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Sample records for fast growing lambs

  1. Body weight and reproductive parameters in fast and weak growing Awassi ram lambs during different age stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkawi, Moutaz; Al-Daker, Al-Moutassem Billah

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out on 30 Syrian Awassi ram lambs around 3 months of age. Lambs were divided equally in 2 groups as fast growing (FG) and weak growing (WG) lambs to identify body weight and reproductive parameters in each group during different age stages. Blood samples were collected to determine testosterone and leptin concentrations using radioimmunoassay. At puberty, average body weight and age of FG and WG lambs was 52.4 and 43.1 kg, and 225.9 and 248.0 days, respectively, with a significant (P age (below 1.0 nmol L(-1)) and increased with advancing age with a sharp increase occurring at 7 months of age and at puberty, averages were 12.58 and 11.86 nmol L(-1) for FG and WG groups, respectively, with no significant (P > 0.05) differences. At puberty, average leptin concentration was 3.16 and 2.98 ng mL(-1) for FG and WG groups, respectively, with no significant (P > 0.05) difference.

  2. BLOOD METABOLIC HORMONES AND LEPTIN IN GROWING LAMBS

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    Zvonko Antunović

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the concentration of blood metabolic hormones and leptin levels in growing lambs. The research was carried out on Tsigai lambs in two periods (suckling and fattening during the winter feeding season. Lambs were suckling and ate a food mixture and alfalfa hay ad libitum, while during the fattening period they were fed only with the above mentioned mixture and alfalfa hay ad libitum. Their blood was analyzed on 35th and 75th day of age. Concentrations of minsulin, leptin and thyroid hormones were determined in the blood serum of lambs during both periods. In the blood of fattening lambs significantly higher (P0.05 insulin concentrations (1.05 and 0.54 μU/mL, were determined, compared to suckling lambs. A significant strong positive correlation between serum leptin and insulin (r = 0.85, P0.05. The concentration of thyroid hormones did not significantly differ depending on the period of measurement. These changes indicate that the measurement concentrations of metabolic hormones and leptin in blood are very important in order to understand the changes of metabolism and nutrient supply in growing lambs.

  3. How fast do eels grow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, H.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Not so very much about the growth pattern of the eel is known yet. Eels move about nearly all the time. They are thus very difficult to follow and we do not, for examble, yet know how long it actually takes for them to grow to maturity in the wild. So far, a macroscopic analysis of the number of bright and dark areas (growth rings) in the 'earstones' has been used to determine eel age, but this method was recently challenged. Use of radioisotopes has been suggested previously for this purpose. For this present study the rare earth elements, europium-152 and europium-155 are used. When incubated in artificial sea water, a satisfactory final radioactive label was achieved. Two experiments were planned in collaboration with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. 2000 Elvers were set out in 1982, in the cooling water outlet of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant, each marked with europium-155. In 1984 another 10 000 elvers labelled with europium-152 were set out under similar conditions. The idea was mainly to see how fast the eels would grow, and to compare their known age with that determined by examining the earstones. Results showed that there was no clear-cut correlation between actual eel age and the biological age determination used so far. During four years, only 10 of the original 1300 eels were recaptured. It is thus hard to say anything definite from our results on the viability of setting out elvers in the environment

  4. Relative bioavailability of soil-bound chlordecone in growing lambs.

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    Jurjanz, S; Jondreville, C; Mahieu, M; Fournier, A; Archimède, H; Rychen, G; Feidt, C

    2014-10-01

    The pollution of soil with the pesticide chlordecone (CLD) is a problem for the use of agricultural surfaces even years after its use has been forbidden. Therefore, the exposure of free-ranged animals such as ruminants needs to be investigated in order to assess the risk of contamination of the food chain. Indeed, measured concentrations could be integrated in a lowered extent if the soil binding would reduce the bioavailability of the pesticide. This bioavailability of soil-bound CLD in a heavily polluted andosol has been investigated relatively of CLD given via spiked oil. Twenty-four weaned lambs were exposed to graded doses of 2, 4 or 6 μg CLD/kg body weight during 15 days via the contaminated soil in comparison to spiked oil. The concentration of this pesticide has been determined in two target tissues: blood serum and kidney fat. The relative bioavailability (RBA) corresponds to the slope ratio between the test matrix-contaminated soil- in comparison to the reference matrix oil. The RBA of the soil-bound CLD was not found to significantly differ from the reference matrix oil in lambs meaning that the pesticide ingested by grazing ruminants would not be sequestered by soil binding. Therefore, CLD from soil gets bioavailable within the intestinal level and exposure to contaminated soil has to be integrated in risk assessments.

  5. Growth rate, carcass characteristics and meat quality of growing lambs fed buckwheat or maize silage

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    Gurhan Keles

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated inclusion of buckwheat silage to the diet of growing lambs in terms of meat quality as compared to maize silage. Methods Buckwheat, rich in total phenols (TP, 33 g/kg dry matter [DM], was harvested at the end of the milk stage and ensiled in 40 kg plastic bags after wilting (294 g/kg silage DM. A total of 18 growing lambs (21.6±1.2 were individually fed isonitrogenous and isoenergetic total mixed rations (TMR for 75 d that either contained buckwheat or maize silage at DM proportions of 0.50. At the end of feeding trail all lambs were slaughtered to assess carcass characteristics and meat quality. Results Buckwheat silage increased (p0.05 on live weight gain and feed efficiency. Carcass weight, dressing percentage, meat pH, water holding capacity, cooking loss, shear force (kg/cm2, and total viable bacteria count of meat did not differ (p>0.05 between the treatments. However, TP content of meat increased (p<0.001 by feeding buckwheat TMR. Feeding buckwheat TMR also decreased (p<0.05 the b* values of meat. Conclusion The results provide that buckwheat silage is palatable and could successfully include TMR of growing lambs with no adverse effects on performance, carcass and meat quality. Additionally, feeding buckwheat silage to lambs offers increased TP in meat.

  6. RESEARCH REGARDING THE GROWING SPEED OF CROSSBREED SUCKLING LAMBS CHAROLAIS X MERINOS DE TRANSILVANIA, IN BANAT AREA

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    I. PADEANU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years the milk lambs were very demanded on the west European market, especially at the beginning of December and early spring. In this researches was followed the growing speed evolution on crossbreed Charollais x Merinos de Transilvania lambs, from lambing to weaning (70 days. Mother sheep were well prepared before get trough a normal nutrition, depending on the phase of gestation and adequate sheltering conditions. At lambing, sheep had a very good condition and a normal milk production. Crossbreed lambs had maternal milk on ad libitum and from the age of 10 days got in separated enclosures, quality after-grass and granulated combined feeder with 14% PDI in the first 30 days and 12% between 30- 70 days. After the evaluation of the growing speed it was determined that lambs from single lambing, both sexes (F-female, M-male, realize a growing speed, between lambing to weaning (70 days superior (370g/day, the ones from twin lambing (F-F couple 286g/day, F-M couple 299g/day, M-M couple 302g/zi. The growing speed is significantly higher (p < 0.01 in 30-70 days period, compared with 10-30 days period, both in lambs from single and twin lambing. On the base of this study, we suggest that for obtaining milk lambs with a higher body weight and quality meat, realization of crossbreed lambs between breeds Charollais and Merinos de Transilvania, is opportune. This should be raised with maternal milk and strong feeder, at least until the age of 70 days.

  7. Effect of abomasal butyrate infusion on net nutrient flux across the portal-drained viscera and liver of growing lambs

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    The purpose of this experiment was to determine if supplying butyrate to the post-ruminal gastrointestinal tract of growing lambs alters blood flow and nutrient flux across the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hepatic tissues. Polled Dorset wether lambs (n = 10; initial BW = 55 ± 3.3 kg) had cathet...

  8. Use of Sunflower Meal as a Substitute for Cottonseed Meal in Rations of Growing Lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, S.A.; EI-Fouly, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Eighteen growing male lambs with an average of 3 months old were randomly divided into three equal groups. Animals of each group were kept in separate shaded pen and fed one of the three tested rations as follows: 1st group fed ration one (RI): (CFM) concentrate feed mixture contained 30% cottonseed meal (CSM) + 0.00 sunflower meal (SFM). 2nd group fed ration two (RII): CFM contained 15% CSM + 15% SFM. 3rd group fed ration three (RIll): CFM contained 00.0% CSM + 30% SFM. Wheat straw was offered to the 3 experiment groups ad libitum. Lambs were weighed at the beginning of the experimental period then at two weeks intervals. At the end of the experimental period, four animals from each group were used to evaluate the nutrients digestibility and nutritive value of the experimental rations. Blood samples were taken each three weeks before feeding animals. The present study showed that lambs fed RII and RIll had significantly higher CP and EE digestibility values compared to those fed RI. % Nitrogen balance was currently higher for RIll than RI and RII. No significant differences among the tested blood serum parameters for the experimental lambs except for total protein, AST, triglycerides and cholesterol values. Average daily weight gain (ADG) and feed efficiency were better for RII and RIll than RI

  9. Dietary Supplementation of Seaweed (Ulva lactuca to alleviate the Impact of Heat Stress in Growing Lambs

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    Kkalid A. Abdoun, Aly B. Okab, Ahmed M. El-Waziry, Emad M. Samara and Ahmed A. Al-Haidary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several environmental and nutritional management approaches have been used to mitigate heat stress and improve performance of farm animals in semi-arid and arid regions. The present study was designed with the intention to alleviate the negative effects of heat stress and to promote the performance of growing lambs reared under hot environmental conditions. The study was conducted on 18 male Naimey lambs with average body weight of 22.78±0.49 kg, and 4-5 months old. The animals were randomly divided into 3 equal groups (A, B and C, and fed diets containing different concentrations of seaweed (Ulva lactuca for 90 days. Group A served as control and was offered diet containing 0.0% seaweed. Groups B and C served as treated groups and were offered diets containing 3.0 and 5.0% seaweed, respectively. Dietary inclusion of seaweed to the diet of growing lambs exposed to heat stress (max Ta 43.9oC, max RH 81.1%, max THI 84.6 neither influenced (P>0.05 the thermo-physiological parameters (rectal and skin temperatures, nor affected (P>0.05 the performance parameters (feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency. Furthermore, dietary seaweed supplementation did not alter (P>0.05 blood constituents or blood antioxidant capacity. However, dietary seaweed supplementation significantly (P<0.05 reduced respiratory rate, and increased serum potassium concentration. Based on the data of the present study, seaweed (Ulva lactuca supplementation to the diets of growing lambs reared under heat stress conditions did not show any indication of promoting their production performance or heat tolerance.

  10. Effect of adding Black seeds, Nigella Sativa, in growing lambs diets on their performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Eighteen growing male lambs, four months old, were randomly divided into two equal groups, nine in each. Animals of each group were fed on one of the two tested diets. The first group fed on the basal diet as a control, while the other one fed the basal diet supplemented daily with 5 grams/head of black seeds. Wheat straw and concentrate feed mixture (CFM) were used at the ratio of 30:70, respectively. Lambs were weighed at the beginning of the experimental period then at three weeks intervals till the end of the experiment, which lasted for 118 days. At the end of experimental period, four animals from each group were used to evaluate the digestibility and nutritive values of the two experimental diets. Rumen liquor samples were taken from three animals of each group. Blood samples were withdrawn from the jugular vein of each animal in the morning before feeding once each three weeks. The results showed that lambs fed diet supplemented with Black seed had significant higher digestibility values for CP, EE and NFE than those fed control diet. The percentage of apparent nitrogen utilization showed similar trend. In addition, the total VFAs was also affected by supplementation while the values of ph and ammonia-N were not affected by treatment diet. Average daily weight gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (Kg DMI/Kg gain) were better for treated group than control group. Significant differences were found also in total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, total cholesterol, triglycerides and T3 values. These Results indicated that Black seeds could be successfully used in formulating the concentrate feed mixture of growing lambs up to 5 grams/head without any negative effects on their performance and health

  11. Subsequent influences of feeding intact green seaweed Ulva lactuca to growing lambs on the seminal and testicular characteristics in rams.

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    Samara, E M; Okab, A B; Abdoun, K A; El-Waziry, A M; Al-Haidary, A A

    2013-12-01

    The present experiment was designed to investigate the subsequent influences of supplementing different levels of intact green seaweed Ulva lactuca (0%, 3%, and 5% DM) to growing sexually immature lambs during the growth period (74 d) on the seminal and testicular characteristics of sexually mature rams. Ulva lactuca was manually collected, adequately prepared, and then incorporated into lambs' diets. Eighteen male 3-mo-old lambs of the Awassi breed with a mean BW of 22.57 kg (SD = 1.08) were randomly assigned into treatments. The obtained results indicate that offering Ulva lactuca at the level of 3% or 5% DM to lambs during the growth period had no subsequent impacts (P > 0.05) on liver and kidney functions as well as blood water balance in rams, thereby suggesting that Ulva lactuca can be safely supplemented to lambs during growing. However, our findings point out that feeding a lamb diet supplemented with intact Ulva lactuca failed to demonstrate any subsequent benefit (P > 0.05) on the growth performance, thermoregulatory responses, and plasma oxidative status in rams. Above all, it was clearly evident that supplementing intact Ulva lactuca to lambs had demonstrated subsequent negative influences (P Ulva lactuca during the growth period compared to control rams. The deleterious impacts of feeding intact Ulva lactuca on spermatogenesis and germ cell loss were proven to be attributed to the dysfunction of Sertoli cells. Collectively, these results provide novel insights on the subsequent influences of dietary supplementation of intact Ulva lactuca to lambs. The consistent evidence of profound negative impacts on seminal and testicular characteristics as well as the resulting data of no improvement of subsequent growth, thermoregulation, and plasma oxidative status in rams prompts us to tentatively recommend the avoidance of feeding intact Ulva lactuca to lambs.

  12. Influence of Restricted Grazing Time Systems on Productive Performance and Fatty Acid Composition of in Growing Lambs

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    Zhenzhen Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fifty 3-month-old male Tan lambs (similar in body weight were divided into 5 groups to investigate the effects of different restricted pasture grazing times and indoor supplementation on the productive performances and fatty acid composition of the intramuscular fat in growing lambs. The lambs grazed for different periods of time (12 h/d, 8 h/d, 4 h/d, 2 h/d, and 0 h and received various amounts of supplementary feedings during the 120-day trial. Pasture dry matter intake (DMI, total DMI, average daily gains and the live body weights of the lambs were measured during the experiment. The animals were slaughtered at the end of the study, their carcass traits were measured, and their longissimus dorsi muscles were sampled to analyze the intramuscular fat (IMF content and fatty acid profiles. The results indicated that the different durations of grazing and supplementary feedings affected the animal performances and the composition of fatty acids. Grazing for 8 h/d or 2 h/d with the corresponding supplementary concentrate resulted in lambs with higher body weights, carcass weights and IMF contents. Lambs with longer grazing times and less concentrate accumulated more healthy fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and had higher n-3/n-6 ratios. Overall, a grazing allowance of 8 h/d and the corresponding concentrate was recommended to maintain a high quantity and quality of lamb meat.

  13. Effect of adding dicalcium phosphate on reproductive performance and some blood biochemical constituents of female growing lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty growing female lambs in average three months old were randomly assigned into three equal groups (ten per each). The animals of each groups were fed on concentrate feed mixture (CFM) contained 1, 2 and 3% dicalcium phosphate for groups G1, G2 and G3, respectively. Group 1 served as control and the experimental diets were given according to NRC (1985) allowance for growing lambs. Rice straw was offered to the three experimental groups ad libitum. Feed consumption was recorded once a week and feed conversion was calculated. Lambs were weighed at the beginning of the experimental period and afterwards at three weeks intervals. At the end of growth period, fertile rams were kept with the female lambs for natural breeding (about 45 days). After parturition, the lambs suckled milk of their mothers and were offered solid feed (creep feeding) since the 7th day after lambing. Blood samples were withdrawn each three weeks during growth, late pregnancy and lactation period. At the end of growing period (at age seven months), blood samples were collected each five days for 40 days. The present study showed that, during the growth period, G3 had the highest final body weight and average daily gain (ADG), while the lowest values were observed in G1. ADG was 160.1, 193.7 and 198.8 g/d, for G1, G2 and G3, respectively. The calculated feed conversion values were significantly improved with groups G2 and G3 than that of G1. During pregnancy, changes of body weight for groups G2 and G3 were higher than G1. At early lactation period, body weights in all groups were decreased then were increased gradually to the end of the suckling period. At the end of lactation period, the animals of G2 and G3 gained more significant weight than Gl. The tested blood serum constituents were affected by changes in dicalcium phosphate levels in diet. During growing period, the results showed that significant increases were determined in total protein, globulin, AST, T3, urea and estradiol (E2 - 17

  14. Effect of average growing season temperature on seedling germination, survival and growth in jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.)

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    A. David; E. Humenberger

    2017-01-01

    Because jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) is serotinous, it retains multiple years of cones until environmental conditions are favorable for releasing seed. These cones, which contain seed cohorts that developed under a variety of growing seasons, can be accurately aged using bud scale scars on twigs and branches. By calculating the average daily...

  15. Cultivation of fast-growing hardwoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States). Coll. of Environmental Science and Forestry)

    1991-10-01

    The intensive culture of hybrid poplar has received in-depth study as part of the Fast-Growing Hardwood Program. Research has concentrated on short-rotation intensive culture systems. Specific studies and operations included establishing and maintaining a nursery/cutting orchard, installing clone-site trials in central and southern New York State and initiating studies of no-till site preparation, nutrient utilization efficiency, wood quality and soil solution chemistry. The nursery/cutting orchard was used to provide material for various research plantings and as a genotype repository. Clone- site trials results showed that hybrid poplar growth potential was affected by clone type and was related to inherent soil-site conditions. No-till techniques were shown to be successful in establishing hybrid poplar in terms of survival and growth when compared to conventional clean tillage and/or no competition control, and can be considered for use on sites that are particularly prone to erosion. Nutrient use efficiency was significantly affected by clone type, and should be a consideration when selecting clones for operational planting if fertilization is to be effectively and efficiently used. Wood quality differed among clones with site condition and tree age inferred as important factors. Soil solution chemistry was minimally affected by intensive cultural practices with no measured adverse effect on soil water quality. Generally, results of these studies showed that appropriate hybrid poplar clones grown in short-rotation intensively cultured systems can be used successfully in New York State if proper site conditions exist and appropriate establishment and maintenance techniques are used. 37 refs., 4 figs., 22 tabs.

  16. Anticoccidial efficacy of naringenin and a grapefruit peel extract in growing lambs naturally-infected with Eimeria spp.

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    Pérez-Fonseca, Agustín; Alcala-Canto, Yazmin; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Alberti-Navarro, Aldo B

    2016-12-15

    The current study aimed to determine the anti-Eimeria efficacy of an extract of grapefruit peels (GF) and commercial naringenin (NAR) in naturally-infected lambs, as well as the influence of these flavonoids on the oxidative status during ovine coccidiosis. Pharmacokinetic profiles were also determined. Extracts were administered per os to Eimeria naturally infected growing lambs during 90 consecutive days. The commercial anticoccidial drug toltrazuril (TTZ) was included in this trial as a standard. Twenty-four lambs were divided into four groups: NAR, lambs given a daily dose of 5mg of a commercial naringenin extract of 98% higher purity per kg body weight; GF, lambs that recived a daily dose of 5mg of ethanolic extract of grapefruit peels per kg body weight; TTZ, lambs treated with 20mg of toltrazuril/kg body weight on days 0 and 15 of the experiment; and CTRL, untreated lambs that received daily dose of 30ml of water. Daily doses of GF and NAR were dissolved in 30ml of water and orally given to animals; whereas toltrazuril was administered as a single dose of an undiluted suspension to lambs of the TTZ group. The CTRL group received 30ml of water; as well as the TTZ group for the period after the single dose administration. Fecal and serum samples were collected from all lambs. Anticoccidial efficacy was estimated by coprological techniques. Generation of nitric oxide levels and the antioxidant capacity of the experimental compounds were determined by the Griess and ABTS assays, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters of NAR and the GF extract were obtained. On day 30 post-ingestion, anticoccidial efficacy was 91.76% (NAR) and 89.65% (GF); whereas 99.63% of efficacy was achieved with TTZ 15days after treatment. NAR, GF and TTZ significantly reduced oxidative stress in infected animals. The mean daily weight gain for each group was 122g (NAR), 122g (GF), 143g (TTZ) and 98g (CTRL). Following the oral administration of NAR and GF, values in plasma approached

  17. Effect of space allowance during transport and fasting or non-fasting during lairage on welfare indicators in Merino lambs

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    Cozar, A.; Rodriguez, A.I.; Garijo, P.; Calvo, L.; Vergara, H.

    2016-11-01

    A total of 72 male lambs of Merina breed were sampled in a 3×2 factorial design, testing three different space allowances treatment (SA) during transport [0.16 m2/animal (SAL; n=24); 0.20 m2/animal (SAM; n=24) and 0.30 m2/animal (SAH; n=24)] and two lairage treatments (TL) during 18 h previous slaughter [fasting (FAST; n=36) vs feeding (FEED; n=36)] on welfare physiological indicators. After transport, glucose and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were highest in SAM group and lowest in SAH one (p<0.05). SAL showed intermediate values for both parameters. SA did not affect the rest of the blood parameters studied. TL-FAST treatment decreased glucose values (p<0.001) while increased LDH (p<0.001). Fasting caused an increase (p<0.05) of Red Blood Cell Count values in SAM group. Feed deprivation did not affect cortisol or adrenaline values. Noradrenaline value was higher (p<0.001) in TL-FAST groups than in TL-FEED. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, a range of space allowance during transport between 0.16 and 0.30 m2/lamb could be recommended without showing major changes on welfare physiological indicators; and feeding could be more appropriate than fasting during lairage. (Author)

  18. Effect of space allowance during transport and fasting or non-fasting during lairage on welfare indicators in Merino lambs

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    Ana I. Rodriguez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 72 male lambs of Merina breed were sampled in a 3×2 factorial design, testing three different space allowances treatment (SA during transport [0.16 m2/animal (SAL; n=24; 0.20 m2/animal (SAM; n=24 and 0.30 m2/animal (SAH; n=24] and two lairage treatments (TL during 18 h previous slaughter [fasting (FAST; n=36 vs feeding (FEED; n=36] on welfare physiological indicators. After transport, glucose and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were highest in SAM group and lowest in SAH one (p<0.05. SAL showed intermediate values for both parameters. SA did not affect the rest of the blood parameters studied. TL-FAST treatment decreased glucose values (p<0.001 while increased LDH (p<0.001. Fasting caused an increase (p<0.05 of Red Blood Cell Count values in SAM group. Feed deprivation did not affect cortisol or adrenaline values. Noradrenaline value was higher (p<0.001 in TL-FAST groups than in TL-FEED. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, a range of space allowance during transport between 0.16 and 0.30 m2/lamb could be recommended without showing major changes on welfare physiological indicators; and feeding could be more appropriate than fasting during lairage.

  19. Nutrient Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Content of Whole Pods Fed to Growing Pelibuey Lambs

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    Enrique Loyra-Tzab

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and in vivo metabolizable energy supply of Mucuna pruriens whole pods fed to growing Pelibuey lambs was investigated. Eight Pelibuey sheep housed in metabolic crates were fed increasing levels of Mucuna pruriens pods: 0 (control, 100 (Mucuna100, 200 (Mucuna200 and 300 (Mucuna300 g/kg dry matter. A quadratic (p0.05 on DM and GE apparent digestibility (p0.05. DM, N and GE apparent digestibility coefficient of M. pruriens whole pods obtained through multiple regression equations were 0.692, 0.457, 0.654 respectively. In vivo DE and ME content of mucuna whole pod were estimated in 11.0 and 9.7 MJ/kg DM. It was concluded that whole pods from M. pruriens did not affect nutrient utilization when included in an mixed diet up to 200 g/kg DM. This is the first in vivo estimation of mucuna whole pod ME value for ruminants.

  20. Nutrient Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Content of Mucuna pruriens Whole Pods Fed to Growing Pelibuey Lambs

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    Loyra-Tzab, Enrique; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis Armando; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald Herve

    2013-01-01

    The nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and in vivo metabolizable energy supply of Mucuna pruriens whole pods fed to growing Pelibuey lambs was investigated. Eight Pelibuey sheep housed in metabolic crates were fed increasing levels of Mucuna pruriens pods: 0 (control), 100 (Mucuna100), 200 (Mucuna200) and 300 (Mucuna300) g/kg dry matter. A quadratic (pnitrogen (N) and gross energy (GE) intakes with higher intakes in the Mucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Increasing M. pruriens in the diets had no effect (p>0.05) on DM and GE apparent digestibility (pexcretion, GE retention and dietary estimated nutrient supply (metabolizable protein and metabolizable energy) were not affected (p>0.05). DM, N and GE apparent digestibility coefficient of M. pruriens whole pods obtained through multiple regression equations were 0.692, 0.457, 0.654 respectively. In vivo DE and ME content of mucuna whole pod were estimated in 11.0 and 9.7 MJ/kg DM. It was concluded that whole pods from M. pruriens did not affect nutrient utilization when included in an mixed diet up to 200 g/kg DM. This is the first in vivo estimation of mucuna whole pod ME value for ruminants. PMID:25049876

  1. Implantation of a Tissue-Engineered Tubular Heart Valve in Growing Lambs.

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    Reimer, Jay; Syedain, Zeeshan; Haynie, Bee; Lahti, Matthew; Berry, James; Tranquillo, Robert

    2017-02-01

    Current pediatric heart valve replacement options are suboptimal because they are incapable of somatic growth. Thus, children typically have multiple surgeries to replace outgrown valves. In this study, we present the in vivo function and growth potential of our tissue-engineered pediatric tubular valve. The valves were fabricated by sewing two decellularized engineered tissue tubes together in a prescribed pattern using degradable sutures and subsequently implanted into the main pulmonary artery of growing lambs. Valve function was monitored using periodic ultrasounds after implantation throughout the duration of the study. The valves functioned well up to 8 weeks, 4 weeks beyond the suture strength half-life, after which their insufficiency index worsened. Histology from the explanted valves revealed extensive host cell invasion within the engineered root and commencing from the leaflet surfaces. These cells expressed multiple phenotypes, including endothelial, and deposited elastin and collagen IV. Although the tubes fused together along the degradable suture line as designed, the leaflets shortened compared to their original height. This shortening is hypothesized to result from inadequate fusion at the commissures prior to suture degradation. With appropriate commissure reinforcement, this novel heart valve may provide the somatic growth potential desired for a pediatric valve replacement.

  2. Effect of beef tallow on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat composition, and lipid profile of growing lambs

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    Shahana Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of diets with inclusion of beef tallow on growth, and carcass characteristics, meat quality, and lipid profile in growing lambs. The experiment was conducted with 15 lambs for 63 days. The lambs were randomly allotted into three dietary treatments (T0, T1, and T2 with five animals in each group; T0 (control diet without beef tallow, T1 (diet with 2% beef tallow, and T2 (diet with 4% beef tallow. The body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR were significantly (P0.05 on meat quality and chemical composition among the three dietary groups. Group T1 showed the highest increase of cholesterol concentration (11.5% at the end of experiment, but serum triglyceride concentration was not significantly (P>0.05 correlated with any of the three dietary groups. To sum up, the use of beef tallow at 2% level in lamb diet can increase their performance without having any deleterious effect on carcass, meat quality and lipid profile. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 346-352

  3. RESULTS CONCERNING THE GROWING DYNAMICS IN YOUNG SHEEP HYBRID SUFFOLK x TSIGAI AND TSIGAI, FROM LAMBING TO WEANING

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    A. VLAIC

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The comparative results of the growing dynamics of the Suffolk x rusty Tsigai hybrids, and rusty Tsigai pure breed young sheep from lambing to weaning are comparatively presented in this paper. The average values, variability estimates and differences between the average values of both breed structures and those performed by the offspring of three Suffolk rams used in reproduction are apart presented by male and female young sheep. The following traits were recorded: the body weight (at lambing, 60 days of life, and weaning, total gain and average daily gain from lambing to weaning. The average weaning age was between 84 and 89 days, function of sex. Positive differences, statistically assured were recorded in Suffolk x Tsigai hybrids of both sexes (p<0.01 and p < 0.001 compared to rusty Tsigai young sheep in all analyzed traits, except lambing weight. Statistically not significant differences were recorded in all analyzed traits between the hybrid offspring of the three Suffolk rams used for reproduction, and also between male and female offspring within both breed structures.

  4. Effect of restricted feeding and realimentation on feed performance and carcass characteristics of growing lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abouheif

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Forty Najdi ram lambs weighing 26.6±0.3 kg were utilized in this experiment to determine the effects of feed restriction followed by realimentation and body weight at the onset of feed restriction (30 and 36 kg body weights on performance and carcass characteristics; feeding and restriction levels were ad libitum, 0.75 and 0.60 of the ad libitum intake. All lambs were slaughtered after 14 weeks of experimentation. The results showed that, during the feed restriction phase, average daily gain (ADG and feed efficiency decreased as the level of restriction increased. During the realimentation phase, the 30 kg lambs gained weights and consumed dry matter (DM similarly to the ad libitum group, whereas the ADG for the 36 kg lambs of both 0.75 and 0.60 ad libitum groups were 20 and 43.8% faster than the ad libitum group, respectively. At the end of the trial, final body weight and overall ADG of the realimented 30 kg groups were lower than ad libitum group, whereas the ADG of the 36 kg groups were not different compared with the ad libitum group. Although empty body, hot and cold carcass, empty stomach compartments, empty intestines and liver weights for the 36 kg groups were not affected by feed restriction followed by realimentation, weights of visceral fat depots, subcutaneous fat and tail fat decreased much more than those of the ad libitum group. Carcass composition of the realimented 0.75 and 0.60 ad libitum groups tended to have 5.1 and 8.8% less lean tissue than the ad libitum group when the restriction started at 30 kg, respectively. On the other hand, the realimented lambs of both 0.75 and 0.60 ad libitum groups tended to be 5.1 and 2.8% leaner than those of the ad libitum group when restriction started at 36 kg body weight, respectively. Feed restriction of up to 40% for a 5-week period followed by a 4-week period of refeeding in 36 kg lambs is economically feasible and does not offset production.

  5. Defining the dermoscopic characteristics of fast-growing cutaneous melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera-Vaquerizo, Antonio; Arias-Santiago, Salvador; Nagore, Eduardo; Martín-Cuevas, Paula; Orgaz-Molina, Javier; Traves, Victor; Herrera-Acosta, Enrique; Naranjo-Sintes, Ramón; Guillén, Carlos; Herrera-Ceballos, Enrique

    2015-06-01

    A high growth rate in melanomas has been associated with a more aggressive phenotype and worse survival. The aim of this study was to define the dermoscopic characteristics associated with this type of cutaneous melanoma. We carried out a retrospective study of 132 cutaneous melanomas, analyzing certain clinical characteristics and the most important dermoscopic variables related to the melanomas. Fast-growing melanomas were considered to be those with a growth rate of more than 0.5 mm per month. Fast-growing melanomas more often lacked an atypical network, were symmetrical, presented ulceration, and were hypopigmented. The dermoscopic vascular pattern often showed atypical irregular vessels and milky-red areas. The association of these two is a specific characteristic. Fast-growing melanomas have a characteristic phenotype and dermoscopy can be useful for their identification.

  6. Effect of different levels of raisin waste on performance, nutrients digestibility and protozoal population of Mehraban growing lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saremi, V.; Alipour, D.; Azarfar, A.; Segighi, R.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of different inclusion levels of raisin waste (RW) in the diet on the animal performance and ruminal fermentation parameters of growing lambs. Four levels of RW inclusion (i.e., R0, R1, R{sub 2} and R{sub 3} for 0, 100, 200 and 300 g RW kg{sup -}1 dry matter of diet, respectively) were tested. The experimental diets were fed to 24 male lambs (six months old) and six animals were allocated to each treatment. In the first experiment, effects of different levels of RW on the animals performance, some rumen parameters and protozoa populations were studied. In the second experiment, the apparent total tract digestibility of diets and nitrogen balance were measured. The highest final body weights were observed for the R{sub 2} and R{sub 3} diets. The R{sub 3} diet had the lowest dry matter intake (1156 vs. 1303 g day{sup -}1 for R{sub 3} and R{sub 0}, respectively) and feed conversion rate (6.4 vs. 8.7 for R{sub 3} and R{sub 0}, respectively). Total number of protozoa increased with the addition of RW, but Epidinium spp. completely disappeared with the R{sub 3} diet. Inclusion of RW at levels higher than 200 g RW kg{sup -}1 DM of diet significantly reduced crude protein (p = 0.042) and neutral detergent fiber digestibility (p = 0.049). Our findings showed that RW could be included in the diets of growing lambs up to 200 g kg{sup -}1 DM without compromising their production performance. (Author)

  7. Utilização de carneiros de raças de corte para obtenção de cordeiros precoces para abate em plantéis produtores de lã Use of meat sheep sire breed on fine wool ewe flocks to produce fast-growing lambs for slaughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antonio da Cunha

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - Sessenta e nove cordeiros filhos de ovelhas das raças Ideal ou Corriedale cobertas com machos das raças Suffolk, Ile de France, ou da mesma raça materna, foram usados para avaliar o seu desempenho e as características de carcaça. Os animais permaneceram em pastagem até o desmame (60 dias, foram confinados por 90 dias e alimentados com ração à base de silagem de milho e concentrado. Foi usado delineamento completamente casualizado em esquema fatorial. O uso de machos de corte sobre fêmeas lanígeras não causou efeito sobre o peso ao nascer e ao desmame das crias, porém aumentou o peso e a compacidade das carcaças, sem alterar as proporções de traseiro e costilhar. A espessura de gordura subcutânea não foi influenciada pelo genótipo, apresentando-se maior para fêmeas. A área de olho de lombo não apresentou diferença entre genótipos. As medidas de carcaça mostraram diferença entre genótipos, sendo as do cruzamento com Suffolk mais compridas, seguidas pelos mestiços de Ile de France.ABSTRACT - Sixty-nine lambs from the crossbreeding Corriedale or Polwarth ewes with Suffolk, Ile de France rams or from the same ewe breed were used to evaluate their performance and carcass characteristics. Lambs were maintained under grazing until weaning time (60 days, then were confined for 90 days and fed corn silage and concentrate based diet. A completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement was used. The use of meat type rams on fine wool ewes did not affect lamb birth and weaning weight, however increased the carcass weight and compacting, without effect on forequarter and ribs. Subcutaneous fat thickness was not affected by the genotype and it was greater for females. Loin eye area did not show difference between genotypes. Carcass measurements showed differences between genotypes, being the ones from Suffolk mating the longest, followed by the crossbred from Ile de France.

  8. Effect of space allowance during transport and fasting or non-fasting during lairage on carcass contamination and meat traits in Merino lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Vergara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 72 Merino breed male lambs were used in this work, to study the effect of the space allowance during transport [(SA: low (SAL: 0.16 m2/animal; n=24; medium (SAM: 20 m2/animal; n=24; high (SAH: 0.30 m2/animal; n=24], and the management during 18 h lairage [(TL: fasting (TL-FAST; n=36 vs feeding (TL-FEED; n=36] on carcass microbial contamination (total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas and meat quality. Carcasses contamination determination was carried out by swabbing (neck, flank and rump. Meat quality was assessed by pH, colour coordinates, drip loss (DL, shear force (SF ad lipid oxidation. SA did not have effect on carcass microbiological quality. TL caused a significant effect on total viable count and Pseudomonas spp values. Flank was the most contaminated site. SAL-FEED group showed the highest values of drip loss and lipid oxidation. At 24 h post-mortem, pH values were the highest in fasted lambs. At 7 d post-mortem the lowest pH was found in SAM-FAST group while the highest in SAM-FEED. TL had no effect on SF, DL neither on lipid oxidation values. These results could help to meat industry to decide the best management as in the transportation as during lairage before lambs slaughter.

  9. Video Segmentation Using Fast Marching and Region Growing Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftychis Sifakis

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The algorithm presented in this paper is comprised of three main stages: (1 classification of the image sequence and, in the case of a moving camera, parametric motion estimation, (2 change detection having as reference a fixed frame, an appropriately selected frame or a displaced frame, and (3 object localization using local colour features. The image sequence classification is based on statistical tests on the frame difference. The change detection module uses a two-label fast marching algorithm. Finally, the object localization uses a region growing algorithm based on the colour similarity. Video object segmentation results are shown using the COST 211 data set.

