT analysis confirms a better damping of the wave when the overlap between ICRH and LHCD is maximized. (author)

  18. Study on fast ion loss in HL-2A tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yi; Sun Tengfei; Ji Xiaoquan

    2012-01-01

    Experiments with a high-energy deuterium neutral beam (NB) injection (30 keV, about 0.6 MW) were performed on the HL-2A tokamak. Analysis of neutron decay following the NB 'blip' injection indicates that tangentially injected beam ions are well confined, slowing down classically in the HL-2A. Anomalous losses of beam ions were observed when a beta-induced Alfven acoustic (BAAE) mode was present in the plasma. Such a high energetic particle driven mode led to fast-ion loss, showing a strong influence of the energetic particle driven mode on the fast-ion transport. (authors)

  19. Fast ion collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for ITER: Design elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakadze, Erekle; Bindslev, Henrik; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2008-01-01

    The proposed fast ion collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic system for ITER provides the unique capability of measuring the temporally and spatially resolved velocity distribution of the confined fast ions and fusion alpha particles in a burning ITER plasma. The present paper describes t...... in the studies, and new HFS receiver mock-up measurements are presented as well as neutron flux calculations of the influence of the increased slot height....

  20. Glancing-angle scattering of fast ions at crystal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannami, Michihiko; Narumi, Kazumasa; Katoh, Humiya; Kimura, Kenji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    Glancing angle scattering of fast ions from a single crystal surface is a novel technique to study ion-surface interaction. Results of recent studies of ion-surface interaction are reviewed for ions with velocities faster than the Fermi velocity of solid. For the ions with velocities less than the Fermi velocity of target valence electrons the ion-surface interaction shows a new aspect where only the valence electrons of target solid participate in the stopping processes. It will show that the position-dependent stopping power of a surface for these ions governed by the elastic collisions of valence electrons and the ions. A method is proposed from this position-dependent stopping power to derived the electron density distribution averaged over the plane parallel to the surface. (author)

  1. Studies of fast ion confinement in the MST Reversed Field Pinch*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; den Hartog, D. J.; Eilerman, S.; Nornberg, M. D.; Sarff, J. S.; Waksman, J.; Fiksel, G.; Belykh, V. V.; Deichuli, P.; Davydenko, V. I.; Ivanov, A. A.; Polosatkin, S.; Stupishin, N.

    2011-10-01

    Studies of fast ion confinement in the MST Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) are performed with a 1 MW hydrogen neutral beam injector (NBI), doped with 3-5% deuterium fuel for creation of beam-target fusion neutrons. It is found that fast ions born from co-current NBI are well confined and roughly consistent with classical behavior in spite of the RFP's stochastic magnetic field. The measured neutron decay times following a ~5 ms NBI pulse approximately agree with the prediction of classical slowing-down theory. The neutron flux at the beam turn-off time increases with plasma density and temperature, also as expected. The estimated fast ion confinement times range from several times to ten times the thermal particle confinement time, and charge-exchange with background neutrals seems to be the dominant fast ion loss mechanism. The slowing-down of fast protons is observed with a multi-energy-channel neutral particle analyzer. These results corroborate previous experiments with very short and low power neutral beam pulses, and are largely in agreement with TRANSP modeling which predicts a centrally peaked fast ion density profile with peak value up to 15% of the plasma density. *Work supported by USDOE.

  2. Validation of fast-ion D-alpha spectrum measurements during EAST neutral-beam heated plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J., E-mail: juan.huang@ipp.ac.cn; Wu, C. R.; Hou, Y. M.; Chang, J. F.; Ding, S. Y.; Chen, Y. J.; Jin, Z.; Xu, Z.; Gao, W.; Wang, J. F.; Lyu, B.; Zang, Q.; Zhong, G. Q.; Hu, L.; Wan, B. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, 230031 Hefei, Anhui (China); Heidbrink, W. W.; Stagner, L.; Zhu, Y. B. [University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Hellermann, M. G. von [Diagnostic Team, ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2016-11-15

    To investigate the fast ion behavior, a fast ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic system has been installed on EAST. Fast ion features can be inferred from the Doppler shifted spectrum of Balmer-alpha light from energetic hydrogenic atoms. This paper will focus on the validation of FIDA measurements performed using MHD-quiescent discharges in 2015 campaign. Two codes have been applied to calculate the D{sub α} spectrum: one is a Monte Carlo code, Fortran 90 version FIDASIM, and the other is an analytical code, Simulation of Spectra (SOS). The predicted SOS fast-ion spectrum agrees well with the measurement; however, the level of fast-ion part from FIDASIM is lower. The discrepancy is possibly due to the difference between FIDASIM and SOS velocity distribution function. The details will be presented in the paper to primarily address comparisons of predicted and observed spectrum shapes/amplitudes.

  3. Fast changes of ion distribution function in bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safrankova, J.; Kozak, I.; Nemecek, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental results of Prognoz-8 satellite are reported. In 1981 the basic plasma parameters (ion velocity, density, temperature) were monitored in the solar wind and in the Earth's magnetoshere. Fast variations of the parameters were found. Theoretical interpretation of the data concluded with the observation of a shock wave. The phenomenon was so fast that the statistical significance of the measured histograms was too low for further analysis. (D.Gy.)

  4. Longitudinal dynamics of laser-cooled fast ion beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidemüller, M.; Eike, B.; Eisenbarth, U.

    1999-01-01

    We present recent results of our experiments on laser cooling of fast stored ion beams at the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring. The longitudinal motion of the ions is directly cooled by the light pressure force, whereas efficient transverse cooling is obtained indirectly by longitudinal-transverse co......We present recent results of our experiments on laser cooling of fast stored ion beams at the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring. The longitudinal motion of the ions is directly cooled by the light pressure force, whereas efficient transverse cooling is obtained indirectly by longitudinal....... When applying laser cooling in square-well buckets over long time intervals, hard Coulomb collisions suddenly disappear and the longitudinal temperature drops by about a factor of three. The observed longitudinal behaviour of the beam shows strong resemblance with the transition to an Coulomb...

  5. Linear induction accelerator requirements for ion fast ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, G.

    1998-01-26

    Fast ignition (fast heating of DT cores afief compression) reduces driver energy (by 10 X or more) by reducing the implosion velocity and energy for a given fuel compression ratio. For any type of driver that can deliver the ignition energy fast enough, fast ignition increases the target gain compared to targets using fast implosions for central ignition, as long as the energy to heat the core after compression is comparable to or less than the slow compression energy, and as long as the coupling efficiency of the fast ignitor beam to heat the core is comparable to the overall efficiency of compressing the core (in terms of beam energy-to-DT-efficiency). Ion driven fast ignition, compared to laser-driven fast ignition, has the advantage of direct (dE/dx) deposition of beam energy to the DT, eliminating inefficiencies for conversion into hot electrons, and direct ion heating also has a more favorable deposition profile with the Bragg-peak near the end of an ion range chosen to be deep inside a compressed DT core. While Petawatt laser experiments at LLNL have demonstrated adequate light-to-hot-electron conversion efficiency, it is not yet known if light and hot electrons can channel deeply enough to heat a small portion of a IOOOxLD compressed DT core to ignition. On the other hand, lasers with chirped-pulse amplification giving thousand-fold pulse compressions have been demonstrated to produce the short pulses, small focal spots and Petawatt peak powers approaching those required for fast ignition, whereas ion accelerators that can produce sufficient beam quality for similar compression ratios and focal spot sizes of ion bunches have not yet been demonstrated, where an imposed coherent velocity tilt plays the analogous role for beam compression as does frequency chirp with lasers. Accordingly, it is the driver technology, not the target coupling physics, that poses the main challenge to ion-driven fast ignition. As the mainline HIF program is concentrating on

  6. Fast ion-atom and ion-molecule collisions

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The principal goal of this book is to provide state-of-the art coverage of the non-relativistic three- and four-body theories at intermediate and high energy ion-atom and ion-molecule collisions. The focus is on the most frequently studied processes: electron capture, ionization, transfer excitation and transfer ionization. The content is suitable both for graduate students and experienced researchers. For these collisions, the literature has seen enormous renewal of activity in the development and applications of quantum-mechanical theories. This subject is of relevance in several branches of science and technology, like accelerator-based physics, the search for new sources of energy and high temperature fusion of light ions. Other important applications are in life sciences via medicine, where high-energy ion beams are used in radiotherapy for which a number of storage ring accelerators are in full operation, under construction or planned to be built worldwide. Therefore, it is necessary to review this fiel...

  7. Charge exchange spectroscopy as a fast ion diagnostic on TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delabie, E.; Jaspers, R.J.E.; von Hellermann, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    An upgraded charge exchange spectroscopy diagnostic has been taken into operation at the TEXTOR tokamak. The angles of the viewing lines with the toroidal magnetic field are close to the pitch angles at birth of fast ions injected by one of the neutral beam injectors. Using another neutral beam...

  8. Fast ion diagnostics for the C-2 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korepanov, Sergey; Clary, Ryan; Smirnov, Artem; Dettrick, Sean; Murakhtin, Sergey; Polosatkin, Sergey

    2011-10-01

    One of the goals of the C-2 experiment is to explore FRC sustainment and current drive from neutral beam injection. Studies of the relaxation and confinement of hot anisotropic ions created by the neutral beams are considered to be key elements of the experimental research program. To realize this approach a set of diagnostics for the measurement of local parameters of fast ions has been developed. In particular, this set includes diagnostics to measure the local energy (neutral particle analyzer, LiNb3-based pyro-bolometers) and the angular distribution function (silicone-based neutral particle bolometers). For numerical studies of fast ion dynamics a Monte Carlo code has been elaborated.

  9. Fast ion distribution in the presence of flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-10-01

    Experiments and simulations in multiple ICF related configurations have observed signs of bulk flow near stagnation. These configurations include both laser driven implosions such as at the NIF, as well as Z-Pinches. We investigate the possibilities for enhancement or depletion of fast ion tails in simplified flow models, with an eye towards applicability to ICF experiments. Small effects on the tail populations may substantially affect fusion output, as the fast ions in these tails have much larger fusion cross sections than thermal ions and make up the majority of fusion production for typical ICF temperatures. While in collisional plasma the bulk of the distribution function is driven toward Maxwellian in a few collision times, the high velocity tails can take much longer to form. Furthermore, the long mean free paths of the fast ions means they may sample differing regions of flow, while thermal particles only sample the local flow. This work was supported by DOE through Contracts DE-AC02-09CH1-1466 and 67350-9960 (Prime # DOE DE-NA0001836). Seth Davidovits would like to acknowledge support by the DOE-CSGF program under Grant DE-FG02-97ER25308.

  10. Experimental Comparison of Fast Wave Absorption on Fast Ions at Fourth and Sixth Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, P. I.; Petty, C. C.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Baity, F. W.; Porkolab, M.

    2007-11-01

    In recent DIII-D experiments, we have compared the absorption of fast waves (FWs) on injected deuterium beams at the fourth and sixth deuterium cyclotron harmonics. Direct electron absorption also plays an important part in the core absorption. Up to 2 MW of FW power at 90 MHz is compared with a similar level of 60 MHz power in low-density L-mode discharges at 2 T with 1--2 MW of deuterium beam injection at 80 keV. Changes in the neutron rate and in the central sawtooth behavior are correlated with the observed acceleration of the beam ions by the rf as measured by the Dα charge exchange recombination diagnostic. Results obtained with hydrogen beams in which second and third harmonic absorption at 60 MHz and 90 MHz are compared will be presented. Lower global absorption efficiency observed for higher cyclotron harmonics in this multiple-pass absorption regime is attributed to the effect of an edge loss that competes with the core absorption mechanisms.

  11. FIFPC, a fast ion Fokker--Planck code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, R.H.; Callen, J.D.; Rome, J.A.; Smith, J.

    1976-07-01

    A computer code is described which solves the Fokker--Planck equation for the velocity space distribution of fast ions injected into a tokamak plasma. The numerical techniques are described and use of the code is outlined. The program is written in FORTRAN IV and is modularized in order to provide greater flexibility to the user. A program listing is provided and the results of sample cases are presented.

  12. Dynamics of fast ions during sawtooth oscillations in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Salewski, Mirko; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Experimental investigations of sawteeth interaction with fast ions measured by collective Thomson scattering on TEXTOR are presented. Time-resolved measurements of localized 1D fast-ion distribution functions allow us to study fast-ion dynamics during several sawtooth cycles. Sawtooth oscillation...

  13. Methods to determine fast-ion distribution functions from multi-diagnostic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Salewski, Mirko

    Understanding the behaviour of fast ions in a fusion plasma is very important, since the fusion-born alpha particles are expected to be the main source of heating in a fusion power plant. Preferably, the entire fast-ion velocity-space distribution function would be measured. However, no fast-ion ...

  14. Progress and prospects of ion-driven fast ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Juan C.; Albright, Brian J.; Flippo, Kirk A.; Gautier, D. Cort; Hegelich, Bjoern M.; Schmitt, Mark J.; Yin Lin; Honrubia, J.J.; Temporal, M.

    2009-01-01

    Fusion fast ignition (FI) initiated by laser-driven ion beams is a promising concept examined in this paper. FI based on a beam of quasi-monoenergetic ions (protons or heavier ions) has the advantage of a more localized energy deposition, which minimizes the required total beam energy, bringing it close to the ∼10 kJ minimum required for fuel densities ∼500 g cm -3 . High-current, laser-driven ion beams are most promising for this purpose. Because they are born neutralized in picosecond timescales, these beams may deliver the power density required to ignite the compressed DT fuel, ∼10 kJ/10 ps into a spot 20 μm in diameter. Our modelling of ion-based FI include high fusion gain targets and a proof of principle experiment. That modelling indicates the concept is feasible, and provides confirmation of our understanding of the operative physics, a firmer foundation for the requirements, and a better understanding of the optimization trade space. An important benefit of the scheme is that such a high-energy, quasi-monoenergetic ignitor beam could be generated far from the capsule (≥1 cm away), eliminating the need for a reentrant cone in the capsule to protect the ion-generation laser target, a tremendous practical benefit. This paper summarizes the ion-based FI concept, the integrated ion-driven FI modelling, the requirements on the ignitor beam derived from that modelling, and the progress in developing a suitable laser-driven ignitor ion beam.

  15. Longitudinal dynamics of laser-cooled fast ion beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidemüller, M.; Eike, B.; Eisenbarth, U.

    1999-01-01

    -transverse coupling mechanisms. Laser cooling in novel bunch forms consisting of square-well buckets leads to longitudinally space-charge dominated beams. The observed longitudinal ion density distributions can be well described by a self-consistent mean-field model based on a thermodynamic Debye-Huckel approach......We present recent results of our experiments on laser cooling of fast stored ion beams at the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring. The longitudinal motion of the ions is directly cooled by the light pressure force, whereas efficient transverse cooling is obtained indirectly by longitudinal....... When applying laser cooling in square-well buckets over long time intervals, hard Coulomb collisions suddenly disappear and the longitudinal temperature drops by about a factor of three. The observed longitudinal behaviour of the beam shows strong resemblance with the transition to an Coulomb...

  16. Ion-Gel-Gated Graphene Optical Modulator with Hysteretic Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Tae; Choi, Hongkyw; Choi, Yongsuk; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2018-01-17

    We propose a graphene-based optical modulator and comprehensively investigate its photonic characteristics by electrically controlling the device with an ion-gel top-gate dielectric. The density of the electrically driven charge carriers in the ion-gel gate dielectric plays a key role in tuning the optical output power of the device. The charge density at the ion-gel-graphene interface is tuned electrically, and the chemical potential of graphene is then changed to control its light absorption strength. The optical behavior of the ion-gel gate dielectric exhibits a large hysteresis which originates from the inherent nature of the ionic gel and the graphene-ion-gel interface and a slow polarization response time of ions. The photonic device is applicable to both TE- and TM-polarized light waves, covering two entire optical communication bands, the O-band (1.26-1.36 μm) and the C-band (1.52-1.565 μm). The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretically simulated predictions. The temporal behavior of the ion-gel-graphene-integrated optical modulator reveals a long-term modulation state because of the relatively low mobility of the ions in the ion-gel solution and formation of the electric double layer in the graphene-ion-gel interface. Fast dynamic recovery is observed by applying an opposite voltage gate pulse. This study paves the way to the understanding of the operational principles and future applications of ion-gel-gated graphene optical devices in photonics.

  17. Measurements of Prompt and MHD-Induced Fast Ion Loss from National Spherical Torus Experiment Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.S. Darrow; S.S. Medley; A.L. Roquemore; W.W. Heidbrink; A. Alekseyev; F.E. Cecil; J. Egedal; V.Ya. Goloborod' ko; N.N. Gorelenkov; M. Isobe; S. Kaye; M. Miah; F. Paoletti; M.H. Redi; S.N. Reznik; A. Rosenberg; R. White; D. Wyatt; V.A. Yavorskij

    2002-10-15

    A range of effects may make fast ion confinement in spherical tokamaks worse than in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. Data from neutron detectors, a neutral particle analyzer, and a fast ion loss diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) indicate that neutral beam ion confinement is consistent with classical expectations in quiescent plasmas, within the {approx}25% errors of measurement. However, fast ion confinement in NSTX is frequently affected by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity, and the effect of MHD can be quite strong.

  18. Ionization of uracil in collisions with fast bare ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribedi, L. C.; Agnihotri, A. N.; Galassi, M. E.; Rivarola, R. D.; Champion, C.

    2012-11-01

    We study the atomic collisions with large molecules and simple atoms. The ionization and fragmentation spectra are investigated for uracil, a RNA base molecule, under the impact of fast bare C, O and F-ions. The experiments are conducted using a recoil-ion time-of-flight spectrometer. The energy dependence of the total ionization cross sections (TCS) and fragmentation yields are measured for MeV/u energies. In addition, the angular distribution of the electron double differential cross sections (DDCS) are also shown in some cases. The total cross sections of ionization and also the DDCS data are compared with the CDW-EIS calculations. The qualitative agreement is good but, in general, the theory tends to overestimate the data by a factor of 2.2. The angular distribution of electrons clearly indicates a good qualitative agreement except for the lowest energy electrons.

  19. Collisionally induced stochastic dynamics of fast ions in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgdoerfer, J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent developments in the theory of excited state formation in collisions of fast highly charged ions with solids are reviewed. We discuss a classical transport theory employing Monte-Carlo sampling of solutions of a microscopic Langevin equation. Dynamical screening by the dielectric medium as well as multiple collisions are incorporated through the drift and stochastic forces in the Langevin equation. The close relationship between the extrinsically stochastic dynamics described by the Langevin and the intrinsic stochasticity in chaotic nonlinear dynamical systems is stressed. Comparison with experimental data and possible modification by quantum corrections are discussed. 49 refs., 11 figs

  20. Transmission of fast molecular ions through thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, W.J.; Gemmell, D.S.; Cooney, P.J.; Kanter, E.P.; Kurath, D.; Ratkowski, A.J.; Vager, Z.; Zabransky, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    New results on the transmission of fast molecular ions through thin foils are presented and a mechanism for the transmission process is proposed. The main feature of the postulated mechanism is that a finite fraction of the incident molecular beam does not undergo a strong Coulomb explosion while traversing the foil. Because the emerging fragments are at large internuclear separations, there is an enhanced probability for the formation of bound, long-range, excited electronic states following electron capture at the rear surface of the target

  1. The role of fast electrons for the performance characteristics of hydrogen ion sources

    OpenAIRE

    Fukumasa, Osamu; Saeki, Setsuo

    1984-01-01

    The influence of fast primary electrons on the ion species ratios in a hydrogen plasma is discussed numerically. The optimum condition for plasma production with high proton ratio is to eliminate the presence of fast electrons, whereas the production of H^- ions is enhanced anomalously by the presence of fast electrons.

  2. Elastic wave from fast heavy ion irradiation on solids

    CERN Document Server

    Kambara, T; Kanai, Y; Kojima, T M; Nanai, Y; Yoneda, A; Yamazaki, Y

    2002-01-01

    To study the time-dependent mechanical effects of fast heavy ion irradiations, we have irradiated various solids by a short-bunch beam of 95 MeV/u Ar ions and observed elastic waves generated in the bulk. The irradiated targets were square-shaped plates of poly-crystals of metals (Al and Cu), invar alloy, ceramic (Al sub 2 O sub 3), fused silica (SiO sub 2) and single crystals of KC1 and LiF with a thickness of 10 mm. The beam was incident perpendicular to the surface and all ions were stopped in the target. Two piezo-electric ultrasonic sensors were attached to the surface of the target and detected the elastic waves. The elastic waveforms as well as the time structure and intensity of the beam bunch were recorded for each shot of a beam bunch. The sensor placed opposite to the beam spot recorded a clear waveform of the longitudinal wave across the material, except for the invar and fused silica targets. From its propagation time along with the sound velocity and the thickness of the target, the depth of the...

  3. Fast ion dynamics in ASDEX upgrade and TEXTOR measured by collective Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moseev, D.

    2011-11-01

    Fast ions are an essential ingredient in burning nuclear fusion plasmas: they are responsible for heating the bulk plasma, carry a significant amount of plasma current and moreover interact with various magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic is sensitive to the projection of fast ion velocity distribution function. This thesis is mainly devoted to investigations of fast ion physics in tokamak plasmas by means of CTS. (Author)

  4. Fast ion dynamics in ASDEX upgrade and TEXTOR measured by collective Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseev, D.

    2011-11-15

    Fast ions are an essential ingredient in burning nuclear fusion plasmas: they are responsible for heating the bulk plasma, carry a significant amount of plasma current and moreover interact with various magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic is sensitive to the projection of fast ion velocity distribution function. This thesis is mainly devoted to investigations of fast ion physics in tokamak plasmas by means of CTS. (Author)

  5. An analysis of the influence of impurities on fast particle attenuation and on fast ion spectral shape in LHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veshchev, Evgeny A; Goncharov, Pavel R; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Sudo, Shigeru

    2008-10-01

    Neutral particle fluxes measured by neutral particle analyzers can provide information about the ion temperature as well as the non-Maxwellian anisotropic ion distribution tails from neutral beam injection and ion cyclotron radio frequency heating. In the case of multidirectional diagnostics employing high resolution atomic energy spectrometers, the neutral atomic flux source is not localized in contrast to pellet charge exchange or diagnostic neutral beam methods. The correct interpretation of such measurements from plasma in a complex toroidally asymmetric geometry, like that of LHD, requires careful numerical modeling of the neutral flux formation. Previously a measured neutral flux calculation scheme was developed and was used for the LHD geometry and a suitable analytic expression for ionization cross sections sigma(s)(z)(E,n(e),T(e),Z(eff)) of impurities was formulated by Janev et al. [Nucl. Fusion 29, 2125 (1989)]. In this paper, the attenuation of fast particles by impurities is incorporated into the neutral flux calculation scheme and the influence of impurities on the calculated neutral flux spectra is shown. Finally, the behavior of the calculated and experimental suprathermal particle distributions is compared for pure hydrogen and for argon impurity seeded plasmas.

  6. Modelling of advanced three-ion ICRF heating and fast ion generation scheme for tokamaks and stellarators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustin, J. M.; Graves, J. P.; Cooper, W. A.; Lanthaler, S.; Villard, L.; Pfefferlé, D.; Geiger, J.; Kazakov, Ye O.; Van Eester, D.

    2017-08-01

    Absorption of ion-cyclotron range of frequencies waves at the fundamental resonance is an efficient source of plasma heating and fast ion generation in tokamaks and stellarators. This heating method is planned to be exploited as a fast ion source in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. The work presented here assesses the possibility of using the newly developed three-ion species scheme (Kazakov et al (2015) Nucl. Fusion 55 032001) in tokamak and stellarator plasmas, which could offer the capability of generating more energetic ions than the traditional minority heating scheme with moderate input power. Using the SCENIC code, it is found that fast ions in the MeV range of energy can be produced in JET-like plasmas. The RF-induced particle pinch is seen to strongly impact the fast ion pressure profile in particular. Our results show that in typical high-density W7-X plasmas, the three-ion species scheme generates more energetic ions than the more traditional minority heating scheme, which makes three-ion scenario promising for fast-ion confinement studies in W7-X.

  7. Analysis methods for fast impurity ion dynamics data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Hartog, D.J.; Almagri, A.F.; Prager, S.C.; Fonck, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    A high resolution spectrometer has been developed and used on the MST reversed-field pinch (RFP) to measure passively impurity ion temperatures and flow velocities with 10 μs temporal resolution. Such measurements of MHD-scale fluctuations are particularly relevant in the RFP because the flow velocity fluctuation induced transport of current (the ''MHD dynamo'') may produce the magnetic field reversal characteristic of an RFP. This instrument will also be used to measure rapid changes in the equilibrium flow velocity, such as occur during locking and H-mode transition. The precision of measurements made to date is <0.6 km/s. The authors are developing accurate analysis techniques appropriate to the reduction of this fast ion dynamics data. Moment analysis and curve-fitting routines have been evaluated for noise sensitivity and robustness. Also presented is an analysis method which correctly separates the flux-surface average of the correlated fluctuations in u and B from the fluctuations due to rigid shifts of the plasma column

  8. Fast quantum logic gates with trapped-ion qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, V. M.; Ballance, C. J.; Thirumalai, K.; Stephenson, L. J.; Ballance, T. G.; Steane, A. M.; Lucas, D. M.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum bits (qubits) based on individual trapped atomic ions are a promising technology for building a quantum computer. The elementary operations necessary to do so have been achieved with the required precision for some error-correction schemes. However, the essential two-qubit logic gate that is used to generate quantum entanglement has hitherto always been performed in an adiabatic regime (in which the gate is slow compared with the characteristic motional frequencies of the ions in the trap), resulting in logic speeds of the order of 10 kilohertz. There have been numerous proposals of methods for performing gates faster than this natural ‘speed limit’ of the trap. Here we implement one such method, which uses amplitude-shaped laser pulses to drive the motion of the ions along trajectories designed so that the gate operation is insensitive to the optical phase of the pulses. This enables fast (megahertz-rate) quantum logic that is robust to fluctuations in the optical phase, which would otherwise be an important source of experimental error. We demonstrate entanglement generation for gate times as short as 480 nanoseconds—less than a single oscillation period of an ion in the trap and eight orders of magnitude shorter than the memory coherence time measured in similar calcium-43 hyperfine qubits. The power of the method is most evident at intermediate timescales, at which it yields a gate error more than ten times lower than can be attained using conventional techniques; for example, we achieve a 1.6-microsecond-duration gate with a fidelity of 99.8 per cent. Faster and higher-fidelity gates are possible at the cost of greater laser intensity. The method requires only a single amplitude-shaped pulse and one pair of beams derived from a continuous-wave laser. It offers the prospect of combining the unrivalled coherence properties, operation fidelities and optical connectivity of trapped-ion qubits with the submicrosecond logic speeds that are usually

  9. Irradiation behavior of metallic fast reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, R.G.; Porter, D.L.; Crawford, D.C.; Walters, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    Metallic fuels were the first fuels chosen for liquid metal cooled fast reactors (LMR's). In the late 1960's world-wide interest turned toward ceramic LMR fuels before the full potential of metallic fuel was realized. However, during the 1970's the performance limitations of metallic fuel were resolved in order to achieve a high plant factor at the Argonne National Laboratory's Experimental Breeder Reactor II. The 1980's spawned renewed interest in metallic fuel when the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept emerged at Argonne National Laboratory. A fuel performance demonstration program was put into place to obtain the data needed for the eventual licensing of metallic fuel. This paper will summarize the results of the irradiation program carried out since 1985

  10. Temporal evolution of confined fast-ion velocity distributions measured by collective Thomson scattering in TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Bindslev, Henrik; Porte, L.

    2008-01-01

    Fast ions created in the fusion processes will provide up to 70% of the heating in ITER. To optimize heating and current drive in magnetically confined plasmas insight into fast-ion dynamics is important. First measurements of such dynamics by collective Thomson scattering (CTS) were recently rep...

  11. Combination of fast-ion diagnostics in velocity-space tomographies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh

    2013-01-01

    Fast-ion Dα (FIDA) and collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostics provide indirect measurements of fast-ion velocity distribution functions in magnetically confined plasmas. Here we present the first prescription for velocity-space tomographic inversion of CTS and FIDA measurements that can ...

  12. Fast-ion transport and neutral beam current drive in ASDEX upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiger, B.; Weiland, M.; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2015-01-01

    The neutral beam current drive efficiency has been investigated in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak by replacing on-axis neutral beams with tangential off-axis beams. A clear modification of the radial fast-ion profiles is observed with a fast-ion D-alpha diagnostic that measures centrally peaked profiles...

  13. Velocity-space tomography of the fast-ion distribution function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    Fast ions play an important role in heating the plasma in a magnetic confinement fusion device. Fast-ion Dα(FIDA) spectroscopy diagnoses fast ions in small measurement volumes. Spectra measured by a FIDA diagnostic can be related to the 2D fast-ion velocity distribution function. A single FIDA view...... probes certain regions in velocity-space, determined by the geometry of the set-up. Exploiting this, the fast-ion distribution function can be inferred using a velocity-space tomography method. This poster contains a tomography calculated from measured spectra from three different FIDA views at ASDEX...... Upgrade. The quality of the tomography improves with the number of FIDA views simultaneously measuring the same volume. To investigate the potential benefits of including additional views (up to 18), tomographies are inferred from synthetic spectra calculated from a simulated distribution function...

  14. Fast optimization and dose calculation in scanned ion beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hild, S.; Graeff, C.; Trautmann, J.; Kraemer, M.; Zink, K.; Durante, M.; Bert, C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Particle therapy (PT) has advantages over photon irradiation on static tumors. An increased biological effectiveness and active target conformal dose shaping are strong arguments for PT. However, the sensitivity to changes of internal geometry complicates the use of PT for moving organs. In case of interfractionally moving objects adaptive radiotherapy (ART) concepts known from intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can be adopted for PT treatments. One ART strategy is to optimize a new treatment plan based on daily image data directly before a radiation fraction is delivered [treatment replanning (TRP)]. Optimizing treatment plans for PT using a scanned beam is a time consuming problem especially for particles other than protons where the biological effective dose has to be calculated. For the purpose of TRP, fast optimization and fast dose calculation have been implemented into the GSI in-house treatment planning system (TPS) TRiP98. Methods: This work reports about the outcome of a code analysis that resulted in optimization of the calculation processes as well as implementation of routines supporting parallel execution of the code. To benchmark the new features, the calculation time for therapy treatment planning has been studied. Results: Compared to the original version of the TPS, calculation times for treatment planning (optimization and dose calculation) have been improved by a factor of 10 with code optimization. The parallelization of the TPS resulted in a speedup factor of 12 and 5.5 for the original version and the code optimized version, respectively. Hence the total speedup of the new implementation of the authors' TPS yielded speedup factors up to 55. Conclusions: The improved TPS is capable of completing treatment planning for ion beam therapy of a prostate irradiation considering organs at risk in this has been overseen in the review process. Also see below 6 min

  15. Actinide behavior in the integral fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtney, J.C.

    1993-05-01

    Goal of this project is to determine the consumption of Np-237, Pu-240, Am-241, and Am-243 in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle. These four actinides set the long term waste management criteria for spent nuclear fuel; if it can be demonstrated that they can be efficiently consumed in the IFR, then requirements for nuclear waste repositories can be much less demanding. Irradiations in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) at Argonne National Laboratory's site near Idaho Falls, Idaho, will be conducted to determine fission and transmutation rates for the four nuclides. The experimental effort involves target package design, fabrication, quality assurance, and irradiation. Post irradiation analyses are required to determine the fission rates and neutron spectra in the EBR-II core

  16. Desorption of organic molecules with fast incident atomic and polyatomic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.E.; Salehpour, M.; Fishel, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    In 1974, Macfarlane and coworkers introduced a new mass spectrometric technique based on desorption-ionization of sample molecules from solid targets by the impact of fast heavy ions (fission fragments) from 252 Cf. The process of ion-induced desorption of molecular ions from surfaces is not yet fully understood, although a large amount of experimental data related to the mechanism has been published. This paper concerns the use of fast incident polyatomic ions to induce desorption of secondary molecular ions of valine and chlorophyll from surfaces. Polyatomic ions are unique in that they are a collection of temporally and spatially correlated atoms. The main finding in this study is that incident polyatomic ions produce drastic enhancements in the secondary ion yields over atomic ions. Also, two types of nonlinear effects in desorption have been observed and will be discussed

  17. Measurements of the fast ion distribution during neutral beam injection and ion cyclotron heating in ATF [Advanced Toroidal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, M.R.; Kwon, M.; Thomas, C.E.; Colchin, R.J.; England, A.C.; Gossett, J.M.; Horton, L.D.; Isler, R.C.; Lyon, J.F.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Rayburn, T.M.; Shepard, T.D.; Bell, G.L.; Fowler, R.H.; Morris, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    A neutral particle analyzer (NPA) with horizontal and vertical scanning capability has been used to make initial measurements of the fast ion distribution during neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron heating (ICH) on the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). These measurements are presented and compared with the results of modeling codes that predict the analyzer signals during these heating processes. 6 refs., 5 figs

  18. Fast-ion transport studies using FIDA spectroscopy at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    A good confinement of fast-ions, i.e. ions with energies above the thermal energy, is essential for the success of fusion devices as it determines, amongst others, the plasma performance and the heating and current drive efficiencies. In case of a turbulent or magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) active background plasma, various mechanisms have to be considered in order to estimate the spatial distribution of the fast-ions: the slowing down and radial diffusion by Coulomb collisions on electrons and ions, the effect of potential fluctuations and the effect of perturbations of the magnetic field structure. These can lead to a broadening of the fast-ion distribution function which is not yet completely understood. At the fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade, the fast-ions are generated by heating sources such as neutral beam injection (NBI). Their transport properties can be studied by a fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) spectroscopy diagnostic which has been built in the framework of this thesis. Through charge exchange reactions with neutrals, fast-ions can receive a bound electron and emit Balmer alpha line radiation. This so-called FIDA radiation can be measured with large Doppler shifts and is localized along the NBI path where a high density of neutrals is present. The FIDA diagnostic uses radially distributed lines of sight that intersect, in the horizontal and in the vertical plane, the path of a 2.5 MW NBI heating source. Thereby different parts of the fast-ion phase space above 25 keV can be analyzed. To interpret the FIDA radiation quantitatively, a forward modelling code has been implemented, tested and further developed. The code calculates, based on theoretical fast-ion distribution functions, synthetic FIDA spectra that can be compared to the measurement. In MHD-quiescent plasmas, the possible effect of turbulence on the fast-ion transport has been investigated with the FIDA diagnostic. The measurements obtained under different experimental conditions, such as during on- and

  19. Improved Collective Thomson Scattering measurements of fast ions at ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Stejner Pedersen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Scattering (CTS) is well suited for reactor conditions and offers such an opportunity by providing measurements of the confined fast-ion distribution function resolved in space, time and 1D velocity space. We currently operate a CTS system at ASDEX Upgrade using a gyrotron which generates probing radiation......Understanding the behaviour of the confined fast ions is important in both current and future fusion experiments. These ions play a key role in heating the plasma and will be crucial for achieving conditions for burning plasma in next-step fusion devices. Microwave-based Collective Thomson...... at 105 GHz. A new setup using two independent receiver systems has enabled improved subtraction of the background signal, and hence the first accurate characterization of fast-ion properties. Here we review this new dual-receiver CTS setup and present results on fast-ion measurements based...

  20. First absolute measurements of fast-ion losses in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ramos, M.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Jimenez-Ramos, M. C.; Garcia Lopez, J.; Galdon-Quiroga, J.; Sanchis-Sanchez, L.; Ayllon-Guerola, J.; Faitsch, M.; Gonzalez-Martin, J.; Hermann, A.; de Marne, P.; Rivero-Rodriguez, J. F.; Sieglin, B.; Snicker, A.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-10-01

    A new diagnostic technique that allows to obtain absolute fluxes of fast-ion losses measured with absolutely calibrated scintillator based fast-ion loss detectors (FILD) is presented here. First absolute fluxes of fast-ion losses have been obtained in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. An instrument function that includes the scintillator efficiency, collimator geometry, optical transmission and camera efficiency has been constructed. The scintillator response to deuterium ions in the relevant energy range of fast-ions has been characterized using a tandem accelerator. Absolute flux of neutral beam injection (NBI) prompt losses has been obtained in magnetohydrodynamic quiescent plasmas. The temporal evolution of the heat load measured with FILD follows that measured at the FILD entrance obtained with an Infra-Red camera looking at the FILD detector head. ASCOT simulations are in good agreement with the absolute heat load of NBI prompt losses measured with FILD.

  1. Second harmonic ion cylotron resonance heating by the fast magnetosonic wave on the PLT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, H.R. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Second harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating by the fast magnetosonic wave, and the propagation of the fast wave from the fundamental of the ion cyclotron frequency to its second harmonic was investigated in a hydrogen plasma on the PLT tokamak. The theory of fast magnetosonic wave propagation was extended to include the effects of density gradients, plasma current, and impurity ion species. The damping of the fast wave at the second harmonic is calculated, where the theory has been extended to include the full radial dependence of the fast wave fields. Power deposition profiles and eigenmode Q's are calculated using this theory. The effects of the interaction between the ion Bernstein wave and the fast magnetosonic wave are calculated, and enhanced fast wave damping is predicted. The antenna loading is calculated including the effects of overlap of the fast wave eigenmodes. During the second harmonic heating experiments, the antenna loading was characterized as a function of the plasma parameters, and efficient coupling of the RF power to the plasma at high density was observed. At very low densities, fast wave eigenmodes were identified on PLT, and their Q's are measured. Eigenmodes with different toroidal directions of propagation were observed to exhibit large splitting in density due to the plasma current. Efficient bulk heating, with centrally peaked profiles, is observed at the second harmonic, and a tail, which decreases monotonically with energy, is observed on the ion distribution

  2. 'Beam-emission spectroscopy' diagnostics also measure edge fast-ion light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W W; Bortolon, A; McKee, G R; Smith, D R

    2011-01-01

    Beam-emission spectroscopy (BES) diagnostics normally detect fluctuations in the light emitted by an injected neutral beam. Under some circumstances, however, light from fast ions that charge exchange in the high neutral-density region at the edge of the plasma make appreciable contributions to the BES signals. This 'passive' fast-ion D α (FIDA) light appears in BES signals from both the DIII-D tokamak and the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). One type of passive FIDA light is associated with classical orbits that traverse the edge. Another type is caused by instabilities that expel fast ions from the core; this light can complicate measurement of the instability eigenfunction.

  3. Fast-ion transport in the presence of magnetic reconnection induced by sawtooth oscillations in ASDEX Upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiger, B.; M. García-Muñoz,; Dux, R.; Ryter, F.; Tardini, G.; Orte, L. B.; Classen, I.G.J.; Fable, E.; Fischer, R.; Igochine, V.; McDermott, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    The transport of beam-generated fast ions has been investigated experimentally at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak in the presence of sawtooth crashes. After sawtooth crashes, phase space resolved fast-ion D-alpha measurements show a significant reduction of the central fast-ion density-more than

  4. Dynamics of fast liner with several sorts of ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeev, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of hydrodynamic equations describing plasma dynamics with two sorts of ions gaseous linear compression under effect of magnetic field at H 2 >>8πp is considered. It is shown that for a liner with two sorts of ions there is a density range below some critical one, when skin penetration of the magnetic field into plasma is defined by ion-ion collisions

  5. Fast ion transport in solids: electrodes and electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashishta, P.; Mundy, J.N.; Shenoy, G.K.

    1979-01-01

    Topics covered in the conference include: energy storage and other applications; electrode materials and intercalated compounds; diffusion; ionic conductivity techniques; neutron scattering and diffraction techniques; beta aluminas; deuterium and NH 4 ; NASICON and other sodium ion conductors; lithium ion conductors; silver and copper ion conductors; anion conductors; and high conductivity glasses. Thirty-five individual items were prepared separately for the data base

  6. Wave–particle resonances and redistribution/losses of fast ions in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabais, F.; Borba, D.; Kiptily, V.G.; Pinches, S.D.; Sharapov, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced fast ion losses, mostly in the range of energies from around 1.2 to 2.4 MeV, were measured during the activity of tornado modes in the JET tokamak. Tornado modes are TAE localized inside the q = 1 surface, which do not extend to the outer regions of the plasma. Thus, it is necessary to find an explanation on how such modes can lead to the loss of fast ions. In this paper, a mechanism that allows explaining the loss of fast ions triggered by tornado modes is proposed. This mechanism is based on the combined effect of tornado modes and global TAEs over the fast ions (global TAEs were always observed along with the tornado modes in the experiments in which enhanced losses were measured). Tornado modes would trigger the process of loss by resonantly interacting with the fast ions near the centre of the plasma and transporting the ions to a more peripheral region where tornado modes and global TAEs coexist. The TAE would then transport convectively the fast ions, most efficiently through the first bounce resonances (p = 1), all the way to the plasma edge eventually leading to its loss. This mechanism of loss is supported by calculations carried out with the CASTOR-K code. (paper)

  7. Fast ion emission from the plasma produced by the PALS laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolowski, J.; Badziak, J.; Boody, F.P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of studies of fast ion emission from the multiply charged high-Z number plasma generated using the PALS high-energy iodine laser system (≤1.2 kJ, 0.4 ns) at the PALS Research Center in Prague. The properties of the emitted ion streams were investigated using ion collectors located at various angles with respect to the target normal and an electrostatic energy analyser. The x-ray emission from the plasma was measured using semiconductor detectors. Different groups of ions (slow, thermal and fast) were observed in the ion collector signals. Ion current densities higher than 80 mA cm -2 at ∼1 m from the target were demonstrated. The charge velocity distribution, ion current density and angular distribution of ion charge emission, as well as total charge and average ion energy were obtained from these signals. Using the electrostatic ion-energy analyser, the emission of highly charged heavy ions (Ta 52+ , Ag 38+ ) with energies up to 7 MeV for Ta ions was demonstrated. The dependence of ion stream parameters on the experimental conditions is discussed. We also report the results of preliminary experiments on the direct implantation of laser-produced ions into various materials. (author)

  8. Quantum behavior of a SQUID qubit manipulated with fast pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spilla, Samuele; Messina, Antonino; Napoli, Anna [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, 90123 Palermo (Italy); Castellano, Maria Gabriella; Chiarello, Fabio [Istituto Fotonica e Nanotecnologie - CNR, Roma (Italy); Migliore, Rosanna [Institute of Biophysics, National Research Council, via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    A SQUID qubit manipulated with fast variation of the energy potential is analyzed. Varying the potential shape from a single to a double-well configuration, quantum behaviors are brought into light and discussed. We show that the presence of quantum coherences in the initial state of the system plays a central role in the appearance of these quantum effects.

  9. A superconcentrated ether electrolyte for fast-charging Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuki; Yaegashi, Makoto; Abe, Takeshi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2013-12-11

    We have found ultrafast Li(+) intercalation into graphite in a superconcentrated ether electrolyte, even exceeding that in a currently used commercial electrolyte. This discovery is an important breakthrough toward fast-charging Li-ion batteries far beyond present technologies.

  10. Energetic-particle-driven instabilities and induced fast-ion transport in a reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, L.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Anderson, J. K.; Capecchi, W.; Eilerman, S.; Forest, C. B.; Koliner, J. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Reusch, J.; Sarff, J. S.; Liu, D.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple bursty energetic-particle (EP) driven modes with fishbone-like structure are observed during 1 MW tangential neutral-beam injection in a reversed field pinch (RFP) device. The distinguishing features of the RFP, including large magnetic shear (tending to add stability) and weak toroidal magnetic field (leading to stronger drive), provide a complementary environment to tokamak and stellarator configurations for exploring basic understanding of EP instabilities. Detailed measurements of the EP mode characteristics and temporal-spatial dynamics reveal their influence on fast ion transport. Density fluctuations exhibit a dynamically evolving, inboard-outboard asymmetric spatial structure that peaks in the core where fast ions reside. The measured mode frequencies are close to the computed shear Alfvén frequency, a feature consistent with continuum modes destabilized by strong drive. The frequency pattern of the dominant mode depends on the fast-ion species. Multiple frequencies occur with deuterium fast ions compared to single frequency for hydrogen fast ions. Furthermore, as the safety factor (q) decreases, the toroidal mode number of the dominant EP mode transits from n=5 to n=6 while retaining the same poloidal mode number m=1. The transition occurs when the m=1, n=5 wave-particle resonance condition cannot be satisfied as the fast-ion safety factor (q fi ) decreases. The fast-ion temporal dynamics, measured by a neutral particle analyzer, resemble a classical predator-prey relaxation oscillation. It contains a slow-growth phase arising from the beam fueling followed by a rapid drop when the EP modes peak, indicating that the fluctuation-induced transport maintains a stiff fast-ion density profile. The inferred transport rate is strongly enhanced with the onset of multiple EP modes

  11. Determining the stereochemical structures of molecular ions by ''Coulomb-explosion'' techniques with fast (MeV) molecular ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmell, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    Recent studies on the dissociation of fast (MeV) molecular ion beams in thin foils suggest a novel alternative approach to the determination of molecular ion structures. In this article we review some recent high-resolution studies on the interactions of fast molecular ion beams with solid and gaseous targets and indicate how such studies may be applied to the problem of determining molecular ion structures. The main features of the Coulomb explosion of fast-moving molecular ion projectiles and the manner in which Coulomb-explosion techniques may be applied to the problem (difficult to attack by more conventional means) of determining the stereochemical structures of molecular ions has been described in this paper. Examples have been given of early experiments designed to elicit structure information. The techniques are still in their infancy, and it is to be expected that as both the technology and the analysis are refined, the method will make valuable contributions to the determination of molecular ion structures

  12. Pumping behavior of sputtering ion pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, T.S.; Bittner, J.; Schuchman, J.

    1991-12-31

    To optimize the design of a distributed ion pump (DIP) for the Superconducting X-Ray Lithography Source (SXLS) the stability of the rotating electron cloud at very high magnetic field beyond transition, must be re-examined. In this work the pumping speed and frequency spectrum of a DIP at various voltages (1 to 10 KV) and various magnetic fields (0.1 to 4 Tesla) are measured. Three cell diameters 10 mm, 5 mm and 2.5 mm, each 8 mm long, and with 3 or 4 mm gaps between anode and cathode are investigated. In this study both the titanium cathodes and the stainless steel anode plates are perforated with holes comparable in size to the anode cell diameters. Only the partially saturated pumping behavior is under investigation. The ultimate pressure and conditioning of the pump will be investigated at a later date when the stability criterion for the electron cloud is better understood.

  13. Pumping behavior of sputtering ion pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, T.S.; Bittner, J.; Schuchman, J.

    1991-01-01

    To optimize the design of a distributed ion pump (DIP) for the Superconducting X-Ray Lithography Source (SXLS) the stability of the rotating electron cloud at very high magnetic field beyond transition, must be re-examined. In this work the pumping speed and frequency spectrum of a DIP at various voltages (1 to 10 KV) and various magnetic fields (0.1 to 4 Tesla) are measured. Three cell diameters 10 mm, 5 mm and 2.5 mm, each 8 mm long, and with 3 or 4 mm gaps between anode and cathode are investigated. In this study both the titanium cathodes and the stainless steel anode plates are perforated with holes comparable in size to the anode cell diameters. Only the partially saturated pumping behavior is under investigation. The ultimate pressure and conditioning of the pump will be investigated at a later date when the stability criterion for the electron cloud is better understood.

  14. Production of fast ion and nuclei bunches of solid densities from nanolayers by ultrarelativistic laser pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Avetissian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A method for generation of quasimonoenergetic, low emittance fast ion/nuclei bunches of solid densities from nanotargets by two counterpropagating laser pulses of ultrarelativistic intensities is proposed, based on the threshold phenomenon of particles reflection due to induced nonlinear Compton scattering. Particularly, a setup is considered which provides generation of ion bunches with parameters that are required in hadron therapy.

  15. Full inelastic cross section, effective stopping and ranges of fast multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimov, R.A.; Arslanbekov, T.U.; Matveev, B.I.; Rakhmatov, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    Inelastic processes taking place in collision of fast multiply charged ions with atoms are considered on the base of mechanism of sudden momentum transfer. The simple estimations are proposed of full inelastic cross sections, effective stopping and ion ranges in gaseous medium. (author). 10 refs

  16. Symposium on fast atom and ion induced mass spectrometry of nonvolatile organic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeal, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanisms of molecular and fragment ion production and the various parameters affecting ion yields were discussed by 6 invited speakers from Europe, Canada, and the US at this symposium. The work reported was almost equally divided between that using low-energy (keV) primary ion (or atom) beams, e.g. fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and that using high energy (MeV) particles, e.g. heavy ion induced mass spectrometry (HIIDMS) and 252 Cf-plasma desorption mass spectrometry ( 252 Cf-PDMS). Both theoretical foundations and observed experimental results for both techniques are included

  17. Neutral Particle Analyzer Measurements of Ion Behavior in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.S. Medley; R.E. Bell; D.S. Darrow; A.L. Roquemore

    2002-02-06

    Initial results obtained with the Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) are presented. Magnetohydrodynamic activity and reconnection events cause depletion of the deuterium energetic ion distribution created by neutral-beam injection. Adding High Harmonic Fast Wave Heating to neutral-beam-heated discharges results in the generation of an energetic ion tail above the beam injection energy. NPA measurements of the residual hydrogen ion temperature are in good agreement with those from recombination spectroscopy.

  18. Fast Monte Carlo for ion beam analysis simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiettekatte, Francois

    2008-01-01

    A Monte Carlo program for the simulation of ion beam analysis data is presented. It combines mainly four features: (i) ion slowdown is computed separately from the main scattering/recoil event, which is directed towards the detector. (ii) A virtual detector, that is, a detector larger than the actual one can be used, followed by trajectory correction. (iii) For each collision during ion slowdown, scattering angle components are extracted form tables. (iv) Tables of scattering angle components, stopping power and energy straggling are indexed using the binary representation of floating point numbers, which allows logarithmic distribution of these tables without the computation of logarithms to access them. Tables are sufficiently fine-grained that interpolation is not necessary. Ion slowdown computation thus avoids trigonometric, inverse and transcendental function calls and, as much as possible, divisions. All these improvements make possible the computation of 10 7 collisions/s on current PCs. Results for transmitted ions of several masses in various substrates are well comparable to those obtained using SRIM-2006 in terms of both angular and energy distributions, as long as a sufficiently large number of collisions is considered for each ion. Examples of simulated spectrum show good agreement with experimental data, although a large detector rather than the virtual detector has to be used to properly simulate background signals that are due to plural collisions. The program, written in standard C, is open-source and distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License

  19. Nonlinear phenomenon in nanostructures creation by fast cluster ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslem, W. M.; El-Said, A. S.; Sabry, R.; Shalouf, A.; El-Labany, S. K.; Bahlouli, H.

    2017-01-01

    The development of accelerators technology offers a new window for the creation of surface nanostructures in an efficient and accurate way. The use of 30 MeV C60 cluster ions enables the creation of nano-hillocks of size larger than the ones produced by GeV monoatomic ions. The physical mechanism underlying the realization of such nanostructures is elucidated using a plasma expansion approach. Numerical analysis showed that increasing the ionic temperature (number density) ratios would lead to decrease (increase) the nano-hillocks height.

  20. Inversion methods for fast-ion velocity-space tomography in fusion plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Stagner, L.; Salewski, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Velocity-space tomography has been used to infer 2D fast-ion velocity distribution functions. Here we compare the performance of five different tomographic inversion methods: truncated singular value decomposition, maximum entropy, minimum Fisher information and zeroth and first-order Tikhonov re...... confidence regions, all methods agree that ions with pitch values close to zero, as well as ions with large pitch values, are ejected from the plasma center by the sawtooth crash, and that this ejection depletes the ion population with large pitch values more strongly....

  1. Self-consistent Study of Fast Particle Redistribution by Alfven Eigenmodes During Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergkvist, T.; Hellsten, T.; Johnson, T.

    2006-01-01

    Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) excited by fusion born α particles can degrade the heating efficiency of a burning plasma and throw out αs. To experimentally study the effects of excitation of AEs and the redistribution of the fast ions, ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is often used. The distribution function of thermonuclear αs in a reactor is expected to be isotropic and constantly renewed through DT reactions. The distribution function of cyclotron heated ions is strongly anisotropic, and the ICRH do not only renew the distribution function but also provide a strong decorrelation mechanism between the fast ions and the AE. Because of the sensitivity of the AE dynamics on the details of the distribution function, the location of the resonance surfaces in phase space and the extent of the overlapping resonant regions for different AEs, a self-consistent treatment of the AE excitation and the ICRH is necessary. Interactions of fast ions with AEs during ICRH has been implemented in the SELFO code. Simulations are in good agreement with the experimentally observer pitch-fork splitting and rapid damping of the AE as ICRH is turned off. The redistribution of fast ions have been studied in the presence of several driven AEs. (author)

  2. High-definition velocity-space tomography of fast-ion dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Jacobsen, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Velocity-space tomography of the fast-ion distribution function in a fusion plasma is usually a photon-starved tomography method due to limited optical access and signal-to-noise ratio of fast-ion Dα (FIDA) spectroscopy as well as the strive for high-resolution images. In high-definition tomography...... information to reconstruct where in velocity space the measurements and the simulation disagree. This alternative approach is demonstrated for four-view as well as for two-view FIDA measurements. The high-definition tomography tools allow us to study fast ions in sawtoothing plasmas and the formation of NBI...... peaks at full, half and one-third energy by time-resolved tomographic movies....

  3. Proceedings of the workshop on atomic physics with fast heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanter, E.P.; Minchinton, A.

    1983-01-01

    The Workshop on Atomic Physics with Fast Heavy-Ion Beams was held in the Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory on January 20 and 21, 1983. The meeting brought together approx. 50 practitioners in the field of accelerator-based atomic physics. The workshop was held to focus attention on possible areas of atomic physics research which would benefit from use of the newest generation of accelerators designed to produce intense high-quality beams of fast heavy ions. Abstracts of individual paper were prepared separately for the data base

  4. Power deposition by neutral beam injected fast ions in field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshiki; Kato, Takayuki; Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Iwasawa, Naotaka

    2004-01-01

    The effects of Coulomb collisions on neutral beam (NB) injected fast ions into field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas are investigated by calculating the single particle orbits, where the ions are subject to the slowing-down and pitch-angle collisions. The Monte Carlo method is used for the pitch-angle scattering, and the friction term is added to the equation of motion to show the effects of the slowing-down collision, such as the deposited power profile. The calculation parameters used are relevant to the NB injection on the FRC injection experiment device [T. Asai, Y. Suzuki, T. Yoneda, F. Kodera, M. Okubo, and S. Goto, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2294 (2000)]. It is found that the dominant local power deposition occurs in the open field region between the X point and the mirror point because of a concentration of fast ions and a longer duration travel at the mirror reflection point. In the present calculation, the maximum deposited power to the FRC plasma is about 10% of the injected power. Although the pitch-angle scattering by Coulomb collision destroys the mirror confinement of NB injected fast ions, this effect is found to be negligible. The loss mechanism due to nonadiabatic fast ion motion, which is intrinsic in nonuniform FRC plasmas, has a much greater effect than the pitch-angle scattering by Coulomb collision

  5. Differential electron emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules under fast ion impact

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Shubhadeep; Champion, Christophe; Tribedi, Lokesh C.

    2017-01-01

    Interaction between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecule and energetic ion is a subject of interest in different areas of modern physics. Here, we present measurements of energy and angular distributions of absolute double differential electron emission cross section for coronene (C24H12) and fluorene (C13H10) molecules under fast bare oxygen ion impact. For coronene, the?angular distributions?of the low energy electrons are quite different from that of simpler targets like Ne or CH...

  6. Influence of excited states on the energy loss of fast ions in a hydrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, B. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-8046 Garching, Germany (DE)); Peter, T. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie, D-6500 Mainz, Germany (DE))

    1991-04-01

    Stopping power calculations of fast ions penetrating a hydrogen plasma target in local thermodynamic equilibrium at arbitrary temperatures are performed. Excited state contributions to the energy loss are included in the framework of the Bethe formalism. Average ionization potentials for the excited ions are given in a quasiclassical approximation. It is shown that the net effect is an enhancement of the stopping power compared to the energy loss when assuming all atoms to be in their ground state.

  7. Energy measurement of fast ions trapped in the toroidal field ripple of Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiuk, V.; Becoulet, A.; Hutter, T.; Martin, G.; Pecquet, A.L.; Saoutic, B.

    1993-09-01

    During additional heating in Tore Supra (ICRF or NBI) fast ion losses due to the toroidal field ripple were clearly measured by a set of graphite probes. This diagnostic collects the flow of fast ions entering a vertical port and usually shows a maximum flux for ions originating from the vicinity of surface δ * = 0. During the monster sawteeth regime, achieved with ICRF, a remarkable phenomenon was observed: the ejection of fast ions, not correlated with any measured MHD activity. The radial distribution of these ions is quite different from that usually observed exhibiting a peak located in the central section of the plasma. In order to measure the energy distribution of these ions, from 80 keV (energy of the neutral beam injected in Tore Supra) up to 1 MeV (expected during ICRF), a new diagnostic is under construction. The principle of the diagnostic is to discriminate the ions in energy using their Larmor radius (p = 1.3 cm for 100 keV → p = 3.6 cm for 700 keV, B = 4T). The detector is made of a hollow graphite cylinder with a small entrance slot, located in a vertical port on the ion drift side. An array of six metallic collectors placed inside the graphite cylinder intercepts the ions. The current on each collector was estimated at 10 → 100 nA, during ICRF heating. The energy resolution of this diagnostic is expected to be about 20 keV for the lowest energy range and 100 keV for the highest. This type of ruggedized detector might be extrapolated for the measurements of alpha particle losses in future DT experiments. It should also be suitable for the studies of stochastic ripple diffusion. (authors). 3 refs., 9 figs

  8. Corrosion behavior of low energy, high temperature nitrogen ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    January 2007 physics pp. 135–140. Corrosion behavior of low energy, high temperature nitrogen ion-implanted AISI 304 stainless steel. M GHORANNEVISS1, A SHOKOUHY1,∗, M M ... Ion implantation has been used to modify the physical and chemical properties of ... sources and plasma surface treatment [1,2].

  9. Generation of fast multiply charged ions in conical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demchenko, V.V.; Chukbar, K.V.

    1990-01-01

    So-called conical targets, when the thermonuclear fuel is compressed and heated in a conical cavity in a heavy material (lead, gold, etc.) with the help of a spherical segment that is accelerated by a laser pulse or a beam of charged particles, are often employed in experimental studies of inertial-confinement fusion. In spite of the obvious advantages of such a scheme, one of which is a significant reduction of the required energy input compared with the complete spherical target, it also introduces additional effects into the process of cumulation of energy. In this paper the authors call attention to an effect observed in numerical calculations: the hydrodynamic heating of a small group of multiply charged heavy ions of the walls of the conical cavity up to high energies (T i approx-gt 100 keV). This effect ultimately occurs as a result of the high radiation losses of a multiply charged plasma

  10. Ionization of water clusters by fast Highly Charged Ions: Stability, fragmentation, energetics and charge mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legendre, S; Maisonny, R; Capron, M; Bernigaud, V; Cassimi, A; Gervais, B; Grandin, J-P; Huber, B A; Manil, B; Rousseau, P; Tarisien, M; Adoui, L; Lopez-Tarifa, P; AlcamI, M; MartIn, F; Politis, M-F; Penhoat, M A Herve du; Vuilleumier, R; Gaigeot, M-P; Tavernelli, I

    2009-01-01

    We study dissociative ionization of water clusters by impact of fast Ni ions. Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) is used to obtain information about stability, energetics and charge mobility of the ionized clusters. An unusual stability of the (H 2 O) 4 H ''+ ion is observed, which could be the signature of the so called ''Eigen'' structure in gas phase water clusters. High charge mobility, responsible for the formation of protonated water clusters that dominate the mass spectrum, is evidenced. These results are supported by CPMD and TDDFT simulations, which also reveal the mechanisms of such mobility.

  11. Fast-ion dynamics in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindslev, H; Nielsen, S K; Porte, L; Hoekzema, J A; Korsholm, S B; Meo, F; Michelsen, P K; Michelsen, S; Oosterbeek, J W; Tsakadze, E L; Westerhof, E; Woskov, P

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of fast ion populations in the TEXTOR tokamak are measured by collective Thomson scattering of millimetre wave radiation generated by a gyrotron operated at 110 GHz and 100-150 kW. Temporal evolution of the energetic ion velocity distribution at switch on of neutral beam injection (NBI) and the slowdown after switch off of NBI are measured. The turn on phase of the NBI has, furthermore, been measured in plasmas with a range of electron densities and temperatures. All of these measurements are shown to be in good agreement with simple Fokker-Planck modelling. Bulk ion rotation velocity is also measured

  12. Fast argon ion irradiation effect on the characteristics of silicon planar structures

    CERN Document Server

    Karatetskii, S S; Sokolov, V I

    2002-01-01

    The effect of irradiating by the argon ions with the energy of 40 MeV on the planar structures parameters is studied with the purpose of determining the possibilities of their controlled change. It is shown, that the planar structures irradiation by the argon ions with the energy of 40 MeV leads to decrease in the capacitance of the MOS-condensers and narrows the area of the photosensitivity of the p - n-transitions. The observed effects are explained by the specificity of violations, created by fast ions in the crystal

  13. Factors influencing fast food consumption behaviors of middle-school students in Seoul: an application of theory of planned behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyun-Sun; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Nam, Soyoung

    2011-04-01

    Fast food is popular among children and adolescents; however, its consumption has often been associated with negative impacts on nutrition and health. This study examined current fast food consumption status among middle school students and explored factors influencing fast food consumption by applying Theory of Planned Behavior. A total of 354 (52.5% boys) students were recruited from a middle school. The subjects completed a pre-tested questionnaire. The average monthly frequency of fast food consumption was 4.05 (4.25 for boys, 3.83 for girls). As expected, fast food consumption was considered to be a special event rather than part of an everyday diet, closely associated with meeting friends or celebrating, most likely with friends, special days. The Theory of Planned Behavior effectively explained fast food consumption behaviors with relatively high R(2) around 0.6. Multiple regression analyses showed that fast food consumption behavior was significantly related to behavioral intention (b = 0.61, P intention was significantly related to subjective norm (b = 0.15, P fast food consumption was not significantly associated with behavioral intention. Therefore, effective nutrition education programs on fast food consumption should include components to change the subjective norms of fast food consumption, especially among peers, and perceived behavioral control. Further studies should examine effective ways of changing subjective norms and possible alternatives to fast food consumption for students to alter perceived behavioral control.

  14. Preface: Photon and fast Ion induced Processes in Atoms, MOlecules and Nanostructures (PIPAMON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kövér, László

    2016-02-01

    This Special Issue contains selected papers of contributions presented in the International Workshop on Photon and fast Ion induced Processes in Atoms, MOlecules and Nanostructures (PIPAMON), held between March 24 and 26, 2015 in Debrecen, Hungary. The venue, the Aquaticum Thermal and Wellness Hotel provided a pleasant ;all-under-one-roof; environment for the event.

  15. Interaction of Fast Ions with Global Plasma Modes in the C-2 Field Reversed Configuration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Artem; Dettrick, Sean; Clary, Ryan; Korepanov, Sergey; Thompson, Matthew; Trask, Erik; Tuszewski, Michel

    2012-10-01

    A high-confinement operating regime [1] with plasma lifetimes significantly exceeding past empirical scaling laws was recently obtained by combining plasma gun edge biasing and tangential Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) in the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment [2, 3]. We present experimental and computational results on the interaction of fast ions with the n=2 rotational and n=1 wobble modes in the C-2 FRC. It is found that the n=2 mode is similar to quadrupole magnetic fields in its detrimental effect on the fast ion transport due to symmetry breaking. The plasma gun generates an inward radial electric field, thus stabilizing the n=2 rotational instability without applying the quadrupole magnetic fields. The resultant FRCs are nearly axisymmetric, which enables fast ion confinement. The NBI further suppresses the n=2 mode, improves the plasma confinement characteristics, and increases the plasma configuration lifetime [4]. The n=1 wobble mode has relatively little effect on the fast ion transport, likely due to the approximate axisymmetry about the displaced plasma column. [4pt] [1] M. Tuszewski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255008 (2012).[0pt] [2] M. Binderbauer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 045003 (2010).[0pt] [3] H.Y. Guo et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056110 (2011).[0pt] [4] M. Tuszewski et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 056108 (2012)

  16. High-performance rechargeable batteries with fast solid-state ion conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2017-06-27

    A high-performance rechargeable battery using ultra-fast ion conductors. In one embodiment the rechargeable battery apparatus includes an enclosure, a first electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a second electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a nanomaterial in the enclosure, and a heat transfer unit.

  17. Fast-ion transport induced by Alfvén eigenmodes in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Munoz, M.; Classen, I.G.J.; Geiger, B.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive suite of diagnostics has allowed detailed measurements of the Alfvén eigenmode (AE) spatial structure and subsequent fast-ion transport in the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak [1]. Reversed shear Alfvén eigenmodes (RSAEs) and toroidal induced Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs) have been driven u...

  18. Actin filaments as the fast pathways for calcium ions involved in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 40; Issue 3. Actin filaments as the fast pathways for calcium ions involved in auditory processes. Miljko V Sataric Dalibor L Sekulic Bogdan M Sataric. Articles Volume 40 Issue 3 September 2015 pp 549- ...

  19. Spatial distribution of ion charges in fast, partially stripped clusters traversing solid targets

    CERN Document Server

    Miskovic, Z L; Goodman, F O; Wang, Y N

    2002-01-01

    Joint statistical description of the distribution of ion charge states and the spatial structure of a cluster, made of heavy ions, allows a self-consistent generalization of the Brandt-Kitagawa variational theory, including dynamically-screened inter-ionic interactions, in a form of a non-linear integral equation. Solution of such an equation for fast clusters passing very thin foils shows the familiar reduction of charge per ion, compared to the charge on an isotactic ion, which is rather non-homogeneously distributed throughout the volume of the cluster. As a consequence, the distribution of individual ion charges in the cluster exhibits large dispersion around an average value, which drops with the increasing cluster size.

  20. High Precision, Sensitive, Near-IR Spectroscopy in a Fast Ion Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porambo, Michael; Kreckel, Holger; Mills, Andrew; Perera, Manori; Siller, Brian; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2011-10-01

    In the low temperatures and pressures of the interstellar medium (ISM), molecular ions play key roles as reactants and intermediates, as well as physical probes of the interstellar environment. As such, high resolution laboratory spectra of these ions aid in further understanding the chemistry and physics of the ISM. There are many challenges to high resolution molecular ion spectroscopy in the laboratory, though. To combat these challenges, we have built a fast ion beam spectrometer that possesses rigorous ion-neutral discrimination, high sensitivity and resolution, and mass identification capabilities. The primary components of the system are a cold cathode ion source, an electrostatic ion optical system for steering and focusing the extracted ion beam, an ion beam-laser overlap region where the spectroscopy takes place, and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer for mass studies of the ion beam. The spectra are obtained using a highly sensitive spectroscopic technique called Noise Immune Cavity Enhanced Optical Heterodyne Molecular Spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS). By calibrating the spectra with an optical frequency comb, line centers of transitions can be determined to future, a supersonic expansion discharge source will take the place of the current cold cathode in order to create an ion beam with much lower rotational temperature. We have recorded near-infrared rovibronic transitions of the 1-0 Meinel band of N2+as a proof of concept of this setup. In addition to analyzing the lineshapes of the transitions, the line center of the Q22(14.5) line was determined to an accuracy of ~8 MHz. Presently, we are working to extend our ion beam spectroscopy to the study of mid-infrared vibrational transitions of other molecular ions using a Difference Frequency Generation (DFG) laser tunable from 2.8 to 4.8 μm.

  1. Quantification of the impact of large and small-scale instabilities on the fast-ion confinement in ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiger, B.; Weiland, M.; Mlynek, A.

    2015-01-01

    with up to 10 MW of heating power, the fast-ion measurements agree best with the theoretical predictions that assume a weak level anomalous fast-ion transport. This is also in agreement with measurements of the internal inductance, a Motional Stark Effect diagnostic and a novel polarimetry diagnostic...

  2. First fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) measurements and simulations on C-2U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolte, N. G., E-mail: nbolte@TriAlphaEnergy.com; Gupta, D.; Onofri, M.; Dettrick, S.; Granstedt, E. M.; Petrov, P. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Stagner, L. [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The first measurements of fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) radiation have been acquired on C-2U, Tri Alpha Energy’s advanced, beam-driven field-reversed configuration (FRC). These measurements are also forward modeled by FIDASIM. This is the first measurement and simulation of FIDA carried out on an FRC topology. FIDA measurements are made of Doppler-shifted Balmer-alpha light from neutralized fast ions using a bandpass filter and photomultiplier tube. One adjustable line-of-sight measured signals at eight locations and eight times during the FRC lifetime over 26 discharges. Filtered signals include only the highest energy ions (>6 keV) and share some salient features with the FIDASIM result. Highly Doppler-shifted beam radiation is also measured with a high-speed camera and is spatially well-correlated with FIDASIM.

  3. Recent progress of fast-ion loss detector project in Asian fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Mitsutaka; Zhang Yipo; Kim, Jun-Young

    2013-01-01

    The A3 foresight program is accelerating close collaboration for fast-ion diagnostics development between Asian three countries. A recent big step in our activities is that the operation of fast-ion loss detector (FILD) on HL-2A has begun lately. The localized bright spot appeared on the scintillator screen while a high-energy neutral beam was tangentially co-injected. The design of FILD system on EAST is steadily ongoing. The diagnostics port available for our purpose was decided in March, 2013. For KSTAR, the FILD is working successfully. In order to understand observed beam-ion loss signals while the RMP coils are turned on, the LORBIT code has been improved recently to treat non-axisymmetric perturbed field due to RMP coils and discreteness of TF coils. (author)

  4. Unusual radiolytic behavior of neptunium ions in aqueous bicarbonate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilov, V.P.; Gogolev, A.V.; Pikaev, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    Behavior of neptunium ions in carbonate and bicarbonate aqueous solutions saturated with air, oxygen or argon during gamma radiation ( 60 Co) by doses up to 3 kGy at dose rates 10 and 25 Gy/min was studied by the method of spectrophotometry. It is shown that in neptunium (5) bicarbonate solution nearly complete (95%) neptunium ion oxidation occurs under the effect of radiation, whereas no oxidation is observed in carbonate solution. Radiation-chemical yield of neptunium (5) oxidation and stationary concentration of neptunium (6) ions depend on concentration of bicarbonate-ions. Explanation to the results obtained is made from the viewpoint of potential radiolytic reactions [ru

  5. Trapping ions from a fast beam in a radio-frequency ion trap: Exploring the energy exchange with the longitudinal radio-frequency field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Annette; Lammich, Lutz; Vad Andersen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of injecting ions from an initially fast moving beam into a multipole radio-frequency (RF) ion trap without the use of buffer gas is described. The chosen trap geometry gives rise to an oscillating electric field along the direction of the incoming ions, and through an analytical...

  6. Pumping behavior of sputter ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.; McCafferty, D.

    The ultrahigh vacuum requirements of ISABELLE is obtained by distributed pumping stations. Each pumping station consists of 1000 l/s titanium sublimation pump for active gases (N 2 , H 2 , O 2 , CO, etc.), and a 20 l/s sputter ion pump for inert gases (methane, noble gases like He, etc.). The combination of the alarming production rate of methane from titanium sublimation pumps (TSP) and the decreasing pumping speed of sputter ion pumps (SIP) in the ultrahigh vacuum region (UHV) leads us to investigate this problem. In this paper, we first describe the essential physics and chemistry of the SIP in a very clean condition, followed by a discussion of our measuring techniques. Finally measured methane, argon and helium pumping speeds are presented for three different ion pumps in the range of 10 -6 to 10 -11 Torr. The virtues of the best pump are also discussed

  7. Edge Ion Heating by Launched High Harmonic Fast Waves in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biewer, T.M.; Bell, R.E.; Diem, S.J.; Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.; Ryan, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new spectroscopic diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) measures the velocity distribution of ions in the plasma edge simultaneously along both poloidal and toroidal views. An anisotropic ion temperature is measured during high-power high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) radio-frequency (rf) heating in helium plasmas, with the poloidal ion temperature roughly twice the toroidal ion temperature. Moreover, the measured spectral distribution suggests that two populations of ions are present and have temperatures of typically 500 eV and 50 eV with rotation velocities of -50 km/s and -10 km/s, respectively (predominantly perpendicular to the local magnetic field). This bi-modal distribution is observed in both the toroidal and poloidal views (for both He + and C 2+ ions), and is well correlated with the period of rf power application to the plasma. The temperature of the hot component is observed to increase with the applied rf power, which was scanned between 0 and 4.3 MW . The 30 MHz HHFW launched by the NSTX antenna is expected and observed to heat core electrons, but plasma ions do not resonate with the launched wave, which is typically at >10th harmonic of the ion cyclotron frequency in the region of observation. A likely ion heating mechanism is parametric decay of the launched HHFW into an Ion Bernstein Wave (IBW). The presence of the IBW in NSTX plasmas during HHFW application has been directly confirmed with probe measurements. IBW heating occurs in the perpendicular ion distribution, consistent with the toroidal and poloidal observations. Calculations of IBW propagation indicate that multiple waves could be created in the parametric decay process, and that most of the IBW power would be absorbed in the outer 10 to 20 cm of the plasma, predominantly on fully stripped ions. These predictions are in qualitative agreement with the observations, and must be accounted for when calculating the energy budget of the plasma

  8. Longitudinal instabilities of the experimentally generated laser accelerated ion beam relevant to fast ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshbinfar, S.

    2017-11-01

    The advent of laser-assisted ion acceleration technology promises an alternative candidate to conventional accelerator drivers used in inertial confinement fusion. The experimental generation of quasi-monoenergetic heavier ion species i.e. carbon and aluminum, applicable to fast ignition studies has been recently reported. The propagation of these energetic ions may impact on the proper ignition phase through growing of micro-instabilities of beam-plasma system. The growth of flow-aligned instabilities is much more important for heavier ions transport in the dense plasma. Here, we have presented a general non-relativistic one-dimensional dispersion relation of cold fluid model as well as corresponding kinetic theory of incident ion beam with atomic number, Zb enters into a fast ignition DT plasma. The longitudinal instabilities of some selected average energies of experimentally generated C6+ (EC=50, 100 and 200 MeV with δE/E ∼ 10 %) and Al11+ (EAl=150 and 300 MeV with δE/E ∼25%) quasi-monoenergetic beams were examined and beam-plasma system stable configuration have been then derived. It has been shown that in the kinetic theory framework, carbon and aluminum ions may be completely stabilized by the combination of beam to plasma density ratio (αb) and plasma temperature (Tp) of ignition phase parameters. Moreover, in complete stabilization, αb parameter of aluminum beam is an order of magnitude lower than carbon.

  9. Pengaruh Pendidikan Gizi Berbasis Theory of Planned Behavior untuk Mempromosikan Pembatasan Konsumsi Fast Food pada Siswi

    OpenAIRE

    Handarbeny, Wuri Rizki; Mahmudiono, Trias

    2017-01-01

     Background: The incessant promotion of fast food make a perception that fast food is a trend among teenager.  Fast food consumption habits that have high calorie but low nutrients will causes nutritional problems in adolescents. Objectives: The purpose of this study aimed to determine effect of nutritional education based on theory of planned behavior to change knowledge, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intention, and limited fast food consumption among female stude...

  10. Plasma mirror implementation on LFEX laser for ion and fast electron fast ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morace, A.; Kojima, S.; Arikawa, Y.; Fujioka, S.; Yogo, A.; Tosaki, S.; Sakata, S.; Abe, Y.; Lee, S. H.; Matsuo, K.; Sagisaka, A.; Kondo, K.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Norimatsu, T.; Jitsuno, T.; Miyanaga, N.; Shiraga, H.; Nakai, M.; Nishimura, H.; Azechi, H.

    2017-12-01

    In this work we report the successful implementation of plasma mirror (PM) technology on an LFEX laser facility at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. The LFEX laser pulse was successfully refocused at the target chamber center (TCC) by means of a spherical plasma mirror, resulting in 5  ×  1018 W cm-2 laser intensity, with 45% reflectivity at a laser flux of about 90 J cm-2 on the PM. Experimental results show stable focusing and pointing of the LFEX pulse after PM refocusing. The contrast improvement was demonstrated by both cooler fast electron slope temperature distribution as well as by the ability to shoot sub-µm plastic foils obtaining proton beams with maximum energy exceeding 20 MeV. Experimental results are qualitatively reproduced by 2D particle in cell simulations.

  11. Advanced ion beam analysis of materials using ion-induced fast electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Atsushi; Ishihara, Toyoyuki [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Recent progress in the study of high-energy shadowing effect using ion-induced electron spectroscopy is reported with emphasis on a possibility of determination of local electronic structure in solids, which has been a difficult problem to approach with other experimental techniques. We demonstrate real-space determination of covalent-bond electron distribution in Si crystal. The analysis technique may provide a new field of ion beam analysis of solids. (author)

  12. ITER Plasma at Ion Cyclotron Frequency Domain: The Fusion Alpha Particles Diagnostics Based on the Stimulated Raman Scattering of Fast Magnetosonic Wave off High Harmonic Ion Bernstein Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2014-10-01

    A novel method for alpha particle diagnostics is proposed. The theory of stimulated Raman scattering, SRS, of the fast wave and ion Bernstein mode, IBM, turbulence in multi-ion species plasmas, (Stefan University Press, La Jolla, CA, 2008). is utilized for the diagnostics of fast ions, (4)He (+2), in ITER plasmas. Nonlinear Landau damping of the IBM on fast ions near the plasma edge leads to the space-time changes in the turbulence level, (inverse alpha particle channeling). The space-time monitoring of the IBM turbulence via the SRS techniques may prove efficient for the real time study of the fast ion velocity distribution function, spatial distribution, and transport. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs., La Jolla, CA 92037.

  13. Spectroscopic Measurements of the Ion Velocity Distribution at the Base of the Fast Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Natasha L. S.; Hahn, Michael; Savin, Daniel W.; Fletcher, Lyndsay

    2018-03-01

    In situ measurements of the fast solar wind reveal non-thermal distributions of electrons, protons, and minor ions extending from 0.3 au to the heliopause. The physical mechanisms responsible for these non-thermal properties and the location where these properties originate remain open questions. Here, we present spectroscopic evidence, from extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy, that the velocity distribution functions (VDFs) of minor ions are already non-Gaussian at the base of the fast solar wind in a coronal hole, at altitudes of thermal equilibrium, (b) fluid motions such as non-Gaussian turbulent fluctuations or non-uniform wave motions, or (c) some combination of both. These observations provide important empirical constraints for the source region of the fast solar wind and for the theoretical models of the different acceleration, heating, and energy deposition processes therein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the ion VDF in the fast solar wind has been probed so close to its source region. The findings are also a timely precursor to the upcoming 2018 launch of the Parker Solar Probe, which will provide the closest in situ measurements of the solar wind at approximately 0.04 au (8.5 solar radii).

  14. Experimental studies of fast deuterons, impurity- and admixture-ions emitted from a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozer, A.; Sadowski, M.; Herold, H.; Schmidt, H.

    1982-01-01

    The energy and mass analysis of ions emitted from a 50-kJ, 18-kV, plasma focus machine was performed with a Thomson analyzer. Energy distribution functions of fast deuterons (E> or =350 keV) and those of impurity ions have been determined. The energy distributions of the O, N, and C impurity ions in different ionization states have similar character. They usually increase exponentially and after reaching the maximum at E/Zroughly-equal1.0 MeV they decrease exponentially to E/Zroughly-equal1.8 MeV. For deuterons at lower operating pressures (p 0 + -Ar 7+ ions of energy from 0.5 to 14 MeV are produced

  15. Coherent Structures at Ion Scales in Fast Solar Wind: Cluster Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, D.; Alexandrova, O.; Roberts, O. W.; Lion, S.; Lacombe, C.; Walsh, A.; Maksimovic, M.; Zouganelis, I.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the nature of magnetic turbulent fluctuations, around ion characteristic scales, in a fast solar wind stream, by using Cluster data. Contrarily to slow solar wind, where both Alfvénic (δ {b}\\perp \\gg δ {b}\\parallel ) and compressive (δ {b}\\parallel \\gg δ {b}\\perp ) coherent structures are observed, the turbulent cascade of fast solar wind is dominated by Alfvénic structures, namely, Alfvén vortices, with a small and/or finite compressive part, with the presence also of several current sheets aligned with the local magnetic field. Several examples of vortex chains are also recognized. Although an increase of magnetic compressibility around ion scales is observed also for fast solar wind, no strongly compressive structures are found, meaning that the nature of the slow and fast winds is intrinsically different. Multispacecraft analysis applied to this interval of fast wind indicates that the coherent structures are almost convected by the flow and aligned with the local magnetic field, I.e., their normal is perpendicular to {\\boldsymbol{B}}, which is consistent with a two-dimensional turbulence picture. Understanding intermittency and the related generation of coherent structures could provide a key insight into the nonlinear energy transfer and dissipation processes in magnetized and collisionless plasmas.

  16. Exit points, on plasma, of lost fast ions during NBI in TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of the exit points, on plasma border, for the lost fast ions during tangential balanced NBI in TJ-II helical axis Stellarator is theoretically analysed, as well for direct as for delayed losses. The link between, the position of those exit points and the corresponding at birth, orbits and drifts is analysed also. It is shown that such relation is rather independent of beam energy and plasma density and is mainly related to the magnetic configuration characteristics. This study is a needed intermediate step to the analysis of impacts of those ions on the vacuum vessel of TJ-II. (Author) 2 refs

  17. Exit points, on plasma, of lost fast ions during NBI in TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1995-09-01

    The distribution of the exit points, on plasma border, for the lost fast ions during tangential balanced NBI in TJ-II helical axis Stellarator is theoretically analysed, as well for direct as for delayed losses. The link between the position of those exit points and the corresponding at birth, orbits and drifts is analysed also, it is shown that such relation is rather independent of beam energy and plasma density and is mainly related to the magnetic configuration characteristics. This study is a needed intermediate step to the analysis of impacts of those ions on the vacuum vessel of TJ-II

  18. Fast Ion Instability in the CLIC Transfer Line and Main LINAC

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, G

    2008-01-01

    The Fast Ion Instability is believed to be a serious danger for bunch trains propagating in the CLIC electron transfer line and main linac, since it may strongly affect the bunches in the tail of the train if the vacuum pressure is not below a certain threshold. We have developed the FASTION code, which can track electrons through a FODO cell line and takes into account their interactions with the produced (and possibly trapped) ions. We describe how this tool can be used for setting tolerances on the vacuum pressure and for giving specifications for the design of a feedback system.

  19. Velocity space resolved absolute measurement of fast ion losses induced by a tearing mode in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdon-Quiroga, J.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Sanchis-Sanchez, L.; Mantsinen, M.; Fietz, S.; Igochine, V.; Maraschek, M.; Rodriguez-Ramos, M.; Sieglin, B.; Snicker, A.; Tardini, G.; Vezinet, D.; Weiland, M.; Eriksson, L. G.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team; The EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2018-03-01

    Absolute flux of fast ion losses induced by tearing modes have been measured by means of fast ion loss detectors (FILD) for the first time in RF heated plasmas in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. Up to 30 MW m‑2 of fast ion losses are measured by FILD at 5 cm from the separatrix, consistent with infra-red camera measurements, with energies in the range of 250–500 keV and pitch angles corresponding to large trapped orbits. A resonant interaction between the fast ions in the high energy tail of the ICRF distribution and a m/n  =  5/4 tearing mode leads to enhanced fast ion losses. Around 9.3 +/- 0.7 % of the fast ion losses are found to be coherent with the mode and scale linearly with its amplitude, indicating the convective nature of the transport mechanism. Simulations have been carried out to estimate the contribution of the prompt losses. A good agreement is found between the simulated and the measured velocity space of the losses. The velocity space resonances that may be responsible for the enhanced fast ion losses are identified.

  20. Factors influencing fast food consumption behaviors of middle-school students in Seoul: an application of theory of planned behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Hyun-sun; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Nam, Soyoung

    2011-01-01

    Fast food is popular among children and adolescents; however, its consumption has often been associated with negative impacts on nutrition and health. This study examined current fast food consumption status among middle school students and explored factors influencing fast food consumption by applying Theory of Planned Behavior. A total of 354 (52.5% boys) students were recruited from a middle school. The subjects completed a pre-tested questionnaire. The average monthly frequency of fast fo...

  1. Inversion methods for fast-ion velocity-space tomography in fusion plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Stagner, L.; Salewski, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Velocity-space tomography has been used to infer 2D fast-ion velocity distribution functions. Here we compare the performance of five different tomographic inversion methods: truncated singular value decomposition, maximum entropy, minimum Fisher information and zeroth and first-order Tikhonov...... regularization. The inversion methods are applied to fast-ion Dα measurements taken just before and just after a sawtooth crash in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak as well as to synthetic measurements from different test distributions. We find that the methods regularizing by penalizing steep gradients or maximizing...... entropy perform best. We assess the uncertainty of the calculated inversions taking into account photon noise, uncertainties in the forward model as well as uncertainties introduced by the regularization which allows us to distinguish regions of high and low confidence in the tomographies. In high...

  2. Repetitive outbursts of fast carbon and fluorine ions from sub-nanosecond laser-produced plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krása, Josef; Velyhan, Andriy; Jungwirth, Karel; Krouský, Eduard; Láska, Leoš; Rohlena, Karel; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2009), 171-178 ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA AV ČR IAA100100715 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * outbursts of fast ions Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.420, year: 2008

  3. Bayesian Integrated Data Analysis of Fast-Ion Measurements by Velocity-Space Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, M.; Nocente, M.; Jacobsen, A.S.

    2018-01-01

    Bayesian integrated data analysis combines measurements from different diagnostics to jointly measure plasma parameters of interest such as temperatures, densities, and drift velocities. Integrated data analysis of fast-ion measurements has long been hampered by the complexity of the strongly non...... framework. The implementation for different types of diagnostics as well as the uncertainties are discussed, and we highlight the importance of integrated data analysis of all available detectors....

  4. Physics with fast molecular-ion beams. Proceedings of workshop held at Argonne National Laboratory, August 20-21, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmell, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    The Workshop on Physics with Fast Molecular-Ion Beams was held in the Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory on August 20 and 21, 1979. The meeting brought together representatives from several groups studying the interactions of fast (MeV) molecular-ion beams with matter. By keeping the Workshop program sharply focussed on current work related to the interactions of fast molecular ions, it was made possible for the participants to engage in vigorous and detailed discussions concerning such specialized topics as molecular-ion dissociation and transmission, wake effects, ionic charge states, cluster stopping powers, beam-foil spectroscopy, electron-emissions studies with molecular-ion beams, and molecular-ion structure determinations

  5. COHERENT EVENTS AND SPECTRAL SHAPE AT ION KINETIC SCALES IN THE FAST SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lion, Sonny; Alexandrova, Olga; Zaslavsky, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate spectral and phase coherence properties of magnetic fluctuations in the vicinity of the spectral transition from large, magnetohydrodynamic to sub-ion scales using in situ measurements of the Wind spacecraft in a fast stream. For the time interval investigated by Leamon et al. (1998) the phase coherence analysis shows the presence of sporadic quasi-parallel Alfvén ion cyclotron (AIC) waves as well as coherent structures in the form of large-amplitude, quasi-perpendicular Alfvén vortex-like structures and current sheets. These waves and structures importantly contribute to the observed power spectrum of magnetic fluctuations around ion scales; AIC waves contribute to the spectrum in a narrow frequency range whereas the coherent structures contribute to the spectrum over a wide frequency band from the inertial range to the sub-ion frequency range. We conclude that a particular combination of waves and coherent structures determines the spectral shape of the magnetic field spectrum around ion scales. This phenomenon provides a possible explanation for a high variability of the magnetic power spectra around ion scales observed in the solar wind.

  6. Electroless formation of hybrid lithium anodes for fast interfacial ion transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Snehashis; Stalin, Sanjuna; Vu, Duylinh; Fawole, Kristen; Archer, Lynden A. [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Tu, Zhengyuan [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Gunceler, Deniz [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Sundararaman, Ravishankar [Material Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    2017-10-09

    Rechargeable batteries based on metallic anodes are of interest for fundamental and application-focused studies of chemical and physical kinetics of liquids at solid interfaces. Approaches that allow facile creation of uniform coatings on these metals to prevent physical contact with liquid electrolytes, while enabling fast ion transport, are essential to address chemical instability of the anodes. Here, we report a simple electroless ion-exchange chemistry for creating coatings of indium on lithium. By means of joint density functional theory and interfacial characterization experiments, we show that In coatings stabilize Li by multiple processes, including exceptionally fast surface diffusion of lithium ions and high chemical resistance to liquid electrolytes. Indium coatings also undergo reversible alloying reactions with lithium ions, facilitating design of high-capacity hybrid In-Li anodes that use both alloying and plating approaches for charge storage. By means of direct visualization, we further show that the coatings enable remarkably compact and uniform electrodeposition. The resultant In-Li anodes are shown to exhibit minimal capacity fade in extended galvanostatic cycling when paired with commercial-grade cathodes. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Electroless Formation of Hybrid Lithium Anodes for Fast Interfacial Ion Transport

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis

    2017-08-17

    Rechargeable batteries based on metallic anodes are of interest for fundamental and application-focused studies of chemical and physical kinetics of liquids at solid interfaces. Approaches that allow facile creation of uniform coatings on these metals to prevent physical contact with liquid electrolytes, while enabling fast ion transport, are essential to address chemical instability of the anodes. Here, we report a simple electroless ion-exchange chemistry for creating coatings of indium on lithium. By means of joint density functional theory and interfacial characterization experiments, we show that In coatings stabilize Li by multiple processes, including exceptionally fast surface diffusion of lithium ions and high chemical resistance to liquid electrolytes. Indium coatings also undergo reversible alloying reactions with lithium ions, facilitating design of high-capacity hybrid In-Li anodes that use both alloying and plating approaches for charge storage. By means of direct visualization, we further show that the coatings enable remarkably compact and uniform electrodeposition. The resultant In-Li anodes are shown to exhibit minimal capacity fade in extended galvanostatic cycling when paired with commercial-grade cathodes.

  8. Electroless Formation of Hybrid Lithium Anodes for Fast Interfacial Ion Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Snehashis; Tu, Zhengyuan; Stalin, Sanjuna; Vu, Duylinh; Fawole, Kristen; Gunceler, Deniz; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Archer, Lynden A

    2017-10-09

    Rechargeable batteries based on metallic anodes are of interest for fundamental and application-focused studies of chemical and physical kinetics of liquids at solid interfaces. Approaches that allow facile creation of uniform coatings on these metals to prevent physical contact with liquid electrolytes, while enabling fast ion transport, are essential to address chemical instability of the anodes. Here, we report a simple electroless ion-exchange chemistry for creating coatings of indium on lithium. By means of joint density functional theory and interfacial characterization experiments, we show that In coatings stabilize Li by multiple processes, including exceptionally fast surface diffusion of lithium ions and high chemical resistance to liquid electrolytes. Indium coatings also undergo reversible alloying reactions with lithium ions, facilitating design of high-capacity hybrid In-Li anodes that use both alloying and plating approaches for charge storage. By means of direct visualization, we further show that the coatings enable remarkably compact and uniform electrodeposition. The resultant In-Li anodes are shown to exhibit minimal capacity fade in extended galvanostatic cycling when paired with commercial-grade cathodes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Effects of fast monoenergetic electrons on the ion dynamics near the cathode in a pulsed direct current plasma sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifian, M.; Shokri, B.

    2008-01-01

    A detailed one-dimensional simulation of the ion dynamics of the plasma sheath near a substrate (cathode) in the presence of fast monoenergetic electrons has been carried out in this article. The sheath evolution is investigated by using a fluid model assuming that the ions, plasma electrons and monoenergetic, fast electrons act as three fluids (fluid approach). The effect of the density of fast electrons on the ion density, ion velocity, and ion energy near the cathode and the evolution of the sheath boundary in front of the cathode are separately explored. Also, the variation of the ion velocity and ion density at the vicinity of the cathode as a function of time is investigated in the absence and presence of the electron beam. Results indicate that the presence of fast electrons in the sheath causes significant change in the sheath thickness and therefore basically changes the ion velocity, ion density, and ion impact energy on the cathode compared to the absence of the electron beam case

  10. Fast heavy-ion radiation damage of glycine in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Shinji [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Tsuchida, Hidetsugu, E-mail: tsuchida@nucleng.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Quantum Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Furuya, Ryosuke [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Majima, Takuya; Itoh, Akio [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Quantum Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Fast heavy-ion radiolysis of biomolecules in aqueous solution is investigated for an atomistic understanding of radiation damage to normal cells during heavy-particle beam therapy. The smallest amino acid glycine was used as a model biomaterial. Microjets of aqueous glycine solutions under vacuum were irradiated with 4.0-MeV carbon ions corresponding to energies in the Bragg peak region. To understand the effects of the water environment on molecular damage, the yield of glycine dissociation was measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The yield was significantly reduced relative to gas-phase glycine targets. This implies that the numerous water molecules surrounding a single glycine molecule act as a buffer that suppresses dissociation. This is an environmental effect similar to that observed for other biomolecular cluster targets.

  11. Energy losses of fast heavy-ion projectiles in dense hydrogen plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballester, D; Tkachenko, I M

    2009-01-01

    It has recently been shown that the Bethe-Larkin formula for the energy losses of fast heavy-ion projectiles in dense hydrogen plasmas is corrected by the electron-ion correlations (Ballester and Tkachenko 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 075002). We report numerical estimates of this correction based on the values of g ei (0) obtained by numerical simulations (Militzer and Pollock 2000 Phys. Rev. E 61 3470). We also extend this result to the case of projectiles with dicluster charge distribution. We show that the experimental visibility of the electron-ion correlation correction is enhanced in the case of dicluster projectiles with randomly orientated charge centers. Although we consider here the hydrogen plasmas to make the effect physically more clear, the generalization to multispecies plasmas is straightforward

  12. Energy losses of fast heavy-ion projectiles in dense hydrogen plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, D.; Tkachenko, I. M.

    2009-05-01

    It has recently been shown that the Bethe-Larkin formula for the energy losses of fast heavy-ion projectiles in dense hydrogen plasmas is corrected by the electron-ion correlations (Ballester and Tkachenko 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 075002). We report numerical estimates of this correction based on the values of gei(0) obtained by numerical simulations (Militzer and Pollock 2000 Phys. Rev. E 61 3470). We also extend this result to the case of projectiles with dicluster charge distribution. We show that the experimental visibility of the electron-ion correlation correction is enhanced in the case of dicluster projectiles with randomly orientated charge centers. Although we consider here the hydrogen plasmas to make the effect physically more clear, the generalization to multispecies plasmas is straightforward.

  13. Intensification Behavior of Mercury Ions on Gold Cyanide Leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanidation is the main method used to extract gold from gold raw materials; however, a serious problem with this method is the low leaching rate. In order to improve gold leaching, the intensification behavior of mercury ions on gold cyanide leaching, for two types of materials, sulphide gold concentrate and oxide gold ore, was investigated. The results showed that mercury ions, with only a 10−5 M dosage, could significantly intensify leaching and gold recovery. The dissolution behavior of gold plate was also intensified by 10−5 M mercury ions. Microstructure analysis showed that mercury ions intensified the cyanidation corrosion of the gold surface, resulting in a loose structure, where a large number of deep ravines and raised particles were evident across the whole gold surface. The loose structure added contact surface between the gold and cyanide, and accelerated gold dissolution. Moreover, mercury ions obstructed the formation of insoluble products, such as AuCN, Au(OHCN, and Au(OHx, that lead to a passivation membrane on the gold surface, reducing contact between the gold and cyanide. These effects, brought about by mercury ions, change the structure and product of the gold surface during gold cyanidation and promote gold leaching.

  14. Ejection of fast recoil atoms from solids under ion bombardment (medium-energy ion scattering by solid surfaces: Pt. 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonoy, A.I.; Mashkova, E.S.; Molchanov, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is the third part of our review surface scattering. Part I, which was devoted to the scattering of ions by the surfaces of disordered solids, was published in 1972; Part II, concerning scattering by crystal surfaces, was published in 1974. Since the publication of these reviews the material contained in them has become obsolete in many respects. A more recent account of the status of the problem has been given in a number of studies, including the book by E.S. Mashkova and V.A. Molchanov, Medium-Energy Ion Scattering by Solid Surfaces (Atomizdat, Moscow, 1980), than extended version of which was published by North-Holland in 1985. We note, however, that at the time these reviews were written the study of fast recoil atoms had not been carried out systematically; the problem was studied only as a by-product of surface scattering and sputtering. For this reason, in the above-mentioned works and in other reviews the data relating to recoil atoms were considered only occasionally. In recent years there have appeared a number of works - theoretical, experimental and computer -specially devoted to the study of the ejection of recoil atoms under ion bombardment. A number of interesting effects, which are due to the crystal structure of the target, have been discovered. It therefore, appeared desirable to us to systematize the available material and to present it as Part III of our continuing review. (author)

  15. Optical Spectra Tuning of All-Glass Photonic Bandgap Fiber Infiltrated with Silver Fast-Ion-Conducting Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Konidakis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Silver iodide metaphosphate glasses of the xAgI + (1−xAgPO3 family are embedded inside the air capillaries of a commercial silica photonic crystal fiber (PCF by means of vacuum-assisted infiltration technique. In this paper, we report on tuning the photonic bandgap (PBG guidance characteristics of the fabricated all-glass photonic bandgap fibers, by varying the composition of the fast-ion-conducting phosphate glass infiltration medium. Doping AgPO3 metaphosphate glass with AgI significantly alters the PBG guidance patterns in the examined range between 350 and 1750 nm, as it leads to the introduction of numerous additional transmission stop-bands, while affecting scattering dependant losses. The effect of phosphate glass cooling method during sample fabrication on the transmission behavior of the xAgI + (1−xAgPO3/PCFs is also considered.

  16. Optical Spectra Tuning of All-Glass Photonic Bandgap Fiber Infiltrated with Silver Fast-Ion-Conducting Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konidakis, Ioannis; Pissadakis, Stavros

    2014-08-07

    Silver iodide metaphosphate glasses of the x AgI + (1- x )AgPO₃ family are embedded inside the air capillaries of a commercial silica photonic crystal fiber (PCF) by means of vacuum-assisted infiltration technique. In this paper, we report on tuning the photonic bandgap (PBG) guidance characteristics of the fabricated all-glass photonic bandgap fibers, by varying the composition of the fast-ion-conducting phosphate glass infiltration medium. Doping AgPO₃ metaphosphate glass with AgI significantly alters the PBG guidance patterns in the examined range between 350 and 1750 nm, as it leads to the introduction of numerous additional transmission stop-bands, while affecting scattering dependant losses. The effect of phosphate glass cooling method during sample fabrication on the transmission behavior of the x AgI + (1- x )AgPO₃/PCFs is also considered.

  17. Numerical investigation of thermal behaviors in lithium-ion battery stack discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rui; Chen, Jixin; Xun, Jingzhi; Jiao, Kui; Du, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermal behaviors of a Li-ion battery stack have been investigated by modeling. • Parametric studies have been performed focusing on three different cooling materials. • Effects of discharge rate, ambient temperature and Reynolds number are examined. • General guidelines are proposed for the thermal management of a Li-ion battery stack. - Abstract: Thermal management is critically important to maintain the performance and prolong the lifetime of a lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery. In this paper, a two-dimensional and transient model has been developed for the thermal management of a 20-flat-plate-battery stack, followed by comprehensive numerical simulations to study the influences of ambient temperature, Reynolds number, and discharge rate on the temperature distribution in the stack with different cooling materials. The simulation results indicate that liquid cooling is generally more effective in reducing temperature compared to phase-change material, while the latter can lead to more homogeneous temperature distribution. Fast and deep discharge should be avoided, which generally yields high temperature beyond the acceptable range regardless of cooling materials. At low or even subzero ambient temperatures, air cooling is preferred over liquid cooling because heat needs to be retained rather than removed. Such difference becomes small when the ambient temperature increases to a mild level. The effects of Reynolds number are apparent in liquid cooling but negligible in air cooling. Choosing appropriate cooling material and strategy is particularly important in low ambient temperature and fast discharge cases. These findings improve the understanding of battery stack thermal behaviors and provide the general guidelines for thermal management system. The present model can also be used in developing control system to optimize battery stack thermal behaviors

  18. Re-entering fast ion effects on NBI heating power in high-beta plasmas of the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Ryosuke; Watanabe, Kiyomasa; Funaba, Hisamichi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Sakakibara, Satoru; Ohdachi, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Yutaka; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka

    2011-10-01

    We calculate the heating power of the neutral beam injection (NBI) in the = 4.8% high-beta discharge achieved in the Large Helical Device (LHD). We investigate the difference of the heating efficiency and the heating power profile between with and without the re-entering fast ion effects. When the re-entering fast ion effects are taken into account, the heating efficiency in the co injection of the NBI (co-NBI case) is improved and it is about 1.8 times larger than that without the re-entering effects. In contrast, the heating efficiency with the re-entering effects in the counter injection of the NBI (ctr-NBI case) rarely differs from that without the re-entering ones. We also study the re-entering fast ion effects on the transport properties in the LHD high beta discharges. It is found that the tendency of the thermal conductivities on the beta value is not so much sensitive with and without the re-entering effects. In addition, we investigate the difference in the re-entering fast ion effects caused by the field strength and the magnetic configuration. In the co-NBI case, the re-entering fast ion effects on the heating efficiency increases with the decrease of the field strength. In the contrast, the re-entering fast ion effects in the ctr-NBI case rarely differs by changing the field strength. (author)

  19. Fast ion loss and radial electric field in Wendelstein VII-Λ stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Sanuki, H.; Itoh, S.

    1991-10-01

    Theoretical model is developed to determine the radial electric field and the fast ion loss simultaneously in stellarators, and is applied to the Wendelstein VII-A stellarator. The predicted value of the radial electric field is more closer to experiments than the purely neoclassical calculation. The loss rate, which is determined simultaneously, is in the range of experimental observations. The partition of the injection energy by the bulk heating, direct orbit loss and shine through is estimated by using the self consistent electric field profile. The orbit loss become noticeable as the injection energy increases. The influence of the neutral particles is also studied. Neutral particles enhances the negative radial electric field, and reduces the direct orbit loss by the expense of the charge exchange loss. The impact of the increased radial electric field on the neoclassical ion thermal energy loss is compared to the direct loss of fast ions. The reduction of the neoclassical loss is much smaller than the orbit loss. (author)

  20. Update on fast ion instability simulations for the CLIC main linac

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, G

    2010-01-01

    The specification for vacuum pressure in the CLIC electron Main Linac critically depends on the fast ion instability. In fact, the maximum tolerable pressure value in the pipe of the Main Linac is dictated by the threshold above which the fast ion instability sets in over a CLIC bunch train. Previous calculation based on ion generation from scattering ionization of the residual gas alone showed that, due to the loss of the trapping along the linac caused by the beam size shrinking from acceleration, a pressure as high as 10 nTorr could be accepted, higher than the tolerable value in the long transfer line. However, since the accelerated beam becomes transversely very small, its electric field can reach values above the field ionization threshold. When this happens, the whole space region with a sufficiently high electric field gets instantly fully ionized by the first bunch and the effect on the bunch train could be severe. We have modeled field ionization in our simulation code FASTION and re-evaluated the o...

  1. Relation between the swelling and the disordering in ionic crystals irradiated by fast heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccanfuso, M.

    2001-12-01

    When fast heavy ions penetrate in matter, they slow down essentially by depositing their energy on the electrons. This can lead to strong electronic excitation densities in the solid and then to structural modifications. In this work, calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) was used to look further into the damage induced by irradiation with fast heavy ions in ionic crystals. Four techniques were mainly employed to characterise this damage. These techniques of analysis are wide angle X-ray diffraction, surface profilometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and UV-visible optical absorption spectroscopy. The results of this work show that CaF 2 answers in a multiple way to the electronic excitations. For stopping powers higher than approximately 5 keV/nm, a polygonization seems to occur. This causes a structural disorder, a swelling of 0.27 % and the formation of fractures in the material. A second damage mechanism is caused above approximately 13 keV/nm and results in a loss of the initial crystalline structure. However, optical centres appear whatever the ion stopping power, which indicates that these defects cannot be the cause of the two above mentioned damage mechanisms. According to a thermal spike model, the two thresholds can be linked to melting and sublimation energy of the material, respectively. (author)

  2. Fast Thermal Runaway Detection for Lithium-Ion Cells in Large Scale Traction Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Koch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal runaway of single cells within a large scale lithium-ion battery is a well-known risk that can lead to critical situations if no counter measures are taken in today’s lithium-ion traction batteries for battery electric vehicles (BEVs, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. The United Nations have published a draft global technical regulation on electric vehicle safety (GTR EVS describing a safety feature to warn passengers in case of a thermal runaway. Fast and reliable detection of faulty cells undergoing thermal runaway within the lithium-ion battery is therefore a key factor in battery designs for comprehensive passenger safety. A set of various possible sensors has been chosen based on the determined cell thermal runaway impact. These sensors have been tested in different sized battery setups and compared with respect to their ability of fast and reliable thermal runaway detection and their feasibility for traction batteries.

  3. New experiments in organic, fast-atom-bomdardment, and secondary-ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiDonato, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of research presented in this dissertation is the creative use of new ionization and instrumental techniques in mass spectrometry. This goal manifests itself in three areas of mass spectrometry. In the first portion, modern, state-of-the-art instrumentation and new experiments were used to re-examine the mass spectra of transition-metal acetates and acetylacetonates. High resolution, chemical ionization, negative chemical ionization, and extended-mass-range mass spectrometry uncovered a wealth of new gas-phase ionic species. Energy-resolved mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry was applied to the characterization of molecular and fragment ion first-row transition-metal acetylacetonates, and comprises the second portion of the thesis. Studies in fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry are the subject of the third portion of the dissertation. Since fast-atom bombardment samples a liquid matrix, absolute and relative abundances of sputtered secondary ions are influenced by solution chemistry. The design and construction of an imaging secondary-ion mass spectrometer is the subject of the final portion of the thesis. This instrument provides for direct mass-spectrometric analysis of thin-layer and paper chromatograms and electrophoretograms

  4. Determinants of Fast Food Consumption among Iranian High School Students Based on Planned Behavior Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Yarmohammadi, Parastoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study was conducted to identify some factors (beliefs and norms) which are related to fast food consumption among high school students in Isfahan, Iran. We used the framework of the theory planned behavior (TPB) to predict this behavior. Subjects & Methods. Cross-sectional data were available from high school students (n = 521) who were recruited by cluster randomized sampling. All of the students completed a questionnaire assessing variables of standard TPB model including attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control (PBC), and the additional variables past behavior, actual behavior control (ABC). Results. The TPB variables explained 25.7% of the variance in intentions with positive attitude as the strongest (β = 0.31, P intentions accounted for 6% of the variance for fast food consumption. Past behavior and ABC accounted for an additional amount of 20.4% of the variance in fast food consumption. Conclusion. Overall, the present study suggests that the TPB model is useful in predicting related beliefs and norms to the fast food consumption among adolescents. Subjective norms in TPB model and past behavior in TPB model with additional variables (past behavior and actual behavior control) were the most powerful predictors of fast food consumption. Therefore, TPB model may be a useful framework for planning intervention programs to reduce fast food consumption by students. PMID:23936635

  5. Determinants of Fast Food Consumption among Iranian High School Students Based on Planned Behavior Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Sharifirad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was conducted to identify some factors (beliefs and norms which are related to fast food consumption among high school students in Isfahan, Iran. We used the framework of the theory planned behavior (TPB to predict this behavior. Subjects & Methods. Cross-sectional data were available from high school students who were recruited by cluster randomized sampling. All of the students completed a questionnaire assessing variables of standard TPB model including attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control (PBC, and the additional variables past behavior, actual behavior control (ABC. Results. The TPB variables explained 25.7% of the variance in intentions with positive attitude as the strongest (, and subjective norms as the weakest (, determinant. Concurrently, intentions accounted for 6% of the variance for fast food consumption. Past behavior and ABC accounted for an additional amount of 20.4% of the variance in fast food consumption. Conclusion. Overall, the present study suggests that the TPB model is useful in predicting related beliefs and norms to the fast food consumption among adolescents. Subjective norms in TPB model and past behavior in TPB model with additional variables (past behavior and actual behavior control were the most powerful predictors of fast food consumption. Therefore, TPB model may be a useful framework for planning intervention programs to reduce fast food consumption by students.

  6. Influence of resonant magnetic perturbations on transient heat load deposition and fast ion losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rack, Michael Thomas

    2014-07-11

    Thermonuclear fusion is the energy conversion process which keeps the sun shining. For the last six decades, researchers have been investigating the physics involved in order to enable the usage of this energy supply on Earth. The most promising candidates for fusion power plants are based on magnetic confinement of plasma to provide the ideal conditions for efficient thermonuclear fusion in well controlled surroundings. One important aspect is the control of instabilities that occur in the edge region of the plasma and lead to an ejection of huge amounts of energy. Magnetic perturbation fields which are resonant in the plasma edge are found to modify the plasma favourably and reduce the impact of these instabilities. This dissertation focuses on the effects of resonant magnetic perturbation fields on the ejected energy as well as on the drawbacks of these perturbation fields. The transient energy ejection which is triggered by the instabilities causes extreme heat loads on the wall components in fusion devices. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how resonant magnetic perturbation fields affect the heat load deposition. Furthermore, the impact of resonant magnetic perturbation fields on the confinement of fast ions is an important aspect as fast ions are still required to be well confined in order to avoid additional wall loads and increase the fusion efficiency. Recent upgrades on the Joint European Torus allow for a detailed study of the heat load deposition profiles caused by transient events. Throughout this work, the new features are used for the study of the modifications of the transient heat load depositions that occur if resonant magnetic perturbation fields are applied. This leads to a further understanding of the processes involved during the plasma edge instabilities. Additionally, an alternative method using lower hybrid waves for applying resonant magnetic perturbations is investigated. Furthermore, a new diagnostic, capable of detecting fast ion

  7. Turbulent transport stabilization by ICRH minority fast ions in low rotating JET ILW L-mode plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanomi, N.; Mantica, P.; Di Siena, A.; Delabie, E.; Giroud, C.; Johnson, T.; Lerche, E.; Menmuir, S.; Tsalas, M.; Van Eester, D.; Contributors, JET

    2018-05-01

    The first experimental demonstration that fast ion induced stabilization of thermal turbulent transport takes place also at low values of plasma toroidal rotation has been obtained in JET ILW (ITER-like wall) L-mode plasmas with high (3He)-D ICRH (ion cyclotron resonance heating) power. A reduction of the gyro-Bohm normalized ion heat flux and higher values of the normalized ion temperature gradient have been observed at high ICRH power and low NBI (neutral beam injection) power and plasma rotation. Gyrokinetic simulations indicate that ITG (ion temperature gradient) turbulence stabilization induced by the presence of high-energetic 3He ions is the key mechanism in order to explain the experimental observations. Two main mechanisms have been identified to be responsible for the turbulence stabilization: a linear electrostatic wave-fast particle resonance mechanism and a nonlinear electromagnetic mechanism. The dependence of the stabilization on the 3He distribution function has also been studied.

  8. Electrostatic instabilities, turbulence and fast ion interactions in the TORPEX device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasoli, A; Burckel, A; Federspiel, L; Furno, I; Gustafson, K; Iraji, D; Labit, B; Loizu, J; Plyushchev, G; Ricci, P; Theiler, C; Diallo, A; Podesta, M; Mueller, S H; Poli, F

    2010-01-01

    Electrostatic turbulence, related structures and their effect on particle, heat and toroidal momentum transport are investigated in TORPEX simple magnetized plasmas using high-resolution diagnostics, control parameters, linear fluid models and nonlinear numerical simulations. The nature of the dominant instabilities is controlled by the value of the vertical magnetic field, B v , relative to that of the toroidal field, B T . For B v /B T > 3%, only ideal interchange instabilities are observed. A critical pressure gradient to drive the interchange instability is experimentally identified. Interchange modes give rise to blobs, radially propagating filaments of enhanced plasma pressure. Blob velocities and sizes are obtained from electrostatic probe measurements using pattern recognition methods. The observed values span a wide range and are described by a single analytical expression, from the small blob size regime in which the blob velocity is limited by cross-field ion polarization currents, to the large blob size regime in which the limitation to the blob velocity comes from parallel currents to the sheath. As a first attempt at controlling the blob dynamical properties, limiter configurations with varying angles between field lines and the conducting surface of the limiter are explored. Mach probe measurements clearly demonstrate a link between toroidal flows and blobs. To complement probe data, a fast framing camera and a movable gas puffing system are installed. Density and light fluctuations show similar signatures of interchange activity. Further developments of optical diagnostics, including an image intensifier and laser-induced fluorescence, are under way. The effect of interchange turbulence on fast ion phase space dynamics is studied using movable fast ion source and detector in scenarios for which the development from linear waves into blobs is fully characterized. A theory validation project is conducted in parallel with TORPEX experiments, based on

  9. Light ions cyclotron bombardment to simulate fast neutron radiation damage in nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, E.; Lucki, G.; Aguiar, D.

    1984-01-01

    The applicability and limitations of the use of cyclotron light ions bombardment to simulate the effects of the neutron irradiation are presented. Light ions with energies of about 10 MeV are capable to produce homogeneous damage in specimens suitable for measuring bulk mechanical properties although their low damage rate of 10 -5 dpa.sec -1 limit the dose range to a few dpa. On the other hand, cyclotron alpha particle implantation provides a fast and convenient way of introducing helium with a minimum of side effects so that we can take advantage of this technique to get better understanding of the mechanism by which this insoluble gas produces high temperature embrittlement. Some experimental details such as dimensions and cooling techniques are described. Finally a description of the infrastructure for cyclotron alpha particle implantation and a creep-test facility of the Division of Radiation Damage at IPEN-CNEN/SP are presented. (Author) [pt

  10. Coulomb Lindhard approximation: Nonlinear excitation effects for fast ions penetrating a free-electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miraglia, J. E.

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a distorted wave method to calculate the nonlinear excitation effects occurring when a fast bare ion penetrates a free-electron gas. The central scheme of this work is to replace the undistorted plane waves leading to the Lindhard dielectric response function (or random phase approximation) by Coulomb waves with an effective charge. This impulse-type approximation is valid for velocities larger than the Fermi velocity. Stopping and mean free path are presented for impact of bare multicharged ions on aluminum free-electron gas. The Barkas effect is theoretically found, i.e., negative heavy particles lose energy at the lower rate than positive particles of the same velocity do. As the projectile charge increases, the single differential cross section per unit energy presents two effects: the plasmon peak sharpens and the binary peak starts to be increasingly noticeable

  11. Fast Heavy Ion Collisions with H2 Molecules And Young Type Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribedi, Lokesh C.; Misra, Deepankar

    2007-12-01

    We have investigated the Young type interference effect in electron emission spectrum from molecular H2 in Coulomb ionization induced by fast heavy ions. The details of the derivation of the oscillations due to this process from the electron double differential distributions are discussed. In addition, we have explored the effect of Compton profile, on such interference oscillations, which gives rise a double-peak structure in case of low energy collisions for which the binary encounter peak starts overlapping with soft collision electrons. The measured DDCS as well as the interference patterns are compared with molecular CDW-EIS models.

  12. Quasielastic Diffuse Neutron Scattering from Fluorites in the Fast Ion Phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, K.; Hayes, W.; Hutchings, M.T

    1981-01-01

    Quasielastic diffuse coherent neutron scattering arising from the dynamically disordered anions in CaF2 and PbF2 has been investigated as the temperature is increased into the fast ion phase. The characteristic variation with scattering vector Image of the integrated intensity, S(Image ), can...... be accounted for by a model in which the most probable instantaneous configuration of the defective anions is a cluster centered at the mid-point of nearest-neighbour regular anion sites. The observed S(Image ,ω) is Lorentzian in ω and the width has a marked increase with temperature....

  13. ITER fast ion collective Thomson scattering. Conceptual design of 60 GHz system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meo, Fernando; Bindslev, Henrik; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    The collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for ITER at the 60 GHz range is capable of measuring the fast ion distribution parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field at different radial locations simultaneously. The design is robust technologically with no moveable components near the plasma...... describes the two systems and their main components. Section 3 clarifies the impact of design parameters such as beam widths and scattering angle on the CTS measurements. With this in hand, the ITER measurement requirements are translated into constraints on the CTS system designs. An important result...

  14. Fast ion collective Thomson scattering - present results and plans for ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Bindslev, Henrik; Furtula, Vedran

    by the CTS group at Risø DTU building on the experiences and expertise gained from the group’s construction and current operation of the CTS diagnostic systems on the tokamaks TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade. This contribution will introduce the technique of CTS, give an overview of the current diagnostic systems......Moving towards the era of burning fusion plasmas, a better knowledge of the physics of highly energetic particles, such as the 3.5 MeV fusion born alpha particles, becomes necessary. Diagnosing the fast ions in a fusion plasma is a challenging task, but the technique of collective Thomson...

  15. Fast detection of narcotics by single photon ionization mass spectrometry and laser ion mobility spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudien, Robert; Schultze, Rainer; Wieser, Jochen

    2010-10-01

    In this contribution two analytical devices for the fast detection of security-relevant substances like narcotics and explosives are presented. One system is based on an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) with single photon ionization (SPI). This soft ionization technique, unlike electron impact ionization (EI), reduces unwanted fragment ions in the mass spectra allowing the clear determination of characteristic (usually molecular) ions. Their enrichment in the ion trap and identification by tandem MS investigations (MS/MS) enables the detection of the target substances in complex matrices at low concentrations without time-consuming sample preparation. For SPI an electron beam pumped excimer light source of own fabrication (E-Lux) is used. The SPI-ITMS system was characterized by the analytical study of different drugs like cannabis, heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, and some precursors. Additionally, it was successfully tested on-site in a closed illegal drug laboratory, where low quantities of MDMA could be directly detected in samples from floors, walls and lab equipments. The second analytical system is based on an ion mobility (IM) spectrometer with resonant multiphoton ionization (REMPI). With the frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG laser (266 nm), used for ionization, a selective and sensitive detection of aromatic compounds is possible. By application of suited aromatic dopants, in addition, also non-aromatic polar compounds are accessible by ion molecule reactions like proton transfer or complex formation. Selected drug precursors could be successfully detected with this device as well, qualifying it to a lower-priced alternative or useful supplement of the SPI-ITMS system for security analysis.

  16. Benchmark and combined velocity-space tomography of fast-ion D-alpha spectroscopy and collective Thomson scattering measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.

    2016-01-01

    measurements without using a numerical simulation as common reference. Combined velocity-space tomographies from FIDA and CTS measurements confirm that sawtooth crashes reduce the fast-ion phase-space densities in the plasma center and affect ions with pitches close to one more strongly than those with pitches......We demonstrate the combination of fast-ion D-alpha spectroscopy (FIDA) and collective Thomson scattering (CTS) measurements to determine a common best estimate of the fastion velocity distribution function by velocity-space tomography. We further demonstrate a benchmark of FIDA tomography and CTS...

  17. Coherent structures at ion scales in fast and slow solar wind: Cluster observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, D.; Alexandrova, O.; Zouganelis, Y.; Roberts, O.; Lion, S.; Escoubet, C. P.; Walsh, A. P.; Maksimovic, M.; Lacombe, C.

    2017-12-01

    Spacecraft measurements generally reveal that solar wind electromagnetic fluctuations are in a state of fully-developed turbulence. Turbulence represents a very complex problem in plasmas since cross-scale coupling and kinetic effects are present. Moreover, the intermittency phenomenon, i.e. the manifestation of the non-uniform and inhomogeneous energy transfer and dissipation in a turbulent system, represents a very important aspect of the solar wind turbulent cascade. Here, we study coherent structures responsible for solar wind intermittency around ion characteristic scales. We find that, in fast solar wind, intermittency is due to Alfvén vortex-like structures and current sheets. In slow solar wind, we observe as well compressive structures like magnetic solitons, holes and shocks. By using high-time resolution magnetic field data of multi-point measurements of Cluster spacecraft, we characterize the observed coherent structures in terms of topology and propagation speed. We show that all structures around ion characteristic scales, both in fast and slow solar wind, are characterized by a strong wave-vector anisotropy in the perpendicular direction with respect to the local magnetic field. Moreover, some of them propagate in the plasma rest frame in the direction perpendicular to the local field. Finally, a further analysis on the electron and ion velocity distributions shows a high variability; in particular, close to coherent structures the electron and ion distribution functions appear strongly deformed and far from the thermodynamic equilibrium. Possible interpretations of the observed structures and their role in the heating process of the plasma are also discussed.