  10. Long-term effects of foetal undernutrition on intermediary metabolism in growing lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiani, Ali; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2011-01-01

    and after 48 h and 72 h fasting, changes in plasma concentrations of metabolites, i.e. glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), 3-ß-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) and urea as well as hormones, i.e. insulin, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and leptin, were determined. Blood glucose, NEFA, urea, insulin...

  11. Carbonization of some fast-growing species in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khristova, P.; Khalifa, A.W. (Khartoum Univ. (Sudan). Forestry Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    Four wood species, indigenous Acacia seyal (talh) and exotic fast-growing Conocarpus lancifolius (damas), Eucalyptus microtheca (kafur) and Prosopis chilensis (mesquite) grown in Sudan, were assessed and compared as raw materials for charcoal making. The effects of production method (traditional earth mound and improved metal kiln) and the physical and chemical properties of the wood and bark on the yield and quality of charcoal produced were assessed. Regression analyses of wood properties and heat value data indicated high negative correlations of the wood heat value with halocellulose and ash, and high positive correlations with wood density, lignin, and alcohol-benzene and hot-water solubles. Carbonization with the Tropical Products Institute metal kiln produced higher yields (33%) than the traditional earth mound (27%), although the difference in energy transformation yields was found to be insignificant both between appliances and species. (author)

  12. How fast can your company afford to grow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, N C; Mullins, J W

    2001-05-01

    Everyone knows that starting a business requires cash, and growing a business requires even more. But few people understand that a profitable company that tries to grow too fast can run out of cash even if its products are great successes. So a big challenge for managers of any growing concern is to strike the proper balance between consuming cash and generating it. Authors Neil Churchill and John Mullins offer a framework to help identify and manage the level of growth that a company's cash flow can support. They present a formula to calculate an organization's self-financeable growth (SFG) rate, taking into account three critical factors: a company's operating cash cycle--the amount of time the company's money is tied up in inventory and other current assets before customers pay for goods and services; the amount of cash needed to finance each dollar of sales; and the amount of cash generated by each dollar of sales. The authors offer a detailed hypothetical example that carefully considers these three factors; they then illustrate how a company can influence its SFG rate by carefully managing some combination of those factors--that is, some mix of speeding cash flow, reducing costs, and raising prices. They expand on the original example by showing how to include income taxes and depreciation; plan for asset replacement; and identify which one of multiple product lines holds the greatest growth potential. The authors also discuss how various kinds of businesses--manufacturing firms, importers, and service companies--differ greatly in their abilities to finance growth from internally generated funds.

  13. Albendazole failure to control resistant nematodes in lambs: lack of effect of fasting-induced improvement on drug absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, L; Entrocasso, C; Lifschitz, A; Manazza, J; Ceballos, L; Borda, B; Lanusse, C

    2010-12-01

    Enhanced plasma availability of albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO), the active metabolite of albendazole (ABZ), has been described in feed-restricted sheep. The aim of the present work was to determine if the absorption-related pharmacokinetic changes derived from fasting animals prior to drug treatment would modify the clinical efficacy of ABZ against resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs. Forty Corriedale lambs, naturally infected with resistant gastrointestinal nematodes, were divided into 4 groups. Controls were fed ad libitum and did not receive any drug treatment. Treated animals were fed ad libitum up to 30 min prior to treatment with ABZ (3.8 mg/kg) by the intraruminal route. The control (fasted) animals were not fed during the 24-hr period prior to the start of the experiment and did not receive any drug treatment. A second treated group of animals were fasted 24 hr prior to the treatment with ABZ, as previously described for the fed-treated group. Blood samples were collected over a period of 72 hr post-treatment from 6 animals in each treated group. Plasma samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetic parameters were statistically compared using parametric statistical tests. The estimation of the efficacy of the different treatments was performed by the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Additionally, 4 animals randomly chosen from the control-fed and treated groups were killed 13 days post-treatment to evaluate the efficacy against different adult nematode parasites. The results were statistically compared by parametric and non-parametric tests. Significantly (P fasted compared to the fed animals. These kinetic results may be due to a fasting-induced delay in the GI transit time which increases ABZ dissolution and GI absorption. However, a poor ABZ efficacy (measured as FECRT), compatible with a high degree of nematode resistance, was obtained in both fed (48%) and fasted (49%) animals. Haemonchus

  14. Biotechnology and genetic optimization of fast-growing hardwoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garton, S.; Syrkin-Wurtele, E.; Griffiths, H.; Schell, J.; Van Camp, L.; Bulka, K. (NPI, Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1991-02-01

    A biotechnology research program was initiated to develop new clones of fast-growing Populus clones resistant to the herbicide glyphosate and resistant to the leaf-spot and canker disease caused by the fungus Septoria musiva. Glyphosate-resistant callus was selected from stem segments cultured in vitro on media supplemented with the herbicide. Plants were regenerated from the glyphosate-resistant callus tissue. A portion of plants reverted to a glyphosate susceptible phenotype during organogenesis. A biologically active filtrate was prepared from S. musiva and influenced fresh weight of Populus callus tissue. Disease-resistant plants were produced through somaclonal variation when shoots developed on stem internodes cultured in vitro. Plantlets were screened for disease symptoms after spraying with a suspension of fungal spores. A frequency of 0.83 percent variant production was observed. Genetically engineered plants were produced after treatment of plant tissue with Agrobacterium tumefasciens strains carrying plasmid genes for antibiotic resistance. Transformers were selected on media enriched with the antibiotic, kanamycin. Presence of foreign DNA was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Protoplasts of popular were produced but did not regenerate into plant organs. 145 refs., 12 figs., 36 tabs.

  15. Lamb waves based fast subwavelength imaging using a DORT-MUSIC algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiaze; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2016-02-01

    A Lamb wave-based, subwavelength imaging algorithm is developed for damage imaging in large-scale, plate-like structures based on a decomposition of the time-reversal operator (DORT) method combined with the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm in the space-frequency domain. In this study, a rapid, hybrid non-contact scanning system was proposed to image an aluminum plate using a piezoelectric linear array for actuation and a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) line-scan for sensing. The physics of wave propagation, reflection, and scattering that underlies the response matrix in the DORT method is mathematically formulated in the context of guided waves. The singular value decomposition (SVD) and MUSIC-based imaging condition enable quantifying the damage severity by a `reflectivity' parameter and super-resolution imaging. With the flexibility of this scanning system, a considerably large area can be imaged using lower frequency Lamb waves with limited line-scans. The experimental results showed that the hardware system with a signal processing tool such as the DORT-MUSIC (TR-MUSIC) imaging technique can provide rapid, highly accurate imaging results as well as damage quantification with unknown material properties.

  16. Altered post-mortem metabolism identified in very fast chilled lamb M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum using metabolomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Robyn D; Jacob, Robin H; Rosenvold, Katja; Rochfort, Simone; Trenerry, Craige; Plozza, Tim; McDonagh, Matthew B

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this experiment was to use metabolomic techniques to investigate the energy metabolism in lamb M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum subjected to very fast chilling (VFC) post-mortem. The tissue was prepared by 2 different operators and subjected to very fast chilling (less than 0°C within 1.5h of slaughter) or typical chilling regimes (Control; 0°C within 22h of slaughter). Non-targeted metabolomic analysis ((1)H NMR) and targeted analysis ((31)P NMR, HPLC-PDA and HPLC-MS/MS) were used to examine the change in muscle metabolites post-mortem. One VFC treatment, which resulted in a colder core temperature and more tender meat, had higher levels of glycolytic intermediate metabolites pre-rigor as well as more of the end-products of adenosine and nicotine nucleotide metabolism pre-rigor, relative to conventionally chilled treatments. In conclusion, VFC to less than 0°C within 1.5h of slaughter causes considerable changes in metabolism and rigor onset, which are associated with tender meat. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. How fast are tourism countries growing? The cross country evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Brau, Rinaldo; Lanza, Alessandro; Pigliaru, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    Specializing in tourism is an option available to a number of less developed countries and regions. But is it a good option? To answer this question, we have compared the relative growth performance of 14 "tourism countries" within a sample of 143 countries, observed during the period 1980-95. Using standard OLS cross-country growth regressions, we have documented that the tourism countries grow significantly faster than all the other sub-groups considered in our analysis (OECD, Oil, LDC, Sma...

  18. Phosphorus dynamics and limitation of fast- and slow-growing temperate seaweeds in Oslofjord, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Borum, Jens; Fotel, Frank Leck

    2010-01-01

    algae (Ulva and Ceramium) took up dissolved inorganic P (DIP) much faster than thicker, slower growing species (belonging to Fucus, Ascophyllum and Laminaria) but also had much higher P-demands per unit biomass and time. DIP concentrations in the Oslofjord were low from April through August, and fast-growing......During coastal eutrophication, fast-growing, ephemeral macroalgae bloom at the expense of slow-growing, perennial macroalgae. This change in community composition has been explained by a differential ability to exploit and utilize inorganic nitrogen among macroalgae with different growth strategies....... However, some coastal areas are becoming phosphorus- rather than nitrogen-limited; we therefore compared phosphorus dynamics among 6 temperate species of macroalgae with different growth rates in order to test whether differences in algal P-dynamics may explain macroalgal community changes. Thin, fast-growing...

  19. Reasons for the Fast Growing Seawater Desalination Capacity in Algeria

    KAUST Repository

    Drouiche, Nadjib

    2011-05-24

    Seawater/brackish water desalination has been widely adopted by the Algerian Government in the last few years to supply potable water to municipality for various purposes mainly for domestic and industrial uses especially in areas where demand is high due to shortage of fresh water resources, rapid population growth and development of industry and tourism. Ten years ago, desalination was confined to the industrial use only especially in oil and gas industry as the country was relying on rain water and other available sources to supply fresh water to municipalities. Due to chronic drought conditions, the Ministry of Water Resources reviewed the national water strategy and a strong option for desalination was adopted where an ambitious program was thus put into action. Sixteen mega-plants, with capacities ranging from 100,000 to 500,000 m3 per day, primarily based on Reverse Osmosis technology, were launched in the last few years making the Algerian desalination program one of the world\\'s fastest growing markets. Five desalination plants, including the Africa\\'s largest seawater reverse osmosis project with a total capacity of 200,000 m3 per day, are already in operation and the remaining projects are either under construction or in commissioning. An integrated water resources management was also adopted as additional option to cuter the increasing water demand as there is also a great potential for water reuse and conventional water treatment. An additional benefit of this would be reducing the volume of treated wastewater disposed into the environment. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  20. The Risk of Growing Fast: Does fast growth have a negative impact on the survival rates of firms?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Haibo; van der Zwan, Peter; de Kok, Jan; Hartog, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    Fast-growing firms are considered as the central drivers of job creation in the economy. There is an abundance of literature on the separate subjects of firm growth and firm survival. However, the relationship between survival and growth is neglected. Using the Dutch Longitudinal Enterprise Database

  1. Gene expression profiling of fast- and slow- growing gonadotroph non-functioning pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Camilla Maria; Sundaram, Arvind Y M; Øystese, Kristin Astrid

    2018-01-01

    Objective Reliable biomarkers associated with aggressiveness of non-functioning gonadotroph adenomas (GAs) are lacking. As the growth of tumor remnants is highly variable, molecular markers for growth potential prediction are necessary. We hypothesized that fast- and slow - growing GAs present......, GPM6A and six EMT-related genes (SPAG9, SKIL, MTDH, HOOK1, CNOT6L and PRKACB). MTDH, but not EMCN, demonstrated involvement in cell migration and association with EMT-markers. Conclusions Fast- and slow- growing GAs present different gene expression profiles and genes related to EMT have higher...... expression in fast-growing tumors. In addition to MTDH, identified as an important contributor to aggressiveness, the other genes might represent markers for tumor growth potential and possible targets for drug therapy. ....

  2. Field bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a protein feed for growing lambs with and without protected lysine and methionine supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Badii

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two Appenninica lambs were submitted to a growth trial from day 60 to day 110 of age (on average and the com-  position of gains was estimated by means of the comparative slaughter technique. Sixteen different diets, based on wheat  straw as the forage and on field bean (Vicia faba var. minor as the sole protein feed, were tested both by means of ANOVA  and of response surface analysis, a multiple regression method designed to study additive and interaction effects. This  study thus examined the combined effect of 4 levels of dietary CP (13, 15, 18, 20% DM and 4 levels of rumen protected  lysine and methionine, replacing 4 levels of field bean CP (0, 1, 2, 3 percent units, upon intakes, gains, digestibility and  retentions of nutrients within gains. The animals had rather high gains (250 g/d on average and retention efficiencies both  of feed nitrogen and energy. Dietary CP levels higher than 18% and amino acid supplementation appeared of no use in  improving the lambs’ performance. It is concluded that field bean may represent a valid alternative to soy bean as a pro-  tein feed for growing ruminants in the so-called “organic” animal production where transgenic soy is banned. 

  3. Wood-plastic composites utilizing wood flours derived from fast- growing trees common to the midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are several non- or under-utilized hardwood trees common to the Midwestern states. Wood flour (WF) derived from fast-growing Midwest trees (Osage orange, Black Locust and Red Mulberry) were evaluated as a source of bio-based fiber reinforcements. Wood plastic composites (WPC) of high density p...

  4. Establishment of in vitro fast-growing normal root culture of Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fast-growing normal root culture of Vernonia amygdalina, a potent African medicinal plant was established from leaf explants of in vitro raised shoot induced from the stem nodal segments on murashige and skoog (MS) medium containing 0.5 mg l-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) in combination with 0.5 mg l-1 naphthalene ...

  5. Differential Macrophage Response to Slow- and Fast-Growing Pathogenic Mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cecilia Helguera-Repetto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM have recently been recognized as important species that cause disease even in immunocompetent individuals. The mechanisms that these species use to infect and persist inside macrophages are not well characterised. To gain insight concerning this process we used THP-1 macrophages infected with M. abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. celatum, and M. tuberculosis. Our results showed that slow-growing mycobacteria gained entrance into these cells with more efficiency than fast-growing mycobacteria. We have also demonstrated that viable slow-growing M. celatum persisted inside macrophages without causing cell damage and without inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS, as M. tuberculosis caused. In contrast, fast-growing mycobacteria destroyed the cells and induced high levels of ROS. Additionally, the macrophage cytokine pattern induced by M. celatum was different from the one induced by either M. tuberculosis or fast-growing mycobacteria. Our results also suggest that, in some cases, the intracellular survival of mycobacteria and the immune response that they induce in macrophages could be related to their growth rate. In addition, the modulation of macrophage cytokine production, caused by M. celatum, might be a novel immune-evasion strategy used to survive inside macrophages that is different from the one reported for M. tuberculosis.

  6. Treated Olive Cake as a Non-forage Fiber Source for Growing Awassi Lambs: Effects on Nutrient Intake, Rumen and Urine pH, Performance, and Carcass Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Awawdeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial replacement of wheat hay with sun-dried (SOC or acid-treated SOC (ASOC olive cake on nutrient intake and performance of Awassi lambs. An additional objective was to study the effects of acid treatment of olive cake (OC on its chemical composition and nutritive value. On DM basis, sun-drying of OC did not dramatically affect its chemical composition. On the other hand, treating SOC with phosphoric acid decreased (p<0.05 SOC contents of neutral detergent fiber. Twenty seven male lambs (17.6±0.75 kg body weight individually housed in shaded pens were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments (9 lambs/treatment. Dietary treatments were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous by replacing 50% of wheat hay in the control diet (CTL with SOC or ASOC and to meet all nutrient requirements. Dietary treatments had no effects on nutrient intake or digestibility except for ether extract. Lambs fed the SOC diet had (p = 0.05 faster growth rate, greater final body weight, and greater total body weight gain in comparison with the CTL diet, but not different from the ASOC diet. Additionally, lambs fed the SOC diet had greater (p = 0.03 hot and cold carcass weights than the ASOC diet, but not different from the CTL diet. However, feed conversion ratios and dressing percentages were similar among dietary treatments. In conclusion, replacing half of dietary wheat hay with SOC improved performance of Awassi lambs with no detrimental effects on nutrients intake or digestibility. No further improvements in the nutritive value of SOC and lambs performance were detected when SOC was treated with acid.

  7. Flexural properties of four fast-growing eucalypts woods deteriorated by three different field tests

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael de Avila Delucis; Darci Alberto Gatto

    2017-01-01

    Durability is a wood characteristic determined by several factors, making it difficult to investigate the service life of pieces designated for outdoor use. In this study, the decaying of juvenile and adult woods of four fast-growing eucalypts from southern Brazil subjected to three different exposure environments was monitored through mechanical properties (flexural test). The study material was obtained from adult trees of Eucalyptus botryoides, Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus paniculata an...

  8. Gut microbiota contributes to the growth of fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Li

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change.

  9. Punting Lamb

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, T.; Malcolm, Bill

    2011-01-01

    We present in clear, readable terms how to understand the risky aspects of a ewe purchase decision. Expected lamb prices in the future are an important driver of ewe prices now. We derive easy methods of determining the relationship between future lamb prices and current ewe prices. This lends to an evaluation of rules of thumb showing that the 'bet' and the 'odds' are keys to good investment.

  10. Wood anatomy and physical and chemical properties of fast growing Athel tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza oladi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Athel tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla is a fast growing, evergreen tree succeeding in the most soils and can tolerate the saline conditions. Despite its ecological importance and wide distribution in central and southern parts of Iran, wood properties of this species has little been concerned. However, the potential of this species in cellulosic industries of Middle East dry countries has recently been focused. Hence, to study wood anatomy and physical and chemical properties of Athel tamarisk, 3 stands were selected and felled from the Zabol region (Sistan and Baluchestan province. Wood anatomical features of this species were studied and listed according to the list of microscopic features for hardwood identification by IAWA Committee. In addition, lignin distribution in xylem was studied using fluorescence microscopy. Calculating fiber biometry features assessed that although fiber quality is not perfect but meets the standards of paper production, comparing other commercially used hardwoods in this industry. According to chemical composition analysis, cellulose content of this wood is rather low (39% which could be a result of large amount of thin-walled paranchyma cells in xylem. Lignin content is a bit higher than average hardwoods and this component is concentrated in vessels and fibers. Physical properties of studied wood samples (specific gravity and shrinkage values were in the range of other light-weight and fast growing hardwoods and thus this wood is expected to have similar end-use quality.

  11. A Robust Productivity Model for Grapple Yarding in Fast-Growing Tree Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan Engelbrecht

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available New techniques have recently appeared that can extend the advantages of grapple yarding to fast-growing plantations. The most promising technique consists of an excavator-base un-guyed yarder equipped with new radio-controlled grapple carriages, fed by another excavator stationed on the cut-over. This system is very productive, avoids in-stand traffic, and removes operators from positions of high risk. This paper presents the results of a long-term study conducted on 12 different teams equipped with the new technology, operating in the fast-growing black wattle (Acacia mangium Willd plantations of Sarawak, Malaysia. Data were collected continuously for almost 8 months and represented 555 shifts, or over 55,000 cycles—each recorded individually. Production, utilization, and machine availability were estimated, respectively at: 63 m3 per productive machine hour (excluding all delays, 63% and 93%. Regression analysis of experimental data yielded a strong productivity forecast model that was highly significant, accounted for 50% of the total variability in the dataset and was validated with a non-significant error estimated at less than 1%. The figures reported in this study are especially robust, because they were obtained from a long-term study that covered multiple teams and accumulated an exceptionally large number of observations.

  12. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis of the Fast Growing Shoots of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Hu, Tao; Mu, Shaohua; Li, Xueping; Gao, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Background The moso bamboo, a large woody bamboo with the highest ecological, economic, and cultural value of all bamboos, has one of the highest growth speeds in the world. Genetic research into moso bamboo has been scarce, partly because of the lack of previous genomic resources. In the present study, for the first time, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing and mapped to the moso bamboo genomic resources (reference genome and genes) to produce a comprehensive dataset for the fast growing shoots of moso bamboo. Results The fast growing shoots mixed with six different heights and culms after leaf expansion of moso bamboo transcriptome were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform, respectively. More than 80 million reads including 65,045,670 and 68,431,884 clean reads were produced in the two libraries. More than 81% of the reads were matched to the reference genome, and nearly 50% of the reads were matched to the reference genes. The genes with log 2 ratio > 2 or plant hormones, cell cycle regulation, cell wall metabolism and cell morphogenesis genes were further analyzed and they may form a network that regulates the fast growth of moso bamboo shoots. Conclusion Firstly, our data provides the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource for moso bamboo to date. Candidate genes have been identified and they are potentially involved in the growth and development of moso bamboo. The results give a better insight into the mechanisms of moso bamboo shoots rapid growth and provide gene resources for improving plant growth. PMID:24244391

  13. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation in a fast-growing urban region with system dynamics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyson, Brian; Chang, N.-B.

    2005-01-01

    Both planning and design of municipal solid waste management systems require accurate prediction of solid waste generation. Yet achieving the anticipated prediction accuracy with regard to the generation trends facing many fast-growing regions is quite challenging. The lack of complete historical records of solid waste quantity and quality due to insufficient budget and unavailable management capacity has resulted in a situation that makes the long-term system planning and/or short-term expansion programs intangible. To effectively handle these problems based on limited data samples, a new analytical approach capable of addressing socioeconomic and environmental situations must be developed and applied for fulfilling the prediction analysis of solid waste generation with reasonable accuracy. This study presents a new approach - system dynamics modeling - for the prediction of solid waste generation in a fast-growing urban area based on a set of limited samples. To address the impact on sustainable development city wide, the practical implementation was assessed by a case study in the city of San Antonio, Texas (USA). This area is becoming one of the fastest-growing regions in North America due to the economic impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The analysis presents various trends of solid waste generation associated with five different solid waste generation models using a system dynamics simulation tool - Stella[reg]. Research findings clearly indicate that such a new forecasting approach may cover a variety of possible causative models and track inevitable uncertainties down when traditional statistical least-squares regression methods are unable to handle such issues

  14. Effects of breed, sex, and concentrate supplementation on digestibility, enteric methane emissions, and nitrogen utilization efficiency in growing lambs offered fresh grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y G; Aubry, A; O'Connell, N E; Annett, R; Yan, T

    2015-12-01

    Forty-eight lowland lambs were used in a completely randomized design (23-d period) with a factorial arrangement of treatments: 2 breeds (Highlander vs. Texel) × 3 sexes (female vs. intact male vs. wether) × 2 diets (fresh grass vs. fresh grass plus 0.5 kg/d pelleted concentrate). Animals ( = 48) were approximately 5 mo old and 36 ± 5.0 kg BW at the commencement of the study with 4 lambs for each breed-sex-diet combination. Fresh grass was harvested daily from the first regrowth of perennial ryegrass sward and offered ad libitum with a similar growth stage throughout the experiment. The animals were individually housed in pens and fed experimental diets for 19 d before being transferred to individual calorimeter chambers for a further 4 d with feed intake, fecal and urine outputs, and methane (CH) emissions measured. Lambs offered 0.5 kg/d concentrate had greater DM and energy (i.e., GE, DE and ME) intake, BW, and CH production (g/d) and greater N intake, fecal and manure N outputs, and fecal N per N intake than those given only fresh grass ( 0.05). The results reflected that high-quality forages may play a role similar to concentrate in mitigation of enteric CH emissions. The effects of sex and breed on rumen function require further investigation to understand relationships with CH emissions and N excretion in sheep.

  15. Feeding oscillating dietary crude protein concentrations increases nitrogen utilization in growing lambs and this response is partly attributable to increased urea transfer to the rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doranalli, Kiran; Penner, Gregory B; Mutsvangwa, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of feeding oscillating compared with static dietary crude protein (CP) concentrations on nitrogen (N) retention and urea flux across ruminal epithelia. Twenty-seven Suffolk wether lambs (n = 9) were assigned to a medium-CP diet [MEDIUM; 127 g CP⋅kg dry matter (DM)(-1)] or to diets with oscillating CP content (OSC) fed in 2 different sequences, i.e. 2 d of low CP (103 g CP⋅kg DM(-1)) followed by 2 d of high CP (161 g CP⋅kg DM(-1); OSC-HIGH) or vice versa (OSC-LOW). Diet adaptation was for 24 d, followed by 8 d of total urine and feces collection. On d 33, lambs were slaughtered 4 h after the morning feeding, such that those receiving OSC-LOW and OSC-HIGH diets were slaughtered on d 3 of receiving the low- or high-CP diets, respectively. Ruminal epithelia were collected and mounted in Ussing chambers and the serosal-to-mucosal urea flux (J(sm-urea)) was measured using (14)C-urea. Ruminal NH(3)-N concentration was lower (P = 0.001) in lambs fed OSC-LOW compared with those fed OSC-HIGH. Although N intake was similar, retained N (P = 0.001) and microbial N supply (P = 0.001) were greater in lambs fed OSC compared with those fed MEDIUM. The total J(sm-urea) was higher (P = 0.001) in lambs fed OSC-LOW compared with those fed OSC-HIGH. Across diets, the addition of phloretin [a known specific inhibitor of facilitative urea transporter (UT)-B] reduced J(sm-urea) by 19.5-22.3% (P = 0.001); however, phloretin-insensitive J(sm-urea) was the predominant route for transepithelial urea transfer. Taken together, these data indicate that feeding oscillating dietary CP concentrations improves N retention partly by increasing urea recycling to the rumen when animals are fed low-CP diets, but the greater rates of urea transfer cannot be attributable to upregulation of UT-B.

  16. Flexural properties of four fast-growing eucalypts woods deteriorated by three different field tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Avila Delucis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Durability is a wood characteristic determined by several factors, making it difficult to investigate the service life of pieces designated for outdoor use. In this study, the decaying of juvenile and adult woods of four fast-growing eucalypts from southern Brazil subjected to three different exposure environments was monitored through mechanical properties (flexural test. The study material was obtained from adult trees of Eucalyptus botryoides, Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus paniculata and Eucalyptus tereticornis. Field tests were conducted in the city of Piratini, southern Brazil, and samplings were carried out during 540 days of experiment. Comparing the four eucalypts, the decreasing order of biological resistance was: Eucalyptus tereticornis, Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus paniculata and Eucalyptus botryoides. The mature wood showed greater and more stable physical-mechanical properties than juvenile wood.

  17. Hydroponic Screening of Fast-growing Tree Species for Lead Phytoremediation Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongpisanphop, Jiraporn; Babel, Sandhya; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Pokethitiyook, Prayad

    2017-10-01

    Using trees as phytoremediators has become a powerful tool to remediate lead from contaminated environments. This study aims to identify potential candidates among fast-growing trees by comparing their ability to tolerate and accumulate Pb. Cuttings from Acacia mangium, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and Senna siamea were cultured in 25% modified Hoagland's solutions supplemented with 10, 30, and 50 mg/L Pb for 15 days. Lead concentrations were determined by a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. All species showed high Pb tolerance (over 78%) and low translocation factor (40000 mg/kg) was recorded in A. mangium and E. camaldulensis grown in 50 mg/L Pb solution. Based on high biomass, tolerance index, and Pb content in plants, A. mangium and E. camaldulensis are good candidates for phytoremediation.

  18. Impact of urbanization on the groundwater regime in a fast growing city in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Pradeep K; Tambe, Jivesh A; Dehury, Biranchi N; Tiwari, Arun N

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the impact of urbanization on the groundwater regime in a fast growing city, Solapur, in central India, giving special emphasis on the management of the present and ultimate demand of water in 2,020 AD. The objective is to apprise the city planners and administrators of the effects of urbanization on the groundwater regime in a fast growing medium-sized city in a developing country where the infrastructure developments are not in conformity with the rapid growth in population. Solapur city with an area of 178.57 km2 receives a recharge of about 24 million m3 of groundwater from various sources annually. Reduction in recharge, as conventionally assumed due to the impact of urbanization, could not, however, be well established. Instead, there was a rise in recharge as water use in the city grew from time to time and more and more water was supplied to satisfy the human needs. Compared to mid-1970s, groundwater levels have increased within the main city area due to increased recharge and decreased groundwater abstraction. However, outside the main city area, there is a general decline in groundwater levels due to increased groundwater utilization for irrigation purposes. Groundwater quality deterioration has been highly localized. Water quality has deteriorated during the last 10 years, especially in dugwells, mainly due to misuse and disuse of these structures and poor circulation of groundwater. However, in case of borewells, comparison of the present water quality with that in mid-1970s and early 1980s does not show any perceptible change. Deeper groundwater tapped by borewells can still be used for drinking purposes with caution.

  19. Chemical composition and fuel wood characteristics of fast growing tree species in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, S. K.; Soni, R.

    2012-04-01

    India is one of the growing economy in the world and energy is a critical input to sustain the growth of development. Country aims at security and efficiency of energy. Though fossil fuel will continue to play a dominant role in energy scenario but country is committed to global environmental well being thus stressing on environment friendly technologies. Concerns of energy security in this changing climatic situation have led to increasing support for the development of new renewable source of energy. Government though is determined to facilitate bio-energy and many projects have been established but initial after-affects more specifically on the domestic fuelwood are evident. Even the biomass power generating units are facing biomass crisis and accordingly the prices are going up. The CDM projects are supporting the viability of these units resultantly the Indian basket has a large number of biomass projects (144 out of total 506 with 28 per cent CERs). The use for fuelwood as a primary source of energy for domestic purpose by the poor people (approx. 80 per cent) and establishment of bio-energy plants may lead to deforestation to a great extent and only solution to this dilemma is to shift the wood harvest from the natural forests to energy plantations. However, there is conspicuous lack of knowledge with regards to the fuelwood characteristics of fast growing tree species for their selection for energy plantations. The calorific value of the species is important criteria for selection for fuel but it is affected by the proportions of biochemical constituents present in them. The aim of the present work was to study the biomass production, calorific value and chemical composition of different short rotation tree species. The study was done from the perspective of using the fast growing tree species for energy production at short rotation and the study concluded that short rotation tree species like Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pongamia pinnata

  20. Consensus micro RNAs governing the switch of dormant tumors to the fast-growing angiogenic phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Almog

    Full Text Available Tumor dormancy refers to a critical stage in cancer development in which tumor cells remain occult for a prolonged period of time until they eventually progress and become clinically apparent. We previously showed that the switch of dormant tumors to fast-growth is angiogenesis dependent and requires a stable transcriptional reprogramming in tumor cells. Considering microRNAs (miRs as master regulators of transcriptome, we sought to investigate their role in the control of tumor dormancy. We report here the identification of a consensus set of 19 miRs that govern the phenotypic switch of human dormant breast carcinoma, glioblastoma, osteosarcoma, and liposarcoma tumors to fast-growth. Loss of expression of dormancy-associated miRs (DmiRs, 16/19 was the prevailing regulation pattern correlating with the switch of dormant tumors to fast-growth. The expression pattern of two DmiRs (miR-580 and 190 was confirmed to correlate with disease stage in human glioma specimens. Reconstitution of a single DmiR (miR-580, 588 or 190 led to phenotypic reversal of fast-growing angiogenic tumors towards prolonged tumor dormancy. Of note, 60% of angiogenic glioblastoma and 100% of angiogenic osteosarcoma over-expressing miR190 remained dormant during the entire observation period of ∼ 120 days. Next, the ability of DmiRs to regulate angiogenesis and dormancy-associated genes was evaluated. Transcriptional reprogramming of tumors via DmiR-580, 588 or 190 over-expression resulted in downregulation of pro-angiogenic factors such as TIMP-3, bFGF and TGFalpha. In addition, a G-CSF independent downregulation of Bv8 was found as a common target of all three DmiRs and correlated with decreased tumor recruitment of bone marrow-derived CD11b+ Gr-1+ myeloid cells. In contrast, antiangiogenic and dormancy promoting pathways such as EphA5 and Angiomotin were upregulated in DmiR over-expressing tumors. This work suggests novel means to reverse the malignant tumor phenotype

  1. A novel, fast-growing Borrelia sp. isolated from the hard tick Hyalomma aegyptium in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Ece S; Hashimoto, Naoya; Kadosaka, Teruki; Imai, Yasuyuki; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki

    2003-09-01

    A novel, fast-growing spirochaete was isolated from the hard tick Hyalomma aegyptium (family Ixodidae, subfamily Metastriata) using Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (BSK) II medium. Tick samples were taken during the summer of 2000 from the Istanbul area in northwestern Turkey. Sixty-seven of 153 adults (44%) and 72 of 185 nymphs (39%) were infected with the novel spirochaete, whereas none of the 20 larvae examined were infected. The optimal growth temperature of the spirochaete in BSK II medium was 34-37 degrees C, and it could grow at 39 degrees C. Doubling times at 34 and 37 degrees C were 5.3 and 5.1 h, respectively. Six pure cultures of the spirochaete were obtained and characterized by microscopic observation, sequence analysis of the flagellin gene (flaB), SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. The spirochaete was morphologically similar to those of the genus Borrelia and contained a 41 kDa protein reactive with mAb H9724 specific to the flagellin of a Borrelia species. Polyclonal antibody raised to this spirochaete reacted with several antigen bands, whereas no bands were detected with Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia hermsii, Borrelia turicatae and Borrelia parkeri. The flaB sequences of the six isolates showed high similarity, with sequence similarity values ranging from 99.2 to 100%; however, the similarity of the isolates' flaB sequences to those of the Lyme-disease-related Borrelia and relapsing-fever-associated Borrelia species was less than 90%. These findings suggest that the unique spirochaete is a member of the genus Borrelia, and differs from previously described Borrelia species.

  2. CENTRAL KALIMANTAN’S FAST GROWING SPECIES: SUITABILITY FOR PULP AND PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danang Sudarwoko Adi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of fast growing species grown in PT. Sari Bumi Kusuma, Central Kalimantan, show that based on their fiber dimensions there are five species, namely Endospermum diadenum, Dillenia spp., Adinandra dumosa, Adiandra sp., and Nauclea junghuhnii with good potential for pulp and paper production. The fiber length of those five wood species are was more than 2,200 µm on average. This paper studies the physical properties, fiber dimensions and their chemical contents to predict the paper and pulp quality. The result shows that all of the species were classified in the medium to high density category. All species were classified into the first class quality for pulp and paper. Based on chemical contents, Dillenia sp. is the most suitable species due to its high value of holocellulose and a-cellulose, low lignin content, and its fiber length is about 3,119 µm on average. A. dumosa also has good opportunities because it had the longest fiber lengths (3,137 µm on average and high value of holocellulose, even though it has the highest lignin content. While Nuclea junghuhnii is less suitable due to low values of holocellulose and a-cellulose.

  3. Plant tissue culture of fast-growing trees for phytoremediation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couselo, José Luis; Corredoira, Elena; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The ability of plants to remove pollutants from the environment is currently used in a simple and low-cost cleaning technology known as phytoremediation. Unfortunately, little is known about the metabolic pathways involved in the transformation of xenobiotic compounds and the ability of certain plants to tolerate, detoxify, and store high concentrations of heavy metals. Plant cell and tissue culture is considered an important tool for fundamental studies that provide information about the plant-contaminant relationships, help to predict plant responses to environmental contaminants, and improve the design of plants with enhanced characteristics for phytoremediation. Callus, cell suspensions, hairy roots, and shoot multiplication cultures are used to study the interactions between plants and pollutants under aseptic conditions. Many plant species have an inherent ability to accumulate/metabolize a variety of pollutants, but they normally produce little biomass. However, fast-growing trees are excellent candidates for phytoremediation because of their rapid growth, extensive root system, and high water uptake. This chapter outlines the in vitro plant production of both somaclonal variants and transgenic plants of Populus spp. that exhibit high tolerance to heavy metals.

  4. Why Do Fast-Growing Bacteria Enter Overflow Metabolism? Testing the Membrane Real Estate Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szenk, Mariola; Dill, Ken A; de Graff, Adam M R

    2017-08-23

    Bacteria and other cells show a puzzling behavior. At high growth rates, E. coli switch from respiration (which is ATP-efficient) to using fermentation for additional ATP (which is inefficient). This overflow metabolism results in a several-fold decrease in ATP produced per glucose molecule provided as food. By integrating diverse types of experimental data into a simple biophysical model, we give evidence that this onset is the result of the membrane real estate hypothesis: Fast growth drives cells to be bigger, reducing their surface-to-volume ratios. This decreases the membrane area available for respiratory proteins despite growing demand, causing increased crowding. Only when respiratory proteins reach their crowding limit does the cell activate fermentation, since fermentation allows faster ATP production per unit membrane area. Surface limitation thus creates a Pareto trade-off between membrane efficiency and ATP yield that links metabolic choice to the size and shape of a bacterial cell. By exploring the predictions that emerge from this trade-off, we show how consideration of molecular structures, energetics, rates, and equilibria can provide important insight into cellular behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterizing the air quality in the vicinity of a fast-growing Asian airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Juang, J.