  18. Analytic model of Applied-B ion diode impedance behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.A.; Mendel, C.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    An empirical analysis of impedance data from Applied-B ion diodes used in seven inertial confinement fusion research experiments was published recently. The diodes all operated with impedance values well below the Child's-law value. The analysis uncovered an unusual unifying relationship among data from the different experiments. The analysis suggested that closure of the anode-cathode gap by electrode plasma was not a dominant factor in the experiments, but was not able to elaborate the underlying physics. Here we present a new analytic model of Applied-B ion diodes coupled to accelerators. A critical feature of the diode model is based on magnetic insulation theory. The model successfully describes impedance behavior of these diodes and supports stimulating new viewpoints of the physics of Applied-B ion diode operation

  19. Determinants of fast food consumption among Iranian high school students based on planned behavior theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Yarmohammadi, Parastoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify some factors (beliefs and norms) which are related to fast food consumption among high school students in Isfahan, Iran. We used the framework of the theory planned behavior (TPB) to predict this behavior. Cross-sectional data were available from high school students (n = 521) who were recruited by cluster randomized sampling. All of the students completed a questionnaire assessing variables of standard TPB model including attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control (PBC), and the additional variables past behavior, actual behavior control (ABC). The TPB variables explained 25.7% of the variance in intentions with positive attitude as the strongest (β = 0.31, P consumption. Past behavior and ABC accounted for an additional amount of 20.4% of the variance in fast food consumption. Overall, the present study suggests that the TPB model is useful in predicting related beliefs and norms to the fast food consumption among adolescents. Subjective norms in TPB model and past behavior in TPB model with additional variables (past behavior and actual behavior control) were the most powerful predictors of fast food consumption. Therefore, TPB model may be a useful framework for planning intervention programs to reduce fast food consumption by students.

  20. The practical model of electron emission in the radioisotope battery by fast ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhine, N.S.; Balebanov, V.M.

    2003-01-01

    Under the theoretical analysis of secondary-emission radioisotope source of current the estimate of energy spectrum F(E) of secondary electrons with energy E emitted from films is the important problem. This characteristic knowledge allows, in particular, studying the volt-ampere function, the dependence of electric power deposited in the load on the system parameters and so on. Since the rigorous calculations of energy spectrum F(E) are the complicated enough and labour-intensive there is necessity to elaborate the practical model which allows by the simple computer routine on the basis of generalized data (both experimental measurements and theoretical calculations) on the stopping powers and mean free path of suprathermal electrons to perform reliable express-estimates of the energy spectrum F(E) and the volt-ampere function I(V) for the concrete materials of battery emitter films. This paper devoted to description of of the practical model to calculate electron emission characteristics under the passage of fast ion fluxes from the radioisotope source through the battery emitter. The analytical approximations for the stopping power of emitter materials, the electron inelastic mean free path, the ion production of fast electrons and the probability for them to arrive the film surface are taken into account. In the cases of copper and gold films, the secondary electron escaping depth, the position of energy spectrum peak are considered in the dependence on surface potential barrier magnitude U. According to our calculations the energy spectrum peak shifted to higher electron energy under the U growth. The model described may be used for express estimates and computer simulations of fast alpha-particles and suprathermal electrons interactions with the solid state plasma of battery emitter films, to study the electron emission layer characteristics including the secondary electron escaping depth, to find the optimum conditions for excitation of nonequilibrium

  1. Development of sputter ion pump based SG leak detection system for Fast Breeder Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, B.; Sureshkumar, K.V.; Srinivasan, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Development and commissioning of SG leak detection system for FBTR. ► Development of Robust method of using sputter ion pump based system. ► Modifications for improving reliability and availability. ► On line injection of hydrogen in sodium during reactor operation. ► Triplication of the SG leak detection system. - Abstract: The Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is a 40 MWt, loop type sodium cooled fast reactor built at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam as a fore-runner to the second stage of Indian nuclear power programme. The reactor design is based on the French reactor Rapsodie with several modifications which include the provision of a steam-water circuit and turbo-generator. FBTR uses sodium as the coolant in the main heat transport medium to transfer heat from the reactor core to the feed water in the tertiary loop for producing superheated steam, which drives the turbo-generator. Sodium and water flow in shell and tube side respectively, separated by thin-walls of the ferritic steel tubes of the once-through steam generator (SG). Material defects in these tubes can lead to leakage of water into sodium, resulting in sodium water reactions leading to undesirable consequences. Early detection of water or steam leaks into sodium in the steam generator units of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) is an important requirement from safety and economic considerations. The SG leak in FBTR is detected by Sputter Ion Pump (SIP) based Steam Generator Leak Detection (SGLD) system and Thermal Conductivity Detector (TCD) based Hydrogen in Argon Detection (HAD) system. Many modifications were carried out in the SGLD system for the reactor operation to improve the reliability and availability. This paper details the development and the acquired experience of SIP based SGLD system instrumentation for real time hydrogen detection in sodium for FBTR.

  2. Particle-in-cell studies of fast-ion slowing-down rates in cool tenuous magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Eugene S.; Cohen, Samuel A.; Welch, Dale R.

    2018-04-01

    We report on 3D-3V particle-in-cell simulations of fast-ion energy-loss rates in a cold, weakly-magnetized, weakly-coupled plasma where the electron gyroradius, ρe, is comparable to or less than the Debye length, λDe, and the fast-ion velocity exceeds the electron thermal velocity, a regime in which the electron response may be impeded. These simulations use explicit algorithms, spatially resolve ρe and λDe, and temporally resolve the electron cyclotron and plasma frequencies. For mono-energetic dilute fast ions with isotropic velocity distributions, these scaling studies of the slowing-down time, τs, versus fast-ion charge are in agreement with unmagnetized slowing-down theory; with an applied magnetic field, no consistent anisotropy between τs in the cross-field and field-parallel directions could be resolved. Scaling the fast-ion charge is confirmed as a viable way to reduce the required computational time for each simulation. The implications of these slowing down processes are described for one magnetic-confinement fusion concept, the small, advanced-fuel, field-reversed configuration device.

  3. Characterization of scintillator materials for fast-ion loss detectors in nuclear fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ramos, M. C.; García López, J.; García-Muñoz, M.; Rodríguez-Ramos, M.; Carmona Gázquez, M.; Zurro, B.

    2014-08-01

    In fusion plasma reactors, fast ion generated by heating systems and fusion born particles must be well confined. The presence of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities can lead to a significant loss of these ions, which may reduce drastically the heating efficiency and may cause damage to plasma facing components in the vacuum vessel. In order to understand the physics underlying the fast ion loss mechanism, scintillator based detectors have been installed in several fusion devices. In this work we present the absolute photon yield and its degradation with ion fluence in terms of the number of photons emitted per incident ion of several scintillators thin coatings: SrGa2S4:Eu2+ (TG-Green), Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ (P46) and Y2O3:Eu3+ (P56) when irradiated with light ions of different masses (deuterium ions, protons and α-particles) at energies between approximately 575 keV and 3 MeV. The photon yield will be discussed in terms of the energy deposited by the particles into the scintillator. For that, the actual composition and thickness of the thin layers were determined by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). A collimator with 1 mm of diameter, which defines the beam size for the experiments, placed at the entrance of the chamber. An electrically isolated sample holder biased to +300 V to collect the secondary electrons, connected to a digital current integrator (model 439 by Ortec) to measure the incident beam current. A home made device has been used to store the real-time evolution of the beam current in a computer file allowing the correction of the IL yields due to the current fluctuations. The target holder is a rectangle of 150 × 112 mm2 and can be tilted. The X and Y movements are controlled through stepping motors, which permits a fine control of the beam spot positioning as well as the study of several samples without venting the chamber. A silica optical fiber of 1 mm diameter fixed to the vacuum chamber, which collects the light from the scintillators

  4. Removing coordinated metal ions from proteins: a fast and mild method in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrer, Charlotte; Stolz, Michael; Lewitzki, Erwin; Rittmeyer, Claudia; Kolbesen, Bernd O; Grell, Ernst

    2006-08-01

    Thermodynamic and kinetic studies of metal binding to proteins require the investigation of metal-free proteins, which are often difficult to obtain. We have developed a very fast and mild method to eliminate metal ions from proteins by column chromatography using a commercially available Ni-NTA-type stationary phase. This material, initially designed for protein purification purposes in biotechnology, acts as a strong cation chelator when Ni2+ ions are removed. We have tested this new method with Ca-ATPase, an integral membrane protein exhibiting a strong affinity for Ca2+. By eluting the protein over the Ni2+-free NTA gel, we could remove 95% of the total Ca2+ and obtain an essentially Ca2+-free protein. This method is efficient with only a small amount of NTA gel, and we suggest that it can be applied in general for removal of metal ions from proteins. Moreover, as this procedure can be carried out under mild conditions, the chosen protein kept its enzymatic activity.

  5. Study of the Mechanism for Fast Ion Heating in the GOL-3 Multimirror Magnetic Confinement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhannikov, A.V.; Astrelin, V.T.; Burdakov, A.V.; Ivanov, I.A.; Koidan, V.S.; Kuznetsov, S.A.; Mekler, K.I.; Polosatkin, S.V.; Postupaev, V.V.; Rovenskikh, A.F.; Sinitskii, S.L.; Sulyaev, Yu.S.; Shoshin, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Results are presented from experimental studies of ion heating in the GOL-3 device. The experiments were carried out in a multimirror configuration with a local magnetic well. It was found that, during the injection of a relativistic electron beam, a decrease in the local density of the beam in a magnetic well, which is proportional to the decrease in the strength of the longitudinal magnetic field, results in the formation of a short plasma region with a low electron temperature. The measured longitudinal gradient of the plasma pressure corresponds to an electron temperature gradient of ∼2-3 keV/m. Axially nonuniform heating of the plasma electrons gives rise to the macroscopic motion of the plasma along the magnetic field in each cell of the multimirror confinement system. The mixing of the counterpropagating plasma flows inside each cell leads to fast ion heating. Under the given experimental conditions, the efficiency of this heating mechanism is higher than that due to binary electron-ion collisions. The collision and mixing of the counterpropagating plasma flows is accompanied by a neutron and γ-ray burst. The measured ratio of the plasma pressure to the vacuum magnetic field pressure in these experiments reaches 0.2

  6. Fast Beam-ion Instabilities in CLIC Main Linac Vacuum Specifications

    CERN Document Server

    Oeftiger, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Specifications for the vacuum pressure in the CLIC electron Main Linac are determined by the onset of the fast beam-ion instability (FBII). When the electron beam is accelerated in the Main Linac, it ionizes the residual gas in the chamber through scattering ionization. If the density of ions around the beam exceeds a certain threshold, a resonant motion between the electron beam and the ions can be excited. A two-stream instability appears and as a result the beam acquires a coherent motion, which can quickly lead to beam quality degradation or even complete loss. Thus, the vacuum pressure must be kept below this threshold to prevent the excitation of FBII. The CLIC Main Linac poses an additional challenge with respect to previous FBII situations, because the gas ionization does not solely occur via scattering. The submicrometric beam sizes lead to extremely high electric fields around the beam and therefore result in field ionization beyond a certain threshold. The residual gas in the corresponding volume a...

  7. Defect interactions with stepped CeO₂/SrTiO₃ interfaces: implications for radiation damage evolution and fast ion conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholabhai, Pratik P; Aguiar, Jeffery A; Misra, Amit; Uberuaga, Blas P

    2014-05-21

    Due to reduced dimensions and increased interfacial content, nanocomposite oxides offer improved functionalities in a wide variety of advanced technological applications, including their potential use as radiation tolerant materials. To better understand the role of interface structures in influencing the radiation damage tolerance of oxides, we have conducted atomistic calculations to elucidate the behavior of radiation-induced point defects (vacancies and interstitials) at interface steps in a model CeO2/SrTiO3 system. We find that atomic-scale steps at the interface have substantial influence on the defect behavior, which ultimately dictate the material performance in hostile irradiation environments. Distinctive steps react dissimilarly to cation and anion defects, effectively becoming biased sinks for different types of defects. Steps also attract cation interstitials, leaving behind an excess of immobile vacancies. Further, defects introduce significant structural and chemical distortions primarily at the steps. These two factors are plausible origins for the enhanced amorphization at steps seen in our recent experiments. The present work indicates that comprehensive examination of the interaction of radiation-induced point defects with the atomic-scale topology and defect structure of heterointerfaces is essential to evaluate the radiation tolerance of nanocomposites. Finally, our results have implications for other applications, such as fast ion conduction.

  8. Lithium ion behavior in lithium oxide by neutron scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshinobu; Morii, Yukio; Katano, Susumu; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Satoru; Ohno, Hideo; Nicklow, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Lithium ion behavior in lithium oxide, Li 2 O, was studied in the temperature range from 293 K to 1120 K by the High-Resolution Powder Diffractometer (HRPD) installed in the JRR-3M. The diffraction patterns were analyzed with the RIETAN program. At room temperature, the thermal parameters related to the mean square of the amplitude of vibration of the lithium and the oxygen ions were 6 x 10 -21 m 2 and 4 x 10 -21 m 2 , respectively. AT 1120 K the thermal parameter of the lithium ion was 34 x 10 -21 m 2 . On the other hand, the parameter of the oxygen ion was 16 x 10 -21 m 2 . Inelastic neutron scattering studies for the lithium oxide single crystal were also carried out on the triple-axis neutron spectrometers installed at the JRR-2 and the HFIR. Although the value of a phonon energy of a transverse acoustic mode (Σ 3 ) at zone boundary was 30.6 meV at room temperature, this value was decreased to 25.1 meV at 700 K. This large softening was caused by anharmonicity of the crystal potential of lithium oxide. (author)

  9. Behavior of a bundle of fast fuel pins under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marbach, G.; Millet, P.; Robert, J.; Languille, A.

    1979-01-01

    In the French design of fuel elements for fast reactors, great deformation of pins can bring about interaction with the hexagonal tube through the spacer wires. The change in such bundles is described here when the diameter of the cladding increases and the outcome of this reaction (bending and ovalization of pins) is calculated with a simplified model. It is shown that the results achieved agree well with the experimental observations [fr

  10. Measuring the radial density distribution of light emission around the track of fast ions in nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibach, T.

    1983-01-01

    For analysing the emission and stopping of ionization electrons (σ-electrons) emitted by fast ions passing through a gas, the radial density distribution of the light emission of the (0,0) transition of two optical bands in nitrogen have been measured. The systems selected for the epxeriments are the 2nd positive system (2.PS) at 337.1 nm primarily excited by low-energy electrons of about 20 eV, and the first negative system (1.NS) at 391.4 nm excited by faster electrons and simultaneous ionization. The equipment developed for the experiments records the light emission with a telescope-type optical arrangement including interference filters, allowing high local resolution and dynamics of the measured range. The measurements have been carried out at pressures between 0.133 and 13.3 mbar, using photons of energies ranging from 270 keV to 2.8 MeV, helium 3 beams of 270 keV/u and 500 keV/u, and neon beams of 270 keV/u. Abel's inversion applied to the distance functions allows calculation of the spatial light emission density which is normalized for a gas density of 1 g/cm 3 . The profiles of the two bands indicate that the σ-electron spectrum gets harder in outward direction. Next to the beam the impact density decreases faster with increasing ion energy than the stopping power (increasing interaction range of the σ-electrons). With photon beams, about half of the whole light emission in the 1. NS, and of the ionization, is induced by primary interactions of the ion beam. This proportion decreases at constant energy per nucleon with increasing atomic number of the ions as compared with the σ-electrons. The primary σ-emission gets harder with higher atomic numbers. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Fast Food Consumption Behaviors in High-School Students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mirkarimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies report inappropriate snack and junk food consumption patterns in children and young adults in Iran. The current survey was aimed to explore fast food consumption behaviors in high-school students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among 500 high-school students. Samples were selected based on cluster sampling method at first and simple random at second. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire. To analyze, SPSS-16 and tests, including t-test, Chi-square, correlation coefficient and multiple regressions were used. Results: The monthly frequency of fast food consumption was 4.01. The TPB explained fast food use behaviors with R2 of 0.6, effectively. Results also represented that frequency of fast food consumption was meaningfully in line with behavioral intention (β = 0.60, P < 0.05 and subjective norms (β = 0.17, P < 0.05. Conclusion: It seems likely beneficial to consider important subjective norms (especially friends that may strongly effect on high-school student intention to use fast food. Also students perceived behavioral control must be increased.

  12. Ion Fast Ignition-Establishing a Scientific Basis for Inertial Fusion Energy --- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Richard Burnite [General Atomics; Foord, Mark N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Wei, Mingsheng [General Atomics; Beg, Farhat N. [University of California, San Diego; Schumacher, Douglass W. [The Ohio State University

    2013-10-31

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional ?central hot spot? (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10?s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The compressed fuel is opaque to laser light. The ignition laser energy must be converted to a jet of energetic charged particles to deposit energy in the dense fuel. The original concept called for a spray of laser-generated hot electrons to deliver the energy; lack of ability to focus the electrons put great weight on minimizing the electron path. An alternative concept, proton-ignited FI, used those electrons as intermediaries to create a jet of protons that could be focused to the ignition spot from a more convenient distance. Our program focused on the generation and directing of the proton jet, and its transport toward the fuel, none of which were well understood at the onset of our program. We have developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to create a self-consistent understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our strategy was to examine the new physics emerging as we added the complexity necessary to use proton beams in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) application. From the starting point of a proton beam accelerated from a flat, isolated foil, we 1) curved it to focus the beam, 2) attached the foil to a superstructure, 3) added a side sheath to protect it from the surrounding plasma, and finally 4) studied the proton beam behavior as it passed through a protective end cap into plasma. We built up, as we proceeded

  13. Catapult mechanism for fast particle emission in fission and heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maedler, P.

    1984-01-01

    The fission processes of slabs of nuclear matter is modelled in the Hartree-Fock time dependence approximation by adding an initial collective velocity field to the static self-consistent solution. In dependence on its amplitude either large amplitude density oscillations are excited or fission occurs. The final disintegration of the slab proceeds on a time scale 10 -22 s and is characterized by a sharp peak in the actual velocity field in the region of the ''snatching'' inner low density tails. A characteristic time later a low density lump correlated with a peak in the velocity field energies in front of the fragments. These particles are called ''catapult particles''. Recent experimental results possibly provide evidence for catapult neutrons in low-energy fission. The significance of the catapult mechanism for fast particle emission in the exit channel of heavy ion reactions is discussed

  14. Behaviour of direct and delayed fast ion losses during NBI on TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Liniers; M.

    1995-09-01

    The dependence with density and beam energy of the different kind of fast ion losses, direct and delayed, during tangential balanced NBI injection in TJ-II helical axis stellerator has been analysed. Direct losses increase with energy and a strong difference between the two injection directions appears, are produced by passing particles that loss confinement in a dew mu,sec and the influence of birth profiles produces an increase with density. Delayed losses are very well separated in time from direct ones, are produced by particles experimenting pitch angle scattering an,d, most o them, correspond to trapped particles. Are much less important than the direct ones (about 1/3), decrease slowly with energy and, with CX, increase with density (an effect of initial profile). The absorption is rather independent of energy with low values at low density in reason of high shine trough and CX losses, but reovers quickly with the density increase

  15. Impacts of lost fast ions on the TJ-II Vacuum Vessel during NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1995-01-01

    The possible deposition patterns, on the Vacuum Vessel, of lost fast ions during the balanced tangential NBI in TJ-II helical axis Stellarator are analysed theoretically, establishing the relation between those impact points, the plasma exit and birth positions and the magnetic configuration characteristics. It is shown that direct losses are the most important, mainly those produced by the beam injected with the same direction that the magnetic field, increasing with beam energy and plasma density but with impacts remaining fixed on well defined zones, a periodically distributed along the Hard Core cover plates, producing high loads at high densities. The remaining losses, except for the shine through ones that predominate at low density, are periodically distributed, with smooth maxima and produce very low loads. No overlapping between the different kind of losses or beams is observed. (Author) 6 refs

  16. Impacts of lost fast ions on the TJ-II Vacuum vessel during NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1995-09-01

    The possible deposition patterns, on the Vacuum Vessel, of lost fast ions during the balanced tangential NBI in TJ-II helical axis Stellarator are analysed theoretically, establishing the relation between those impact points, the plasma exit and birth positions and positions and the magnetic configuration characteristics. It is shown that direct losses are the most important, mainly those produced by the beam injected with the same direction that the magnetic field, increasing with beam energy and plasma density but with impacts remaining fixed on well defined zones, a periodically distributed along the Hard Core cover plates, producing high loads at high densities. The remaining losses, except for the shine through ones that predominate at low density, are periodically distributed, with smooth maxima and produce very low loads. No overlapping between the different kind of losses or beams is observed

  17. Neutron spectroscopy measurements and modeling of neutral beam heating fast ion dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellesen, C; Sunden, E Andersson; Conroy, S; Ericsson, G; Johnson, M Gatu; Hjalmarsson, A; Kaellne, J; Ronchi, E; Sjoestrand, H; Weiszflog, M; Albergante, M; Ballabio, L; Gorini, G; Tardocchi, M; Giacomelli, L; Jenkins, I; Voitsekhovitch, I

    2010-01-01

    The energy spectrum of the neutron emission from beam-target reactions in fusion plasmas at the Joint European Torus (JET) has been investigated. Different beam energies as well as injection angles were used. Both measurements and simulations of the energy spectrum were done. The measurements were made with the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFOR. Simulations of the neutron spectrum were based on first-principle calculations of neutral beam deposition profiles and the fast ion slowing down in the plasma using the code NUBEAM, which is a module of the TRANSP package. The shape of the neutron energy spectrum was seen to vary significantly depending on the energy of the beams as well as the injection angle and the deposition profile in the plasma. Cross validations of the measured and modeled neutron energy spectra were made, showing a good agreement for all investigated scenarios.

  18. Randomized quasi-Monte Carlo simulation of fast-ion thermalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Höök, L J; Johnson, T; Hellsten, T

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates the applicability of the randomized quasi-Monte Carlo method for simulation of fast-ion thermalization processes in fusion plasmas, e.g. for simulation of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. In contrast to the standard Monte Carlo method, the quasi-Monte Carlo method uses deterministic numbers instead of pseudo-random numbers and has a statistical weak convergence close to O(N -1 ), where N is the number of markers. We have compared different quasi-Monte Carlo methods for a neutral beam injection scenario, which is solved by many realizations of the associated stochastic differential equation, discretized with the Euler-Maruyama scheme. The statistical convergence of the methods is measured for time steps up to 2 14 . (paper)

  19. Randomized quasi-Monte Carlo simulation of fast-ion thermalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höök, L. J.; Johnson, T.; Hellsten, T.

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates the applicability of the randomized quasi-Monte Carlo method for simulation of fast-ion thermalization processes in fusion plasmas, e.g. for simulation of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. In contrast to the standard Monte Carlo method, the quasi-Monte Carlo method uses deterministic numbers instead of pseudo-random numbers and has a statistical weak convergence close to {O}(N^{-1}) , where N is the number of markers. We have compared different quasi-Monte Carlo methods for a neutral beam injection scenario, which is solved by many realizations of the associated stochastic differential equation, discretized with the Euler-Maruyama scheme. The statistical convergence of the methods is measured for time steps up to 214.

  20. Interaction of powerful hot plasma and fast ion streams with materials in dense plasma focus devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshova, M., E-mail: maryna.chernyshova@ipplm.pl [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Gribkov, V.A. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Kubkowska, M.; Miklaszewski, R.; Paduch, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Zielinska, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Demina, E.V.; Pimenov, V.N.; Maslyaev, S.A. [Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bondarenko, G.G. [National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE), Moscow (Russian Federation); Vilemova, M.; Matejicek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the CAS, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Materials perspective for use in mainstream nuclear fusion facilities were studied. • Powerful streams of hot plasma and fast ions were used to induce irradiation. • High temporal, spatial, angular and spectral resolution available in experiments. • Results of irradiation were investigated by number of analysis techniques. - Abstract: A process of irradiating and ablating solid-state targets with hot plasma and fast ion streams in two Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices – PF-6 and PF-1000 was examined by applying a number of diagnostics of nanosecond time resolution. Materials perspective for use in chambers of the mainstream nuclear fusion facilities (mainly with inertial plasma confinement like NIF and Z-machine), intended both for the first wall and for constructions, have been irradiated in these simulators. Optical microscopy, SEM, Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, images in secondary electrons and in characteristic X-ray luminescence of different elements, and X-ray elemental analysis, gave results on damageability for a number of materials including low-activated ferritic and austenitic stainless steels, β-alloy of Ti, as well as two types of W and a composite on its base. With an increase of the number of shots irradiating the surface, its morphology changes from weakly pronounced wave-like structures or ridges to strongly developed ones. At later stages, due to the action of the secondary plasma produced near the target materials they melted, yielding both blisters and a fracturing pattern: first along the grain and then “in-between” the grains creating an intergranular net of microcracks. At the highest values of power flux densities multiple bubbles appeared. Furthermore, in this last case the cracks were developed because of microstresses at the solidification of melt. Presence of deuterium within the irradiated ferritic steel surface nanolayers is explained by capture of deuterons in lattice defects of the types of impurity atoms

  1. Feature-based plan adaptation for fast treatment planning in scanned ion beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenjing; Gemmel, Alexander; Rietzel, Eike

    2013-01-01

    We propose a plan adaptation method for fast treatment plan generation in scanned ion beam therapy. Analysis of optimized treatment plans with carbon ions indicates that the particle number modulation of consecutive rasterspots in depth shows little variation throughout target volumes with convex shape. Thus, we extract a depth-modulation curve (DMC) from existing reference plans and adapt it for creation of new plans in similar treatment situations. The proposed method is tested with seven CT serials of prostate patients and three digital phantom datasets generated with the MATLAB code. Plans are generated with a treatment planning software developed by GSI using single-field uniform dose optimization for all the CT datasets to serve as reference plans and ‘gold standard’. The adapted plans are generated based on the DMC derived from the reference plans of the same patient (intra-patient), different patient (inter-patient) and phantoms (phantom-patient). They are compared with the reference plans and a re-positioning strategy. Generally, in 1 min on a standard PC, either a physical plan or a biological plan can be generated with the adaptive method provided that the new target contour is available. In all the cases, the V95 values of the adapted plans can achieve 97% for either physical or biological plans. V107 is always 0 indicating no overdosage, and target dose homogeneity is above 0.98 in all cases. The dose received by the organs at risk is comparable to the optimized plans. The plan adaptation method has the potential for on-line adaptation to deal with inter-fractional motion, as well as fast off-line treatment planning, with either the prescribed physical dose or the RBE-weighted dose. (paper)

  2. FAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections...... with aqueous food extracts may be effective but has proven to be accompanied by too many anaphylactic side-effects. FAST aims to develop a safe alternative by replacing food extracts with hypoallergenic recombinant major allergens as the active ingredients of SIT. Both severe fish and peach allergy are caused...... in depth serological and cellular immune analyses will be performed, allowing identification of novel biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy. FAST aims at improving the quality of life of food allergic patients by providing a safe and effective treatment that will significantly lower their threshold...

  3. Evaluation of Ion Irradiation Behavior of ODS Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin Sung; Kim, Min Chul; Hong, Jun Hwa; Han, Chang Hee; Chang, Young Mun; Bae, Chang Soo; Bae, Yoon Young; Chang, Moon Hee

    2006-08-15

    FM steel (Grade 92) and ODS alloy(MA956) specimens were ion irradiated with 122 MeV Ne ions. Irradiation temperatures were about 450 and 550 .deg. C and the peak dose was 1, 5, and 10 dpa. Cross-sectional TEM samples were prepared by the electrolytic Ni-plating after pre-treatment of the irradiated specimens. Irradiation cavities in FM steel and ODS alloy specimens were not much different in size; about 20 nm in diameter in both specimens irradiated at around 450 .deg. C. However, the size distribution of cavities in FM steel specimens was broader than that in ODS alloy specimen, indicating that the cavity growth probably via coalescence). It was noticeable that the location and the preferential growth of the cavities in FM steel specimens: cavities on the PAGB (prior austenite grain boundary) was significantly larger than those within the grains. This could be an important issue for the mechanical properties, especially high temperature creep, fracture toughness, and so on. The dependency of the dose threshold and swelling on the ratio of the inert gas concentration/dpa was analysed for the various irradiation source, including He, Ne, Fe/He, and fast neutron, and the empirical correlation was established.

  4. On the fast electron beam, consequent generation of electrostatic fields and fast ion production in front of LH grills: Measurements and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzilka, V.; Zacek, F.; Kolman, B.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents measurements of radial variations of the floating potential at the Tore Supra (TS) tokamak ergodic divertor plate and in front of the CASTOR tokamak lower hybrid (LH) grill, due to the presence in these two locations of the fast particle beam generated in front of LH grills. The paper also presents a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and secondary ion mass spectrometric (SIMS) analysis of an eroded graphite tile from the TS LH grill guard limiter, performed in order to check the authors' theoretical conclusion that fast ions can be generated in a thin layer in front of LH grills and that they can contribute to damage of tokamak vessel components. The paper first presents theoretical conclusions that are relevant to the experimental data and then the experimental results. (author)

  5. A Novel Data-Driven Fast Capacity Estimation of Spent Electric Vehicle Lithium-ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiping Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fast capacity estimation is a key enabling technique for second-life of lithium-ion batteries due to the hard work involved in determining the capacity of a large number of used electric vehicle (EV batteries. This paper tries to make three contributions to the existing literature through a robust and advanced algorithm: (1 a three layer back propagation artificial neural network (BP ANN model is developed to estimate the battery capacity. The model employs internal resistance expressing the battery’s kinetics as the model input, which can realize fast capacity estimation; (2 an estimation error model is established to investigate the relationship between the robustness coefficient and regression coefficient. It is revealed that commonly used ANN capacity estimation algorithm is flawed in providing robustness of parameter measurement uncertainties; (3 the law of large numbers is used as the basis for a proposed robust estimation approach, which optimally balances the relationship between estimation accuracy and disturbance rejection. An optimal range of the threshold for robustness coefficient is also discussed and proposed. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy and the robustness of the BP ANN model together with the proposed identification approach, which can provide an important basis for large scale applications of second-life of batteries.

  6. Experiments on the fast beam-ion instability at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, F.; Chao, A.; Heifets, S.; Minty, M.; Seeman, J.; Stupakov, G.; Raubenheimer, T.

    1997-10-01

    The authors report on the first observation of the fast beam-ion instability (FBII), at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). The FBII is a novel single-pass instability, which is similar to the classical beam break up instability in a linac. Unlike the classical trapped-ion instability, the FBII cannot be cured by a clearing gap in the bunch train, and it is predicted to be a potential limitation for many multi-bunch small-emittance storage rings and linacs. In order to induce the FBII in the ALS, they added helium gas to the vacuum system so as to increase the vacuum pressure by two orders of magnitude above its normal value. At an elevated pressure of about 50--100 nTorr, the authors observed a variety of effects, including an increase of the vertical beam size by a factor 2--4, self-excited betatron sidebands, and a growth of the betatron motion along the bunch train. The onset of the vertical beam-size increase (as a function of bunch number) occurred close to the theoretically predicted instability threshold

  7. Development and testing of a fast digital electronic system for ion identification and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legou, Th.

    2002-02-01

    This report deals with a fast digital electronic system developed for ion identification and spectroscopy. The system, called IRIS, has been conceived for the super heavy element research program: FUSION. In order to observe a super heavy element, the energy of the compound nucleus implanted in a silicon detector must be measured, and the alpha decay also registered. The associated electronics must therefore handle a very wide range of energies and also exhibit a small recovery time after the implantation of the compound nucleus. IRIS is connected to the output of a charge preamplifier. It digitizes the signal and then executes two digital signal processes: the first to detect the particle, and the second to determine the energy deposited in the silicon detector. The use of programmed processing allows for the adjustment of the digital processing parameters, as well as a choice of other digital signal processing procedures, depending the application. After having explained why a conventional electronic system cannot be used for the detection of super-heavy ions, IRIS' structure is detailed and a number of digital signal processing procedures are studied and tested. (author)

  8. Isomeric signatures in the fragmentation of pyridazine and pyrimidine induced by fast ion impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Wania, E-mail: wania@if.ufrj.br; Luna, Hugo; Montenegro, Eduardo C. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-28

    We present fast proton impact induced fragmentations of pyrimidine and pyridazine as an experimental resource to investigate isomeric signatures. Major isomeric imprints are identified for few fragment ions and differences of more than an order of magnitude for the cross sections of fragments of the same mass were measured. The observation of the molecular structure of these isomers gives no apparent indication for the reasons for such substantial differences. It is verified that the simple displacement of the position of one nitrogen atom strongly inhibits or favors the production of some ionic fragment species. The dependency of the fragmentation cross sections on the proton impact energy, investigated by means of time of flight mass spectroscopy and of a model calculation based in first order perturbation theory, allows us to disentangle the complex collision dynamics of the ionic fragments. The proton-induced fragmentation discriminates rather directly the association between a molecular orbital ionization and the fragment-ions creation and abundance, as well as how the redistribution of the energy imparted to the molecules takes place, triggering not only single but also double vacancy and leads to specific fragmentation pathways.

  9. Differential electron emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules under fast ion impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Shubhadeep; Champion, Christophe; Weck, P F; Tribedi, Lokesh C

    2017-07-17

    Interaction between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecule and energetic ion is a subject of interest in different areas of modern physics. Here, we present measurements of energy and angular distributions of absolute double differential electron emission cross section for coronene (C 24 H 12 ) and fluorene (C 13 H 10 ) molecules under fast bare oxygen ion impact. For coronene, the angular distributions of the low energy electrons are quite different from that of simpler targets like Ne or CH 4 , which is not the case for fluorene. The behaviour of the higher electron energy distributions for both the targets are similar to that for simple targets. In case of coronene, a clear signature of plasmon resonance is observed in the analysis of forward-backward angular asymmetry of low energy electron emission. For fluorene, such signature is not identified probably due to lower oscillator strength of plasmon compared to the coronene. The theoretical calculation based on the first-order Born approximation with correct boundary conditions (CB1), in general, reproduced the experimental observations qualitatively, for both the molecules, except in the low energy region for coronene, which again indicates the role of collective excitation. Single differential and total cross sections are also deduced. An overall comparative study is presented.

  10. Radioactive Ion Beam Production by Fast-Neutron-Induced Fission in Actinide Targets at EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Martínez, Adonai

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (EURISOL) is set to be the 'next-generation' European Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. It will extend and amplify current research on nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental interactions beyond the year 2010. In EURISOL, the production of high-intensity RIBs of specific neutron-rich isotopes is obtained by inducing fission in large-mass actinide targets. In our contribution, the use of uranium targets is shown to be advantageous to other materials, such as thorium. Therefore, in order to produce fissions in U-238 and reduce the plutonium inventory, a fast neutron energy spectrum is necessary. The large beam power required to achieve these RIB levels requires the use of a liquid proton-to-neutron converter. This article details the design parameters of the converter, with special attention to the coupled neutronics of the liquid converter and fission target. Calculations performed with the ...

  11. Non-linear isotope and fast ions effects: routes for low turbulence in DT plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jeronimo

    2017-10-01

    effects. The number of ion species and the fast ion population is also found to play a role in this non-linear process whereas a symmetry breaking between D and T, with systematic reduced heat and particle transport for T, is always obtained.

  12. Changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns induced by single short-term fasting in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Hisatomi

    Full Text Available In humans, emaciation from long-term dietary deficiencies, such as anorexia, reportedly increases physical activity and brain atrophy. However, the effects of single short-term fasting on brain tissue or behavioral activity patterns remain unclear. To clarify the impact of malnutrition on brain function, we conducted a single short-term fasting study as an anorexia model using male adult mice and determined if changes occurred in migratory behavior as an expression of brain function and in brain tissue structure. Sixteen-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were divided into either the fasted group or the control group. Experiments were conducted in a fixed indoor environment. We examined the effects of fasting on the number of nerve cells, structural changes in the myelin and axon density, and brain atrophy. For behavior observation, the amount of food and water consumed, ingestion time, and the pattern of movement were measured using a time-recording system. The fasted mice showed a significant increase in physical activity and their rhythm of movement was disturbed. Since the brain was in an abnormal state after fasting, mice that were normally active during the night became active regardless of day or night and performed strenuous exercise at a high frequency. The brain weight did not change by a fast, and brain atrophy was not observed. Although no textural change was apparent by fasting, the neuronal neogenesis in the subventricular zone and hippocampus was inhibited, causing disorder of the brain function. A clear association between the suppression of encephalic neuropoiesis and overactivity was not established. However, it is interesting that the results of this study suggest that single short-term fasting has an effect on encephalic neuropoiesis.

  13. Changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns induced by single short-term fasting in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisatomi, Yuko; Asakura, Kyo; Kugino, Kenji; Kurokawa, Mamoru; Asakura, Tomiko; Nakata, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    In humans, emaciation from long-term dietary deficiencies, such as anorexia, reportedly increases physical activity and brain atrophy. However, the effects of single short-term fasting on brain tissue or behavioral activity patterns remain unclear. To clarify the impact of malnutrition on brain function, we conducted a single short-term fasting study as an anorexia model using male adult mice and determined if changes occurred in migratory behavior as an expression of brain function and in brain tissue structure. Sixteen-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were divided into either the fasted group or the control group. Experiments were conducted in a fixed indoor environment. We examined the effects of fasting on the number of nerve cells, structural changes in the myelin and axon density, and brain atrophy. For behavior observation, the amount of food and water consumed, ingestion time, and the pattern of movement were measured using a time-recording system. The fasted mice showed a significant increase in physical activity and their rhythm of movement was disturbed. Since the brain was in an abnormal state after fasting, mice that were normally active during the night became active regardless of day or night and performed strenuous exercise at a high frequency. The brain weight did not change by a fast, and brain atrophy was not observed. Although no textural change was apparent by fasting, the neuronal neogenesis in the subventricular zone and hippocampus was inhibited, causing disorder of the brain function. A clear association between the suppression of encephalic neuropoiesis and overactivity was not established. However, it is interesting that the results of this study suggest that single short-term fasting has an effect on encephalic neuropoiesis.

  14. Mechanism of Cooperative Behavior in Systems of Slow and Fast Molecular Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Adam G.; Landahl, Eric C.; Rice, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Two recent theoretical advances have described cargo transport by multiple identical motors and by multiple oppositely directed, but otherwise identical motors [1, 2]. Here we combine a similar theoretical approach with a simple experiment to describe the behavior of a system comprised of slow and fast molecular motors having the same directionality. We observed the movement of microtubules by mixtures of slow and fast kinesin motors attached to a glass coverslip in a classic sliding filament...

  15. Comparison of collective Thomson scattering signals due to fast ions in ITER scenarios with fusion and auxiliary heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Asunta, O.; Eriksson, L.-G.

    2009-01-01

    functions of fast ions generated by NBI and ICRH are calculated for a steady-state ITER burning plasma equilibrium with the ASCOT and PION codes, respectively. The parameters for the auxiliary heating systems correspond to the design currently foreseen for ITER. The geometry of the CTS system for ITER...

  16. Fast-ion transport in low density L-mode plasmas at TCV using FIDA spectroscopy and the TRANSP code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiger, B.; Karpushov, A.; Duval, B. P.

    2017-01-01

     agreement between the experimental data and TRANSP predictions is only found when including strong additional fast-ion losses. These losses could in part be caused by turbulence or MHD activity as, e.g. high frequency modes near the frequency of toroidicity induced Alfvén eignmodes are observed. In addition...

  17. High-performance rechargeable batteries with nanoparticle active materials, photochemically regenerable active materials, and fast solid-state ion conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2017-04-04

    A high-performance rechargeable battery using ultra-fast ion conductors. In one embodiment the rechargeable battery apparatus includes an enclosure, a first electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a second electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a nanomaterial in the enclosure, and a heat transfer unit.

  18. FAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathavitharana, R R; Daru, P; Barrera, A E; Mostofa Kamal, S M; Islam, S; Ul-Alam, M; Sultana, R; Rahman, M; Hossain, Md S; Lederer, P; Hurwitz, S; Chakraborty, K; Kak, N; Tierney, D B; Nardell, E

    2017-09-01

    National Institute of Diseases of the Chest and Hospital, Dhaka; Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, Dhaka; and Chittagong Chest Disease Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh. To present operational data and discuss the challenges of implementing FAST (Find cases Actively, Separate safely and Treat effectively) as a tuberculosis (TB) transmission control strategy. FAST was implemented sequentially at three hospitals. Using Xpert® MTB/RIF, 733/6028 (12.2%, 95%CI 11.4-13.0) patients were diagnosed with unsuspected TB. Patients with a history of TB who were admitted with other lung diseases had more than twice the odds of being diagnosed with unsuspected TB as those with no history of TB (OR 2.6, 95%CI 2.2-3.0, P stakeholder engagement and laboratory capacity are important for sustainability and scalability.

  19. Spectrum response and analysis of 77 GHz band collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for bulk and fast ions in LHD plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishiura, M.; Kubo, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2014-01-01

    A collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic was developed and used to measure the bulk and fast ions originating from 180 keV neutral beams in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Electromagnetic waves from a gyrotron at 77 GHz with 1 MW power output function as both the probe and electron......, a stray radiation component was observed in the CTS spectrum whereas it was negligibly small at low density. The CTS spectrum was measured and analysed after the in situ beam alignment using a beam scan. Qualitatively, the CTS spectrogram shows consistent response to ion temperatures of 1–2 ke......V for electron densities of (1–2) × 1019 m−3 and electron temperatures of 2–4 keV. The measured CTS spectrum shows an asymmetric shape at the foot of the bulk-ion region during the injection of 180 keV fast ions. This shape is explained by the fast-ion distribution in the velocity space (v‖, v⊥) based on Monte...

  20. Actinide behavior in the Integral Fast Reactor. Final project report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtney, J.C.

    1994-11-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) under development by Argonne National Laboratory uses metallic fuels instead of ceramics. This allows electrorefining of spent fuels and presents opportunities for recycling minor actinide elements. Four minor actinides ( 237 Np, 240 Pu, 241 Am, and 243 Am) determine the waste storage requirements of spent fuel from all types of fission reactors. These nuclides behave the same as uranium and other plutonium isotopes in electrorefining, so they can be recycled back to the reactor without elaborate chemical processing. An experiment has been designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the high-energy neutron spectra of the IFR in consuming these four nuclides and weapons grade plutonium. Eighteen sets of seven actinide and five light metal targets have been selected for seven day exposure in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II which serves as a prototype of the IFR. Post-irradiation analyses of the exposed targets by gamma, alpha, and mass spectroscopy are used to determine nuclear reaction rates and neutron spectra. These experimental data increase the authors confidence in their ability to predict reaction rates in candidate IFR designs using a variety of neutron transport and diffusion programs

  1. Fast Food Consumption Behaviors in High-School Students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal Mirkarimi; Morteza Mansourian; Mohammad Javad Kabir; Rahman Berdi Ozouni- Davaji; Maryam Eri; Seyed Ghadir Hosseini; Mostafa Qorbani; Omid Safari; Babak Rastgari Mehr; Mehdi Noroozi; Abdurrahman Charkazi; Hossein Shahnazi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies report inappropriate snack and junk food consumption patterns in children and young adults in Iran. The current survey was aimed to explore fast food consumption behaviors in high-school students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among 500 high-school students. Samples were selected based on cluster sampling method at first and simple random at second. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire. ...

  2. Anodic behavior of nickel alloys in media containing bicarbonate ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadorozne, N.S; Carranza, R. M.; Giordano, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Alloy 22 has been designed to resist corrosion in oxidizing and reducing conditions. Thanks to these properties it is considered a possible candidate for the fabrication of containers of high-level radioactive waste. Since the containers provide services in natural environments characterized by multi-ionic solutions, it is estimated they could suffer three types of deterioration: general corrosion, localized corrosion (specifically crevice corrosion) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). It has been confirmed that the presence of bicarbonate and chloride ions is required in order to produce cracking. It has also been determined that the susceptibility to SCC could be related to the occurrence of an anodic peak in the polarization curves in these media potentials below trans-passivity. The aim of this work is to study the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in different media containing bicarbonate and chloride ions in various concentrations and temperatures and compare the results with other alloys containing nickel, and relate them to the susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking in a future job. Polarization curves were made on alloy 22 (Ni-Cr-Mo), 600 (Ni- Cr-Fe), 800h (Ni-Fe- Cr) and 201 (Ni commercially pure) in the following environments: 1.148 mol/L NaHCO 3 , 1.148 mol/L NaHCO 3 + 1 mol/L NaCl, 1.148 mol/L NaHCO 3 + 0.1 mol/L NaCl. The tests were performed at the following temperatures: 90°C, 75°C, 60°C and 25°C. It was found that alloy 22 has a current peak in the anodic domain at potentials below trans-passivity between 200 and 300 m VECS, when the test temperature was 90°C. The potential, at which this peak occurred, increased with decreasing temperature. Also there was a variation of the peak with the composition of the solution. When bicarbonate ions were added to a solution containing chloride ions, the peak potential shifted to higher current densities, depending on the concentration of added chloride ions. It was found that diminishing the content of

  3. Ion channel density regulates switches between regular and fast spiking in soma but not in axons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Zeberg

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The threshold firing frequency of a neuron is a characterizing feature of its dynamical behaviour, in turn determining its role in the oscillatory activity of the brain. Two main types of dynamics have been identified in brain neurons. Type 1 dynamics (regular spiking shows a continuous relationship between frequency and stimulation current (f-I(stim and, thus, an arbitrarily low frequency at threshold current; Type 2 (fast spiking shows a discontinuous f-I(stim relationship and a minimum threshold frequency. In a previous study of a hippocampal neuron model, we demonstrated that its dynamics could be of both Type 1 and Type 2, depending on ion channel density. In the present study we analyse the effect of varying channel density on threshold firing frequency on two well-studied axon membranes, namely the frog myelinated axon and the squid giant axon. Moreover, we analyse the hippocampal neuron model in more detail. The models are all based on voltage-clamp studies, thus comprising experimentally measurable parameters. The choice of analysing effects of channel density modifications is due to their physiological and pharmacological relevance. We show, using bifurcation analysis, that both axon models display exclusively Type 2 dynamics, independently of ion channel density. Nevertheless, both models have a region in the channel-density plane characterized by an N-shaped steady-state current-voltage relationship (a prerequisite for Type 1 dynamics and associated with this type of dynamics in the hippocampal model. In summary, our results suggest that the hippocampal soma and the two axon membranes represent two distinct kinds of membranes; membranes with a channel-density dependent switching between Type 1 and 2 dynamics, and membranes with a channel-density independent dynamics. The difference between the two membrane types suggests functional differences, compatible with a more flexible role of the soma membrane than that of the axon membrane.

  4. Mechanism of Cooperative Behavior in Systems of Slow and Fast Molecular Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Adam G.; Landahl, Eric C.; Rice, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Two recent theoretical advances have described cargo transport by multiple identical motors and by multiple oppositely directed, but otherwise identical motors [1, 2]. Here we combine a similar theoretical approach with a simple experiment to describe the behavior of a system comprised of slow and fast molecular motors having the same directionality. We observed the movement of microtubules by mixtures of slow and fast kinesin motors attached to a glass coverslip in a classic sliding filament assay. The motors are identical, except that the slow ones contain five point mutations that collectively reduce their velocity ∼15-fold without compromising maximal ATPase activity. Our results indicate that a small fraction of fast motors are able to accelerate the dissociation of slow motors from microtubules. Because of this, a sharp, highly cooperative transition occurs from slow to fast microtubule movement as the relative number of fast motors in the assay is increased. Microtubules move at half-maximal velocity when only 15% of the motors in the assay are fast. Our model indicates that this behavior depends primarily on the relative motor velocities and the asymmetry between their forward and backward dissociation forces. It weakly depends on the number of motors and their processivity. We predict that movement of cargoes bound to two types of motors having very different velocities will be dominated by one or the other motor. Therefore, cargoes can potentially undergo abrupt changes in movement in response to regulatory mechanisms acting on only a small fraction of motors. PMID:19506764

  5. Secondary electron emission from the entrance and exit surfaces of thin carbon foils under fast ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, C.R.; Toh, H.S.; Lo, D.; Livi, R.P.; Mendenhall, M.H.; Zhang, D.Z.; Tombrello, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    The total secondary electron emission (SEE) yield from the entrance and exit surfaces of thin carbon foils under fast ion ( 16 O, 19 F, 35 Cl) bombardment has been measured as a function of the ion energy and the ion beam current intensity. Using a retarding field, the energy distribution of secondary electrons integrated over almost all angles of emission in the backward and forward directions has also been measured. It is found that total forward emission is larger than backward emission by factors of up to 2.5, 2.7, and 3.4 for 16 O +3 , 19 F +3 , and 35 Cl +5 , respectively. It is suggested that the enhancement of forward SEE may be partly due to effects from the instantaneous charge state of the heavy ion beam in the solid in addition to the binary collisions of the projectile with individual electrons in the target. It is also shown that the total SEE yield from the entrance and exit surfaces of the target foils decreases with ion beam current intensity; this may be a beam-induced temperature effect. The total SEE yield in both the forward and backward directions is less sensitive to surface conditions for high velocity ions than for low velocity ions, and the total yield from both surfaces of the foils is proportional to the ion stopping power in the target, where the constant of proportionality depends on the properties of material. (orig.)

  6. Behavioral changes in fasting emperor penguins: evidence for a "refeeding signal" linked to a metabolic shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, J P; Boucontet, L; Chillet, P; Groscolas, R

    1998-03-01

    This study examines the relationships between metabolic status and behavior in spontaneously fasting birds in the context of long-term regulation of body mass and feeding. Locomotor activity, escape behavior, display songs, body mass, and metabolic and endocrine status of captive male emperor penguins were recorded during a breeding fast. We also examined whether body mass at the end of the fast affected further survival. The major part of the fast (phase II) was characterized by the maintenance of a very low level of locomotor activity, with almost no attempt to escape, by an almost constant rate of body mass loss, and by steady plasma levels of uric acid, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and corticosterone. This indicates behavioral and metabolic adjustments directed toward sparing energy and body protein. Below a body mass of approximately 24 kg (phase III), spontaneous locomotor activity and attempts to escape increased by up to 8- and 15-fold, respectively, and display songs were resumed. This probably reflected an increase in the drive to refeed. Simultaneously, daily body mass loss and plasma levels of uric acid and corticosterone increased, whereas plasma levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate decreased. Some experimental birds were seen again in following years. These findings suggest that at a threshold of body mass, a metabolic and endocrine shift, possibly related to a limited availability of fat stores, acts as a "refeeding signal" that improves the survival of penguins to fasting.

  7. Determinants of Fast Food Consumption among Iranian High School Students Based on Planned Behavior Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Yarmohammadi, Parastoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study was conducted to identify some factors (beliefs and norms) which are related to fast food consumption among high school students in Isfahan, Iran. We used the framework of the theory planned behavior (TPB) to predict this behavior. Subjects & Methods. Cross-sectional data were available from high school students (n = 521) who were recruited by cluster randomized sampling. All of the students completed a questionnaire assessing variables of standard TPB model including at...

  8. Plasmon-mediated electron emission from the coronene molecule under fast ion impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Shubhadeep; Tribedi, L. C.

    2015-12-01

    The existence of the collective electronic excitation in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules has been predicted before on the basis of the presence of a large delocalized π electron cloud around the carbon skeleton. Here, we present a manifestation of energy and angular distributions of electron emission upon deexcitation of the collective plasmon resonance in coronene, a PAH molecule, under fast ion impact. The angular distributions of these electrons show an unusually enhanced forward-backward angular asymmetry, in contrast to the observed uniform distributions for simpler atomic (Ne) or molecular (CH4) targets. A simple model of photoelectron angular distribution from an oscillating dipolar plasmon, calculated including the first retardation term in the transition matrix element, provides excellent agreement with the observed distribution. The ratio of forward-to-backward electron emission intensity clearly exhibits a broad peak which is in excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction of the plamson peak. This observation may provide some new inputs towards the astrophysical problem of UV photon absorption by PAHs in the interstellar medium, or in the search for materials suitable for UV plasmonics.

  9. Catapult mechanism for fast particle emission in fission and heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maedler, P.

    1985-01-01

    The fission process of slabs of nuclear matter is modelled in TDHF approximation by adding an initial collective velocity field to the static self-consistent solution. In dependence on its amplitude either large amplitude density oscillations are excited or fission occurs. The final disintegration of the slab proceeds on a time scale of 10 -22 s and is characterized by a sharp peak in the actual velocity field in the region of the ''snatching'' inner low density tails. A characteristic time later corresponding to the transit time of a nucelon across the fragment with mean velocity being the Fermi velocity plus twice the maximum ''snatching'' velocity, a low density lump correlated with a peak in the velocity field emerges in front of the fragments. We call these particles ''catepult particles''. Recent experimental results possibly provide evidence for catapult neutron in low-energy fission. We also speculate on the significance of the catapult mechanism for fast particle emission in the exit channel of heavy ion reactions. (orig.)

  10. Catapult mechanism for fast particle emission in fission and heavy ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maedler, P.

    1985-05-01

    The fission process of slabs of nuclear matter is modelled in TDHF approximation by adding an initial collective velocity field to the static self-consistent solution. In dependence on its amplitude either large amplitude density oscillations are excited or fission occurs. The final disintegration of the slab proceeds on a time scale of 10/sup -22/s and is characterized by a sharp peak in the actual velocity field in the region of the ''snatching'' inner low density tails. A characteristic time later corresponding to the transit time of a nucelon across the fragment with mean velocity being the Fermi velocity plus twice the maximum ''snatching'' velocity, a low density lump correlated with a peak in the velocity field emerges in front of the fragments. We call these particles ''catepult particles''. Recent experimental results possibly provide evidence for catapult neutron in low-energy fission. We also speculate on the significance of the catapult mechanism for fast particle emission in the exit channel of heavy ion reactions.

  11. Soliton-like behavior in fast two-pulse collisions in weakly perturbed linear physical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Avner; Nguyen, Quan M.; Huynh, Toan T.

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate that pulses of linear physical systems, weakly perturbed by nonlinear dissipation, exhibit soliton-like behavior in fast collisions. The behavior is demonstrated for linear waveguides with weak cubic loss and for systems described by linear diffusion-advection models with weak quadratic loss. We show that in both systems, the expressions for the collision-induced amplitude shifts due to the nonlinear loss have the same form as the expression for the amplitude shift in a fast collision between two solitons of the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the presence of weak cubic loss. Our analytic predictions are confirmed by numerical simulations with the corresponding coupled linear evolution models with weak nonlinear loss. These results open the way for studying dynamics of fast collisions between pulses of weakly perturbed linear physical systems in an arbitrary spatial dimension.

  12. Angle-differential observation of plasmon electrons in the double-differential cross-section spectra of fast-ion-induced electron ejection from C60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, A. H.; Gulyás, L.; Tribedi, Lokesh C.

    2015-11-01

    We report on the measurement of double-differential distribution of soft electron emission from C60 fullerene, induced by a fast-moving Coulomb field of 76 MeV energy bare fluorine ions. A broad "plasmon-electron" peak, riding on the Coulomb-ionization continuum, is observed due to the deexcitation of the giant dipole plasmon resonance state in C60. The angular distribution of the plasmon electrons goes through a dip around 90°, which is contrary to that observed in ion-atom collisions measured in situ, indicating the alignment of the induced dipole moment along the projectile beam direction. A model based on the photoelectron angular distribution which is modified due to the ion-induced postcollisional interaction provides an excellent agreement with the observed asymmetric distribution. The distribution smoothly changes from a dip at 90° to a peak with the variation of ejected electron energy indicating transition from a collective plasmon behavior of the whole system to a single ion-atom interaction. The single-differential cross section was also derived, which preserves the signature of the collective excitation.

  13. Behavior of 241Am in fast reactor systems - a safeguards perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddingfield, David H.; Lafleur, Adrienne M.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced fuel-cycle developments around the world currently under development are exploring the possibility of disposing of 241 Am from spent fuel recycle processes by burning this material in fast reactors. For safeguards practitioners, this approach could potentially complicate both fresh- and spent-fuel safeguards measurements. The increased (α,n) production in oxide fuels from the 241 Am increases the uncertainty in coincidence assay of Pu in MOX assemblies and will require additional information to make use of totals-based neutron assay of these assemblies. We have studied the behavior of 241 Am-bearing MOX fuel in the fast reactor system and the effect on neutron and gamma-ray source-terms for safeguards measurements. In this paper, we will present the results of simulations of the behavior of 241 Am in a fast breeder reactor system. Because of the increased use of MOX fuel in thermal reactors and advances in fuel-cycle designs aimed at americium disposal in fast reactors, we have undertaken a brief study of the behavior of americium in these systems to better understand the safeguards impacts of these new approaches. In this paper we will examine the behavior of 241 Am in a variety of nuclear systems to provide insight into the safeguards implications of proposed Am disposition schemes.

  14. Ion-driver fast ignition: Reducing heavy-ion fusion driver energy and cost, simplifying chamber design, target fab, tritium fueling and power conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, G.; Callahan-Miller, D.; Perkins, J.; Caporaso, G.; Tabak, M.; Moir, R.; Meier, W.; Bangerter, Roger; Lee, Ed

    1998-04-01

    Ion fast ignition, like laser fast ignition, can potentially reduce driver energy for high target gain by an order of magnitude, while reducing fuel capsule implosion velocity, convergence ratio, and required precisions in target fabrication and illumination symmetry, all of which should further improve and simplify IFE power plants. From fast-ignition target requirements, we determine requirements for ion beam acceleration, pulse-compression, and final focus for advanced accelerators that must be developed for much shorter pulses and higher voltage gradients than today's accelerators, to deliver the petawatt peak powers and small focal spots ({approx}100 {micro}m) required. Although such peak powers and small focal spots are available today with lasers, development of such advanced accelerators is motivated by the greater likely efficiency of deep ion penetration and deposition into pre-compressed 1000x liquid density DT cores. Ion ignitor beam parameters for acceleration, pulse compression, and final focus are estimated for two examples based on a Dielectric Wall Accelerator; (1) a small target with {rho}r {approx} 2 g/cm{sup 2} for a small demo/pilot plant producing {approx}40 MJ of fusion yield per target, and (2) a large target with {rho}r {approx} 10 g/cm{sup 2} producing {approx}1 GJ yield for multi-unit electricity/hydrogen plants, allowing internal T-breeding with low T/D ratios, >75 % of the total fusion yield captured for plasma direct conversion, and simple liquid-protected chambers with gravity clearing. Key enabling development needs for ion fast ignition are found to be (1) ''Close-coupled'' target designs for single-ended illumination of both compressor and ignitor beams; (2) Development of high gradient (>25 MV/m) linacs with high charge-state (q {approx} 26) ion sources for short ({approx}5 ns) accelerator output pulses; (3) Small mm-scale laser-driven plasma lens of {approx}10 MG fields to provide steep focusing angles

  15. Ion-driver fast ignition: Reducing heavy-ion fusion driver energy and cost, simplifying chamber design, target fab, tritium fueling and power conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, G.; Callahan-Miller, D.; Perkins, J.; Caporaso, G.; Tabak, M.; Moir, R.; Meier, W.; Bangerter, Roger; Lee, Ed

    1998-01-01

    Ion fast ignition, like laser fast ignition, can potentially reduce driver energy for high target gain by an order of magnitude, while reducing fuel capsule implosion velocity, convergence ratio, and required precisions in target fabrication and illumination symmetry, all of which should further improve and simplify IFE power plants. From fast-ignition target requirements, we determine requirements for ion beam acceleration, pulse-compression, and final focus for advanced accelerators that must be developed for much shorter pulses and higher voltage gradients than today's accelerators, to deliver the petawatt peak powers and small focal spots (∼100 (micro)m) required. Although such peak powers and small focal spots are available today with lasers, development of such advanced accelerators is motivated by the greater likely efficiency of deep ion penetration and deposition into pre-compressed 1000x liquid density DT cores. Ion ignitor beam parameters for acceleration, pulse compression, and final focus are estimated for two examples based on a Dielectric Wall Accelerator; (1) a small target with ρr ∼ 2 g/cm 2 for a small demo/pilot plant producing ∼40 MJ of fusion yield per target, and (2) a large target with ρr ∼ 10 g/cm 2 producing ∼1 GJ yield for multi-unit electricity/hydrogen plants, allowing internal T-breeding with low T/D ratios, >75 % of the total fusion yield captured for plasma direct conversion, and simple liquid-protected chambers with gravity clearing. Key enabling development needs for ion fast ignition are found to be (1) ''Close-coupled'' target designs for single-ended illumination of both compressor and ignitor beams; (2) Development of high gradient (>25 MV/m) linacs with high charge-state (q ∼ 26) ion sources for short (∼5 ns) accelerator output pulses; (3) Small mm-scale laser-driven plasma lens of ∼10 MG fields to provide steep focusing angles close-in to the target (built-in as part of each target); (4) beam space charge

  16. Fast Data Acquisition in Heavy Ion CT Using Intensifying Screen—EMCCD Camera System With Beam Intensity Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraishi, Hiroshi; Abe, Shinji; Satoh, Hitoshi; Hara, Hidetake; Mogaki, Tatsuya; Hara, Satoshi; Miyake, Shoko; Watanabe, Yusuke; Koba, Yusuke

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the feasibility of fast data acquisition in heavy ion CT (IonCT) technique with an X-ray intensifying screen-charged coupled device (CCD) camera system. This technique is based on measuring the residual range distribution of heavy ions after passing through an object. We took a large number of images with a CCD camera for one projection by changing the range shifter (RS) thickness to obtain a characteristic curve similar to a Bragg curve and then to estimate the relative residual range. We used a high quality Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD) camera, which drastically reduced data acquisition time. We also used a parallel-plate ionization chamber upstream of an object to monitor the time variation in heavy ion beam intensity from a synchrotron accelerator and to perform beam intensity correction for all EMCCD images. Experiments were conducted using a broad beam of 12C, which was generated by spreading out the pencil beam accelerated up to 400 MeV/u by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator, in Chiba (HIMAC) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, with a scatterer. We demonstrated that a fast CT data acquisition, 14 min for 256 projections, is possible for an electron density phantom, consisting of six rods with a relative electron density resolution of 0.017, using the proposed technique with HIMAC.