    2010-12-01

    Many studies have shown that air quality in the vicinity of major airports could be directly influenced by aircraft emissions, airport activities, and other forms of intense transportation in proximity to airports. There are two types of pollutants emitted within the confines of airports: one is directly emitted from aircraft engines, and the other is from ground support equipment (GSE). Such pollutants include aromatic hydrocarbon, ultrafine particles (UFP) , black carbon (BC) , nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxides, and sulfides and could immiately impact the air quality in areas downwind. Although the impact of airport emissions on surrounding communities has been studied in some major airports in North America and Europe, scant attention has been paid to airport pollution issues in Asia despite the surging growth of air travel and of airports. Commercial air traffic in Taiwan has been dramatically growing in the last two decades because of rapid economic growth and is expected to continue surging into the next decades due to increasing trade and travel with China and other countries. In this study, the air quality in the vicinity of Taiwan’s Taoyuan International Airport (TPE Airport) is analyzed to further characterize air quality in the region of a fast-growing Asian airport. Monitoring data from the Taiwanese Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) is used in the study to investigate long-term trends in air quality. The first step of this research is to analyze the data from six stations close to TPE Airport during the last ten years and to filter the attributes (wind field, geography, and so on) which could impact that air quality. Second, we characterize the relationship between data from different monitoring stations by using cluster analysis and then use the air pollution model (Industrial Source Complex-ISC3 and Cal-Puff) to identify why serious pollution events occur. Finally, we use model binds with a GIS system containing population-activity and

  6. Can a fast­growing early­successional tree (Ochroma pyramidale, Malvaceae) accelerate forest succession?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleut, I.; Levy-Tacher, S.I.; Boer, de W.F.; Galindo-Gonzalez, J.; Ramirez-Marcial, N.

    2013-01-01

    Species-specific traits of trees affect ecosystem dynamics, defining forest structure and understorey development. Ochroma pyramidale is a fast-growing tree species, with life-history traits that include low wood density, short-lived large leaves and a narrow open thin crown. We evaluated forest

  7. Bacteriocin small of fast-growing rhizobia is chloroform soluble and is not required for effective nodulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brussel, A. A.; Zaat, S. A.; Wijffelman, C. A.; Pees, E.; Lugtenberg, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    Small bacteriocin is a low-molecular-weight bacteriocin which is common in fast-growing rhizobia. As its activity could not be detected in chloroform-sterilized culture supernatants (P.R. Hirsch, J. Gen. Microbiol. 113:219-228, 1979), the bacteriocin could not be purified in order to study its

  8. Effects of Housing Systems on Behaviour, Performance and Welfare of Fast-growing Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-guang Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of different housing systems on behavioral activities, welfare and meat quality of fast-growing broilers. Two hundred broilers were allocated into two housing systems: indoor housing vs indoor with outdoor access. Their general behavior (feeding, drinking, fighting, standing, lying, walking, investigating, dust-bathing and preening was observed, and tonic immobility, fluctuating asymmetry of legs and wings were measured, and meat quality was analyzed. The results showed that the indoor-housed broilers with outdoor access had significant higher standing, walking, investigating, dust-bathing and preening than those indoor only. However, farming system was not found to significantly affect their feeding, drinking and fighting activities (p>0.05. The value of FA of tibia length of the broilers with outdoor access was significantly lower than that of the indoor-housed birds (1.57±1.30 vs 2.76±1.40, p0.05. TI of the broilers with outdoor access was 165.5 that was significantly higher than that (147.2 of the indoor birds (p<0.05. However, death rate in the outdoor run groups was significantly higher than that of the indoor ones (2.0±0.81 vs 4.0±0.82, p<0.05. Meat quality was not affected by the two farming systems. It can be concluded that the results of this study may suggest that the indoor housing with outdoor access provides enriched environment for broilers and facilitates the expression of natural behaviors of the broilers but resulted in poorer performance and higher death rate.

  9. Fast growing plantations for wood production – integration of ecological effects and economic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eBredemeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass crops are perceived as a feasible means to substitute sizeable amounts of fossil fuel in the future. A prospect of CO2 reduction (resp. CO2 neutrality is credited to biomass fuels, and thus a potential contribution to mitigate climate change. Short rotation coppices (SRC with fast growing poplar and willow trees are an option for producing high yields of woody biomass, which is suitable for both energetic and material use. One negative effect that comes along with the establishment of SRC may be a decrease in groundwater recharge, because high rates of transpiration and interception are anticipated. Therefore, it is important to measure, analyse, and model the effects of SRC-planting on landscape water budgets. To analyse the effects on the water budget a poplar SRC plot was studied by measuring hydrological parameters to be used in the hydrological model WaSim. Results reveal very low or even missing ground water recharge for SRC compared to agricultural land use or grassland, especially succeeding dry years. However, this strong effect on plot level is moderated on the larger spatial scale of catchment level, for which the modelling was also performed. In addition to water, nutrient fluxes and budgets were studied. Nitrogen is still a crucial issue in today's agriculture. Intensive fertilization or increased applications of manure from concentrated livestock breeding are often leading to high loads of nitrate leaching, or enhanced N2O emissions to the atmosphere on arable crop fields. SRC or agroforestry systems (AF on former crop land may offer an option to decrease such N losses, while simultaneously producing woody biomass. This is mainly due to the generally smaller N requirements of woody vegetation, which usually entail no need for any fertilization. The trees supply deep and permanent rooting systems, which can be regarded as a safety net to prevent nutrient leaching. Thus, SRC altogether can help to diminish N eutrophication.

  10. Gas exchange, heat production and oxidation of fat in chicken embryos from a fast or slow growing line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla

    2007-01-01

    The experiment comprised 48 chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos from a modern, fast growing line, Ross 308 (RO) and 48 from a slow growing line, Labresse (LA). The O(2) consumption and CO(2) production were measured in an open-air-circuit respiration unit, and heat production (HE) from embryos...... the eggs were incubated for 7, 13 and 19 days. Since fat oxidation was the main energy fuel the content of fat in the eggs decreased by 2.0 (RO) and 1.6 g (LA), while protein content was fairly constant in each line. It is remarkable that the differences in heat production between chickens from fast...... and slow growing lines were already manifested during their embryonic development....

  11. Substituição do milho por farelo de palma forrageira em dietas de ovinos em crescimento: desempenho Replacement of corn by forage cactus meal in growing lambs diets: performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Magno Liberal Véras

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar quatro níveis de substituição do milho (0; 33; 67 e 100% pelo farelo de palma forrageira sobre o desempenho de ovinos em crescimento terminados em confinamento. Vinte carneiros mestiços Santa Inês foram distribuídos em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos (níveis de substituição do milho pelo farelo de palma e cinco repetições. Além do milho e/ou farelo de palma, os animais receberam feno de Tifton (Cynodon dactylon, como volumoso, farelo de soja, calcário e sal mineral. O ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar diminuíram, enquanto os consumos de FDN e de FDA aumentaram linearmente com a substituição. Os consumos de matéria seca, de proteína bruta, de matéria orgânica e de carboidratos totais e o rendimento de carcaça não foram influenciados pela substituição do milho pelo farelo de palma.The objective of this work was to evaluate four corn replacement levels (0, 33, 67 and 100% by forage cactus meal on performance of feedlot growing lambs. Twenty crossbred lambs were allotted to a completely randomized block design with four treatments (replacement of corn by forage cactus meal and five replications. Besides corn and/or forage cactus meal, the animals were fed Tifton hay (Cynodon dactylon, as forage, soybean meal, limestone and mineral salt. Weight gain and feed:gain ratio decreased and intakes of NDF and ADF increased linearly with corn replacement. The intakes of dry matter, crude protein, organic matter and total carbohydrates and carcass yield were not affected by replacement of corn by forage cactus meal.

  12. Water Quality Assessment of Streams and Wetlands in a Fast Growing East African City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels De Troyer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The combination of rapid urbanization, industrialization, population growth, and low environmental awareness poses a major threat to worldwide valuable freshwater resources, which provide important ecosystem services to humans. There is an urgent need to monitor and assess these resources, as this information is indispensable for sustainable decision-making and management. In this context, we analyzed the chemical and ecological water quality of the riverine environment of a fast growing city in Southwest Ethiopia for which we proposed possible remediation options that were evaluated with an empirical model. The chemical and ecological water quality was assessed at 53 sampling locations using the oxygen Prati index and the ETHbios, which is a biotic index based on macroinvertebrates. In addition, a microbiological analysis was performed to estimate the degree of fecal contamination. Finally, we analyzed the relationship between the oxygen content and the organic pollution to simulate the effect of organics removal from waste streams on the chemical water quality. Our results showed that the average values for dissolved oxygen (4.2 mg DO·L−1 and nutrients (0.9 mg oPO43−·L−1 and 12.8 mg TAN·L−1 exceeded international standards. Moreover, high turbidity levels revealed that land erosion is a severe problem in the region. Along the rivers, a significant increase in oxygen consumption and in nutrient concentrations was observed, indicating organic pollution originating from different diffuse and point sources of pollution. The lack of proper sanitation also led to exceedingly high abundances of fecal coliforms in the surface water (>320 MPN·mL−1. However, fecal contamination was strongly reduced (>92% after the polluted river water passed Boye wetland, indicating the purification potential of natural wetlands and the importance of conserving and protecting those ecosystems. The simulation results of the model showed that water quality

  13. Fast Growing Plantations for Wood Production - Integration of Ecological Effects and Economic Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeier, Michael; Busch, Gerald; Hartmann, Linda; Jansen, Martin; Richter, Falk; Lamersdorf, Norbert P

    2015-01-01

    Biomass crops are perceived as a feasible means to substitute sizeable amounts of fossil fuel in the future. A prospect of CO2 reduction (resp. CO2 neutrality) is credited to biomass fuels, and thus a potential contribution to mitigate climate change. Short rotation coppices (SRCs) with fast growing poplar and willow trees are an option for producing high yields of woody biomass, which is suitable for both energetic and material use. One negative effect that comes along with the establishment of SRC may be a decrease in groundwater recharge, because high rates of transpiration and interception are anticipated. Therefore, it is important to measure, analyze, and model the effects of SRC-planting on landscape water budgets. To analyze the effects on the water budget, a poplar SRC plot was studied by measuring hydrological parameters to be used in the hydrological model WaSim. Results reveal very low or even missing ground water recharge for SRC compared to agricultural land use or grassland, especially succeeding dry years. However, this strong effect on plot level is moderated on the larger spatial scale of catchment level, for which the modeling was also performed. In addition to water, nutrient fluxes and budgets were studied. Nitrogen is still a crucial issue in today's agriculture. Intensive fertilization or increased applications of manure from concentrated livestock breeding are often leading to high loads of nitrate leaching, or enhanced N2O emissions to the atmosphere on arable crop fields. SRC or agroforestry systems on former crop land may offer an option to decrease such N losses, while simultaneously producing woody biomass. This is mainly due to the generally smaller N requirements of woody vegetation, which usually entail no need for any fertilization. The trees supply deep and permanent rooting systems, which can be regarded as a "safety net" to prevent nutrient leaching. Thus, SRC altogether can help to diminish N eutrophication. It is important to

  14. Metabolic and hormonal responses of growing modern meat type chickens to fasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study compared the effects of fasting on circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin and glucagon in male and female modern meat-type chickens (Ross 708) at three ages (19 d, 33 d and 47 d). Plasma concentrations of glucose were reduced by fasting with reductions of 24.9% (19-d-old),...

  15. Fast-growing Acer rubrum differs from slow-growing Quercus alba in leaf, xylem and hydraulic trait coordination responses to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Tomeo, Nicholas J; Hewins, Charlotte R; Rosenthal, David M

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of historic soil chemistry changes associated with acid rain, i.e., reduced soil pH and a shift from nitrogen (N)- to phosphorus (P)-limitation, on the coordination of leaf water demand and xylem hydraulic supply traits in two co-occurring temperate tree species differing in growth rate. Using a full-factorial design (N × P × pH), we measured leaf nutrient content, water relations, leaf-level and canopy-level gas exchange, total biomass and allocation, as well as stem xylem anatomy and hydraulic function for greenhouse-grown saplings of fast-growing Acer rubrum (L.) and slow-growing Quercus alba (L.). We used principle component analysis to characterize trait coordination. We found that N-limitation, but not P-limitation, had a significant impact on plant water relations and hydraulic coordination of both species. Fast-growing A. rubrum made hydraulic adjustments in response to N-limitation, but trait coordination was variable within treatments and did not fully compensate for changing allocation across N-availability. For slow-growing Q. alba, N-limitation engendered more strict coordination of leaf and xylem traits, resulting in similar leaf water content and hydraulic function across all treatments. Finally, low pH reduced the propensity of both species to adjust leaf water relations and xylem anatomical traits in response to nutrient manipulations. Our data suggest that a shift from N- to P-limitation has had a negative impact on the water relations and hydraulic function of A. rubrum to a greater extent than for Q. alba We suggest that current expansion of A. rubrum populations could be tempered by acidic N-deposition, which may restrict it to more mesic microsites. The disruption of hydraulic acclimation and coordination at low pH is emphasized as an interesting area of future study. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Genome-wide DNA Methylation Profiles of Small Intestine and Liver in Fast-growing and Slow-growing Weaning Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woori Kwak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although growth rate is one of the main economic traits of concern in pig production, there is limited knowledge on its epigenetic regulation, such as DNA methylation. In this study, we conducted methyl-CpG binding domain protein-enriched genome sequencing (MBD-seq to compare genome-wide DNA methylation profile of small intestine and liver tissue between fast- and slow-growing weaning piglets. The genome-wide methylation pattern between the two different growing groups showed similar proportion of CpG (regions of DNA where a cytosine nucleotide occurs next to a guanine nucleotide in the linear sequence coverage, genomic regions, and gene regions. Differentially methylated regions and genes were also identified for downstream analysis. In canonical pathway analysis using differentially methylated genes, pathways (triacylglycerol pathway, some cell cycle related pathways, and insulin receptor signaling pathway expected to be related to growth rate were enriched in the two organ tissues. Differentially methylated genes were also organized in gene networks related to the cellular development, growth, and carbohydrate metabolism. Even though further study is required, the result of this study may contribute to the understanding of epigenetic regulation in pig growth.

  17. Mobile dune fixation by a fast-growing clonal plant : a full life-cycle analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Shou-Li; Yu, Fei-Hai; Werger, Marinus J A; Dong, Ming; During, Heinjo J; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2015-01-01

    Desertification is a global environmental problem, and arid dunes with sparse vegetation are especially vulnerable to desertification. One way to combat desertification is to increase vegetation cover by planting plant species that can realize fast population expansion, even in harsh environments.

  18. Mobile dune fixation by a fast-growing clonal plant: a full life-cycle analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werger, M.J.A.; During, H.J.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Desertification is a global environmental problem, and arid dunes with sparse vegetation are especially vulnerable to desertification. One way to combat desertification is to increase vegetation cover by planting plant species that can realize fast population expansion, even in harsh environments.

  19. A longitudinal comparison of the growth factors of Slovenian fast growing enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljem Pšeničny

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main features of Slovenia’s fastest growing companies and compares them with “gazelles” in the EU. The longitudinal survey presented connects with three other studies applying the same research method, namely studies employing the same questionnaire on growth factors that affect growing companies through to the criteria by which they were selected as growing businesses for the survey. The author notes that the growth factors which have an impact on Slovenian businesses and gazelles in the EU mostly do not show any significant differences, and that these differences also did not change significantly over a 15-year period. This hypothesis is verified by both statistical methods and the data mining method called machine learning from examples.

  20. Fast-growing pre-auricular pilomatrixoma simulating a lymph node ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pilomatrixoma is a relatively uncommon tumour of the skin appendages. It is usually a slow growing tumour. It presents as a firm, solitary and asymptomatic swelling of the dermal and subcutaneous tissues. It occurs more often in children, females and whites. The lesion has a predilection for the head and neck ...

  1. How Fast are the Tourism Countries Growing? The cross-country evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Brau, Rinaldo; Lanza, Alessandro; Pigliaru, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    Specializing in tourism is an option available to a number of less developed countries and regions. But is it a good option? To answer this question, we have compared the relative growth performance of 14 “tourism countries” within a sample of 143 countries, observed during the period 1980-95. Using standard OLS cross-country growth regressions, we have documented that the tourism countries grow significantly faster than all the other sub-groups considered in our analysis (OECD, Oil, LDC, Sma...

  2. Semicentralised supply and treatment systems: integrated infrastructure solutions for fast growing urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieker, S; Cornel, P; Wagner, M

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the development of the world population is characterised by two trends: absolute population growth and rapid urbanisation. Especially rapid urbanisation, taking place in Asia, Latin America and Africa, poses major pressure on the affected regions. The development of e.g. Asian countries today is stamped by a combination of urbanisation with high economic growth rates. Conventional centralised infrastructure of supply, treatment and disposal of water is not able to cope with the new challenges arising from these, in history incomparable, high growth rates. Therefore new approaches to infrastructure supply and treatment systems are required - for ecological, sociocultural and economic reasons. The semicentralised approach, focusing on integrated water supply and treatment structures for wastewater and waste on the neighbourhood level, offers one possible solution to the challenges imposed by rapid urbanisation and growing resource needs. The change from centralised to semicentralised supply and treatment systems will minimise the grave discrepancy between the rapid urban growth and the provision of supply and treatment infrastructure. Integrated semicentralised supply and treatment systems face the challenge of growing amounts of wastewater and solid waste combined with rising needs of water for private households and industrial use. The semicentralised approach offers a wide range of flexibility in implementation, energy self-sufficient operation, enormous saving potentials in water demands through intra-urban water reuse and further more advantages in comparison to centralised sectored solutions as practised today.

  3. Mycobacterium eburneum sp. nov., a non-chromogenic, fast-growing strain isolated from sputum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouioui, Imen; Carro, Lorena; Teramoto, Kanae; Igual, José M; Jando, Marlen; Del Carmen Montero-Calasanz, Maria; Sutcliffe, Iain; Sangal, Vartul; Goodfellow, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2017-09-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to establish the taxonomic position of a non-chromogenic, rapidly growing Mycobacterium strain that had been isolated from sputum. The strain, CECT 8775T, has chemotaxonomic and cultural properties consistent with its classification in the genus Mycobacterium and was distinguished from the type strains of closely related mycobacterial species, notably from Mycobacterium paraense DSM 46749T, its nearest phylogenetic neighbour, based on 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB gene sequence data. These organisms were also distinguished by a broad range of chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features and by a digital DNA-DNA relatedness value of 22.8 %. Consequently, the strain is considered to represent a novel species of Mycobacterium for which the name Mycobacterium eburneum sp. nov is proposed; the type strain is X82T (CECT 8775T=DSM 44358T).

  4. Potential uses of biomass from fast-growing crop miscanthus×giganteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babović Nada V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in perennial grasses as a renewable source of bioenergy and feedstock for second-generation cellulosic biofuels. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum and miscanthus (Miscanthus×giganteus, belonging to the parennial grasses group, are the major lignocellulosic materials being studied today as sources for direct energy production, biofuels, bioremediation and other. They have the ability to grow at low cost on marginal land where they will not compete with the traditional food crops. Miscanthus×giganteus possesses a number of advantages in comparison with the other potential energy crops such as are: high yields, low moisture content at harvest, high water and nitrogen use efficiencies, low need for annual agronomic inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides, high cellulose content, non-invasive character, low susceptibility to pests and diseases and broad adaptation to temperate growing environments. The main problems are low rate of survival during the first winter after the creation of plantation and the relatively high establishment costs. Miscanthus×giganteus is grown primarily for heat and electricity generation but can also be used to produce transport fuels. Miscanthus biomass has a very good combustion quality due to its low water concentration as well as its low Cl, K, N, S and ash concentrations compared to other lignocellulose plants. It is expected that miscanthus will provide cheaper and more sustainable source of cellulose for production of bioethanol than annual crops such as corn. Miscanthus has great promise as a renewable energy source, but it can only be realised when the grass production has been optimised for large-scale commercial cultivation. However, further research is still needed to optimise agronomy of miscanthus, to develop the production chain and pre-treatment as well as to optimise energy conversation route to produce heat, electricity, and/or fuels from biomass, if miscanthus is to

  5. Feeding sunflower oil to partially defaunate the rumen increases nitrogen retention, urea-nitrogen recycling to the gastrointestinal tract and the anabolic use of recycled urea-nitrogen in growing lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doranalli, Kiran; Mutsvangwa, Timothy

    2011-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to delineate how interactions between feeding sunflower oil (SFO) to partially defaunate the rumen and altering dietary ruminally fermentable carbohydrate may alter urea-N kinetics and N metabolism in lambs. In a 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, four Suffolk ram lambs (61·5 (se 4·0) kg) were used. Treatments were 0 ( - SFO) v. 6 % (+SFO) SFO and dry-rolled barley (DRB) v. pelleted barley (PB). N balance was measured over 4 d, with concurrent measurement of urea-N kinetics using continuous intra-jugular infusions of [(15)N(15)N]urea. Feeding SFO decreased (P = 0·001) ruminal protozoa and NH3-N concentrations. Urinary N excretion was lower (P = 0·003), and retained N was higher (P = 0·002) in +SFO lambs compared with - SFO lambs. Endogenous production of urea-N (urea-N entry rate; UER) was similar across treatments. Urea-N transfer to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) (GIT entry rate; GER), expressed as absolute amounts (16·4 v. 13·1 g/d) or as a proportion of the UER (0·693 v. 0·570), its anabolic use (9·0 v. 6·0 g/d) and microbial N supply (14·6 v. 10·9 g/d) were higher (P ≤ 0·001) in +SFO lambs compared with -SFO lambs. As a proportion of the UER, GER was higher, whereas urinary urea-N loss was lower, in lambs fed PB compared with those fed DRB (P = 0·01). In summary, feeding SFO increased urea-N recycling to the GIT and microbial non-NH(3)-N supply, thus providing new evidence that the improved efficiency of N utilization in partially defaunated ruminants could be partly mediated by an increase in urea-N recycling.

  6. Estimation of the yield of poplars in plantations of fast-growing species within current results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fajman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Current results are presented of allometric yield estimates of the poplar short rotation coppice. According to a literature review it is obvious that yield estimates, based on measurable quantities of a growing stand, depend not only on the selected tree specie or its clone, but also on the site location. The Jap-105 poplar clone (P. nigra x P. maximowiczii allometric relations were analyzed by regression methods aimed at the creation of the yield estimation methodology at a testing site in Domanínek. Altogether, the twelve polynomial dependences of particular measured quantities approved the high empirical data conformity with the tested regression model (correlation index from 0.9033 to 0.9967. Within the forward stepwise regression, factors were selected, which explain best examined estimates of the total biomass DM; i.e. d.b.h. and stem height. Furthermore, the KESTEMONT’s (1971 mo­del was verified with a satisfying conformity as well. Approving presented yield estimation methods, the presented models will be checked in a large-scale field trial.

  7. MOX manufacturing perspectives in a fast growing future and the MELOX plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekiarian, A.; Le Bastard, G.

    1991-01-01

    The potential MOX fuel market will grow regularly in the nineties. In view of satisfying the needs of the market, mixed-oxide fuel manufacturers have a strong incentive to increase the capacity of existing facilities and to build new ones. The Belgonucleaire plant at Dessel has been in operation since 1973. It has been backfitted up to a capacity of 35 t/y of LWR fuel which is now fully available. To satisfy the need of MOX fuel it was equally decided to adapt facilities in Cadarache where a production line, with a capacity of 15 t/y, is now delivering its production. But planned production up to the end of the century implies further increases in manufacturing capacities : MELOX, a plant for 120 t/y is under construction on the COGEMA site of Marcoule as well as a further expansion of Belgonucleaire plant at Dessel (P1) is studied to reach 70 t/y on this site. Similar developments are also planned by SIEMENS for a new manufacturing capability at Hanau (Germany). MELOX as well as all the new facilities have to get high levels of safety concerning environment and personnel. This leads to largely automated operations, and a particular care for waste treatment. (author)

  8. Environmental influences on age at first lambing and lambing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different environmental factors on age at first lambing and lambing interval of Yankasa sheep kept at the National Animal Production Research Institute, Shika, were studied. Least-squares means ( ± SE) for age at first lambing and lambing interval were respectively, 597.2 ±12.6 days and 253.1± 2.9 days.

  9. Fast growing aspens in the development of a plant micropropagation system based on plant-produced ethylene action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Žiauka, Jonas; Kuusienė, Sigutė; Šilininkas, Mindaugas

    2013-01-01

    Representatives of the genus Populus (poplars), such as Populus tremula L. (European aspen) and its fast-growing hybrids, are recognized as being among the most suitable tree species for short rotation coppicing in Northern Europe. Several technologies have been developed for fast propagation of selected aspen genotypes, including laboratory (in vitro) micropropagation, which is usually based on the action of exogenous plant hormones. Seeking to minimize the use of the latter, the present study was designed to test if the conditions suitable for increased accumulation of plant-produced gas, including the gaseous plant hormone ethylene, inside a culture vessel could contribute to commercially desirable changes in aspen development. Shoot cultures of several European and hybrid (Populus tremuloides Michx. × P. tremula) aspen genotypes were studied using two different types of culture vessels: tightly sealed Petri dishes (15 × 54 mm) designed to provide restricted gas exchange (RGE) conditions, and capped (but not sealed) test tubes (150 × 18 mm) providing control conditions. Under RGE conditions, not only the positive impact of the ethylene precursors 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC) and ethephon on shoot proliferation was demonstrated but also a several-fold increase, compared to the control conditions, in the mean shoot number per explant was recorded even on the hormone-free nutrient medium. Moreover, the shoots developed under RGE conditions were distinguished by superior rooting ability in the subsequent culture. These results suggest that a plant micropropagation system based on the action of plant-produced ethylene rather than of exogenous hormones is possible. -- Highlights: ► Aspen in vitro cultures were grown in different vessels. ► Small-volume vessels were used for restriction of gas exchange. ► Aspen explants produced most shoots in small-volume vessels. ► Shoot proliferation was increased due to explant response to ethylene.

  10. INITIAL SCREENING OF FAST-GROWING TREE SPECIES BEING TOLERANT OF DRY TROPICAL PEATLANDS IN CENTRAL KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Saito

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the recruit, survivorship and growth of naturally regenerating tree species on canal bank was conducted to  select tree species which are suitable for preceding planting in drained and burnt peat swamp lands in  Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.  Top of  the canal bank were open, with greater soil moisture  deficit and higher soil temperatures than on the next intact forest floor. The abundant  trees were asam-asam (Ploiarium alternifolium,garunggang (Cratoxylon arborescens and tumih (Combretocarpus rotundatus. New regeneration of these trees on the canal bank was confirmed during this investigation and mortality was very low. These results indicated that P. alternifolium,C. arborescens and C. rotundatuswere tolerant of intensive radiation, soil drought and high soil temperatures during germination. The annual height increments  were 189-232  cm y-1 (P. alternifolium,118-289  cm y-1  (C. arborescensand 27-255 cm y-1   (C. rotundatus; thus, these three species could be classified as fast-growing with tolerance to open and dry conditions.  Such characteristics were important to avoid competition with herbs, ferns,and/ or climbers. The results·suggest that P.alternifolium,C. arborescens and C. rotundatusare suitable for preceding planting for the rehabilitation of the disturbed peat swamp forests of Central Kalimantan.

  11. Evaluating Spatial Patterns of Land Use and urban Heat Island in The Fast Growing Metropolitan Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Ma, W.; Li, J.; Wang, X.

    2007-12-01

    Remotely sensed data (Landsat TM5) were used to quantitatively characterize the patterns of land use and urban heat island (UHI) in the fast growing Metropolitan Shanghai, China. Results showed that, with dramatic change in land use and land cover driven by substantial economic growth since the 1990s, rapid expansion of the urbanized and urbanizing areas occurred at regional level during 1997 and 2004. Similarly, both the extent and magnitude of UHI in Shanghai have undergone a significant increase, though some newly emerging cooling patches were detected in the central urban area. On small and meso scales, a significant spatial patterning was present in UHI as indicated by land surface temperature (LST). Moreover, based on the satellite images, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Normalized Difference Bareness Index (NDBaI), and Normalized Difference Build-up Index (NDBI) were produced to explore the relationship between land use and UHI effect. Although these indices were effective in characterizing the spatial and temporal patterns of UHI, there were some unexplainable factors due to the complexity in ecological process. As a whole, it can be predicted that the ongoing urban sprawl in the satellite towns will adversely cause a long term effect on regional atmospheric environment. Keywords Spatial pattern; Urban heat island (UHI); Land surface temperature (LST);urban sprawl ;Shanghai; China.

  12. Concentration of copper, iron, manganese and zinc in muscle, fat and bone tissue of lambs of the breed German Merino Landsheep in the course of the growing period and different feeding intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellof, G; Most, E; Pallauf, J

    2007-04-01

    A growth experiment with 108 lambs (breed German Merino Landsheep) was carried out in order to examine how gender, body weight and feeding intensity affect trace element concentrations in tissues and carcass. The lambs (50% male and 50% female) were fattened at three levels of feeding intensity ('low', 'medium' and 'high' by varying daily amounts of concentrate and hay) and slaughtered at different final body weights (30, 45 or 55 kg). Six male and six female animals were sacrificed at 18 kg live weight at the beginning of the comparative slaughter experiment. The left half carcass of each animal was divided into muscle tissue, fat tissue as well as bones and sinews and analysed for the trace elements copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) as well as zinc (Zn). The body weight level influenced the Zn concentrations significantly in all tissues. In addition, the Fe concentration in the fat tissue was influenced by the body weight as well as the Cu content in the bone tissue. An influence due to gender could be seen for the Zn concentration in the muscle and fat tissue and for the Fe content in the fat and bone tissue as well as for the Cu concentration in the bones. The feeding intensity affected the Cu content in the muscle and bone tissue and also the Zn content in the muscle tissue. In the present study with lambs at body weight range from 18 to 55 kg on an average, 127 mg Fe, 87 mg Zn, 1.5 mg Cu as well as 1.1 mg Mn per kilogram dry matter were found in the bone tissue. In lamb muscle tissue combined from all parts (body weight range from 18 to 45 kg, both genders) the highest concentrations were for Zn and Fe [3.42 and 1.31 mg/100 g meat (wet weight basis)], while Cu remained far below these levels (0.08 mg/100 g meat and Mn was even below the detection limit of 0.025 mg/kg). Lamb muscle is a valuable source for highly available haem-Fe as well as for Zn and Cu in human nutrition.

  13. Motivation and ability to walk for a food reward in fast- and slow-growing broilers to 12 weeks of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, E.A.M.; Koene, P.

    2004-01-01

    Poor physical abilities of broilers may prevent them from performing behaviours for which they are motivated. The aim of this study was to measure the influence of physical ability and motivation on the performance of broilers in short physical tasks. We tested birds from a fast- and a slow-growing

  14. Determining the effects of early gestation in utero heat stress on postnatal fasting heat production and circulating biomarkers associated with metabolism in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study objective was to determine the effects of in utero heat stress (IUHS) on postnatal fasting heat production (FHP) in growing pigs. Based on our previous observation of increased postnatal core body temperature ‘set-point’ in IUHS pigs, we hypothesized that FHP would be greater during postna...

  15. Conflict resolution in the zoning of eco-protected areas in fast-growing regions based on game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinyao; Li, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Zoning eco-protected areas is important for ecological conservation and environmental management. Rapid and continuous urban expansion, however, may exert negative effects on the performance of practical zoning designs. Various methods have been developed for protected area zoning, but most of them failed to consider the conflicts between urban development (for the benefit of land developers) and ecological protection (local government). Some real-world zoning schemes even have to be modified occasionally after the lengthy negotiations between the government and land developers. Therefore, our study has presented a game theory-based method to deal with this problem. Future urban expansion in the study area will be predicted by a logistic regression cellular automaton, while eco-protected areas will be delimitated using multi-objective optimization algorithm. Then, two types of conflicts between them can be resolved based on game theory, a theory of decision-making. We established a two-person dynamic game for each conflict zone. The ecological compensation mechanism was taken into account by simulating the negotiation processes between the government and land developers. A final zoning scheme can be obtained when the two sides reach agreements. The proposed method is applied to the eco-protected area zoning in Guangzhou, a fast-growing city in China. The experiments indicate that the conflicts between eco-protection and urban development will inevitably arise when using only traditional zoning methods. Based on game theory, our method can effectively resolve those conflicts, and can provide a relatively reasonable zoning scheme. This method is expected to support policy-making in environmental management and urban planning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Control of cellular proliferation by modulation of oxidative phosphorylation in human and rodent fast-growing tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Enriquez, Sara; Vital-Gonzalez, Paola A.; Flores-Rodriguez, Fanny L.; Marin-Hernandez, Alvaro; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena; Moreno-Sanchez, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between cell proliferation and the rates of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in HeLa (human) and AS-30D (rodent) tumor cells was evaluated. In glutamine plus glucose medium, both tumor lines grew optimally. Mitochondria were the predominant source of ATP in both cell types (66-75%), despite an active glycolysis. In glucose-free medium with glutamine, proliferation of both lines diminished by 30% but oxidative phosphorylation and the cytosolic ATP level increased by 50%. In glutamine-free medium with glucose, proliferation, oxidative phosphorylation and ATP concentration diminished drastically, although the cells were viable. Oligomycin, in medium with glutamine plus glucose, abolished growth of both tumor lines, indicating an essential role of mitochondrial ATP for tumor progression. The presumed mitochondrial inhibitors rhodamines 123 and 6G, and casiopeina II-gly, inhibited tumor cell proliferation and oxidative phosphorylation, but also glycolysis. In contrast, gossypol, iodoacetate and arsenite strongly blocked glycolysis; however, they did not affect tumor proliferation or mitochondrial metabolism. Growth of both tumor lines was highly sensitive to rhodamines and casiopeina II-gly, with IC 5 values for HeLa cells lower than 0.5 μM, whereas viability and proliferation of human lymphocytes were not affected by these drugs (IC 5 > 30 μM). Moreover, rhodamine 6G and casiopeina II-gly, at micromolar doses, prolonged the survival of animals bearing i.p. implanted AS-30D hepatoma. It is concluded that fast-growing tumor cells have a predominantly oxidative type of metabolism, which might be a potential therapeutic target

  17. Determinants of small and medium sized fast growing enterprises in central and eastern Europe: a panel data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Mateev

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the main determinants of growth in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs in central and eastern Europe. The important role played by SMEs in the economic development of central and eastern European (CEE countries has attracted the recent attention of academics and policymakers but remains relatively unexplored. Empirical research has suggested that firm growth is determined not only by the traditional characteristics of size and age but also by other firm-specific factors such as indebtedness, internal financing, future growth opportunities, process and product innovation, and organisational changes. Although growth in manufacturing and service SMEs in transition economies is well explained by the traditional firm characteristics of size and age, there is no empirical evidence concerning what other specific factors may be associated with SME growth and performance in these countries. Using a panel dataset of 560 fast growing small and medium enterprises from six transition economies we find that firm size when measured by firm total assets can explain to a large extent the growth in SMEs in these countries. When size is proxied by a firm’s number of employees the observed effect is marginal. Firm specific characteristics such as leverage, current liquidity, future growth opportunities, internally generated funds, and factor productivity are found to be important factors in determining a firm’s growth and performance. Age and ownership do not seem to be able to explain firm growth. The results of our empirical study have also some policy implications: we argue that governments in transition economies need to pay an increased attention to small and medium sized enterprises and try to create a business environment that will be beneficial for SME development.