  17. Effect of giant plasmon excitations in single and double ionization of C60 in fast heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhane, Umesh; Kelkar, A.; Misra, D.; Kumar, Ajay; Tribedi, Lokesh C.

    2007-04-01

    Single and multiple ionization of C60 in collisions with highly charged fast oxygen ions have been studied using the recoil-ion time-of-flight technique. The dependence of multiple-ionization cross sections on projectile charge state (qp) was found to be drastically different from those for an atomic target, such as Ne. A model based on the giant dipole plasmon resonance explains quite well the observed qp dependence for the single- and-double-ionization cross sections. But the same model deviates for triple and quadruple ionizations.

  18. Fast ion collisions with C 60 in vapour phase and collective excitation: Comparison with other gaseous targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribedi, Lokesh C.; Kelkar, Aditya H.; Kasthurirangan, Siddharth

    2010-10-01

    The single and double ionization of a free C 60 molecule in collisions with fast heavy (F and Si) ions is investigated using a recoil ion time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The projectile charge state ( qp) dependence has also been investigated. A linear qp-dependence has been explained in terms of a plasmon excitation model. In addition, continuum electron spectroscopy has been used to detect the electron emission from fullerenes. The measured electron angular distribution for the fullerene target is compared with that for a gaseous target at a fixed electron energy. The ratio of forward-to-backward cross section for C 60 is quite different from that for Ne.

  19. Two Dual Ion Spectrometer Flight Units of the Fast Plasma Instrument Suite (FPI) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi

    2014-01-01

    Two Dual Ion Spectrometer flight units of the Fast Plasma Instrument Suite (FPI) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) have returned to MSFC for flight testing. Anticipated to begin on June 30, tests will ensue in the Low Energy Electron and Ion Facility of the Heliophysics and Planetary Science Office (ZP13), managed by Dr. Victoria Coffey of the Natural Environments Branch of the Engineering Directorate (EV44). The MMS mission consists of four identical spacecraft, whose purpose is to study magnetic reconnection in the boundary regions of Earth's magnetosphere.

  20. Intercalating Ti2Nb14O39Anode Materials for Fast-Charging, High-Capacity and Safe Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunfu; Deng, Shengjue; Kautz, David J; Xu, Zhihao; Liu, Tao; Li, Jianbao; Wang, Ning; Lin, Feng

    2017-12-01

    Ti-Nb-O binary oxide materials represent a family of promising intercalating anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. In additional to their excellent capacities (388-402 mAh g -1 ), these materials show excellent safety characteristics, such as an operating potential above the lithium plating voltage and minimal volume change. Herein, this study reports a new member in the Ti-Nb-O family, Ti 2 Nb 14 O 39 , as an advanced anode material. Ti 2 Nb 14 O 39 porous spheres (Ti 2 Nb 14 O 39 -S) exhibit a defective shear ReO 3 crystal structure with a large unit cell volume and a large amount of cation vacancies (0.85% vs all cation sites). These morphological and structural characteristics allow for short electron/Li + -ion transport length and fast Li + -ion diffusivity. Consequently, the Ti 2 Nb 14 O 39 -S material delivers significant pseudocapacitive behavior and excellent electrochemical performances, including high reversible capacity (326 mAh g -1 at 0.1 C), high first-cycle Coulombic efficiency (87.5%), safe working potential (1.67 V vs Li/Li + ), outstanding rate capability (223 mAh g -1 at 40 C) and durable cycling stability (only 0.032% capacity loss per cycle over 200 cycles at 10 C). These impressive results clearly demonstrate that Ti 2 Nb 14 O 39 -S can be a promising anode material for fast-charging, high capacity, safe and stable lithium-ion batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. EFDA Task TW6-TPDS-DIADEV deliverable 2: ITER Fast Ion Collective Scattering Development of diagnostic components and techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, S.; Bindslev, Henrik; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    In 2003 the Risø CTS group finished a feasibility study and a conceptual design of an ITER fast ion collective Thomson scattering system. The purpose of the CTS diagnostic is to measure the distribution function of fast ions in the plasma with particular interest in fusion alphas. The feasibility...... study demonstrated that the only system, which can fully meet the ITER measurement requirements for confined fusion alphas, is a 60 GHz system. The study showed that by using two powerful microwave sources (gyrotrons) of this frequency both on the low field side, and two antenna systems, one on the low......) Optimisation of the design, considering the scattering geometries, variations in plasma profiles, magnetic equilibria etc. 2) Development of numerical codes for determination of the geometry of the antenna system on the high field side, including shapes and positions of mirrors and receiver horns. 3) A model...

  2. Fast ion measurements by collective Thomson scattering in TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade and proposal for the ITER CTS system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Bindslev, Henrik; Furtula, Vedran

    perpendicular to the magnetic field. The feasibility study and conceptual design of this diagnostic was provided by the CTS group at Risø DTU. The development of the ITER CTS diagnostic builds on the experiences and expertise gained from the construction and current operation of the CTS diagnostic systems......) provides the possibility of revealing the velocity distribution of the confined fast ions along a given direction – resolved both in time and space. Recently, the ITER baseline design has been expanded to include the enabling of the front end of a fast ion CTS diagnostic system resolving dynamics...... on TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade. This contribution will briefly introduce the technique of CTS, give an overview of the results of the current diagnostic systems at TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade, and present the chosen solution and the status of the design of the ITER CTS diagnostic system....

  3. Fast and sensitive determination of Sr-90 and SR-89 activity in milk by ion-chromatography and liquid scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, V.; Herrmann, A.

    1992-01-01

    A method for fast and exact determination of both strontium isotopes in milk and other foodstuffs, combination high performance ion chromatographic separation with by liquid scintillation counting, which enables the desired results to be obtained with very satisfactory precision and reproducibility within 24 hours, has been developed. The lowest detectable activity lies by 3 Bq/liter for Sr-90 and 1 Bq/liter for Sr-89 which is satisfactory for assessing a situation in a time crisis. (author)

  4. Analysis of resonant fast ion distributions during combined ICRF and NBI heating with transients using neutron emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellesen, C.; Mantsinen, M.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Eriksson, J.; Kiptily, V. G.; Nabais, F.; Contributors, JET

    2018-05-01

    ICRF heating at the fundamental cyclotron frequency of a hydrogen minority ion species also gives rise to a partial power absorption by deuterium ions at their second harmonic resonance. This paper studies the deuterium distributions resulting from such 2nd harmonic heating at JET using neutron emission spectroscopy data from the time of flight spectrometer TOFOR. The fast deuterium distributions are obtained over the energy range 100 keV to 2 MeV. Specifically, we study how the fast deuterium distributions vary as ICRF heating is used alone as well as in combination with NBI heating. When comparing the different heating scenarios, we observed both a difference in the shapes of the distributions as well as in their absolute level. The differences are most pronounced below 0.5 MeV. Comparisons are made with corresponding distributions calculated with the code PION. We find a good agreement between the measured distributions and those calculated with PION, both in terms of their shapes as well as their amplitudes. However, we also identified a period with signs of an inverted fast ion distribution, which showed large disagreements between the modeled and measured results. Resonant interactions with tornado modes, i.e. core localized toroidal alfven eigenmodes (TAEs), are put forward as a possible explanation for the inverted distribution.

  5. Temperature behavior of damage in sapphire implanted with light ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, E. [Ion Beam Laboratory, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem 2686-953 (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: ealves@itn.pt; Marques, C. [Ion Beam Laboratory, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem 2686-953 (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Safran, G. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); McHargue, Carl J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-0750 (United States)

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we compare and discuss the defect behavior of sapphire single crystals implanted with different fluences (1 x 10{sup 16}-1 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}) of carbon and nitrogen with 150 keV. The implantation temperatures were RT, 500 deg. C and 1000 deg. C to study the influence of temperature on the defect structures. For all the ions the Rutherford backscattering-channeling (RBS-C) results indicate a surface region with low residual disorder in the Al-sublattice. Near the end of range the channeled spectrum almost reaches the random indicating a high damage level for fluences of 1 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) photographs show a layered contrast feature for the C implanted sample where a buried amorphous region is present. For the N implanted sample the Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) elemental mapping give evidence for the presence of a buried damage layer decorated with bubbles. Samples implanted at high temperatures (500 deg. C and 1000 deg. C) show a strong contrast fluctuation indicating a defective crystalline structure of sapphire.

  6. Self-consistent analysis of radial electric field and fast ion losses in CHS Torsatron/Heliotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanuki, H.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.

    1992-09-01

    A self-consistent analysis is developed to determine the radial electric field and loss cone boundary in Torsatron/Heliotron plasmas under the influence of non-classical ion losses such as the loss cone loss ans charge exchange loss of fast ions with neutrals. Analysis is applied to the NBI heated plasmas in the Compact Helical System (CHS) device. Comparison is made between theoretical results and experimental observations. The increased ion particle losses caused by the orbit loss and charge exchange loss with neutrals make the radial electric field more negative than the value of purely neoclassical calculation. The partition of the injection energy among the shine through, direct orbit loss, change exchange loss and bulk heating is evaluated by using the self-consistent electric field profile. On-going experiments in the CHS device are briefly introduced. (author)

  7. Economic preferences and fast food consumption in US adults: Insights from behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuval, Kerem; Stoklosa, Michal; Pachucki, Mark C; Yaroch, Amy L; Drope, Jeffrey; Harding, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    To examine the relationship between economic time preferences and frequency of fast food and full-service restaurant consumption among U.S. adults. Participants included 5871U.S. adults who responded to a survey conducted in 2011 pertaining to the lifestyle behaviors of families and the social context of these behaviors. The primary independent variable was a measure of time preferences, an intertemporal choice assessing delay discounting. This was elicited via responses to preferences for an immediate dollar amount or a larger sum in 30 (30-day time horizon) or 60days (60-day time horizon). Outcomes were the frequency of fast food and full-service restaurant consumption. Ordered logistic regression was performed to examine the relationship between time preferences and food consumption while adjusting for covariates (e.g. socio-demographics). Multivariable analysis revealed that higher future time preferences were significantly related to less frequent fast food intake for both the 30- and 60-day time horizon variables (P for linear trend fast food than those with very low future time preferences (30-day: OR=0.74, 95%CI: 0.62-0.89; and 60-day: OR=0.86, 95%CI: 0.74-1.00). In comparison, higher future time preferences were not significantly associated with full-service restaurant intake (30-day: p for linear trend=0.73; 60-day: p for linear trend=0.83). Higher future time preferences were related to a lower frequency of fast food consumption. Utilizing concepts from behavioral economics (e.g. pre-commitment contracts) to facilitate more healthful eating is warranted using experimental studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of the scintillator-based probe for fast-ion losses in the HL-2A tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y. P.; Liu, Yi; Yuan, G. L.; Song, X. Y.; Yang, J. W.; Li, X.; Chen, W.; Li, Y.; Yan, L. W.; Song, X. M.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.; Luo, X. B.; Liu, Y. Q.; Hua, Y.; Isobe, M.

    2014-01-01

    A new scintillator-based lost fast-ion probe (SLIP) has been developed and operated in the HL-2A tokamak [L. W. Yan, X. R. Duan, X. T. Ding, J. Q. Dong, Q. W. Yang, Yi Liu, X. L. Zou, D. Q. Liu, W. M. Xuan, L. Y. Chen, J. Rao, X. M. Song, Y. Huang, W. C. Mao, Q. M. Wang, Q. Li, Z. Cao, B. Li, J. Y. Cao, G. J. Lei, J. H. Zhang, X. D. Li, W. Chen, J. Chen, C. H. Cui, Z. Y. Cui, Z. C. Deng, Y. B. Dong, B. B. Feng, Q. D. Gao, X. Y. Han, W. Y. Hong, M. Huang, X. Q. Ji, Z. H. Kang, D. F. Kong, T. Lan, G. S. Li, H. J. Li, Qing Li, W. Li, Y. G. Li, A. D. Liu, Z. T. Liu, C. W. Luo, X. H. Mao, Y. D. Pan, J. F. Peng, Z. B. Shi, S. D. Song, X. Y. Song, H. J. Sun, A. K. Wang, M. X. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, W. W. Xiao, Y. F. Xie, L. H. Yao, D. L. Yu, B. S. Yuan, K. J. Zhao, G. W. Zhong, J. Zhou, J. C. Yan, C. X. Yu, C. H. Pan, Y. Liu, and the HL-2A Team , Nucl. Fusion 51, 094016 (2011)] to measure the losses of neutral beam ions. The design of the probe is based on the concept of the α-particle detectors on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) using scintillator plates. The probe is capable of traveling across an equatorial plane port and sweeping the aperture angle rotationally with respect to the axis of the probe shaft by two step motors, in order to optimize the radial position and the collimator angle. The energy and the pitch angle of the lost fast ions can be simultaneously measured if the two-dimensional image of scintillation light intensity due to the impact of the lost fast ions is detected. Measurements of the fast-ion losses using the probe have been performed during HL-2A neutral beam injection discharges. The clear experimental evidence of enhanced losses of beam ions during disruptions has been obtained by means of the SLIP system. A detailed description of the probe system and the first experimental results are reported

  9. Development of the scintillator-based probe for fast-ion losses in the HL-2A tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. P.; Liu, Yi; Luo, X. B.; Isobe, M.; Yuan, G. L.; Liu, Y. Q.; Hua, Y.; Song, X. Y.; Yang, J. W.; Li, X.; Chen, W.; Li, Y.; Yan, L. W.; Song, X. M.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.

    2014-05-01

    A new scintillator-based lost fast-ion probe (SLIP) has been developed and operated in the HL-2A tokamak [L. W. Yan, X. R. Duan, X. T. Ding, J. Q. Dong, Q. W. Yang, Yi Liu, X. L. Zou, D. Q. Liu, W. M. Xuan, L. Y. Chen, J. Rao, X. M. Song, Y. Huang, W. C. Mao, Q. M. Wang, Q. Li, Z. Cao, B. Li, J. Y. Cao, G. J. Lei, J. H. Zhang, X. D. Li, W. Chen, J. Chen, C. H. Cui, Z. Y. Cui, Z. C. Deng, Y. B. Dong, B. B. Feng, Q. D. Gao, X. Y. Han, W. Y. Hong, M. Huang, X. Q. Ji, Z. H. Kang, D. F. Kong, T. Lan, G. S. Li, H. J. Li, Qing Li, W. Li, Y. G. Li, A. D. Liu, Z. T. Liu, C. W. Luo, X. H. Mao, Y. D. Pan, J. F. Peng, Z. B. Shi, S. D. Song, X. Y. Song, H. J. Sun, A. K. Wang, M. X. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, W. W. Xiao, Y. F. Xie, L. H. Yao, D. L. Yu, B. S. Yuan, K. J. Zhao, G. W. Zhong, J. Zhou, J. C. Yan, C. X. Yu, C. H. Pan, Y. Liu, and the HL-2A Team, Nucl. Fusion 51, 094016 (2011)] to measure the losses of neutral beam ions. The design of the probe is based on the concept of the α-particle detectors on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) using scintillator plates. The probe is capable of traveling across an equatorial plane port and sweeping the aperture angle rotationally with respect to the axis of the probe shaft by two step motors, in order to optimize the radial position and the collimator angle. The energy and the pitch angle of the lost fast ions can be simultaneously measured if the two-dimensional image of scintillation light intensity due to the impact of the lost fast ions is detected. Measurements of the fast-ion losses using the probe have been performed during HL-2A neutral beam injection discharges. The clear experimental evidence of enhanced losses of beam ions during disruptions has been obtained by means of the SLIP system. A detailed description of the probe system and the first experimental results are reported.

  10. It costs to be clean and fit: energetics of comfort behavior in breeding-fasting penguins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent A Viblanc

    Full Text Available Birds may allocate a significant part of time to comfort behavior (e.g., preening, stretching, shaking, etc. in order to eliminate parasites, maintain plumage integrity, and possibly reduce muscular ankylosis. Understanding the adaptive value of comfort behavior would benefit from knowledge on the energy costs animals are willing to pay to maintain it, particularly under situations of energy constraints, e.g., during fasting. We determined time and energy devoted to comfort activities in freely breeding king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus, seabirds known to fast for up to one month during incubation shifts ashore.A time budget was estimated from focal and scan sampling field observations and the energy cost of comfort activities was calculated from the associated increase in heart rate (HR during comfort episodes, using previously determined equations relating HR to energy expenditure. We show that incubating birds spent 22% of their daily time budget in comfort behavior (with no differences between day and night mainly devoted to preening (73% and head/body shaking (16%. During comfort behavior, energy expenditure averaged 1.24 times resting metabolic rate (RMR and the corresponding energy cost (i.e., energy expended in excess to RMR was 58 kJ/hr. Energy expenditure varied greatly among various types of comfort behavior, ranging from 1.03 (yawning to 1.78 (stretching times RMR. Comfort behavior contributed 8.8-9.3% to total daily energy expenditure and 69.4-73.5% to energy expended daily for activity. About half of this energy was expended caring for plumage.This study is the first to estimate the contribution of comfort behavior to overall energy budget in a free-living animal. It shows that although breeding on a tight energy budget, king penguins devote a substantial amount of time and energy to comfort behavior. Such findings underline the importance of comfort behavior for the fitness of colonial seabirds.

  11. Increased Mesohippocampal Dopaminergic Activity and Improved Depression-Like Behaviors in Maternally Separated Rats Following Repeated Fasting/Refeeding Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Won Jahng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that rats that experienced 3 h of daily maternal separation during the first 2 weeks of birth (MS showed binge-like eating behaviors with increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis when they were subjected to fasting/refeeding cycles repeatedly. In this study, we have examined the psychoemotional behaviors of MS rats on the fasting/refeeding cycles, together with their brain dopamine levels. Fasting/refeeding cycles normalized the ambulatory activity of MS rats, which was decreased by MS experience. Depression-like behaviors, but not anxiety, by MS experience were improved after fasting/refeeding cycles. Fasting/refeeding cycles did not significantly affect the behavioral scores of nonhandled (NH control rats. Fasting/refeeding cycles increased dopamine levels not only in the hippocampus but also in the midbrain dopaminergic neurons in MS rats, but not in NH controls. Results demonstrate that fasting/refeeding cycles increase the mesohippocampal dopaminergic activity and improve depression-like behaviors in rats that experienced MS. Together with our previous paper, it is suggested that increased dopamine neurotransmission in the hippocampus may be implicated in the underlying mechanisms by which the fasting/refeeding cycles induce binge-like eating and improve depression-like behaviors in MS rats.

  12. thermal, electrical and structural characterization of fast ion conducting glasses (Ag Br)x(AgPO)1-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartini, E.; Yufus, S.; Priyanto, T; Indayaningsih, N; Collins, M F

    2001-01-01

    Fast ion conducting glasses are of considerable technological interest because of their possible application in batteries, sensors, and displays. One of the main scientific challenges is to explain how the disordered structure of the glass is related to the high ionic conductivity that can be achieved at ambient temperature. Fast ion conducting glasses (AgBr) x (AgPO3) 1- x with x=0.0; 0.2; 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.7; and 0.85 were prepared by rapid quenching. The studies of structure, thermal property and electrical conductivity have been made. The X-ray diffraction patterns of this system show that the sample are glasses for x 0.5. The neutron diffraction data shows that all AgBr doped glasses exhibit a strong and relatively sharp diffraction peak at anomalously low momentum transfer value, Q∼ 0.7 Α - 1. The low Q-peak is not observed in AgPO 3 glass, and in the X-ray data. The results of electrical conductivity show that the conduction is essentially ionic and due to silver ions alone. The logarithm of the ionic conductivity increases with increasing AgBr mole fraction, and reaches maximum for x = 0.5. The thermal property results measured by differential scanning calorimetric show that the temperatures of the glass transition, the crystallization and the melt reach minimum for the glass with composition x 0.5. We conclude that there appears to be a relation between higher conductivity at ambient temperature, and the low Q-peak. Based on this investigation a better fast ion conducting glass proposed is (AgBr) 0 .5(AgPO 3 ) 0 .5 with the conductivity of 8 x 10 - 5 S/cm

  13. Striatal fast-spiking interneurons selectively modulate circuit output and are required for habitual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Justin K; Li, Haofang; Kim, Namsoo; Gaidis, Erin; Ade, Kristen; Beck, Jeff; Yin, Henry; Calakos, Nicole

    2017-09-05

    Habit formation is a behavioral adaptation that automates routine actions. Habitual behavior correlates with broad reconfigurations of dorsolateral striatal (DLS) circuit properties that increase gain and shift pathway timing. The mechanism(s) for these circuit adaptations are unknown and could be responsible for habitual behavior. Here we find that a single class of interneuron, fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), modulates all of these habit-predictive properties. Consistent with a role in habits, FSIs are more excitable in habitual mice compared to goal-directed and acute chemogenetic inhibition of FSIs in DLS prevents the expression of habitual lever pressing. In vivo recordings further reveal a previously unappreciated selective modulation of SPNs based on their firing patterns; FSIs inhibit most SPNs but paradoxically promote the activity of a subset displaying high fractions of gamma-frequency spiking. These results establish a microcircuit mechanism for habits and provide a new example of how interneurons mediate experience-dependent behavior.

  14. Dynamic behavior of ion acoustic waves in electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas with superthermal electrons and positrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Asit, E-mail: asit-saha123@rediffmail.com, E-mail: prasantachatterjee1@rediffmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Majitar, Rangpo, East-Sikkim 737136 (India); Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan-731235 (India); Pal, Nikhil; Chatterjee, Prasanta, E-mail: asit-saha123@rediffmail.com, E-mail: prasantachatterjee1@rediffmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan-731235 (India)

    2014-10-15

    The dynamic behavior of ion acoustic waves in electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas with superthermal electrons and positrons has been investigated in the framework of perturbed and non-perturbed Kadomtsev-Petviashili (KP) equations. Applying the reductive perturbation technique, we have derived the KP equation in electron-positron-ion magnetoplasma with kappa distributed electrons and positrons. Bifurcations of ion acoustic traveling waves of the KP equation are presented. Using the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems, the existence of the solitary wave solutions and the periodic traveling wave solutions has been established. Two exact solutions of these waves have been derived depending on the system parameters. Then, using the Hirota's direct method, we have obtained two-soliton and three-soliton solutions of the KP equation. The effect of the spectral index κ on propagations of the two-soliton and the three-soliton has been shown. Considering an external periodic perturbation, we have presented the quasi periodic behavior of ion acoustic waves in electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas.

  15. Impact parameter dependence of inner-shell vacancy production in fast ion--atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    The impact parameter dependence of the probability for production of K x rays has been measured for oxygen projectiles on copper, chlorine projectiles on aluminum, titanium and copper, and carbon and fluorine projectiles on argon at scaled velocities near 0.5. The O + Cu data was taken at incident energies of 1.56, 1.88 and 2.69 MeV/amu for the O bombardment of thin Cu foils. The Cl ions had incident energies of 0.6 and 0.85 MeV/amu upon thin foils of Al, Ti, and Cu. A thin Ar gas target was used for 1.58 MeV/amu C and F beams, permitting measurements to be made for charge-pure C 4+ , C 6+ , F 5+ and F 9+ projectiles. Cu, Cl and Ar K x rays were observed with a Si(Li) detector and scattered particles were counted using a masked surface-barrier detector. Comparison of the shapes of the measured probability curves with predictions of the semiclassical Coulomb approximation (SCA) shows adequate agreement for the O + Cu system. For the higher ratio of projectile to target nuclear charge (Z 1 /Z 2 ) of the Cl + Al, Ti, Cu and C, F + Ar systems, the SCA and Brinkman--Kramers (BK) model for charge transfer fail to predict the measured curves. In particular, the SCA and BK fail to account for large vacancy production probabilities at large impact parameters (larger than the Slater-screened Bohr radii of the K electrons). Further, the dependence of the shapes of the measured curves on the charge state of the incident projectile is pronounced for the cases having the larger Z 1 /Z 2 values. Alternative models are discussed in an attempt to account for the observed behavior

  16. Scintillator based detector for fast-ion losses induced by magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in the ASDEX upgrade tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Muñoz, M; Fahrbach, H-U; Zohm, H

    2009-05-01

    A scintillator based detector for fast-ion losses has been designed and installed on the ASDEX upgrade (AUG) tokamak [A. Herrmann and O. Gruber, Fusion Sci. Technol. 44, 569 (2003)]. The detector resolves in time the energy and pitch angle of fast-ion losses induced by magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) fluctuations. The use of a novel scintillator material with a very short decay time and high quantum efficiency allows to identify the MHD fluctuations responsible for the ion losses through Fourier analysis. A Faraday cup (secondary scintillator plate) has been embedded behind the scintillator plate for an absolute calibration of the detector. The detector is mounted on a manipulator to vary its radial position with respect to the plasma. A thermocouple on the inner side of the graphite protection enables the safety search for the most adequate radial position. To align the scintillator light pattern with the light detectors a system composed by a lens and a vacuum-compatible halogen lamp has been allocated within the detector head. In this paper, the design of the scintillator probe, as well as the new technique used to analyze the data through spectrograms will be described. A last section is devoted to discuss the diagnosis prospects of this method for ITER [M. Shimada et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, S1 (2007)].

  17. Fast heavy ion collisions with C{sub 60}: Collective excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadhane, Umesh [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai-400005 (India); Kelkar, A.H. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai-400005 (India); Misra, D. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai-400005 (India); Kumar, Ajay [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai-400005 (India); Tribedi, L.C. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai-400005 (India)]. E-mail: lokesh@tifr.res.in

    2006-11-15

    Ionization and fragmentation of C{sub 60} in collision with 5 MeV/{mu}m O{sup 6+} ions are studied using recoil ion ToF method. Relative ionization cross sections up to C{sub 60} {sup 4+} are determined. The qualitative trend for different C{sub 60} charge states was compared against simple plasmon excitation model.

  18. Validation of models for the analysis of the transient behavior of metallic fast reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, J.M.; Hughes, T.H.; Gruber, E.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory has prompted a renewed interest in U-Pu-Zr metal alloys as a fuel for sodium-cooled fast reactors. Part of the attractiveness of the IFR concept is the improvement in reactor safety margins through inherent features of a metal-fueled LMR core. In order to demonstrate these safety margins it is necessary to have computer codes available to analyze the detailed response of metallic fuel to a wide range of accident initiators. Two of the codes that play a key role in assessing this response are the STARS fission gas behavior code and the FPIN2 fuel pin mechanics code. Verification and validation are two important components in the development of models and computer codes. Verification demonstrates through comparison of calculations with analytical solutions that the methodology and algorithms correctly solve the equations that govern the phenomena being modeled. Validation, on the other hand, demonstrates through comparison with data that the phenomena are being modeled correctly. Both components are necessary in order to have the confidence to extrapolate the calculations to reactor accident conditions. This paper presents the results of recent progress in the validation of models for the analysis of the behavior of metallic fast reactor fuel. 9 refs., 7 figs

  19. Gel behavior of keV ion irradiated polystyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagno, L.; Foti, G.; Licciardello, A.; Puglisi, O.

    1988-10-17

    Among the chemical and physical modifications induced by ion bombardment of polymers, the solubility changes are very important because of technological application for lithography in microelectronic devices. Solubility changes due to the occurrence of crosslinkings have been followed on monodisperse and polydisperse polystyrene after ion irradiations (10/sup 11/--10/sup 14/ ions/cm/sup 2/, keV energy). By using the Inokuty gel theory (M. Inokuti J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2999 (1963)), the chemical yield (crosslinking/eV) has been determined for different molecular weights and molecular weight distributions.

  20. Vitamin D-metabolites from human plasma and mass spectrometric analysis by fast heavy ion induced desorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fohlman, J.; Peterson, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    D-vitamin metabolites have been isolated from human serum employing chromatographic techniques. The serum carrier protein for vitamin D (DBP) was first isolated by immunosorbent chromatography. Lipid ligands associated with DBP were then extracted with hexane and separated by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detection of vitamin D metabolites by their absorbance of ultraviolet light is not sufficiently sensitive to monitor all vitamin D derivatives from a few millilitres of serum. Therefore, further analyses are necessary to quantitative these compounds. We have begun to develop a mass spectrometric method to achieve a reliable, quantitative procedure. As a first step towards this goal a number of pure samples of vitamin D compounds have been studied in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer based on fast heavy ion induced desorption. All vitamin D compounds examined could be detected and identified by their molecular ion and fragment spectra. (orig.)

  1. Damage and polymerization of C sub 6 sub 0 films irradiated by fast light and heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Yogo, A; Itoh, A

    2002-01-01

    C sub 6 sub 0 films have been irradiated with various fast ions (H, Li, C, O and Si) in the energy range from 0.75 to 6.0 MeV. Structural changes of C sub 6 sub 0 molecules were studied by a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy. The TOF yields of secondary fullerene ions can be described fairly well by S sub m sub o sub d sup 3 with a modified energy deposition S sub m sub o sub d developed in this work. In the Raman study for 1 MeV H sup + irradiation, it is found that about 40% polymerization is attained at 6x10 sup 1 sup 5 cm sup - sup 2 doses and a damage cross-section of 2.5x10 sup - sup 1 sup 7 cm sup 2 is obtained.

  2. Fast ion collisions with C{sub 60} in vapour phase and collective excitation: Comparison with other gaseous targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribedi, Lokesh C., E-mail: lokesh@tifr.res.i [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Kelkar, Aditya H. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Kasthurirangan, Siddharth [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai (India)

    2010-10-01

    The single and double ionization of a free C{sub 60} molecule in collisions with fast heavy (F and Si) ions is investigated using a recoil ion time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The projectile charge state (q{sub p}) dependence has also been investigated. A linear q{sub p}-dependence has been explained in terms of a plasmon excitation model. In addition, continuum electron spectroscopy has been used to detect the electron emission from fullerenes. The measured electron angular distribution for the fullerene target is compared with that for a gaseous target at a fixed electron energy. The ratio of forward-to-backward cross section for C{sub 60} is quite different from that for Ne.

  3. Forward backward asymmetry in electron emission from H{sub 2}by fast carbon ions and Young type interference effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, D [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, H. B. Road, Colaba, Mumbai-400005 (India); Kelkar, A H [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, H. B. Road, Colaba, Mumbai-400005 (India); Kadhane, U [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, H. B. Road, Colaba, Mumbai-400005 (India); Kumar, A; Fainstein, Pd [Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Tribedi, L C [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, H. B. Road, Colaba, Mumbai-400005 (India)

    2007-03-01

    We have investigated the effect of Young type interference on the forward backward angular asymmetry in electron emission from molecular hydrogen in collisions with fast bare carbon ions. The asymmetry parameter shows an oscillatory behaviour as a function of electron velocity which is absent in atomic target such as He. It is shown that the asymmetry parameter which is based on DDCS from H{sub 2}only can be a tool to investigate the Young type interference. The measured energy and angular distributions as well as the asymmetry parameter are compared with a molecular CDW-EIS (continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state) model.

  4. Overcoming a fast transverse instability by means of octupole-induced tune spread in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Montag

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available During the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider commissioning in 2001 a fast transverse instability was observed on the ramp. In general this could be counteracted with increased chromaticity, resulting in Landau damping. However this method could not be applied around transition energy where chromaticities have to change sign. So octupoles were used near transition energy to create transverse Landau damping and avoid the transverse instability, emittance blowup, and beam loss. This paper describes the considerations that led to the present scheme, as well as experimental results.

  5. Simulation of micromechanical behavior of polycrystals: finite elements vs. fast Fourier transforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prakash, Arun [IWM FREIBURG

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we compare finite element and fast Fourier transform approaches for the prediction of micromechanical behavior of polycrystals. Both approaches are full-field approaches and use the same visco-plastic single crystal constitutive law. We investigate the texture and the heterogeneity of the inter- and intragranular, stress and strain fields obtained from the two models. Additionally, we also look into their computational performance. Two cases - rolling of aluminium and wire drawing of tungsten - are used to evaluate the predictions of the two mode1s. Results from both the models are similar, when large grain distortions do not occur in the polycrystal. The finite element simulations were found to be highly computationally intensive, in comparison to the fast Fourier transform simulations.

  6. Transmission of Fast Highly Charged Ions through a Single Glass Macrocapillary and Polycarbonate Nanocapillary Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyad, A. M.; Dassanayake, B. S.; Keerthisinghe, D.; DeSilva, G. G.; Elkafrawy, T.; Kayani, N.; Tanis, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    Transmission of 3 MeV protons and 16 MeV O5+ ions through a single glass macrocapillary and a polycarbonate nanocapillary foil has been investigated. Results show that 3 MeV protons transmit through the capillary and the foils with little or no energy loss, while 16 MeV O5+ ions show transmission through the capillary and the foil with energy losses that vary with the tilt angle, and there are also changes in the charge state.

  7. Characterization of synthetic dyes by comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography combining ion-exchange chromatography and fast ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirok, Bob W J; Knip, Jitske; van Bommel, Maarten R; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2016-03-04

    In the late 19th century, newly invented synthetic dyes rapidly replaced the natural dyes on the market. The characterization of mixtures of these so-called early synthetic dyes is complicated through the occurrence of many impurities and degradation products. Conventional one-dimensional liquid chromatography does not suffice to obtain fingerprints with sufficient resolution and baseline integrity. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC×LC) is employed in this study, with ion-exchange chromatography in the first dimension and fast ion-pair liquid chromatography in the second. Retention in the first dimension is largely determined by the number of charges, while the selection of a small ion-pair reagent (tetramethylammonium hydroxide) in the second dimension causes retention to be largely determined by the molecular structure of the dye. As a result, there is a high degree of orthogonality of the two dimensions, similar to the values typically encountered in GC×GC. The proposed LC×LC method shows a theroretical peak capacity of about 2000 in an analysis time of about three hours. Clear, informative fingerprints are obtained that open a way to a more efficient characterization of dyes used in objects of cultural heritage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Anomalous surface behavior of hydrated guanidinium ions due to ion pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekholm, Victor; Vazdar, Mario; Mason, Philip E.; Bialik, Erik; Walz, Marie-Madeleine; Öhrwall, Gunnar; Werner, Josephina; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Jungwirth, Pavel; Björneholm, Olle

    2018-04-01

    Surface affinity of aqueous guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) is compared to that of aqueous tetrapropylammonium chloride (TPACl) upon addition of sodium chloride (NaCl) or disodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The experimental results have been acquired using the surface sensitive technique X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on a liquid jet. Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to produce radial distribution functions and surface density plots. The surface affinities of both TPA+ and Gdm+ increase upon adding NaCl to the solution. With the addition of Na2SO4, the surface affinity of TPA+ increases, while that of Gdm+ decreases. From the results of MD simulations it is seen that Gdm+ and SO4 2 - ions form pairs. This finding can be used to explain the decreased surface affinity of Gdm+ when co-dissolved with SO4 2 - ions. Since SO4 2 - ions avoid the surface due to the double charge and strong water interaction, the Gdm+-SO4 2 - ion pair resides deeper in the solutions' bulk than the Gdm+ ions. Since TPA+ does not form ion pairs with SO4 2 -, the TPA+ ions are instead enriched at the surface.

  9. Study of carbon ion behavior by using collisional radiative model in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Kubota, Yuusuke; Saito, Masashi; Matama, Ken; Itakura, Akiyoshi; Cho, Teruji; Kato, Takako

    2006-01-01

    In a plasma experiment, collisional radiative model (CRM) is very useful model to evaluate impurity behaviors and plasma parameters with line emission from a plasma. CRMs for carbon and oxygen have been developed. However verification and application of the model for analysis of experimental results are not enough. Then we applied CRM calculation results to observed impurity spectra in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror to evaluate the impurity density profile and the particle balance of each charge state of carbon ion. We calculated the effective ionization rate for each charge state of carbon ion and obtained the density profile of each ion. Moreover, we calculated absolute emission intensities from all carbon ions. (author)

  10. Halogen ions effect on cadmium electrochemical behavior in perchlorate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zytner, Ya.D.

    1975-01-01

    Halide ions decrease the discharge potential of cadmium and zinc ions. To compare the electrochemical behaviour of cadmium and zinc measured under the equivalent conditions the cathodic deposition and anodic dissolution of Cd were studied in the following solutions: 0.1M Cd(ClO 4 ) 2 +xMNaHal+(2-x)MNaClO 4 (x=0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 2.0). The cadmium equilibrium potential versus the log of sodium halide concentration are presented. Above 0.1M sodium halide concentrations the cadmium equilibrium potential shifts essentially to the negative side manifesting the formation of cadmium complex halides whose stabilities increase in the series Cl - - - . The cathodic and anodic potentials of cadmium electrode versus the log of sodium halide concentration were investigated at the current density 400 a/m 2 . The effect of halide ions versus the rate of discharge-cadmium ionization cannot be judged from the change in the electrode potential. For this purpose the potential value should be determined. Analysis of the dependence of anodic and cathodic potentials on the log of sodium halide concentration shows that the rates of anodic and cathodic processes increase with the halide ions concentration. The results obtained allow to conclude that the halide ions not only affect concentration of the discharging complex particles but also reduce the activation energy of discharge-ionization reaction of the metal

  11. Fast-ignition heavy-ion fusion target by jet impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velarde, P. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2. 28006 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: pedro@din.upm.es; Ogando, F. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2. 28006 Madrid (Spain); Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (Spain); Eliezer, S. [Soreq Nuclear Research Center (Israel); Martinez-Val, J.M. [Soreq Nuclear Research Center (Israel)

    2005-05-21

    A new target design for HIF, based on the fast-ignition principles, is proposed. Unlike the previous designs proposed so far, in this case just one energy source is needed to drive the whole process to ignition. The ultra-fast deposition of energy onto the compressed core is produced in this case by hypervelocity jets generated during the process. The collision of jets converts their kinetic energy into thermal energy of the nuclear fuel, which is expected to produce ignition under proper design. The process is studied in this paper, describing its most relevant features like jet production and later collision.

  12. An aircraft-borne chemical ionization – ion trap mass spectrometer (CI-ITMS for fast PAN and PPN measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Schlager

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An airborne chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometer instrument (CI-ITMS has been developed for tropospheric and stratospheric fast in-situ measurements of PAN (peroxyacetyl nitrate and PPN (peroxypropionyl nitrate. The first scientific deployment of the FASTPEX instrument (FASTPEX = Fast Measurement of Peroxyacyl nitrates took place in the Arctic during 18 missions aboard the DLR research aircraft Falcon, within the framework of the POLARCAT-GRACE campaign in the summer of 2008. The FASTPEX instrument is described and characteristic properties of the employed ion trap mass spectrometer are discussed. Atmospheric data obtained at altitudes of up to ~12 km are presented, from the boundary layer to the lowermost stratosphere. Data were sampled with a time resolution of 2 s and a 2σ detection limit of 25 pmol mol−1. An isotopically labelled standard was used for a permanent on-line calibration. For this reason the accuracy of the PAN measurements is better than ±10% for mixing ratios greater than 200 pmol mol−1. PAN mixing ratios in the summer Arctic troposphere were in the order of a few hundred pmol mol−1 and generally correlated well with CO. In the Arctic boundary layer and lowermost stratosphere smaller PAN mixing ratios were observed due to a combination of missing local sources of PAN precursor gases and efficient removal processes (thermolysis/photolysis. PPN, the second most abundant PAN homologue, was measured simultaneously. Observed PPN/PAN ratios range between ~0.03 and 0.3.

  13. IODA - a fast, automated and flexible system for ion track analysis on film detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guth, H.; Hellmann, A.

    1995-02-01

    The IODA System (Ion Density Analysis) is used to analyse detector films, resulting from experiments at the pulse power generator KALIF (Karlsruhe Light Ion Facility). The system consists of evaluation software and a microcomputer, which controls a microscope, a video interface, and a multiprocessor subsystem. The segmentation of ion tracks is done automatically by means of digital image processing and pattern recognition. After defining an evaluation range and selecting a suitable analysis method, the film is scanned by the microscope for counting the impacts of the underlying image. According to the appearance of the ion tracks on the film, different methods can be selected. The evaluation results representing the ion density are stored in a matrix. The time needed for an evaluation at a high resolution can be shortened by shipping time consuming pattern recognition calculations to the multiprocessor subsystem. The bottlenecks of the system are the data transfer and the speed of the microscope stage. Simple handling of the system even on alphanumeric terminals had been an important design issue. This was implemented by a logically structured menue system including online help features. This report can be used a s a manual to support the user with system operation. (orig.) [de

  14. Ionization and fragmentation of water clusters by fast highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adoui, L; Cassimi, A; Gervais, B; Grandin, J-P; Guillaume, L; Maisonny, R; Legendre, S; Tarisien, M; Lopez-Tarifa, P; Alcami, M; Martin, F; Politis, M-F; Penhoat, M-A Herve du; Vuilleumier, R; Gaigeot, M-P; Tavernelli, I

    2009-01-01

    We study the dissociative ionization of water clusters by impact of 12 MeV/u Ni 25+ ions. Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) is used to obtain information about stability, energetics and charge mobility of the ionized water clusters. An unusual stability of the H 9 O + 4 ion is observed, which could be the signature of the so-called Eigen structure in gas-phase water clusters. From the analysis of coincidences between charged fragments, we conclude that charge mobility is very high and is responsible for the formation of protonated water clusters, (H 2 O) n H + , that dominate the mass spectrum. These results are supported by Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics and time-dependent density functional theory simulations, which also reveal the mechanisms of such mobility.

  15. Demonstrated Efficient Quasi-Monoenergetic Carbon-Ion Beams Approaching Fast Ignition (FI) Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Juan C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Huang, C.; Gautier, D. C.; Santiago, M.

    2015-11-01

    Using massive computer simulations of relativistic laser-plasma interactions, we have identified a self-organizing scheme that exploits persisting self-generated plasma electric (~TV/m) and magnetic (~104 Tesla) fields to reduce the ion energy spread of intense laser-driven ion beams after the laser exits the plasma. Consistent with the scheme, we have demonstrated on the LANL Trident laser carbon-ion beams with narrow spectral peaks at 220 MeV, with high conversion efficiency (~ 5%). These parameters are within a factor of 2 of FI requirements. The remaining gap may be bridged by increasing the laser intensity by a factor of 4, according to our data. We also discuss how this beam may be focused, to address the remaining requirement for FI, besides the total laser energy. This work is sponsored by the LANL LDRD Program.

  16. On the symmetry of cylindrical implosions driven by a rotating beam of fast ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basko, M.M.; Schlegel, T.; Maruhn, J.

    2004-01-01

    Cylindrical implosions driven by intense beams of heavy ions are one of the promising ways to create high energy density states in matter. To ensure the needed azimuthal symmetry of the beam energy deposition, it was proposed [Sharkov et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 464, 1 (2001)] to rotate the ion beam around the target axis. Combining analytical calculations with two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, a lower limit is established on the frequency ν of the beam rotation dictated by the target hydrodynamics. This limit is shown to be directly proportional to the desired radial convergence ratio C r for stepwise beam power profiles, and to C r 1/2 for smooth pulses. With a smooth pulse, 6-10 beam revolutions per pulse should be sufficient to reach C r ≅30, while a stepwise pulse requires ≅100 revolutions. Also, the upper bound on the asymmetry of the elliptical focal spot of a rotating ion beam is calculated

  17. Influence of partial ionization on the energy loss of fast ions in high- Z material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, T. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie, D-6500 Mainz, Germany (DE)); Kaercher, B. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-8046 Garching, Germany (DE))

    1991-04-01

    Analytical and simple numerical calculations of the stopping power of partially ionized high-{ital Z} targets are presented. Up to now such calculations are difficult, mainly because of lacking precise average ionization potentials of the target ions. The aim of this paper is both to clarify the importance of a suitable treatment of target ions in different ionization stages and to show by means of general scaling laws and explicit examples, that high-{ital Z} plasmas of high density and low ionization degree may have smaller stopping powers than cold matter. The resulting range lengthening of the projectile ions might be of crucial importance for a proper design of pellets in inertial confinement fusion.

  18. Electron loss from fast partially stripped C and O ions incident on crystal targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, Hiroshi E-mail: kudo@bukko.bk.tsukuba.ac.jp; Takeda, Ken-ichi; Suguri, Takuya; Iwazaki, Wataru; Sakurai, Chizuko; Arano, Isamu; Numazawa, Shuhei; Seki, Seiji

    2003-07-01

    We have measured energy spectra of electrons emitted in a backward direction of Si and Ge crystals while bombarded by 2.5 and 3.5 MeV/u C{sup 4+}, C{sup 6+}, O{sup 5+} and O{sup 8+}. Under <1 1 0> channeling incidence conditions, the loss electron yield from the partially stripped ions is appreciably reduced (by a factor of 0.5-0.6 for C{sup 4+}) relative to the non-channeling case. This reduction can be directly related to the reduced charge states of the channeled ions in the crystals. Furthermore, the evolution of the pre-equilibrium charge states of the incident ions has been deduced from a comparison of the effective nuclear charges for the loss electron yield, the low-energy electron yield, and the binary-encounter electron yield reported previously.

  19. Behavioral features recognition and oestrus detection based on fast approximate clustering algorithm in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fuyang; Cao, Dong; Dong, Xiaoning; Zhao, Xinqiang; Li, Fade; Wang, Zhonghua

    2017-06-01

    Behavioral features recognition was an important effect to detect oestrus and sickness in dairy herds and there is a need for heat detection aid. The detection method was based on the measure of the individual behavioural activity, standing time, and temperature of dairy using vibrational sensor and temperature sensor in this paper. The data of behavioural activity index, standing time, lying time and walking time were sent to computer by lower power consumption wireless communication system. The fast approximate K-means algorithm (FAKM) was proposed to deal the data of the sensor for behavioral features recognition. As a result of technical progress in monitoring cows using computers, automatic oestrus detection has become possible.

  20. Broadening of ICRH produced fast ion profiles due to orbit effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, L.-G.; Porcelli, F.

    1991-01-01

    In the JET tokamak, minority ions accelerated by ICRH reach energies in the MeV range. Near the plasma magnetic axis, the standard trapped particle ''banana'' orbit is distorted into a ''potato'' or ''fat banana'' orbit. The zero banana width approximation which is used in most Fokker-Planck calculations of velocity distributions of resonating ions is often not valid in JET. The inclusion of finite banana width effects will, in general, lead to a lowering of the averaged tail energy and a broadening of pressure profiles, power transfer profiles etc. A model for calculating orbit broadened profiles is presented. (Author)

  1. Planar self-aligned ion implanted InP MISFETS for fast logic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, D.C.; Irving, L.D.; Whitehouse, C.R.; Woodward, J.; Lee, D.

    1983-01-01

    The first successful use of ion implantation to fabricate truly self-aligned planar n-channel enhancement-mode indium phosphide MISFITS is reported. The transistors have been fabricated on iron-doped semi-insulating material using PECVD-deposited SiO 2 as the gate dielectric and molybdenum gate electrodes. The self-aligned source and drain contact regions were produced by Si 29 ion implantation using each gate stripe as an implant mask. The devices fabricated to date have exhibited channel mobilities up to value of 2400 cm 2 v -1 s -1 , with excellent uniformity and stability of the device characteristics also being observed. (author)

  2. Use of positive ion fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for rapid identification of a bile alcohol glucuronide isolated from cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, B.; Salen, G.; Tint, G.S.; Shefer, S.; Benz, S.W.

    1990-01-01

    The identification of a major biliary and plasma bile alcohol glucuronide, 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha, 25-tetrol-3-0-beta-D-glucuronide, present in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) patients, was investigated by positive ion fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS). The spectrum was characterized by abundant ions formed by attachment of a proton, [M + H]+, or of alkali ions, [M + Na]+ and [M + 39K]+, to the glucuronide salt. These ions allowed an unambiguous deduction of the molecular weight of the sample. It is suggested that FAB-MS could be used in the rapid diagnosis of CTX

  3. Actin filaments as the fast pathways for calcium ions involved in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-08-14

    Aug 14, 2015 ... stimulus; spring of tip-link exerts a force on the trap door and opens the ionic channel. 550. Miljko V Sataric et al. ... copy to detect Ca2+ ions entry and distribution within stereo- cilia of hair cells. They also .... resistance R0 ~ 108 Ω. The corresponding characteristic time of discharging such elementary unit is ...

  4. Fast and efficient charge breeding of the Californium rare isotope breeder upgrade electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C. A.; Perry, A.; Sharamentov, S. I.; Vondrasek, R. C.; Zinkann, G. P.; Pikin, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), developed to breed Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) radioactive beams at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is being tested off-line. A unique property of the EBIS is a combination of short breeding times, high repetition rates, and a large acceptance. Overall, we have implemented many innovative features during the design and construction of the CARIBU EBIS as compared to the existing EBIS breeders. The off-line charge breeding tests are being performed using a surface ionization source that produces singly charged cesium ions. The main goal of the off-line commissioning is to demonstrate stable operation of the EBIS at a 10 Hz repetition rate and a breeding efficiency into single charge state higher than 15%. These goals have been successfully achieved and exceeded. We have measured (20% ± 0.7%) breeding efficiency into the single charge state of 28+ cesium ions with the breeding time of 28 ms. In general, the current CARIBU EBIS operational parameters can provide charge breeding of any ions in the full mass range of periodic table with high efficiency, short breeding times, and sufficiently low charge-to-mass ratio, 1/6.3 for the heaviest masses, for further acceleration in ATLAS. In this paper, we discuss the parameters of the EBIS and the charge breeding results in a pulsed injection mode with repetition rates up to 10 Hz

  5. Measurements of atomic transition probabilities in highly ionized atoms by fast ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinson, I.; Curtis, L.J.; Lindgaerd, A.

    1977-01-01

    A summary is given of the beam-foil method by which level lifetimes and transition probabilities can be determined in atoms and ions. Results are presented for systems of particular interest for fusion research, such as the Li, Be, Na, Mg, Cu and Zn isoelectronic sequences. The available experimental material is compared to theoretical transition probabilities. (author)

  6. Actin filaments as the fast pathways for calcium ions involved in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigated the polyelectrolyte properties of actin filaments which are in interaction with myosin motors, basic participants in mechano-electrical transduction in the stereocilia of the inner ear. Here, we elaborated a model in which actin filaments play the role of guides or pathways for localized flow of calcium ions.

  7. Fast-ion dynamics in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, Henrik; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Porte, L.

    2007-01-01

    ) and the slowdown after switch off of NBI are measured. The turn on phase of the NBI has, furthermore, been measured in plasmas with a range of electron densities and temperatures. All of these measurements are shown to be in good agreement with simple Fokker-Planck modelling. Bulk ion rotation velocity is also...

  8. Nanoconfined LiBH4 as a Fast Lithium Ion Conductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchard, Didier; Nale, Angeloclaudio; Sveinbjoernsson, Dadi; Eggenhuisen, Tamara M.; Verkuijlen, Margriet H. W.; Suwarno, Suwarno; Vegge, Tejs; Kentgens, Arno P. M.; de Jongh, Petra E.

    2015-01-01

    Designing new functional materials is crucial for the development of efficient energy storage and conversion devices such as all solid-state batteries. LiBH4 is a promising solid electrolyte for Li-ion batteries. It displays high lithium mobility, although only above 110 degrees C at which a

  9. An empirical study of various factors, influencing the behavior of consumers towards fast food joints in Indian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugandha Agarwal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The global markets have witnessed major shifts in the consumers’ behavior that have been much influenced by the change of technology, innovation, research and development. The consumer’s needs thus dynamically change in order to respond to the change in the social and business environment. The corporate and business strategies of companies thus being developed in the light of capitalizing the potential from the markets but however, how the customers would react to the products and services of companies in new and existing markets remain the major question. Customers belonging to different age groups flock towards these outlets to satisfy their taste buds and hedonistic needs. Out of all the age groups, the youngsters are considered to be the primary target by the fast food service industry. Hence, these fast food services try to lure its customers through sensory appeals. It is well known that organized fast food services have already made their presence felt in a big way in almost all the major cities of India. The fast food outlets attract customers with their blend of tasty food, Quality of food served, efficient service, the appearance of staff, décor, general excitement a place generates and other aesthetic appeals. Organized as well as unorganized fast food service is a very fast growing industry in India especially in urban areas.  The aim of this study is to investigate the factors that are influencing consumer behavior towards fast food joints present in unorganised form in India. It further aims to examine major growth drivers of fast food services in the market and the demographic profile of consumers of fast food services. This study aims to analyze that amount spent per visit to a fast food joint relates to the occupations and the income of customers. And the frequency of visiting fast food joints and preparation served at fast food joints are whether influenced by the dietary preference of customers. Organizations must

  10. Annealing behavior and selected applications of ion-implanted alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, S.M.

    Thermally activated processes cause ion-implanted metals to evolve from the initial state toward thermodynamic equilibrium. The degree of equilibration is strongly dependent upon temperature and is considered for three temperature regimes which are distinguished by the varying mobilities of interstitial and substitutional atoms. In addition, perturbations resulting from the irradiation environment are discussed. Examples are given of the use of implanted and annealed alloys in studies of diffusion, phase diagrams, and solute trapping

  11. Acute fasting inhibits central caspase-1 activity reducing anxiety-like behavior and increasing novel object and object location recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Albert E; Oelschlager, Maci L; Patel, Jay; Gainey, Stephen J; McCusker, Robert H; Freund, Gregory G

    2017-06-01

    Inflammation within the central nervous system (CNS) is frequently comorbid with anxiety. Importantly, the pro-inflammatory cytokine most commonly associated with anxiety is IL-1β. The bioavailability and activity of IL-1β are regulated by caspase-1-dependent proteolysis vis-a-vis the inflammasome. Thus, interventions regulating the activation or activity of caspase-1 should reduce anxiety especially in states that foster IL-1β maturation. Male C57BL/6j, C57BL/6j mice treated with the capase-1 inhibitor biotin-YVAD-cmk, caspase-1 knockout (KO) mice and IL-1R1 KO mice were fasted for 24h or allowed ad libitum access to food. Immediately after fasting, caspase-1 activity was measured in brain region homogenates while activated caspase-1 was localized in the brain by immunohistochemistry. Mouse anxiety-like behavior and cognition were tested using the elevated zero maze and novel object/object location tasks, respectively. A 24h fast in mice reduced the activity of caspase-1 in whole brain and in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus by 35%, 25%, 40%, 40%, and 40% respectively. A 24h fast also reduced anxiety-like behavior by 40% and increased novel object and object location recognition by 21% and 31%, respectively. IL-1β protein, however, was not reduced in the brain by fasting. ICV administration of YVAD decreased caspase-1 activity in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala by 55%, respectively leading to a 64% reduction in anxiety like behavior. Importantly, when caspase-1 KO or IL1-R1 KO mice are fasted, no fasting-dependent reduction in anxiety-like behavior was observed. Results indicate that fasting decrease anxiety-like behavior and improves memory by a mechanism tied to reducing caspase-1 activity throughout the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fast and noise-resistant ion-trap quantum computation with inherent dynamical decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shi-Biao

    2014-02-01

    We propose a scheme for realizing quantum logic gates between any pair of ions confined in a linear trap with a pair of laser beams tuned to the carrier. The striking feature of the scheme is that the carrier excitation accompanying the spin-motion coupling does not affect the gate dynamics. As a consequence, the gate not only is much more insensitive to motional heating but also can operate at a higher speed compared to the previous schemes. The other important advantages are that the gate speed does not need to be inversely proportional to the number of ions in the chain, and the accompanying carrier drive results in dynamical decoupling, making the gate performance robust against dephasing noises. We show that for the same error sources the gate infidelity can be decreased by about ten times compared with previous schemes.

  13. Fast-scan monitor examines neutral-beam ion-density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    All of the magnetic mirror confinement fusion experiments at LLL and at other laboratories depend on pulsed, energetic neutral-beam injection for fueling and imparting energy to the trapped plasma for density build-up and stability studies. It is vital to be able to monitor how well the injected ion beam is aimed and focused. To do this, we have designed an ion-beam current-density profile monitor that uses a commercial minimodular data acquisition system. Our prototype model monitors a single 20-kV, 50-A, 10-ms beam. However, the method is applicable to any number of beams with similar sampling target arrays. Also, the electronics can be switched to monitor any one of several target collectors

  14. Excited state populations and charge-exchange of fast ions in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.D.; Sofield, C.J.; Woods, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Excited state populations and charge state fractions of 445 MeV Cl ions have been measured for a range of thicknesses of solid C targets. Cross sections for electron capture, loss, excitation and excited state quenching have been determined and these data are found to predict a quantitative difference between equilibrium charge state distributions from gases and solids for a special case of the Bohr-Lindhard density effect model. 8 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  15. Electron interference in fast ion collisions with H2 and the frequency parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S.; Misra, D.; Fainstein, P. D.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2011-06-01

    The Young-type interference effect has been investigated in electron emission from molecular hydrogen in collision of 5 MeV u- 1 F9+ ions. The double differential cross section ratios of molecular-to-atomic hydrogen exhibits oscillatory structure, which is discussed in terms of the Young-type electron interference. We have obtained the frequencies of such oscillation for different angles. A comparative study of the frequency parameter is given with early measurements performed by other groups.

  16. Interaction of powerful hot plasma and fast ion streams with materials in dense plasma focus devices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chernyshova, M.; Gribkov, V. A.; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Kubkowska, M.; Miklaszewski, R.; Paduch, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Zielinska, E.; Demina, E.V.; Pimenov, V. N.; Maslyaev, S. A.; Bondarenko, G.G.; Vilémová, Monika; Matějíček, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, December (2016), s. 109-118 ISSN 0920-3796 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12837S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Radiation damageability * Material s tests * Plasma focus * Plasma streams * Ion beams * Laser interferometrya Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379616306858

  17. A fast spectroscopic diagnostic for the measurement of plasma impurity ion dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Hartog, D.J.; Fonck, R.J.

    1994-04-01

    A high-resolution spectrometer has been developed and used to measure simultaneously impurity ion temperature and flow velocities in high temperature plasmas with 10 μs temporal resolution (limited by digitization rate). This device is actually a duo-spectrometer: measurements from two different chordal views of the plasma can be made simultaneously via two separate quartz input fiber optic bundles coupled to the entrance slits which are tilted to compensate for line curvature. The dispersed spectra on the exit plane of the duo-spectrometer are coupled via quartz fiber optics to two arrays of 16 photomultiplier tubes each. Measurement made by recording the Doppler broadened and shifted 227.091 nm emission from the CV impurity ions in the MST reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma have achieved precisions of <6 eV for temperatures of 150 Ev and <0.7 km/s for flow velocities of 6 km/s. Representative results from the MsT RFP indicate that the toroidal flow velocity drops and ion temperature increases during saw tooth events in MST

  18. An improved routine for the fast estimate of ion cyclotron heating efficiency in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, M.

    1992-02-01

    The subroutine ICEVAL for the rapid simulation of Ion Cyclotron Heating in tokamak plasmas is based on analytic estimates of the wave behaviour near resonances, and on drastic but reasonable simplifications of the real geometry. The subroutine has been rewritten to improve the model and to facilitate its use as input in transport codes. In the new version the influence of quasilinear minority heating on the damping efficiency is taken into account using the well-known Stix analytic approximation. Among other improvements are: a) the possibility of considering plasmas with more than two ion species; b) inclusion of Landau, Transit Time and collisional damping on the electrons non localised at resonances; c) better models for the antenna spectrum and for the construction of the power deposition profiles. The results of ICEVAL are compared in detail with those of the full-wave code FELICE for the case of Hydrogen minority heating in a Deuterium plasma; except for details which depend on the excitation of global eigenmodes, agreement is excellent. ICEVAL is also used to investigate the enhancement of the absorption efficiency due to quasilinear heating of the minority ions. The effect is a strongly non-linear function of the available power, and decreases rapidly with increasing concentration. For parameters typical of Asdex Upgrade plasmas, about 4 MW are required to produce a significant increase of the single-pass absorption at concentrations between 10 and 20%. (orig.)

  19. A high-power and fast charging Li-ion battery with outstanding cycle-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M; Brutti, S; Navarra, M A; Panero, S; Reale, P; Matic, A; Scrosati, B

    2017-04-24

    Electrochemical energy storage devices based on Li-ion cells currently power almost all electronic devices and power tools. The development of new Li-ion cell configurations by incorporating innovative functional components (electrode materials and electrolyte formulations) will allow to bring this technology beyond mobile electronics and to boost performance largely beyond the state-of-the-art. Here we demonstrate a new full Li-ion cell constituted by a high-potential cathode material, i.e. LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 , a safe nanostructured anode material, i.e. TiO 2 , and a composite electrolyte made by a mixture of an ionic liquid suitable for high potential applications, i.e. Pyr 1,4 PF 6 , a lithium salt, i.e. LiPF 6 , and standard organic carbonates. The final cell configuration is able to reversibly cycle lithium for thousands of cycles at 1000 mAg -1 and a capacity retention of 65% at cycle 2000.

  20. Classical-quantum correspondence for ionization in fast ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgdoerfer, J.; Reinhold, C.O.

    1994-01-01

    We analyze the interplay between classical and quantum dynamics in ionization of atoms by fast charged particles The convergence to the classical limit is studied as a function of the momentum transferred to the electron during the collision, the impact parameter. the energy and angle of the emitted electron, and the initial state of the target. One goal is to assess the validity of exact classical (CTMC) methods and approximate classical models such as the Thomson model. Applications to data for electron ejection at large angles are presented. The connection between collisional ionization by charged particles and ionization by half-cycle pulses is discussed

  1. Relationship between ion transport and the failure behavior of epoxy resin coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yuhua; Zhou, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •An epoxy resin-Q345 system with a sandwich structure was prepared. •Cl − ions permeated into epoxy resin coating prior to K + ions. •Free volume size and PAL increased when the coating was immersed into the solution. -- Abstract: An epoxy resin coating with a sandwich structure was prepared to investigate ion transport behavior in the coating. The macro- and micro- appearance of the coating immersed in 5 wt.% KCl solutions was observed by stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer. The electrochemical property of the coating was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and change of free volume after immersion was characterized by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The results indicated that Cl − ions permeated into the coating prior to K + ions, the free volume size and positron annihilation lifetime of the coating increased during immersion

  2. Ion desorption from solid surfaces under slow (KeV) and fast (MeV) ion sputtering. Influence of the charge state and of the incidence angle on the input channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joret, H.

    1990-06-01

    Solid surfaces of organic and inorganic materials have been bombarded by fast heavy ions (several MeV). It is shown that the charge state of the projectile has a strong influence on the atomic and molecular ion desorption yield. Experimental studies proved that molecular ions can be emitted intact from deep layers underneath the surface (volume emission) with the existence of a crater emission. On the other hand light ions like H(+), H(+)-2, H(+)-3 are emitted from the surface of the solid in a time around 10 -16 second. The H(+) depends on the incident charge state g-i. When using slow ions (keV) the same dependence was observed for the first time and compared to the fast ion results. The equilibrum charge state of fast ions passing through solids was measured. The influence of the angle of incidence was investigated. Langmuir-Blodgett films of fatty acid were used. A geometrical model is developed for the 50 angstroms layer [fr

  3. Poly(ethylene oxide) : succinonitrile-a polymeric matrix for fast-ion conducting redox-couple solid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ravindra Kumar; Kim, Hyun-Min; Rhee, Hee-Woo, E-mail: hwrhee@sogang.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-25

    A blend of poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, and succinonitrile, SN, was investigated for the first time for applying it as a polymeric matrix of low-cost and thermally stable fast-ion conducting redox-couple solid polymer electrolytes. The PEO-SN blend in equal weight fraction showed room temperature ionic conductivity of 1 x 10{sup -8} S cm{sup -1} with nearly two orders of magnitude higher than that of PEO due to reduced crystallinity. The blend resulted in a solid electrolyte with improved ionic conductivity of {approx}7 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} at 25 deg. C. The blend and its electrolyte showed thermal stability up to 100 deg. C, which is essential for outdoor application of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  4. Examination on Impact of Air Ions toward Human Social Disorder Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesha-Tri-Chandrasa

    2000-01-01

    Air ions are something that people can not see and feel. However, they exist surrounding human life. Imbalance inhalation of air ions can affect central nervous system, and physically it will affect human activities and create social disorder behavior. Some investigations have proved the relation above and devices for anticipating ionization have been innovated and available on the market. Furthermore, it has been found that individual resistance against ionization is different between genders. Therefore it is important to study character and to anticipate effects of ions and ionization, in order to build more comfortable environment. (author)

  5. Electron interference in fast ion collisions with H{sub 2} and the frequency parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, S; Misra, D; Tribedi, L C [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Fainstein, P D, E-mail: lokesh@tifr.res.in [Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    2011-06-15

    The Young-type interference effect has been investigated in electron emission from molecular hydrogen in collision of 5 MeV u{sup -1} F{sup 9+} ions. The double differential cross section ratios of molecular-to-atomic hydrogen exhibits oscillatory structure, which is discussed in terms of the Young-type electron interference. We have obtained the frequencies of such oscillation for different angles. A comparative study of the frequency parameter is given with early measurements performed by other groups.

  6. Real-time diagnostics of fast light ion beams accelerated by a sub-nanosecond laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Margarone, Daniele; Krása, Josef; Picciotto, A.; Prokůpek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2011), s. 137-141 ISSN 0029-5922 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/1165 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 212105 - ELI-PP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser-driven acceleration * ion beams * real-time diagnostics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.389, year: 2011 http://www.nukleonika.pl/www/back/full/vol56_2011/v56n2p137f.pdf

  7. Radiative double-electron capture in collisions of fast heavy ions with solid carbon targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakhontov, V.L.; Amusia, M.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Two-electron capture with an emission of a single photon (TESP) in collisions of highly charged ions with light atoms is considered. Such a process is actually a time-reversed double photoionization but occurring at specific kinematics. In the lowest order in the interelectron interaction, the TESP probability is determined by two diagrams which are evaluated analytically by means of the Coulomb Green close-quote s function. The calculated ratio of the radiative double-electron capture and single recombination cross sections is in fair agreement with the data obtained in the recent experimental study of this phenomenon. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Radiative double electron capture in fast heavy ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakhontov, V.L.; Amusia, M.Ya.

    1996-01-01

    Two-electron capture with emission of a single photon (TESP) in collisions of highly charged ions with light atoms is considered. Such a process is actually a time-reversed double photoionization but occurring at specific kinematics. In the lowest order in the inter-electron interaction, the TESP probability is determined by two diagrams which are evaluated analytically by means of the Coulomb Green function. The calculated ratio of the TESP and single recombination cross sections is in fair agreement with the data obtained in the recent experimental study of this phenomena. (orig.)

  9. Identification of an Actual Strain-Induced Effect on Fast Ion Conduction in a Thin-Film Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Junsung; Jang, Ho Won; Ji, Hoil; Kim, Hyoungchul; Yoon, Kyung Joong; Son, Ji-Won; Kim, Byung-Kook; Lee, Hae-Weon; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2018-04-11

    Strain-induced fast ion conduction has been a research area of interest for nanoscale energy conversion and storage systems. However, because of significant discrepancies in the interpretation of strain effects, there remains a lack of understanding of how fast ionic transport can be achieved by strain effects and how strain can be controlled in a nanoscale system. In this study, we investigated strain effects on the ionic conductivity of Gd 0.2 Ce 0.8 O 1.9-δ (100) thin films under well controlled experimental conditions, in which errors due to the external environment could not intervene during the conductivity measurement. In order to avoid any interference from perpendicular-to-surface defects, such as grain boundaries, the ionic conductivity was measured in the out-of-plane direction by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis. With varying film thickness, we found that a thicker film has a lower activation energy of ionic conduction. In addition, careful strain analysis using both reciprocal space mapping and strain mapping in transmission electron microscopy shows that a thicker film has a higher tensile strain than a thinner film. Furthermore, the tensile strain of thicker film was mostly developed near a grain boundary, which indicates that intrinsic strain is dominant rather than epitaxial or thermal strain during thin-film deposition and growth via the Volmer-Weber (island) growth mode.

  10. Energetic Ion Behavior in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.S. Medley; R.E. Bell; E.D. Fredrickson; A.L. Roquemore

    2003-06-26

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio (R/a approximately equal to 1.3) device with auxiliary heating from neutral beam injection (NBI) and high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating. Typical NSTX parameters are R(sub)0 = 85 cm, a = 67 cm, I(sub)p less than or equal to 1.5 MA, B(sub)T = 0.3-0.6 T. Three co-directed deuterium neutral beam sources have injected P(sub)NB less than or equal to 6.2 MW at energies E(sub)b less than or equal to 100 keV. HHFW heating has delivered up to P(sub)RF approximately equal to 6 MW to deuterium and helium plasmas.

  11. Characterization of graphite etched with potassium hydroxide and its application in fast-rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-08-01

    Surface-modified graphite for application as an anode material in lithium ion batteries was obtained by etching with KOH under mild conditions without high-temperature annealing. The surface of the etched graphite is covered with many nano-sized pores that act as entrances for lithium ions during the charging process. As compared with pristine graphite and other references such as pitch-coated or etched graphite samples with annealing, our non-annealed etched graphite exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, particularly at fast charging rates of over 2.5 C. While avoidance of the trade-off between increase of irreversible capacity and good rate capability has previously been a main concern in highly porous carbonaceous materials, we show that the slightly larger surface area created by the etching does not induce a significant increase of irreversible capacity. This study shows that it is important to limit the size of pores to the nanometer scale for excellent battery performance, which is possible by etching under relatively mild conditions.

  12. Double differential distribution of electron emission in the ionization of water molecules by fast bare oxygen ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Shamik; Biswas, Shubhadeep; Bagdia, Chandan; Roychowdhury, Madhusree; Nandi, Saikat; Misra, Deepankar; Monti, J. M.; Tachino, C. A.; Rivarola, R. D.; Champion, C.; Tribedi, Lokesh C.

    2016-03-01

    The doubly differential distributions of low-energy electron emission in the ionization of water molecules under the impact of fast bare oxygen ions with energy of 48 MeV are measured. The measured data are compared with two quantum-mechanical models, i.e. the post and prior versions of the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) approximation, and the first-order Born approximation with initial and final wavefunctions verifying correct boundary conditions (CB1). An overall excellent qualitative agreement is found between the data and the CDW-EIS models whereas the CB1 model showed substantial deviation. However, the detailed angular distributions display some discrepancies with both CDW-EIS models. The single differential and total cross-sections exhibit good agreement with the CDW-EIS models. The present detailed data set could also be used as an input for modeling highly charged ion induced radiation damage in living tissues, whose most abundant component is water. Similar measurements are also carried out for a projectile energy of 60 MeV. However, since the double differential cross-section data show similar results the details are not provided here, except for the total ionization cross-sections results.

  13. Online Measurement of Exhaled NO Concentration and Its Production Sites by Fast Non-equilibrium Dilution Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Zhenxin; Liu, Jiwei; Li, Haiyang

    2016-03-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most promising breath markers for respiratory diseases. Its profile for exhalation and the respiratory NO production sites can provide useful information for medical disease diagnosis and therapeutic procedures. However, the high-level moisture in exhaled gas always leads to the poor selectivity and sensitivity for ion spectrometric techniques. Herein, a method based on fast non-equilibrium dilution ion mobility spectrometry (NED-IMS) was firstly proposed to directly monitor the exhaled NO profile on line. The moisture interference was eliminated by turbulently diluting the original moisture to 21% of the original with the drift gas and dilution gas. Weak enhancement was observed for humid NO response and its limit of detection at 100% relative humidity was down to 0.58 ppb. The NO concentrations at multiple exhalation flow rates were measured, while its respiratory production sites were determined by using two-compartment model (2CM) and Högman and Meriläinen algorithm (HMA). Last but not the least, the NO production sites were analyzed hourly to tentatively investigate the daily physiological process of NO. The results demonstrated the capacity of NED-IMS in the real-time analysis of exhaled NO and its production sites for clinical diagnosis and assessment.

  14. 3D inverse-opal structured Li4Ti5O12 Anode for fast Li-Ion storage capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dahye; Quang, Nguyen Duc; Hien, Truong Thi; Chinh, Nguyen Duc; Kim, Chunjoong; Kim, Dojin

    2017-11-01

    Since the demand for high power Li-ion batteries (LIBs) is increasing, spinel-structured lithium titanate, Li4Ti5O12 (LTO), as the anode material has attracted great attention because of its excellent cycle retention, good thermal stability, high rate capability, and so on. However, LTO shows relatively low conductivity due to empty 3 d orbital of Ti4+ state. Nanoscale architectures can shorten electron conduction path, thus such low electronic conductivity can be overcome while Li+ can be easily accessed due to large surface area. Herein, three dimensional bicontinuous LTO electrodes were prepared via close-packed self-assembly with polystyrene (PS) spheres followed by removal of them, which leads to no blockage of Li+ ion transportation pathways as well as fast electron conduction. 3D bicontinuous LTO electrodes showed high-rate lithium storage capability (103 mAh/g at 20 C), which is promising as the power sources that require rapid electrochemical response.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Development of sustained release fast-disintegrating tablets using various polymer-coated ion-exchange resin complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seong Hoon; Park, Kinam

    2008-04-02

    Complex formation between drugs and ion-exchange resins was investigated and the effects of coating by various aqueous polymeric dispersions on the complexes were evaluated for developing new sustained-release fast-disintegrating tablets (FDTs). Complexes of ion-exchange resin and dextromethorphan, a model drug, were prepared using different particle sizes of the resins. Aqueous colloidal dispersions of ethylcellulose (EC) and poly(vinyl acetate) (Kollicoat SR30D) were used for fluid-bed coating. Based on drug loading, release profiles, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, the coated particles were granulated with suitable tablet excipients and then compressed into the tablets. Drug release profiles and SEM pictures were compared before and after the manufacturing processes. As the particle size of resins increased, the drug loading and release rate decreased due to the reduced effective diffusion coefficient and surface area. Higher coating level decreased the release rate further. In contrast to EC, Kollicoat SR30D coated particles could be compressed into tablets without any rupture or cracks on the coating since the mechanical properties of the polymer was more resistant to the manufacturing processes. This resulted in no significant changes in release rates. SEM showed the mechanical strength of the polymers affected the morphological change after compression. When the drug release profiles were applied into Boyd model and Higuchi equation, the linear relationship was observed, indicating that the diffusion within the resin matrix is the rate-controlling step.

  16. Effects of fast ions and an external inductive electric field on the neoclassical parallel flow, current, and rotation in general toroidal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Okamoto, Masao.

    1992-05-01

    Effects of external momentum sources, i.e., fast ions produced by the neutral beam injection and an external inductive electric field, on the neoclassical ion parallel flow, current, and rotation are analytically investigated for a simple plasma in general toroidal systems. It is shown that the contribution of the external sources to the ion parallel flow becomes large as the collision frequency of thermal ions increases because of the momentum conservation of Coulomb collisions and sharply decreasing viscosity coefficients, with collision frequency. As a result, the beam-driven parallel flow of thermal ions becomes comparable to that of electrons in the Pfirsh-Schluter collisionality regime, whereas in the 1/μ or banana regime it is smaller than that of electrons by the order of √(m e /m i ) (m e and m i are electron and ion masses). This beam-driven ion parallel flow can not produce a large beam-driven current because of the cancellation with electron parallel flow, but produces a large toroidal rotation of ions. As both electrons and ions approach the Pfirsh-Schluter collisionality regime the contribution of thermodynamical forces becomes negligibly small and the large toroidal rotation of ions is predominated by the beam-driven component in the non-axisymmetric configuration with large helical ripples. (author)

  17. Measurement of the radial density distribution of the light emissions near the trajectory of fast ions in nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibach, T.

    1983-11-01

    For the analysis of the emission and deceleration mechanisms of ionisation-electrons (delta-electrons) during the passage of fast ions through gases, the radial density distribution of the light emission has been measured, which is related with the (0,0)-transitions of two optical bands in nitrogen. These measurements have been made using a small aperture limited ion beam. The first band under study is the 2. positive system at 337.1 nm excited mainly by low energy electrons around 20 eV, and the second band is the 1. negative system at 391.4 nm excited by fast electrons with simultaneous ionisation. For these measurements an experimental setup has been developed with a telescope-like optical system and interference filters to detect the emitted light with a high spacial resolution (4x10 -4 of profile width) and a high dynamic range (10 6 ). The experiments have been performed using proton beams of different energies between 270 keV and 2.8 MeV, He-3 beams with 270 keV/u and 500 keV/u and a Ne beam with 270 keV/u with gas pressures in the range between 0.133 to 13.3 mbar. Based on the method of Abel inversion the spacial light emission density is deduced from the experimental distance functions and normalized to a gas density of 1 g/cm 3 . The results show that approximately half of the total light emission in the 1. negative system and the ionisation is caused by the primary interaction of the ion beam. For the same energy per nucleon this contribution decreases relative to the contribution of the delta-electrons with increasing atomic number. In addition the delta-radiation becomes harder with increasing atomic number. Good agreement is obtained by comparison with the results of other authors, which are based on probe techniques and Monte-Carlo-calculations. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Fast and Accurate Measurement of Entropy Profiles of Commercial Lithium-Ion Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osswald, Patrick J.; Rosario, Manuel del; Garche, Jürgen; Jossen, Andreas; Hoster, Harry E.

    2015-01-01

    We report on an effective approach to speed up the measurement of thermodynamic characterization curves (entropy of reaction Δ r S(x)) of rechargeable batteries, in particular commercial 18650 lithium ion cells. We propose and demonstrate a measurement and data processing protocol that reduces the time required to record entropy profiles from time scales of weeks to time scales of hours – without loss in accuracy. For time consuming studies such as investigations on ageing of battery cells, entropy profile measurements thus become as feasible as conventional electrochemical characterisation techniques like dV/dQ or cyclic voltammetry. We demonstrate this at the examples of two ageing protocols applied to a commercial high power and a commercial high energy cell, respectively: (i) accelerated calendric aging by storing cells at 100% state of charge at 60 °C and (ii) continuous cycling with a 1C current at 25 °C

  19. Modification and characterization of cellulose cotton fibers for fast extraction of some precious metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, M; Akl, M A; Ali, Wael M

    2014-05-01

    In this work, native cellulose cotton fibers were first modified through graft copolymerization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and then by insertion of phenyl thiosemicarbazide moieties to finally produce C-PTS chelating fibers, which were fully characterized using various instrumental techniques such as SEM, FTIR, EDX and XRD spectra. The obtained C-PTS were employed in removal and extraction of Au(3+), Pd(2+) and Ag(+) precious metal ions from their aqueous solutions using batch experiments. The kinetic studies showed that the pseudo-second-order model exhibited the best fit for the experimental data. In addition, the adsorption isotherm studies indicated that the adsorption follows the Langmuir model and the maximum adsorption capacities for Au(3+), Pd(2+) and Ag(+) were 198.31, 87.43 and 71.14 mg/g respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Interference effects in double ionization of spatially aligned hydrogen molecules by fast highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landers, A.L.; Alnaser, A.S.; Tanis, J.A.; Wells, E.; Osipov, T.; Carnes, K.D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Cocke, C.L.; McGuire, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Cross sections differential in target orientation angle were measured for 19 MeV F 8+ +D 2 collisions. Multihit position-sensitive detectors were used to isolate the double-ionization channel and determine a posteriori the full momentum vectors of both ejected D + fragments. A strong dependence of the double ionization cross section on the angle between the incident ion direction and the target molecular axis is observed with a ≅3.5:1 enhancement for molecules aligned perpendicular to the projectile axis. This clear asymmetry is attributed to interference effects, analogous to Young's two-slit experiment, arising from coherent contributions to the ionization from both atomic centers. The data are compared to a simple scattering model based on two center interference

  1. Nanoconfined LiBH4 as a Fast Lithium Ion Conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Didier; Nale, Angeloclaudio; Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    2015-01-01

    Designing new functional materials is crucial for the development of efficient energy storage and conversion devices such as all solid-state batteries. LiBH 4 is a promising solid electrolyte for Li-ion batteries. It displays high lithium mobility, although only above 110 °C at which a transition......O2. Solid state 7Li NMR confirmed that the high conductivity can be attributed to a very high Li+ mobility in the solid phase at room temperature. Confinement of LiBH4 in the pores leads also to a lower solid-solid phase transition temperature than for bulk LiBH4. However, the high ionic mobility...

  2. Study of structural and spectroscopic behavior of Sm3+ ions in lead-zinc borate glasses containing alkali metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasi Kumar, M. V.; Babu, S.; Rajeswara Reddy, B.; Ratnakaram, Y. C.

    2017-06-01

    High luminescence behavior of rare earth inorganic glasses have a variety of uses in the industry. In the past few decades, rare earth ions with characteristic photonics applications are being hosted by heavy metal oxide glasses. Among the rare earth ions Sm3+ ion has features which make it apt for high density optical storage. The authors of the paper have experimented to synthesize Sm3+ doped glasses. In this regard a new series of borate glasses doped with 1 mol% Sm3+ ion are developed by using melt-quenching technique. XRD, FTIR, optical absorption, luminescence techniques are used to study the various characteristics of Sm3+ ion in the present glass matrices. The XRD spectra confirms the amorphous nature of glasses. Further, the researchers have used differential thermal analysis to study the glass transition temperature. The structural groups in the prepared glasses are studied using Fourier transform infrared spectra. From the measurement of its optical absorption, three phenomenological Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6) have been computed. Based on these Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, radiative properties such as radiative probabilities (Arad), branching ratios (β), and radiative life time (τR) are calculated. The excitation spectra of Sm3+ doped lithium heavy metal borate glass matrix is recorded under the emission wavelength of 600 nm. The emission spectra are recorded under 404 nm excitation wavelength. From various emission transitions, 4G5/2 → 6H7/2 and 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 bands could be of interest for various applications. The decay profiles of 4G5/2 level exhibit single exponential nature in all the prepared glass matrices. The potassium glass matrix exhibits higher quantum efficiency than the other glass matrices. Finally, by going through these several spectroscopic characterizations, it is concluded that the prepared Sm3+ doped lead-zinc borate glasses might be useful for visible light applications.

  3. RADIOLYSIS OF NITROGEN AND WATER-ICE MIXTURE BY FAST IONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, A. L. F. de [Departamento de Física, Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca, Av. Maracanã 229, 20271-110 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silveira, E. F da [Departamento de Física, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marquês de São Vicente 225, 22453-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bergantini, A. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911 Urbanova, São José do Campos, SP (Brazil); Rothard, H.; Boduch, P. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique CIMAP-GANIL (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCBN), BP 5133, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, F-14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France)

    2015-09-10

    The participation of condensed nitrogen in the surface chemistry of some objects in the outer solar system, such as Pluto and Triton, is very important. The remote observation of this species using absorption spectroscopy is a difficult task because N{sub 2} is not IR active in the gas phase. Water is also among the most abundant molecules in the surface of these objects; chemical reactions between N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O induced by cosmic rays are therefore expected. Although pure N{sub 2} ice is hardly identified by IR spectroscopy, the species produced through the processing of the surface ice by cosmic rays may give relevant clues indicating how abundant the N{sub 2} is in the outside layers of the surface of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). The objective of this work is to investigate the formation of nitrogenated species induced by cosmic-ray analogs in an ice mixture containing nitrogen and water. Experiments were performed in the GANIL Laboratory by bombarding N{sub 2}:H{sub 2}O (10:1) ice at 15 K with 40 MeV {sup 58}Ni{sup 11+} ions. Evolution of precursor and daughter species was monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The main produced species are the nitrogen oxides NO{sub k} (k = 1–3), N{sub 2}O{sub j} (j = 1–5), N{sub 3}, and O{sub 3}. Among them, the N{sub 2}O and N{sub 3} are the most abundant, representing ∼61% of the total column density of the daughter molecules at 10{sup 13} ions cm{sup −2} fluence; the current results indicate that the yield of daughter species from this mixture is low, and this may be one of the reasons why N{sub i}O{sub j} molecules are not usually observed in TNOs.

  4. RADIOLYSIS OF NITROGEN AND WATER-ICE MIXTURE BY FAST IONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, A. L. F. de; Silveira, E. F da; Bergantini, A.; Rothard, H.; Boduch, P.

    2015-01-01

    The participation of condensed nitrogen in the surface chemistry of some objects in the outer solar system, such as Pluto and Triton, is very important. The remote observation of this species using absorption spectroscopy is a difficult task because N 2 is not IR active in the gas phase. Water is also among the most abundant molecules in the surface of these objects; chemical reactions between N 2 and H 2 O induced by cosmic rays are therefore expected. Although pure N 2 ice is hardly identified by IR spectroscopy, the species produced through the processing of the surface ice by cosmic rays may give relevant clues indicating how abundant the N 2 is in the outside layers of the surface of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). The objective of this work is to investigate the formation of nitrogenated species induced by cosmic-ray analogs in an ice mixture containing nitrogen and water. Experiments were performed in the GANIL Laboratory by bombarding N 2 :H 2 O (10:1) ice at 15 K with 40 MeV 58 Ni 11+ ions. Evolution of precursor and daughter species was monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The main produced species are the nitrogen oxides NO k (k = 1–3), N 2 O j (j = 1–5), N 3 , and O 3 . Among them, the N 2 O and N 3 are the most abundant, representing ∼61% of the total column density of the daughter molecules at 10 13 ions cm −2 fluence; the current results indicate that the yield of daughter species from this mixture is low, and this may be one of the reasons why N i O j molecules are not usually observed in TNOs

  5. Yolk-shell structured composite for fast and selective lithium ion sieving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Lu, Deli; Zhang, Jinlong; Wang, Lingzhi

    2018-06-15

    Yolk-shell structured C@Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 microspheres composed of carbon core (ca. 500 nm) and sea urchin-like Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 shell (ca. 400-500 nm) are formed by hydrothermally treating the core-shell structured C@TiO 2 in the EtOH/H 2 O solution of LiOH and calcining it in N 2 atmosphere. Yolk-shell structured TiO 2 -type lithium ion sieve is further transformed from C@Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 through the acid treatment, which have a high specific surface area of 201.74 m 2 /g. The composite shows adsorption capacity towards Li + proportional to the pH value in the range of 7-13. The adsorption reaches equilibrium within 2 h with a high equilibrium adsorption capacity of 28.46 mg/g under alkaline conditions, which is ca. 8 times the value of ordinary TiO 2 lithium ion sieve with comparable size and surface area, demonstrating the enhanced adsorption is attributed to the generation of more accessible surficial voids by replacing internal part with light carbon core. The adsorption follows Freundlich and pseudo-second-order kinetic models with a high rate constant of 0.015 g/(mg·min). The selective adsorption to Li + is verified in the presence of K + , Na + , Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurement of the space potential of a high-temperature plasma by fast atomic beam scattering on an ion probe beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabantsev, A. A.; Taskayev, S. Yu. [AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki

    1988-06-01

    In this work we carry out an analysis of the possibility of measuring the potential distribution of a high-temperature plasma by scattering fast atoms on an ion probe beam. The proposed method is based on the idea of determining the energy of the ion beam, which depends on the plasma potential, from the energy spectrum of the scattered atoms. Application of this method allows one to avoid a number of fundamental difficulties characteristic of plasma potential measurements which make use of heavy-ion probe beams. 34 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Measurement of the space potential of a high-temperature plasma by fast atomic beam scattering on an ion probe beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabantsev, A.A.; Taskayev, S.Yu.

    1989-01-01

    In this work we carry out an analysis of the possibility of measuring the potential distribution of a high-temperature plasma by scattering fast atoms on an ion probe beam. The proposed method is based on the idea of determining the energy of the ion beam, which depends on the plasma potential, from the energy spectrum of the scattered atoms. Application of this method allows one to avoid a number of fundamental difficulties characteristic of plasma potential measurements which make use of heavy-ion probe beams. 34 refs., 1 fig

  8. [Adsorption behavior of immobilized nanometer barium-strontium titanate for cadmium ion in water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Guan, Xin; Gao, Hong; He, Hong-Bo

    2009-03-01

    Nanometer barium-strontium titanate immobilized on silica gel G was successfully prepared by the citrate acid sol-gel method and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). By means of the determination of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), the adsorption behavior of immobilized nanometer-barium strontium titanate for cadmium ion was investigated. The results showed that the nanometer barium-strontium titanate was immobilized on the silica gel G firmly, gaining a new sort of adsorbent. And the cadmium ion studied could be quantitatively retained in the pH value range of 4-7. The adsorption behavior followed a Freundlich adsorption isotherm and a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic constants of the adsorption process, such as enthalpy changes (deltaH), Gibbs free energy changes (deltaG) and entropy changes (deltaS), were evaluated. These showed that the adsorption of cadmium ion by immobilized nanometer barium-strontium titanate was endothermic and spontaneous physical process. The cadmium ion adsorbed could be completely eluted using 1 mol x L(-1) HNO3. A new method for the determination of trace cadmium ion in water based on this immobilized nanometer barium-strontium titanate preconcentration and FAAS determination was proposed. The method has been applied to the determination of trace cadmium ion in tap water and river water with satisfactory results.

  9. Thermal hydraulic behavior of sub-assembly local blockage in China experiment fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhimin

    2000-01-01

    The geometrical parameter ratio of pitch to diameter of China Experiment Fast Reactor (CEFR) subassembly is 1,167. To address the thermal hydraulic behavior of subassembly local blockage which may be caused by deformation of cladding due to severe swelling and thermal stresses and by space swirl loosening etc., the porous numerical model and SIMPLE-P code used to solve Navier-Stokes and energy equations in porous medium was developed, and the bundle experiment with 19 pins with 24 subchannels blocked in the sodium coolant was carried on in China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The comparison of code predictions against experiments (including non-blockage and ten blockage conditions) seems well. The thermal hydraulic behavior of fuel subassembly with 61 fuel pins blockage of CEFR is calculated with SIMPLE-P code. The results indicate that the maximum temperature is 815 deg. C when the blockage area is about 37% (54 central subchannels are blocked). In this case the cladding won't be damaged and no sodium coolant boiling takes place. (author)

  10. Activation of ion implanted Si for backside processing by Ultra-fast Laser Thermal Annealing: Energy homogeneity and micro-scale sheet resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huet, K.; Lin, Rong; Boniface, C

    2009-01-01

    In this paper ion activation of implanted silicon using ultra-fast laser thermal annealing (LTA) process was discussed. The results stated that there was high dopant activation using LTA process for over 70%, excellent within shot activation uniformity, and there was a possibility for overlap...

  11. Effect of copper (II) ion against elongation behavior of amyloid {beta} fibrils on liposome membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimanouchi, T.; Onishi, R.; Kitaura, N.; Umakoshi, H.; Kuboi, R. [Division of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    The fibril growth behavior of amyloid {beta} protein (A{beta}) on cell membranes is relating to the progression of Alzheimer's disease. This growth behavior of A{beta} fibrils is sensitively affected by the metal ions, neurotransmitters, or bioreactive substrate. The inhibitory effect of those materials was quantitatively estimated from the viewpoints of ''crystal growth''. In a bulk aqueous solution, copper (II) ion showed the strong inhibitory effect on the growth of A{beta} fibrils. Meanwhile, the addition of a closed-phospholipid bilayer membrane (liposome) could reduce the above inhibitory effect of copper (II) ion. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Behavior of moving plasma in solenoidal magnetic field in a laser ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, S.; Takahashi, K.; Okamura, M.; Horioka, K.

    2016-02-01

    In a laser ion source, a solenoidal magnetic field is useful to guide the plasma and to control the extracted beam current. However, the behavior of the plasma drifting in the magnetic field has not been well understood. Therefore, to investigate the behavior, we measured the plasma ion current and the total charge within a single pulse in the solenoid by changing the distance from the entrance of the solenoid to a detector. We observed that the decrease of the total charge along the distance became smaller as the magnetic field became larger and then the charge became almost constant with a certain magnetic flux density. The results indicate that the transverse spreading speed of the plasma decreased with increasing the field and the plasma was confined transversely with the magnetic flux density. We found that the reason of the confinement was not magnetization of ions but an influence induced by electrons.

  13. Behavior of moving plasma in solenoidal magnetic field in a laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, S.; Takahashi, K.; Okamura, M.; Horioka, K.

    2016-01-01

    In a laser ion source, a solenoidal magnetic field is useful to guide the plasma and to control the extracted beam current. However, the behavior of the plasma drifting in the magnetic field has not been well understood. Therefore, to investigate the behavior, we measured the plasma ion current and the total charge within a single pulse in the solenoid by changing the distance from the entrance of the solenoid to a detector. We observed that the decrease of the total charge along the distance became smaller as the magnetic field became larger and then the charge became almost constant with a certain magnetic flux density. The results indicate that the transverse spreading speed of the plasma decreased with increasing the field and the plasma was confined transversely with the magnetic flux density. We found that the reason of the confinement was not magnetization of ions but an influence induced by electrons

  14. Influence of Inorganic Ions on Aggregation and Adsorption Behaviors of Human Adenovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we investigated the influence of inorganic ions on the aggregation and deposition (adsorption) behavior of human adenovirus (HAdV). Experiments were conducted to determine the surface charge and size of HAdV and viral adsorption capacity of sand in different salt c...

  15. Behavior of mercury, lead, cesium, and uranyl ions on four SRS soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, J.P.; Marson, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    Samples of four Savannah River Site (SRS) soils were tested for sorption behavior with Hg 2+ , Pb 2+ , UO 2 2+ , and Cs + ions. The purpose of the study was to determine the selectivity of the different soils for these ions alone and in the presence of the competing cations, H + and Ca 2+ . Distribution constants, Kd's, for the test ions in various solutions have been determined for the four soils. In general, sorption by all of the soils appeared to be more complex than a simple ion exchange or adsorption process. In particular, the presence of organic matter in soil increased the capacity of the soil due to its chelating ability. Similar soils did not react similarly toward each metal cation

  16. Fast, Statistical Model of Surface Roughness for Ion-Solid Interaction Simulations and Efficient Code Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobny, Jon; Curreli, Davide; Ruzic, David; Lasa, Ane; Green, David; Canik, John; Younkin, Tim; Blondel, Sophie; Wirth, Brian

    2017-10-01

    Surface roughness greatly impacts material erosion, and thus plays an important role in Plasma-Surface Interactions. Developing strategies for efficiently introducing rough surfaces into ion-solid interaction codes will be an important step towards whole-device modeling of plasma devices and future fusion reactors such as ITER. Fractal TRIDYN (F-TRIDYN) is an upgraded version of the Monte Carlo, BCA program TRIDYN developed for this purpose that includes an explicit fractal model of surface roughness and extended input and output options for file-based code coupling. Code coupling with both plasma and material codes has been achieved and allows for multi-scale, whole-device modeling of plasma experiments. These code coupling results will be presented. F-TRIDYN has been further upgraded with an alternative, statistical model of surface roughness. The statistical model is significantly faster than and compares favorably to the fractal model. Additionally, the statistical model compares well to alternative computational surface roughness models and experiments. Theoretical links between the fractal and statistical models are made, and further connections to experimental measurements of surface roughness are explored. This work was supported by the PSI-SciDAC Project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy through contract DOE-DE-SC0008658.

  17. Induction of aberrations in human lymphocytes by γ-rays and fast heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorun, R.D.; Repin, M.V.; Krasavin, E.A.; Lukasova, E.; Kozubek, S.; Kroha, V.

    1998-01-01

    Frequencies of aberrations induced by different doses of γ-rays and 14 N ions (LET ∼ 77 keV/μm) in the chromosomes 1 and 2 of human lymphocytes as detected by FISH were compared with those detected by conventional staining in the whole genome. The results have shown that the induction of aberrations in the chromosomes 1 and 2 is more frequent than that in the rest of genome. The frequencies of dicentrics detected by FISH in the chromosomes 1 and 2 recalculated for the whole genome are in good agreement with those detected by conventional staining at different doses of 14 N, but they are about 2 times lower at low doses of γ-rays. Translocation frequencies calculated in the same manner from the frequencies induced in the chromosome 1 by γ-rays correspond to the frequencies of dicentrics detected by conventional staining, however, they are about 2 times higher than those detected by convectional staining at doses lower than 2 Gy of 14 N. The differences between the frequencies of these aberration types increase at higher doses of both radiation types

  18. Stripline fast faraday cup for measuring GHz structure of ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaty, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for measuring the structure on ion beams. It comprises a dielectric strip with an opening therethrough to create an air gap from one side of the dielectric strip to the other; a conductive stripeline bonded to one side of the dielectric strip and a groundplane bonded to the opposing side of the dielectric strip wherein the airgap remains open; a thin dielectric film coating the groundplane; a second groundplane adhering to the thin dielectric film wherein a portion of the thin dielectric film adjacent to the air gap is exposed; a fine mesh electrostatic screen bonded to the second groundplane directly over the air gap; means for matching the impedance at the electrostatic screen with that of the stripline; a Faraday cup mounted opposite the electrostatic screen with a drift space between the electrostatic screen and the Faraday cup; means for reducing RF reflections from the stripline through the use of a terminating impedance; means for biasing the electrostatic screen; means for outputting information to an amplifier; and a measuring device coupled to the amplifier where the measuring device receives information from the amplifier

  19. Poly(1-vinylimidazole) functionalized magnetic ion imprinted polymer for fast and selective extraction of trace gold in geological, environmental and biological samples followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingshan; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Xu, Hongrun; Hu, Bin

    2018-05-01

    In this study, poly(1-vinylimidazole) functionalized gold ion imprinted polymer coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs@PVIM-Au-IIP) were prepared and characterized. The adsorption behaviors of the prepared MNPs@PVIM-Au-IIP toward gold ions (Au(III)) were studied, it was found that MNPs@PVIM-Au-IIP has good selectivity, high adsorption capacity (185.4 mg g-1) and fast adsorption kinetic for Au(III). Based on it, a new method of ion imprinted magnetic solid phase extraction (II-MSPE) coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection was proposed for the analysis of trace Au(III) in real samples with complicated matrix. Factors affecting MSPE including sample pH, desorption reagent, elution concentration and volume, elution time, sample volume and adsorption time were optimized. With high enrichment factor of 100-fold, the detection limit of the proposed method is 7.9 ng L-1 for Au(III) with the relative standard deviation of 7.4% (c = 50 ng L-1, n = 7). In order to validate the accuracy of the proposed method, the Certified Reference Material of GBW07293 geological sample (platinpalladium ore) was analyzed, and the determined value was in good agreement with the certified value. The proposed II-MSPE-GFAAS method is simple, fast, selective, sensitive and has been successfully applied in the determination of trace Au in ore, sediment, environmental water and human urine samples with satisfactory results.

  20. Simulation of a model nanopore sensor: Ion competition underlies device behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mádai, Eszter; Valiskó, Mónika; Dallos, András; Boda, Dezső

    2017-12-01

    We study a model nanopore sensor with which a very low concentration of analyte molecules can be detected on the basis of the selective binding of the analyte molecules to the binding sites on the pore wall. The bound analyte ions partially replace the current-carrier cations in a thermodynamic competition. This competition depends both on the properties of the nanopore and the concentrations of the competing ions (through their chemical potentials). The output signal given by the device is the current reduction caused by the presence of the analyte ions. The concentration of the analyte ions can be determined through calibration curves. We model the binding site with the square-well potential and the electrolyte as charged hard spheres in an implicit background solvent. We study the system with a hybrid method in which we compute the ion flux with the Nernst-Planck (NP) equation coupled with the Local Equilibrium Monte Carlo (LEMC) simulation technique. The resulting NP+LEMC method is able to handle both strong ionic correlations inside the pore (including finite size of ions) and bulk concentrations as low as micromolar. We analyze the effect of bulk ion concentrations, pore parameters, binding site parameters, electrolyte properties, and voltage on the behavior of the device.

  1. Competitive migration behaviors of multiple ions and their impacts on ion-exchange resin packed microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Kuichang; Yuan, Lulu; Wei, Jincheng; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia

    2013-10-01

    Mixed ion-exchange resins packed microbial desalination cell (R-MDC) could stabilize the internal resistance, however, the impacts of multiple ions on R-MDC performance was unclear. This study investigated the desalination performance, multiple ions migration behaviors and their impacts on R-MDCs fed with salt solution containing multiple anions and cations. Results showed that R-MDC removed multiple anions better than multiple cations with desalination efficiency of 99% (effluent conductivity NO3(-)>Cl(-) for anions and Ca(2+)≈Mg(2+)>NH4(+)>Na(+) for cations, jointly affected by both their molar conductivity and exchange selectivity on resins. After long-term operation, the existence of higher concentration Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) caused the electric conductivity of mixed resins decrease and scaling on the surface of cation-exchange membrane adjoined with cathode chamber, suggesting that R-MDC would be more suitable for desalination of water with lower hardness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrical properties of fast ion conducting silver based borate glasses: Application in solid battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoud, Emad M.; Khairy, M.; Mousa, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •AgI dopant created more opened borate network structure. •Dielectric constant and loss values increased with AgI concentration. •AgI dopant enhanced both ion migration and orientation. •0.6 AgI–0.27 Ag 2 O–0.13 B 2 O 3 showed the highest DC-conductivity at room temperature. •It showed also good life time as a solid electrolyte in solid battery at room temperature. -- Abstract: The electrical properties of the ternary ionic conducting glass system xAgI–(1 – x)[0.67Ag 2 O–0.33B 2 O 3 ], where x = 0.4 , 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8, were studied for emphasizing the influence of silver iodide concentration on the transport properties in the based borate glasses. The glasses were prepared by melt quenching technique and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR spectra and differential thermal analysis (DTA). XRD confirmed a glassy nature for all investigated compositions. Electrical conductivity (σ), dielectric constant (ε′), dielectric loss (ε ″ ) and impedance spectra (Z′–Z′′) were studied for all samples at a frequency range of 0–10 6 Hz and over a temperature range of 303–413 K. Changes of conductivity and dielectric properties with composition, temperature and frequency were analyzed and discussed. A silver iodine battery using glassy electrolyte sample with the highest ionic conductivity (x = 0.6) was studied

  3. Time dependence of silica optical properties during the implantation of fast hydrogen ions: Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Barannik, E; Zhurenko, V; Kononenko, S; Kononenko, O

    2015-01-01

    Formation, excitation and passivation of defects by absorbed hydrogen have been extensively reported in the literature. Here we present a basic luminescence-diffusion model to simulate creation and chemical annealing behavior of non-bridging oxygen hole centers in silica by their treatment under a long-time hydrogen implantation. The model is in a good agreement with experimental data and explains the uncommon nonmonotonic time dependence of the non-bridging oxygen hole centers luminescence during the hydrogen implantation. The proposed model establishes the quantitative relation between the intensity dependence of luminescence on its intrinsic diffusivity, hydrogen concentration, defect concentration and cross-section of their creation. Possibilities to estimate these parameters based on the experimental data for the efficiency of silica luminescence are also discussed.

  4. Interaction between fast ions and ion cyclotron heating in a tokamak plasma; Interaction des ions rapides avec les ondes a la frequence cyclotronique ionique dans un plasma de tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeaud, V

    2001-11-01

    In an ignited fusion reactor, the plasma temperature is sustained by the fusion reactions. However, before this regime is reached, it is necessary to bring an additional power to the plasma. One of the methods that enables the coupling of power is the use of an electromagnetic wave in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF). This thesis deals with the interaction between ICRF heating and the fast ions. The thesis contains a theoretical study of the influence of ICRF heating on the ion distribution function. A particular emphasis is put on the importance of the toroidal spectrum of the modes of propagation of the wave in the tokamak. It is necessary to take into account all these modes in order to correctly assess the strength of the wave particle interaction, especially for high energy particles (of the order of hundreds of keV). The classical treatment of the wave particle interaction is based on the hypothesis that the cyclotron phase of the particle and the wave phase are de-correlated between successive resonant interactions. One is therefore led to consider ICRF heating as a diffusive process. This hypothesis is reconsidered in this thesis and it is shown that strong correlations exist in a large part of the velocity space. For this study, a numerical code that computes the full trajectory of particles interacting with a complete electromagnetic field has been developed. The thesis also deals with the problem of fast ion losses due to the breaking of the toroidal symmetry of the confinement magnetic field (called the ripple modulation). Between two toroidal coils, local magnetic wells exist, and particles can be trapped there. When trapped they undergo a vertical drift that makes them quit the plasma rapidly. The ripple modulation also causes an enhancement of the radial diffusion, thereby increasing the losses. A Monte Carlo model describing these mechanisms is presented. This model is validated thanks to a comparison with an experimental database from

  5. Interaction of fast ions with ion cyclotron electromagnetic waves in tokamak plasma; Interaction des ions rapides avec les ondes a la frequence cyclotronique ionique dans un plasma de tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeaud, V

    2000-12-01

    In an ignited fusion reactor, the plasma temperature is sustained by the fusion reactions. However, before this regime is reached, it is necessary to bring an additional power to the plasma. One of the methods that enables the coupling of power is the use of an electromagnetic wave in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF). This thesis deals with the interaction between ICRF heating and the fast ions. The thesis contains a theoretical study of the influence of ICRF heating on the ion distribution function. A particular emphasis is put on the importance of the toroidal spectrum of the modes of propagation of the wave in the tokamak. It is necessary to take into account all these modes in order to correctly assess the strength of the wave particle interaction, especially for high energy particles (of the order of hundreds of keV). The classical treatment of the wave particle interaction is based on the hypothesis that the cyclotron phase of the particle and the wave phase are de-correlated between successive resonant interactions. One is therefore led to consider ICRF heating as a diffusive process. This hypothesis is reconsidered in this thesis and it is shown that strong correlations exist in a large part of the velocity space. For this study, a numerical code that computes the full trajectory of particles interacting with a complete electromagnetic field has been developed. The thesis also deals with the problem of fast ion losses due to the breaking of the toroidal symmetry of the confinement magnetic field (called the ripple modulation). Between two toroidal coils, local magnetic wells exist, and particles can be trapped there. When trapped they undergo a vertical drift that makes them quit the plasma rapidly. The ripple modulation also causes an enhancement of the radial diffusion, thereby increasing the losses. A Monte Carlo model describing these mechanisms is presented. This model is validated thanks to a comparison with an experimental database from

  6. Effect of Ti3+ ion on the Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Bong; Lim, Han Gwi; Kim, Bok Hee; Kim, Ki Ju

    1999-01-01

    Alloy 600 has been widely used as a steam generator tubing material in pressurized water reactors(PWRs) nuclear power plants. Corrosion of steam generator tubing mainly occurs on the secondary water side. The purpose of this work is primarily concerned with examining the effect of Ti 3+ ion concentrations on the corrosion behavior of the Alloy 600 steam generator tubing material. Corrosion behavior of the Alloy 600 steam generator tubing material was studied in aqueous solutions with varying Ti 3+ ion concentration at room temperature. Potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarization techniques were used to determine the corrosion and pitting potentials for the Alloy 600 test material. The addition of Ti 3+ ion to 1000ppm, showed inhibition effect on the corrosion of Alloy 600. But the corrosion of Alloy 600 was accelerated when the concentration of Ti 3+ ion exceeded 1000ppm, it is assumed that the effect of general corrosion of Alloy 600 is more sensitive than pitting corrosion. It is considered that the passive film which was formed on the Alloy 600 surface in the 100ppm Ti 3+ ion containing solution is mainly consisted of TiO 2

  7. The air oxidation behavior of lanthanum ion implanted zirconium at 500 deg. C

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, D Q; Chen, X W; Zhou, Q G

    2003-01-01

    The beneficial effect of lanthanum ion implantation on the oxidation behavior of zirconium at 500 deg. C has been studied. Zirconium specimens were implanted by lanthanum ions using a MEVVA source at energy of 40 keV with a fluence range from 1x10 sup 1 sup 6 to 1x10 sup 1 sup 7 ions/cm sup 2 at maximum temperature of 130 deg. C, The weight gain curves were measured after being oxidized in air at 500 deg. C for 100 min, which showed that a significant improvement was achieved in the oxidation behavior of zirconium ion implanted with lanthanum compared with that of the as-received zirconium. The valence of the oxides in the scale was analyzed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy; and then the depth distributions of the elements in the surface of the samples were obtained by Auger electron spectroscopy. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction at 0.3 deg. incident angles was employed to examine the modification of its phase transformation because of the lanthanum ion implantation in the oxide films. It was obviously fou...

  8. Effect of divalent ions on the optical emission behavior of protein thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowal, Ashim Chandra, E-mail: ashimbhowal111@gmail.com; Kundu, Sarathi [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Vigyan Path, Paschim Boragaon, Garchuk, Guwahati, Assam 781035 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Photoluminescence behaviors of proteinthin film, bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been studied in the presence of three divalent ions (Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+}) at different temperatures using fluorescence spectroscopy. Film thickness and morphology have been studied using atomic force microscopy. Variation of different physicochemical parameters like temperature, solvent polarity, pH, ionic strength, substrate binding etc. can make conformational changes in the protein structure and hence influences the emission behavior.In thin film conformation of BSA, dynamic quenching behavior has beenidentified in the presence of all the three divalent ions at pH≈ 5.5. Depending upon the charge density of the divalent ions interaction with protein molecules modifies and as a result quenching efficiency varies. Also after heat treatment, conformation of the protein molecules changes and as a result the quenching efficiency enhances than that of the unheated films. Studies on such protein-ion interactions and conformational variation may explore various functions of protein when it will adsorb on soft surfaces like membranes, vesicles, etc.

  9. The electrochemical behavior and surface structure of titanium electrodes modified by ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, G.F.; Xie, Z.; Huang, W.Q.; Yang, S.B.; Zhao, L.H.

    2004-01-01

    Industrial grade titanium modified by ion implantation and sputtering was used as electrodes. The effect of ion beam modification on the electrochemical behavior and surface structure of electrodes was investigated. Also discussed is the hydrogen evolution process of the electrode in acidic solution. Several ions such as Fe + , C + , W + , Ni + and others, were implanted into the electrode. The electrochemical tests were carried out in 1N H 2 SO 4 solution at 30±1 deg. C. The electrode potential was measured versus a saturate calomel electrode as a function of immersion time. The cathodic polarization curves were measured by the stable potential static method. The surface layer composition and the chemical state of the electrodes were also investigated by Auger electron spectrometer (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique. The results show that: (1) the stability of modified electrodes depends on the active elements introduced by ion implantation and sputtering deposition. (2) The hydrogen evolution activity of industrial grade titanium may be improved greatly by ion beam modification. (3) Ion beam modification changed the composition and the surface state of electrodes over a certain depth range and forms an activity layer having catalytic hydrogen evolution, which inhibited the absorption of hydrogen and formation of titanium hydride. Thus promoted hydrogen evolution and improved the hydrogen evolution catalytic activity in industrial grade titanium

  10. The Effects of Internal Components' Disposition on Thermal-Hydraulic Behaviors in Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ji Woong; Eoh, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Seong O

    2009-01-01

    Decay heat removal is very important in a nuclear power plant. The KALIMER-600, Korea Advanced Liquid MEtal Reactor, employs the PDRC(Passive Decay heat Removal Circuit) to remove the decay heat. However the cooling performance before the activation of DHX greatly depends on the natural circulation flow within the reactor pool. In the previous studies the effect of various design parameters such as coastdown flow, IHX(Intermediate Heat eXchanger) elevation and heat transfer via CCS (Cavity Cooling System) on the initial cooling performance has been analyzed. In the case of IHX elevation analysis the increase of IHX elevation was shown to enhance the initial cooling performance. However, the elevating the IHX is accompanied by the variation of hot or cold pool volume, the previous calculation was resulted from the combination of those effects. In order to analyze those effects qualitatively supplementary calculation conditions were prepared and related analyses have been done in this study. In those analyses the ratio between hot and cold pool volumes has been varied without elevating the IHX by changing the vertical position of separation plate and baffle plate. The COMMIX-1AR/P code is utilized as a tool to investigate overall transient behaviors within a pool. This study is expected to provide the basic information for the decision of internal components' layout in the sodium cooled fast reactor

  11. Modeling of neutron emission spectroscopy in JET discharges with fast tritons from (T)D ion cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.; Andersson Sunden, E.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Giacomelli, L.; Hellesen, C.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Kaellne, J.; Ronchi, E.; Sjoestrand, H.; Weiszflog, M.; Johnson, T.; Lamalle, P. U.

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of fast ion populations is one of the diagnostic capabilities provided by neutron emission spectroscopy (NES). NES measurements were carried out during JET trace tritium campaign with the magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer. A favorable plasma scenario is (T)D where the resulting 14 MeV neutron yield is dominated by suprathermal emission from energetic tritons accelerated by radio frequency at their fundamental cyclotron frequency. Information on the triton distribution function has been derived from NES data with a simple model based on two components referred to as bulk (B) and high energy (HE). The HE component is based on strongly anisotropic tritium distribution that can be used for routine best-fit analysis to provide tail temperature values (T HE ). This article addresses to what extent the T HE values are model dependent by comparing the model above with a two-temperature (bi-) Maxwellian model featuring parallel and perpendicular temperatures. The bi-Maxwellian model is strongly anisotropic and frequently used for radio frequency theory

  12. A Position Sensitive, Highly Radiation Hard and Fast Hadron Calorimeter for a Lead Ion Experiment at CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Dellacasa, G; Gallio, M; Guaita, P; Musso, A; Piccotti, A; Scomparin, E; Vercellin, Ermanno; Chiavassa, E

    1995-01-01

    We present the performance of the Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC) built for the NA50 experiment at the CERN SPS. This detector measures the Cherenkov light produced in silica optical fibres embedded in tantalum and offers the double advantage of being highly radiation resistant (up to several Grads) and very fast (signal width of the order of 10 ns). It has an active volume of 5x5x65 cm3 with a fibre to tantalum volume ratio 1/17; the fibres are positioned at an angle of 0¡ with respect to the beam direction and have a diameter of 365µm. The measured energy resolution (s/E) is: 30% for protons at 205 GeV and 5% for lead ions at 160 GeV/nucleon. The detector exhibits also very good localising properties since it can detect the impact point of the lead beam on its front face with a precision better than 0.4mm rms.

  13. Real-Time linux dynamic clamp: a fast and flexible way to construct virtual ion channels in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorval, A D; Christini, D J; White, J A

    2001-10-01

    We describe a system for real-time control of biological and other experiments. This device, based around the Real-Time Linux operating system, was tested specifically in the context of dynamic clamping, a demanding real-time task in which a computational system mimics the effects of nonlinear membrane conductances in living cells. The system is fast enough to represent dozens of nonlinear conductances in real time at clock rates well above 10 kHz. Conductances can be represented in deterministic form, or more accurately as discrete collections of stochastically gating ion channels. Tests were performed using a variety of complex models of nonlinear membrane mechanisms in excitable cells, including simulations of spatially extended excitable structures, and multiple interacting cells. Only in extreme cases does the computational load interfere with high-speed "hard" real-time processing (i.e., real-time processing that never falters). Freely available on the worldwide web, this experimental control system combines good performance. immense flexibility, low cost, and reasonable ease of use. It is easily adapted to any task involving real-time control, and excels in particular for applications requiring complex control algorithms that must operate at speeds over 1 kHz.

  14. A novel method to recover DD fusion proton CR-39 data corrupted by fast ablator ions at OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutcliffe, G. D., E-mail: gdsut@mit.edu; Milanese, L. M.; Orozco, D.; Lahmann, B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Park, H.-S.; Rygg, J. R.; Casey, D. T.; Bionta, R.; Turnbull, D. P.; Huntington, C. M.; Ross, J. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Zylstra, A. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Rosenberg, M. J.; Glebov, V. Yu. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    CR-39 detectors are used routinely in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments as a part of nuclear diagnostics. CR-39 is filtered to stop fast ablator ions which have been accelerated from an ICF implosion due to electric fields caused by laser-plasma interactions. In some experiments, the filtering is insufficient to block these ions and the fusion-product signal tracks are lost in the large background of accelerated ion tracks. A technique for recovering signal in these scenarios has been developed, tested, and implemented successfully. The technique involves removing material from the surface of the CR-39 to a depth beyond the endpoint of the ablator ion tracks. The technique preserves signal magnitude (yield) as well as structure in radiograph images. The technique is effective when signal particle range is at least 10 μm deeper than the necessary bulk material removal.

  15. A novel method to recover DD fusion proton CR-39 data corrupted by fast ablator ions at OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, G. D.; Milanese, L. M.; Orozco, D.; Lahmann, B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Park, H.-S.; Rygg, J. R.; Casey, D. T.; Bionta, R.; Turnbull, D. P.; Huntington, C. M.; Ross, J. S.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    CR-39 detectors are used routinely in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments as a part of nuclear diagnostics. CR-39 is filtered to stop fast ablator ions which have been accelerated from an ICF implosion due to electric fields caused by laser-plasma interactions. In some experiments, the filtering is insufficient to block these ions and the fusion-product signal tracks are lost in the large background of accelerated ion tracks. A technique for recovering signal in these scenarios has been developed, tested, and implemented successfully. The technique involves removing material from the surface of the CR-39 to a depth beyond the endpoint of the ablator ion tracks. The technique preserves signal magnitude (yield) as well as structure in radiograph images. The technique is effective when signal particle range is at least 10 μm deeper than the necessary bulk material removal.

  16. A novel method to recover DD fusion proton CR-39 data corrupted by fast ablator ions at OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, G. D.; Milanese, L. M.; Orozco, D.; Lahmann, B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Park, H.-S.; Rygg, J. R.; Casey, D. T.; Bionta, R.; Turnbull, D. P.; Huntington, C. M.; Ross, J. S.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    CR-39 detectors are used routinely in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments as a part of nuclear diagnostics. CR-39 is filtered to stop fast ablator ions which have been accelerated from an ICF implosion due to electric fields caused by laser-plasma interactions. In some experiments, the filtering is insufficient to block these ions and the fusion-product signal tracks are lost in the large background of accelerated ion tracks. A technique for recovering signal in these scenarios has been developed, tested, and implemented successfully. The technique involves removing material from the surface of the CR-39 to a depth beyond the endpoint of the ablator ion tracks. The technique preserves signal magnitude (yield) as well as structure in radiograph images. The technique is effective when signal particle range is at least 10 μm deeper than the necessary bulk material removal.

  17. A novel method to recover DD fusion proton CR-39 data corrupted by fast ablator ions at OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutcliffe, G. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Milanese, L. M. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Orozco, D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Lahmann, B. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Gatu Johnson, M. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Séguin, F. H. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Sio, H. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Frenje, J. A. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Li, C. K. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Park, H. -S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA; Rygg, J. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA; Casey, D. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA; Bionta, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA; Turnbull, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA; Huntington, C. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA; Ross, J. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA; Zylstra, A. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA; Rosenberg, M. J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623, USA; Glebov, V. Yu. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623, USA

    2016-08-05

    CR-39 detectors are used routinely in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments as a part of nuclear diagnostics. CR-39 is filtered to stop fast ablator ions which have been accelerated from an ICF implosion due to electric fields caused by laser-plasma interactions. In some experiments, the filtering is insufficient to block these ions and the fusion-product signal tracks are lost in the large background of accelerated ion tracks. A technique for recovering signal in these scenarios has been developed, tested, and implemented successfully. The technique involves removing material from the surface of the CR-39 to a depth beyond the endpoint of the ablator ion tracks. The technique preserves signal magnitude (yield) as well as structure in radiograph images. The technique is effective when signal particle range is at least 10 μm deeper than the necessary bulk material removal.

  18. Control of cell behavior on PTFE surface using ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akane; Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Meguro, Takashi; Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki

    2009-01-01

    A polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface is smooth and biologically inert, so that cells cannot attach to it. Ion beam irradiation of the PTFE surface forms micropores and a melted layer, and the surface is finally covered with a large number of small protrusions. Recently, we found that cells could adhere to this irradiated PTFE surface and spread over the surface. Because of their peculiar attachment behavior, these surfaces can be used as biological tools. However, the factors regulating cell adhesion are still unclear, although some new functional groups formed by irradiation seem to contribute to this adhesion. To control cell behavior on PTFE surfaces, we must determine the effects of the outermost irradiated surface on cell adhesion. In this study, we removed the thin melted surface layer by postirradiation annealing and investigated cell behavior on the surface. On the surface irradiated with 3 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 , cells spread only on the remaining parts of the melted layer. From these results, it is clear that the melted layer had a capacity for cell attachment. When the surface covered with protrusions was irradiated with a fluence of 1 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 , the distribution of cells changed after the annealing process from 'sheet shaped' into multicellular aggregates with diameters of around 50 μm. These results indicate that we can control cell behavior on PTFE surfaces covered with protrusions using irradiation and subsequent annealing. Multicellular spheroids can be fabricated for tissue engineering using this surface.