  18. Combining GIS with fuzzy multicriteria decision-making for landfill siting in a fast-growing urban region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Parvathinathan, G; Breeden, Jeff B

    2008-04-01

    Landfill siting is a difficult, complex, tedious, and protracted process requiring evaluation of many different criteria. This paper presents a fuzzy multicriteria decision analysis alongside with a geospatial analysis for the selection of landfill sites. It employs a two-stage analysis synergistically to form a spatial decision support system (SDSS) for waste management in a fast-growing urban region, south Texas. The first-stage analysis makes use of the thematic maps in Geographical information system (GIS) in conjunction with environmental, biophysical, ecological, and socioeconomic variables leading to support the second-stage analysis using the fuzzy multicriteria decision-making (FMCDM) as a tool. It differs from the conventional methods of integrating GIS with MCDM for landfill selection because the approach follows two sequential steps rather than a full-integrated scheme. The case study was made for the city of Harlingen in south Texas, which is rapidly evolving into a large urban area due to its vantage position near the US-Mexico borderlands. The purpose of GIS was to perform an initial screening process to eliminate unsuitable land followed by utilization of FMCDM method to identify the most suitable site using the information provided by the regional experts with reference to five chosen criteria. Research findings show that the proposed SDSS may aid in recognizing the pros and cons of potential areas for the localization of landfill sites in any study region. Based on initial GIS screening and final FMCDM assessment, "site 1" was selected as the most suitable site for the new landfill in the suburban area of the City of Harlingen. Sensitivity analysis was performed using Monte Carlo simulation where the decision weights associated with all criteria were varied to investigate their relative impacts on the rank ordering of the potential sites in the second stage. Despite variations of the decision weights within a range of 20%, it shows that "site 1

  19. Above- and Belowground Development of a Fast-Growing Willow Planted in Acid-Generating Mine Technosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittonny-Larchevêque, M; Lortie, S

    2017-11-01

    Surface metal mining produces large volumes of waste rocks. If they contain sulfide minerals, these rocks can generate a flow of acidic water from the mining site, known as acid mine drainage (AMD), which increases trace metals availability for plant roots. Adequate root development is crucial to decreasing planting stress and improving phytoremediation with woody species. However, techniques to improve revegetation success rarely take into account root development. An experiment was conducted at a gold mine in Quebec, Canada, to evaluate the establishment ability over 3 yr of a fast-growing willow ( Sx64) planted in acid-generating waste rocks. The main objective was to study root development in the soil profile and trace element accumulation in leaves among substrates varying in thickness (0, 20, and 40 cm of soil) and composition (organic carbon [OC] and alkaline AMD treatment sludge). Trees directly planted in waste rocks survived well (69%) but had the lowest productivity (lowest growth in height and diameter, aerial biomass, total leaf area, and root-system size). By contrast, the treatment richer in OC showed the greatest aerial biomass and total leaf area the first year; the thicker treatment resulted in the greatest growth in height and diameter, aboveground biomass, and root-system size in both the first and third years. Willow root development was restricted to soil layers during the first year, but this restriction was overcome in the third year after planting. Willow accumulation factors in leaves were below one for all investigated trace metals except for zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and strontium. For Cd and Zn, concentrations increased with time in willow foliage, decreasing the potential of this willow species use for phytostabilization, despite its ability to rapidly develop extensive root systems in the mine Technosol. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Implications of soil heterogeneity on growth performance of fast-growing trees under marginal site conditions - an ecophysiological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veste, Maik; Halke, Christian; Schmitt, Dieter; Mantovani, Dario; Zimmermann, Reiner; Küppers, Manfred; Freese, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    The integration of fast-growing trees and hedgerows has been proposed in order to improve the environmental performance of agricultural systems and to provide woody biomass for bioenergy. Due to the current increase of bioenergy, strong interests are emerging to use marginal lands for short-rotation forestry. Especially in Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg, Germany) large areas of reclaimed post-mining sites are available for the cultivation of short-rotation coppies and agroforesty systems. The dumped overburden material has little or no recent soil organic matter, low nutrient content and low water holding capacity. Our study aim was to evaluate the effects of small-scale spatial and temporal variations of edaphic conditions on plant water relations, photosynthesis and biomass production of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) and poplar (Populus spp.) on marginal lands. Particularly, on dumped soils in the post-mining area, due to the adverse edaphic conditions, the stem growth was drastically reduced during summer drought below the critical pre-dawn water potential value of -0.5 MPa. But also on agricultural fields soil depth and soil water availability are the key factors determining the biomass production of poplar and black locust. A reduction of soil N availability as a result of low soil nitrogen content or drought induce nodulation and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in Robinia in order to sustain the required nitrogen amounts for plant growth. In our experiment the nodule biomass increased in combination with a decrease of the δ15N values of the leaves under extreme drought stress. Under field conditions the percentage of nitrogen derived from the atmosphere in black locust varies 63% - 83% and emphasized the importance of nitrogen fixations for tree growth on marginal lands. Our investigation under different edaphic conditions and soil water availabilities showed clearly the ecophysiological and morphological plasticity of the investigated tree species and

  1. APPLICATION OF SOMACLONAL VARIABILITY TO PRODUCTION OF FAST-GROWING TREES AS A RAW MATERIAL FOR BIOFUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voinikov V.K.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Wood is one of the most widespread materials on the Earth. Wood raw materials may be used either to generate energy directly or to produce biofuel. The demand for sufficient amount of wood for these purposes necessitated establishment of arboreal plantations. Poplar тополь (Populus sp. is the most promising object to produce wood from plantations. In the last few years the Institute has been involved in the studies of potential of somaclonal variability in tissue cultivars to select plants with high growth indices. Berlin polar (P. × berolinensis, has been selected for this purpose, as its pyramid-shaped crown allows to place more plants on a plantation square area unit. It easily propagates by grafts and coppice shoots and is fairly resistant to leaf rust. Fast-growing trees may be acquired due to somaclonal variability and genetic transformation. In both cases an indispensable preliminary condition is a well-tested protocol of acquiring regenerates and their propagation in the cultivar of isolated tissues. Such a protocol has been worked out by now. It comprises the following phases: 1 isolation of stem tops in the first half of summer ant their sterilization; 2 cutting of explantates and their cultivation on the medium to induce regeneration; 3 propagation of regenerates on propagation medium; 4 elongation of regenerants; 5 rooting of regenerants; 6 acclimation and transfer of plants to the field for growth. At phases 3, 4 and 5 plants with desirable somaclonal changes are selected. Somaclonal varieties are selected on the basis of a large number of regenerants. For their further growth prior to planting on the Institute test site hydroponic units installed at the artificial climate station are used. This ensures equal conditions of nutrition and moisturizing for all the regenerants planted. Little plants cultivated in vitro, which are acquired at this stage of the work, will be further used for genetic transformation. A gene

  2. Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis has long-term effects on muscle and liver metabolism in fast-growing chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Loyau

    Full Text Available Fast-growing chickens have a limited ability to tolerate high temperatures. Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis (TM has previously been shown to lower chicken body temperature (Tb at hatching and to improve thermotolerance until market age, possibly resulting from changes in metabolic regulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of TM (12 h/d, 39.5°C, 65% RH from d 7 to 16 of embryogenesis vs. 37.8°C, 56% RH continuously and of a subsequent heat challenge (32°C for 5 h at 34 d on the mRNA expression of metabolic genes and cell signaling in the Pectoralis major muscle and the liver. Gene expression was analyzed by RT-qPCR in 8 chickens per treatment, characterized by low Tb in the TM groups and high Tb in the control groups. Data were analyzed using the general linear model of SAS considering TM and heat challenge within TM as main effects. TM had significant long-term effects on thyroid hormone metabolism by decreasing the muscle mRNA expression of deiodinase DIO3. Under standard rearing conditions, the expression of several genes involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, such as transcription factor PGC-1α, was affected by TM in the muscle, whereas for other genes regulating mitochondrial function and muscle growth, TM seemed to mitigate the decrease induced by the heat challenge. TM increased DIO2 mRNA expression in the liver (only at 21°C and reduced the citrate synthase activity involved in the Krebs cycle. The phosphorylation level of p38 Mitogen-activated-protein kinase regulating the cell stress response was higher in the muscle of TM groups compared to controls. In conclusion, markers of energy utilization and growth were either changed by TM in the Pectoralis major muscle and the liver by thermal manipulation during incubation as a possible long-term adaptation limiting energy metabolism, or mitigated during heat challenge.

  3. N-fertilization has different effects on the growth, carbon and nitrogen physiology, and wood properties of slow- and fast-growing Populus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Li, Mengchun; Luo, Jie; Cao, Xu; Qu, Long; Gai, Ying; Jiang, Xiangning; Liu, Tongxian; Bai, Hua; Janz, Dennis; Polle, Andrea; Peng, Changhui; Luo, Zhi-Bin

    2012-10-01

    To investigate how N-fertilization affects the growth, carbon and nitrogen (N) physiology, and wood properties of poplars with contrasting growth characteristics, slow-growing (Populus popularis, Pp) and fast-growing (P. alba×P. glandulosa, Pg) poplar saplings were exposed to different N levels. Above-ground biomass, leaf area, photosynthetic rates (A), instantaneous photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE (i)), chlorophyll and foliar sugar concentrations were higher in Pg than in Pp. Foliar nitrate reductase (NR) activities and root glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities were higher in Pg than in Pp as were the N amount and NUE of new shoots. Lignin contents and calorific values of Pg wood were less than that of Pp wood. N-fertilization reduced root biomass of Pg more than of Pp, but increased leaf biomass, leaf area, A, and PNUE(i) of Pg more than of Pp. Among 13 genes involved in the transport of ammonium or nitrate or in N assimilation, transcripts showed more pronounced changes to N-fertilization in Pg than in Pp. Increases in NR activities and N contents due to N-fertilization were larger in Pg than in Pp. In both species, N-fertilization resulted in lower calorific values as well as shorter and wider vessel elements/fibres. These results suggest that growth, carbon and N physiology, and wood properties are more sensitive to increasing N availability in fast-growing poplars than in slow-growing ones, which is probably due to prioritized resource allocation to the leaves and accelerated N physiological processes in fast-growing poplars under higher N levels.

  4. ATP synthase from slow and fast growing mycobacteria is active in ATP synthesis and blocked in ATP hydrolysis direction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, A.C.; Driessen, N.N.; Hahn, M.M.; Lill, H.; Bald, D.

    2010-01-01

    ATP synthase is a validated drug target for the treatment of tuberculosis, and ATP synthase inhibitors are promising candidate drugs for the treatment of infections caused by other slow-growing mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium ulcerans. ATP synthase is an essential enzyme

  5. ATP synthase in slow- and fast-growing mycobacteria is active in ATP synthesis and blocked in ATP hydrolysis direction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, A.C.; Driessen, N.N.; Hahn, M.M.; Lill, H.; Bald, D.

    2010-01-01

    ATP synthase is a validated drug target for the treatment of tuberculosis, and ATP synthase inhibitors are promising candidate drugs for the treatment of infections caused by other slow-growing mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium ulcerans. ATP synthase is an essential enzyme

  6. FAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections...... with aqueous food extracts may be effective but has proven to be accompanied by too many anaphylactic side-effects. FAST aims to develop a safe alternative by replacing food extracts with hypoallergenic recombinant major allergens as the active ingredients of SIT. Both severe fish and peach allergy are caused...... in depth serological and cellular immune analyses will be performed, allowing identification of novel biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy. FAST aims at improving the quality of life of food allergic patients by providing a safe and effective treatment that will significantly lower their threshold...

  7. Growing Lots of Food Very Fast Can Hurt our Water for a Long Time, Longer Than You Might Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.

    2016-12-01

    More people arrive here every day, and we keep trying to grow enough food for them to eat. We try to grow more and more by adding things that can hurt our water and our air. We try to keep track of these things that we add, but we don't understand where it all goes. We don't understand how much is in the ground. We don't understand how much is in the water under the ground. We don't understand how long the water will be bad, even after we stop adding things to help grow more food. Many people have tried to stop adding these things, or to stop these things from getting to the water, and they get sad when they have worked hard to do better but the water stays bad. In our work, we try to help people understand how to make the water better, even when they have to grow a lot of food. We have looked at the ground all around where people grow a lot of food, and have found that some of the bad things stay behind in the ground. This means that even when we work hard to make our water good, the things left in the ground might make our water stay bad for a long time. We tried to find out how long it would take to make our water good if we are working our hardest to be better. It will take longer than you might think, maybe three times as many years as you have fingers.

  8. Effect of Age and Sex on Histomorphometrical Characteristics of Two Muscles of Laticauda Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Velotto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present experiment was to determine the effect of sex and age on histochemical and morphometric characteristics of muscle fibres (myocytes in lambs born by single, twin, triplet and quadruplet birth. Thirty lambs were slaughtered at 60 days of age; thirty were weaned at 60 days and fed until 120 days with flakes (60% and food supplements, and then slaughtered. Muscle tissues were obtained from two muscles, namely m. semitendinosus and m. longissimus dorsi of all lambs. For each fibre type, area perimeter and diameter (maximum and minimum were measured and slow-twitch oxidative fibres, fast-twitch glycolytic fibres, fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic fibres were histochemically differentiated. The muscles were stained for myosin ATPase, and succinic dehydrogenase. At 60 days, females had fibres larger than males, whereas the opposite was observed at 120 days. Besides, at 60 days, the lambs born by single birth had fibres larger than those born by multiple birth, whereas the opposite was observed at 120 days. Single lambs were heavier than twin lambs and multiple lambs. Fast-twitch glycolytic fibres had the largest size, followed by slow-twitch oxidative and fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic fibres. The dimensions of fibre types in m. longissimus dorsi were larger than in m. semitendinosus (P < 0.001.These muscle fibre characteristics are thought to be important factors influencing meat quality, which is often related to metabolic and contractile properties as determined by the muscle fibre type distribution.

  9. Metabolic responses to moderate exercise in lambs with aortopulmonary shunts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaufort-Krol, GCM; Takens, J; Zijlstra, WG; Molenkamp, MC; Gerding, AM; Kuipers, JRG

    In a previous study we found, after an overnight fast of 18 hours, a lower arterial glucose concentration and a depressed glycogenolysis in lambs with aortopulmonary left-to-right shunts. During exercise, glucose and free fatty acids (FFA) concentrations normally increase. The aim of this study was

  10. Irradiation of chilled lamb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1985-04-01

    Chilled, vacuum-packed New Zealand lamb loins have been irradiated at doses between 1-8 kGy. The report outlines the methods used and provides dosimetry details. An appendix summarises the results of a taste trial conducted on the irradiated meat by the Meat Industry Research Institute of New Zealand. This showed that, even at 1 kGy, detectable flavours were induced by the radiation treatment

  11. ATP synthase in slow- and fast-growing mycobacteria is active in ATP synthesis and blocked in ATP hydrolysis direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagsma, Anna C; Driessen, Nicole N; Hahn, Marc-Manuel; Lill, Holger; Bald, Dirk

    2010-12-01

    ATP synthase is a validated drug target for the treatment of tuberculosis, and ATP synthase inhibitors are promising candidate drugs for the treatment of infections caused by other slow-growing mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium ulcerans. ATP synthase is an essential enzyme in the energy metabolism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis; however, no biochemical data are available to characterize the role of ATP synthase in slow-growing mycobacterial strains. Here, we show that inverted membrane vesicles from the slow-growing model strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG are active in ATP synthesis, but ATP synthase displays no detectable ATP hydrolysis activity and does not set up a proton-motive force (PMF) using ATP as a substrate. Treatment with methanol as well as PMF activation unmasked the ATP hydrolysis activity, indicating that the intrinsic subunit ɛ and inhibitory ADP are responsible for the suppression of hydrolytic activity. These results suggest that the enzyme is needed for the synthesis of ATP, not for the maintenance of the PMF. For the development of new antimycobacterial drugs acting on ATP synthase, screening for ATP synthesis inhibitors, but not for ATP hydrolysis blockers, can be regarded as a promising strategy. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Motivation and ability to walk for a food reward in fast- and slow-growing broilers to 12 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokkers, Eddie A M; Koene, Paul

    2004-09-30

    Poor physical abilities of broilers may prevent them from performing behaviours for which they are motivated. The aim of this study was to measure the influence of physical ability and motivation on the performance of broilers in short physical tasks. We tested birds from a fast- and a slow-growing broiler strain in a runway to 12 weeks of age. To manipulate motivation, half of the birds of each strain was feed deprived for 3h and the other half for 24h before testing. Each bird was tested in a control and a slalom runway test once a week. With a similar motivation, slow growers had a shorter latency to start walking and walked faster through the runway than fast growers in both tests. In fast growers walking speed decreased faster with age than in slow growers. Slow growers vocalised more in both tests. In the slalom test, 24h deprived birds vocalised more than 3h deprived birds. Although the fast and slow growers have a different genetic background, the results indicated that motivation is the dominant determinative factor for walking in birds with a low body weight, while physical ability is the dominant determinative factor for walking in birds with a high body weight.

  13. Performance of autumn lambing ewes and lambs on irrigated and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Performance of autumn lambing ewes and lambs on irrigated and dryland winter pastures. A. D. Lyle1, J. F. de Villiers2 and T. J. Dugmore2. 1Kokstad Research Station, Private Bag X501, Kokstad 4700. 2KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs. P Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg, 3200. Introduction.

  14. FAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathavitharana, R R; Daru, P; Barrera, A E; Mostofa Kamal, S M; Islam, S; Ul-Alam, M; Sultana, R; Rahman, M; Hossain, Md S; Lederer, P; Hurwitz, S; Chakraborty, K; Kak, N; Tierney, D B; Nardell, E

    2017-09-01

    National Institute of Diseases of the Chest and Hospital, Dhaka; Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, Dhaka; and Chittagong Chest Disease Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh. To present operational data and discuss the challenges of implementing FAST (Find cases Actively, Separate safely and Treat effectively) as a tuberculosis (TB) transmission control strategy. FAST was implemented sequentially at three hospitals. Using Xpert® MTB/RIF, 733/6028 (12.2%, 95%CI 11.4-13.0) patients were diagnosed with unsuspected TB. Patients with a history of TB who were admitted with other lung diseases had more than twice the odds of being diagnosed with unsuspected TB as those with no history of TB (OR 2.6, 95%CI 2.2-3.0, P stakeholder engagement and laboratory capacity are important for sustainability and scalability.

  15. Fast-Growing Energy Crops Grown In Conditions Of Slovakia In The Context Of The EU Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jureková Zuzana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The energy-efficient low-carbon EU economy (known as the 20-20-20 sets fundamental objectives in reducing greenhouse gas emissions (20%, increasing the share of renewable energy sources (20% and saving primary energy consumption (20%. The objectives are incorporated in the National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs. Slovakia has to increase the share of renewable energy sources (RES by 14% in its energy mix by 2020. Currently, the most widely used RES are water and solar energy, biomass and biogas. Our country has suitable ecological conditions for growing the so called energy crops in lowland and upland areas. So far, however, there is a lack of science-based information on the potential production of biomass in different soil-ecological and climatic conditions of the Slovak Republic. Our experimental research is focused on quantification of biomass production of various willow (genus Salix, poplar (genus Populus and silvergrass (Miscanthus sinensis varieties grown in ecological conditions of southern Slovakia. We evaluated the biomass production of the studied crops. The results were evaluated in terms of the EU call (2013: to obtain more energy while reducing inputs and negative environmental impacts.

  16. Evaluation of efficient glucose release using sodium hydroxide and phosphoric acid as pretreating agents from the biomass of Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers.: A fast growing tree legume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mund, Nitesh K; Dash, Debabrata; Barik, Chitta R; Goud, Vaibhav V; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Mishra, Prasannajit; Nayak, Nihar R

    2017-07-01

    Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers. is one of the fast growing tree legumes having the efficiency to produce around 50tha -1 above ground dry matters in a year. In this study, biomass of 2years old S. grandiflora was selected for the chemical composition, pretreatments and enzymatic hydrolysis studies. The stem biomass with a wood density of 3.89±0.01gmcm -3 contains about 38% cellulose, 12% hemicellulose and 28% lignin. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated biomass revealed that phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) pretreated samples even at lower cellulase loadings [1 Filter Paper Units (FPU)], could efficiently convert about 86% glucose, while, even at higher cellulase loadings (60FPU) alkali pretreated biomass could convert only about 58% glucose. The effectiveness of phosphoric acid pretreatment was also supported by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New Insights on Wood Dimensional Stability Influenced by Secondary Metabolites: The Case of a Fast-Growing Tropical Species Bagassa guianensis Aubl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bossu

    Full Text Available Challenging evaluation of tropical forest biodiversity requires the reporting of taxonomic diversity but also the systematic characterization of wood properties in order to discover new promising species for timber industry. Among wood properties, the dimensional stability is regarded as a major technological characteristic to validate whether a wood species is adapted to commercial uses. Cell structure and organization are known to influence the drying shrinkage making wood density and microfibrils angle markers of choice to predict wood dimensional stability. On the contrary the role of wood extractive content remains unclear. This work focuses on the fast-growing tropical species Bagassa guianensis and we report herein a correlation between heartwood drying shrinkage and extractive content. Chemical extractions and shrinkage experiments were performed on separate wood twin samples to better evaluate correctly how secondary metabolites influence the wood shrinkage behaviour. Extractive content were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed using HPLC and NMR spectroscopy. We found that B guianensis heartwood has a homogeneous low shrinkage along its radius that could not be explained only by its basic density. In fact the low drying shrinkage is correlated to the high extractive content and a corrected model to improve the prediction of wood dimensional stability is presented. Additionally NMR experiments conducted on sapwood and heartwood extracts demonstrate that secondary metabolites biosynthesis occurs in sapwood thus revealing B. guianensis as a Juglans-Type heartwood formation. This work demonstrates that B. guianensis, a fast-growing species associated with high durability and high dimensional stability, is a good candidate for lumber production and commercial purposes.

  18. Effects of ambient temperature and early open-field response on the behaviour, feed intake and growth of fast- and slow-growing broiler strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2012-01-01

    in an open-field test on day 3 after hatching, fast-growing Ross 208 and slow-growing i657 chickens were allocated on day 13 to one of the 48 groups. Each group included either six active or six passive birds from each strain and the groups were housed in floor-pens littered with wood chips and fitted......Increased activity improves broiler leg health, but also increases the heat production of the bird. This experiment investigated the effects of early open-field activity and ambient temperature on the growth and feed intake of two strains of broiler chickens. On the basis of the level of activity...... and weighing more, and with a less efficient feed conversion than HH chickens, with HC birds intermediate. A similar effect was found for Ross 208 only for feed intake from 27 to 41 days of age. Ross 208 chickens distributed themselves in the pen with a preference for cooler areas in the hottest ambient...

  19. Plant diversity and energy potency of community forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Searching for fast growing wood species for energy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUDIANTO AMIRTA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Amirta R, Yuliansyah, Angi EM, Ananto BR, Setiyono B, Haqiqi MT, Septiana HA, Lodong M, Oktavianto RN. 2016. Plant diversity and energy potency of community forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Searching for fast growing wood species for energy production. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 22-30. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in intensifying the production and use of biomass to replace fossil fuels for the production of heat and electricity, especially for a remote area that generally abundance with the wood biomass resources including in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. In this work, diversity of plant species that commonly growth in community forest area of East Kutai District, East Kalimantan, Indonesia had been studied to point out their energy potency to be used as biomass feedstock for the electricity generated. Diversity of plant species in the community forest was evaluated by making 13 sampling plots with 20mx20m size approximately. Concurently, the energy properties of plant biomass such as proximate and ultimate compositions were also analyzed using ASTM methods. Results showed that more than 30 species of tropical trees and wood shrubs were grown in the community forest. The presence of them was classified into two different growth of origins: natural and artificial plantation, and also three different categories of plant resources: tree species from logged over forest, commercial fast growing plant tree species for the fiber production and woody shrubs. The highest dominancy and productivity was found in Paraserianthes falcataria (L. Nielsen since the wood biomass was artificially planted for the commercial purposes. Among the 31 plant species analyzed we found the highest energy potency was obtained from Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour. Blume that produced 3.17 MWh/ton, and the lowest was from Trema orientalis (L. Blume 0.97 MWh/ton. The woody shrubs species such as Vernonia amigdalina Delile., Piper aduncum L., Gliricidia

  20. Combined effect of pulse density and grid cell size on predicting and mapping aboveground carbon in fast-growing Eucalyptus forest plantation using airborne LiDAR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Alberto; Hudak, Andrew Thomas; Klauberg, Carine; Vierling, Lee Alexandre; Gonzalez-Benecke, Carlos; de Padua Chaves Carvalho, Samuel; Rodriguez, Luiz Carlos Estraviz; Cardil, Adrián

    2017-12-01

    LiDAR remote sensing is a rapidly evolving technology for quantifying a variety of forest attributes, including aboveground carbon (AGC). Pulse density influences the acquisition cost of LiDAR, and grid cell size influences AGC prediction using plot-based methods; however, little work has evaluated the effects of LiDAR pulse density and cell size for predicting and mapping AGC in fast-growing Eucalyptus forest plantations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LiDAR pulse density and grid cell size on AGC prediction accuracy at plot and stand-levels using airborne LiDAR and field data. We used the Random Forest (RF) machine learning algorithm to model AGC using LiDAR-derived metrics from LiDAR collections of 5 and 10 pulses m -2 (RF5 and RF10) and grid cell sizes of 5, 10, 15 and 20 m. The results show that LiDAR pulse density of 5 pulses m -2 provides metrics with similar prediction accuracy for AGC as when using a dataset with 10 pulses m -2 in these fast-growing plantations. Relative root mean square errors (RMSEs) for the RF5 and RF10 were 6.14 and 6.01%, respectively. Equivalence tests showed that the predicted AGC from the training and validation models were equivalent to the observed AGC measurements. The grid cell sizes for mapping ranging from 5 to 20 also did not significantly affect the prediction accuracy of AGC at stand level in this system. LiDAR measurements can be used to predict and map AGC across variable-age Eucalyptus plantations with adequate levels of precision and accuracy using 5 pulses m -2 and a grid cell size of 5 m. The promising results for AGC modeling in this study will allow for greater confidence in comparing AGC estimates with varying LiDAR sampling densities for Eucalyptus plantations and assist in decision making towards more cost effective and efficient forest inventory.

  1. A rapid, fully non-contact, hybrid system for generating Lamb wave dispersion curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, M S; Yuan, F G

    2015-08-01

    A rapid, fully non-contact, hybrid system which encompasses an air-coupled transducer (ACT) and a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) is presented for profiling A0 Lamb wave dispersion of an isotropic aluminum plate. The ACT generates ultrasonic pressure incident upon the surface of the plate. The pressure waves are partially refracted into the plate. The LDV is employed to measure the out-of-plane velocity of the excited Lamb wave mode at some distances where the Lamb waves are formed in the plate. The influence of the ACT angle of incidence on Lamb wave excitation is investigated and Snell's law is used to directly compute Lamb wave dispersion curves including phase and group velocity dispersion curves in aluminum plates from incident angles found to generate optimal A0 Lamb wave mode. The measured curves are compared to results obtained from a two-dimensional (2-D) Fast Fourier transform (FFT), Morlet wavelet transform (MWT) and theoretical predictions. It was concluded that the experimental results obtained using Snell's law concept are well in accordance with the theoretical solutions. The high degree of accuracy in the measured data with the theoretical results proved a high sensitivity of the air-coupled and laser ultrasound in characterizing Lamb wave dispersion in plate-like structures. The proposed non-contact hybrid system can effectively characterize the dispersive relation without knowledge of neither the materials characteristics nor the mathematical model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ecological Impact on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling of a Widespread Fast-growing Leguminous Tropical Forest Plantation Tree Species, Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Ishizuka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the major pathways of N input to forest ecosystems, enriching N availability, particularly in lowland tropics. Recently there is growing concern regarding the wide areas of fast-growing leguminous plantations that could alter global N2O emissions. Here, we highlight substantially different N and phosphorus utilization and cycling at a plantation of Acacia mangium, which is N2-fixing and one of the major plantation species in tropical/subtropical Asia. The litterfall, fresh leaf quality and fine-root ingrowth of A. mangium were compared to those of non-N2-fixing Swietenia macrophylla and coniferous Araucaria cunninghamii in wet tropical climates in Borneo, Malaysia. The N and P concentrations of the A. mangium fresh leaves were higher than those of the other two species, whereas the P concentration in the leaf-litterfall of A. mangium was less than half that of the others; in contrast the N concentration was higher. The N:P ratio in the A. mangium leaf was markedly increased from fresh-leaf (29 to leaf-litterfall (81. Although the N flux in the total litterfall at the A. mangium plantation was large, the fine-root ingrowth of A. mangium significantly increased by applying both N and P. In conclusion, large quantities of N were accumulated and returned to the forest floor in A. mangium plantation, while its P resorption capacity was efficient. Such large N cycling and restricted P cycling in wide areas of monoculture A. mangium plantations may alter N and P cycling and their balance in the organic layer and soil on a stand level.

  3. Assessing the Significance of Above- and Belowground Carbon Allocation of Fast- and Slow-Growing Families of Loblolly Pine - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topa, M. A.; Weinstein, D. A.; Retzlaff, W. A.

    2001-03-01

    During this project we experimentally evaluated the below-ground biomass and carbon allocation and partitioning of four different fast- and slow-growing families of loblolly pine located in Scotland County, NC, in an effort to increase the long-term performance of the crop. The trees were subjected to optimal nutrition and control since planting in 1993. Destructive harvests in 1998 and 2000 were used for whole?plant biomass estimates and to identify possible family differences in carbon acquisition (photosynthesis) and water use efficiency. At regular intervals throughout each year we sampled tissues for carbohydrate analyses to assess differences in whole-tree carbon storage. Mini rhizotron observation tubes were installed to monitor root system production and turnover. Stable isotope analysis was used to examine possible functional differences in water and nutrient acquisition of root systems between the various families. A genetic dissection of root ontogenic and architectural traits, including biomass partitioning, was conducted using molecular markers to better understand the functional implications of these traits on resource acquisition and whole-plant carbon allocation.

  4. Supplementary feeding of lambs grazing Italian ryegrass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DeVilliersJ

    Villiers et al., 1993). Table 1 Number of ewes and lambs used, supplement consumed by lambs, average daily gain (ADG), weaning weight of lambs and pasture height of Italian ryegrass during two seasons. Treatments. Control (no creep feed) Forward creep. Amount supplemented (g/day). 100. 250. Ad lib. Season 1:.

  5. Study of Lamb Waves for Non-Destructive Testing Behind Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, P.; Ploix, M.-A.; Chaix, J.-F.; Gueudré, C.; Corneloup, G.; Baqué, F. AF(; )

    2018-01-01

    The inspection and control of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) is a major issue for the nuclear industry. Ultrasonic solutions are under study because of the opacity of liquid sodium. In this paper, the use of leaky Lamb waves is considered for non-destructive testing (NDT) on parallel and immersed structures assimilated as plates. The first phase of our approach involved studying the propagation properties of leaky Lamb waves. Equations that model the propagation of Lamb waves in an immersed plate were solved numerically. The phase velocity can be experimentally measured using a two dimensional Fourier transform. The group velocity can be experimentally measured using a short-time Fourier transform technique. Attenuation of leaky Lamb waves is mostly due to the re-emission of energy into the surrounding fluid, and it can be measured by these two techniques.

  6. Late gestation over- and undernutrition predispose for visceral adiposity in response to a post-natal obesogenic diet, but with differential impacts on glucose-insulin adaptations during fasting in lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanal, Prabhat; Husted, Sanne Vinter; Axel, Anne Marie Dixen

    2014-01-01

    in higher ratios of mesenteric and peri-renal fat relative to subcutaneous fat compared to controls. This was not related to prenatal influences on plasma glucose or insulin. Irrespective of the prenatal diet, high-fat-fed lambs underwent changes resembling the metabolic syndrome with higher plasma glucose......, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids, triglyceride and lactate combined with abdominal obesity. Peri-renal fat appeared to be a particular target of a high-fat diet post-natally. Conclusion: Both prenatal under- and overnutrition predisposed for abdominal adiposity, apparently by reducing the expandability......Aim: To investigate if late gestation under- or overnutrition has similar adverse impacts on visceral adiposity, metabolic and endocrine function in sheep, and if subsequent exposure to a high-fat diet in early post-natal life exaggerates the prenatal programming outcomes later in life. Methods...

  7. Early neonatal lamb mortality: postmortem findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmøy, I H; Waage, S; Granquist, E G; L'Abée-Lund, T M; Ersdal, C; Hektoen, L; Sørby, R

    2017-02-01

    An investigation of stillbirth and early neonatal lamb mortality was conducted in sheep flocks in Norway. Knowledge of actual causes of death are important to aid the interpretation of results obtained during studies assessing the risk factors for lamb mortality, and when tailoring preventive measures at the flock, ewe and individual lamb level. This paper reports on the postmortem findings in 270 liveborn lambs that died during the first 5 days after birth. The lambs were from 17 flocks in six counties. A total of 27% died within 3 h after birth, 41% within 24 h and 80% within 2 days. Most lambs (62%) were from triplet or higher order litters. In 81% of twin and larger litters, only one lamb died. The most frequently identified cause of neonatal death was infectious disease (n=97, 36%); 48% (n=47) of these died from septicaemia, 25% (n=24) from pneumonia, 22% (n=21) from gastrointestinal infections and 5% (n=5) from other infections. Escherichia coli accounted for 65% of the septicaemic cases, and were the most common causal agent obtained from all cases of infection (41%). In total, 14% of neonatal deaths resulted from infection by this bacterium. Traumatic lesions were the primary cause of death in 20% (n=53) of the lambs. A total of 46% of these died within 3 h after birth and 66% within 24 h. Severe congenital malformations were found in 10% (n=27) of the lambs, whereas starvation with no concurrent lesions was the cause of death in 6% (n=17). In 16% (n=43) of the lambs, no specific cause of death was identified, lambs from triplet and higher order litters being overrepresented among these cases. In this study, the main causes of neonatal lamb mortality were infection and traumatic lesions. Most neonatal deaths occurred shortly after birth, suggesting that events related to lambing and the immediate post-lambing period are critical for lamb survival.

  8. Comparative study of electromechanical impedance and Lamb wave techniques for fatigue crack detection and monitoring in metallic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Say Ian; Liu, Yu; Soh, Chee Kiong

    2012-04-01

    Fatigue cracks often initiate at the weld toes of welded steel connections. Usually, these cracks cannot be identified by the naked eyes. Existing identification methods like dye-penetration test and alternating current potential drop (ACPD) may be useful for detecting fatigue cracks at the weld toes. To apply these non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, the potential sites have to be accessible during inspection. Therefore, there is a need to explore other detection and monitoring techniques for fatigue cracks especially when their locations are inaccessible or cost of access is uneconomical. Electro-mechanical Impedance (EMI) and Lamb wave techniques are two fast growing techniques in the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) community. These techniques use piezoelectric ceramics (PZT) for actuation and sensing. Since the monitoring site is only needed to be accessed once for the instrumentation of the transducers, remote monitoring is made possible. The permanent locations of these transducers also translate to having consistent measurement for monitoring. The main focus of this study is to conduct a comparative investigation on the effectiveness and efficiency of the EMI technique and the Lamb wave technique for successful fatigue crack identification and monitoring of welded steel connections using piezoelectric transducers. A laboratory-sized non-load carrying fillet weld specimen is used in this study. The specimen is subjected to cyclic tensile load and data for both techniques are acquired at stipulated intervals. It can be concluded that the EMI technique is sensitive to the crack initiation phase while the Lamb wave technique correlates well with the crack propagation phase.

  9. Growth, haematological and biochemical responses of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth, haematological and biochemical responses of growing lambs injected. A.N.M Nour El-Din, S.Z El-Zarkouny, S.Z El-Zarkouny, H Ghobashy, H Ghobashy, E.I Abdel-Gawad, E.I Abdel-Gawad, D.J Kesler, D.J Kesler ...