  19. The behavior of Turkish cancer patients in fasting during the holy month of Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Karabulut, Senem; Ciftci, Rumeysa; Yildiz, Ibrahim; Keskin, Serkan; Kilic, Leyla; Disci, Rian

    2014-08-01

    Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan is one of the major obligations for all adult Muslims. We performed a survey of Turkish Muslim cancer patients to examine the extent of their fasting status and to compare various clinical characteristics of fasting and non-fasting cancer patients during the month of Ramadan. This study was conducted on 701 adult cancer patients who attended ambulatory patient care units answered the questionnaires. The population comprised 445 women (63.5%), and the median age was 54 years. Before diagnosis of cancer, 93.1% of the patients used fast consists of completely (78.3%) and partial (14.8%). However, 15% of cases were fasting on the day of interview, either partially (7.4%) or completely (7.6%) with equal distributions. Patients who were females, those with good performance status, those without any comorbid disease, who had non-metastatic disease, those with history of surgery, those treated with radiotherapy and those being treated with oral chemotherapeutic agents were more likely to be fasting than others. The fasting ones had more prevalent among patients with lymphoma, urogenital cancer and breast cancer; conversely, the rate of fasting status among patients with lung and gastrointestinal cancer was quite low. Only 20.8% of all patients asked their physician whether it was alright for them to fast and physicians generally had a negative attitude towards fasting (83.2%). Majority of cancer patients are not fasting during the month of Ramadan, and a small part of patients consult this situation to their physician. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Main Design Principles of the Cold Beam Pipe in the FastRamped Superconducting Accelerator Magnets for Heavy Ion Synchrotron SIS100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierau, A.; Schnizer, P.; Fischer, E.; Macavei, J.; Wilfert, S.; Koch, S.; Weiland, T.; Kurnishov, R.; Shcherbakov, P.

    SIS100, the world second large scale heavy ion synchrotron using fast ramped superconducting magnets, is to be built at FAIR. Its high current operation of intermediate charge state ions requires stable vacuum pressures technological feasible design solutions, three opposite requirements have to be met: minimum magnetic field distortion caused by AC losses, mechanical stability and low and stable wall temperatures of the beam pipe. We present the possible design versions of the beam pipe for the high current curved dipole. The pros and cons of these proposed designs were studied using simplified analytical models, FEM calculations and tests on models.

  1. Measurements of the fast-ion distribution function at ASDEX upgrade by collective Thomson scattering (CTS) using active and passive views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Rasmussen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) can provide measurements of the confined fast-ion distribution function resolved in space, time and 1D velocity space. On ASDEX Upgrade, the measured spectra include an additional signal which previously has hampered data interpretation. A new set-up using two......, the measured spectra agree quantitatively with the synthetic spectra in periods with and without NBI heating. For the discharges investigated, the central velocity distribution of neutral beam ions can be described by classical slowing down. These results will have a major impact on ITER physics exploration...

  2. Fast Acceleration of ``Killer'' Electrons and Energetic Ions by Interplanetary Shock Stimulated ULF Waves in the Inner Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Q.

    2010-12-01

    Energetic electrons and ions in the Van Allen radiation belt are the number one space weather threat. How the energetic particles are accelerated in the Van Allen radiation belts is one of major problems in the space physics. Very Low Frequency (VLF) wave-particle interaction has been considered as one of primary electron acceleration mechanisms because electron cyclotron resonances can easily occur in the VLF frequency range. However, recently, by using four Cluster spacecraft observations, we have found that after interplanetary shocks impact on the Earth’s magnetosphere, the acceleration of the energetic electrons in the radiation belt started nearly immediately and lasted for a few hours. The time scale (a few days) for traditional acceleration mechanism of VLF wave-particle interaction, as proposed by Horne et al. [1], to accelerate electrons to relativistic energies is too long to explain the observations. It is further found that interplanetary shocks or solar wind pressure pulses with even small dynamic pressure change can play a non-negligible role in the radiation belt dynamics. Interplanetary shocks interact with and the Earth’s magnetosphere manifests many fundamental important space physics phenomena including energetic particle acceleration. The mechanism of fast acceleration of energetic electrons in the radiation belt response to interplanetary shock impact contains three contributing parts: (1) the initial adiabatic acceleration due to the strong shock-related magnetic field compression; (2) then followed by the drift-resonant acceleration with poloidal ULF waves excited at different L-shells; and (3) particle acceleration due to fast damping electric fields associated with ULF waves. Particles will have a net acceleration since particles in the second half circle will not lose all of the energy gained in the first half cycle. The results reported in this paper cast new lights on understanding the acceleration of energetic particles in the

  3. Field Synergy Analysis and Optimization of the Thermal Behavior of Lithium Ion Battery Packs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a three dimensional (3D modeling has been built for a lithium ion battery pack using the field synergy principle to obtain a better thermal distribution. In the model, the thermal behavior of the battery pack was studied by reducing the maximum temperature, improving the temperature uniformity and considering the difference between the maximum and maximum temperature of the battery pack. The method is further verified by simulation results based on different environmental temperatures and discharge rates. The thermal behavior model demonstrates that the design and cooling policy of the battery pack is crucial for optimizing the air-outlet patterns of electric vehicle power cabins.

  4. Fluorescent switch for fast and selective detection of mercury (II) ions in vitro and in living cells and a simple device for its removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yue; Jiang, Shenlong; Miao, Qingqing; Zhang, Jia; Wang, Mengjing; An, Linna; Cao, Qinjingwen; Guan, Yafeng; Zhang, Qun; Liang, Gaolin

    2014-07-01

    A water-soluble, biocompatible, and fluorescent chemosensor (1) for label-free, simple, and fast detection of mercury ions (Hg(2+)) in aqueous solutions and in HepG2 cells with high selectivity is reported herein. Chelation of 1 with Hg(2+) results in the disappearance of its fluorescence emission at 350 nm and the appearance of a new emission at 405 nm. Selectivity and interference studies indicated that 1 could be selectively chelated by Hg(2+) without interference from other metal ions. Insight into the mechanisms responsible for its fluorescence effect was gained from ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. With these properties, 1 was successfully applied for imaging Hg(2+) in living cells and for removing Hg(2+) from river water. Moreover, we also constructed a simple device for fast and effective removal of Hg(2+) from contaminated liquid samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Interfacial behavior of perchlorate versus chloride ions in saturated aqueous salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosal, S; Kuo, I W; Baer, M D; Bluhm, H

    2009-04-14

    In recent years combination of theoretical and experimental work have presented a novel view of the aqueous interface wherein hard and/or multiply charged ions are excluded from the interface, but large polarizable anions show interfacial enhancement relative to the bulk. The observed trend in the propensity of anions to adsorb at the air/water interface appears to be reverse of the Hofmeister series for anions. This study focuses on experimental and theoretical examination of the partitioning behavior of perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) and chloride (Cl{sup -}) ions at the air/water interface. We have used ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique to directly probe the interfacial concentrations of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} and Cl{sup -} ions in sodium perchlorate and sodium chloride solutions, respectively. Experimental observations are compared with first principles molecular dynamics simulations. Both experimental and simulation results show enhancement of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} ion at the interface, compared with the absence of such enhancement in the case of Cl{sup -} ion. These observations are in agreement with the expected trend in the interfacial propensity of anions based on the Hofmeister series.

  6. Exit points, on plasma, of lost fast ions during NBI in TJ-II; Puntos de salida en el plasma de los iones rapidos durante NBI en el TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasp, J.

    1995-07-01

    The distribution of the exit points, on plasma border, for the lost fast ions during tangential balanced NBI in TJ-II helical axis Stellarator is theoretically analysed, as well for direct as for delayed losses. The link between, the position of those exit points and the corresponding at birth, orbits and drifts is analysed also. It is shown that such relation is rather independent of beam energy and plasma density and is mainly related to the magnetic configuration characteristics. This study is a needed intermediate step to the analysis of impacts of those ions on the vacuum vessel of TJ-II. (Author) 2 refs.

  7. A robustness analysis method with fast estimation of dose uncertainty distributions for carbon-ion therapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakama, Makoto; Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Inaniwa, Taku

    2016-08-07

    A simple and efficient approach is needed for robustness evaluation and optimization of treatment planning in routine clinical particle therapy. Here we propose a robustness analysis method using dose standard deviation (SD) in possible scenarios such as the robustness indicator and a fast dose warping method, i.e. deformation of dose distributions, taking into account the setup and range errors in carbon-ion therapy. The dose warping method is based on the nominal dose distribution and the water-equivalent path length obtained from planning computed tomography data with a clinically commissioned treatment planning system (TPS). We compared, in a limited number of scenarios at the extreme boundaries of the assumed error, the dose SD distributions obtained by the warping method with those obtained using the TPS dose recalculations. The accuracy of the warping method was examined by the standard-deviation-volume histograms (SDVHs) for varying degrees of setup and range errors for three different tumor sites. Furthermore, the influence of dose fractionation on the combined dose uncertainty, taking into consideration the correlation of setup and range errors between fractions, was evaluated with simple equations using the SDVHs and the mean value of SDs in the defined volume of interest. The results of the proposed method agreed well with those obtained with the dose recalculations in these comparisons, and the effectiveness of dose SD evaluations at the extreme boundaries of given errors was confirmed from the responsivity and DVH analysis of relative SD values for each error. The combined dose uncertainties depended heavily on the number of fractions, assumed errors and tumor sites. The typical computation time of the warping method is approximately 60 times less than that of the full dose calculation method using the TPS. The dose SD distributions and SDVHs with the fractionation effect will be useful indicators for robustness analysis in treatment planning, and the

  8. Benchmark of multi-phase method for the computation of fast ion distributions in a tokamak plasma in the presence of low-amplitude resonant MHD activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierwage, A.; Todo, Y.

    2017-11-01

    The transport of fast ions in a beam-driven JT-60U tokamak plasma subject to resonant magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mode activity is simulated using the so-called multi-phase method, where 4 ms intervals of classical Monte-Carlo simulations (without MHD) are interlaced with 1 ms intervals of hybrid simulations (with MHD). The multi-phase simulation results are compared to results obtained with continuous hybrid simulations, which were recently validated against experimental data (Bierwage et al., 2017). It is shown that the multi-phase method, in spite of causing significant overshoots in the MHD fluctuation amplitudes, accurately reproduces the frequencies and positions of the dominant resonant modes, as well as the spatial profile and velocity distribution of the fast ions, while consuming only a fraction of the computation time required by the continuous hybrid simulation. The present paper is limited to low-amplitude fluctuations consisting of a few long-wavelength modes that interact only weakly with each other. The success of this benchmark study paves the way for applying the multi-phase method to the simulation of Abrupt Large-amplitude Events (ALE), which were seen in the same JT-60U experiments but at larger time intervals. Possible implications for the construction of reduced models for fast ion transport are discussed.

  9. Study of the Hamiltonian of the response of a tokamak plasma to the ion cyclotron heating wave: minor heating and generation of current by a fast wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becoulet, A.

    1990-06-01

    The role of additional heatings, such as the ion Cyclotron heating, is to raise magnetic fusion plasmas to higher temperatures, to satisfy the ignition condition. The understanding of the wave absorption mechanisms by the plasma requires a precise description of the particle individual trajectories. The Hamiltonian mechanics, through action-angle variables, allows this description, and makes the computation of the wave-particle interaction easier. A quantitative evaluation of the intrinsic stochasticity is derived for ionic trajectories perturbated by the fast wave. The results show the importance of the Hamiltonian chaos in the formation of the deeply anisotropic distribution tails, encountered in minor heating scenarios. Direct interaction of the electrons and the fast wave is analysed. The influence of the various parameters is examined in order to optimize this scenario of fast wave current drive in tokamaks [fr

  10. The effects of maternal corticosterone levels on offspring behavior in fast- and slow-growth garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Kylie A; Vleck, Carol; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2009-01-01

    During embryonic development, viviparous offspring are exposed to maternally circulating hormones. Maternal stress increases offspring exposure to corticosterone and this hormonal exposure has the potential to influence developmental, morphological and behavioral traits of the resulting offspring. We treated pregnant female garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) with low levels of corticosterone after determining both natural corticosterone levels in the field and pre-treatment levels upon arrival in the lab. Additional measurements of plasma corticosterone were taken at days 1, 5, and 10 during the 10-day exposure, which occurred during the last third of gestation (of 4-month gestation). These pregnant snakes were from replicate populations of fast- and slow-growth ecotypes occurring in Northern California, with concomitant short and long lifespans. Field corticosterone levels of pregnant females of the slow-growth ecotype were an order of magnitude higher than fast-growth dams. In the laboratory, corticosterone levels increased over the 10 days of corticosterone manipulation for animals of both ecotypes, and reached similar plateaus for both control and treated dams. Despite similar plasma corticosterone levels in treated and control mothers, corticosterone-treated dams produced more stillborn offspring and exhibited higher total reproductive failure than control dams. At one month of age, offspring from fast-growth females had higher plasma corticosterone levels than offspring from slow-growth females, which is opposite the maternal pattern. Offspring from corticosterone-treated mothers, although unaffected in their slither speed, exhibited changes in escape behaviors and morphology that were dependent upon maternal ecotype. Offspring from corticosterone-treated fast-growth females exhibited less anti-predator reversal behavior; offspring from corticosterone-treated slow-growth females exhibited less anti-predator tail lashing behavior.

  11. Dynamic behavior of large oxide-fueled fast reactors during over-power transients due to boiling of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, L.F.G.

    1983-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of large oxide-fueled fast reactors during over-power transients or under-flow situations which result in boiling of sodium used as coolant. The fuel heat transfer was analysed to determine the fuel temperature profile and the Doppler feedback reactivity. The sodium pressure, temperature, mass flow rate and sodium voiding reactivity were obtained by solving the basic coolant hydrodynamics equations. (Author) [pt

  12. Adsorption behavior of carboxylated cellulose nanocrystal—polyethyleneimine composite for removal of Cr(VI) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chao; Jin, Ru-Na; Ouyang, Xiao-kun, E-mail: xkouyang@zjou.edu.cn; Wang, Yang-Guang

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • A carboxylated cellulose nanocrystal-polyethyleneimine composite (CCN-PEI) was prepared. • The as-prepared CCN-PEI was characterized by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, and XPS. • Results suggested that the reusable CCN-PEI could remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions with a high adsorption capacity. • The adsorption isotherm, thermodynamics, and kinetics of the adsorption process are also discussed. - Abstract: In this study, a composite adsorbent (CCN-PEI) composed of carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals (CCN) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) was prepared through an amidation reaction between the carboxyl groups of the CCN and the amine groups of the PEI. The adsorption performance of the CCN-PEI was tested by removing Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions. The physicochemical properties of the CCN and the Cr(VI) ion-loaded CCN-PEI were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. To investigate the adsorption kinetics of Cr(VI) ions onto this newly developed CCN-PEI, we performed experiments under different adsorption conditions, by varying the contact time, solution pH, initial Cr(VI) ion concentration, and adsorption temperature. The prepared CCN-PEI exhibited an encouraging uptake capacity of 358.42 mg × g{sup −1}. The adsorption process was fast: within the first 100 min, Cr(VI) ion adsorption onto the CCN-PEI was about 65%, and the adsorption equilibrium was reached within 250 min. Kinetics experiments indicated that the adsorption process could be described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Furthermore, our adsorption equilibrium data fit the Langmuir isotherms well. The calculated thermodynamic parameters, such as the free energy change (ΔG = −2.93 kJ × mol{sup −1}), enthalpy change (ΔH = −5.69 kJ × mol{sup −1}), and entropy change (ΔS = −9.14 kJ × mol{sup −1}), indicate that the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions onto CCN

  13. A defined network of fast-spiking interneurons in orbitofrontal cortex: responses to behavioral contingencies and ketamine administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Quirk

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC is a region of prefrontal cortex implicated in the motivational control of behavior and in related abnormalities seen in psychosis and depression. It has been hypothesized that a critical mechanism in these disorders is the dysfunction of GABAergic interneurons that normally regulate prefrontal information processing. Here, we studied a subclass of interneurons isolated in rat OFC using extracellular waveform and spike train analysis. During performance of a goal-directed behavioral task, the firing of this class of putative fast-spiking (FS interneurons showed robust temporal correlations indicative of a functionally coherent network. FS cell activity also co-varied with behavioral response latency, a key indicator of motivational state. Systemic administration of ketamine, a drug that can mimic psychosis, preferentially inhibited this cell class. Together, these results support the idea that OFC-FS interneurons form a critical link in the regulation of motivation by prefrontal circuits during normal and abnormal brain and behavioral states.

  14. Can Hindered Intramolecular Vibrational Energy Redistribution Lead to Non-Ergodic Behavior of Medium-Sized Ion Pairs?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shaffer, Christopher; Révész, Agnes; Schröder, Detlef; Severa, Lukáš; Teplý, Filip; Zins, E. L.; Jašíková, L.; Roithová, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 40 (2012), s. 10050-10053 ISSN 1433-7851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/10/2391 Grant - others:European Research Council(XE) StG ISORI; European Research Council(XE) AdG HORIZOMS Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : IR spectroscopy * ion pairs * non-ergodic behavior * ions * triflate * pyridinium ions Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 13.734, year: 2012

  15. Fuel pellet relocation behavior in fast reactor uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel pin at beginning-of-life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masaki; Ukai, Shigeharu; Asaga, Takeo

    1999-08-01

    The effects of fabrication parameters, irradiation conditions and fuel microstructural feature on fuel pellet relocation behavior in fast reactor fuel pins were investigated. This work focused only on beginning-of-life conditions, when fuel centerline temperature depends largely on the behavior. Fuel pellet relocation behavior in Joyo Mk-II driver could not be characterized because of the lack of data. And the behavior in FFTF driver and its larger diameter type fuel pins could not be characterized because of the extensive lot-by-lot scatters. The behavior both in Monju type and in Joyo power-to-melt type fuel pins were similar to each other, and depends largely on the as-fabricated gap width while the effects of linear heat rate and the extent of microstructural evolution were negligible. And fuel pellet centerline melting seems to affect slightly the behavior. The correlation, which describes the extent of relocation both in Monju type and in Joyo power-to-melt type fuel pins, were newly formulated and extrapolated for Joyo Mk-II driver, FFTF driver and its larger diameter type fuel pins. And the behavior in Joyo Mk-II driver seemed to be similar. On the contrary, the similarity with JNC fuel pins was observed case-by-case in FFTF driver and its larger diameter type fuel pins. (author)

  16. Lithiation Behavior of Silicon Nanowire Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Impact of Functionalization and Porosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerling, Marcus; Fenske, Daniela; Peters, Fabian; Schwenzel, Julian; Busse, Matthias

    2018-01-05

    Metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) provides a versatile way to synthesize silicon nanowires (SiNW) of different morphologies. MACE was used to synthesize oxide-free porous and nonporous SiNW for use as anodes for lithium-ion batteries. To improve their processing behavior, the SiNW were functionalized using acrylic acid. Differential capacity plots were used as a way to identify the degradation processes during cycling through tracking the formation of Li 15 Si 4 and changes in polarization. The cycling performance between porous and nonporous SiNW differed regarding Coulombic efficiency and cycling stability. The differences were attributed to the porous hull and its ability to reduce the volume expansion, although not through its porous nature but the reduced uptake of Li ions. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Influence of carbonate ions on the micellization behavior in triblock copolymer solution

    CERN Document Server

    Thiyagarajan, P

    2002-01-01

    SANS was used to investigate the micellization behavior of triblock copolymers (F68, F88 and F108) as functions of carbonate ion concentration and temperature. SANS data were fitted to determine the sizes of the core and corona, inter-micelle distance, association number and the volume fraction of the micelles. As the polymer molecular weight increases, the core radius and the radius of gyration (R sub g) of the corona and the inter-micelle distance increase. The carbonate ion concentration and polymer molecular weight have dramatic influence on the temperatures at which the micellization and spherical-to-cylindrical micelle transformation occur. The mechanism by which this phenomenon occurs in these solutions is through a gradual dehydration of polymers with increasing carbonate concentration and/or temperature. (orig.)

  18. Composition and temporal behavior of ambient ions in the boreal forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ehn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A recently developed atmospheric pressure interface mass spectrometer (APi-TOF measured the negative and positive ambient ion composition at a boreal forest site. As observed in previous studies, the negative ions were dominated by strong organic and inorganic acids (e.g. malonic, nitric and sulfuric acid, whereas the positive ions consisted of strong bases (e.g. alkyl pyridines and quinolines. Several new ions and clusters of ions were identified based on their exact masses, made possible by the high resolution, mass accuracy and sensitivity of the APi-TOF. Time series correlograms aided in peak identification and assigning the atomic compositions to molecules. Quantum chemical calculations of proton affinities and cluster stabilities were also used to confirm the plausibility of the assignments. Acids in the gas phase are predominantly formed by oxidation in the gas phase, and thus the concentrations are expected to vary strongly between day and night. This was also the case in this study, where the negative ions showed strong diurnal behavior, whereas the daily changes in the positive ions were considerably smaller. A special focus in this work was the changes in the ion distributions occurring during new particle formation events. We found that sulfuric acid, together with its clusters, dominated the negative ion spectrum during these events. The monomer (HSO4 was the largest peak, together with the dimer (H2SO4 · HSO4 and trimer ((H2SO42 · HSO4. SO5 also tracked HSO4 at around 20% of the HSO4 concentration at all times. During the strongest events, the tetramer and a cluster with the tetramer and ammonia were also detected. Quantum chemical calculations predict that sulfuric acid clusters containing ammonia are much more stable when

  19. The ligational behavior of an isatinic quinolyl hydrazone towards copper(II- ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Marwa A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of the isatinic quinolyl hydrazones arises from incorporating the quinoline ring with the indole ring. Quinoline ring has therapeutic and biological activities whereas, the indole ring occurs in Jasmine flowers and Orange blossoms. As a ligand, the isatin moiety is potentially ambidentate and can coordinate the metal ions either through its lactam or lactim forms. In a previous study, the ligational behavior of a phenolic quinolyl hydrazone towards copper(II- ions has been studied. As continuation of our interest, the present study is planned to check the ligational behavior of an isatinic quinolyl hydrazone. Results New homo- and heteroleptic copper(II- complexes were obtained from the reaction of an isatinic quinolyl hydrazone (HL with several copper(II- salts viz. Clˉ, Brˉ, NO3ˉ, ClO4-, SO42- and AcO-. The obtained complexes have Oh, Td and D4h- symmetry and fulfill the strong coordinating ability of Clˉ, Brˉ, NO3ˉ and SO42- anions. Depending on the type of the anion, the ligand coordinates the copper(II- ions either through its lactam (NO3ˉ and ClO4- or lactim (the others forms. Conclusion The effect of anion for the same metal ion is obvious from either the geometry of the isolated complexes (Oh, Td and D4h or the various modes of bonding. Also, the obtained complexes fulfill the strong coordinating ability of Clˉ, Brˉ, NO3ˉ and SO42- anions in consistency with the donor ability of the anions. In case of copper(II- acetate, a unique homoleptic complex (5 was obtained in which the AcO- anion acts as a base enough to quantitatively deprotonate the hydrazone. The isatinic hydrazone uses its lactim form in most complexes.

  20. SPORT: A new sub-nanosecond time-resolved instrument to study swift heavy ion-beam induced luminescence - Application to luminescence degradation of a fast plastic scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardés, E.; Balanzat, E.; Ban-d'Etat, B.; Cassimi, A.; Durantel, F.; Grygiel, C.; Madi, T.; Monnet, I.; Ramillon, J.-M.; Ropars, F.; Lebius, H.

    2013-02-01

    We developed a new sub-nanosecond time-resolved instrument to study the dynamics of UV-visible luminescence under high stopping power heavy ion irradiation. We applied our instrument, called SPORT, on a fast plastic scintillator (BC-400) irradiated with 27-MeV Ar ions having high mean electronic stopping power of 2.6 MeV/μm. As a consequence of increasing permanent radiation damages with increasing ion fluence, our investigations reveal a degradation of scintillation intensity together with, thanks to the time-resolved measurement, a decrease in the decay constant of the scintillator. This combination indicates that luminescence degradation processes by both dynamic and static quenching, the latter mechanism being predominant. Under such high density excitation, the scintillation deterioration of BC-400 is significantly enhanced compared to that observed in previous investigations, mainly performed using light ions. The observed non-linear behaviour implies that the dose at which luminescence starts deteriorating is not independent on particles' stopping power, thus illustrating that the radiation hardness of plastic scintillators can be strongly weakened under high excitation density in heavy ion environments.

  1. Degradation Behavior of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Lifetime Models and Field Measured Frequency Regulation Mission Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2016-01-01

    Energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have been proposed as an environmentally friendly alternative to traditional conventional generating units for providing grid frequency regulation. One major challenge regarding the use of Lithium-ion batteries in such applications...... of the Li-ion battery and its degradation behavior is required. Thus, this paper aims to investigate, based on a laboratory developed lifetime model, the degradation behavior of the performance parameters (i.e., capacity and power capability) of a Li-ion battery cell when it is subjected to a field measured...... is their higher cost—in comparison with other storage technologies or with the traditional frequency regulation methods—combined with performance-degradation uncertainties. In order to surpass this challenge and to allow for optimal sizing and proper operation of the battery, accurate knowledge about the lifetime...

  2. Antimuscarinic-induced convulsions in fasted mice after food intake: No evidence of spontaneous seizures, behavioral changes or neuronal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enginar, Nurhan; Nurten, Asiye; Türkmen, Aslı Zengin; Gündoğan, Gül İpek; Özünal, Zeynep Güneş

    2017-01-01

    Prolonged or repeated seizures have been shown to cause spontaneous recurrent seizures, increased anxiety‑related behavior, locomotor hyperactivity, impaired functions of learning and memory, and neuronal damage in the hippocampus and other brain regions in animals. Mice and rats treated with antimuscarinic drugs after fasting for two days or less develop convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum. To address whether such behavioral and neuroanatomic changes occur following these convulsions, mice treated i.p. with saline (control) or 2.4 mg/kg atropine and given food after 24 h of fasting were grouped according to seizure scores for behavioral and histological analysis. Following convulsions, the occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures was observed for 30 days. Motor activity and grooming behavior were assessed in the open field, and memory was assessed using the novel object recognition test 4 and 7 days after onset of convulsions, respectively. Animals allocated for the histological analysis were decapitated 7 days after onset of convulsions and hippocampal slices were evaluated for the percentage of degenerating neurons stained with Fluoro‑Jade C. Spontaneous recurrent seizures, locomotor alterations, anxiety‑related behavior, memory impairment, and neuronal loss in the granular layer of the dentate gyrus were not detected in the animals with seizure score 1-2 or 3-5. These results are in accordance with those related to the absence of behavioral changes, cognitive deficits, and hippocampal neuronal damage after single brief seizures in animals and patients with epilepsy.

  3. Double differential electron emission from N2 under impact of fast C6+ ions and Young-type interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Saikat; Biswas, Shubhadeep; Tachino, Carmen A.; Rivarola, Roberto D.; Tribedi, Lokesh C.

    2015-08-01

    The absolute Double Differential Cross Sections (DDCS) have been obtained for electron emission from nitrogen molecule under the impact of 72 MeV bare carbon ions. The energy dependence of the electron DDCS was studied for 12 different angles: 20°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, 80°, 90°, 105°, 120°, 135°, 150°, and 160°. At each angle the emitted electrons having energies between 1 and 500 eV were detected. The main interest is to look for the possible existence of interference patterns in the electron spectra due to coherent emission from the two molecular centers. The dynamics of the interaction is described within the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state model (CDW-EIS). The DDCS ratios (i.e N2/2N) do not show a clear signature of the oscillatory behavior arising from the interference unlike that observed in the case of H2. The forward-backward angular asymmetry( α) parameter, as deduced from DDCS values at 30° and 150°, increases monotonically with velocity of the emitted electrons and does show a mild oscillation due to the Young-type electron interference in a molecular double slit. These observations are in qualitative agreement with the prediction of the CDW-EIS model. The apparent absence of the oscillation in the DDCS ratios or a mild oscillation in the α-parameter is qualitatively explained in terms of partial cancellation of contributions arising from different molecular orbitals. The single differential cross sections (SDCS) are well reproduced by the CDW-EIS model as well as the semi-empirical Rudd model. The overall agreement of the DDCS data with the CDW-EIS is extremely good. However, a closer inspection revealed occasional deviations in the angular distribution, particularly in extreme forward and backward angles.

  4. Penta-graphene: A Promising Anode Material as the Li/Na-Ion Battery with Both Extremely High Theoretical Capacity and Fast Charge/Discharge Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bo; Li, Yan-Chun; Yu, Xue-Fang; Cheng, Jian-Bo

    2016-12-28

    Recently, a new two-dimensional (2D) carbon allotrope named penta-graphene was theoretically proposed ( Zhang , S. ; et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2015 , 112 , 2372 ) and has been predicted to be the promising candidate for broad applications due to its intriguing properties. In this work, by using first-principles simulation, we have further extended the potential application of penta-graphene as the anode material for a Li/Na-ion battery. Our results show that the theoretical capacity of Li/Na ions on penta-graphene reaches up to 1489 mAh·g -1 , which is much higher than that of most of the previously reported 2D anode materials. Meanwhile, the calculated low open-circuit voltages (from 0.24 to 0.60 V), in combination with the low diffusion barriers (≤0.33 eV) and the high electronic conductivity during the whole Li/Na ions intercalation processes, further show the advantages of penta-graphene as the anode material. Particularly, molecular dynamics simulation (300 K) reveals that Li ion could freely diffuse on the surface of penta-graphene, and thus the ultrafast Li ion diffusivity is expected. Superior performance of penta-graphene is further confirmed by comparing with the other 2D anode materials. The light weight and unique atomic arrangement (with isotropic furrow paths on the surface) of penta-graphene are found to be mainly responsible for the high Li/Na ions storage capacity and fast diffusivity. In this regard, except penta-graphene, many other recently proposed 2D metal-free materials with pentagonal Cairo-tiled structures may be the potential candidates as the Li/Na-ion battery anodes.

  5. Fast calculator for X-ray emission due to Radiative Recombination and Radiative Electron Capture in relativistic heavy-ion atom collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdrich, M. O.; Weber, G.; Gumberidze, A.; Wu, Z. W.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2017-10-01

    In experiments with highly charged, fast heavy ions the Radiative Recombination (RR) and Radiative Electron Capture (REC) processes have significant cross sections in an energy range of up to a few GeV / u . They are some of the most important charge changing processes in collisions of heavy ions with atoms and electrons, leading to the emission of a photon along with the formation of the ground and excited atomic states. Hence, for the understanding and planning of experiments, in particular for X-ray spectroscopy studies, at accelerator ring facilities, such as FAIR, it is crucial to have a good knowledge of these cross sections and the associated radiation characteristics. In the frame of this work a fast calculator, named RECAL, for the RR and REC process is presented and its capabilities are demonstrated with the analysis of a recently conducted experiment at the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany. A method is presented to determine unknown X-ray emission cross sections via normalization of the recorded spectra to REC cross sections calculated by RECAL.

  6. Multi-phase simulation of fast ion profile flattening due to Alfvén eigenmodes in a DIII-D experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todo, Y.; Van Zeeland, M.A.; Bierwage, A.; Heidbrink, W.W.

    2014-01-01

    A multi-phase simulation that is a combination of classical simulation and hybrid simulation for energetic particles interacting with a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid is developed to simulate the nonlinear dynamics on the slowing down time scale of the energetic particles. The hybrid simulation code is extended with realistic beam deposition profile, collisions and losses, and is used for both the classical and hybrid phases. The code is run without MHD perturbations in the classical phase, while the interaction between the energetic particles and the MHD fluid is simulated in the hybrid phase. In a multi-phase simulation of DIII-D discharge #142111, the stored beam ion energy is saturated due to Alfvén eigenmodes (AE modes) at a level lower than in the classical simulation. After the stored fast ion energy is saturated, the hybrid simulation is run continuously. It is demonstrated that the fast ion spatial profile is significantly flattened due to the interaction with the multiple AE modes with amplitude v/v A  ∼ δB/B ∼ O(10 −4 ). The dominant AE modes are toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE modes), which is consistent with the experimental observation at the simulated moment. The amplitude of the temperature fluctuations brought about by the TAE modes is of the order of 1% of the equilibrium temperature. This is also comparable with electron cyclotron emission measurements in the experiment. (paper)

  7. Development of Pseudocapacitive Properties in Nanostructured LiMn2O4 as a Fast Charging Cathode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesel, Benjamin

    Pseudocapacitive materials provide a high energy density solution to fast charging, long cycle life energy storage. This work explores the pseudocapacitive characteristics and attempts to optimize nanostructured LiMn2O 4 for use as a cathode material in fast charging, long cycle lifetime lithium ion batteries. Because slow kinetics in traditional batteries is linked to long lithium ion diffusion lengths through micron sized grains, the key to achieving pseudocapacitance in most materials is through nanostructuring to reduced diffusion distance. One of the most effective methods for producing nanostructures is through nanocrystal/polymer templating, which produces a porous structure with interconnected nanoscale walls capable of intercalating lithium ions at pseudocapactive rates. To make a full pseudocapacitive lithium ion battery a reality, however, a pseudocapacitive material of each electrode type, anode and cathode, must be paired. To date, many pseudocapacitive materials have been identified, but nearly all of them are redox active in a voltage range more suitable for anode materials. Recently, we identified a pseudocapacitive cathode material, nanostructured LiMn2O4 which shows impressive rate capabilities. Unfortunately, the improvements came at the cost of energy density, which decreased significantly with decreasing crystallite size. Kinetics for different crystallite sizes, however, increased suddenly below a certain critical crystallite size. We found that this critical crystallite size, below which pseudocapacitance occurred, was linked to a suppression of phase transition in nanoscale LiMn2O4. To address the capacity loss due to dissolution in high surface area nanostructured LiMn 2O4 powders, a sol-gel templating method which formed dissolution resistant surfaces was employed. The resulting materials had long needle-like morphology and showed higher capacity and less dissolution than a similarly sized material synthesized with a different structure

  8. ions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (MP2 B2). In order to draw the final conclusion about the content of the isomers of pentaatomic ions in saturated vapor over cesium chloride, we have taken into account the entropy factor. We considered the isomerization reactions which are given below: Cs3Cl2. + (V-shaped) = Cs3Cl2. + (cyclic or bipyramidal). (1). Cs2Cl3.

  9. Adsorption Behavior and Mechanism for the Uptake of Fluoride Ions by Reed Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rong; Yang, Shengke; Xu, Haiyang; Wang, Zongzhou; Chen, Yangyang; Wang, Yanhua

    2018-01-09

    The adsorption behavior and mechanism for the uptake of fluoride ions by untreated and desugared reed residues (roots, stems and leaves) were studied through adsorption experiments, elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy and surface area analysis. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of untreated and desugared reeds followed the order: desugared roots 2136 mg/kg > desugared leaves 1825 mg/kg > desugared stems 1551 mg/kg > untreated roots 191 mg/kg > untreated stems 175 mg/kg > untreated leaves 150 mg/kg, so adsorption capacity of desugared reeds was larger than that of the untreated reeds. The adsorption kinetic of fluoride ions followed a pseudo-first-order model. A Langmuir model could be used to fit the isothermal adsorption process which was a spontaneous endothermic reaction involving mainly physical adsorption. The ΔG for the uptake of fluoride by the desugared reeds was more negative, so the degree of spontaneity was higher than for the use of the untreated reeds. After samples were desugared, the specific surface area and aromaticity of the reed increased, while the polarity and hydrophilicity decreased, which explained the adsorption amount of desugared reed was higher than that of the untreated. This study enriches techniques and methods of removing fluoride ions from water.

  10. Relation between the swelling and the disordering in ionic crystals irradiated by fast heavy ions; Relation entre le gonflement et la creation de defauts dans les cristaux ioniques irradies par des ions lourds rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boccanfuso, M

    2001-12-01

    When fast heavy ions penetrate in matter, they slow down essentially by depositing their energy on the electrons. This can lead to strong electronic excitation densities in the solid and then to structural modifications. In this work, calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) was used to look further into the damage induced by irradiation with fast heavy ions in ionic crystals. Four techniques were mainly employed to characterise this damage. These techniques of analysis are wide angle X-ray diffraction, surface profilometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and UV-visible optical absorption spectroscopy. The results of this work show that CaF{sub 2} answers in a multiple way to the electronic excitations. For stopping powers higher than approximately 5 keV/nm, a polygonization seems to occur. This causes a structural disorder, a swelling of 0.27 % and the formation of fractures in the material. A second damage mechanism is caused above approximately 13 keV/nm and results in a loss of the initial crystalline structure. However, optical centres appear whatever the ion stopping power, which indicates that these defects cannot be the cause of the two above mentioned damage mechanisms. According to a thermal spike model, the two thresholds can be linked to melting and sublimation energy of the material, respectively. (author)

  11. Intermittent behavior of fast and slow target fragments from 16O-AgBr interactions at 3.7 A GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junsheng; Zhang Donghai; Liu Fuhu

    2008-01-01

    Angular distributions of fast and slow target particles produced in 16 O-AgBr interaction at 3.7 A GeV have been reported. Intermittency and fractal behavior have been studied for emission spectra of target associated fast and slow particles. Intermittent behavior is observed for both knocked out and slow target fragments. In both the cases anomalous dimensions are seen to increase with the order of moments thereby indicating the association of multifractility with production mechanism of both fast and slow target associated particles

  12. Safeguarding Self-Governance: A Grounded Theory of Older Patients’ Pattern of Behavior in Relation to their Relatives in Fast-track Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie B.; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Lindhardt Damsgaard, Tove

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to generate a grounded theory of older patients’ pattern of behavior in relation to their relatives’ involvement in fast-track programs during total joint replacement. Sixteen patients were recruited in orthopedic wards. Data collection included 11 interviews......-governance emerged in the analysis as the core category of our theory and pattern of behavior of the older patients in relation to their relatives. The older patients’ main concern was to complete the fast-track program while maintaining autonomy, which they resolved through four strategies of actions: embracing......, shielding, distancing, and masking. Keywords: Fast-track program, grounded theory, older patients, relatives, total joint replacement....

  13. Charge Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy Study of 3\\div7 MeV/amu Ion and Fast Neutron Irradiation-Induced Changes in Mos Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Stano, J; Ziska, M

    2001-01-01

    Radiation-induced changes in MOS capacitor structures irradiated with Bi (710 MeV), Kr (245 MeV), Ar (280, 155 MeV) ions and fast neutrons (E>0.1 MeV) have been studied in view of Q-DLTS and C-V techniques. As was found, high energy ion and neutron irradiation enhance the induction of positive charge density in the oxide layer of MOS samples. The number of electrically active defects in this layer strongly decreases under dense electronic excitations. No dependence of vacancy-oxygen center concentration in silicon substrate normalized per number of displaced atoms by nuclear elastic collisions on projectile type have been observed.

  14. Rapid identification and quantitation of compounds with forensic interest using fast liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry and library searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlainen, Katja; Sippola, Erkki; Kostiainen, Risto

    2003-04-25

    A fast liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS-MS) method by using a monolithic column, gradient elution and ion trap mass spectrometer was developed for 14 forensically interesting and chemically different compounds. All compounds were eluted within 2.5 min and the total analysis time was 5 min including stabilisation time required for the next injection. All the compounds, basics, neutrals and acids were efficiently ionised by positive ion ESI. A laboratory library including MS-MS spectra and retention times was developed and tested. Results with 476 standard samples and 50 authentic samples showed that the compounds studied can be unambiguously identified with the library. A quantitative method was developed for the compounds using external calibration. The evaluation process showed good linearity of the method and reasonable repeatability. Limits of detection ranged from 10.0 to 50.0 ng/ml.

  15. 3-D CFD modeling and experimental testing of thermal behavior of a Li-Ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gümüşsu, Emre; Ekici, Özgür; Köksal, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermally fully predictive 3-D CFD model is developed for Li-Ion batteries. • Complete flow field around the battery and conduction inside the battery are solved. • Macro-scale thermophysical properties and the entropic term are investigated. • Discharge rate and usage history of the battery are systematically investigated. • Reliability of the model was tested through experimental measurements. - Abstract: In this study, a 3-D computational fluid dynamics model was developed for investigating the thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries under natural convection. The model solves the complete flow field around the battery as well as conduction inside the battery using the well-known heat generation model of Bernardi et al. (1985). The model is thermally fully predictive so it requires only electrical performance parameters of the battery to calculate its temperature during discharging. Using the model, detailed investigation of the effects of the variation of the macro-scale thermophysical properties and the entropic term of the heat generation model was carried out. Results show that specific heat is a critical property that has a significant impact on the simulation results whereas thermal conductivity has relatively minor importance. Moreover, the experimental data can be successfully predicted without taking the entropic term into account in the calculation of the heat generation. The difference between the experimental and predicted battery surface temperature was less than 3 °C for all discharge rates and regardless of the usage history of the battery. The developed model has the potential to be used for the investigation of the thermal behavior of Li-Ion batteries in different packaging configurations under natural and forced convection.

  16. Probing the Complexities of Structural Changes in Layered Oxide Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries during Fast Charge-Discharge Cycling and Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Enyuan; Wang, Xuelong; Yu, Xiqian; Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2018-02-20

    The rechargeable lithium-ion battery (LIB) is the most promising energy storage system to power electric vehicles with high energy density and long cycling life. However, in order to meet customers' demands for fast charging, the power performances of current LIBs need to be improved. From the cathode aspect, layer-structured cathode materials are widely used in today's market and will continue to play important roles in the near future. The high rate capability of layered cathode materials during charging and discharging is critical to the power performance of the whole cell and the thermal stability is closely related to the safety issues. Therefore, the in-depth understanding of structural changes of layered cathode materials during high rate charging/discharging and the thermal stability during heating are essential in developing new materials and improving current materials. Since structural changes take place from the atomic level to the whole electrode level, combination of characterization techniques covering multilength scales is quite important. In many cases, this means using comprehensive tools involving diffraction, spectroscopy, and imaging to differentiate the surface from the bulk and to obtain structural/chemical information with different levels of spatial resolution. For example, hard X-ray spectroscopy can yield the bulk information and soft X-ray spectroscopy can give the surface information; X-ray based imaging techniques can obtain spatial resolution of tens of nanometers, and electron-based microcopy can go to angstroms. In addition to challenges associated with different spatial resolution, the dynamic nature of structural changes during high rate cycling and heating requires characterization tools to have the capability of collecting high quality data in a time-resolved fashion. Thanks to the advancement in synchrotron based techniques and high-resolution electron microscopy, high temporal and spatial resolutions can now be achieved. In

  17. Modification and characterization of PET fibers for fast removal of Hg(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) metal ions from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monier, M., E-mail: monierchem@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Abdel-Latif, D.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► PET fibers were graft copolymerized with acrylonitrile. ► Further modification was carried out through the reaction with hydrazine hydrate and then potassium thiocyanate. ► The resulted chelating fibers were characterized by various instrumental methods. ► The fibers were applied to remove Hg{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} from aqueous solutions. -- Abstract: A new chelating fiber (PET-TSC) was prepared with PET for fast removal of Hg{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} from water. Elemental analysis, SEM, BET surface area, {sup 13}C NMR, FTIR and X-ray diffraction spectra were used to characterize PET-TSC. The higher uptake capacity of the studied metal ions was observed at higher pH values. Kinetic study indicated that the adsorption of Hg{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} followed the pseudo-second-order equation, suggesting chemical sorption as the rate-limiting step of the adsorption process. The best interpretation for the equilibrium data was given by Langmuir isotherm, and the maximum adsorption capacities were 120.02, 96.81 and 78.08 mg/g for Hg{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} ions, respectively. 1 M HCl or 0.1 M EDTA could be used as effective eluant to desorb the Hg{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} adsorbed by PET-TSC, and the adsorption capacity of PET-TSC for the three heavy metal ions could still be maintained at about 90% level at the 5th cycle. Accordingly, it is expected that PET-TSC could be used as a promising adsorbent for fast removal of heavy metal ions from water, and the present work also might provide a simple and effective method to reuse the waste PET fibers.

  18. Modeling the behavior of metallic fast reactor fuels during extended transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, J.M.; Liu, Y.Y.; Billone, M.C.; Tsai, H.C.

    1993-01-01

    Passive safety features in metal-fueled reactors utilizing the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel system make it possible to avoid core damage for extended time periods even when automatic scram system fail to operate or heat removal systems are severely degraded. The time scale for these transients are intermediate between those that have traditionally been analyzed in fast reactor safety assessments and those of normal operation. Consequently, it has been necessary to validate models and computer codes (FPIN2 and LIFE-METAL) for application to this intermediate time regime. Results from out-of-reactor Whole Pin Furnace tests are being used for this purpose. Pretest predictions for tests FM-1 through FM-6 have been performed and calculations have been compared with the experimental measurements. (orig.)

  19. Modeling the behavior of metallic fast reactor fuels during extended transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, J.M.; Liu, Y.Y.; Billone, M.C.; Tsai, H.C.

    1992-01-01

    Passive safety features in the metal-fueled Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) make it possible to avoid core damage for extended time periods even when automatic scram systems fail to operate or heat removal systems are severely degraded. The time scale for these transients are intermediate between those that have traditionally been analyzed in fast reactor safety assessments and those of normal operation. Consequently, it has been necessary to validate models and computer codes (FPIN2 and LIFE-METAL) for application to this time regime. Results from out-of-reactor Whole Pin Furnace tests are being used for this purpose. Pretest predictions for tests FM-1 through FM-6 have been performed and calculations have been compared with the experimental measurements

  20. Influence of Brand Loyalty on Fast Food Industry - Consumer buying behavior of India.

    OpenAIRE

    Tandon, Manav

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine how consumers are influenced by factors of brand loyalty towards fast food brands. The research was conducted in Delhi with Indian consumers. People who filled the questionnaire are adults who are working or are looking for job. This research was adopted based on seven factor of brand loyalty. The seven factors of brand loyalty are brand name, product quality, price, style, promotion, and service quality and restaurant environment. Brand name has sho...

  1. Spring fasting behavior in a marine apex predator provides an index of ecosystem productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Wilson, Ryan R.; Douglas, David C.; Muhlenbruch, Vanessa L; Atwood, Todd C.; Regehr, Eric V.; Richardson, Evan; Pilfold, Nicholas; Derocher, Andrew E.; Durner, George M.; Stirling, Ian; Amstrup, Steven C.; St Martin, Michelle; Pagano, Anthony M.; Simac, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    The effects of declining Arctic sea ice on local ecosystem productivity are not well understood but have been shown to vary inter-specifically, spatially, and temporally. Because marine mammals occupy upper trophic levels in Arctic food webs, they may be useful indicators for understanding variation in ecosystem productivity. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are apex predators that primarily consume benthic and pelagic-feeding ice-associated seals. As such, their productivity integrates sea ice conditions and the ecosystem supporting them. Declining sea ice availability has been linked to negative population effects for polar bears but does not fully explain observed population changes. We examined relationships between spring foraging success of polar bears and sea ice conditions, prey productivity, and general patterns of ecosystem productivity in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas (CSs). Fasting status (≥7 days) was estimated using serum urea and creatinine levels of 1,448 samples collected from 1,177 adult and subadult bears across three subpopulations. Fasting increased in the Beaufort Sea between 1983–1999 and 2000–2016 and was related to an index of ringed seal body condition. This change was concurrent with declines in body condition of polar bears and observed changes in the diet, condition and/or reproduction of four other vertebrate consumers within the food chain. In contrast, fasting declined in CS polar bears between periods and was less common than in the two Beaufort Sea subpopulations consistent with studies demonstrating higher primary productivity and maintenance or improved body condition in polar bears, ringed seals, and bearded seals despite recent sea ice loss in this region. Consistency between regional and temporal variation in spring polar bear fasting and food web productivity suggests that polar bears may be a useful indicator species. Furthermore, our results suggest that spatial and temporal ecological variation is important in

  2. Sintering behavior of porous wall tile bodies during fast single-firing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei José Gomes Sousa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In ceramic wall tile processing, fast single-firing cycles have been widely used. In this investigation a fast single-firing porous wall tile mixture was prepared using raw materials from the North Fluminense region.Specimens were obtained by uniaxial pressing and sintered in air at various temperatures (1080 - 1200 °C using a fast-firing cycle (60 minutes. Evolution of the microstructure was followed by XRD and SEM. The results revealed that the main phases formed during the sintering step are anorthite, gehlenite and hematite. It appears that the sintering process is characterized by the presence of a small amount of a liquid phase below 1140 °C. As a result, the microstructure of the ceramic bodies showed a network of small dense zones interconnected with a porous phase. In addition, the strength of the material below 1140 °C appeared to be related to the type and quantity of crystalline phases in the sintered bodies.

  3. Eating on the run. A qualitative study of health agency and eating behaviors among fast food employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney-Day, Norah E; Womack, Catherine A; Oddo, Vanessa M

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the relationship between obesity and fast food consumption encompasses a broad range of individual level and environmental factors. One theoretical approach, the health capability framework, focuses on the complex set of conditions allowing individuals to be healthy. This qualitative study aimed to identify factors that influence individual level health agency with respect to healthy eating choices in uniformly constrained environments (e.g., fast food restaurants). We used an inductive qualitative research design to develop an interview guide, conduct open-ended interviews with a purposive sample of 14 student fast food workers (aged 18-25), and analyze the data. Data analysis was conducted iteratively during the study with multiple coders to identify themes. Emergent themes included environmental influences on eating behaviors (time, cost, restaurant policies, social networks) and internal psychological factors (feelings associated with hunger, food knowledge versus food preparation know-how, reaction to physical experiences, perceptions of food options, delayed gratification, and radical subjectivity). A localized, embedded approach to analyzing the factors driving the obesity epidemic is needed. Addressing contextual interactions between internal psychological and external environmental factors responds to social justice and public health concerns, and may yield more relevant and effective interventions for vulnerable communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In-situ field-ion microscope study of the recovery behavior of heavy metal ion-irradiated tungsten, tungsten (rhenium) alloys and molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, C.H.

    1977-06-01

    Three field ion microscope (FIM) experiments were carried out to study the annealing behavior of heavy ion irradiated tungsten, tungsten (rhenium) alloys and molybdenum. The first experiment dealt with the stage I long-range migration of tungsten self interstitial atoms (SIAs) in high purity tungsten of resistivity ratio, R = 24,000 (R = rho 300 /rho 4 . 2 , where rho 300 and rho 4 . 2 are the room temperature and 0 0 C resistivities). The FIM specimens were irradiated in situ at 18 K with 30 keV W + ions to an average dose of 5 x 10 12 ions cm -2 and subsequently examined by the pulsed-field evaporation technique. The second experiment dealt with the phenomenon of impurity atom trapping of SIAs during long-range migration. It was shown that rhenium atoms in a tungsten matrix tend to capture tungsten SIAs and remain bound up to temperatures as high as 390 K. The final experiment was concerned with the low temperature annealing kinetics of irradiated molybdenum. High purity molybdenum of resistivity ratio R = 5700 was irradiated at 10 K with 30 keV Mo + ions to a dose of approximately 5 x 10 12 ions cm -2 . The results indicated that the electric field has only a minimal effect on the SIA annealing kinetics. This tends to strengthen the contention that the molybdenum SIA becomes mobile at 32 K

  5. Corrosion behavior of Ti and TI6Al4V in citrate buffers containing fluoride ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Marlene Schmidt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fluoride ions concentration on the electrochemical behavior of Ti grade 2 and Ti6Al4V in citrate buffers was studied. Open circuit potential (OCP measurements and voltammetric studies of the samples in the fluoride containing citrate buffers revealed a dissolution process when the pH falls below 5.0 and the NaF content is higher than 0.01 M. However, in citrate pH 7.6 the materials showed a passive behavior even in 0.1 M NaF. Some micrographs of Ti grade 2 obtained after longer immersion times in citrate pH 5.0 with 0.01 M NaF showed a surface attack. EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Sprectroscopy data obtained at the OCP revealed that the film resistance decreases when the immersion time is increased in pH 5.0 containing 0.1 M NaF. In the citrate pH 7.6 the EIS data indicated a two-layer model of an oxide film consisting of a more compact inner layer and a porous outer layer. On the other hand, the EIS results in citrate pH 4.0 change significantly when the fluoride ions concentration increases from 0.01 to 0.05 M. The electrochemical data revealed that the corrosion behavior of Ti grade 2 and Ti6Al4V in the citrate buffers depends on the pH, the fluoride content and the exposure time.

  6. [The impact of four metal ions on the phase behavior of phosphatidylcholine at the air/water interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Lin, Zhicun

    2011-04-01

    The impact of metal ions on the phase behavior of phosphatidylcholine (PC) was investigated at the air/water interface by surface pressure-area (pi-A) isotherm measurements. The analysis of the pi-A isotherms showed that with the metal ionic radius decreasing, the concentration of the metal ions C increasing, and the valence of metal ions Q increasing, the amount of the corresponding curves of A0 decreases, the phase transition point would change more apparently, the collapse pressure would become larger subsequently, and the curve would be extended outside. The phenomenon could be approached when the metal ion concentration C became great enough. These experiments were identified with the rules on Langmuir films, by a variety of properties of metal ions (ion radius, ion concentration, ion valence, etc.). Among all the factors, the ionic valence showed the greatest impact on the phase changes, followed by the ion concentration, while the ionic radius influences were less on the phase-change characteristics.

  7. Effects of food-related stimuli on visual spatial attention in fasting and nonfasting normal subjects: Behavior and electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, D S; Pineda, J A

    2006-01-01

    Attention biases toward food-related stimuli were examined as mediators of normal, healthy motivated behavior. Reaction times (RTs) and event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to assess the impact of food-related words on normal food-deprived individuals when used as spatial cues that frequently predicted the location of targets in a simple detection task (75% validity). In Experiment 1, fasting and nonfasting subjects showed a magnified cost/benefit of invalid/valid cueing by food words relative to a neutral category of words. In Experiment 2, the RT effect was replicated in a group of fasting subjects. The amplitude of a P3-like positivity (P420) was enhanced in response to food words, as was that of a prominent early anterior negativity (AN). These findings demonstrate that food-related stimuli can bias spatial attention in normal subjects and that electrophysiological markers can index the motivational salience of food words and/or their effect on attentional capture in food-deprived individuals. Even when the motivational salience of spatial cues is irrelevant to task demands, it can have an observable effect on attention. This design allows for the behavioral and electrophysiological study of motivation-attention interactions through loading of spatial cues with motivation-related semantic properties.

  8. Fast determination of soil behavior in the capillary zone using simple laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Frost heave and thaw weakening are typical problems for engineers building in northern regions. These unsaturated-soil behaviors are : caused by water flowing through the capillary zone to a freezing front, where it forms ice lenses. Although suction...

  9. Synthesis and characterization of ion transport behavior in Cu2+-conducting nano composite polymer electrolyte membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala Sahu, Tripti; Sahu, Manju; Karan, Shrabani; Mahipal, Y. K.; Sahu, D. K.; Agrawal, R. C.

    2017-07-01

    Synthesis and characterization of ion transport behavior in Cu2+-conducting nano composite polymer electrolyte (NCPE) films: [90PEO: 10Cu(CF3SO3)2]  +  x CuO have been reported. NCPE films have been formed by hot-press casting technique using solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) film composition: [90PEO: 10Cu(CF3SO3)2] as 1st-phase host and nanoparticles of CuO in varying wt.(%) as 2nd-phase active filler. SPE: [90PEO: 10Cu(CF3SO3)2] was identified earlier as highest conducting film with room temperature conductivity (σ rt) ~ 3.0 x 10-6 S cm-1, which is three orders of magnitude higher than that of pure polymer host PEO with σ rt ~ 3.2  ×  10-9 S cm-1. Filler particle concentration dependent conductivity study revealed NCPE film: [90PEO: 10Cu(CF3SO3)2]  +  3%CuO as optimum conducting composition (OCC) exhibiting σ rt ~ 1.14  ×  10-5 S cm-1. Hence, by the fractional dispersal of 2nd-phase active filler into 1st-phase SPE host, σ-enhancement of approximately an order of magnitude has further been obtained. Ion transport behavior in NCPE OCC film has been characterized in terms of basic ionic parameters viz. ionic conductivity (σ), total ionic transference (t ion)/cationic (t +) numbers. Temperature dependent conductivity measurement has also been done to explain the mechanism of ion transport and to compute activation energy (E a). Materials characterization and hence, confirmation of complexation of salt in polymeric host and/or dispersal of filler particles in SPE host have been done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). All-solid-state battery in the cell configuration: Cu (Anode) || SPE host/NCPE OCC film || C  +  I2  +  Electrolyte) (Cathode) has been fabricated and cell performance has been studied under two load resistances viz

  10. Interaction of supra-thermal ions with turbulence in a magnetized toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyushchev, G.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis addresses the interaction of a supra-thermal ion beam with turbulence in the simple magnetized toroidal plasma of TORPEX. The first part of the Thesis deals with the ohmic assisted discharges on TORPEX. The aim of these discharges is the investigation of the open to closed magnetic field line transition. The relevant magnetic diagnostics were developed. Ohmic assisted discharges with a maximum plasma current up to 1 kA are routinely obtained. The equilibrium conditions on the vacuum magnetic field configuration were investigated. In the second part of the Thesis, the design of the fast ion source and detector are discussed. The accelerating electric field needed for the fast ion source was optimized. The fast ion source was constructed and commissioned. To detect the fast ions a specially designed gridded energy analyzer was used. The electron energy distribution function was obtained to demonstrate the efficiency of the detector. The experiments with the fast ion beam were conducted in different plasma regions of TORPEX. In the third part of the Thesis, numerical simulations are used to interpret the measured fast ion beam behavior. It is shown that a simple single particle equation of motion explains the beam behavior in the experiments in the absence of plasma. To explain the fast ion beam experiments with the plasma a turbulent electric field must be used. The model that takes into account this turbulent electrical field qualitatively explains the shape of the fast ion current density profile in the different plasma regions of TORPEX. The vertically elongated fast ion current density profiles are explained by a spread in the fast ion velocity distribution. The theoretically predicted radial fast ion beam spreading due to the turbulent electric field was observed in the experiment. (author)

  11. State of Charge Dependent Mechanical Integrity Behavior of 18650 Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Liu, Binghe; Hu, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of mechanical deformation/stress-induced electrical failure of lithium–ion batteries (LIBs) is important in crash-safety design of power LIBs. The state of charge (SOC) of LIBs is a critical factor in their electrochemical performance; however, the influence of SOC with mechanical integrity of LIBs remains unclear. This study investigates the electrochemical failure behaviors of LIBs with various SOCs under both compression and bending loadings, underpinned by the short circuit phenomenon. Mechanical behaviors of the whole LIB body, which is regarded as an intact structure, were analyzed in terms of structure stiffness. Results showed that the mechanical behaviors of LIBs depend highly on SOC. Experimental verification on the cathode and anode sheet compression tests show that higher SOC with more lithium inserted in the anode leads to higher structure stiffness. In the bending tests, failure strain upon occurrence of short circuit has an inverse linear relationship with the SOC value. These results may shed light on the fundamental physical mechanism of mechanical integrity LIBs in relation to inherent electrochemical status. PMID:26911922

  12. Measurements of high energy loss rates of fast highly charged U ions channeled in thin silicon crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, C.; Chevallier, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Poizat, J.-C.; Testa, E.; Braeuning-Demian, A.; Braeuning, H.; Kozhuharov, C.; Liesen, D.; Stoehlker, Th.; Cohen, C.; L'Hoir, A.; Mokler, P. H.; Toulemonde, M.

    2011-01-01

    The results of two channeling experiments show that highly charged heavy ions at moderate velocities (v 0 ) may lose more energy in the traversal of a thin crystal when they are injected along a major crystallographic direction than when they traverse the crystal in random conditions. This is due to the fact that the large reduction of electron capture probabilities allows them to keep their high electronic charge throughout the crystal, which is not the case for projectiles traveling in random conditions. Although channeled projectiles experience reduced electron densities, their energy loss rate, that is, at first order, proportional to the square of the ions charge, is then strongly enhanced. This feature could be used as a step for decelerating highly charged ions from the high energies that are needed to produce them, and also to improve our understanding of the slowing down of very highly charged projectiles at low velocities, for which the current perturbative models are not well suited.

  13. Study on initial stage of hetero-epitaxial growth by glancing angle scattering of fast ions from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yoshikazu; Toba, Kazuaki; Narumi, Kazumasa; Kimura, Kenji; Mannami, Michihiko

    1993-01-01

    Initial stages of epitaxial growth of lead chalcogenides on the (100) surface of SnTe under UHV conditions are studied from the angular distribution of scattered ions at glancing angle incidence of 0.7 MeV He ions on the growing surfaces. Real time measurement of the angular distribution is performed during the growth. Anomalous broadening of the angular distribution is observed at the initial stage of the growth. The broadening is attributed to the surface wrinkles induced by a square network of misfit edge dislocations. (author)

  14. Hamiltonian study of the response of a tokamak plasma to the ion cyclotron heating wave: minor heating and current generation by the fast wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becoulet, A.