  10. Land use dynamics of the fast-growing Shanghai Metropolis, China (1979-2008) and its implications for land use and urban planning policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Li-Guo; Chen, Ming-Nan; Ma, Wei-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Through the integrated approach of remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques, four Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery acquired during 1979 and 2008 were used to quantitatively characterize the patterns of land use and land cover change (LULC) and urban sprawl in the fast-growing Shanghai Metropolis, China. Results showed that, the urban/built-up area grew on average by 4,242.06 ha yr(-1). Bare land grew by 1,594.66 ha yr(-1) on average. In contrast, cropland decreased by 3,286.26 ha yr(-1) on average, followed by forest and shrub, water, and tidal land, which decreased by 1,331.33 ha yr(-1), 903.43 ha yr(-1), and 315.72 ha yr(-1) on average, respectively. As a result, during 1979 and 2008 approximately 83.83% of the newly urban/built-up land was converted from cropland (67.35%), forest and shrub (9.12%), water (4.80%), and tidal land (2.19%). Another significant change was the continuous increase in regular residents, which played a very important role in contributing to local population growth and increase in urban/built-up land. This can be explained with this city's huge demand for investment and qualified labor since the latest industrial transformation. Moreover, with a decrease in cropland, the proportion of population engaged in farming decreased 13.84%. Therefore, significant socio-economic transformation occurred, and this would lead to new demand for land resources. However, due to very scarce land resources and overload of population in Shanghai, the drive to achieve economic goals at the loss of cropland, water, and the other lands is not sustainable. Future urban planning policy aiming at ensuring a win-win balance between sustainable land use and economic growth is urgently needed.

  11. Land Use Dynamics of the Fast-Growing Shanghai Metropolis, China (1979–2008) and its Implications for Land Use and Urban Planning Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Li-Guo; Chen, Ming-Nan; Ma, Wei-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Through the integrated approach of remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques, four Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery acquired during 1979 and 2008 were used to quantitatively characterize the patterns of land use and land cover change (LULC) and urban sprawl in the fast-growing Shanghai Metropolis, China. Results showed that, the urban/built-up area grew on average by 4,242.06 ha yr−1. Bare land grew by 1,594.66 ha yr−1 on average. In contrast, cropland decreased by 3,286.26 ha yr−1 on average, followed by forest and shrub, water, and tidal land, which decreased by 1,331.33 ha yr−1, 903.43 ha yr−1, and 315.72 ha yr−1 on average, respectively. As a result, during 1979 and 2008 approximately 83.83% of the newly urban/built-up land was converted from cropland (67.35%), forest and shrub (9.12%), water (4.80%), and tidal land (2.19%). Another significant change was the continuous increase in regular residents, which played a very important role in contributing to local population growth and increase in urban/built-up land. This can be explained with this city’s huge demand for investment and qualified labor since the latest industrial transformation. Moreover, with a decrease in cropland, the proportion of population engaged in farming decreased 13.84%. Therefore, significant socio-economic transformation occurred, and this would lead to new demand for land resources. However, due to very scarce land resources and overload of population in Shanghai, the drive to achieve economic goals at the loss of cropland, water, and the other lands is not sustainable. Future urban planning policy aiming at ensuring a win-win balance between sustainable land use and economic growth is urgently needed. PMID:22319382

  12. Land Use Dynamics of the Fast-Growing Shanghai Metropolis, China (1979–2008 and its Implications for Land Use and Urban Planning Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chun Ma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the integrated approach of remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS techniques, four Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery acquired during 1979 and 2008 were used to quantitatively characterize the patterns of land use and land cover change (LULC and urban sprawl in the fast-growing Shanghai Metropolis, China. Results showed that, the urban/built-up area grew on average by 4,242.06 ha yr−1. Bare land grew by 1,594.66 ha yr−1 on average. In contrast, cropland decreased by 3,286.26 ha yr−1 on average, followed by forest and shrub, water, and tidal land, which decreased by 1,331.33 ha yr−1, 903.43 ha yr−1, and 315.72 ha yr−1 on average, respectively. As a result, during 1979 and 2008 approximately 83.83% of the newly urban/built-up land was converted from cropland (67.35%, forest and shrub (9.12%, water (4.80%, and tidal land (2.19%. Another significant change was the continuous increase in regular residents, which played a very important role in contributing to local population growth and increase in urban/built-up land. This can be explained with this city’s huge demand for investment and qualified labor since the latest industrial transformation. Moreover, with a decrease in cropland, the proportion of population engaged in farming decreased 13.84%. Therefore, significant socio-economic transformation occurred, and this would lead to new demand for land resources. However, due to very scarce land resources and overload of population in Shanghai, the drive to achieve economic goals at the loss of cropland, water, and the other lands is not sustainable. Future urban planning policy aiming at ensuring a win-win balance between sustainable land use and economic growth is urgently needed.

  13. Characterization of lipid productivity and fatty acid profile of three fast-growing microalgae isolated from Bengkulu for possible use in health application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swastika Praharyawan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Three strains of fast-growing microalgae were investigated in this study for their potential of lipid production and its possible use in health application. Lipid content, lipid productivity, and fatty acids profile of the 3 mi-croalgae strains were also analyzed. The strain of LBB13-2-AL045 and LBB13-2-AL048 possessed highest lipid content (49.08 ± 0.25% and lipid productivity (40.27 ± 1.91 mg.L-1.day-1, respectively, among the other tested strains. The fatty acids profile from the 3 strains exhibited its possible use in health application. The two strains of LBB13-2-AL046 and LBB13-2-AL048 possessed high valuable fatty acids of polyunsaturated fatty ac-ids (PUFA omega-3 and omega-6, whereas LBB13-2- AL045 possessed balance ratio of saturated fatty acid (SFA : monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA : PUFA (1 : 1.3 : 1 as is recommended by American Heart As-sociation (AHA (1 : 1.4 : 0.8. The high content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids indicated that the algal lipids of two strains (LBB13-2-AL046 and LBB13-2-AL048 were potential to be applied in cardiovascular health. The balance ratio of SFA : MUFA: PUFA as is recommended by AHA indicated that the algal oil of LBB13-2-AL045 strain was recommended in order to generate the best LDL/HDL ratio.

  14. Determination of maternal pedigree and ewe-lamb spatial relationships by application of Bluetooth technology in extensive farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohi, R; Trompf, J; Marriott, H; Bervan, A; Godoy, B I; Weerasinghe, M; Desai, A; Jois, M

    2017-11-01

    its mother. The maternal BT signals expressed as a portion of total BT signals decreased with increasing distance from the lamb. The results show that BT wireless networking is a fast and reliable method for the determination of maternal pedigree of lambs in extensive farming systems. In addition, wireless BT technology is also useful in determining mother-offspring spatial relationships.

  15. Haematological and Biochemical Indices of Growing Lambs Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment lasted for 84 days. Blood samples were collected prior to and after the feeding trial for haematological and blood urea nitrogen determination. Initial packed cell volume and final red blood cell counts were not significantly different between treatments (P>0.05). Initial haemoglobin concentration (HB) was

  16. Haematological and Biochemical Indices of Growing Lambs Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    In: Fundamentals of Chemical. Chemistry. Third Edition; Tietz, N.W.. (Ed), WB Sannders Company. Philadelphia USA, p328-329, 1987. Henry, R. J. and Stobel, C. (1957). Determination of serum proteins by the burette reaction. Analytical Chemistry;. 92:1491. Jain, N. C. (1993). Physiology of blood with some comments on ...

  17. Different dietary energy intake affects skeletal muscle development through an Akt-dependent pathway in Dorper × Small Thin-Tailed crossbred ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J X; Liu, X D; Li, K; Liu, W Z; Ren, Y S; Zhang, J X

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the mechanisms through which different levels of dietary energy affect postnatal skeletal muscle development in ewe lambs. Twelve Dorper × Small Thin-Tailed crossbred ewe lambs (100 d of age; 20 ± 0.5 kg BW) were selected randomly and divided into 2 groups in a completely randomized design. Animals were offered identical diets at 100% or 65% of ad libitum intake. Lambs were euthanized when BW in the ad libitum group reached 35 kg and the semitendinosus muscle was sampled. Final BW and skeletal muscle weight were decreased (P 0.05). Feed restriction altered phosphor-Akt protein abundance (P ewe lambs (P ewe lambs were underfed. In summary, feed restriction in young growing ewe lambs attenuates skeletal muscle hypertrophy by inhibiting protein synthesis and increasing protein degradation, which may act through the Akt-dependent pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Methanol and isoprene emissions from the fast growing tropical pioneer species Vismia guianensis (Aubl. Pers. (Hypericaceae in the central Amazon forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Jardine

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Isoprene (Is emissions by plants represent a loss of carbon and energy resources leading to the initial hypothesis that fast growing pioneer species in secondary tropical forests allocate carbon primarily to growth at the expense of isoprenoid defenses. In this study, we quantified leaf isoprene and methanol emissions from the abundant pantropical pioneer tree species Vismia guianensis and ambient isoprene concentrations above a diverse secondary forest in the central Amazon. As photosynthetically active radiation (PAR was varied (0 to 3000 µmol m−2 s−1 under standard leaf temperature (30 °C, isoprene emissions from V. guianensis increased without saturation up to 80 nmol m−2 s−1. A nonlinear increase in isoprene emissions with respect to net photosynthesis (Pn resulted in the fraction of Pn dedicated to isoprene emissions increasing with light intensity (up to 2 % of Pn. Emission responses to temperature under standard light conditions (PAR of 1000 µmol m−2 s−1 resulted in the classic uncoupling of isoprene emissions (Topt, iso > 40 °C from net photosynthesis (Topt, Pn = 30.0–32.5 °C with up to 7 % of Pn emitted as isoprene at 40 °C. Under standard environmental conditions of PAR and leaf temperature, young V. guianensis leaves showed high methanol emissions, low Pn, and low isoprene emissions. In contrast, mature leaves showed high Pn, high isoprene emissions, and low methanol emissions, highlighting the differential control of leaf phenology over methanol and isoprene emissions. High daytime ambient isoprene concentrations (11 ppbv were observed above a secondary Amazon rainforest, suggesting that isoprene emissions are common among neotropical pioneer species. The results are not consistent with the initial hypothesis and support a functional role of methanol during leaf expansion and the establishment of photosynthetic machinery and a protective role of isoprene for

  19. Selection for superior growth advances the onset of puberty and increases reproductive performance in ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Nieto, C A; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Martin, G B; Thompson, A N

    2013-06-01

    The reproductive efficiency of the entire sheep flock could be improved if ewe lambs go through puberty early and produce their first lamb at 1 year of age. The onset of puberty is linked to the attainment of critical body mass, and therefore we tested whether it would be influenced by genetic selection for growth rate or for rate of accumulation of muscle or fat. We studied 136 Merino ewe lambs with phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT) and Australian Sheep Breeding Values at post-weaning age (200 days) for live weight (PWT), eye muscle depth (PEMD) and fat depth (PFAT). First oestrus was detected with testosterone-treated wethers and then entire rams as the ewes progressed from 6 to 10 months of age. Blood concentrations of leptin and IGF-I were measured to test whether they were related to production traits and reproductive performance (puberty, fertility and reproductive rate). In total, 97% of the lambs reached first oestrus at average weight 39.4 ± 0.4 kg (mean ± s.e.m.) and age 219 days (range 163 to 301). Age at first oestrus decreased with increases in values for PWT (P ewe lambs that achieved puberty was positively related with increases in values for EMD (P ewe lambs were pregnant at average weight 44.7 ± 0.5 kg and age 263 days (range 219 to 307). Ewe lambs that were heavier at the start of mating were more fertile (P ewe lambs. The metabolic hormones, IGF-I and leptin, might act as a physiological link between the growing tissues and the reproductive axis.

  20. How old are Germanic lambs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrieland, Seán D.

    2017-01-01

    Gothic and Gutnish lamb with the meaning ‘sheep’ sets these two languages apart from the rest of Germanic, and is the most common piece of evidence used to claim they share a close connection. Yet the same meaning is found in the descendants of Proto-Fennic *lambaz, a loan from Proto-Germanic, an......Gothic and Gutnish lamb with the meaning ‘sheep’ sets these two languages apart from the rest of Germanic, and is the most common piece of evidence used to claim they share a close connection. Yet the same meaning is found in the descendants of Proto-Fennic *lambaz, a loan from Proto......-Germanic, and speaks for Gothic and Gutnish preserving the original Proto-Germanic meaning of the etymon. These semantics provide a missing link for connecting Pro-to-Germanic *lambiz- with PIE *h₁él-n-/*h₁l-ón- ‘red deer’....

  1. fteated bagacillo diets for lambs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hemicellulose digest., 070. 35,2b. 14,1c. 66,8d. 50,8c. 65,7d. 55,Oc. aMeans based on three animals/treatment. b.c.dMeansin the same line bearing different superscript letters differ significantly (P < 0,05). Table 3 Nitrogen balance and Cr203 recovery in lambs fed NaOH-treated and untreated bagacillo/molasses diets.

  2. Techniques for capturing bighorn sheep lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua B.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Goldstein, Elise J.; Parsons, Zachary D.; Karsch, Rebekah C.; Stiver, Julie R.; Cain, James W.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Low lamb recruitment is a major challenge facing managers attempting to mitigate the decline of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and investigations into the underlying mechanisms are limited because of the inability to readily capture and monitor bighorn sheep lambs. We evaluated 4 capture techniques for bighorn sheep lambs: 1) hand-capture of lambs from radiocollared adult females fitted with vaginal implant transmitters (VITs), 2) hand-capture of lambs of intensively monitored radiocollared adult females, 3) helicopter net-gunning, and 4) hand-capture of lambs from helicopters. During 2010–2012, we successfully captured 90% of lambs from females that retained VITs to ≤1 day of parturition, although we noted differences in capture rates between an area of high road density in the Black Hills (92–100%) of South Dakota, USA, and less accessible areas of New Mexico (71%), USA. Retention of VITs was 78% with pre-partum expulsion the main cause of failure. We were less likely to capture lambs from females that expelled VITs ≥1 day of parturition (range = 80–83%) or females that were collared without VITs (range = 60–78%). We used helicopter net-gunning at several sites in 1999, 2001–2002, and 2011, and it proved a useful technique; however, at one site, attempts to capture lambs led to lamb predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). We attempted helicopter hand-captures at one site in 1999, and they also were successful in certain circumstances and avoided risk of physical trauma from net-gunning; however, application was limited. In areas of low accessibility or if personnel lack the ability to monitor females and/or VITs for extended periods, helicopter capture may provide a viable option for lamb capture.

  3. Exposure of lambs to atmospheric ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, J.G.; Curtis, S.E.; Lewis, J.M.; Hinds, F.C.; Simon, J.

    1976-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of chronic exposure to atmospheric ammonia at a concentration of 75 ppm on weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion by lambs. Lambs were weighed and then randomly allotted to four dynamic air-pollutant exposure chambers. Initial weights (mean +/- SE) of lambs were 22.1 +/- .46 kg and 27.5 +/- 1.54 kg for trials 1 and 2, respectively (n=12 in both trials). Lambs in two chambers (controls) were maintained in an atmosphere of filtered room air. Lambs in the other two chambers (NH/sub 3/ -exposed) were exposed to an atmosphere of filtered air plus atmospheric ammonia at a concentration of 75 ppm. Exposure period was 28 days in both trials. Feed and water were available at all times. Lamb weight gain and feed disappearance were determined weekly. Upon termination of each trial, one lamb was randomly selected from each chamber, sacrificed, and gross and histopathologic structural changes noted. Weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion data for the two trials were combined for statistical analysis. Control lambs gained on the average .09 kg/day (.28 vs .19) more (P<.01) and consumed on the average .68 kg of feed (4.53 vs 5.21) less per kilogram of weight gain (P<.10) than did NH/sub 3/-exposed lambs. Ammonia-exposed lambs in both trials showed profuse lacrimation, severe coughing and sneezing, and profuse nasal discharge, which was bloody in some instances. Gross and histopathologic findings appeared to be qualitatively similar between treatments, but more pronounced in NH/sub 3/-exposed lambs.

  4. Programming of intermediate metabolism in young lambs affected by late gestational maternal undernourishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Sanne; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff

    2007-01-01

    Effects of moderate maternal undernourishment during late gestation on the intermediary metabolism and maturational changes in young lambs were investigated. 20 twin-bearing sheep, bred to two different rams, were randomly allocated the last 6 wk of gestation to either a NORM diet [barley, protein...... wk) programming effects of late prenatal malnutrition on the glucose-insulin homeostasis and metabolism were manifested: LOW lambs had less insulin-secretory capacity, but this was apparently compensated for by increased target tissue sensitivity for insulin, and adipose lipolytic capacity increased...... during fasting. Thereby, glucose may be spared throguh increased lipid oxidationn, but overall energetic efficiency is apparently deteriorated rather than improved....

  5. Bacterial overgrowth can be detected by breath hydrogen measurement before clinical manifestations in suckling lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Jávor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen breath test is a non-invasive and inexpensive method for estimation of small bowel transit time, detection of excess bacteria in the small intestine and demonstration of maldigestion or malabsorption. Until now, little has been known about breath hydrogen excretion in lambs. The aim of our study was to assess the patterns of breath hydrogen excretion in lambs before and after feeding ewe’s milk, and to evaluate pathological and/or physiological alterations in the lambs’ gastrointestinal function. We assumed that intestinal disorders may influence the breath hydrogen concentrations, which could be detected early in the subclinical stage. A total of 52 healthy black-headed Dorper lambs were included in the study. Breath hydrogen was measured after overnight fasting and at 30, 60 and 90 min after the start of feeding. There was a 2-week follow-up period after the measurements to assess the gastrointestinal health of lambs. During the follow-up period, clinical signs of diarrhoea developed in 6 lambs. Based on our results in healthy lambs, the median concentration of baseline breath hydrogen was 1.00 parts per million (minimum: 0.00, maximum: 2.00. We observed a significant elevation in breath hydrogen concentrations 60 min after feeding (P = 0.004, whereas the values detected 30 min after feeding were similar to the baseline values. Regarding the lambs in which clinical signs of diarrhoea developed, we revealed significantly higher baseline breath hydrogen concentrations compared to those which remained healthy (P < 0.001. Our observations underline that hydrogen breath test may be a useful tool for indicating potential bacterial overgrowth before any clinical signs of diarrhoea.

  6. Serum testosterone level and affecting factors in Syrian Awassi ram lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Results showed that testosterone exists in the blood of ram lams as early as the first month of age with no significant difference between single and twin births. This level, however, increased gradually with advancing age of ram lambs, indicating that the gonads (testes) of these growing lambs were active in secreting testosterone hormone after birth, but the rate of secretion differed with age of the lambs. A sharp increase in testosterone level was recorded at age of 8 months in twin births (5.32 ± 20.99 nmol/l) and in single births (7.26 ± 3.29 nmol/l). Throughout the study period, mean testosterone serum level was 3.29 ± 2.73 and 2.54 ± 2.15 nmol/l for single and twin births, respectively, as compared with an overall mean of 3.00 ± 2.49 nmol/l. However, the monthly difference in testosterone level between single and twin births was not significant (P>0.05) throughout the study period (10 months). Results also indicated an increase in live weight of lambs with advancing age, and live weight in single births was higher, but not significantly, than in twin births throughout the study period. Results of the study showed a sharp increase in the mean live weight of single births at age of 8 months (48.5 ± 10.8 kg) as compared with an overall live weight of the lambs (35.8 ± 15.2 and 32.7 ± 15.4 kg for single and twin births, respectively). A positive and significant correlation (r= 0.95, P>0.0001) was found between serum testosterone level and lamb live weight during the first 10 months of their age. Finally and for the first time, normal serum testosterone levels in Syrian Awassi ram lambs were determined during early stages. It was concluded, based on both, testosterone level and lamb live weight, that puberty in Awassi ram lambs could be reached at 8 months of age with a mean live weight of around 47 kg. Type of birth, lamb birth weight or weaning weight had no significant effect on testosterone level. (author)

  7. Bacteriologic and Histopathologic Studies in Pneumonic Lambs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mortality in lambs is known to be caused by pneumonia and other bacterial agents. Lamb pneumonia is an infectious disease of young lambs caused primarily by the bacterial organism Pasterella haemolytica. Lung samples recovered from dead lambs were tested bacteriologically and histopathologically to determine the ...

  8. Enhanced insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in young lambs with placental insufficiency-induced intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Leticia E; Chen, Xiaochuan; Hay, William W; Limesand, Sean W

    2017-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with persistent metabolic complications, but information is limited for IUGR infants. We determined glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and insulin sensitivity in young lambs with placental insufficiency-induced IUGR. Lambs with hyperthermia-induced IUGR ( n = 7) were compared with control lambs ( n = 8). GSIS was measured at 8 ± 1 days of age, and at 15 ± 1 days, body weight-specific glucose utilization rates were measured with radiolabeled d-glucose during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEC). IUGR lambs weighed 23% less ( P insulin concentrations were not different between IUGR and controls for either study. First-phase insulin secretion was enhanced 2.3-fold in IUGR lambs compared with controls. However, second-phase insulin concentrations, glucose-potentiated arginine-stimulated insulin secretion, and β-cell mass were not different, indicating that IUGR β-cells have an intrinsic enhancement in acute GSIS. Compared with controls, IUGR lambs had higher body weight-specific glucose utilization rates and greater insulin sensitivity at fasting (1.6-fold) and hyperinsulinemic periods (2.4-fold). Improved insulin sensitivity for glucose utilization was not due to differences in skeletal muscle insulin receptor and glucose transporters 1 and 4 concentrations. Plasma lactate concentrations during HEC were elevated in IUGR lambs compared with controls, but no differences were found for glycogen content or citrate synthase activity in liver and muscle. Greater insulin sensitivity for glucose utilization and enhanced acute GSIS in young lambs are predicted from fetal studies but may promote conditions that exaggerate glucose disposal and lead to episodes of hypoglycemia in IUGR infants. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Mammary fibroadenoma in a lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvenc, Tolga; Yarim, Murat; Kabak, Yonca B.; Sozgen, Yuksel

    2007-01-01

    A fibroadenoma was diagnosed in the left udder of a 3-month-old female Chios lamb. No recurrence was observed after surgery. Grossly, the tumor had a whitish-gray lobular appearance, and the lobules were interlaced with thin septa. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of proliferating fibroepithelial tissue, including differentiated ducts lined by whorls and interlacing bundles of abundant loose fibrovascular stroma. Immunohistochemistry revealed the ductal epithelium to be positive for pancytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and loose fibrovascular stroma was positive for vimentin and basal cells covering the ductal epithelium of alpha-smooth-muscle actin. Immunostaining for the estrogen and progesterone receptors was negative. A diagnosis of mammary fibroadenoma was made based on the histological and immunohistochemical findings. PMID:17993758

  10. Effect Of Dried Olive Oil By-Product Supplementation To Ration On The Performance Of Local Ewes And Their Lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of dried olive oil by-products (0, 15 and 30% replacement) on the performance of lactating local ewes and their lambs are the main object of this study. Biochemical, physiological and toxicological aspects, and the safety environmental clearance and fed supplementation of olive oil by-products in ewes feeding are also studied. Moreover, the economic value of olive oil by-products replacement in addition may participate partially in ruminant feeding in Egypt. In the present study, twenty four local dairy ewes at the end of pregnancy (1 weeks before parturition) were used in the 3 experimental diets with 0, 15 and 30% olive oil by-products supplementation and prolonged after weaning and during suckling period (8 weeks after lambing). The 1st lactating lambs of ewes was supplemented with 15% olive oil by-products, the 2nd lactating lambs of ewes supplemented with 30% olive oil by-products and the 3rd lactating lambs of ewes served as control. The results showed that the performance of both ewes and their lambs during the experimental period was improved. It can be concluded that olive oil by-products can partially replace sugar beet pulp in diets of growing and lactating ruminants

  11. Effect of diet supplementation with the addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae upon stress response in slaughter lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Sowińska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included 2 groups of lambs (GL: control (C and experimental (E which since day 11 of life was receiving an addition of dried Saccharomyces cerevisiae preparation. At the age of 100 days, 12 lambs from each group were weaned from mothers for 12-h pre-slaughter fasting, and transported to a slaughter house. Blood was sampled for analyses: before weaning from mothers (BST 1, before and after transport (BST 2 and 3. Blood samples were assayed for: values of neutrophils and lymphocytes, N:L (neutrophils to lymphocytes ratio, cortisol and glucose. After 24-h chilling of lamb carcasses, musculus longissimus dorsi was subjected to measurements of final acidity (pH24 and colour (CIE Lab, and muscle samples were collected for evaluation of water absorption and shear force. The GL and BST had a significant effect on the N:L ratio. No significant differences were found in the cortisol concentration between groups of lambs. This indicator was significantly different in the analyzed blood sampling time (P < 0.01. In the entire period of pre-slaughter handling, in group C cortisol concentration increased × 8.5, whereas in group E it increased × 4.3 compared to the baseline value. In both groups, the study showed an increase (P < 0.01 in glucose concentration in BST 3 compared to BST 1 and BST 2. Meat of lambs from group E was characterized by lower (P < 0.05 values of pH24, WHC, SF, and indicator a*. The obtained results suggest the advisability of applying a preparation of dried brewer’s yeast in rearing slaughter lambs in order to strengthen their immunity and to alleviate effects of pre-slaughter stress.

  12. Late-born intermittently fasted juvenile garden dormice use torpor to grow and fatten prior to hibernation: consequences for ageing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, Sylvain; Zahn, Sandrine; Criscuolo, François; Chery, Isabelle; Blanc, Stéphane; Turbill, Christopher; Ruf, Thomas

    2014-12-22

    Torpor is thought to slow age-related processes and to sustain growth and fattening of young individuals. Energy allocation into these processes represents a challenge for juveniles, especially for those born late in the season. We tested the hypothesis that late-born juvenile garden dormice (Eliomys quercinus) fed ad libitum ('AL', n = 9) or intermittently fasted ('IF', n = 9) use short torpor bouts to enhance growth and fat accumulation to survive winter. IF juveniles displayed more frequent and longer torpor bouts, compared with AL individuals before hibernation. Torpor frequency correlated negatively with energy expenditure and water turnover. Hence, IF juveniles gained mass at the same rate, reached similar pre-hibernation fattening and displayed identical hibernating patterns and mass losses as AL animals. We found no group differences in relative telomere length (RTL), an indicator of ageing, during the period of highest summer mass gain, despite greater torpor use by IF juveniles. Percentage change in RTL was negatively associated with mean and total euthermic durations among all individuals during hibernation. We conclude that torpor use promotes fattening in late-born juvenile dormice prior to hibernation. Furthermore, we provided the first evidence for a functional link between time spent in euthermy and ageing processes over winter. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. GroundJuniperus pinchotiiand urea in supplements fed to Rambouillet ewe lambs: I. Feedlot growth traits, blood serum parameters, and fecal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, T R

    2017-08-01

    Ground woody products and urea are low-cost roughage and N sources. Rambouillet ewe lambs ( = 48, 6 lambs/treatment; initial BW = 42 kg ± 3.8) were used to evaluate effects of using ground (juniper) and urea in supplements on feedlot lamb growth traits, blood serum parameters, and fecal characteristics. In a randomized complete block design (40 d), lambs were individually fed an ad libitum basal sorghum-Sudangrass hay diet, which was fed separate from 1 of 8 supplemental diets (6 lambs/diet; 533 g of supplement/d, as-fed basis). Treatment structure was a 4 × 2 factorial: 4 concentrations of ground juniper (JN: 15%, 30%, 45%, or 60% of DM) and 2 concentrations of urea (UR: 1 or 3% of DM). Lamb growth traits were evaluated on d 0, 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, and 40; blood serum was evaluated on d 6 to 8, 20 to 22, and 34 (at h 3 and 6), and feces was evaluated on d 35. Compared to lambs fed all of the other treatments, lambs fed JN60UR1 or JN60UR3 had reduced supplement DMI (negative quadratic, = 0.007). Hay and total DMI were variable across day (JN × UR × day, 0.10). A JN × day interaction was detected ( 0.17) ADG and G:F. Lamb G:F fluctuated across day (JN × day, = 0.007), but the JN × day quadratic trend ( 0.34). Results indicated that daily supplement DMI was restricted only by using JN60. However, a 60% JN-based supplement will not make an effective rangeland supplement for growing ewe lambs, and using 3% UR should not be considered, especially since daily UR intake was not restricted enough to be considered safe.

  14. 7 CFR 59.303 - Mandatory reporting of lamb carcasses and boxed lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with § 59.10(b): (1) The price for each lot of each lamb carcass transaction, quoted in dollars... price for each lot of each boxed lamb cut sale, quoted in dollars per hundredweight on a F.O.B. plant... recent version of the Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications (IMPS), when applicable; (v) USDA yield...

  15. Phenotypic and molecular fingerprinting of fast growing rhizobia of field-grown pigeonpea from the eastern edge of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, F M; Schiavo, J A; Brasil, M S; Leite, J; Xavier, G R; Fernandes, P I

    2014-01-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of rhizobial isolates obtained from root nodules of pigeonpea plants grown at the eastern edge of the Brazilian Pantanal. The bacterial isolates were isolated from root nodules from field-growing pigeonpea grown in two rural settlements of the Aquidauana municipality. The bacterial isolates were characterized phenotypically by means of cultural characterization, intrinsic antibiotic resistance (IAR), salt and high incubation temperature tolerance, and amylolytic and cellulolytic activities. The molecular characterization of the bacterial isolates was carried out using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and Box-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. In addition, the symbiotic performance of selected rhizobial isolates was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment using sterile substrate. The phenotypic characterization revealed that the bacterial strains obtained from pigeonpea root nodules presented characteristics that are uncommon among rhizobial isolates, indicating the presence of new species nodulating the pigeonpea plants in the Brazilian Pantanal. The molecular fingerprinting of these bacterial isolates also showed a highly diverse collection, with both techniques revealing less than 25% similarity among bacterial isolates. The evaluation of symbiotic performance also indicated the presence of microorganisms with high potential to increase the growth and nitrogen content at the shoots of pigeonpea plants. The results obtained in this study indicate the presence of a highly diversified rhizobial community nodulating the pigeonpea at the eastern edge of the Brazilian Pantanal.

  16. Three-year study of fast-growing trees in degraded soils amended with composts: Effects on soil fertility and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejón, Paula; Alaejos, Joaquin; García-Álbala, José; Fernández, Manuel; Madejón, Engracia

    2016-03-15

    Currently, worries about the effects of intensive plantations on long-term nutrient supply and a loss of productivity have risen. In this study two composts were added to degraded soils where this type of intensive crops were growing, to avoid the soil fertility decrease and try to increase biomass production. For the experiment, two degraded soils in terms of low organic carbon content and low pH were selected in South-West Spain: La Rábida (RA) and Villablanca (VI) sites. Both study sites were divided into 24 plots. In RA, half of the plots were planted with Populus x canadensis "I-214"; the other half was planted with Eucalyptus globulus. At the VI site, half of the plots were planted with Paulownia fortunei, and the other plots were planted with Eucalyptus globulus. For each tree and site, three treatments were established (two organic composts and a control without compost), with four replications per treatment. The organic amendments were "alperujo" compost, AC, a solid by-product from the extraction of olive oil, and BC, biosolid compost. During the three years of experimentation, samples of soils and plants were analyzed for studying chemical and biochemical properties of soil, plant growth and plant nutritional status and biomass production. The composts increased total organic carbon, water-soluble carbon, nutrients and pH of soil only in the most acidic soil. Soil biochemical quality was calculated with the geometric mean of the enzymatic activities (Dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, Phosphatase and Urease activities) determined in soils. The results showed a beneficial improvement in comparison with soils without compost. However, the best results were found in the growth and biomass production of the studied trees, especially in Eucalyptus. Nutritional levels of leaves of the trees were, in general, in the normal established range for each species, although no clear effect of the composts was observed. The results of this study justify the addition of

  17. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yang

    Full Text Available Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU9'(G9, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU12' (G12, E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis 'GLUC3' (G3 and E. urophylla 'GLU4'(G4, were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM, the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones.

  18. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Tan, Ling; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yihui; Cheng, Fei; Ye, Shaoming; Jiang, Weixin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU9'(G9), E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU12' (G12), E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis 'GLUC3' (G3) and E. urophylla 'GLU4'(G4), were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM) in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM), the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones.

  19. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Tan, Ling; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yihui; Cheng, Fei; Ye, Shaoming; Jiang, Weixin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla ‘GLGU9’(G9), E. grandis × E. urophylla ‘GLGU12’ (G12), E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis ‘GLUC3’ (G3) and E. urophylla ‘GLU4’(G4), were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM) in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM), the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones. PMID

  20. Attenuation Analysis of Lamb Waves Using the Chirplet Transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerber, Florian; Sprenger, Helge; Niethammer, Marc; Luangvilai, Kritsakorn; Jacobs, Laurence J.

    2010-01-01

    Guided Lamb waves are commonly used in nondestructive evaluation to monitor plate-like structures or to characterize properties of composite or layered materials. However, the dispersive propagation and multimode excitability of Lamb waves complicate their analysis. Advanced signal processing

  1. Effect of selenium supplementation on performance, cost economics, and biochemical profile of Nellore ram lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, K; Reddy, Y Ramana; Kumari, N Nalini; Reddy, P Baswa; Raghunandan, T; Sridhar, K

    2015-09-01

    performance in growing Nellore ram lambs had no effect on lamb performance, cost economics, carcass characteristics, and serum biochemical profile.

  2. Ingestive behavior of lambs confined in individual and group stalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, A Eustáquio; Carvalho, G G P; Pires, A J V; Silva, R R; Santos, P E F; Murta, R M; Pereira, F M

    2014-02-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the ingestive behavior of lambs confined in individual and group stalls. We used thirty-four lambs in their growing phase, aged an average of three months, with mean initial live weight of 17.8±5.2 kg. They were allotted in a completely randomized design with 24 animals kept in individual stalls and 10 animals confined as a group. The experiment lasted for a total of 74 days, and the first 14 days were dedicated to the animals' adaption to the management, facilities and diets. The data collection period lasted 60 days, divided into three 20-d periods for the behavior evaluation. The animals were subjected to five days of visual observation during the experiment period, by the quantification of 24 h a day, with evaluations on the 15th day of each period and an interim evaluation consisting of two consecutive days on the 30th and 31st day of the experiment. The animals confined as a group consumed less (pbehavior.

  3. Energy requirements of Dorper crossbred ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, K D; Jiang, C G; Tu, Y; Zhang, N F; Liu, J; Ma, T; Zhao, Y G; Xu, G S; Diao, Q Y

    2014-05-01

    The ME and NE requirements of Dorper crossbred ewe lambs grown from 35 to 50 kg BW were assessed in a comparative slaughter trial. Thirty-five ewe lambs (33.5 ± 0.6 kg BW) of F1 crosses of purebred Dorper and thin-tailed Han sheep were used: 7 lambs were slaughtered at the start of the trial to provide baseline measures of body composition and 7 lambs were fed ad libitum and slaughtered when they reached 43 kg BW to provide intermediate measures of body composition. The remaining 21 lambs were divided into 3 groups of 7 lambs each and fed a pelleted mixed diet (concentrate:roughage = 44:56, DM basis) for ad libitum intake or 65 or 45% of ad libitum intake. All 3 groups were slaughtered when the ad libitum group reached 50 kg BW. Total body energy, N, fat, ash, and moisture content were measured. In a separate trial, 15 ewe lambs (39.5 ± 0.7 kg BW) of F1 crosses of purebred Dorper and thin-tailed Han sheep were housed in metabolism cages to evaluate the ME value of the diet at each of the 3 levels of feed intake. In vivo methane production was measured by open-circuit respirometry along with the collection of all feces and urine. The daily NEm requirement of the ewe lambs was 280 kJ/kg metabolic BW (BW(0.75)) or 292 kJ/kg metabolic shrunk BW (SBW(0.75)), whereas the daily ME requirement for maintenance was 418 kJ/kg BW(0.75) or 437 kJ/kg SBW(0.75), with a partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance of 0.67. The NEg requirement ranged from 1.37 to 3.94 MJ/d for ADG from 100 to 250 g BW, and the partial efficiency of ME utilization for gain was 0.44. The NE and ME requirements of Dorper × thin-tailed Han crossbred ewe lambs were lower than the recommendations of the United States' nutritional system.

  4. The effects of free choice protein supplementation on growth of lambs and meat goat kids grazing warm season grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazing provides most nutrients for growth in ruminants, however; there are times when nutritional needs of the animal exceed the nutritional quality of forages. Forages common to pastures in the South and Midwest may be insufficient in crude protein to meet the demands of growing lambs and meat goa...

  5. Lambing and neonatal behaviour of Djallonke x Sahel crossbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observations were made oflhe behaviour of 52 ewes during lambing. The parameters recorded were duration and distance of isolation of dam from the main flock, grooming and rejection of lambs by their dams. The effects of age and parity of dam and birth weight and sex of lamb on these behavioural characteristics were ...

  6. Major causes of lamb mortality at Ebinat woreda, Amhara National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A year-round (from September 2008 to August 2009) study was conducted to investigate causes of lamb mortality at Ebinat woreda, Amhara National Regional State, northwestern Ethiopia. Two hundred and forty one lambs under the age of six months were exploited for analysis of this study. Out of the 241 lambs observed, ...

  7. Acephalous lamb from an in vitro-produced sheep embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Shirazi, Abolfazl; Ahmadi, Ebrahim; Jadidi, Majid; Shams-Esfandabadi, Naser; Heidari, Banafsheh

    2009-01-01

    This is the first report of an acephalous lamb from the transfer of an in vitro-produced sheep embryo. Twelve in vitro-fertilized embryos were transferred to 4 recipient ewes (3 embryos/ewe). Two ewes remained pregnant: one delivered a normal female lamb, the other a male acephalous lamb. Possible contributing factors are discussed.

  8. Neuroaxonal dystrophy in Australian Merino lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessell, A E; Finnie, J W; Blumbergs, P C; Manavis, J; Jerrett, I V

    2012-07-01

    Neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD) is a morphological abnormality in man and animals that is characterized by the occurrence of numerous axonal swellings (spheroids) in the nervous system. NAD has been described in Suffolk lambs in the USA, Merino lambs in Australia and several breeds of sheep in New Zealand. This paper describes the clinicopathological changes of only the second occurrence of NAD reported in Merino lambs. There were some features (myelin loss, gliosis and visual impairment) in these Australian cases that have not been reported previously in ovine NAD. Application of immunohistochemical markers of axonal transport suggested that disruption of this transport mechanism contributed to spheroid development. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Performance and carcass measurements of ewe lambs reared in a feedlot and fed wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) middlings total mixed rations in the summer season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Khan, Rifat Ullah; Mazzei, Domenico; Laudadio, Vito

    2012-04-01

    The effect of total mixed ratios containing wheat middlings (WM) as a corn grain substitute on the growth performance and carcass traits of Comisana ewe lambs was evaluated. Forty ewe lambs, with average live body weight of 13 ± 0.3 kg (mean ± SEM), were allocated randomly to two isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets for 50 days. Control diet contained 400 g/kg of dry matter (DM) of corn as the main starchy source, whereas experimental diet contained 600 g/kg DM of WM. In vivo nutrient apparent digestibility of the two diets was determined using Comisana rams (mean body weight, 65 ± 2.3 kg) and indicated significant (P ewe lambs showed that growth traits were unaffected by dietary treatments as well as none of the carcass measurements examined (P > 0.05). These findings indicate that WM results as a suitable feed ingredient for growing ewe lambs that can be a satisfactory substitute to conventional grain source.

  10. Lamb shift of Unruh detector levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbrecht, Bjoern [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Prokopec, Tomislav [Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITF) and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2006-06-07

    We argue that the energy levels of an Unruh detector experience an effect similar to the Lamb shift in quantum electrodynamics. As a consequence, the spectrum of energy levels in a curved background is different from that in flat space. As examples, we consider a detector in an expanding universe and in Rindler space, and for the latter case we suggest a new expression for the local virtual energy density seen by an accelerated observer. In the ultraviolet domain, that is when the space between the energy levels is larger than the Hubble rate or the acceleration of the detector, the Lamb shift quantitatively dominates over the thermal response rate.

  11. Low pasture allowance until late gestation in ewes: behavioural and physiological changes in ewes and lambs from lambing to weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-de-Melo, A; Ungerfeld, R; Hötzel, M J; Orihuela, A; Pérez-Clariget, R

    2017-02-01

    Low pasture allowance during gestation affects ewes' BW at parturition, the bond with their lamb, lamb development, and thus also may affect their responses to weaning. The objectives were to determine if native pasture allowance from before conception until late pregnancy affects ewe-lamb behaviours at lambing, ewes' milk yield, lambs' BW, and the behavioural and physiological changes of ewes and lambs at weaning. From 23 days before conception until 122 days of pregnancy, 24 ewes grazed on two different native pasture allowances: high (10 to 12 kg of dry matter (DM)/100 kg of BW per day; HPA treatment; n=12) or low (5 to 8 kg of DM/100 kg of BW per day; LPA treatment; n=12). Thereafter, all ewes grazed on Festuca arundinacea and received rice bran and crude glycerine. Ewes' body condition score (BCS) and BW were recorded during pregnancy and postpartum periods. Milk yield was determined on days 32, 41 and 54 after lambing. Lambs' BW was recorded from birth until 72 days after lambing. Latency from parturition until the ewe licked her lamb, maternal behaviour score (a test that evaluates maternal attachment to the lamb) and latency for lamb to stand up and suckle were determined. The behaviour of the lambs and ewes was recorded before and after weaning (at 65 days). The ewes' serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were measured before and after weaning. The HPA ewes presented greater BW (Pestablishment of the mother-young bond, nor the ewes' behavioural responses at weaning. Lambs reared by ewes that grazed on low pasture allowance during pregnancy presented fewer behavioural changes and a lower decrease of albumin concentration after weaning. Lambs' BW was not affected by the feeding received by their mothers.

  12. Biomass a fast growing energy resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Ulf

    2003-01-01

    Biomass as an energy resource is as versatile as the biodiversity suggests. The global net primary production, NPP, describes the annual growth of biomass on land and in the seas. This paper focuses on biomass grown on land. A recent estimate for the NPP on land is 120 billion tons of dry matter. How much of this biomass are available for energy purposes? The potential contribution of wood fuel and energy plants from sustainable production is limited to some 5% of NPP, i.e. 6 Bt. One third of the potential is energy forests and energy plantations which at present are not economic. One third is used in rural areas as traditional fuel. The remaining third would be available for modern biomass energy conversion. Biomass is assigned an expanding role as a new resource in the world's energy balance. The EU has set a target of doubling the share of renewable energy sources by 2010. For biomass the target is even more ambitious. The challenge for biomass utilization lies in improving the technology for traditional usage and expanding the role into other areas like power production and transportation fuel. Various technologies for biomass utilization are available among those are combustion, gasification, and liquefaction. Researchers have a grand vision in which the chemical elements in the hydrocarbon molecules of biomass are separated and reformed to yield new tailored fuels and form the basis for a new world economy. The vision of a new energy system based on fresh and fossilized biomass to be engineered into an environmentally friendly and sustainable fuel is a conceivable technical reality. One reason for replacing exhaustible fossil fuels with biomass is to reduce carbon emissions. The most efficient carbon dioxide emission reduction comes from replacing brown coal in a steam-electric unit, due to the efficiency of the thermal cycle and the high carbon intensity of the coal. The smallest emission reduction comes from substituting natural gas. (BA)

  13. Effect of weaning age on hair sheep lamb and ewe production traits in an accelerated lambing system in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Weis, A J

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of weaning age on lamb and ewe productivity in an accelerated lambing system. St. Croix White (STX) and Dorper × St. Croix White (DRPX) lambs were assigned at birth based on breed, gender, and litter size to be weaned at 63 (Early-1; 106 lambs and 68 ewes) or 90 d of age (Late-1; 99 lambs and 60 ewes) in Exp.1 or at 63 (Early-2; 77 lambs and 57 ewes) or 120 d of age (Late-2; 75 lambs and 56 ewes) in Exp. 2. After weaning, lambs were weighed weekly and fed a concentrate ration (2% BW·lamb·d) while grazing guinea grass pastures. In Exp. 1, weaning weight was greater ( ewes than for Early-1 ewes (20.9 ± 0.8 vs. 17.4 ± 0.8 kg, respectively). Ewe efficiency ([ewe BW at weaning/litter weaning weight] × 100) was greater ( ewes than for Early-1 ewes (50.7 ± 1.9 vs. 42.3 ± 1.8%, respectively). Lamb weight gain between 63 and 90 d of age was lower ( ewes than in Early-2 ewes (27.2 ± 1.0 vs. 17.5 ± 0.9 kg, respectively). Ewe efficiency was greater ( ewes than for Early-2 ewes (68.1 ± 2.2 vs. 41.9 ± 2.0%, respectively). Lamb weight gain between 63 and 120 d of age was not different ( > 0.06) between Early-2 and Late-2 lambs (5.1 ± 0.2 vs. 5.6 ± 0.3 kg, respectively). In Exp. 1 and 2, ewe BW at breeding and lambing and weaning and lambing rate were not different among weaning ages of lambs ( > 0.17). The Early-1 ewes exhibited estrus earlier than Late-1 ewes (10.9 ± 0.9 vs. 13.9 ± 1.0 d, respectively) but there was no difference ( > 0.63) between Early-2 and Late-2 ewes. Weaning hair lambs at 90 or 120 d of age can be done in an accelerated lambing system with no detrimental effect on lamb or ewe productivity. Late weaning resulted in a decreased number of days that lambs received high-cost, imported feed without a reduction in growth, resulting in savings of US$6 to $15 per lamb.

  14. Supplementation of glycerol or fructose via drinking water to grazing lambs on tissue glycogen level and lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi-Lagreca, G; Duckett, S K

    2017-06-01

    Lambs ( = 18; 40.1 ± 7.4 kg BW) were used to assess supplementation of glycerol or fructose via drinking water on growth, tissue glycogen levels, postmortem glycolysis, and lipogenesis. Lambs were blocked by BW and allocated to alfalfa paddocks (2 lambs/paddock and 3 paddocks/treatment). Each paddock within a block was assigned randomly to drinking water treatments for 30 d: 1) control (CON), 2) 120 g fructose/L of drinking water (FRU), or 3) 120 g glycerol/L of drinking water (GLY). Lambs grazed alfalfa with free access to water treatments for 28 d and then were fasted in indoor pens for a final 2 d with access to only water treatments. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS with water treatment and time (when appropriate) in the model. During the 28-d grazing period, ADG was greater ( glycogen content × postmortem time was significant ( = 0.003) in LM and semitendinosus (ST) muscles. Glycogen content in the LM was greater ( Glycogen content in ST did not differ between treatments ( > 0.05). Liver glycogen content was over 14-fold greater ( glycogen branching enzyme in the liver. Overall, glycerol supplementation improved growth, reduced BW shrink during fasting, increased glycogen content in muscle and the liver, and stimulated de novo lipogenesis.

  15. Determination of the chemical structure of the capsular polysaccharide of strain B33, a fast-growing soya bean-nodulating bacterium isolated from an arid region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carvajal, M A; Tejero-Mateo, P; Espartero, J L; Ruiz-Sainz, J E; Buendía-Clavería, A M; Ollero, F J; Yang, S S; Gil-Serrano, A M

    2001-01-01

    We have determined the structure of a polysaccharide from strain B33, a fast-growing bacterium that forms nitrogen-fixing nodules with Asiatic and American soya bean cultivars. On the basis of monosaccharide analysis, methylation analysis, one-dimensional 1H- and 13C-NMR and two-dimensional NMR experiments, the structure was shown to consist of a polymer having the repeating unit -->6)-4-O-methyl-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->4)-3-O-methyl-beta-D-GlcpA-(1--> (where GlcpA is glucopyranuronic acid and Glcp is glucopyranose). Strain B33 produces a K-antigen polysaccharide repeating unit that does not have the structural motif sugar-Kdx [where Kdx is 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid (Kdo) or a Kdo-related acid] proposed for different Sinorhizobium fredii strains, all of them being effective with Asiatic soya bean cultivars but unable to form nitrogen-fixing nodules with American soya bean cultivars. Instead, it resembles the K-antigen of S. fredii strain HH303 (rhamnose, galacturonic acid)n, which is also effective with both groups of soya bean cultivars. Only the capsular polysaccharide from strains B33 and HH303 have monosaccharide components that are also present in the surface polysaccharide of Bradyrhizobium elkanii strains, which consists of a 4-O-methyl-D-glucurono-L-rhamnan. PMID:11439101

  16. Flavonoid supplementation affects the expression of genes involved in cell wall formation and lignification metabolism and increases sugar content and saccharification in the fast-growing eucalyptus hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepikson-Neto, Jorge; Nascimento, Leandro C; Salazar, Marcela M; Camargo, Eduardo L O; Cairo, João P F; Teixeira, Paulo J; Marques, Wesley L; Squina, Fabio M; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Deckmann, Ana C; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2014-11-19

    Eucalyptus species are the most widely planted hardwood species in the world and are renowned for their rapid growth and adaptability. In Brazil, one of the most widely grown Eucalyptus cultivars is the fast-growing Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis hybrid. In a previous study, we described a chemical characterization of these hybrids when subjected to flavonoid supplementation on 2 distinct timetables, and our results revealed marked differences between the wood composition of the treated and untreated trees. In this work, we report the transcriptional responses occurring in these trees that may be related to the observed chemical differences. Gene expression was analysed through mRNA-sequencing, and notably, compared to control trees, the treated trees display differential down-regulation of cell wall formation pathways such as phenylpropanoid metabolism as well as differential expression of genes involved in sucrose, starch and minor CHO metabolism and genes that play a role in several stress and environmental responses. We also performed enzymatic hydrolysis of wood samples from the different treatments, and the results indicated higher sugar contents and glucose yields in the flavonoid-treated plants. Our results further illustrate the potential use of flavonoids as a nutritional complement for modifying Eucalyptus wood, since, supplementation with flavonoids alters its chemical composition, gene expression and increases saccharification probably as part of a stress response.

  17. Growing Pains

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Heat expands and cold contracts: it’s a simple thermodynamic rule. But when temperatures swing from 300 K to near-absolute zero, this rule can mean a contraction of more than 80 metres across the LHC’s 27-km-long cryogenic system. Keeping this growth in check are compensators (a.k.a. bellows), which shrink and stretch in response to thermodynamic changes. Leak tests and X-rays now underway in the tunnel have revealed that these “joints” might be suffering from growing pains…   This 25-μm weld crack is thought to be the cause of the helium leaks. Prior to the LS1 warm-up, CERN’s cryogenic experts knew of two points in the machine’s cryogenic distribution system that were leaking helium. Fortunately, these leaks were sufficiently small, confined to known sub-sectors of the cryogenic line and – with help from the vacuum team (TE-VSC) – could easily be compensated for. But as the machine warmed up f...

  18. Lamb Wave Assessment of Fiber Volume Fraction in Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Michael D.; Smith, Barry T.; Prosser, W. H.; Zalameda, Joseph N.

    1998-01-01

    Among the various techniques available, ultrasonic Lamb waves offer a convenient method of examining composite materials. Since the Lamb wave velocity depends on the elastic properties of a material, an effective tool exists to evaluate composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. Lamb waves can propagate over long distances and are sensitive to the desired in-plane elastic properties of the material. This paper discusses a study in which Lamb waves were used to examine fiber volume fraction variations of approximately 0.40-0.70 in composites. The Lamb wave measurements were compared to fiber volume fractions obtained from acid digestion tests. Additionally, a model to predict the fiber volume fraction from Lamb wave velocity values was evaluated.

  19. FEASIBILITY OF OPERATING A LAMB SLAUGHTER PLANT IN NORTH DAKOTA

    OpenAIRE

    Nudell, Daniel J.; Petry, Timothy A.

    1997-01-01

    A group of North Dakota lamb producers who are members of Valley Wool Growers Association identified several niche markets for high quality North Dakota lambs. The potential availability of a closed, but formerly federally inspected, livestock slaughter and meat processing facility in Steele County heightened their interest in determining the feasibility of a cooperatively owned lamb slaughter and processing facility. The cooperative would be patterned after existing and proposed slaughter co...

  20. Congenital lumbar vertebrae agenesis in a lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajli Abbasi, Mohammad; Shojaei, Bahador; Azari, Omid

    2017-01-01

    Congenital agenesis of lumbar vertebrae was diagnosed in a day-old female lamb based on radiology and clinical examinations. There was no neurological deficit in hindlimb and forelimb associated with standing disability. Radiography of the abdominal region revealed absence of lumbar vertebrae. Necropsy confirmed clinical and radiographic results. No other anomaly or agenesis was seen macroscopically in the abdominal and thoracic regions as well as vertebral column. Partial absence of vertebral column has been reported in human and different animal species, as an independent occurrence or associated with other organs anomalies. The latter has been designated as caudal regression syndrome. Vertebral agenesis may arise from irregularity in the differentiation of somites to the sclerotome or sclerotome to the vertebral primordium. Most of the previously reported cases of agenesis were related to the lumbosacral region, lonely or along with other visceral absences. This case was the first report of congenital agenesis of lumbar vertebrae in a lamb.

  1. Quantitative Estimation of Transmitted and Reflected Lamb Waves at Discontinuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyung Jin; Sohn, Hoon

    2010-01-01

    For the application of Lamb wave to structural health monitoring(SHM), understanding its physical characteristic and interaction between Lamb wave and defect of the host structure is an important issue. In this study, reflected, transmitted and mode converted Lamb waves at discontinuity of a plate structure were simulated and the amplitude ratios are calculated theoretically using Modal decomposition method. The predicted results were verified comparing with finite element method(FEM) and experimental results simulating attached PZTs. The result shows that the theoretical prediction is close to the FEM and the experimental verification. Moreover, quantitative estimation method was suggested using amplitude ratio of Lamb wave at discontinuity

  2. Acquisition of Forgaging Skills by Lambs Eating Grass or Shrub

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Enrique R.

    1988-01-01

    I studied the acquisition of foraging skills by lambs eating shrub or grass in three experiments. The general approach was to isolate those skills involved in prehending forage from those related to the acceptance of novel foods. Treatment lambs received 15 times more exposure to grass or shrub than did control lambs. Lambs were tested in 2.5 x 2.5 meter monocultures of shrub or grass 5 min/d, on two separate occasions. Height, bulk density and spatial arrangement of plant material were contr...

  3. Thin layer Characterization by ZGV Lamb modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cès, Maximin; Clorennec, Dominique; Royer, Daniel; Prada, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic non-destructive testing of plates can be performed with Lamb modes guided by the structure. Non contact generation and detection of the elastic waves can be achieved with optical means such as a pulsed laser source and an interferometer. With this setup, we propose a method using zero group velocity (ZGV) Lamb modes rather than propagating modes. These ZGV modes have noteworthy properties, in particular their group velocity vanishes, whereas their phase velocity remains finite. Thus, a significant part of the energy deposited by the pulsed laser can be trapped in the source area. For example, in a homogeneous isotropic plate and at the minimum frequency of the S1-Lamb mode a very sharp resonance can be observed, the frequency of which only depends on the plate thickness, for a given material. In fact, other ZGV modes exist and the set of ZGV resonance frequencies provide a local and absolute measurement of Poisson's ratio. These non-propagating modes can also be used to characterize multi-layered structures. Experimentally, we observed that a thin (500 nm) gold layer deposited on a thick (1.5 mm) Duralumin plate induces a sensitive down-shift of the set of ZGV resonance frequencies. This shift, which is typically 5 kHz for the S1-Lamb mode at 1.924 MHz, can be approximated by a formula providing the layer thickness. Thickness down to 100 nm can be estimated by this method. Such a sensitivity with conventional ultrasound inspection by acoustic microscopy would require an operating frequency in the GHz range.

  4. Thin layer Characterization by ZGV Lamb modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ces, Maximin; Clorennec, Dominique; Royer, Daniel; Prada, Claire, E-mail: maximin.ces@espci.fr [Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique, ESPCI- Universite Paris 7- CNRS UMR 7587, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75231 Paris Cedex 05- France (France)

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic non-destructive testing of plates can be performed with Lamb modes guided by the structure. Non contact generation and detection of the elastic waves can be achieved with optical means such as a pulsed laser source and an interferometer. With this setup, we propose a method using zero group velocity (ZGV) Lamb modes rather than propagating modes. These ZGV modes have noteworthy properties, in particular their group velocity vanishes, whereas their phase velocity remains finite. Thus, a significant part of the energy deposited by the pulsed laser can be trapped in the source area. For example, in a homogeneous isotropic plate and at the minimum frequency of the S{sub 1}-Lamb mode a very sharp resonance can be observed, the frequency of which only depends on the plate thickness, for a given material. In fact, other ZGV modes exist and the set of ZGV resonance frequencies provide a local and absolute measurement of Poisson's ratio. These non-propagating modes can also be used to characterize multi-layered structures. Experimentally, we observed that a thin (500 nm) gold layer deposited on a thick (1.5 mm) Duralumin plate induces a sensitive down-shift of the set of ZGV resonance frequencies. This shift, which is typically 5 kHz for the S{sub 1}-Lamb mode at 1.924 MHz, can be approximated by a formula providing the layer thickness. Thickness down to 100 nm can be estimated by this method. Such a sensitivity with conventional ultrasound inspection by acoustic microscopy would require an operating frequency in the GHz range.

  5. Prevalence of footrot in Swedish slaughter lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Ann-Kristin J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Footrot is a world-wide contagious disease in sheep and goats. It is an infection of the epidermis of the interdigital skin, and the germinal layers of the horn tissue of the feet. The first case of footrot in Swedish sheep was diagnosed in 2004. Due to difficulties in distinguishing benign footrot from early cases of virulent footrot and because there is no possibility for virulence testing of strains of Dichelobacter nodosus in Sweden, the diagnosis is based of the presence or absence of clinical signs of footrot in sheep flocks. Ever since the first diagnosed case the Swedish Animal Health Service has worked intensively to stop the spread of infection and control the disease at flock level. However, to continue this work effectively it is important to have knowledge about the distribution of the disease both nationally and regionally. Therefore, the aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of footrot in Swedish lambs at abattoirs and to assess the geographical distribution of the disease. Methods A prevalence study on footrot in Swedish lambs was performed by visual examination of 2000 feet from 500 lambs submitted from six slaughter houses. Each foot was scored according to a 0 to 5 scoring system, where feet with score ≥2 were defined as having footrot. Moreover, samples from feet with footrot were examined for Dichelobacter nodosus by culture and PCR. Results The prevalence of footrot at the individual sheep level was 5.8%, and Dichelobacter nodosus was found by culture and PCR in 83% and 97% of the samples from feet with footrot, respectively. Some minor differences in geographical distribution of footrot were found in this study. Conclusions In a national context, the findings indicate that footrot is fairly common in Swedish slaughter lambs, and should be regarded seriously.

  6. Crack Detection with Lamb Wave Wavenumber Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara; Rogge, Matt; Yu, Lingyu

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present our study of Lamb wave crack detection using wavenumber analysis. The aim is to demonstrate the application of wavenumber analysis to 3D Lamb wave data to enable damage detection. The 3D wavefields (including vx, vy and vz components) in time-space domain contain a wealth of information regarding the propagating waves in a damaged plate. For crack detection, three wavenumber analysis techniques are used: (i) two dimensional Fourier transform (2D-FT) which can transform the time-space wavefield into frequency-wavenumber representation while losing the spatial information; (ii) short space 2D-FT which can obtain the frequency-wavenumber spectra at various spatial locations, resulting in a space-frequency-wavenumber representation; (iii) local wavenumber analysis which can provide the distribution of the effective wavenumbers at different locations. All of these concepts are demonstrated through a numerical simulation example of an aluminum plate with a crack. The 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) was used to obtain the 3D wavefields, of which the vz (out-of-plane) wave component is compared with the experimental measurement obtained from a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) for verification purposes. The experimental and simulated results are found to be in close agreement. The application of wavenumber analysis on 3D EFIT simulation data shows the effectiveness of the analysis for crack detection. Keywords: : Lamb wave, crack detection, wavenumber analysis, EFIT modeling

  7. Heat stress in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,

    2005-01-01

    Compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are more sensitive to high environmental temperatures, because they cannot sweat and do not pant so well. Furthermore, fast-growing lean pigs generate more heat than their congeners living in the wild. This, in combination with confined housing, makes

  8. Congenital abnormalities in newborn lambs after infection of pregnant sheep with Akabane virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsonson, I M; Della-Porta, A J; Snowdon, W A

    1977-01-01

    Akabane virus (a Bunyavirus) has been associated with epizootics of congenital deformities in cattle, sheep, and goats. Experimental studies using mouse-adapted virus inoculated intravenously into pregnant sheep gave an inapparent infection. Neutralizing antibodies were detected on day 5, and peaks in the titer were seen at days 10 and 48. Ewes infected at day 30 to 36 of pregnancy produced five (31% incidence) deformed lambs. Sera from four of these possessed neutralizing antibodies to Akabane virus before ingesting colostrum. Two lambs had arthrogryposis, hydranencephaly, kyphosis, scoliosis, and brachygnathia; one had micrencephaly; and the other two had porencephaly. The two lambs with arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly also had extensive lesions in other tissues. In the spinal cord there was a marked decrease in the number of ventral horn neurones and a depletion of myelin. Skeletal muscles showed marked atrophy. The medulla of the thymus possessed large Hassall's corpuscles and a reduced number of thymocytes in the cortex. It would appear that the pathogenic effects of Akabane virus are related to the gestational age (30 to 36 days) at which the fetus is infected. Akabane virus can now be included in the growing list of teratogenic viruses and provides an interesting system for studying such congenital diseases. Images PMID:832900

  9. Crack Detection in Single-Crystalline Silicon Wafer Using Laser Generated Lamb Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Kyoo Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the semiconductor industry, with increasing requirements for high performance, high capacity, high reliability, and compact components, the crack has been one of the most critical issues in accordance with the growing requirement of the wafer-thinning in recent years. Previous researchers presented the crack detection on the silicon wafers with the air-coupled ultrasonic method successfully. However, the high impedance mismatching will be the problem in the industrial field. In this paper, in order to detect the crack, we propose a laser generated Lamb wave method which is not only noncontact, but also reliable for the measurement. The laser-ultrasonic generator and the laser-interferometer are used as a transmitter and a receiver, respectively. We firstly verified the identification of S0 and A0 lamb wave modes and then conducted the crack detection under the thermoelastic regime. The experimental results showed that S0 and A0 modes of lamb wave were clearly generated and detected, and in the case of the crack detection, the estimated crack size by 6 dB drop method was almost equal to the actual crack size. So, the proposed method is expected to make it possible to detect the crack in the silicon wafer in the industrial fields.

  10. Multisite randomised controlled trial to evaluate polypropylene clips applied to the breech of lambs as an alternative to mulesing. II: multivariate analysis of relationships between clip treatment and operator, sheep, farm and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiee, A R; Playford, M C; Evans, I; Lindon, G; Stevenson, M; Lean, I J

    2012-11-01

    A multivariate analysis approach was used to evaluate both the effects of application of occlusive polypropylene clips to the breech on bare area measurements and scores of lambs, and the influence of operator, region, sheep, farm and environmental factors on outcomes. A randomised controlled trial using 32,028 lambs was conducted on 208 commercial wool-growing properties across Australia. Differences in bare area measurements and scores between groups were estimated and analysed using a mixed model to investigate the effects of operator differences, farm and environmental factors and the interactions among these factors. Clip-treated lambs with higher body weight at visit 1 had higher bare area measures and scores, but lower changes in dag and urine scores. Lambs with tight skin showed improved response in bare area scores and measurements after clip treatment, but lambs with a high wrinkle score at visit 1 showed less response to the treatment in their urine, dag and wrinkle and bare area scores. These effects of the clip treatment were not significantly influenced by estimated fleece fibre diameter, operator or region, but were significantly influenced by farm. The effect of occlusive clips on breech measurements and scores was significantly influenced by body weight, skin type and thickness, wrinkle score and sex of the lamb, but not by region, operator or estimated fibre diameter. The clip treatment significantly improved characteristics that influence the susceptibility of lambs to flystrike under most conditions. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  11. and post-weaning performance of lambs on Italian ryegrass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pre- and post-weaning performance. * To whom conespondence should be addressed. lntroduction. The optimum stocking rate for ewes and lambs on Italian rye- grass will depend on the specific production system, the weaning mass to be achieved and the marketing strategy of the producer for the lambs after weaning.

  12. Current trends in lamb production with particular reference to New ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current trends in lamb production with particular reference to New Zealand. Information on the production, processing, and marketing of lamb in New Zealand is presented. Consideration is given to new practices such as genetics and animal breeding, nutrition, and flock management that have been introduced in sheep.

  13. Ammoniated maize residue for the fattening of lambs | Seed | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of ammoniated maize residue as a replacement for maize meal in the diet for fattening lambs, was investigated. Ammoniation of maize residue increased average daily DMI and ADG at the 0 and 20oh concentrate levels. The feed conversions to carcass in lambs fed untreated maize residue with 40,60 or 80% ...

  14. Studies on Compensatory Growth in Black Head Persian (BHP) Lambs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the first eight weeks, lambs on H treatment had higher growth rates, dressing percentages, and gut and carcass fats, lower proportions of lean, bone, gut fill, leanfat and lean:bone ratios than animals on L treatment. In the last eight weeks, lambs on LH grew faster than those on HH. When the whole period was considered ...

  15. Response of SA Mutton Merino ewes and their lambs to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lambs reared by ewes supplemented with enriched oats and triticale were heavier (P ≤ 0,05) at weaning, with faster (P ≤ 0,05) growth rates than control group lambs ... minerale en 'n ionofoor verryk, en vir 90 dae teen 500 g per ooi per dag aan SA Vleismerino-ooie tydens laatdragtigheid en laktasie as aanvulling gevoer.

  16. Carcass characteristics of Karadi lambs as affect by different levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... different levels of dietary supplement of rumen degradable ... fed diets supplemented with NS as compared with those lambs fed diet without NS. However, live ..... Performance of Karadi lambs as affected by N. sativa fed with different levels of RDN on weight cuts of half cold carcass weight, fat tail weight ...

  17. Cryptosporidium in Calves, Lambs and Kids at Haramaya, eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was carried out from November 2010 to April 2011 to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in calves, lambs and kids and to assess potential risk factors in Haramaya, eastern Ethiopia. Hence, fecal samples from a total of 237 study animals (133 calves, 63 lambs and 41 kids) were tested with ...

  18. Lamb Production Costs: Analyses of Composition and Elasticities Analysis of Lamb Production Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Raineri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since lamb is a commodity, producers cannot control the price of the product they sell. Therefore, managing production costs is a necessity. We explored the study of elasticities as a tool for basing decision-making in sheep production, and aimed at investigating the composition and elasticities of lamb production costs, and their influence on the performance of the activity. A representative sheep production farm, designed in a panel meeting, was the base for calculation of lamb production cost. We then performed studies of: i costs composition, and ii cost elasticities for prices of inputs and for zootechnical indicators. Variable costs represented 64.15% of total cost, while 21.66% were represented by operational fixed costs, and 14.19% by the income of the factors. As for elasticities to input prices, the opportunity cost of land was the item to which production cost was more sensitive: a 1% increase in its price would cause a 0.2666% increase in lamb cost. Meanwhile, the impact of increasing any technical indicator was significantly higher than the impact of rising input prices. A 1% increase in weight at slaughter, for example, would reduce total cost in 0.91%. The greatest obstacle to economic viability of sheep production under the observed conditions is low technical efficiency. Increased production costs are more related to deficient zootechnical indexes than to high expenses.

  19. Effects of Transport on Live Weight and Behavior of Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Andronie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study has monitored the effects of transport stress on some biochemical indicators of stress and behavior lambs at time of slaughter. The research was carried out in the cold season, on a number of 120 lambs, transported for 6h- 16h, to be slaughtered. During our research, we followed the changes in bodyweight, behaviours expressed by sheep, and plasma cortisol levels. Bodyweight loss recorded in the slaughterhouse to 24 hours of departure transportation was of 4-5%. The behavioural manifestations of lambs were different from the destination, depending on journey duration. Lambs behaviour was different depending on the journey, the resting and watering were mostly present manifestations. Increased in cortisol levels measured at 3 h after leaving the vehicle was maintained at 9 h after the journey. Increased duration of rest before slaughter can reduce the stress of transport in case of lambs ensures obtaining good quality meat.

  20. Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for the control of Phoma valerianellae on lamb`s lettuce seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, A.; Koch, E.; Stephan, D.; Kromphardt, C.; Jahn, M.; Krauthausen, H.J.; Forsberg, G.; Werner, S.; Amein, T.; Wright, S.A.I.; Tinivella, F.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify seed treatment methods for eradicating Phoma valerianellae from lamb`s lettuce seeds in organic vegetable production. Using seeds naturally infested with the pathogen, the effect of three physical methods (hot water, aerated steam, electron treatment) and

  1. Wheat-straw as roughage component in finishing diets of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat-straw as roughage component in finishing diets of growing lambs. TS Brand, SWP Cloete, F Franck, GD van der Merwe. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  2. Carcass characteristics and tissue composition of commercial cuts of lambs fed with banana crop residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Dayana do Carmo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of substitution of Cynodon hay with banana plantation residue hay on the carcass characteristics and tissue composition of commercial cuts of feedlot Santa Inês lambs. Twenty-five whole lambs were used, with an average age of five months and an initial live weight of 26.95 kg (± 1.5, distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments (1 = 40% Cynodon spp. hay + 60% concentrate; 2 = 20% banana leaf hay + 20% Cynodon spp. hay + 60% concentrate; 3 = 40% banana leaf hay + 60% concentrate; 4 = 20% banana pseudostem hay + 20% Cynodon spp. hay + 60% concentrate; 5 = 40% banana pseudostem hay + 60% concentrate and five repetitions. The lambs were slaughtered on day 69 of the experiment. The variables evaluated were: live weight without fasting (LWWF, live weight post-fasting (LWPF, morphometric measurements in vivo and postmortem, hot and cold carcass weights (HCW, CCW, hot and cold carcass yield (HCY, CCY, biological performance and weight loss by chilling. The carcasses were divided into eight commercial cuts: neck, shoulder, foreshank and hindshank, breast and flank, loin, leg and rack. The leg, shoulder and loin were dissected into muscle, fat and bone. The animals fed on pseudostem hay showed higher LWWF, LWPF, body length, HCW and CCW; however, the HCY, CCY, morphometric measurements and commercial cut weights and yields were not altered by the treatments. The use of pseudostem hay allows for heavier carcasses; however, the use of coproducts changed the characteristics and carcass yield of the assessed commercial cuts.

  3. [Spina bifida aperta in a sheep lamb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, N; Hilbe, M; Kircher, P; Bleull, U

    2015-01-01

    The case report describes the symptoms and diagnostic methods of a spina bifida aperta in a new born lamb. The most relevant clinical findings were recumbency immediately after birth with normal consciousness and suckling reflexes, alterations of the skin and coat in the lumbosacral region as well as dysuria. The biochemical and haematological screening of the blood indicated no abnormalities. While the radiological examination of the spine showed no clear evidence of the cause of the clinical sings the ultrasound and computed tomography examination revealed an incomplete closure of the vertebral arch between the 4th lumbar and the 3rd sacral vertebrae. Additionally, a hernia with similar density to the spinal cord was present in the same region of the spine. Based on the findings the lamb was euthanized. The pathological examination confirmed the incomplete closure of the vertebral arch and moreover a myelomeningocele has been diagnosed. In the histopathological examination the white and grey matter were separated in the area of the macroscopic visible lesions. Due to non-specific clinical symptoms imagining diagnostics can be crucial to confirm the diagnosis of this rare syndrome.

  4. Lamb wave propagation in monocrystalline silicon wafers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Paul; Pizzolato, Marco; Robyr, Jean-Luc; Masserey, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Monocrystalline silicon wafers are widely used in the photovoltaic industry for solar panels with high conversion efficiency. Guided ultrasonic waves offer the potential to efficiently detect micro-cracks in the thin wafers. Previous studies of ultrasonic wave propagation in silicon focused on effects of material anisotropy on bulk ultrasonic waves, but the dependence of the wave propagation characteristics on the material anisotropy is not well understood for Lamb waves. The phase slowness and beam skewing of the two fundamental Lamb wave modes A 0 and S 0 were investigated. Experimental measurements using contact wedge transducer excitation and laser measurement were conducted. Good agreement was found between the theoretically calculated angular dependency of the phase slowness and measurements for different propagation directions relative to the crystal orientation. Significant wave skew and beam widening was observed experimentally due to the anisotropy, especially for the S 0 mode. Explicit finite element simulations were conducted to visualize and quantify the guided wave beam skew. Good agreement was found for the A 0 mode, but a systematic discrepancy was observed for the S 0 mode. These effects need to be considered for the non-destructive testing of wafers using guided waves.