    1990-06-01

    The role of additional Heatings, such as the Ion Cyclotron Heating, is to raise magnetic fusion plasmas to higher temperatures, to satisfy the ignition condition. The understanding of the wave absorption mechanisms by the plasma first requires a precise description of the particle individual trajectories. The Hamiltonian mechanics, through action-angle variables, allows this description, and makes the computation of the wave-particle interaction easier. We then derive a quantitative evaluation of the intrinsic stochasticity for ionic trajectories perturbated by the fast wave. This stochasticity, combinated to the collisional effects, gives the validity domain for a quasilinear approximation of the evolution equation. This equation is then written under a variational formulation, and solved semi-analytically. Results conclude to the importance of the Hamiltonian chaos in the formation of the deeply anisotropic distribution tails, encountered in minority heating scenarios. Direct interaction of the electrons and the fast wave is similarly analysed. The influence of the various parameters (wave spectrum, magnetic configuration, frequency,...) is then examined in order to optimize this scenario of fast wave current drive in tokamaks [fr

  15. A Novel Active Online State of Charge Based Balancing Approach for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs during Fast Charging Process in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiudong Cui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Non-uniformity of Lithium-ion cells in a battery pack is inevitable and has become the bottleneck to the pack capacity, especially in the fast charging process. Therefore, a balancing approach is essentially required. This paper proposes an active online cell balancing approach in a fast charging process using the state of charge (SOC as balancing criterion. The goal of this approach is to complete pack balancing within the limited charging time. An adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF is applied to estimate the pack cell SOC during the charging process to obtain accurate results under modeling errors and measurement noises. To implement the proposed AEKF, only one additional current sensor is required to obtain the current of each cell required for the SOC estimation. An experimental platform is established to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The results show that the proposed balancing approach with the SOC as a balancing criterion can overcome the challenges of non-uniformity and flat voltage plateau and charge more capacity into a LiFePO4 battery pack than those with the terminal voltage as a balancing criterion in the fast charging process.

  16. Electrochemical behavior of LiCoO2 as aqueous lithium-ion battery electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ruffo, Riccardo

    2009-02-01

    Despite the large number of studies on the behavior of LiCoO2 in organic electrolytes and its recent application as a positive electrode in rechargeable water battery prototypes, a little information is available about the lithium intercalation reaction in this layered compound in aqueous electrolytes. This work shows that LiCoO2 electrodes can be reversibly cycled in LiNO3 aqueous electrolytes for tens of cycles at remarkably high rates with impressive values specific capacity higher than 100 mAh/g, and with a coulomb efficiency greater than 99.7%. Stable and reproducible cycling measurements have been made using a simple cell design that can be easily applied to the study of other intercalation materials, assuming that they are stable in water and that their intercalation potential range matches the electrochemical stability window of the aqueous electrolyte. The experimental arrangement uses a three-electrode flooded cell in which another insertion compound acts as a reversible source and sink of lithium ions, i.e., as the counter electrode. A commercial reference electrode is also present. Both the working and the counter electrodes have been prepared as thin layers on a metallic substrate using the procedures typical for the study of electrodes for lithium-ion batteries in organic solvent electrolytes. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fuel pin behavior under slow ramp-type transient-overpower conditions in the CABRI-FAST experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukano, Yoshitaka; Onoda, Yuichi; Sato, Ikken; Charpenel, Jean

    2009-01-01

    In the CABRI-FAST experimental program, four in-pile tests were performed with slow power-ramp-type transient-overpower conditions (called hereafter as 'slow TOP') to study transient fuel pin behavior under inadvertent control rod withdrawal events in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors. Annular-pellet fuel pins were used in three tests, while a solid-pellet fuel pin was used in the other test. All of these pins were pre-irradiated in Phenix. The slow TOP test with a solid-pellet fuel pin was realized as a comparatory test against an existing test (E12) in the CABRI-2 program. In the CABRI-FAST test (BCF1), a power ramp rate of 3% Po/s was applied, while in the CABRI-2 test, 1% Po/s was adopted. Moreover, overpower condition was maintained for a few seconds beyond the observed pin failure in the BCF1 test. In spite of the different power ramp rates, evaluated fuel thermal conditions at the observed failure time are quite similar. The continued overpower condition in the BCF1 test resulted in gradual degradation of the pin structure providing information effective for evaluation of various accident scenarios. Three slow TOP tests with the annular fuel in the CABRI-FAST program resulted in no pin failure showing high failure threshold. Based on post-test examination data and a theoretical evaluation, it was concluded that intra-pin free spaces, such as central hole, macroscopic cracks and fuel-cladding gap effectively mitigated fuel cladding mechanical interaction. It was also clarified that cavity pressurization became effective only in case of very large amount of fuel melting. Furthermore, such cavity pressurization was effectively mitigated by a molten-fuel squirting into the upper blanket region pushing the blanket pellets upward. These CABRI FAST slow TOP tests, in combination with the existing CABRI and TREAT tests, provided an extended slow TOP test database with various fuel and transient conditions. (author)

  18. Effects of the radial electric field on the confinement of trapped fast ions in the Wendelstein 7-X and Helias reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnichenko, Ya. I.; Lutsenko, V. V.; Tykhyy, A. V.; Weller, A.; Werner, A.; Wobig, H.; Geiger, J.

    2006-07-01

    Confinement of trapped fast ions in the Wendelstein-line stellarators in the presence of the radial electric field, Er, is studied. It is shown that negative electric field improves the confinement; in particular, a radially localized field can play the role of a transport barrier for the ions escaping from the plasma when Er=0. In contrast to this, the positive electric field tends to deteriorate the ion confinement, unless its magnitude is very large. Such a field accompanied by the plasma rotation with the frequency around a certain magnitude, which we refer to as the resonance rotation frequency, leads to a quick particle loss. A possibility of using the plasma rotation with the resonance frequency for the ash removal in a Helias reactor is considered. The mentioned results are obtained analytically and numerically. The analytical consideration was done on the basis of the derived bounce-averaged equations of the particle motion. The numerical calculations were carried out for Wendelstein 7-X [G. Grieger et al., J. Plasma Fusion Res. Series 1, 53 (1998)] and a Helias reactor [J. Kisslinger et al., Proceedings of the 17th International Conference, Yokohama, 1998 (1999), Vol. 4, p. 1239] by the guiding center code ORBIS (ORBits In Stellarators) developed in this work.

  19. How Fast Do Students Forget What They Learn in Consumer Behavior? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Donald R.; Stewart, Kim A.

    2006-01-01

    The retention curve for knowledge acquired in a consumer behavior course is explored in a longitudinal study, tracking individual students from 8 to 101 weeks following course completion. Rasch measurement is used to link tests and to achieve intervally scaled measures of knowledge. The findings indicate that most of the knowledge gained in the…

  20. SIVAR - Computer code for simulation of fuel rod behavior in PWR during fast transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, A.F.V.

    1980-10-01

    Fuel rod behavior during a stationary and a transitory operation, is studied. A computer code aiming at simulating PWR type rods, was developed; however, it can be adapted for simulating other type of rods. A finite difference method was used. (E.G.) [pt

  1. A moderation layer to improve the safety behavior of sodium cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merk, B.; Weiß, F.P.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of the sodium void effect in an infinite lattice is discussed and for a reduction of the effect the insertion of moderating material is proposed. The effect of three different moderating layers on the sodium void defect and the feedback effects is investigated. Especially the uranium zirconium hydride UzrH layer causes a strong reduction of the sodium void effect. Additionally, this layer improves the fuel temperature effect and the coolant effect of the system significantly. All changes caused by the insertion of the UZrH layer lead to a significant increase in stability of the fast reactor system against transients. The moderating layers have only a small influence on the breeding effect and on the production of minor actinides. (author)

  2. Actinide behavior in the integral fast reactor. Progress report, May 1, 1992--April 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, J.C.

    1993-05-01

    Goal of this project is to determine the consumption of Np-237, Pu-240, Am-241, and Am-243 in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle. These four actinides set the long term waste management criteria for spent nuclear fuel; if it can be demonstrated that they can be efficiently consumed in the IFR, then requirements for nuclear waste repositories can be much less demanding. Irradiations in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) at Argonne National Laboratory`s site near Idaho Falls, Idaho, will be conducted to determine fission and transmutation rates for the four nuclides. The experimental effort involves target package design, fabrication, quality assurance, and irradiation. Post irradiation analyses are required to determine the fission rates and neutron spectra in the EBR-II core.

  3. Li + secondary ion energy distributions probed by fast N 2+ and N q+ bombardment of LiF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J. A. M.; da Silveira, E. F.

    1998-12-01

    The time-of-flight method was employed to measure the energy distributions of secondary ions emitted from LiF thin film targets. A van de Graaff generator was used to accelerate N2+ and Nq+ particles to energies in the range of 75 keV to 7.5 MeV in order to bombard the sample. The Li+ secondary ion emission presents contributions due to nuclear and electronic sputtering which could be studied independently. The nuclear sputtering contribution, for projectile energies above 0.50 MeV/atom, does not play a significant role and the corresponding differential yield is well described through the linear collision cascade theory. It is observed that the Li+ electronic sputtering yield is strongly correlated with the number of atomic constituents in the projectile while its energy distribution is not. Furthermore, the Li+ kinetic energy of emission is not sensitive to variations on the velocity and on the charge state of the primary ion, leading to a general conclusion that the Li+ energy distribution due to the electronic sputtering does not depend strongly on the electronic stopping power of the primary ion. The Li+ maximum axial emission energy produced by the electronic sputtering process is observed to be Ez ∼ 10 eV. A model based on hot hole diffusion and multiple hole localization on the surface was developed in order to calculate the Li+ energy distribution, providing good agreement with experimental values.

  4. Sugar-metal ion interactions: The coordination behavior of cesium ion with lactose, D-arabinose and L-arabinose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ye; Xue, Junhui; Wen, Xiaodong; Zhai, Yanjun; Yang, Limin; Xu, Yizhuang; Zhao, Guozhong; Kou, Kuan; Liu, Kexin; Chen, Jia'er; Wu, Jinguang

    2016-04-01

    The novel cesium chloride-lactose complex (CsCl·C12H22O10 (Cs-Lac), cesium chloride-D-arabinose and L-arabinose complexes (CsCl·C5H10O5, Cs-D-Ara and Cs-L-Ara) have been synthesized and characterized using X-ray diffraction, FTIR, FIR, THz and Raman spectroscopies. Cs+ is 9-coordinated to two chloride ions and seven hydroxyl groups from five lactose molecules in Cs-Lac. In the structures of CsCl-D-arabinose and CsCl-L-arabinose complexes, two kinds of Cs+ ions coexist in the structures. Cs1 is 10-coordinated with two chloride ions and eight hydroxyl groups from five arabinose molecule; Cs2 is 9-coordinated to three chloride ions and six hydroxyl groups from five arabinose molecules. Two coordination modes of arabinose coexist in the structures. α-D-arabinopyranose and α-L-arabinopyranose appear in the structures of Cs-D-Ara and Cs-L-Ara complexes. FTIR and Raman results indicate variations of hydrogen bonds and the conformation of the ligands after complexation. FIR and THz spectra also confirm the formation of Cs-complexes. Crystal structure, FTIR, FIR, THz and Raman spectra provide detailed information on the structure and coordination of hydroxyl groups to metal ions in the cesium chloride-lactose, cesium chloride-D- and L-arabinose complexes.

  5. Bi1−xNbxO1.5+x (x=0.0625, 0.12) fast ion conductors: Structures, stability and oxide ion migration pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tate, Matthew L.; Hack, Jennifer; Kuang, Xiaojun; McIntyre, Garry J.; Withers, Ray L.; Johnson, Mark R.; Radosavljevic Evans, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    A combined experimental and computational study of Bi 1−x Nb x O 1.5+x (x=0.0625 and 0.12) has been carried out using laboratory X-ray, neutron and electron diffraction, impedance measurements and ab-initio molecular dynamics. We demonstrate that Bi 0.9375 Nb 0.0625 O 1.5625 , previously reported to adopt a cubic fluorite-type superstructure, can form two different polymorphs depending on the synthetic method: a metastable cubic phase is produced by quenching; while slower cooling yields a stable material with a tetragonal √2×√2×1 superstructure, which undergoes a reversible phase transition into the cubic form at ~680 °C on subsequent reheating. Neutron diffraction reveals that the tetragonal superstructure arises mainly from ordering in the oxygen sublattice, with Bi and Nb remaining disordered, although structured diffuse scattering observed in the electron diffraction patterns suggests a degree of short-range ordering. Both materials are oxide ion conductors. On thermal cycling, Bi 0.88 Nb 0.12 O 1.62 exhibits a decrease in conductivity of approximately an order of magnitude due to partial transformation into the tetragonal phase, but still exhibits conductivity comparable to yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ). Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations performed on Bi 0.9375 Nb 0.0625 O 1.5625 show that oxide ion diffusion occurs by O 2− jumps between edge- and corner-sharing OM 4 groups (M=Bi, Nb) via tetrahedral □M 4 and octahedral □M 6 vacancies. - Graphical abstract: Oxide ion migration in tetragonal Bi 0.9375 Nb 0.0625 O 1.5625 occurs by O 2− jumps between edge- and corner-sharing OM 4 groups (M=Bi, Nb) via tetrahedral M 4 and octahedral M 6 vacancies. - Highlights: • Bi 0.9375 Nb 0.0625 O 1.5625 adopts a tetragonal √2×√2×1 fluorite superstructure. • Superstructure is due to ordering in the O-sublattice, with Bi/Nb disordered. • Bi 0.9375 Nb 0.0625 O 1.5625 is a good oxide ion conductor. • O 2− jump between OM 4 groups (M

  6. Preparation and adsorption behavior for metal ions and humic acid of chitosan derivatives crosslinked by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Long; Mitomo, H.; Yoshii, F.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Removing metal ions and humic acid from water in water treatment has attracted much environment and health interests. Adsorbents, derived from a nature polymer, are desired in the viewpoints of environment-conscious technologies. Recently, some nature materials such as chitin, chitosan and their derivatives have been identified as an attractive option due to their distinctive properties. For an insoluble adsorbent based on these polymers to be obtained over a broad pH range, modification through crosslinking is required. Crosslinking agents such as glutaric dialdehyde and ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether are frequently used for modification. However, these crosslinking agents are not preferred because of their physiological toxicity. Radiation-crosslinking without any additive in the fabrication process results in a high-purity product. In a previous work, we applied ionizing radiation to induce the crosslinking of carboxymethylchitosan under highly concentrated paste-like conditions. The aim of this study is to investigate the adsorption behavior of metal ions, humic acid on irradiation-crosslinked carboxymethylchitosan. Experimental: Irradiation of chitosan samples at paste-like state was done with an electron beam. The solubility test of these crosslinked materials were investigated in acidic, alkaline media, and some organic solvents. Swelling and charged characteristic analyses demonstrated typically pH-sensitive properties of these crosslinked materials. Scanning electron microscopic images showed that the crosslinked samples possessed porous morphological structure. The adsorption studies were carried out by the batch method at room temperature. Adsorption of heavy metal ions (such as Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ ) and humic acid onto crosslinked samples was found to be strongly pH-dependent. Adsorption kinetic studies indicated the rapid removal of metal ions, and humic acid from the aqueous solutions. Also, isothermal adsorption data revealed that Cu 2

  7. Mechanical behavior of fast reactor fuel pin cladding subjected to simulated overpower transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.D.; Hunter, C.W.

    1978-06-01

    Cladding mechanical property data for analysis and prediction of fuel pin transient behavior were obtained under experimental conditions in which the temperature ramps of reactor transients were simulated. All cladding specimens were 20% CW Type 316 stainless steel and were cut from EBR-II irradiated fuel pins. It was determined that irradiation degraded the cladding ductility and failure strength. Specimens that had been adjacent to the fuel exhibited the poorest properties. Correlations were developed to describe the effect of neutron fluence on the mechanical behavior of the cladding. Metallographic examinations were conducted to characterize the failure mode and to establish the nature of internal and external surface corrosion. Various mechanisms for the fuel adjacency effect were examined and results for helium concentration profiles were presented. Results from the simulated transient tests were compared with TREAT test results

  8. Effects of Leaching Behavior of Calcium Ions on Compression and Durability of Cement-Based Materials with Mineral Admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, An; Chao, Sao-Jeng; Lin, Wei-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Leaching of calcium ions increases the porosity of cement-based materials, consequently resulting in a negative effect on durability since it provides an entry for aggressive harmful ions, causing reinforcing steel corrosion. This study investigates the effects of leaching behavior of calcium ions on the compression and durability of cement-based materials. Since the parameters influencing the leaching behavior of cement-based materials are unclear and diverse, this paper focuses on the influence of added mineral admixtures (fly ash, slag and silica fume) on the leaching behavior of calcium ions regarding compression and durability of cemented-based materials. Ammonium nitrate solution was used to accelerate the leaching process in this study. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis were employed to analyze and compare the cement-based material compositions prior to and after calcium ion leaching. The experimental results show that the mineral admixtures reduce calcium hydroxide quantity and refine pore structure through pozzolanic reaction, thus enhancing the compressive strength and durability of cement-based materials. PMID:28809247

  9. Time-Resolved Fast Mammalian Behavior Reveals the Complexity of Protective Pain Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam E. Browne

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Potentially harmful stimuli are detected at the skin by nociceptor sensory neurons that drive rapid protective withdrawal reflexes and pain. We set out to define, at a millisecond timescale, the relationship between the activity of these sensory neurons and the resultant behavioral output. Brief optogenetic activation of cutaneous nociceptors was found to activate only a single action potential in each fiber. This minimal input was used to determine high-speed behavioral responses in freely behaving mice. The localized stimulus generated widespread dynamic repositioning and alerting sub-second behaviors whose nature and timing depended on the context of the animal and its position, activity, and alertness. Our findings show that the primary response to injurious stimuli is not limited, fixed, or localized, but is dynamic, and that it involves recruitment and gating of multiple circuits distributed throughout the central nervous system at a sub-second timescale to effectively both alert to the presence of danger and minimize risk of harm.

  10. Etch-stop behavior of buried layers formed by substoichiometric nitrogen ion implantation into silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R.; Acero, M.C. Esteve, J.; Montserrat, J.; El-Hassani, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this work the etch-stop behavior of buried layers formed by substoichiometric nitrogen ion implantation into silicon is studied as a function of the processing parameters, the implantation dose and temperature, and the presence of capping layers during implantation. Etching characteristics have been probed using tetramethylammonium hydroxide or KOH solutions for different times up to 6 h. Results show that, after annealing, the minimum dose required for the formation of an efficient etch-stop layer is about 4 x 10 17 cm -2 , for an implantation energy of 75 keV. This is defined as a layer with an efficient etch selectivity in relation to Si of s ≥ 100. For larger implantation doses efficient etch selectivities larger than 100 are obtained. However, for these doses a considerable density of pits is observed in the etch-stop layer. These are related to the presence of nitrogen poor Si regions in the buried layer after annealing, due to a partial separation of silicon and silicon nitride phases during the annealing process. The influence of this separation of phases as well as nitrogen gettering in the buried layer on the etch-stop behavior is discussed as a function of the processing parameters

  11. Effect of intense pulsed ion beams irradiation on the oxidation behavior of gamma sup ' -based superalloy

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Hong Tao; Han Bao Xi; Yan Sha; Zhao Wei Jiang; Han Ya Fan

    2002-01-01

    Intense pulsed ion beams (IPIB) with three different power densities (25, 37.5 and 50 MW/cm sup 2) are employed for the surface treatment of gamma sup ' -based superalloy IC6. The influence of IPIB irradiation on the oxidation behavior of IC6 at 1100 degree sign C for up to 100 h is investigated. It is found that the phase states of IC6 are dramatically changed after IPIB irradiation and the oxidation behavior of the irradiated coupons depends greatly on the power density of IPIB. IPIB irradiation with a power density of 25 or 37.5 MW/cm sup 2 significantly reduces the oxidation rate with respect to the unirradiated coupon. The improvement of the oxidation resistance can be attributed to a change in the oxidation products from a three-layered scale of Ni-rich oxides for the unirradiated coupon to a two-layered scale of Mo- and Al-rich oxides. In contrast, IPIB irradiation with a power density of 50 MW/cm sup 2 proves to be detrimental, causing a higher oxidation rate. The oxidation mechanism for IPIB irradiat...

  12. Safeguarding Self-Governance: A Grounded Theory of Older Patients’ Pattern of Behavior in Relation to their Relatives in Fast-track Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie B.; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Lindhardt Damsgaard, Tove

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to generate a grounded theory of older patients’ pattern of behavior in relation to their relatives’ involvement in fast-track programs during total joint replacement. Sixteen patients were recruited in orthopedic wards. Data collection included 11 interviews...... with patients and 15 non-participant observations of interactions between patients, relatives, and health professionals during scheduled meetings throughout the fast-track program. The constant comparative method was used for simultaneous data collection, data analysis, and coding. Safeguarding self......, shielding, distancing, and masking. Keywords: Fast-track program, grounded theory, older patients, relatives, total joint replacement....

  13. The Behavior of Palladium as a Getter for Lanthanide Fission Products in U-Mo-Ti-Zr Fast Reactor Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Cameron Tyler

    One of the hurdles to extending the life of metallic fast reactor fuel alloys is Fuel-Clad Chemical Interaction (FCCI), a phenomenon which occurs between fuel and cladding resulting in thinning of the cladding. The cause of FCCI is the reaction between cladding constituents (e.g. iron and nickel) and lanthanide fission products generated in the fuel (e.g. lanthanum and cerium). This interaction can produce localized melting of the cladding, reducing its thickness over the life of the fuel element. It has been suggested that FCCI can be hindered by doping the fuel with palladium, a candidate getter for lanthanide fission products. There is therefore interest in demonstrating the efficacy of this particular lanthanide getter for realistic fast reactor fuel analogues. Work is presented based on the U-M (M = 50Mo-43Ti-7Zr, wt. pct.) alloy system both with, and without, palladium additions. The research was conducted using depleted uranium alloys developed as metallurgical surrogates for real spent fuels. Burnup was simulated using cerium as a mock lanthanide fission product to assess the behavior of palladium with respect to fuel and cladding constituents. The behavior of palladium in terms of microstructural evolution was studied from both as-cast and annealed surrogate fuel specimens as well as diffusion couples between surrogate fuel alloys and type HT-9 stainless steel cladding. Results derived from characterization of these metallurgical surrogate experiments are presented and it is shown that palladium is a promising getter for lanthanide fission products in the given alloy system.

  14. Pumps modelling of a sodium fast reactor design and analysis of hydrodynamic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ordóñez Ródenas José

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the goals of Generation IV reactors is to increase safety from those of previous generations. Different research platforms have been identified the need to improve the reliability of the simulation tools to ensure the capability of the plant to accommodate the design basis transients established in preliminary safety studies. The paper describes the modelling of primary pumps in advanced sodium cooled reactors using the TRACE code. Following the implementation of the models, the results obtained in the analysis of different design basis transients are compared with the simplifying approximations used in reference models. The paper shows the process to obtain a consistent pump model of the ESFR (European Sodium Fast Reactor design and the analysis of loss of flow transients triggered by pumps coast–down analyzing the thermal hydraulic neutronic coupled system response. A sensitivity analysis of the system pressure drops effect and the other relevant parameters that influence the natural convection after the pumps coast–down is also included.

  15. Polystyrene Sulfonate Threaded through a Metal-Organic Framework Membrane for Fast and Selective Lithium-Ion Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Ying, Yulong; Mao, Yiyin; Peng, Xinsheng; Chen, Banglin

    2016-11-21

    Extraction of lithium ions from salt-lake brines is very important to produce lithium compounds. Herein, we report a new approach to construct polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) threaded HKUST-1 metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes through an in situ confinement conversion process. The resulting membrane PSS@HKUST-1-6.7, with unique anchored three-dimensional sulfonate networks, shows a very high Li + conductivity of 5.53×10 -4  S cm -1 at 25 °C, 1.89×10 -3  S cm -1 at 70 °C, and Li + flux of 6.75 mol m -2  h -1 , which are five orders higher than that of the pristine HKUST-1 membrane. Attributed to the different size sieving effects and the affinity differences of the Li + , Na + , K + , and Mg 2+ ions to the sulfonate groups, the PSS@HKUST-1-6.7 membrane exhibits ideal selectivities of 78, 99, and 10296 for Li + /Na + , Li + /K + , Li + /Mg 2+ and real binary ion selectivities of 35, 67, and 1815, respectively, the highest ever reported among ionic conductors and Li + extraction membranes. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Aggregation and Charge Behavior of Metallic and Nonmetallic Nanoparticles in the Presence of Competing Similarly-Charged Inorganic Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of competing, similarly charged, inorganic ions on the size and charge behavior of suspended titanium-dioxide (nTiO2), silver (nAg) and fullerene (nC60) nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated. Under pH and ionic conditions similar to natural water bodies, Ca2+ induced...

  17. Corrosion behavior of low energy, high temperature nitrogen ion-implanted AISI 304 stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoranneviss, M.; Shokouhy, A.; Larijani, M. M.; Haji Hosseini, S. H.; Yari, M.; Anvari, A.; Gholipur Shahraki, M.; Sari, A. H.; Hantehzadeh, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the results of a low-energy nitrogen ion implantation of AISI 304 type stainless steel (SS) at a moderate temperature of about 500°C. The nitrogen ions are extracted from a Kauffman-type ion source at an energy of 30 keV, and ion current density of 100 μA cm^{-2}. Nitrogen ion concentration of 6 × 10^{17}, 8 × 10^{17} and 10^{18} ions cm^{-2}, were selected for our study. The X-ray diffraction results show the formation of CrN polycrystalline phase after nitrogen bombardment and a change of crystallinity due to the change in nitrogen ion concentration. The secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) results show the formation of CrN phases too. Corrosion test has shown that corrosion resistance is enhanced by increasing nitrogen ion concentration.

  18. Effect of Education Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior on Fast Food Consumption in High School Girl\\'s Students in Sabzevar City 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Nooshin Peyman; Mahnaz Nasehnezhad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Today, with the advances in science, technology and industry the life-style of people has been changed. As we can see customs, traditions and indigenous cultures are faded in nutrition and food behaviors. In addition, in many of communities the use of fast foods has prevalent. Teenagers are interested in and almost one-third of them consume fast foods daily. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the education based on theory of planned behavior in cons...

  19. Young Type Interference Effect on the Forward-Backward Asymmetry Parameter in Electron Emission from H2 Under Fast Ion Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Deepankar; Kelkar, A. H.; Tribedi, Lokesh C.

    2007-09-01

    We have investigated the double differential distribution of electron emission from molecular hydrogen in collisions with fast bare carbon ions in order to investigate the effect of Young type interference on the forward-backward angular asymmetry. The asymmetry parameter, derived from the cross sections for complementary forward and backward angles, shows an oscillatory behaviour as a function of electron velocity which is absent in atomic target such as He. It is shown that the asymmetry parameter which is based on the DDCS of H2 only, can be used as self normalizing way of the obtaining the Young type interference in an inversion symmetric homo-nuclear diatomic molecule like H2. The measured energy and angular distributions as well as the asymmetry parameter are compared with a molecular CDW-EIS (continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state) model.

  20. Young Type Interference Effect on the Forward-Backward Asymmetry Parameter in Electron Emission from H{sub 2} Under Fast Ion Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Deepankar; Kelkar, A H; Tribedi, Lokesh C [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai-200 005 (India)

    2007-09-15

    We have investigated the double differential distribution of electron emission from molecular hydrogen in collisions with fast bare carbon ions in order to investigate the effect of Young type interference on the forward-backward angular asymmetry. The asymmetry parameter, derived from the cross sections for complementary forward and backward angles, shows an oscillatory behaviour as a function of electron velocity which is absent in atomic target such as He. It is shown that the asymmetry parameter which is based on the DDCS of H{sub 2} only, can be used as self normalizing way of the obtaining the Young type interference in an inversion symmetric homo-nuclear diatomic molecule like H{sub 2}. The measured energy and angular distributions as well as the asymmetry parameter are compared with a molecular CDW-EIS (continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state) model.

  1. Modification of boundary plasma behavior by Ion Bernstein Wave heating on the HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, G.S.; Wan, B.N.; Song, M.; Ling, B.L.; Li, C.F.; Li, J.

    2003-01-01

    The boundary plasma behavior during Ion Bernstein Wave heating was investigated using Langmuir probe arrays on the HT-7 tokamak. A distinct weak turbulence regime was reproducibly observed in the 30 MHz IBW heated plasmas with RF power larger than 120 kW, which resulted in a particle confinement improvement of a factor of 2. The strong suppression and decorrelation effect of fluctuations resulted in the turbulent particle flux dropping by more than an order of magnitude in the plasma boundary region. An additional inward radial electric field and associated poloidal ExB flows were produced, which could account for the additional poloidal velocity in the electron diamagnetic direction at some radial locations of the boundary plasma. The electrostatic fluctuations were nearly completely decorrelated in the high frequency region and only low frequency fluctuations remained. The poloidal correlation was considerably reduced in the high poloidal wave number region and only the fluctuations with long poloidal wavelength remained. Three-wave nonlinear phase coupling between the whole frequency domain and the very low frequency region increased significantly in both the plasma edge and the SOL. Quite low frequency fluctuations (about 5 kHz) were generated, which dominated the boundary turbulence during IBW heating. Detailed analyses suggested that, when an IBW with a frequency of 30 MHz was launched into a plasma with the toroidal magnetic field between 1.75 T and 2.0 T, the ion cyclotron resonant layer of 5/2.D was located in the plasma edge region. The poloidal ExB sheared flows generated by IBW near this layer due to a ponderomotive interaction were found to be the mechanism underlying these phenomena. (author)

  2. Effects of fast neutron irradiation on the fracture behavior of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.H.; Fish, R.L.

    1982-03-01

    In designing against premature fracture, the characteristics of materials must be measured and design criteria developed. The reduction in ductility for irradiated stainless steels has been observed, but little work has been conducted on evaluating the effects of notches on these materials. A reduction in notch ductility has been investigated in Charpy-V impact tests of irradiated Type 304 and Type 316 stainless steel; in irradiated Type 304 stainless steel, notch effects were not observed at 232 and 317 0 C, but as the test temperature was increased from 538 to 593 0 C, the material irradiated to a fluence of 3 X 10 22 n/cm 2 exhibited a notch weakening. Recently, similar experiments were performed on irradiated 20% cold worked Type 316 stainless steel to determine the effects of irradiation on the fracture behavior of this alloy

  3. Influence of nickel and beryllium content on swelling behavior of copper irradiated with fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.N.; Garner, F.A.; Edwards, D.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Evans, J.H.

    1996-10-01

    In the 1970`s, the effects of nickel content on the evolution of dislocation microstructures and the formation and growth of voids in Cu-Ni alloys were studied using 1 MeV electrons in a high voltage electron microscope. The swelling rate was found to decrease rapidly with increasing nickel content. The decrease in the swelling rate was associated with a decreasing void growth rate with increasing nickel content at irradiation temperatures up to 450{degrees}C. At 500{degrees}C, both void size and swelling rate were found to peak at 1 and 2% Ni, respectively, and then to decrease rapidly with increasing nickel content. However, recent work has demonstrated that the swelling behavior of Cu-5%Ni irradiated with fission neutrons is very similar for that of pure copper. The present experiments were designed to investigate this apparent discrepancy.

  4. A novel cell-scale bio-nanogenerator based on electron-ion interaction for fast light power conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Tao; Tian, He; Zhao, Hai-Ming; Jian, Mu-Qiang; Lv, Yu-Jia; Tian, Ye; Wang, Qian; Yang, Yi; Xiang, Yan; Zhang, Yingying; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2018-01-03

    Natural energy haversting devices serve as an alternative candidate for power supply in many micro-/nano-systems. However, traditional nanogenerators based on piezoelectricity or triboelectric power generation face challenges in terms of biocompatibility and stability in various biological systems. The bacteriorhodopsin (bR) protein in Halobacterium halobium is an ideal biocompatible material for photoelectric conversion. Conventional bR systems based on ion transport or enhanced light absorption layers have a limited light power conversion speed. On the other hand, bR-based biohybrid devices have a great potential for sensitive light power conversion as compared to conventional nanogenerators. Herein, we present a biohybrid nanogenerator made of bR and horizontally aligned-long carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with electron-ion interaction for the first time for sensitive light power conversion. The bR layer serves as the proton pump, whereas CNTs are utilized to enhance the photocurrent; thus, the photocurrent frequency response improves significantly because of the effect of the electron-ion interaction. The photocurrent shows a linear relationship with the intensity of light and can still obtain a stable signal at a light intensity of 0.03 mW cm -2 . With regard to the influence of the light on-off period, the photocurrent initially increases and then decreases with an increase in flickering frequency up to 360 Hz; this can be ascribed to the combinational influence of light switch speed and photocycle decay time. The photocurrent shows highest value (99 nA cm -2 ) at a frequency of about 50 Hz at a light intensity of 0.43 mW cm -2 , which matches well with the frequency standard of the electrical power supply system. Moreover, we found that a higher density of CNTs contributed to improve performance of the nanogenerators. Furthermore, a H + ion releasing model was proposed to interpret the operating mechanism of the biohybrid nanogenerator. The biohybrid nanogenerator

  5. Observation of repetitive bursts in emission of fast ions and neutrons in sub-nanosecond laser-solid experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krása, Josef; Klír, D.; Velyhan, Andriy; Margarone, Daniele; Krouský, Eduard; Jungwirth, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Kravárik, J.; Kubeš, P.; Řezáč, K.; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2013), s. 395-401 ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279; GA ČR GAP205/12/0454; GA MŠk LM2010014 Grant - others:OPVK 3 Laser Zdroj(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279 Program:EE Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser-plasma interactions * neutron yield scaling * bursts in ion emission Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (UFP-V) Impact factor: 1.701, year: 2013

  6. Li2 NH-LiBH4 : a Complex Hydride with Near Ambient Hydrogen Adsorption and Fast Lithium Ion Conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Cao, Hujun; Zhang, Weijin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Hui; Pistidda, Claudio; Ju, Xiaohua; Zhou, Wei; Wu, Guotao; Etter, Martin; Klassen, Thomas; Dornheim, Martin; Chen, Ping

    2018-01-26

    Complex hydrides have played important roles in energy storage area. Here a complex hydride made of Li 2 NH and LiBH 4 was synthesized, which has a structure tentatively indexed using an orthorhombic cell with a space group of Pna2 1 and lattice parameters of a=10.121, b=6.997, and c=11.457 Å. The Li 2 NH-LiBH 4 sample (in a molar ratio of 1:1) shows excellent hydrogenation kinetics, starting to absorb H 2 at 310 K, which is more than 100 K lower than that of pristine Li 2 NH. Furthermore, the Li + ion conductivity of the Li 2 NH-LiBH 4 sample is about 1.0×10 -5  S cm -1 at room temperature, and is higher than that of either Li 2 NH or LiBH 4 at 373 K. Those unique properties of the Li 2 NH-LiBH 4 complex render it a promising candidate for hydrogen storage and Li ion conduction. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Investigation of UHPLC/travelling-wave ion mobility/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for fast profiling of fatty acids in the high Arctic sea surface microlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Farshid Mashayekhy; Leck, Caroline; Ilag, Leopold L; Nilsson, Ulrika

    2018-03-09

    Fatty acids are enriched in the ocean surface microlayer (SML) and have as a consequence been detected worldwide in sea spray aerosols. In searching for a relationship between the properties of the atmospheric aerosol and its ability to form cloud condensation nuclei and to promote cloud droplet formation over remote marine areas, the role of surface active fatty acids sourced from the SML is of interest to be investigated. Here is presented a fast method for profiling of major fatty acids in SML samples collected in the high Arctic (89 °N, 1 °W) in the summer of 2001. UHPLC/travelling-wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS)/time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) for profiling was evaluated and compared with UHPLC/TOFMS. No sample preparation, except evaporation and centrifugation, was necessary to perform prior to the analysis. TOFMS data on accurate mass, isotopic ratios and fragmentation patterns enabled identification of the fatty acids. The TWIMS dimension added to the selectivity by extensive reduction of the noise level and the entire UHPLC/TWIMS/TOFMS method provided a fast profiling of the acids, ranging from C 8 to C 24 . Hexadecanoic and octadecanoic acids were shown to yield the highest signals among the fatty acids detected in a high Arctic SML sample, followed by the unsaturated octadecenoic and octadecadienoic acids. The predominance of signal from even-numbered carbon chains indicates a mainly biogenic origin of the detected fatty acids. This study presents a fast alternative method for screening and profiling of fatty acids, which has the advantage of not requiring any complicated sample preparation thus limiting the loss of analytes. Almost no manual handling, together with the very small sample volumes needed, is certainly beneficial for the determination of trace amounts and should open up the field of applications to also include atmospheric aerosol and fog. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Simple, Fast and Selective Detection of Adenosine Triphosphate at Physiological pH Using Unmodified Gold Nanoparticles as Colorimetric Probes and Metal Ions as Cross-Linkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Pang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a simple, fast and selective colorimetric assay of adenosine triphosphate (ATP using unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs as probes and metal ions as cross-linkers. ATP can be assembled onto the surface of AuNPs through interaction between the electron-rich nitrogen atoms and the electron-deficient surface of AuNPs. Accordingly, Cu2+ ions induce a change in the color and UV/Vis absorbance of AuNPs by coordinating to the triphosphate groups and a ring nitrogen of ATP. A detection limit of 50 nM was achieved, which is comparable to or lower than that achievable by the currently used electrochemical, spectroscopic or chromatographic methods. The theoretical simplicity and high selectivity reported herein demonstrated that AuNPs-based colorimetric assay could be applied in a wide variety of fields by rationally designing the surface chemistry of AuNPs. In addition, our results indicate that ATP-modified AuNPs are less stable in Cu2+, Cd2+ or Zn2+-containing solutions due to the formation of the corresponding dimeric metal-ATP complexes.

  9. Exploiting differential electrochemical stripping behaviors of Fe3O4 nanocrystals toward heavy metal ions by crystal cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xian-Zhi; Guo, Zheng; Yuan, Qing-Hong; Liu, Zhong-Gang; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2014-08-13

    This study attempts to understand the intrinsic impact of different morphologies of nanocrystals on their electrochemical stripping behaviors toward heavy metal ions. Two differently shaped Fe3O4 nanocrystals, i.e., (100)-bound cubic and (111)-bound octahedral, have been synthesized for the experiments. Electrochemical results indicate that Fe3O4 nanocrystals with different shapes show different stripping behaviors toward heavy metal ions. Octahedral Fe3O4 nanocrystals show better electrochemical sensing performances toward the investigated heavy metal ions such as Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II), and Hg(II), in comparison with cubic ones. Specifically, Pb(II) is found to have the best stripping performance on both the (100) and (111) facets. To clarify these phenomena, adsorption abilities of as-prepared Fe3O4 nanocrystals have been investigated toward heavy metal ions. Most importantly, combined with theoretical calculations, their different electrochemical stripping behaviors in view of facet effects have been further studied and enclosed at the level of molecular/atom. Finally, as a trial to find a disposable platform completely free from noble metals, the potential application of the Fe3O4 nanocrystals for electrochemical detection of As(III) in drinking water is demonstrated.

  10. Impacts of lost fast ions on the TJ-II Vacuum Vessel during NBI; Impactos de los iones rapidos en la Camara de Vacio del TJ-II durante NBI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasp, J.

    1995-07-01

    The possible deposition patterns, on the Vacuum Vessel, of lost fast ions during the balanced tangential NBI in TJ-II helical axis Stellarator are analysed theoretically, establishing the relation between those impact points, the plasma exit and birth positions and the magnetic configuration characteristics. It is shown that direct losses are the most important, mainly those produced by the beam injected with the same direction that the magnetic field, increasing with beam energy and plasma density but with impacts remaining fixed on well defined zones, a periodically distributed along the Hard Core cover plates, producing high loads at high densities. The remaining losses, except for the shine through ones that predominate at low density, are periodically distributed, with smooth maxima and produce very low loads. No overlapping between the different kind of losses or beams is observed. (Author) 6 refs.

  11. Hybrid surfactants decorated with copper ions: aggregation behavior, antimicrobial activity and anti-proliferative effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Kumar, Sandeep; Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Bhanjana, Gaurav; Guru, Santosh Kumar; Bhushan, Shashi; Jaglan, Sundeep; Hassan, P A; Aswal, V K

    2016-09-14

    In the present study, the emphasis is laid on the self aggregation behavior of copper based inorganic-organic hybrids in aqueous media. The two complexes, cationic hexadecyl pyridinium trichloro cuprate (1 : 1), [Cp](+)[CuCl3](-), and bishexadecylpyridinium tetrachloro cuprate (2 : 1), [Cp2](2+)[CuCl4](2-), were synthesized using the ligand insertion method. The complexes were characterized using elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and thermogravimetric analysis. The copper complexes were found to be thermally stable, and in the solid state, they possessed the perovskite arrangement with [Cp2](2+)[CuCl4](2-) exhibiting superior stability and crystallinity. The self aggregation behavior of the prepared complexes was analyzed in solution phase (in aqueous medium) using surface tension, conductivity, XRD and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The results show that the presence of copper as a co-ion in both the stoichiometries results in lower critical micellization concentrations than their precursor. Micellization was thermodynamically spontaneous and micelles formed were ellipsoidal in shape and underwent a prolate ellipsoidal growth with an increase in the concentration of metallosurfactant, as estimated from the SANS. Furthermore, these metallosurfactants were investigated for biocompatibility (using hemolytic assay), antimicrobial activity (fungus and bacteria) and cytotoxicity using human cancerous cells. The hemolysis activity was found to depend on the aggregated state of the metallosurfactants, displaying the highest activity in the monomeric state, and the minimum for post micellar concentrations. The surfactants were found to enhance the antibacterial activity by twofold or more, with the addition of metal in both the stoichiometries. On the contrary, for anticancer and antifungal activities, barely any regular trend or generalization could be obtained

  12. Electrochemical performances and capacity fading behaviors of activated carbon/hard carbon lithium ion capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xianzhong; Zhang, Xiong; Liu, Wenjie; Wang, Kai; Li, Chen; Li, Zhao; Ma, Yanwei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-electrode pouch cell is used to investigate the capacity fading of AC/HC LIC. • the electrode potential swing is critical for the cycleability of a LIC cell. • Different capacity fading behaviors are discussed. • A large-capacity LIC pouch cell has been assembled with a specific energy of 18.1 Wh kg −1 based on the total weight. - Abstract: Lithium ion capacitor (LIC) is one of the most promising electrochemical energy storage devices, which offers rapid charging-discharging capability and long cycle life. We have fabricated LIC pouch cells using an electrochemically-driven lithium pre-doping method through a three-electrode pouch cell structure. The active materials of cathode and anode of LIC cell are activated carbon and pre-lithiated hard carbon, respectively. The electrochemical performances and the capacity fading behaviors of LICs in the voltage range of 2.0 − 4.0 V have been studied. The specific energy and specific power reach 73.6 Wh kg −1 and 11.9 kW kg −1 based on the weight of the active materials in both cathode and anode, respectively. Since the cycling performance is actually determined by hard carbon anode, the anode potential swings are emphasized. The capacity fading of LIC upon cycling is proposed to be caused by the increases of internal resistance and the consumption of lithium stored in anode. Finally, a large-capacity LIC pouch cell has been assembled with a maximum specific energy of 18.1 Wh kg −1 and a maximum specific power of 3.7 kW kg −1 based on the weight of the whole cell.

  13. SU-F-T-179: Fast and Accurate Profile Acquisition for Proton Beam Using Multi-Ion Chamber Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X; Zou, J; Chen, T; Yue, N; Zhang, M; Mo, X

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Proton beam profile measurement is more time-consuming than photon beam. Due to the energy modulation during proton delivery, chambers have to move step-by-step instead of continuously. Multi-ion chamber arrays are appealing to this task since multiple measurements can be performed at once. However, their utilization suffers from sparse spatial resolution and potential intrinsic volume-averaging effect of the disk-shaped ion chambers. We proposed an approach to measure proton beam profiles accurately and efficiently. Methods: Mevion S250 proton system and IBA Matrixx ion chamber arrays were used in this study. Matrixx has interchamber distance of 7.62 mm, and chamber diameter of 4.5 mm. We measured the same beam profile by moving the Matrixx seven times with 1 mm each time along y axis. All 7 measurements were superimposed to get a “finer” profile with 1 mm spatial resolution. Coarser resolution profiles of 2 mm and 3 mm were also generated by using subsets of measurements. Those profiles were compared to the TPS calculated beam profile. Gamma analysis was performed for 2D dose maps to evaluate the difference to TPS dose plane. Results: Preliminary results showed a large discrepancy between the TPS calculated profile and the single measurement profile with 7.6 mm resolution. A good match could be achieved when the resolution reduced to 3 mm by adding one extra measurement. Gamma analysis for 2D dose map of a 10×10 field showed a passing rate (γ ≤ 1) of 90.6% using a 3% and 3mm criterion for single measurement, which increased to 92.3% for 2-measurement superimposition, and slightly further increased to 92.9% for 7-measurement superimposition. Conclusion: The results indicated that 2 measurements shifted by 3mm using Matrixx generated a smooth proton beam profile with good matching to Eclipse beam profile. We suggest using this 2-measurement approach in clinic for double scattering proton beam profile measurement.

  14. Fred: a GPU-accelerated fast-Monte Carlo code for rapid treatment plan recalculation in ion beam therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavi, A.; Senzacqua, M.; Pioli, S.; Mairani, A.; Magro, G.; Molinelli, S.; Ciocca, M.; Battistoni, G.; Patera, V.

    2017-09-01

    Ion beam therapy is a rapidly growing technique for tumor radiation therapy. Ions allow for a high dose deposition in the tumor region, while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. For this reason, the highest possible accuracy in the calculation of dose and its spatial distribution is required in treatment planning. On one hand, commonly used treatment planning software solutions adopt a simplified beam-body interaction model by remapping pre-calculated dose distributions into a 3D water-equivalent representation of the patient morphology. On the other hand, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, which explicitly take into account all the details in the interaction of particles with human tissues, are considered to be the most reliable tool to address the complexity of mixed field irradiation in a heterogeneous environment. However, full MC calculations are not routinely used in clinical practice because they typically demand substantial computational resources. Therefore MC simulations are usually only used to check treatment plans for a restricted number of difficult cases. The advent of general-purpose programming GPU cards prompted the development of trimmed-down MC-based dose engines which can significantly reduce the time needed to recalculate a treatment plan with respect to standard MC codes in CPU hardware. In this work, we report on the development of fred, a new MC simulation platform for treatment planning in ion beam therapy. The code can transport particles through a 3D voxel grid using a class II MC algorithm. Both primary and secondary particles are tracked and their energy deposition is scored along the trajectory. Effective models for particle-medium interaction have been implemented, balancing accuracy in dose deposition with computational cost. Currently, the most refined module is the transport of proton beams in water: single pencil beam dose-depth distributions obtained with fred agree with those produced by standard MC codes within 1-2% of the

  15. Structural, thermal and optical behavior of 84 MeV oxygen and 120 MeV silicon ions irradiated PES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Kawaljeet Singh; Thakur, Sonika; Singh, Lakhwant

    2011-03-01

    In order to study structural, thermal and optical behavior, thin flat samples of polyethersulfone were irradiated with oxygen and silicon ions. The changes in properties were analyzed using different techniques viz: X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared, UV-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A noticeable increase in the intensity of X-ray diffraction peaks was observed after irradiation with 84 MeV oxygen ions at low and medium fluences, which may be attributed to radiation-induced cross-linking in polymer. Fourier transform infrared and thermo-gravimetric analysis corroborated the results of X-ray diffraction analysis. No noticeable change in the Fourier transform infrared spectra of oxygen ion irradiated polyethersulfone were observed even at the highest fluence of 1 × 10 13 ions cm -2, but after irradiation with silicon ions, a reduction in intensity of almost all characteristic bands was revealed. An increase in the activation energy of decomposition of polyethersulfone was observed after irradiation with 84 MeV oxygen ions up to medium fluences but degradation was revealed at higher fluences. Similar trends were observed by photoluminescence analysis.

  16. Structural, thermal and optical behavior of 84 MeV oxygen and 120 MeV silicon ions irradiated PES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samra, Kawaljeet Singh; Thakur, Sonika; Singh, Lakhwant

    2011-01-01

    In order to study structural, thermal and optical behavior, thin flat samples of polyethersulfone were irradiated with oxygen and silicon ions. The changes in properties were analyzed using different techniques viz: X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared, UV-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A noticeable increase in the intensity of X-ray diffraction peaks was observed after irradiation with 84 MeV oxygen ions at low and medium fluences, which may be attributed to radiation-induced cross-linking in polymer. Fourier transform infrared and thermo-gravimetric analysis corroborated the results of X-ray diffraction analysis. No noticeable change in the Fourier transform infrared spectra of oxygen ion irradiated polyethersulfone were observed even at the highest fluence of 1 x 10 13 ions cm -2 , but after irradiation with silicon ions, a reduction in intensity of almost all characteristic bands was revealed. An increase in the activation energy of decomposition of polyethersulfone was observed after irradiation with 84 MeV oxygen ions up to medium fluences but degradation was revealed at higher fluences. Similar trends were observed by photoluminescence analysis.

  17. Modification of boundary plasma behavior by Ion Bernstein Wave heating on HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoshen

    2002-01-01

    Cooperated with Fusion Research Center, the University of Texas at Austin, U.S.A. The boundary plasma behavior during Ion Bernstein Wave (IBW) heating was investigated using Langmuir probe arrays on HT-7 tokamak. The particle confinement improvement of over a factor of 2 was observed in 30 MHz IBW heated plasma with RF power > 120 kW. The strong de-correlation effect of fluctuations resulted in that the turbulent particle flux dropped more than an order of magnitude. In IBW heated plasma, an additional inward E r and associated poloidal ExB flows were produced, which could account for the additional poloidal velocity in the electron diamagnetic direction in the scrape-of layer (SOL). Three-wave nonlinear phase coupling increased evidently and low frequency fluctuations (about 5 kHz) were generated, which dominated the boundary turbulence during IBW heating. The 5/2-D resonant layer was located in the plasma edge region, which is found to be the mechanism underlying these phenomena. (author)

  18. Corrosion behavior of carbon steel for overpack in groundwater containing bicarbonate ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Toshiyasu; Dong, Junpha

    2009-01-01

    Carbon steel is considered in Japan the candidate material for overpacks in high-level radioactive waste disposal. Effects of bicarbonate solutions on the corrosion behavior and corrosion products of carbon steel were investigated by electrochemical measurements, FT-IR and XRD analyses. The anodic polarization measurements showed that bicarbonate ions (HCO 3 - ) accelerated the anodic dissolution and the outer layer film formation of carbon steel in the case of high concentrations, on the other hand, it inhibited these processes in the case of low concentrations. The FT-IR and XRD analyses of the anodized film showed that siderite (FeCO 3 ) was formed in 0.5 to 1.0 mol/L bicarbonate solution, and Fe 2 (OH) 2 CO 3 in 0.1 to 0.2 mol/L bicarbonate solution, while Fe 6 (OH) 12 CO 3 was formed in 0.02 to 0.05 mol/L bicarbonate solutions. The stability of these corrosion products was able to be explained by using the actual potential-pH diagrams for the Fe-H 2 O-CO 2 system. (author)

  19. Experimental study on the stress corrosion cracking behavior of AISI347 in acid chloride ion solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Qu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The stress corrosion cracking (SCC behavior of AISI347 austenitic stainless steel exposed to acid solution containing chloride ion at different temperature and pressure is studied through slow strain rate testing (SSRT at different test condition. The result of SSRT shows, with the pressure increasing, the SCC resistance is getting worse and the trend of brittle fracture presented by the fracture surface is more obvious. With the temperature rising, the mechanical properties of AISI347 getting worse first and then getting better, it gets to be the worst when the temperature is 260 °C. The result of significance effect analysis of temperature and pressure on SCC shows that the temperature has a greater effect on the resistance to SCC of AISI347 austenitic stainless steel than the pressure. The main component of passive film is analyzed and the mechanism of SCC is discussed. Chromium oxides soluble in the acidic chloride solution results in the forming of corrosion pits and the cracking of the passive film under stress.

  20. Electron double differential cross sections for ionization of O2 under fast C6+ ion impact and interference oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Saikat; Agnihotri, A. N.; Tachino, C. A.; Rivarola, R. D.; Martín, F.; Tribedi, Lokesh C.

    2013-09-01

    The absolute double differential cross sections (DDCS) have been obtained for electron emission from oxygen molecules under the impact of bare carbon ions. The DDCS values are measured between an energy range of a few eV to 600 eV and over an angular range of 30-150°. These are then compared with the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) calculations. The DDCS values for O2 are divided by that of atomic oxygen (calculated theoretically) to look for any oscillatory behaviour arising from Young-type interference. In addition, the DDCS ratios are further divided by a fitted straight line to extract any primary interference oscillation. Although a negative result has been obtained, these observations are in qualitative agreement with the prediction of the CDW-EIS model used.

  1. Electron double differential cross sections for ionization of O2 under fast C6+ ion impact and interference oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Saikat; Agnihotri, A N; Tribedi, Lokesh C; Tachino, C A; Rivarola, R D; Martín, F

    2013-01-01

    The absolute double differential cross sections (DDCS) have been obtained for electron emission from oxygen molecules under the impact of bare carbon ions. The DDCS values are measured between an energy range of a few eV to 600 eV and over an angular range of 30–150°. These are then compared with the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) calculations. The DDCS values for O 2 are divided by that of atomic oxygen (calculated theoretically) to look for any oscillatory behaviour arising from Young-type interference. In addition, the DDCS ratios are further divided by a fitted straight line to extract any primary interference oscillation. Although a negative result has been obtained, these observations are in qualitative agreement with the prediction of the CDW-EIS model used. (paper)

  2. Fast food price, diet behavior, and cardiometabolic health: Differential associations by neighborhood SES and neighborhood fast food restaurant availability in the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummo, Pasquale E; Meyer, Katie A; Green Howard, Annie; Shikany, James M; Guilkey, David K; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-09-01

    Little research has addressed whether neighborhood context influences associations between fast food price, diet, and cardiometabolic health. We investigated these associations using 25 years of Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study data (n=4,469, observations=21,134). We found a negative association between fast food price and consumption, with stronger inverse associations in more (vs. less) deprived neighborhoods [3rd tertile: β=-0.68 (95% CI: (-0.85, -0.51); 1st tertile: β=-0.22 (95% CI: -0.42, -0.02); p-interaction-0.002], and a similar association for BMI [3rd tertile: β=-1.34 (95% CI: -1.54, -1.14); 1st tertile: β=-0.45 (95% CI: -0.66, -0.25); p-interactionfast food price by fast food availability. Future research on obesity disparities should consider potential differences in the association between fast food prices and health outcomes across neighborhood socioeconomic levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fast food price, diet behavior, and cardiometabolic health: differential associations by neighborhood SES and neighborhood fast food restaurants in the CARDIA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Rummo, Pasquale E.; Meyer, Katie A.; Howard, Annie Green; Shikany, James M.; Guilkey, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Little research has addressed whether neighborhood context influences associations between fast food price, diet, and cardiometabolic health. We investigated these associations using 25 years of Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study data (n=4,469, observations=21,134). We found a negative association between fast food price and consumption, with stronger inverse associations in more (vs. less) deprived neighborhoods [3rd tertile: β=−0.68 (95% CI: (−0.85, −0.51); 1st tertile: β=−0.22 (95% CI: −0.42, −0.02) ; p-interaction-0.002], and a similar association for BMI [3rd tertile: β=−1.34 (95% CI: −1.54, −1.14); 1st tertile: β=−0.45 (95% CI: −0.66, −0.25); p-interactionfast food price by fast food availability. Future research on obesity disparities should consider potential differences in the association between fast food prices and health outcomes across neighborhood socioeconomic levels. PMID:26319447

  4. Electrochemical behavior and biological response of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on cp-Ti after N-ions implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizwan, M.; Ahmad, A. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, 54890 Lahore (Pakistan); Deen, K.M. [Corrosion Control Research Cell, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, CEET, University of the Punjab, 54590 Lahore (Pakistan); Haider, W., E-mail: haiderw@utpa.edu [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Texas Pan American, Edinburg, TX 78539 (United States)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Nitrogen ions of known dosage were implanted on cp-Ti. • Increase in surface roughness with increase in ions dose was confirmed by AFM. • TiN{sub 0.3} and Ti{sub 3}N{sub 2−x} nitride phases were formed and validated by XRD. • The ions implantation reduced the corrosion rate and stabilized the passive film. • Surface roughness greatly affected the morphology and growth of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. - Abstract: Titanium and its alloys are most widely used as implant materials due to their excellent biocompatibility, mechanical properties and chemical stability. In this study Nitrogen ions of known dosage were implanted over cp-Ti by Pelletron accelerator with beam energy of 0.25 MeV.The atomic force microscopy of bare and nitrogen implanted specimens confirmed increase in surface roughness with increase in nitrogen ions concentration. X-ray diffraction patterns of ions implanted surfaces validated the formation of TiN{sub 0.3} and Ti{sub 3}N{sub 2-x}nitride phases. The tendency to form passive film and electrochemical behavior of these surfaces in ringer lactate (RL) solution was evaluated by Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy respectively. It is proved that nitrogen ions implantation was beneficial to reduce corrosion rate and stabilizing passive film by increasing charge transfer resistance in RL. It was concluded that morphology and proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on nitrogen ions implanted surfaces strongly depends on surface roughness and nitride phases.

  5. Development and testing of a fast digital electronic system for ion identification and spectroscopy; Etude et realisation d'une chaine d'instrumentation numerique rapide pour l'identification des ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legou, Th

    2002-02-01

    This report deals with a fast digital electronic system developed for ion identification and spectroscopy. The system, called IRIS, has been conceived for the super heavy element research program: FUSION. In order to observe a super heavy element, the energy of the compound nucleus implanted in a silicon detector must be measured, and the alpha decay also registered. The associated electronics must therefore handle a very wide range of energies and also exhibit a small recovery time after the implantation of the compound nucleus. IRIS is connected to the output of a charge preamplifier. It digitizes the signal and then executes two digital signal processes: the first to detect the particle, and the second to determine the energy deposited in the silicon detector. The use of programmed processing allows for the adjustment of the digital processing parameters, as well as a choice of other digital signal processing procedures, depending the application. After having explained why a conventional electronic system cannot be used for the detection of super-heavy ions, IRIS' structure is detailed and a number of digital signal processing procedures are studied and tested. (author)

  6. Study on ion temperature behaviors in electron and ion heating regimes of ECH, ICRF and NBI discharges in LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, S.; Goto, M.; Takeiri, Y. [and others

    2002-10-01

    Ion heating experiments have been carried out in LHD using ECH (82.5, 84.0, 168 GHz, {<=}1 MW), ICRF (38.5 MHz, {<=}2.7 MW) and NBI (H deg beam: 160 keV, {<=}8 MW). The central ion temperature has been obtained from Doppler broadening of TiXXI (2.61A) and ArXVII (3.95A) x-ray lines measured with a newly installed crystal spectrometer. In ECH discharges on-axis heating was recently done with the appearance of high T{sub e}(0) of 6-10 keV and high ion temperature of 2.2 keV was observed at n{sub e}=0.6x10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. A clear increment of T{sub i} was also observed with enhancement of the electron-ion energy flow when the ECH pulse was added to the NBI discharge. These results demonstrate the feasibility toward ECH ignition. The clear T{sub i} increment was also observed in ICRF discharges at low density ranges of 0.4-0.6x10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} with appearance of a new operational range of T{sub i}(0)=2.8 keV > T{sub e}(0)=1.9 keV. In the low power ICRF heating (1 MW), the fraction of bulk ion heating is estimated to be 60% to the total ICRF input power, which means P{sub i} > P{sub e}. Higher T{sub i}(0) up to 3.5 keV was obtained for a combined heating of NBI (< 4 MW) and ICRF (1 MW) at density ranges of 0.5-1.5x10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. The highest T{sub i}(0) of 5 keV was recorded in Ne NBI discharges at n{sub e} < 1x10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} with the achievement of T{sub i}(0) > T{sub e}(0), whereas the T{sub i}(0) remained at relatively low values of 2 keV in H{sub 2} or He NBI discharges. The main reasons for the high T{sub i} achievement in the Ne discharge are; 1) 30% increment of deposition power, 2) increase in P{sub i}/n{sub i} (11 times, P{sub i}/n{sub i} >> P{sub e}/n{sub e}, P{sub i} < P{sub e}) and 3) increase in {tau}{sub ei} (3 times). The obtained T{sub i}(0) data can be plotted by a smooth function of P{sub i}/n{sub i}. (author)

  7. Comparison between a radio-frequency and direct current glow discharge in argon by a hybrid Monte Carlo-fluid model for electrons, argon ions and fast argon atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaerts, A.; Gijbels, R.; W. Goedheer,

    1999-01-01

    A hybrid Monte Carlo-fluid model has been developed for the electrons, argon ions and fast argon atoms in an argon glow discharge, either operated in the de mode or the capacitively coupled rf mode. Typical working conditions for rf GD-OES are considered, i.e. approximately 6 torr argon gas pressure

  8. Environmentally-friendly aqueous Li (or Na)-ion battery with fast electrode kinetics and super-long life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoli; Chen, Long; Liu, Jingyuan; Haller, Servane; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2016-01-01

    Current rechargeable batteries generally display limited cycle life and slow electrode kinetics and contain environmentally unfriendly components. Furthermore, their operation depends on the redox reactions of metal elements. We present an original battery system that depends on the redox of I(-)/I3 (-) couple in liquid cathode and the reversible enolization in polyimide anode, accompanied by Li(+) (or Na(+)) diffusion between cathode and anode through a Li(+)/Na(+) exchange polymer membrane. There are no metal element-based redox reactions in this battery, and Li(+) (or Na(+)) is only used for charge transfer. Moreover, the components (electrolyte/electrode) of this system are environment-friendly. Both electrodes are demonstrated to have very fast kinetics, which gives the battery a supercapacitor-like high power. It can even be cycled 50,000 times when operated within the electrochemical window of 0 to 1.6 V. Such a system might shed light on the design of high-safety and low-cost batteries for grid-scale energy storage.