  5. Characterization of Awassi lamb fattening systems: a Syrian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Birgitte Wiedemann; Iñiguez, Luis; Mueller, Joaquin; Wurzinger, Maria; Knaus, W F

    2010-10-01

    Intensive lamb fattening systems are evolving in developing Middle Eastern countries due to high demand for lambs at favorable prices; however, little is known about their characteristics and constraints. A survey was conducted in Syria involving 241 farmers to characterize the fattening production systems and main constraints, with emphasis on feeding, management, labor, and marketing. Most farmers (90%) considered the income from fattening to be from medium to high, and 57% expressed that lamb fattening along with alternative income sources compose the family's livelihood strategies. Fattening systems offer employment to family members. Market price was the main decision factor to buy and sell lambs, but this was only part of various marketing aspects. Male lambs usually bought at markets at the mean age of 4 months (mean weight of 31 kg) are sold after fattening at a 50-60 kg weight range. The average yearly fattening cycle was 2.7 batches, and the average number of lambs per batch was 232. For 65% (n = 241) of the farmers the major constraint to fattening was feeding cost, and for about a half of farmers (51%, n = 241), disease outbreaks and prices for veterinarian services constituted the second important constraint. Research on least-cost fattening diets and curbing disease problems to increase farmer's income margins is needed. It is expected that due to existing commonalities, the information emerging from this study regarding major constraints to Awassi lamb fattening systems could be useful for an across-synthesis on Awassi fattening production in the region.

  6. Fatty acid composition of meat of Sarda suckling lamb

    OpenAIRE

    Manca, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of dietary fat has an important role in human nutrition because can help to reduce the risk of appearance of some diseases. In this work fatty acid profile of meat of Sarda suckling lamb was studied in order to improve meat fat quality in relation to human health. Aim of this thesis was firstly to assess the effect of different management systems, indoor vs. outdoor, on fatty acid profile of meat of Sarda suckling lamb. Lambs which followed their mother on pasture h...

  7. Body Weight Evolution in Suffolk x Turcana Crossbred Lambs Reared in Sibiu Region During Lambing up to Weaning Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Popa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Current study wascarried out in a commercial farm from Sibiu county. In autumn 2010, two groupof Turcana breed ewes were established, first group was mated with Suffolkrams, while the second group was mated with Turcana rams. During the lambingseason which occurred in February 2011, two experimental groups of lambs wereestablished, made up of one of the two genotypes each, F1 Suffolk xTurcana and Turcana purebreds, both male and female lambs, respectively. Lambswere allowed to suckle maternal milk from birth until weaning (90 days of age.Body weight of the lambs was evaluated at 30, 60 and 90 days of age. Bodyweight of the Suffolk x Turcana crossbreds from both sexes was significantlyhigher (p≤0.001 at all four stages of the evaluation (birth, 30, 60 and 90days of age, compared with Turcana lambs. Differences in body weight betweenthe two genotypes increased with age, and at the age of 90 days reached 6.33 kgin male lambs and 7.47 kg in females. Results have shown that Suffolk x Turcanacrossbred lambs weaned at the age of 90 days register heavier weights of 25.52kg in males and 23.87 kg in females, compared with purebred Turcana lambs,which register average weights of 18.58 kg in males and 16.69 kg in females.

  8. Heat stress in growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy

    2005-01-01

    Compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are more sensitive to high environmental temperatures, because they cannot sweat and do not pant so well. Furthermore, fast-growing lean pigs generate more heat than their congeners living in the wild. This, in combination with confined housing, makes it difficult for these pigs to regulate their heat balance. Heat stressed pigs have low performance, poor welfare, and, by pen fouling, they give higher emissions of odour and ammonia.Above certain...

  9. Background Lamb waves in the Earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Fukao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Lamb waves of the Earth's atmosphere in the millihertz band have been considered as transient phenomena excited only by large events [e.g. the major volcanic eruption of Krakatoa in 1833, the impact of Siberian meteorite in 1908, the testing of large nuclear tests and the huge earthquakes, Garrett1969]. In a case of the solid Earth, observation of background free oscillations in the millihertz band-now known as Earth's background free oscillations or seismic hum, has been firmly established. Above 5 mHz, their dominant excitation sources are oceanic infragravity waves. At 3.7 and 4.4 mHz an elasto-acoustic resonance between the solid Earth and the atmosphere was observed [Nishida et al., 2000]. These seismic observations show that the contribution of atmospheric disturbances to the seismic hum is dominant below 5 mHz. Such contribution implies background excitations of acoustic-gravity waves in this frequency range. For direct detection of the background acoustic-gravity waves, our group conducted observations using an array of barometers [Nishida et al. 2005]. However, the spatial scale of the array of about 10 km was too small to detect acoustic modes below 10 mHz. Since then, no direct observations of these waves have been reported. In 2011, 337 high-resolution microbarometers were installed on a continental scale at USArray Transportable Array. The large and dense array enables us to detect the background atmospheric waves. Here, we show the first evidence of background Lamb waves in the Earth's atmosphere from 0.2 to 10 mHz, based on the array analysis of microbarometer data from the USArray in 2012. The observations suggest that the excitation sources are atmospheric disturbances in the troposphere. Theoretically, their energy in the troposphere tunnels into the thermosphere at a resonant frequency via thermospheric gravity wave, where the observed amplitudes indeed take a local minimum. The energy leak through the frequency window could partly contribute to

  10. Foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in young lambs: pathogenesis and tissue tropism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryan, Eoin; Horsington, Jacquelyn; Durand, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in adult sheep usually causes milder clinical signs than in cattle or pigs, and is often subtle enough to go undiagnosed. In contrast, FMD in lambs has been reported to cause high mortality during field outbreaks. In order to investigate the pathogenesis of FMD in lambs...... examined for histopathological lesions, and in situ hybridisation (ISH) was used to localise viral RNA within histological sections. The contact-infected lambs became infected approximately 24 h after the ewes were inoculated. Vesicular lesions developed on the feet of all lambs and on the caudo......-lateral part of the tongues of six of the eight inoculated lambs and three of the four contact-infected lambs. Although no lambs developed severe clinical signs, one of the contact-infected lambs died acutely at 5 days post-exposure. Histological examination of the heart from this lamb showed multi-focal areas...

  11. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FRUIT GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jurković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and

  12. Effect of different grazing pressure by lambs grazing Lolium perenne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    high (HGP), medium (MGP) and low (LGP), corresponding to 30, 50 and 75 g available DM/kg BW/day, respectively] on the quality of herbage consumed by lambs grazing Lolium perenne and Dactylis glomerata pastures in spring.

  13. Occipital condylar dysplasia in a Jacob lamb ( Ovis aries ) | Lee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multihorned) phenotype. We describe a four-horned Jacob lamb that exhibited progressive congenital hindlimb ataxia and paresis, and was euthanased four weeks post-partum. Necropsy and CT-scan revealed deformity and asymmetry of the ...

  14. Damage Detection Using Lamb Waves for Structural Health Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crider II, Jeffrey S

    2007-01-01

    .... This study evaluates Lamb wave approaches used to detect simulated cracks in laboratory experiments on thin plates to detect more realistic damage in a test article representing the complex geometry...

  15. Cheap heat grows in fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2006-01-01

    Slovak farmers resemble the peasants from the film T he Magnificent Seven . They keep complaining about their fate but consider any innovation as an interference. And that is why they still have not started growing fast-growing wood although the number of heating plants processing bio-mass from forests and fields is growing. Natural gas is expensive and coal creates pollution. Energy from biomass is becoming a good business and also creates new business opportunities - growing the raw material it needs. Such heating plants usually use waste from wood processing companies and Slovak Forests (Lesy SR) has also started deliveries of chip wood from old forests. There are plantations of fast growing wood suitable for heat production of over 500-thousand hectares throughout the EU. This is about 10% of Slovakian's area where the first plantations are also already being set up. The first promising plantation project was launched this spring. And this is not a project launched and backed by a big company but a starting up businessman, Miroslav Forgac from Kosice. He founded his company, Forgim, last winter. Without big money involved and thank to a new business idea he managed to persuade farmers to set up the first plantations. He supplied the seedlings and the business has started with 75 ha of plantations around Trnava, Sala, Komarno, Lucenec, Poprad and Kosice. He is gradually signing contracts with other landowners and next year the area of plantations is set to grow by 1500 ha. Plantations of fast growing trees such as willow, poplar and acacia regenerate by new trees growing out of the roots of the old and from cut trees so from one seedling and one investment there can be several harvests. Swedish willows from Forgim regenerate 20 to 25 years after the first planting. And only then new seedlings have to be purchased. Using special machines that even cut the wood to wood chips the plantations can be 'harvested' every three years. Unlike crops, the fields do not

  16. Effects of Transport on Live Weight and Behavior of Lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Andronie; Adina Ciurea; Viorel Andronie; Dumitru Curcă

    2011-01-01

    The study has monitored the effects of transport stress on some biochemical indicators of stress and behavior lambs at time of slaughter. The research was carried out in the cold season, on a number of 120 lambs, transported for 6h- 16h, to be slaughtered. During our research, we followed the changes in bodyweight, behaviours expressed by sheep, and plasma cortisol levels. Bodyweight loss recorded in the slaughterhouse to 24 hours of departure transportation was of 4-5%. The behavioural manif...

  17. A dynamic counterpart of Lamb vector in viscous compressible aerodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L Q; Wu, J Z; Shi, Y P; Zhu, J Y

    2014-01-01

    The Lamb vector is known to play a key role in incompressible fluid dynamics and vortex dynamics. In particular, in low-speed steady aerodynamics it is solely responsible for the total force acting on a moving body, known as the vortex force, with the classic two-dimensional (exact) Kutta–Joukowski theorem and three-dimensional (linearized) lifting-line theory as the most famous special applications. In this paper we identify an innovative dynamic counterpart of the Lamb vector in viscous compressible aerodynamics, which we call the compressible Lamb vector. Mathematically, we present a theorem on the dynamic far-field decay law of the vorticity and dilatation fields, and thereby prove that the generalized Lamb vector enjoys exactly the same integral properties as the Lamb vector does in incompressible flow, and hence the vortex-force theory can be generalized to compressible flow with exactly the same general formulation. Moreover, for steady flow of polytropic gas, we show that physically the force exerted on a moving body by the gas consists of a transverse force produced by the original Lamb vector and a new longitudinal force that reflects the effects of compression and irreversible thermodynamics. (paper)

  18. Impact Localization Using Lamb Wave and Spiral FSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimal, Nischal

    Wear and tear exists in almost every physical infrastructure. Modern day science has something in its pocket to early detect such wear and tear known as Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). SHM features a key role in tracking a structural failure and could prevent loss of human lives and money. The size and prices of presently available defect detection devices make them not suitable for on-site SHM. The exploitation of directional transducers and Lamb wave propagation for SHM has been proposed. The basis of the project was to develop an accurate localization algorithm and implementation of Lamb waves to detect the crack present in the plate like structures. In regards, the use of Frequency Steerable Acoustic Transducer (FSAT) was studied. The theory governing the propagation of Lamb wave was reviewed. The derivation of the equations and dispersion curve of Lamb waves are included. FSAT was studied from both theoretical and application view of point. The experiments carried out give us better understanding of the FSAT excitation and Lamb wave generation and detection. The Lamb wave generation and crack localization algorithm was constructed and with the proposed algorithm, simulated impacts are detected.

  19. Growing media [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    Selecting the proper growing medium is one of the most important considerations in nursery plant production. A growing medium can be defined as a substance through which roots grow and extract water and nutrients. In native plant nurseries, a growing medium can consist of native soil but is more commonly an "artificial soil" composed of materials such as peat...

  20. The Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebel, Tobias

    2010-06-25

    The subject of this thesis is the first measurement of the 2S-2P Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen ({mu}p). In this project, which has been performed at the proton-accelerator facility of the Paul-Scherrer-Institute in Switzerland, the exotic analogon to the classical Lamb shift in hydrogen has been examined by laser spectroscopy. Negative muons are produced at a specially developed low-energy muon beam at a rate of 330 s{sup -1} and are stopped in 1 hPa of H{sub 2} gas. In the gas, highly excited {mu}p atoms are formed, most of which promptly cascade to the ground state within {proportional_to}100 ns. Only a fraction of 1.1% forms {mu}p atoms in the long-lived 2S state with a lifetime of 1.0 {mu}s. An elaborate laser system triggered on every incoming muon delivers 0.2 mJ laser pulses at {lambda}{approx_equal}6 {mu}m with 500 s{sup -1} repetition rate. The laser illuminates the {mu}p atoms 900 ns after the prompt muon cascade inducing the 2S-2P transition when on resonance. A 1.9 keV K{sub {alpha}} X-ray is emitted in the subsequent deexcitation to the 1S ground state and is recorded by large area avalanche photodiodes. The laser induced K{sub {alpha}} events are clearly distinguishable from the exponential background. For the 2S{sub 1/2}{sup F=1} - 2P{sub 3/2}{sup F=2} transition in {mu}p, it is given by {nu}{sub 2S-2P}=49 881 695 (711)MHz with a relative accuracy of 1.4 x 10{sup -5}. Assuming the correctness of the bound-state QED calculations of the Lamb shift in {mu}p, a new value for the rms proton charge radius r{sub p} can be derived: r{sub p}=0:84192(65) fm. Using the precisely measured 1S-2S transition frequency in hydrogen (relative accuracy of 1.4 parts in 10{sup 14}) and combining it with our new value of r{sub p}, a new value for the Rydberg constant R{sub {infinity}} can be derived with a relative accuracy of 1.5 parts in 10{sup 12}: R{sub {infinity}}=10 973 731.568 161(16)m{sup -1}. Beside the 2S{sub 1/2}{sup F=1}-2P{sub 3/2}{sup F=2} transition in {mu

  1. Effect of creep feeding system on performance of suckling lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh S, A.; Saleh, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty seven newly born Barki Lambs of about 3.84 kg live body weight were randomly divided into three groups of nine lambs each. Their weights were recorded at birth. Lambs in the first group were served as controls and fed on their dam's milk only (milk basis) > The second group was fed on their dam's milk in addition to concentrate feed mixture (CFM) as creep feeding> Group three was fed on their dam's milk; concentrate feed mixture and lactic acid producing bacteria. Concentrate feed mixture was offered daily in the morning for lambs under creep feeding system, started at 7 days from birth. Lambs were kept with their mothers in the same pens. Blood samples were collected at 7.30 and 60 days old from the jugular vein of each animal. Total gain, average daily gain and weaning weight of lambs were higher (P<0.05) in groups II and III than control group. Both groups II and III showed no significant difference in weight gain. The higher values serum total proteins were recorded in groups II and III. Values of serum total proteins were recorded in groups II and III . Values of serum albumin were similar in all different groups. However, group III recorded the highest values of globin. Blood serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) activities were not affected by treatment. It was clearly observed that GPT values were increased with age in all groups. Values for serum glucose were decreased with age until weaning, while serum urea nitrogen was increased with age. The differences among treatments in creatinine concentrations were not significant. Total triiodothyronine (T4) and total thyroxine (T4) concentrations were not significantly different between experimental groups. It is concluded that creep feeding promotes growth in lambs during suckling period and can be successfully used for a short fattening period

  2. Late foetal life nutrient restriction and sire genotype affect postnatal performance of lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Tauson, Anne-Helen; Blache, D.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment investigates the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in late gestation on the offsprings' postnatal metabolism and performance. Forty purebred Shropshire twin lambs born to ewes fed either a high-nutrition diet (H) (according to standard) or a low-nutrition (L) diet (50% during....... Their glucose concentrations and growth rates were both increased. Plasma glucose concentrations in LM-lambs became similar to those observed in H-lambs post-weaning. However, LM-lambs continued to be lighter than the other groups throughout the experimental period and were unable to compensate for the reduced...... weight at birth despite having the highest daily fractional growth rates. LG-lambs had the highest plasma glucose concentrations of all four groups of lambs, and they indeed reached body weights comparable to those of the H-lambs by 145 days of age. The increased growth rate post-weaning in L-lambs...

  3. Mutations in the human laminin beta2 (LAMB2) gene and the associated phenotypic spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matejas, Verena; Hinkes, Bernward; Alkandari, Faisal; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Annexstad, Ellen; Aytac, Mehmet B.; Barrow, Margaret; Bláhová, Kveta; Bockenhauer, Detlef; Cheong, Hae Il; Maruniak-Chudek, Iwona; Cochat, Pierre; Dötsch, Jörg; Gajjar, Priya; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Janssen, Françoise; Kagan, Mikhail; Kariminejad, Ariana; Kemper, Markus J.; Koenig, Jens; Kogan, Jillene; Kroes, Hester Y.; Kuwertz-Bröking, Eberhard; Lewanda, Amy F.; Medeira, Ana; Muscheites, Jutta; Niaudet, Patrick; Pierson, Michel; Saggar, Anand; Seaver, Laurie; Suri, Mohnish; Tsygin, Alexey; Wühl, Elke; Zurowska, Aleksandra; Uebe, Steffen; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Antignac, Corinne; Zenker, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Mutations of LAMB2 typically cause autosomal recessive Pierson syndrome, a disorder characterized by congenital nephrotic syndrome, ocular and neurologic abnormalities, but may occasionally be associated with milder or oligosymptomatic disease variants. LAMB2 encodes the basement membrane protein

  4. Intake and ingestive behavior in lambs fed low-digestibility forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Antônio E; Carvalho, Gleidson G P; Pires, Aureliano J V; Silva, Robério R; Santos, Paulo E F; Murta, Rogério M; Pereira, Fabiano M; Carvalho, Bruna M A; Maranhão, Camila M A; Rufino, Luana M A; Santos, Stefanie A; Pina, Douglas S

    2016-10-01

    Ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets consisting of fresh sugarcane with urea, bagasse treated with calcium oxide, and urea ammoniated sugarcane bagasse supplemented with concentrate mixture in 50:50 ratio were evaluated. For this, 34 wethers Santa Inês in their growing phase, with an average age of 3.0 ± 0.6 months and a mean initial live weight of 17.8± 5.2 kg were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design and subjected to visual observation periods of 5 days, for 24 h a day, during the experimental period. Dry matter (DM) intake and intake efficiency of DM were higher (P  0.05). Grams of dry matter per ruminated bolus were similar among animals fed with fresh sugarcane and ammoniated bagasse (P > 0.05) but lower (P  0.05) to those found for feeding efficiency. The number of feeding and rumination periods was not affected (P > 0.05) by diet. Based on the intake and ingestive behavior responses, the fresh sugarcane with urea compared to bagasse treated with calcium oxide and ammoniated bagasse was found to be the better alternative feed for use in lamb diets.

  5. Ichthyosis fetalis in a cross-bred lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Antonio Carlos Lopes; Borges, Pedro Augusto Cordeiro; Paiva, Silvano Alves; Pierezan, Felipe; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2017-10-01

    Ichthyosis is a dermatological disease characterized by varying degrees of generalized hyperkeratosis and alopecia. Two congenital forms of ichthyosis are recognized in animals: fetalis (IF) and congenita. The disease occurs rarely in cattle, swine, dogs, chickens and a goat; it has not been reported in sheep. To provide clinical, laboratory and pathological assessments of a case of IF in a cross-bred lamb. A male cross-bred lamb. Physical examination revealed apathy, fever, ectropion and eclabium. Generalized thickening and scaling of the skin was noted; this was most severe on the face, ears, inner thighs, limbs and perineum. Deep fissures and wounds were present on the hind limbs and forelimbs. The lamb was monitored for 75 days. During this period, lesions progressed and occasionally obstructed the nostrils and increasingly made it difficult for the lamb to flex major limb joints. Postmortem findings included severe epidermal thickening, multiple subcutaneous abscesses, ectropion and corneal scars. Histological findings revealed diffuse orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, follicular keratosis, irregular epidermal hyperplasia and atrophy of the sebaceous glands. Serum vitamin A concentration was within the normal range for the species. This case report describes a case of presumptive ichthyosis fetalis in a lamb. Greater awareness by practitioners is required for this disease to be included in the differential diagnosis of dermatopathies in this species. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  6. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection and effect on lamb growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinshamn Håvard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge in sheep farming during the grazing season along the coast of south-western Norway is tick-borne fever (TBF caused by the bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum that is transmitted by the tick Ixodes ricinus. Methods A study was carried out in 2007 and 2008 to examine the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum infection and effect on weaning weight in lambs. The study included 1208 lambs from farms in Sunndal Ram Circle in Møre and Romsdal County in Mid-Norway, where ticks are frequently observed. All lambs were blood sampled and serum was analyzed by an indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IFA to determine an antibody status (positive or negative to A. phagocytophilum infection. Weight and weight gain and possible effect of infection were analyzed using ANOVA and the MIXED procedure in SAS. Results The overall prevalence of infection with A. phagocytophilum was 55%. A lower weaning weight of 3% (1.34 kg, p A. phagocytophilum infection compared to seronegative lambs at an average age of 137 days. Conclusions The results show that A. phagocytophilum infection has an effect on lamb weight gain. The study also support previous findings that A. phagocytophilum infection is widespread in areas where ticks are prevalent, even in flocks treated prophylactic with acaricides.

  7. Lamb meat colour stability as affected by dietary tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Pennisi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one male Comisana lambs were divided into three groups at 45 days of age and were individually penned for 60 days. Seven lambs were fed a concentrate-based diet (C, seven lambs received the same concentrate with the addiction of tannins from quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii; T, whereas the remaining animals were fed exclusively fresh vetch (Vicia sativa; H. Colour descriptors (a*, b* and H* and metmyoglobin (MMb percentages were measured on minced semimembranosus muscle over 14 days of refrigerated storage in a high oxygen atmosphere. Regardless of dietary treatment, meat redness decreased, while yellowness and hue angle increased (P < 0.001 over storage duration. However, higher a* values, lower b* values and lower H* values were observed in meat from both H- and T-fed animals as compared to meat from C-fed lambs (P = 0.012; P = 0.02; P = 0.003, respectively. Metmyoglobin formation increased over time (P < 0.001, but H diet resulted in lower metmyoglobin percentages than C diet (P = 0.007. We conclude that the inclusion of tannins into the concentrate improved meat colour stability compared to a tannin-free concentrate. Moreover, the protective effect of tannins against meat discolouration was comparable to that obtained by feeding lambs fresh herbage.

  8. Effect of supplementary feeding to ewes and suckling lambs on ewe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A trial was conducted to determine the effects on the performance of creep feeding suckling lambs and supplementing ewes that were grazing wheat stubble. Eight experimental units of South African Mutton Merino (SAMM) ewes and lambs were used in a 2 (supplementing ewes or not) x 2 (creep feeding lambs or not) ...

  9. Myopathy and hepatic lipidosis in weaned lambs due to vitamin E deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Paula; Langs, Lisa; Boermans, Herman; Martin, John; McNally, John

    2004-03-01

    A sheep flock experienced losses in weaned lambs from myopathy and hepatic lipidosis. Investigation revealed painful ambulation, illthrift, and unexpected death in lambs with normal selenium levels, deficient vitamin E levels, and elevated muscle and liver enzyme levels. Vitamin E deficiency should be considered when investigating myopathy and illthrift in lambs.

  10. Ancient art, rhetoric and the Lamb of God metaphor in John 1:29 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-03

    Jul 3, 2015 ... Biblical scholars have given diverse explanations for the Lamb of God metaphor in John. 1:29 and 1:36. Most scholars are of the opinion that 'amnos' refers to the Passover lamb. This explanation is not obvious from the context of the Fourth Gospel. To understand the metaphor 'lamb' or 'amnos' of God, one ...

  11. Ancient art, rhetoric and the Lamb of God metaphor in John 1:29 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biblical scholars have given diverse explanations for the Lamb of God metaphor in John 1:29 and 1:36. Most scholars are of the opinion that 'amnos' refers to the Passover lamb. This explanation is not obvious from the context of the Fourth Gospel. To understand the metaphor 'lamb' or 'amnos' of God, one should ...

  12. Performance, carcass traits and costs of Suffolk lambs finishing systems with early weaning and controlled suckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rodrigo Fernandes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The performance, carcass traits and finishing costs of Suffolk lambs were evaluated in three systems: (1 lambs weaned with 22 kg of body weight (BW and supplemented with concentrate on pasture until slaughter; (2 lambs weaned with 22 kg BW and fed in feedlot until slaughter; (3 lambs maintained in controlled nursing after 22 kg BW and creep fed in feedlot until slaughter. Average daily gain (ADG was 224 g/d for lambs weaned and supplemented with concentrate on pasture, 386 g/d for lambs weaned in feedlot and 481 g/d for lambs under controlled nursing. Empty body weight and visceral fat deposition were highest in lambs from feedlot systems. Carcass weights and carcass yields were highest for lambs in controlled nursing. Finishing total costs were highest in controlled nursing and lowest in the system with weaning in feedlot. High concentrate diet associated with controlled nursing in feedlot allowed lambs to reach the growth potential and carcasses with higher weights, higher yields and higher fat content. After weaning, lambs in feedlot fed with high concentrate diet had higher weight gain than lambs supplemented with concentrate on pasture. Carcasses produced under these two systems presented the same characteristics. The system with weaning in feedlot showed the lowest cost per kg carcass.

  13. A Comparison of the Growth and Milk Conversion Rates of Lambs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth rate of local (LL), Dorper (DD) and crossbred (DL) lambs and of local (LL) Boer (BB) and crossbread (BL) goat kids were studies over two seasons of kidding/lambing until 24 weeks of age. The kids and lambs suckled their dams indoors for one month. Thereafter, both the dams and the young grazed natural pastures ...

  14. Studies on risk factors of mortality in lambs in Sokoto, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mortality in lambs is complex problem which may result from a variety of climatic, nutritional, management, infectious, genetic and other factors. Associated with death are other factors which could be of maternal or lamb origin that predisposes the young lamb to early death. Records of sex, breed, age, birth weight, type of ...

  15. Performance of lambs out of ewes from different genetic groups and submitted to flushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luis de Azambuja Ribeiro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to analyze the productive performance of lambs, out of ewes of different genetic groups and submitted to different feeding managements before and during the mating season, from birth until weaning. One hundred and twenty-six lambs were used, from the genetic groups ½ Corriedale + ½ Texel (11, Hampshire Down (73, Ile de France (26 and Suffolk (16, born in two consecutive years. The ewes were submitted to three feeding managements: T1 – without supplementation, T2 - supplemented with 600 g/day of corn grain, and T3 - supplemented with 600 g/ day of a ration containing 75% of corn and 25% of soybean meal. Body weight and weight gain were analysed individually and by litter size. Flushing did not influence weight and weight gain of lambs. Twin lambs, in the individual analysis, showed lower body weight and weight gain compared to single lambs, but in the analysis by litter size, the sum of the twin lambs showed greater body weight and weight gain compared to single lambs. Differences in body weight and weight gain were observed among the genetic groups and between the sexes, where males were heavier and presented greater weight gain. Twin lambs showed higher mortality than single lambs. Although flushing can provide greater number of lambs, a considerable profit was not verified. It is concluded that flushing do not influence in the performance of lambs, and that twin lambs show higher mortality than single ones, and flushing is not profitable.

  16. How Respiratory Pathogens Contribute to Lamb Mortality in a Poorly Performing Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) Herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mary E; Fox, Karen A; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica; Killion, Halcyon J; Amundson, Sierra; Miller, Michael W; Edwards, William H

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) ewes and their lambs in captivity to examine the sources and roles of respiratory pathogens causing lamb mortality in a poorly performing herd. After seven consecutive years of observed December recruitments of sheep from the remnant Gribbles Park herd in Colorado, US were captured and transported to the Thorne-Williams Wildlife Research Center in Wyoming in March 2013. Ewes were sampled repeatedly over 16 mo. In April 2014, ewes were separated into individual pens prior to lambing. Upon death, lambs were necropsied and tested for respiratory pathogens. Six lambs developed clinical respiratory disease and one lamb was abandoned. Pathology from an additional six lambs born in 2013 was also evaluated. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae , leukotoxigenic Mannheimia spp., leukotoxigenic Bibersteinia trehalosi , and Pasteurella multocida all contributed to lamb pneumonia. Histopathology suggested a continuum of disease, with lesions typical of pasteurellosis predominating in younger lambs and lesions typical of mycoplasmosis predominating in older lambs. Mixed pathology was observed in lambs dying between these timeframes. We suspected that all the ewes in our study were persistently infected and chronically shedding the bacteria that contributed to summer lamb mortality.

  17. Effects of continuous versus intermittent transport on plasma constituents and antibody response of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczel, P D; Friend, T H; Caldwell, D J; Archer, G; Ameiss, K

    2007-02-01

    Recommendations for transportation of lambs, horses, calves, and pigs from a committee of the European Commission, which required rest stops of 6 or 24 h, every 8 h, were evaluated using Rambouillet x Suffolk lambs. The lambs of 17.6 +/- 0.5 kg of BW were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: transported for 22 h (continuous; n = 15); transported for 8 h, unloaded and rested for 6 h, transported for 8 h, unloaded and rested for 24 h, transported for 6 h (rested, n = 15); or remained in the home pasture throughout the study (control, n = 16). Off-trailer rest with food and water occurred in novel pens. Food deprivation in the continuous lambs was reflected by a decrease (P lambs. Electrolytes varied within and among all 3 treatments (P lambs compared with control lambs at 22 h (P lambs relative to the control lambs. Differences (P lambs indicated the rest stops were sufficient to maintain BW during transport; however, these results were confounded by the control lambs losing a similar (P = 0.50) percentage of their initial BW as the continuous lambs at 22 h. The rest stops eliminated the physiological indicators of food deprivation and maintained BW but did not alleviate evidence of immunosuppression, and 52 h was required to complete the otherwise 22-h-long trip.

  18. The effect of colostrum intake on blood plasma proteome profile in newborn lambs: low abundance proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; de Almeida, André Martinho; Ventosa, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Colostrum intake by newborn lambs plays a fundamental role in the perinatal period, ensuring lamb survival. In this study, blood plasma samples from two groups of newborn lambs (Colostrum group and Delayed Colostrum group) at 2 and 14 h after birth were treated to reduce the content of high abund...

  19. Effect of ewe prolificacy potential and stocking rate on ewe and lamb performance in a grass-based lamb production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, E; McHugh, N; Boland, T M; Creighton, P

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of ewe prolificacy potential (PP; predicted number of lambs born per ewe per year) as dictated by sire breed type, stocking rate (SR; ewes per ha), and their interaction on ewe and lamb performance in a temperate grass-based lamb production system. The study was a 2 × 3 factorial design, consisting of 2 differing ewe PP and 3 SR which included 180 medium prolificacy potential (MP- Suffolk-sired crossbred ewes) and 180 high prolificacy potential ewes (HP- Belclare-sired crossbred ewes) allocated to 1 of 3 ( = 60 ewes) SR: low (LSR; 10 ewes per ha), medium (MSR; 12 ewes per ha) or high (HSR: 14 ewes per ha). Each treatment was managed in a 5-paddock rotational grazing system for the duration of the study. Medium prolificacy ewes were consistently heavier ( ewes, with HP ewes having a higher BCS at lambing and 6 wk post-lambing (PL; ewes had a higher BW ( ewes which did not differ from each other. Lambs born to MP ewes were heavier at birth and weaning ( Ewe PP had no effect on lifetime ADG or d to slaughter (DTS) with HP lambs yielding a higher carcass weight ( ewe PP by SR interaction existed for DTS, with MP lambs at the LSR reaching slaughter weight earlier ( ewes produced a higher average born ( ewe ( ewe PP and SR increased. Lambing difficulty, ewe mother ability and lamb viability did not differ by ewe PP or SR. In conclusion, the lack of interaction between ewe PP and SR on many key performance measures in this study demonstrates the potential to increase the live weight of lamb weaned per ha through the use of higher ewe PP and SR levels, with no effect of ewe PP on lifetime lamb performance even as SR increased, with reductions in lamb performance primarily occurring at the HSR.

  20. Impact of alternative definitions of contemporary groups on genetic evaluations of traits recorded at lambing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, N; Pabiou, T; Wall, E; McDermott, K; Berry, D P

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of alternative contemporary group definitions for lambing traits on genetic evaluations in the Irish multibreed sheep population. Three lambing traits were considered for analysis: lambing difficulty, birth weight, and survival. Eight alternative contemporary group definitions were investigated for each lambing trait; all contemporary groups were formed within flock of lambing and included (flock by) week of lambing, week of lambing by litter size (i.e., singles vs. multiples), 2-wk interval (i.e., fortnight) of lambing, fortnight of lambing by litter size, month of lambing, and month of lambing by litter size or were based on an optimized algorithm that creates contemporary groups based on animals from the same flock that are born in close proximity of date. Three alternative scenarios were modeled for each of the lambing traits using the contemporary group definitions: the first scenario (termed Current Scenario) represented the editing criteria currently employed in the Irish national genetic evaluations; the second scenario (No Restriction Scenario) removed any restriction on number of records per contemporary group, and the final scenario (Variation Scenario) included only data from contemporary groups with some variability in the dependent variable. Variance components and EBV for each of the 3 lambing traits were estimated using linear mixed models. The direct heritability estimates ranged from 0.09 ± 0.02 to 0.29 ± 0.02 for lambing difficulty, 0.11 ± 0.01 to 0.24 ± 0.01 for birth weight, and 0.05 ± 0.02 to 0.10 ± 0.02 for lamb survival. Irrespective of lambing trait, greater estimated accuracy of the sire EBV was achieved with the No Restriction Scenario. Results for the ability to predict future lambing characteristics, based on only the direct and maternal EBV, revealed that the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for the dichotomized lambing assistance phenotype varied from 0

  1. Characterization of the human laminin beta2 chain locus (LAMB2): linkage to a gene containing a nonprocessed, transcribed LAMB2-like pseudogene (LAMB2L) and to the gene encoding glutaminyl tRNA synthetase (QARS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durkin, M E; Jäger, A C; Khurana, T S

    1999-01-01

    The laminin beta2 chain is an important constituent of certain kidney and muscle basement membranes. We have generated a detailed physical map of a 110-kb genomic DNA segment surrounding the human laminin beta2 chain gene (LAMB2) on chromosome 3p21.3-->p21.2, a region paralogous with the chromosome...... 7q22-->q31 region that contains the laminin beta1 chain gene locus (LAMB1). Several CpG islands and a novel polymorphic microsatellite marker (D3S4594) were identified. The 3' end of LAMB2 lies 16 kb from the 5' end of the glutaminyl tRNA synthetase gene (QARS). About 20 kb upstream of LAMB2 we...... found a gene encoding a transcribed, non-processed LAMB2-like pseudogene (LAMB2L). The sequence of 1.75 kb of genomic DNA at the 3' end of LAMB2L was similar to exons 8-12 of the laminin beta2 chain gene. The LAMB2L-LAMB2-QARS cluster lies telomeric to the gene encoding the laminin-binding protein...

  2. Using lamb waves tomonitor moisture absorption thermally fatigues composite laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sun; Cho, Youn Ho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Nondestructive evaluation for material health monitoring is important in aerospace industries. Composite laminates are exposed to heat cyclic loading and humid environment depending on flight conditions. Cyclic heat loading and moisture absorption may lead to material degradation such as matrix breaking, debonding, and delamination. In this paper, the moisture absorption ratio was investigated by measuring the Lamb wave velocity. The composite laminates were manufactured and subjected to different thermal aging cycles and moisture absorption. For various conditions of these cycles, not only changes in weight and also ultrasonic wave velocity were measured, and the Lamb wave velocity at various levels of moisture on a carbon-epoxy plate was investigated. Results from the experiment show a linear correlation between moisture absorption ratio and Lamb wave velocity at different thermal fatigue stages. The presented method can be applied as an alternative solution in the online monitoring of composite laminate moisture levels in commercial flights.

  3. Microbiological contamination of lamb carcasses at abattoirs of Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Kahraman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of a hundred lamb carcasses were sampled over a 12 month period at abattoirs in Istanbul, Turkey. Each sample examined for total aerobic mesophilic counts (TMC, Enterobacteriaceae count (EC, Salmonella spp. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes was obtained from 100 cm2 areas on four sides of lamb carcasses using the wet and dry cotton swab technique. The study revealed that total aerobic mesophilic counts in all carcasses ranged between 4.18 and 5.95 log/cm2; Enterobacteriaceae counts between 1.60 and 2.30 CFU/cm2. All samples were negative for Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. Furthermore Salmonella spp. was detected on four carcasses. The data confirms bacteriological monitoring of lamb carcasses as a useful criteria for the verification of slaughter hygiene.