  9. Improve the corrosion and cytotoxic behavior of NiTi implants with use of the ion beam technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisner, L. L., E-mail: llm@isps.tsc.ru; Meisner, S. N. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, 2/4 Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk, 634021 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenina Avenue, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Matveeva, V. A.; Matveev, A. L. [Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Siberian Branch,Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    The corrosion resistance behavior and cytotoxicity of binary NiTi-base alloy specimens subjected to surface modification by silicon ion beams and the proliferative ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) of rat marrow on an ion-implanted surface of the alloy have been studied. The silicon ion beam processing of specimen surfaces is shown to bring about a nearly two-fold improvement in the corrosion resistance of the material to attack by acqueous solutions of NaCl and human plasma and a drastic decrease in the nickel concentration after immersion of the specimens into the solutions for ∼3400 and ∼6000 h, respectively. It is found that MSC proliferation strongly depends on the surface structure, roughness and chemical condition of NiTi implants.

  10. Energy and angular distribution of electrons ejected from water by the impact of fast O8+ ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Shamik; Bagdia, Chandan; Chowdhury, Madhusree Roy; Monti, Juan M.; Rivarola, Roberto D.; Tribedi, Lokesh C.

    2018-01-01

    Double differential cross sections (DDCS) of electrons emitted from vapor water molecules (in vapor phase) by 2.0 MeV/u and 3.75 MeV/u bare oxygen ion impact have been measured by continuum electron spectroscopy technique. The ejected electrons were detected by an electrostatic hemispherical deflection analyzer over an energy range of 1-600 eV and emission angles from 20∘ to 160∘. The DDCS data has been compared with the continuum-distorted-wave-eikonal-initial state (CDW-EIS) approximation and a reasonable agreement was found with both version of the models i.e. post and prior version. By numerical integration of the DDCS data, the single differential cross section (SDCS) and total ionization cross section (TCS) were obtained. The obtained TCS results were compared with other available TCS results for water target within the same energy range. The total ionization cross sections values are seen to saturate as the projectile charge state ( q p ) increases, which is in contrast to the first-Born predicted q p 2 dependence. This is also in contrast to the prediction of the CDW-EIS models.

  11. Electron emission in ionization of He and Ne by fast dressed oxygen ions and projectile-charge-state dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Shubhadeep; Kasthurirangan, S.; Misra, D.; Monti, J. M.; Rivarola, R. D.; Fainstein, P. D.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2015-02-01

    The double-differential cross sections (DDCS) of low-energy electrons emitted at forward, backward, and perpendicular directions are reported for collisions of 3.75 MeV/u Oq + (q =5 , 6, 7, 8) projectiles with He and Ne targets. The measured DDCS are found to be deviating from the q2 dependence throughout the entire energy region. The effect of projectile electrons, for the dressed ions, as a function of the impact parameter is clearly noticeable for large as well as low-impact parameter collisions. We also present a theoretical calculation based on the prior form of the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state approximation, in which the projectile-active electron interaction is modeled with the Green-Sellin-Zachor potential. This particular representation of the potential has been proven to give good qualitative results for projectiles with residual electrons. In addition to the total DDCS, the individual contributions from target ionization, projectile electron loss, and simultaneous ionization processes are also calculated. The total DDCS obtained from these calculations are shown to be in excellent agreement with the experimental observations.

  12. Giant plasmon excitation in single and double ionization of C60 by fast highly charged Si and O ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, A. H.; Kadhane, U.; Misra, D.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2007-09-01

    Se have investigated single and double ionization of C60 molecule in collisions with 2.33 MeV/u Siq+ (q=6-14) and 3.125 MeV/u Oq+ (q=5-8) projectiles. The projectile charge state dependence of the single and double ionization yields of C60 are then compared to those for an ion-atom collision system using Ne gas as a target. A large difference between the gas and the cluster target behaviour was partially explained in terms of a model based on collective excitation namely the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR). The qualitative agreement between the data and GDPR model prediction for single and double ionization signifies the importance of single and double plasmon excitations in the ionization process. A large deviation of the GDPR model for triple and quadruple ionization from the experimental data imply the importance of the other low impact parameter processes such as evaporation, fragmentation and a possible solid-like dynamical screening.

  13. Giant plasmon excitation in single and double ionization of C60 by fast highly charged Si and O ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, A H; Kadhane, U; Misra, D; Tribedi, L C

    2007-01-01

    Se have investigated single and double ionization of C 60 molecule in collisions with 2.33 MeV/u Si q+ (q=6-14) and 3.125 MeV/u O q+ (q=5-8) projectiles. The projectile charge state dependence of the single and double ionization yields of C 60 are then compared to those for an ion-atom collision system using Ne gas as a target. A large difference between the gas and the cluster target behaviour was partially explained in terms of a model based on collective excitation namely the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR). The qualitative agreement between the data and GDPR model prediction for single and double ionization signifies the importance of single and double plasmon excitations in the ionization process. A large deviation of the GDPR model for triple and quadruple ionization from the experimental data imply the importance of the other low impact parameter processes such as evaporation, fragmentation and a possible solid-like dynamical screening

  14. Runaway electron generation as possible trigger for enhancement of magnetohydrodynamic plasma activity and fast changes in runaway beam behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankratov, I. M.; Zhou, R. J.; Hu, L. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Peculiar phenomena were observed during experiments with runaway electrons: rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) signal (cyclotron radiation of suprathermal electrons). These phenomena were initially observed in TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research), where these events only occurred in the current decay phase or in discharges with thin stable runaway beams at a q = 1 drift surface. These rapid changes in the synchrotron spot were interpreted by the TEXTOR team as a fast pitch angle scattering event. Recently, similar rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the non-thermal ECE signal were observed in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) runaway discharge. Runaway electrons were located around the q = 2 rational magnetic surface (ring-like runaway electron beam). During the EAST runaway discharge, stepwise ECE signal increases coincided with enhanced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. This behavior was peculiar to this shot. In this paper, we show that these non-thermal ECE step-like jumps were related to the abrupt growth of suprathermal electrons induced by bursting electric fields at reconnection events during this MHD plasma activity. Enhancement of the secondary runaway electron generation also occurred simultaneously. Local changes in the current-density gradient appeared because of local enhancement of the runaway electron generation process. These current-density gradient changes are considered to be a possible trigger for enhancement of the MHD plasma activity and the rapid changes in runaway beam behavior

  15. Runaway electron generation as possible trigger for enhancement of magnetohydrodynamic plasma activity and fast changes in runaway beam behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, I. M.; Zhou, R. J.; Hu, L. Q.

    2015-07-01

    Peculiar phenomena were observed during experiments with runaway electrons: rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) signal (cyclotron radiation of suprathermal electrons). These phenomena were initially observed in TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research), where these events only occurred in the current decay phase or in discharges with thin stable runaway beams at a q = 1 drift surface. These rapid changes in the synchrotron spot were interpreted by the TEXTOR team as a fast pitch angle scattering event. Recently, similar rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the non-thermal ECE signal were observed in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) runaway discharge. Runaway electrons were located around the q = 2 rational magnetic surface (ring-like runaway electron beam). During the EAST runaway discharge, stepwise ECE signal increases coincided with enhanced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. This behavior was peculiar to this shot. In this paper, we show that these non-thermal ECE step-like jumps were related to the abrupt growth of suprathermal electrons induced by bursting electric fields at reconnection events during this MHD plasma activity. Enhancement of the secondary runaway electron generation also occurred simultaneously. Local changes in the current-density gradient appeared because of local enhancement of the runaway electron generation process. These current-density gradient changes are considered to be a possible trigger for enhancement of the MHD plasma activity and the rapid changes in runaway beam behavior.

  16. Mechanical behavior of a fast reactor core: Application of the 3D codes to SUPER PHENIX 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, A.; Masoni, P.; Dorsselaere, J.P. van

    1983-01-01

    The series of the 3-dimensional mechanical codes of a fast reactor core was used for the first time within the framework of a design study of an industrial reactor: SUPER-PHENIX 1. These codes are the following ones: - ARGOH which calculates the behavior of an isolated subassembly. - HARMONIE which calculates the core mechanical equilibrium - TRACAR which yields a graphic visualization of HARMONIE results, and calculates the handling forces and support reactions - HARMOREA which calculates the reactivity variations between given equilibrium states (for instance: pads effect and diagrid effect); now at the end of its development. The calculations were performed on 1/3 of the SPX1 core. Their purpose is double: - on the one hand, to check design criteria, and provide the loadings for the subassembly mechanical design studies; on the other hand, to evaluate the reactivity effects, related to the horizontal core deformations, and useful for operation and safety studies. The results of these calculations showed that the design criteria were verified for the contractual lifetime of the subassemblies. (orig.)

  17. Mass-transfer behavior of materials for liquid-metal fast breeder reactor steam-generators, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Keiji; Ohta, Yoshio; Kataoka, Tadayuki; Suzuki, Katsumi; Yagi, Shigeji

    1976-01-01

    To examine the compatibility of structural materials with liquid sodium in the Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) steam generator environments, tests were conducted, in a sodium loop facility, on selected steels mainly of ferrite 2 1/4Cr-1Mo, 2 1/4Cr-1Mo-Nb, high Cr-1Mo, and austenitic AISI type 316. As a result of the above tests, it was found that the decarburization behavior is conditioned by the heat treatment history of steel, and the carbon loss is more rapid in annealed steel than in normalized and tempered steels. Other noteworthy findings were as follows: the carbon concentration immediately beneath the specimen surface increased consistently with the chromium content of steel, and within the range of chromium content of 3 to 5 % weight the decarburization shown by the low-chromium specimens changed to carburization. The tensile strength of annealed 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel at 500 0 C was markedly reduced by thermal aging rather than by sodium exposure. The influence of sodium exposure on the decrease of tensile strength was slight. The creep rupture strength at 550 0 C was decreased by some 10% by sodium exposure. (auth.)

  18. On the behavior of ion implanted silicon strip detectors in high intensity low energy heavy ion beam experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bradfield, W; Parker, P D; Visser, D W

    2002-01-01

    In a recent investigation of the development of leakage currents in Silicon Strip Detectors used in experiments with high intensity stable beams, anomalous behavior was observed. Over a very short period of time the leakage current rose to levels that could be damaging to the detectors. A discussion of this evidence and how the problem was solved, with a viable model, will be given, leading to guidelines for use of such detectors in a stable beam environment.

  19. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Lithium Ion Cells to Electrochemical-Thermal (ECT) Models for Battery Crush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Pesaran, Ahmad; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbicki, Tom

    2016-06-14

    Vehicle crashes can lead to crushing of the battery, damaging lithium ion battery cells and causing local shorts, heat generation, and thermal runaway. Simulating all the physics and geometries at the same time is challenging and takes a lot of effort; thus, simplifications are needed. We developed a material model for simultaneously modeling the mechanical-electrochemical-thermal behavior, which predicted the electrical short, voltage drop, and thermal runaway behaviors followed by a mechanical abuse-induced short. The effect of short resistance on the battery cell performance was studied.

  20. Differential electron emission in the ionization of Ne and Xe atoms under fast bare carbon ion impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Shubhadeep; Monti, J. M.; Tachino, C. A.; Rivarola, R. D.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2015-06-01

    Measurement of the energy and angular distributions of the double differential cross section (DDCS) of electron emission from Ne and Xe atoms in collision with 5 MeV u-1 bare carbon ions is reported. This study aimed to investigate the electron emission processes in the case of multi-electronic systems. In general, several clear differences between the electron emission spectra of Ne and Xe are found, which indicate the influence of the increasing number of electrons. For instance, the sharp peak due to the binary nature of collision is almost absent in the case of Xe, unlike Ne, which could be understood due to the increasing contribution from the strongly bound inner shell (such as 4d) electrons for the Xe atom. The forward-backward angular asymmetry has also been derived from the angular distributions. For Xe, the qualitative behaviour of the asymmetry parameter is seen to be quite different since it reveals structures due to Auger contributions. It is, in general, different and much lower than that for Ne, which shows the smooth behaviour that one finds for other lighter atoms like He. The single differential and total cross sections are also derived. The theoretical calculations based on the prior form of the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) approximation have been provided for both the targets. Overall, it gives a very good agreement with the energy and the angular distributions of DDCS for Ne. For Xe, the agreement is not as good as for Ne. We also provide a detailed discussion on the DDCS obtained from different sub-shell ionization, estimated in this framework.

  1. Effect of crystallographic orientation on structural and mechanical behaviors of Ni-Ti thin films irradiated by Ag7+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Veeresh; Singhal, Rahul

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, thin films of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy have been grown on Si substrate by dc magnetron co-sputtering technique using separate sputter targets Ni and Ti. The prepared thin films have been irradiated by 100 MeV Ag7+ ions at three different fluences, which are 1 × 1012, 5 × 1012, and 1 × 1013 ions/cm2. The elemental composition and depth profile of pristine film have been investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The changes in crystal orientation, surface morphology, and mechanical properties of Ni-Ti thin films before and after irradiation have been studied by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and nanoindentation techniques, respectively. X-ray diffraction measurement has revealed the existence of both austenite and martensite phases in pristine film and the formation of precipitate on the surface of the film after irradiation at an optimized fluence of 1 × 1013 ions/cm2. Nanoindentation measurement has revealed improvement in mechanical properties of Ni-Ti thin films after ion irradiation via increasing hardness and Young modulus due to the formation of precipitate and ductile phase. The improvement in mechanical behavior could be explained in terms of precipitation hardening and structural change of Ni-Ti thin film after irradiation by Swift heavy ion irradiation.

  2. Prediction of thermal behaviors of an air-cooled lithium-ion battery system for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Seok; Kang, Dal Mo

    2014-12-01

    Thermal management has been one of the major issues in developing a lithium-ion (Li-ion) hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery system since the Li-ion battery is vulnerable to excessive heat load under abnormal or severe operational conditions. In this work, in order to design a suitable thermal management system, a simple modeling methodology describing thermal behavior of an air-cooled Li-ion battery system was proposed from vehicle components designer's point of view. A proposed mathematical model was constructed based on the battery's electrical and mechanical properties. Also, validation test results for the Li-ion battery system were presented. A pulse current duty and an adjusted US06 current cycle for a two-mode HEV system were used to validate the accuracy of the model prediction. Results showed that the present model can give good estimations for simulating convective heat transfer cooling during battery operation. The developed thermal model is useful in structuring the flow system and determining the appropriate cooling capacity for a specified design prerequisite of the battery system.

  3. Electrochemical behavior and biological response of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on cp-Ti after N-ions implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, M.; Ahmad, A.; Deen, K. M.; Haider, W.

    2014-11-01

    Titanium and its alloys are most widely used as implant materials due to their excellent biocompatibility, mechanical properties and chemical stability. In this study Nitrogen ions of known dosage were implanted over cp-Ti by Pelletron accelerator with beam energy of 0.25 MeV.The atomic force microscopy of bare and nitrogen implanted specimens confirmed increase in surface roughness with increase in nitrogen ions concentration. X-ray diffraction patterns of ions implanted surfaces validated the formation of TiN0.3 and Ti3N2-xnitride phases. The tendency to form passive film and electrochemical behavior of these surfaces in ringer lactate (RL) solution was evaluated by Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy respectively. It is proved that nitrogen ions implantation was beneficial to reduce corrosion rate and stabilizing passive film by increasing charge transfer resistance in RL. It was concluded that morphology and proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on nitrogen ions implanted surfaces strongly depends on surface roughness and nitride phases.

  4. Evaluation of Fast Food Behavior in Pre-School Children and Parents Following a One-Year Intervention with Nutrition Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqing Gao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A community-based intervention study was conducted to assess a nutrition education intervention on western style fast food consumption among Chinese children and parents. Eight kindergartens from three district areas of Hefei City (a total of 1252 children aged 4–6 years and their parents were randomly selected. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods were used to evaluate the baseline, midterm, and final western style fast food knowledge, attitude, and practice in both parents and children were used to identify and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice in the parents and children. Parents and children were divided into “intervention” and “control” groups based on nutrition education status. Consumption of western style fast food at breakfast in Chinese children and parents is not high. The main reasons for this in children is that consumption of western style fast food is not viewed as “food”, but rather as a “gift” or “interesting”. The time of children’s consumption of western style fast food is mostly likely to be in the weekends. The nutrition education modified the parents’ western style fast food behavior (p < 0.01, although it did not change significantly in children. The healthy nutrition concept should be built up among Chinese, especially in children. Insights from the families provide leads for future research and ideas for the nutrition education.

  5. Evaluation of fast food behavior in pre-school children and parents following a one-year intervention with nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongqing; Huang, Yuee; Zhang, Yongjun; Liu, Fengqiong; Feng, Cindy Xin; Liu, Tingting; Li, Changwei; Ling, Dong Dong; Mu, Yongping; Tarver, Siobhan L; Wang, Mao; Sun, Wenjie

    2014-06-30

    A community-based intervention study was conducted to assess a nutrition education intervention on western style fast food consumption among Chinese children and parents. Eight kindergartens from three district areas of Hefei City (a total of 1252 children aged 4-6 years and their parents) were randomly selected. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods were used to evaluate the baseline, midterm, and final western style fast food knowledge, attitude, and practice in both parents and children were used to identify and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice in the parents and children. Parents and children were divided into "intervention" and "control" groups based on nutrition education status. Consumption of western style fast food at breakfast in Chinese children and parents is not high. The main reasons for this in children is that consumption of western style fast food is not viewed as "food", but rather as a "gift" or "interesting". The time of children's consumption of western style fast food is mostly likely to be in the weekends. The nutrition education modified the parents' western style fast food behavior (p < 0.01), although it did not change significantly in children. The healthy nutrition concept should be built up among Chinese, especially in children. Insights from the families provide leads for future research and ideas for the nutrition education.

  6. Initial development of goCMC: a GPU-oriented fast cross-platform Monte Carlo engine for carbon ion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Nan; Pinto, Marco; Tian, Zhen; Dedes, Georgios; Pompos, Arnold; Jiang, Steve B; Parodi, Katia; Jia, Xun

    2017-05-07

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is considered as the most accurate method for calculation of absorbed dose and fundamental physics quantities related to biological effects in carbon ion therapy. To improve its computational efficiency, we have developed a GPU-oriented fast MC package named goCMC, for carbon therapy. goCMC simulates particle transport in voxelized geometry with kinetic energy up to 450 MeV u -1 . Class II condensed history simulation scheme with a continuous slowing down approximation was employed. Energy straggling and multiple scattering were modeled. δ-electrons were terminated with their energy locally deposited. Four types of nuclear interactions were implemented in goCMC, i.e. carbon-hydrogen, carbon-carbon, carbon-oxygen and carbon-calcium inelastic collisions. Total cross section data from Geant4 were used. Secondary particles produced in these interactions were sampled according to particle yield with energy and directional distribution data derived from Geant4 simulation results. Secondary charged particles were transported following the condensed history scheme, whereas secondary neutral particles were ignored. goCMC was developed under OpenCL framework and is executable on different platforms, e.g. GPU and multi-core CPU. We have validated goCMC with Geant4 in cases with different beam energy and phantoms including four homogeneous phantoms, one heterogeneous half-slab phantom, and one patient case. For each case [Formula: see text] carbon ions were simulated, such that in the region with dose greater than 10% of maximum dose, the mean relative statistical uncertainty was less than 1%. Good agreements for dose distributions and range estimations between goCMC and Geant4 were observed. 3D gamma passing rates with 1%/1 mm criterion were over 90% within 10% isodose line except in two extreme cases, and those with 2%/1 mm criterion were all over 96%. Efficiency and code portability were tested with different GPUs and CPUs. Depending on the

  7. Initial development of goCMC: a GPU-oriented fast cross-platform Monte Carlo engine for carbon ion therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Nan; Pinto, Marco; Tian, Zhen; Dedes, Georgios; Pompos, Arnold; Jiang, Steve B.; Parodi, Katia; Jia, Xun

    2017-05-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is considered as the most accurate method for calculation of absorbed dose and fundamental physics quantities related to biological effects in carbon ion therapy. To improve its computational efficiency, we have developed a GPU-oriented fast MC package named goCMC, for carbon therapy. goCMC simulates particle transport in voxelized geometry with kinetic energy up to 450 MeV u-1. Class II condensed history simulation scheme with a continuous slowing down approximation was employed. Energy straggling and multiple scattering were modeled. δ-electrons were terminated with their energy locally deposited. Four types of nuclear interactions were implemented in goCMC, i.e. carbon-hydrogen, carbon-carbon, carbon-oxygen and carbon-calcium inelastic collisions. Total cross section data from Geant4 were used. Secondary particles produced in these interactions were sampled according to particle yield with energy and directional distribution data derived from Geant4 simulation results. Secondary charged particles were transported following the condensed history scheme, whereas secondary neutral particles were ignored. goCMC was developed under OpenCL framework and is executable on different platforms, e.g. GPU and multi-core CPU. We have validated goCMC with Geant4 in cases with different beam energy and phantoms including four homogeneous phantoms, one heterogeneous half-slab phantom, and one patient case. For each case 3× {{10}7} carbon ions were simulated, such that in the region with dose greater than 10% of maximum dose, the mean relative statistical uncertainty was less than 1%. Good agreements for dose distributions and range estimations between goCMC and Geant4 were observed. 3D gamma passing rates with 1%/1 mm criterion were over 90% within 10% isodose line except in two extreme cases, and those with 2%/1 mm criterion were all over 96%. Efficiency and code portability were tested with different GPUs and CPUs. Depending on the beam

  8. A dimensionally stable and fast-discharging graphite-silicon composite Li-ion battery anode enabled by electrostatically self-assembled multifunctional polymer-blend coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shiang; Chou, Jackey; Wu, Nae-Lih

    2015-05-18

    A high-performance graphite-Si composite anode for Li-ion batteries containing Si nanoparticles (NPs) attached onto graphite microparticles was synthesized by adopting a polymer-blend of poly(diallyl dimethyl-ammonium chloride) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate). The polymer-blend enabled uniform distribution of Si NPs during synthesis and served as a robust artificial solid-electrolyte interphase that substantially enhanced the cycle stability and rate performance of the composite electrode. The electrode exhibited a specific capacity of 450 mA h g(-1), 96% capacity retention at a 10 C-rate, 95% retention after 200 cycles, and the same electrode expansion behavior as a pristine graphite electrode.

  9. DIRAC: A new version of computer algebra tools for studying the properties and behavior of hydrogen-like ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Sean; Fritzsche, Stephan; Surzhykov, Andrey

    2010-03-01

    "hydrogen atom" has served as one of the key models for studying the structure and dynamics of various quantum systems. Its analytic solutions are frequently used in case studies in atomic and molecular physics, quantum optics, plasma physics, or even in the field of quantum information and computation. Fast and reliable access to functions and properties of the hydrogenic systems are frequently required, in both the non-relativistic and relativistic frameworks. Despite all the knowledge about one-electron ions, providing such an access is not a simple task, owing to the rather complicated mathematical structure of the Schrödinger and especially Dirac equations. Moreover, for analyzing experimental results as well as for performing advanced theoretical studies one often needs (apart from the detailed information on atomic wave- and Green's functions) to be able to calculate a number of integrals involving these functions. Although for many types of transition operators these integrals can be evaluated analytically in terms of special mathematical functions, such an evaluation is usually rather involved and prone to mistakes. Solution method: A set of Mathematica procedures is developed which provides both the non-relativistic and relativistic solutions of the "Hydrogen atom model". It facilitates, moreover, the symbolic evaluation of integrals involved in the calculations of cross sections and transition amplitudes. These procedures are based on a large number of relations among special mathematical functions, information about their integral representations, recurrence formulae and series expansions. Based on this knowledge, the DIRAC tools provide a fast and reliable algebraic (and if necessary, numeric) manipulation of functions and properties of one-electron systems, thus helping to obtain further insight into the behavior of quantum physical systems. Reasons for new version: The original version of the DIRAC program was developed as a toolbox of Maple procedures and

  10. Not So Fast: Swimming Behavior of Sailfish during Predator-Prey Interactions using High-Speed Video and Accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Stefano; Noda, Takuji; Steffensen, John F; Svendsen, Morten B S; Krause, Jens; Wilson, Alexander D M; Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Herbert-Read, James; Boswell, Kevin M; Domenici, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    Billfishes are considered among the fastest swimmers in the oceans. Despite early estimates of extremely high speeds, more recent work showed that these predators (e.g., blue marlin) spend most of their time swimming slowly, rarely exceeding 2 m s(-1). Predator-prey interactions provide a context within which one may expect maximal speeds both by predators and prey. Beyond speed, however, an important component determining the outcome of predator-prey encounters is unsteady swimming (i.e., turning and accelerating). Although large predators are faster than their small prey, the latter show higher performance in unsteady swimming. To contrast the evading behaviors of their highly maneuverable prey, sailfish and other large aquatic predators possess morphological adaptations, such as elongated bills, which can be moved more rapidly than the whole body itself, facilitating capture of the prey. Therefore, it is an open question whether such supposedly very fast swimmers do use high-speed bursts when feeding on evasive prey, in addition to using their bill for slashing prey. Here, we measured the swimming behavior of sailfish by using high-frequency accelerometry and high-speed video observations during predator-prey interactions. These measurements allowed analyses of tail beat frequencies to estimate swimming speeds. Our results suggest that sailfish burst at speeds of about 7 m s(-1) and do not exceed swimming speeds of 10 m s(-1) during predator-prey interactions. These speeds are much lower than previous estimates. In addition, the oscillations of the bill during swimming with, and without, extension of the dorsal fin (i.e., the sail) were measured. We suggest that extension of the dorsal fin may allow sailfish to improve the control of the bill and minimize its yaw, hence preventing disturbance of the prey. Therefore, sailfish, like other large predators, may rely mainly on accuracy of movement and the use of the extensions of their bodies, rather than resorting

  11. Unique, Non-Earthlike, Meteoritic Ion Behavior in Upper Atmosphere of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Benna, M.; Plane, J. M. C.; Collinson, G. A.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Interplanetary dust particles have long been expected to produce permanent ionospheric metal ion layers at Mars, as on Earth, but the two environments are so different that uncertainty existed as to whether terrestrial-established understanding would apply to Mars. The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission made the first in situ detection of the continuous presence of Na+, Mg+, and Fe+ at Mars and indeed revealed non-Earthlike features/processes. There is no separation of the light Mg+ and the heavy Fe+ with increasing altitude as expected for gravity control. The metal ions are well-mixed with the neutral atmosphere at altitudes where no mixing process is expected. Isolated metal ion layers mimicking Earths sporadic E layers occur despite the lack of a strong magnetic field as required at Earth. Further, the metal ion distributions are coherent enough to always show atmospheric gravity wave signatures. All features and processes are unique to Mars.

  12. Effect of cerium ion implantation on the oxidation behavior of zircaloy-4 at 500 degree sign C

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, X W; Yu, H R; Zhou, Q G; Chen, B S

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate the oxidation behavior changes of zircaloy-4 induced by cerium ion implantation using a MEVVA source at an energy of 40 keV with a dose range from 1x10 sup 1 sup 6 to 1x10 sup 1 sup 7 ions/cm sup 2 at the maximum temperature of 130 degree sign C, weight gain curves of the different specimens including as-received zircaloy-4 and cerium-implanted zircaloy-4 were measured after oxidation in air at 500 degree sign C for 100 min. It was obviously found that a significant improvement was achieved in the oxidation behavior of cerium ion implanted zircaloy-4 compared with that of the as-received zircaloy-4. The depth profile of the element composition in the surface region of the samples was obtained by Auger electron spectroscopy, and the valence of the oxides in the scale was analyzed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction employed to examine the phase transformation in the oxide films showed that the addition of cerium transformed the phase from monoclinic zir...

  13. Li and Na storage behavior of bowl-like hollow Co3O4 microspheres as an anode material for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Jian-Wu; Zhang, Da-Wei; Zang, Yong; Sun, Xin; Cheng, Bin; Ding, Chu-Xiong; Yu, Yan; Chen, Chun-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A unique bowl-like hollow spherical Co 3 O 4 structure is prepared through a simple, low-cost and mass-yield method. • Such a bowl-like hollow Co 3 O 4 microsphere demonstrates extraordinary rate and cycling performance for Li-storage. • The sodium-storage behavior of Co 3 O 4 is investigated for the first time. - Abstract: Bowl-like hollow Co 3 O 4 microspheres are prepared via a simple and low-cost route by thermally treating Co-containing resorcinol-formaldehyde composites gel in air. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope and N 2 adsorption-desorption measurements demonstrate that these bowl-like hollow Co 3 O 4 microspheres are composed of hollow inner cavities and outer shell walls (70 nm thickness), on which a considerable amount of mesopores centered around 5-17 nm size are distributed. When employed as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries, these bowl-like hollow Co 3 O 4 microspheres exhibit extraordinary cycling performance (111% retention after 50 cycles owing to capacity rise), fairly high rate capacity (650 mAh g −1 at 5 C) and enhanced lithium storage capacity. Meanwhile, the Na-storage behavior of Co 3 O 4 as an anode material of Na-ion batteries is initially investigated based on such a hollow structure and it exhibits similar feature of discharge/charge profiles and a high initial discharge capacity but relatively moderate capacity retention compared with the Li-storage performance

  14. Sex- and dose-dependent effects of calcium ion irradiation on behavioral performance of B6D2F1 mice during contextual fear conditioning training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, Jacob; Weber, Sydney J.; Kronenberg, Amy; Turker, Mitchell S.

    2016-06-01

    The space radiation environment includes energetic charged particles that may impact behavioral and cognitive performance. The relationship between the dose and the ionization density of the various types of charged particles (expressed as linear energy transfer or LET), and cognitive performance is complex. In our earlier work, whole body exposure to 28Si ions (263 MeV/n, LET = 78keV / μ m ; 1.6 Gy) affected contextual fear memory in C57BL/6J × DBA2/J F1 (B6D2F1) mice three months following irradiation but this was not the case following exposure to 48Ti ions (1 GeV/n, LET = 107keV / μ m ; 0.2 or 0.4 Gy). As an increased understanding of the impact of charged particle exposures is critical for assessment of risk to the CNS of astronauts during and following missions, in this study we used 40Ca ion beams (942 MeV/n, LET = 90keV / μm) to determine the behavioral and cognitive effects for the LET region between that of Si ions and Ti ions. 40Ca ion exposure reduced baseline activity in a novel environment in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests reduced motivation to explore and/or a diminished level of curiosity in a novel environment. In addition, exposure to 40Ca ions had sex-dependent effects on response to shock. 40Ca ion irradiation reduced the response to shock in female, but not male, mice. In contrast, 40Ca ion irradiation did not affect fear learning, memory, or extinction of fear memory for either gender at the doses employed in this study. Thus 40Ca ion irradiation affected behavioral, but not cognitive, performance. The effects of 40Ca ion irradiation on behavioral performance are relevant, as a combination of novelty and aversive environmental stimuli is pertinent to conditions experienced by astronauts during and following space missions.

  15. Breakfast and fast food eating behavior in relation to socio-demographic differences among school adolescents in Sanandaj Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimoradi, Foad; Jandaghi, Parisa; Khodabakhshi, Adeleh; Javadi, Maryam; Moghadam, Seyed Amir Hossein Zehni

    2017-06-01

    Fast food consumption and skipping breakfast has been increasingly prevalent among high school adolescents in recent years. These unhealthy food habits are considered as risk factors of chronic diseases among adolescents and adults. To determine the consumption amount of fast food, breakfast, and some associated factors in adolescents. In this cross-sectional study in 2015, 553 adolescent students aged 14-18 years were randomly selected among high schools of Sanandaj, Iran. Demographic data and also consumption amount of fast food and breakfast in adolescents in addition to the related factors were studied. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire which its reliability and validity were measured by five experts and analyzed with SPSS-16 by Chi-square test and ANOVA. The results show that 69.8 % of subjects consume fast food at least once a week. Fast food and breakfast consumption is related significantly to subjects' fathers' occupation respectively (p=0.005), (p=0.006). Eating breakfast is significantly higher among boys than girls (pfast food consumption are: their own and their families and friends' interest and accompaniment, advertisement, close proximity of school and home to fast food stores. The consumption of fast food is high among Iranian adolescents. It correlates significantly with variables including father's occupation and all of the associated factors. Breakfast consumption correlates significantly with adolescents' age and gender, as well as parents' occupation and educational level.

  16. Electrochemical behavior and corrosion resistance of Ti-15Mo alloy in naturally-aerated solutions, containing chloride and fluoride ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, A V; Oliveira, N T C; dos Santos, M L; Guastaldi, A C

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior and corrosion resistance of Ti-15Mo alloy to applications as biomaterials in solutions 0.15 mol L(-1) Ringer, 0.15 mol L(-1) Ringer plus 0.036 mol L(-1) NaF and 0.036 mol L(-1) NaF (containing 1,500 ppm of fluoride ions, F(-)) were investigated using open-circuit potential, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope. Corrosion resistance and electrochemical stability of the Ti-15Mo alloy decreased in solutions containing F(-) ions. In all cases, there were formation and growth of TiO2 and MoO3 (a protector film), not being observed pitting corrosion, which might enable Ti-15Mo alloys to be used as biomedical implant, at least in the studied conditions, since the electrochemical stability and corrosion resistance of the passive films formed are necessary conditions for osseointegration.

  17. Behavior of PET implanted by Ti, Ag, Si and C ion using MEVVA implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuguang; Zhang Tonghe; Zhang Yanwen; Zhang Huixing; Zhang Xiaoji; Zhou Gu

    2001-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalane (PET) has been modified with Ti, Ag, Si and C ions from a metal vapor arc source (MEVVA). Ti, Ag, Si and C ions were implanted with acceleration voltage 40 kV to fluences ranging from 1x10 16 to 2x10 17 cm -2 . The surface of implanted PET darkened with increasing ion dose, when the metal ion dose was greater than 1x10 17 cm -2 the color changed to metallic bright. The surface resistance decreases by 5-6 orders of magnitude with increasing dose. The resistivity is stable after long-term storage. The depth of Ti- and Ag-implanted layer is approximately 150 and 80 nm measured by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), respectively. TEM photos revealed the presence of Ti and Ag nano-meter particles on the surface resulting from the high-dose implantation. Ti and Ag ion implantations improved conductivity and wear resistance significantly. The phase and structural changes were obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It can be seen that nano-meter particles of Ti precipitation, TiO 2 and Ti-carbides have been formed in implanted layer. Nano-hardness of implanted PET has been measured by a nano-indenter. The results show that the surface hardness, modulus and wear resistance could be increased

  18. Anomalous behavior in temporal evolution of ripple wavelength under medium energy Ar{sup +}-ion bombardment on Si: A case of initial wavelength selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, Sandeep Kumar [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India); Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Cuerno, Rodolfo [Departamento de Matematicas and Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos (GISC), Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Kanjilal, Dinakar [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Som, Tapobrata, E-mail: tsom@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India)

    2016-06-14

    We have studied the early stage dynamics of ripple patterns on Si surfaces, in the fluence range of 1–3 × 10{sup 18} ions cm{sup −2}, as induced by medium energy Ar{sup +}-ion irradiation at room temperature. Under our experimental conditions, the ripple evolution is found to be in the linear regime, while a clear decreasing trend in the ripple wavelength is observed up to a certain time (fluence). Numerical simulations of a continuum model of ion-sputtered surfaces suggest that this anomalous behavior is due to the relaxation of the surface features of the experimental pristine surface during the initial stage of pattern formation. The observation of this hitherto unobserved behavior of the ripple wavelength seems to have been enabled by the use of medium energy ions, where the ripple wavelengths are found to be order(s) of magnitude larger than those at lower ion energies.

  19. QCM-D Investigation of Swelling Behavior of Layer-by-Layer Thin Films upon Exposure to Monovalent Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Joshua T; Dai, Ethan Y; Zhang, Yanpu; Clark, Kyle B; Wilcox, Kathryn G; George, Ian M; Ramasamy, Nandha E; Enriquez, Daisy; Batys, Piotr; Sammalkorpi, Maria; Lutkenhaus, Jodie L

    2018-01-23

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers and layer-by-layer assemblies are susceptible to structural changes in response to ionic environment. By altering the salt type and ionic strength, structural changes can be induced by disruption of intrinsically bound ion pairs within the multilayer network via electrostatic screening. Notably, high salt concentrations have been used for the purposes of salt-annealing and self-healing of LbL assemblies with KBr, in particular, yielding a remarkably rapid response. However, to date, the structural and swelling effects of various monovalent ion species on the behavior of LbL assemblies remain unclear, including a quantitative view of ion content in the LbL assembly and thickness changes over a wide concentration window. Here, we investigate the effects of various concentrations of KBr (0 to 1.6 M) on the swelling and de-swelling of LbL assemblies formed from poly(diallyldimethylammonium) polycation (PDADMA) and poly(styrene sulfonate) polyanion (PSS) in 0.5 M NaCl using quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring as compared to KCl, NaBr, and NaCl. The ion content after salt exchange is quantified using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Our results demonstrate that Br - ions have a much greater effect on the structure of as-prepared thin films than Cl - at ionic strengths above assembly conditions, which is possibly caused by the more chaotropic nature of Br - . It is also found that the anion in general dominates the swelling response as compared to the cation because of the excess PDADMA in the multilayer. Four response regimes are identified that delineate swelling due to electrostatic repulsion, slight contraction, swelling due to doping, and film destruction as ionic strength increases. This understanding is critical if such materials are to be used in applications requiring submersion in chemically dynamic environments such as sensors, coatings on biomedical implants, and filtration membranes.

  20. Evaluation of cell behavior on modified polypropylene with swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbeitman, Claudia R.; Ibañez, Irene L.; García Bermúdez, Gerardo; Durán, Hebe; Grosso, Mariela F. del; Salguero, Noelia; Mazzei, Rubén

    2012-01-01

    Ion beam irradiation is a well known means to change the physico-chemical properties of polymers, and induced bio and citocompatibility in controlled conditions and in selected areas of surface. However, the enhancement of cell adhesion on a modified substrate does not mean that the surface is adequate for functional cells. The purpose of the present work is to study proliferation, changes in cytoskeleton and cell morphology on substrates as a function of irradiation parameters. We irradiated polypropylene with sulfur (S) ion-beam at energies of 110 MeV with fluences between 1 × 10 6 and 2 × 10 10 ions cm −2 . NIH 3T3 cells were cultured on each sample. Cell morphology was observed using phase contrast microscopy and cytoskeleton proteins with fluorescence microscopy. The analysis show different cellular responses as a functions of irradiation parameter, strongly suggests that different underlying substratum can result in distinct types of cytoskeleton reorganization.

  1. Evaluation of the impact of multivalent metal ions on the permeation behavior of Dolutegravir sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grießinger, Julia Anita; Hauptstein, Sabine; Laffleur, Flavia; Netsomboon, Kesinee; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and polyvalent cations are an important factor within drug absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Dolutegravir sodium, as a second-generation integrase stand transfer inhibitor for the treatment of HIV was investigated regarding chelation with Al(3+), Ca(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+ )and Zn(2+) ions at three different molar ratios. Furthermore, the influence of drug-ion chelates on the permeability of the drug across two intestinal membrane models was analyzed. For this purpose, Caco-2 monolayer model and Ussing chamber technique utilizing freshly excited rat intestinal mucosa were chosen and a buffer system without additional Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) ions was tested regarding cell detachment. The addition of polyvalent cations in an equal molar ratio to the drug solution decreased the dissolved drug by at least 11%. An increased multivalent cation concentration in a ratio of 1:10 afforded an API drop in the solution of at least 88% with the exception of Mg(2+). In particular, Dolutegravir sodium was chelated with iron ions to nearly 100%. Overall, the higher the amount of metal ions in the solution, the lower was the detected amount of the drug. The permeation experiments across the Caco-2 monolayer and the rat intestinal mucosa pointed out that the addition of AlCl3, CaCl2 and ZnCl2 in a molar ratio of 10:1 to the drug led to significantly decreased drug permeation. According to these results the co-administration of Al(3+), Ca(2+ )or Zn(2+ )as well as of supplementary medications containing these polyvalent ions is in case of oral Dolutegravir delivery not recommended.

  2. Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q; George, Anthe

    2015-01-01

    A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when working at 450°C with a volatiles residence time of 1.4 s, ~37 wt% relative to the dry ash free feedstock (excluding pyrolysis water). The amounts of char (organic fraction) and permanent gases under these conditions are ~4 wt% and 8 wt% respectively. The bio-oil yield stated above is for 'dry' bio-oil after rotary evaporation to remove solvent, which results in volatiles and pyrolysis water being removed from the bio-oil. The material removed during drying accounts for the remainder of the pyrolysis products. The 'dry' bio-oil produced under these conditions contains ~56 wt% carbon which is ~40 wt% of the carbon present in the feedstock. The oxygen content of the 450°C, 1.4 s 'dry' bio-oil is ~38 wt%, which accounts for ~33 wt% of the oxygen in the feedstock. At higher temperature or longer residence time less bio-oil and char is recovered and more gas and light volatiles are produced. Increasing the temperature has a more significant effect on product yields and composition than increasing the volatiles residence time. At 600°C and a volatiles residence time of 1.2 seconds the bio-oil yield is ~21 wt% of the daf feedstock, with a carbon content of 64 wt% of the bio-oil. The bio-oil yield from banagrass is significantly lower than from woody biomass or grasses such as switchgrass or miscanthus, but is similar to barley straw. The reason for the low bio-oil yield from banagrass is thought to be related to its high ash content (8.5 wt% dry basis) and high concentration of alkali

  3. Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor James Morgan

    Full Text Available A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when working at 450°C with a volatiles residence time of 1.4 s, ~37 wt% relative to the dry ash free feedstock (excluding pyrolysis water. The amounts of char (organic fraction and permanent gases under these conditions are ~4 wt% and 8 wt% respectively. The bio-oil yield stated above is for 'dry' bio-oil after rotary evaporation to remove solvent, which results in volatiles and pyrolysis water being removed from the bio-oil. The material removed during drying accounts for the remainder of the pyrolysis products. The 'dry' bio-oil produced under these conditions contains ~56 wt% carbon which is ~40 wt% of the carbon present in the feedstock. The oxygen content of the 450°C, 1.4 s 'dry' bio-oil is ~38 wt%, which accounts for ~33 wt% of the oxygen in the feedstock. At higher temperature or longer residence time less bio-oil and char is recovered and more gas and light volatiles are produced. Increasing the temperature has a more significant effect on product yields and composition than increasing the volatiles residence time. At 600°C and a volatiles residence time of 1.2 seconds the bio-oil yield is ~21 wt% of the daf feedstock, with a carbon content of 64 wt% of the bio-oil. The bio-oil yield from banagrass is significantly lower than from woody biomass or grasses such as switchgrass or miscanthus, but is similar to barley straw. The reason for the low bio-oil yield from banagrass is thought to be related to its high ash content (8.5 wt% dry basis and high

  4. Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q.; George, Anthe

    2015-01-01

    A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when working at 450°C with a volatiles residence time of 1.4 s, ~37 wt% relative to the dry ash free feedstock (excluding pyrolysis water). The amounts of char (organic fraction) and permanent gases under these conditions are ~4 wt% and 8 wt% respectively. The bio-oil yield stated above is for 'dry' bio-oil after rotary evaporation to remove solvent, which results in volatiles and pyrolysis water being removed from the bio-oil. The material removed during drying accounts for the remainder of the pyrolysis products. The 'dry' bio-oil produced under these conditions contains ~56 wt% carbon which is ~40 wt% of the carbon present in the feedstock. The oxygen content of the 450°C, 1.4 s 'dry' bio-oil is ~38 wt%, which accounts for ~33 wt% of the oxygen in the feedstock. At higher temperature or longer residence time less bio-oil and char is recovered and more gas and light volatiles are produced. Increasing the temperature has a more significant effect on product yields and composition than increasing the volatiles residence time. At 600°C and a volatiles residence time of 1.2 seconds the bio-oil yield is ~21 wt% of the daf feedstock, with a carbon content of 64 wt% of the bio-oil. The bio-oil yield from banagrass is significantly lower than from woody biomass or grasses such as switchgrass or miscanthus, but is similar to barley straw. The reason for the low bio-oil yield from banagrass is thought to be related to its high ash content (8.5 wt% dry basis) and high concentration of alkali

  5. Investigations on the oxidation behavior of technical molybdenum foils by means of secondary-ion mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsch, M.; Piplits, K.; Hutter, H.; Wilhartitz, P.; Wildner, H.; Martinz, H. P.

    2000-05-01

    Refractory metals reveal high thermomechanical stability, good conductivity and a high melting point, but poor corrosion resistance under oxidizing atmospheres. Molybdenum foils doped with oxides play an important role in the lighting industry as feed-through wires because their thermal expansion coefficient is very similar to that of glass. Exposure to elevated temperatures (300-500°C) leads to oxidation of the material within a few hours. The influence of different dopants in the range from 200-5000 ppm on the oxidation behavior of the molybdenum foils was investigated using secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) techniques.

  6. Integrated fast assembly of free-standing lithium titanate/carbon nanotube/cellulose nanofiber hybrid network film as flexible paper-electrode for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shaomei; Feng, Xin; Song, Yuanyuan; Xue, Xin; Liu, Hongjiang; Miao, Miao; Fang, Jianhui; Shi, Liyi

    2015-05-27

    A free-standing lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12)/carbon nanotube/cellulose nanofiber hybrid network film is successfully assembled by using a pressure-controlled aqueous extrusion process, which is highly efficient and easily to scale up from the perspective of disposable and recyclable device production. This hybrid network film used as a lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrode has a dual-layer structure consisting of Li4Ti5O12/carbon nanotube/cellulose nanofiber composites (hereinafter referred to as LTO/CNT/CNF), and carbon nanotube/cellulose nanofiber composites (hereinafter referred to as CNT/CNF). In the heterogeneous fibrous network of the hybrid film, CNF serves simultaneously as building skeleton and a biosourced binder, which substitutes traditional toxic solvents and synthetic polymer binders. Of importance here is that the CNT/CNF layer is used as a lightweight current collector to replace traditional heavy metal foils, which therefore reduces the total mass of the electrode while keeping the same areal loading of active materials. The free-standing network film with high flexibility is easy to handle, and has extremely good conductivity, up to 15.0 S cm(-1). The flexible paper-electrode for LIBs shows very good high rate cycling performance, and the specific charge/discharge capacity values are up to 142 mAh g(-1) even at a current rate of 10 C. On the basis of the mild condition and fast assembly process, a CNF template fulfills multiple functions in the fabrication of paper-electrode for LIBs, which would offer an ever increasing potential for high energy density, low cost, and environmentally friendly flexible electronics.

  7. Modelling of radio frequency sheath and fast wave coupling on the realistic ion cyclotron resonant antenna surroundings and the outer wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, L.; Colas, L.; Jacquot, J.; Després, B.; Heuraux, S.; Faudot, E.; Van Eester, D.; Crombé, K.; Křivská, A.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Helou, W.; Hillairet, J.

    2018-03-01

    In order to model the sheath rectification in a realistic geometry over the size of ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH) antennas, the self-consistent sheaths and waves for ICH (SSWICH) code couples self-consistently the RF wave propagation and the DC SOL biasing via nonlinear RF and DC sheath boundary conditions applied at plasma/wall interfaces. A first version of SSWICH had 2D (toroidal and radial) geometry, rectangular walls either normal or parallel to the confinement magnetic field B 0 and only included the evanescent slow wave (SW) excited parasitically by the ICRH antenna. The main wave for plasma heating, the fast wave (FW) plays no role on the sheath excitation in this version. A new version of the code, 2D SSWICH-full wave, was developed based on the COMSOL software, to accommodate full RF field polarization and shaped walls tilted with respect to B 0 . SSWICH-full wave simulations have shown the mode conversion of FW into SW occurring at the sharp corners where the boundary shape varies rapidly. It has also evidenced ‘far-field’ sheath oscillations appearing at the shaped walls with a relatively long magnetic connection length to the antenna, that are only accessible to the propagating FW. Joint simulation, conducted by SSWICH-full wave within a multi-2D approach excited using the 3D wave coupling code (RAPLICASOL), has recovered the double-hump poloidal structure measured in the experimental temperature and potential maps when only the SW is modelled. The FW contribution on the potential poloidal structure seems to be affected by the 3D effects, which was ignored in the current stage. Finally, SSWICH-full wave simulation revealed the left–right asymmetry that has been observed extensively in the unbalanced strap feeding experiments, suggesting that the spatial proximity effects in RF sheath excitation, studied for SW only previously, is still important in the vicinity of the wave launcher under full wave polarizations.

  8. Magnetic behavior of light rare earth ions in (Nd,Eu,Gd)-123 superconductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirsa, Miloš; Rameš, Michal; Marcenat, C.; Wolf, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2013), s. 901-905 ISSN 1557-1939 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10069 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : high- T c superconductors * cuprates * thermodynamic properties * LRE-123 * paramagnetic ions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.930, year: 2013

  9. Adsorption behavior of some metal ions on hydrated amorphous titanium dioxide surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panit Sherdshoopongse

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide was prepared from titanium tetrachloride and diluted ammonia solution at low temperature. The product obtained was characterized by XRD, EDXRF, TGA, DSC, and FT-IR techniques. It was found that the product was in the form of hydrated amorphous titanium dioxide, TiO2·1.6H2O (ha- TiO2. Ha-TiO2 exhibits high BET surface area at 449 m2/g. Adsorptions of metal ions onto the ha-TiO2 surface were investigated in the batch equilibrium experiments, using Mn(II, Fe(III, Cu(II, and Pb(II solutions. The concentrations of metal ions were determined by atomic absorption spectrometer. The adsorption isotherms of all metal ions were studied at pH 7. The adsorption of Mn(II, Cu(II, and Pb(II ions on ha-TiO2 conformed to the Langmuir isotherm while that of Fe(III fit equally well to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms.

  10. Modeling of the interaction between chemical and mechanical behavior of ion exchange resins encapsulated into a cement-based matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neji, Mejdi

    2014-01-01

    Ion exchange resins (IER) are widely used in the nuclear industry to purge non directly storable infected effluents. IER then become a solid waste which could be stored as any classical nuclear waste. One way of conditioning consists in embedding it into a cement paste matrix. This process raises some concerns regarding the cohesiveness of the composite. Once embedded, the IER might indeed interact with the cement paste which would lead, in some cases, to the swelling of the composite. This thesis has been set up to address this potential issue, with the aim to develop a numerical tool able to predict the mechanical behavior of this kind of material. This work only focuses on the long term behavior and more specifically on the potential degradations of the cement paste/IER composite due to cationic IER. (author)

  11. A study of the effect of titanium on the void swelling behavior of D9 steels by ion beam simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, C. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)], E-mail: david@igcar.gov.in; Panigrahi, B.K.; Balaji, S.; Balamurugan, A.K.; Nair, K.G.M.; Amarendra, G.; Sundar, C.S.; Raj, Baldev [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2008-12-15

    The void swelling behavior of D9 with 0.25Ti and D9 with 0.15Ti modified steels was studied using heavy ion irradiation. The cold worked samples were pre-implanted with a uniform helium concentration of 30 appm spanning a width of about 640 nm. This was followed by a 5 MeV nickel ion irradiation to create a peak damage of 100 dpa at a damage rate of 7 x 10{sup -3} dpa s{sup -1} at various temperatures between 700 and 970 K. The gross swelling up to the implanted range was measured by step height measurements. It is found that the peak swelling temperatures and the magnitude of swelling are different for the alloys studied. Positron lifetime measurements of the unirradiated alloys annealed at various temperatures show differences in the formation of TiC precipitates. The difference in void swelling behavior in these two alloys with titanium variation is discussed on the basis of the role of titanium on the vacancy migration and TiC precipitate formation.

  12. Behavior of Service Quality Levels of Fast Food According to the Characteristics of Users. Libertador Municipality of Mérida State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Del Valle Landaeta de Rodríguez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of the services fast food, an analytical non-experimental research was designed under the quantitative paradigm, to determine the behavior of service quality levels according to the characteristics of users in fast food establishments of the Libertador Municipality of Mérida state was developed. The existence users with a higher level of income perceive a lower level of quality; the existence of two user types or groups was found: independent professionals and students. It is recommended the design of strategies regarding services, prices, communications, distribution, after-sales services, optimization of service times and other aspects importance from users who perceive high income (professionals, who inferentially represent 65.86 % of the service demand.

  13. Corrosion Behavior of Simulated HLW Glass in the Presence of Magnesium Ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshikatsu Maeda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Static leach tests were conducted for simulated HLW glass in MgCl2 solution for up to 92 days to investigate the dissolution mechanism of HLW glass under coastal repository condition. Under the condition that magnesium ion exists in leachate, the dissolution rate of the glass did not decrease with time during leaching, while the rate decreased when the magnesium ion depleted in the leachate. In addition, altered layer including magnesium and silica was observed at the surface of the glass after the leach tests. The present results imply that dissolution of the glass is accompanied with formation of magnesium silicate consuming silica, a glass network former. As a consequence, the glass dissolved with an initial high dissolution rate.

  14. Simulation of electrochemical behavior in Lithium ion battery during discharge process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Lin, Muyi; Zhao, Li

    2018-01-01

    An electrochemical Lithium ion battery model was built taking into account the electrochemical reactions. The polarization was divided into parts which were related to the solid phase and the electrolyte mass transport of species, and the electrochemical reactions. The influence factors on battery polarization were studied, including the active material particle radius and the electrolyte salt concentration. The results showed that diffusion polarization exist in the positive and negative electrodes, and diffusion polarization increase with the conducting of the discharge process. The physicochemical parameters of the Lithium ion battery had the huge effect on cell voltage via polarization. The simulation data show that the polarization voltage has close relationship with active material particle size, discharging rate and ambient temperature. PMID:29293535

  15. Superquadratic behavior of upconversion luminescence transients in rare-earth-ion doped laser crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Pollnau, Markus; Laversenne, L.; Limberger, H.G.; Bigotta, S.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.

    2004-01-01

    Inhomogeneous active-ion distributions in laser materials lead to strong deviations of upconversion versus direct luminescence transients from the quadratic law of energy-transfer upconversion. Measured luminescence decay curves in LaSc3(BO3)4:Nd3+ and GdVO4:Nd3+ confirm experimentally the predicted deviations. Differences in energy migration within the metastable level of Nd3+ are identified.

  16. Behavior study of spend ion exchange resins immobilized in pyrolyzed polymer matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, P.B; Fuentes, N.O; Luca, V.

    2012-01-01

    The pyrolysis of spent ion exchange resins contained in epoxy resins represents an attractive alternative to cementation as a confining method. In this sense, a significant reduction of volume can be achieved, as well as avoiding the dispersion of the exhausted ion exchange resin by the means of an epoxy resin used as a matrix, while potentially limiting the release of highly radioactive long life isotopes such us Cs-137, Sr-90 and Co-60 among others. Three types of monoliths were made: (i) epoxy resin, (ii) epoxy resin with carbon and (iii) a binder of epoxy resin and clay. In every case, the monolith contained the ion exchange resin. They were prepared by the mixing of resin pearl loaded with epoxy cations and a subsequent pyrolysis process with a temperature increase ratio of 2 o C /min reaching maximum values in the range between 200 o C - 800 o C, remaining in it for 1 hour. Monoliths obtained for each final temperature had been characterized to obtain data corresponding to the mass loss, volume reduction and lixiviation, as well as mechanical and microstructural properties (author)

  17. Evaluation of cell behavior on modified polypropylene with swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbeitman, Claudia R., E-mail: arbeitman@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Bs. As. (Argentina); CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, CABA (Argentina); Ibanez, Irene L. [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, CABA (Argentina); Garcia Bermudez, Gerardo [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Bs. As. (Argentina); CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, CABA (Argentina); Duran, Hebe [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, CABA (Argentina); Gerencia de Desarrollo Tecnologico y Proyectos Especiales, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Grosso, Mariela F. del [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Bs. As. (Argentina); CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, CABA (Argentina); Salguero, Noelia [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Bs. As. (Argentina); Mazzei, Ruben [U.A. Tecnologicas y Agropecuarias, CNEA (Argentina)

    2012-02-15

    Ion beam irradiation is a well known means to change the physico-chemical properties of polymers, and induced bio and citocompatibility in controlled conditions and in selected areas of surface. However, the enhancement of cell adhesion on a modified substrate does not mean that the surface is adequate for functional cells. The purpose of the present work is to study proliferation, changes in cytoskeleton and cell morphology on substrates as a function of irradiation parameters. We irradiated polypropylene with sulfur (S) ion-beam at energies of 110 MeV with fluences between 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} and 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} ions cm{sup -2}. NIH 3T3 cells were cultured on each sample. Cell morphology was observed using phase contrast microscopy and cytoskeleton proteins with fluorescence microscopy. The analysis show different cellular responses as a functions of irradiation parameter, strongly suggests that different underlying substratum can result in distinct types of cytoskeleton reorganization.

  18. Optimization of a multi-parameter model for biomass pelletization to investigate temperature dependence and to facilitate fast testing of pelletization behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens Kai; Stelte, Wolfgang; Posselt, Dorthe

    2011-01-01

    Pelletization of biomass residues increases the energy density, reduces storage and transportation costs and results in a homogeneous product with well-defined physical properties. However, raw materials for fuel pellet production consist of ligno-cellulosic biomass from various resources...... the pelletizing behavior of new types of biomass in a large scale pellet mill. This enables a fast estimation of key process parameters such as optimal press channel length and moisture content. Secondly, the study addresses the question of the origin of the observed relationship between pelletizing pressure...

  19. Superior lithium adsorption and required magnetic separation behavior of iron-doped lithium ion-sieves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shulei; Zheng, Shili; Wang, Zheming; Cui, Wenwen; Zhang, Hailin; Yang, Liangrong; Zhang, Yi; Li, Ping

    2018-01-01

    The recent research on adsorption-based lithium recovery from lithium-containing solutions has been centred on adsorption capacity and separation of lithium ion-sieves powder from solutions. Herein, an effective iron-doped lithium titanium oxide (Fe-doped Li2TiO3) was synthesized by Fe-doping via solid state reactions followed by acid treatment to form iron-doped lithium ion-sieves (Fe/Ti-x(H)). The resulting solid powder displays both superior adsorption capacity of lithium and high separation efficiency of the adsorbent from the solutions. SEM imaging and BET surface area measurement results showed that at Fe doping levels x0.15, Fe-doping led to grain shrinkage as compared to Li2TiO3 and at the same time the BET surface area increased. The Fe/Ti-0.15(H) exhibited saturated magnetization values of 13.76 emu g-1, allowing effective separation of the material from solid suspensions through the use of a magnet. Consecutive magnetic separation results suggested that the Fe/Ti-0.15(H) powders could be applied at large-scale and continuously removed from LiOH solutions with separation efficiency of 96% or better. Lithium adsorption studies indicated that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of Fe/Ti-0.15(H) in LiOH 2 solutions (1.8 g L-1 Li, pH 12) reached 53.3 mg g-1 within 24 h, which was higher than that of pristine Li2TiO3 (50.5 mg g-1) without Fe doping. Competitive adsorption and regeneration results indicated that the Fe/Ti-0.15(H) possessed a high selectivity for Li with facile regeneration. Therefore, it could be expected that the iron-doped lithium ion-sieves have practical applicability potential for large scale lithium extraction and recovery from lithium-bearing solutions.

  20. Creation and behavior of radicals and ions in the Acetylene/Argon microwave ECR discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Petr; Musil, Jindřich; Novotný, Michal; Lančok, Ján; Fitl, Přemysl; Vlček, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 12 (2017), s. 1-9, č. článku 1700062. ISSN 1612-8850 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-13427S; GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk LM2015088 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : acetylene * ECR discharge * ions * mass spectrometry * radicals Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.846, year: 2016