  4. Carcass traits and meat quality of lamb fed on ration containing different levels of leucaena hay (Leucaena leucocephala L.)

    OpenAIRE

    El-Aal Abd H.A.; Suliman A.I.A.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty growing crossbred male lambs (3 chios. 1 ossimi and 1 chios. 1 ossimi) of 15.25 + 2.00 kg initial average body weight and three months old were divided into four groups. All groups were fed on concentrate feed mixture plus 1% of live body weight wheat straw for 169 days. Four levels (zero, 200g, 400g and 600g) of leucaena hay were used. Final weight and carcass traits were evaluated. Color (L, a, b), proximate composition, pH, acidity, expressible water, water holding capacity, cooking...

  5. Stress responses in lambs castrated with three different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sandra Nicolussi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted to evaluate the animal response to stress in lambs caused by three different castration techniques. Forty-six male lambs aged 4-5 months were randomly allocated to one of four groups including Burdizzo (B, scrotal ablation (SA, orchiectomy (OR and control handling (H. Local anaesthesia (lidocaine 2% was administered in both spermatic cords and the scrotal neck of lambs before each treatment. Blood samples were collected at -30, -10, +1, +20, +40, +60, +120, and +180 minutes. Serum cortisol concentrations were determined using a competitive immunoassay and the area under the curve (AUC was calculated for each lamb. The following biochemical parameters were assayed for each animal at each time point: alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK and glucose (GLU. The time needed for total lesion resolution and weight gain of each animal was recorded. Orchiectomy elicits the greatest cortisol response, significantly greater than that seen in similarly handled controls (P≤0.01, Burdizzo and scrotal ablation groups (P≤0.05. The serum cortisol AUC was higher in the scrotal ablation group (P≤0.05 than controls, but lower than in the orchiectomy group (P≤0.05. The Burdizzo group didn’t differ from controls. Serum glucose levels of the castrated lambs differed significantly from the control group, following a trend similar to cortisol. No change was seen in ALT, AST, LDH or CK. No difference in weight gain was seen among the groups. Our results suggest that use of the Burdizzo is the preferable castration technique for adult lambs, while scrotal ablation is a valid surgical alternative to orchiectomy and permits more rapid wound healing that is ideal for extensive management where flocks are not under close observation.

  6. Symmetry properties of second harmonics generated by antisymmetric Lamb waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wujun; Xiang, Yanxun; Liu, Chang-Jun; Deng, Mingxi; Xuan, Fu-Zhen

    2018-03-01

    Symmetry properties of second harmonics generated by antisymmetric primary Lamb waves are systematically studied in this work. In theory, the acoustic field of second harmonic Lamb waves is obtained by using the perturbation approximation and normal modal method, and the energy flux transfer from the primary Lamb waves to second harmonics is mainly explored. Symmetry analyses indicate that either the symmetric or antisymmetric Lamb waves can merely generate the symmetric second harmonics. Finite element simulations are performed on the nonlinear Lamb wave propagation of the antisymmetric A0 mode in the low frequency region. The signals of the second harmonics and the symmetric second harmonic s0 mode are found to be exactly equivalent in the time domain. The relative acoustic nonlinearity parameter A2/A12 oscillates with the propagation distance, and the oscillation amplitude and spatial period are well consistent with the theoretical prediction of the A0-s0 mode pair, which means that only the second harmonic s0 mode is generated by the antisymmetric primary A0 mode. Experiments are further conducted to examine the cumulative generation of symmetric second harmonics for the antisymmetric-symmetric mode pair A3-s6. Results show that A2/A12 increases linearly with the propagation distance, which means that the symmetric second harmonic s6 mode is generated cumulatively by the antisymmetric primary A3 mode. The present investigation systematically corroborates the proposed theory that only symmetric second harmonics can be generated accompanying the propagation of antisymmetric primary Lamb waves in a plate.

  7. Immunization with irradiated larvae against Dictyocaulus filaria in young lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, D.N.; Sharma, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    In the lungworm-endemic areas of Kashmir, 6-10 week old lambs of Karnah and Kashmir Merino breeds were vaccinated with two doses of 50 kR gamma-irradiated larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria, given a month apart. Assessed on the basis of reduced prevalence and significantly lower faecal larval output over an eight-month observation period, vaccinated lambs showed a high degree of resistance to naturally acquired D. filaria infection. The results also show that vaccination against D. filaria provided some degree of protection against infection with other lungworm species. (Auth.)

  8. Vaccination of lambs with irradiated larvae of Bunostomum trigonocephalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, V.K.; Singh, K.S.; Subramanian, G.

    1987-01-01

    Vaccination with a single dose of 2,000 infective larvae of Bunostomum trigonocephalum, irradiated at 40 kR, caused 80 per cent reduction in worm establishment and such lambs withstood a challenge infection which was otherwise fatal to non-vaccinated lambs. The female worms, which developed from irradiated larvae, were irregular in shape, had cuticular thickening at the genital opening and in many male worms the copulatory bursa was rudimentary. The sex ratio was adversely affected in worms developing from irradiated larvae. The population had preponderant sterile females and a very few male worms. (author)

  9. Intragenic regions required for LamB export.

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, S A; Bremer, E; Silhavy, T J

    1984-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains containing a series of lamB-lacZ fusions have been isolated and characterized. Each of these fusions specifies a hybrid protein with LamB sequences at the NH2 terminus and a large functional COOH-terminal fragment of beta-galactosidase. The amount of LamB present in the various hybrid proteins ranges from as few as 4 amino acids to a complete signal sequence (25 amino acids) plus 49 amino acids of the mature protein. With respect to hybrid protein export these fusions...

  10. Mineral requirements for growth of wool and hair lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabelle Auxiliadora Molina de Almeida Teixeira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the body composition and the mineral requirements for growth of wool and hair lambs. A total of 34 castrated lambs with an initial body weight (BW of 19.9±0.8 kg were used; 17 of these lambs were of the genotype Ideal × Ile de France and 17 were Santa Inês. Ten lambs (5 of each genotype were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment to establish their initial body composition. The remaining lambs were assigned to one of three diets (40% roughage and 60% concentrate, 60% roughage and 40% concentrate, or 80% roughage and 20% concentrate in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. All of the diets were provided ad libitum. When the group under 40% roughage and 60% concentrate reached 35 kg BW, all of the animals were slaughtered. Linear regressions were used to determine the relationship between the shrunk BW and the empty body weight (EBW for each genotype. These equations were compared and revealed differences between the genotypes. The allometric equations were calculated using the relationship between the amount of minerals and the EBW. The equations of a given mineral for each genotype were compared to verify if they were statistically different. The equations for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium differed between genotypes. The same equations were used to estimate the major body mineral composition per kilogram of EBW. The net requirement for gain of the fleece-free Ideal × Ile de France lambs ranged from 7.77 to 6.80 g Ca, 4.54 to 4.14 g P, 0.30 to 0.27 g Mg, 1.18 to 1.07 g K and 0.84 to 0.76 g Na per kg BW gain, and the requirements of the Santa Inês animals ranged from 9.57 to 8.37 g Ca, 5.39 to 4.91 g P, 0.36 to 0.33 g Mg, 1.18 to 1.07 g K and 0.90 to 0.81 g Na per kg BW gain for the lambs weighting 20 to 35 kg. Santa Inês lambs showed higher requirements for Ca, P, Mg and Na.

  11. Mathematical modeling of respiratory system mechanics in the newborn lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rolle, Virginie; Samson, Nathalie; Praud, Jean-Paul; Hernández, Alfredo I

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model of the respiratory mechanics is used to reproduce experimental signal waveforms acquired from three newborn lambs. As the main challenge is to determine specific lamb parameters, a sensitivity analysis has been realized to find the most influent parameters, which are identified using an evolutionary algorithm. Results show a close match between experimental and simulated pressure and flow waveforms obtained during spontaneous ventilation and pleural pressure variations acquired during the application of positive pressure, since root mean square errors equal to 0.0119, 0.0052 and 0.0094. The identified parameters were discussed in light of previous knowledge of respiratory mechanics in the newborn.

  12. Frequency response of Lamb-Oseen vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Rodríguez, F. J.; Parras, L.; del Pino, C.

    2016-12-01

    In this numerical study we present the frequency response of the Lamb-Oseen (Gaussian) vortex for two synthetic jet configurations. The first one consists of an annular axial jet that is superimposed on the Gaussian vortex. The other configuration deals with an off-axis, single-point, axial jet (SPI). We detect that the system responds to the forcing for a given axial wavenumber, k, exciting natural modes of the vortex by a resonance mechanism. We propose an explanation for the physical mechanism responsible for the maximum energy gain obtained by comparing our results with the different branches found theoretically by Fabre et al (2006 J. Fluid Mech. 551 235-74). We find high energy gains in both cases ({G}∞ ≃ {10}3 for the annular jet and {G}∞ ≃ {10}4 for the SPI jet), so these types of forcing are able to produce responses of the system strong enough to reach a non-linear state. Axisymmetric modes, with azimuthal wavenumber m = 0, produce the highest energy gain while applying an annular forcing. However, other modes, such as the helical one m = 1 and also double helix modes with m = 2, contribute in the SPI configuration. We find that the best region to be tested experimentally in both cases is the region that corresponds to the L2 branch described by Fabre and his collaborators. Furthermore, and whenever using these L2 branch frequencies, the response of the system is always axisymmetric, independently of the type of excitation. Finally, we conclude that the energy gain with the SPI jet is one order of magnitude greater than for the annular jet, so that the single-point off-axis jet is a feasible candidate to design a control device.

  13. ATLAS fast physics monitoring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ATLAS Collaboration has set up a framework to automatically process the rapidly growing dataset and produce performance and physics plots for the most interesting analyses. The system is designed to give fast feedback. The histograms are produced within hours of data reconstruction (2–3 days after data taking).

  14. Consumer acceptance of Italian or New Zealander lamb meat: an Italian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Giangrande

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Central location test was performed to compare heavy Apennine lamb meat to New Zealander lamb meat in order to create a Protected Geographical Indication for lamb meat. Roasted New-Zealander and heavy Apennine lamb legs were tested by 106 consumers according to the following experimental plan: blind phase (B without any possibility to recognize the meat type tasted, expected phase (E in which were described the characteristics of the two types of meat without tasting, informed phase (I in which the tasted meat was recognized in provenience. Results showed in a nine point scale of appreciation for flavour, juiciness and overall pleasure, the highest values in Apennine lamb meat. B test showed the highest value for overall pleasure (P<0.01. Interaction, Italian lamb x Informed test showed the highest values for all the parameters except for overall liking for which Italian lamb x E test showed the highest values. About foreign lamb meat B test showed higher values than I and E test. Information about lamb meat origin showed disconfirmation for tenderness in Italian lamb meat. Foreign lamb meat showed a positive disconfirmation for flavour and overall pleasure, that confirm the better perception by consumers in blind consumption than in the informed one.

  15. Fatty Acids Profile of Intramuscular Fat in Light Lambs Traditionally and Artificially Reared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan MARGETÍN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of 40 carcasses of light lambs of the synthetic population of Slovak Dairy sheep from (a artificial rearing (AR and (b traditional rearing (TR was assessed on the basis of fatty acids profile of intramuscular fat (IMF. Lambs from AR in comparison with TR were of lower quality as assessed on the basis of fatty acids (FAs profile. The content of conjugated linolic acid (CLA in the fat of TR lambs was severalfold higher (0.749 vs. 0.193 g.100g-1 FAME, P<0.001 than in AR lambs. Similarly, the content of trans-vaccenic (TVA, á-linolenic (ALA, rumenic (RA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA was in TR lambs significantly higher (P<0.001 than in AR lambs (0.955 vs. 0.111; 0.715 vs. 0.251; 0.672 vs. 0.148; 0.352 vs. 0.061; 0.252 vs. 0.079 g.100g-1 FAME. In contrary, the content of linoleic acid (LA, the ratio of LA/ALA and n-6/n-3 in AR lambs was higher than in TR lambs (9.07 vs. 4.81 g.100 g-1 FAME; 39.11 vs. 6.80; 14.56 vs. 3.25, P<0.001. In TR lambs the content of n-3 PUFA and BCFA was significantly higher (P<0.001 than in AR lambs (2.08 vs. 0.84 and 1.95 vs. 0.45. The value of thrombogenic index was higher in AR lambs in comparison with TR lambs (1.44 vs. 1.31; P<0.05. Significant differences between FAs of IMF of ram lambs and ewe lambs were observed only in the case of arachidonic acid (P<0.05.

  16. Growth, haematological and biochemical responses of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Abstract. Physiological and productive responses to recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) injection and calcium soap of fatty acids (CSFA) supplementation were studied in post-weaning male Rahmani lambs. Male lambs (n = 20) of similar initial body weight (27.9 kg) and age (162 d) were divided randomly into four.

  17. Comparison of triticale cultivars with maize grain for finishing lambs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of triticale cultivars with maize grain for finishing lambs. TS Brand, GD van der Merwe. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  18. Temperature-compensated aluminum nitride lamb wave resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ming; Yen, Ting-Ta; Lai, Yun-Ju; Felmetsger, Valery V; Hopcroft, Matthew A; Kuypers, Jan H; Pisano, Albert P

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, the temperature compensation of AlN Lamb wave resonators using edge-type reflectors is theoretically studied and experimentally demonstrated. By adding a compensating layer of SiO2 with an appropriate thickness, a Lamb wave resonator based on a stack of AlN and SiO2 layers can achieve a zero first-order temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF). Using a composite membrane consisting of 1 microm AlN and 0.83 microm SiO2, a Lamb wave resonator operating at 711 MHz exhibits a first-order TCF of -0.31 ppm/degrees C and a second-order TCF of -22.3 ppb/degrees C(2) at room temperature. The temperature-dependent fractional frequency variation is less than 250 ppm over a wide temperature range from -55 degrees C to 125 degrees C. This temperature-compensated AlN Lamb wave resonator is promising for future applications including thermally stable oscillators, filters, and sensors.

  19. Fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of lambs' meat as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    one of the most promising steps in improving meat quality because of its antioxidant properties. The colour of meat is seen as the most .... Table 1 The effect of dietary antioxidant and fat source on the fatty acid content of muscle and subcutaneous fat tissue of S.A. Mutton Merino lamb meat. Parameter. (% of total fatty acids).

  20. Anomalous Dispersion of the S1 Lamb Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The S1 mode of the Lamb spectrum of an isotropic plate exhibits negative group velocity in a narrow frequency domain. This anomalous behavior is explained analytically by examining the slope of each mode first in its initial state and then near its turning points.

  1. A comparison between female lambs of the Dorper and two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lamb production in both extensive and intensive production areas and to act as dam lines in terminal crossbreeding pro- grarnmes. Emphasis was placed on small size, earlier ..... C.Z. Roux and H.H. Meissner for valuable corrunents and suggestions with respect to the ana- lysis of the data. References. BRIEN, F.D., 1987.

  2. Phenotypic Changes of Maximum Daily Growth Trait in Baluchi Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Saraee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A total number of 116,984 weight records belonging to 12,397 Baluchi lambs reared in Abbas Abad breeding station during years 1978-2008 were used for phenotypic evaluation of maximum daily growth (MDG and analysis of environmental factors affecting this trait. The initial data were performed by FOXPRO program and then Gompertz non-linear model was fitted on the weight records of individual lambs using non-linear procedure of SAS software. MDG was estimated for each lamb. The analysis of environmental factors on the trait was carried out by a linear mixed model consisting of effects of year and month of birth, lamb sex, birth type, covariates of dam age and birth weight, interaction between year and sex, year-birth type, birth type-sex, and random effect of lamb’s sire. All factors had significant effect on MDG. A non significant phenotypic trend (0.092±0.043 g/y was revealed for MDG.

  3. Observations on the lambing interval of the cape bushbuck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A record of births from three Cape bushbuck ewes at Queens Park Zoo, East London, from November 1971 to December 1974, indicated that the mean lambing interval of Tragelaphus scriptus sylvaticus in captivity is 249 days and that ewes reach sexual maturity at approximately one year of age.

  4. The influence of reproduction and lambing season of the Dohne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of reproduction and lambing season of the Dohne. Merino on different wool production traits. Ortrud Steinhagen. Animal and Dair-v Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene,. 1675 Republic of South Africa. P.J. de Wet. Department of Sheep and Wool Science, University of Stellenbosch,. Stellenbosch ...

  5. Production response of lambs receiving creep feed while grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the production responses of lambs receiving either creep feed or not while grazing two different pastures. The production of ewes within each treatment was also recorded. The study was conducted at both the Kromme Rhee and Langgewens Research Farms. At Kromme Rhee, sheep ...

  6. Maize silage as a finisher feed for Merino lambs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hannes

    2013-09-08

    Sep 8, 2013 ... Forage conservation plays an important role in animal production systems in South Africa. Large parts ... used in sheep production systems. European .... more lean growth. Table 2 Mean (±SE) growth parameters of Merino lambs fed four diets, differing in silage content. Maize silage inclusion level. P-Value.

  7. Using the Mystery of the Cyclopic Lamb to Teach Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jamie L.

    2010-01-01

    I present a learning cycle that explores different biotechnologies using the process of in situ hybridization as a platform. Students are presented with a cyclopic lamb and must use biotechnology to discover the mechanism behind the deformity. Through this activity, students learn about signal transduction and discover the processes of polymerase…

  8. A comparison between female lambs of the Dorper and two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison between female lambs of the Dorper and two synthetic composites with respect o feed intake, growth and efficiency ... the Dorper as compared to the combined Synthetic group. Both intercept (SL = 0.(n0) and slope (SL = 0.033) ... Biological efficiency in meat producing animals can be expressed as a ratio of ...

  9. Effects of gentling on behavior and meat quality of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Within few hours after parturition lambs develop a strong and selective relationship with their mothers (Poindron and Le Neindre, 1980. In order to increase the amount of milk available for transformation, lambs often are prematurely separated from the ewes, thus inducing an early disruption of the mother-young relationship. A number of authors demonstrated that the lack of the maternal bond can inhibit the welfare state of the lambs (Sevi et al., 2001 and reduced animal welfare can have detrimental effects on meat quality in many animals species (Gregory, 1998 as well as in sheep (Napolitano et al., 2002a. A possible recover from conditions of poor animal welfare may be attained through the administration of gentle contacts by humans (Boivin et al., 2000 which may supply an additional social bond with members of a different animal species. The present study aims to verify the effect of artificial rearing on lamb welfare and meat quality, and assess the possibility to increase both by means of gentling.

  10. Effect of different grazing pressures by lambs grazing Lolium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    high (HGP), medium (MGP) and low (LGP), corresponding to 30, 50 and 75 g available DM/kg BW/day, respectively] on the performance of lambs grazing Lolium perenne and Dactylis glomerata pastures in spring. Feed intakes and average ...

  11. Effect of micronized zeolite addition to lamb concentrate feeds on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of micronized zeolite addition to lamb concentrate feeds on growth performance and some blood chemistry and metabolites. ... No differences were observed between the groups in terms of blood urea nitrogen, plasma glucose, serum creatinine, triglyceride, sodium, potassium and chlorine concentration. However ...

  12. Major causes of lamb mortality at Ebinat woreda, Amhara National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rearing and marketing inefficiencies, the small-scale stock producers are not optimally .... Each lamb was put on a sack attached to the hook of the scale and then ..... A Handbook. Rome: FAO. Pp. 24. Tibbo, M., 2006. Productivity and Health of Indigenous Sheep Breeds and Crossbreds in the Central Ethiopian Highlands.

  13. Case report - Achondroplastic syndrome in a West African dwarf lamb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three week old, male, West African Dwarf (WAD) lamb presented with disproportionate hind limb was diagnosed of having achondroplastic syndrome by physical and radiological examination. Physical examination showed the right hind limb was deformed at the level of the tarsus, metatarsus and phalanges. Radiological ...

  14. Fenbendazole efficacy in lambs: a comparison of oral dosing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fenbendazole efficacy in lambs: a comparison of oral dosing and feed block additive modes of administration. ... The mean haematocrit values, mean percentage egg reduction and mean liveweight gains were higher at the end of the trial for the single monthly dosed group than for the untreated control group, while the ...

  15. Production response of lambs receiving creep feed while grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Agriculture (Western Cape)

    analysis of variance with treatment (creep feed or no creep feed) and birth status (single and twins) as main factors. Provision a ... At both locations, birth status had no effect on the production parameters for ewes or lambs. Keywords: Creep ... supplementation are of vital importance (De Villiers, 1991; Brand et al., 1999).

  16. An attempt to reduce polyspermic penetration in lamb oocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavík, Tomáš; Libik, M.; Wierzchos, E.; Fulka, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 51, - (2005), s. 34-39 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/0927; GA AV ČR IBS5045313; GA MZe(CZ) QG50052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : lamb oocyte Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.719, year: 2005

  17. Carcass yield and characteristics of Karadi lambs as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of two levels of rumen undegradable nitrogen (7 and 10 g UDN/kg DM) fed with two levels of Nigella sativa (0 and 7.5 g NS/ kg DM) supplementation to rations of karadi lambs on carcass characteristics, using 2 x 2 factorial experiment. Sixteen individual Karadi male ...

  18. Response of lambs to continuous and rotational grazing at four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was grazed either continuously or rotationally at four grazing intensities by three successive sets of weaned lambs for the winter, spring and summer periods, respectively. The "put-and-take" system was applied. In the case of continuous grazing, amounts of available dry matter (DM) per hectare were varied, whereas with ...

  19. Effect of fenbendazole on growth promotion in Mecheri lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ranganathan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the study was to find out the effect of fenbendazole on the growth promotion in stunted mecheri lambs. Materials and methods: The study was conducted with three groups of ten mecheri lambs each. Group I served as untreated control and group II and III were treated with fenbendazole @ 5 mg/kg body weight and 7.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively. All the lambs were subjected to haemato-biochemical observations, body weight recording and collection of faeces for egg counting before and after the treatment. Results: Fenbendazole in both the doses had beneficial effect on haemato-biochemical observations like haemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, total protein, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase besides showing efficacy as an anthelmintic. The drug also increased body weight gain significantly at higher dose as compared to untreated control. Conclusion: The results support that fenbendazole has the potential for modulating growth of stunted mecheri lambs. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 113-115

  20. Effects of sunflower soap stocks on light lamb meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, C; Giráldez, J F; Morán, L; Mateo, J; Villalobos-Delgado, L H; Andrés, S; Bodas, R

    2017-08-01

    Thirty-two lambs were used to study the effect of sunflower soap stocks (SS), a by-product from the vegetable oil refinery industry, on meat chemical composition, fatty acid profile, volatile compounds, and consumer acceptability. Lambs were finished (average length of fattening period 35 ± 7.3 d, 26.8 ± 0.09 kg final BW) on a pelleted total mixed ration (TMR) with no SS (00SS) or including 15, 30 or 60 g SS/kg (15SS, 30SS, and 60SS, respectively). Sunflower soap stocks decreased the percentage of SFA, increased the proportion of -MUFA ( 0.05). Atherogenicity and saturation indexes decreased by 31% and 27%, respectively, in SS groups compared to control (linear 0.05). However, certain volatile compounds (benzene and toluene) and 10-18:1 fatty acid, known potential hazards for human health, were increased in meat from lambs fed TMR with SS. For this reason, only inclusion rates up to 15 g SS/kg TMR seem to sustain a satisfactory balance between beneficial and detrimental effects on lamb meat composition and quality.

  1. Suitable feeding systems for fat lamb production | Reyneke | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 1 (1971) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Suitable feeding systems for fat lamb production.

  2. Effect of maternal haemoglobin variants and lamb genotype on pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-weaning growth trait of sheep of Northern Nigerian (Balami, Uda and Yankasa) subjected to diallel crossing were estimated using 127 lambs. The study was conducted at National Animal Production Research Institute (NAPRI), Zaria, Nigeria. Blood (5ml) samples were collected from ewes and rams that produce the ...

  3. Multiple congenital skeletal malformations in a lamb associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A ewe was relieved of dystocia by manual manipulation. The lamb was found to be malformed. There were multiple skeletal malformations which included brachygnathia, arthrogryposis and kyphoscoliosis. Other malformations included patella absence, resulting in bowing of both fore and hind limbs with poorly developed ...

  4. Dirac equation, hydrogen atom spectrum and the Lamb shift in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using this Hamiltonian we calculate the energy shift of the ground state as well the 2 P 1 / 2 , 2 S 1 / 2 levels. In all the cases, the energy shift depends on the dynamical non-commutative parameter τ . Using the accuracy of the energy measurement, we obtain an upper bound for τ . We also study the Lamb shift in DNCS.

  5. Food safety management systems performance in the lamb production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oses, S.M.; Luning, P.A.; Jacxsens, L.; Jaime, I.; Rovira, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a performance measurement of implemented food safety management system (FSMS) along the lamb chain using an FSMS-diagnostic instrument (FSMS-DI) and a Microbiological Assessment Scheme (MAS). Three slaughterhouses, 1 processing plant and 5 butcher shops were evaluated. All the

  6. Production response of lambing ewes receiving supplementary feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production response of lambing ewes receiving supplementary feed while grazing wheat stubble. T.S. Brand, B. Aucamp, A. Durand. Abstract. (South African J of Animal Science: 2000, 30, Supplement 1: 17-18). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  7. Lambing behaviour of Merino ewes from lines subjected to divergent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No line difference was observed in the period that ewes spent grooming. Ewes caring for viable multiples groomed their offspring for a longer period than those caring for singles. Mature ewes tended to groom their lambs for a longer period than primi-parous maidens. A higher proportion of High (H) line ewes groomed their ...

  8. Lambing behaviour of Merino ewes from lines subjected to divergent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lambing behaviour of Merino ewes from lines subjected to divergent selection for multiple rearing ability from the same base population. ... likely than those in the H line to graze. The latter group of ewes was more likely to stand with their offspring at this stage. South African Journal of Animal Science Vol.32(1) 2002: 57-65 ...

  9. Response of SA Mutton Merino ewes and their lambs to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth rate. The ewes receiving supplement succeeded in main- taining a higher (P < 0,05) average live mass during lactation than the unsupplemented control group. ... minerale en 'n ionofoor verryk, en vir 90 dae teen 500 g per ooi per dag aan SA ... Keywords: Enriched small grains, lamb growth, stubble grazing,.

  10. Identification of Bifidobacterium strains from faeces of lambs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bunešová, V.; Vlková, E.; Killer, Jiří; Rada, V.; Ročková, Š.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 105, 1-3 (2012), 355-360 ISSN 0921-4488 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/08/1091; GA ČR GD525/08/H060 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : bifidobacterium * identification * lambs Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2012

  11. The Fast-Growing Brucella suis Biovar 5 Depends on Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase and Pyruvate Phosphate Dikinase but Not on Fbp and GlpX Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatases or Isocitrate Lyase for Full Virulence in Laboratory Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Zúñiga-Ripa

    2018-04-01

    attenuation of a double Mae-PckA mutant. Altogether, these results decouple fast growth rates from enhanced mouse lethality in the brucellae and suggest that an Fbp-GlpX-independent gluconeogenic mechanism is ancestral in this group and show differences in central C metabolic steps that may reflect a progressive adaptation to intracellular growth.

  12. Ewes Direct Most Maternal Attention towards Lambs that Show the Greatest Pain-Related Behavioural Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futro, Agnieszka; Masłowska, Katarzyna; Dwyer, Cathy M.

    2015-01-01

    Although neonatal farm animals are frequently subjected to painful management procedures, the role of maternal behaviour in pain coping, has not been much studied. We investigated whether ewes were able to distinguish between lambs in pain and those that were not, and whether their behaviour altered depending on the severity of lamb pain. Eighty male lambs were allocated to one of 4 pain treatments within 24 hours of birth. Lambs were either handled only (C), bilaterally castrated with tight rubber rings (RR), as for RR but with the application of a Burdizzo clamp immediately proximal to the ring (Combined) or subjected to short scrotum castration (SSC) where the testicles were retained within the abdomen and only the scrotum removed. The behaviour of the ewe, treated lamb and untreated sibling where present (n = 54) were recorded for 30 minutes after treatment. Castration treatment increased the expression of abnormal standing and lying postures, specific pain-related behaviours (head-turning, stamping/kicking, easing quarters, tail wagging) and composite pain scores (PEwes expressed more licking/sniffing responses to the RR and SSC lambs than towards the Combined and C lambs (PEwes with two lambs also directed more attention towards the treated than the untreated lamb (Pewes are able to discriminate between lambs in pain and those that are not, and that their response is increased with a greater severity of pain. PMID:26217942

  13. Energy and nitrogen retention in Massese lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gatta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The ovine Massese breed has a good milk attitude but it is also characterised by a satisfying meat production. In fact the genetic improvement is directed to increase prolificity and milk production attitude with a good meat production. Because of the peculiarity of this breed the growing requirements might be different from those normally used for specialized meat breeds...

  14. Relationships between prenatal ewe traits, milk production, and preweaning performance of twin lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danso, A S; Morel, P C H; Kenyon, P R; Blair, H T

    2016-08-01

    There is limited information on factors affecting twin lamb growth before weaning, which limits the options available to farmers to actively manage lamb growth. Data from 2 multiyear experiments involving 402 twin-bearing Romney ewes were used to evaluate the effects of prenatal ewe traits (live weight at mating and set stocking and BCS at mating and set stocking) and combined twin lamb birth weight on ewe milk production and lamb growth from birth to weaning as well as the proportion of variation in twin lamb growth that could be explained by these variables. Additionally, the effect of accumulated ewe milk yield over a 42-d period (MY; Days 0 to 42) and accumulated milk components (protein, fat, and lactose) on twin lamb growth were investigated. The effects of prenatal variables on MY, birth weight, and combined twin lamb live weight gain from Day 0 to 42 (LWG) were inconsistent across the 2 experiments. In addition, prenatal ewe traits ( ewe MY ( = 0.43 for Exp. 1 and = 0.30 for Exp. 2). Lactose, fat, and milk CP yields explained 47 and 42% of the variation in lamb LWG in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Lactose and milk CP yield positively affected ( ewe traits had a minimal effect on milk yield and twin lamb growth to weaning. Milk yield and composition explained the greatest proportion of variation in LWG. This suggests that farmers should select ewes with higher milk yields to maximize twin lamb growth to weaning. However, less than 50% of the variation in LWG and weaning live weight was explained by the measured ewe and lamb parameters. Therefore, further studies are required to determine additional ewe or lamb variables that control variation in twin lamb growth.

  15. Short-rotation cultivation of fast-growing willows and plantations of Betula pendula, Roth on Hirvineva, a mire formerly used for peat production, in Liminka, Finland. Nopeakasvuisten pajujen (Salix spp. ) lyhytkiertoviljelystae ja rauduskoivun (Betula pendula) viljelystae turvetuotannosta poistuneella suolla, limingan Hirvinevalla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumme, I.; Kiukaanniemi, E.

    1987-01-01

    This report is concerned with afforestation experiments using fast-growing willows (Salix spp.) and silver birch (Betula pendula, Roth) conducted by the Northern Finland Research Institute of the University of Oulu at the site of a mire formerly used for peat production, Hirvineva in the commune of Liminka (62 deg C 45{sup '} N, 23 deg C 30{sup '} E). Experiments were carried out at the early stages of willow cultivation into the use of chemical fertilizers and peat ash, the liming requirement of the soil and the effects of tilling of the soil on growth. Since 1985 efforts have been concentrated on developing new willow clones. Research was also begun into the mycorhiza which develop when willows are cultivated on peat soils. The experiments with Betula pendula were devoted to examining the effects of plantation density and fertilization with peat ash on four-year old saplings.

  16. Fatty acid composition of ruminal digesta and longissimus muscle from lambs fed silage mixtures including red clover, sainfoin, and timothy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campidonico, L; Toral, P G; Priolo, A; Luciano, G; Valenti, B; Hervás, G; Frutos, P; Copani, G; Ginane, C; Niderkorn, V

    2016-04-01

    as the sole silage in comparison with lambs given T-RC, T-SF-RC, and SF-RC. Rumenic acid (-9 -11 CLA) was detected at a greater percentage in the LM from the animals fed the T silage compared with animals fed the T-SF-RC treatment ( = 0.004). Contrarily, -9 -12 -15 18:3 was found at a greater concentration in the muscle from lambs in the SF-RC treatment compared with lambs in the other treatments ( < 0.001). Furthermore, the T-RC group showed a greater proportion of α-linolenic acid than the T group ( = 0.03). In conclusion, the effects of the 2 active compounds (PPO and tannins) appear to be similar and additive. Moreover, a silage composed of a mixture of RC and SF is an excellent forage for growing lambs in terms of i.m. fatty acid composition.

  17. Restoring catalase activity in Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius leads to loss of pathogenicity for lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Ricardo; Díez, Rosa M; Domínguez-Bernal, Gustavo; Orden, José A; Martínez-Pulgarín, Susana

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius, a microaerophilic and catalase-negative bacterium, is the etiological agent of abscess disease, a specific chronic condition of sheep and goats, which is characterized by formation of necrotic lesions that are located typically in superficial lymph nodes. We constructed an isogenic mutant of S. aureus subsp. anaerobius (RDKA84) that carried a repaired and functional catalase gene from S. aureus ATCC 12600, to investigate whether the lack of catalase in S. aureus subsp. anaerobius plays a role in its physiological and pathogenic characteristics. The catalase activity had no apparent influence on the in vitro growth characteristics of RDKA84, which, like the wild-type, did not grow on aerobically incubated agar plates. Restoration of catalase activity in RDKA84 substantially increased resistance to H2O2 when analyzed in a death assay. The intracellular survival rates of the catalase-positive mutant RDKA84 in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) isolated from adult sheep were significantly higher than those of the wild-type, while no differences were found with PMN isolated from lambs. RDKA84 showed significantly lower survival rates in murine macrophages (J774A.1 cells) than the wild-type strains did, whereas, in bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T), no differences in intracellular survival were observed. Interestingly, the virulence for lambs, the natural host for abscess disease, of the catalase-positive mutant RDKA84 was reduced dramatically in comparison with wild-type S. aureus subsp. anaerobius in two experimental models of infection. Copyright (c) INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010.

  18. A preliminary study of the effects of organic farming on oocyte quality in ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casao, A; María, G A; Abecia, J A

    2017-02-01

    This study tested whether feeding Rasa Aragonesa ewes certified organic feed, from 15 days before mating until lamb weaning, improved oocyte quality and in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF) performances of the offspring. In a second experiment, ovaries from ewe lambs that were bred on an organic farm and were of the same breed were compared with those from conventionally bred animals. The number (± standard error of the mean) of healthy oocytes per ewe lamb did not differ significantly between organic (12.2 ± 3.3) and conventionally (13.6 ± 4.0) fed ewes. Ovaries from ewe lambs born on an organic farm had significantly (P ewe lamb (39.6 ± 5.2) than did those born on a conventional farm (25.0 ± 4.2), and higher IVM (76.5% vs. 53.1%, P ewe lambs, although organic feeding alone was insufficient to improve quality.

  19. Predicting the carcass composition of lambs by a simultaneous equations model

    OpenAIRE

    Cadavez, Vasco

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop models to predict lamb carcass composition by simultaneous equations model (SEM), and to compare t he efficiency of the ordinary least squares (OLS), weight least squares (WLS), and seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR) estimators. Forty male lambs, 22 of Churro Galego Bragançano Portuguese local breed and 18 of Suffolk breed were used. Lambs were slaughtered and carcasses were weighed approximately 30 min after slaughter in orde...

  20. Lambing Ease is Heritable but not Correlated to Litter Size in Danish Meat Sheep Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Christian; Valasek, P; Pedersen, Jørn

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of lambing ease (LE) and litter size (LS) in four common Danish meat sheep breeds. Data from 1990 to 2006 were analysed. A bivariate animal model was used for estimation of genetic parameters. Lambing ease showed a low heritability, both...... the LE and LS was found, which means that selection to improve one trait should not affect the other trait. Lambing ease should therefore be included in the selection criterion....

  1. Purcell effect and Lamb shift as interference phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybin, Mikhail V; Mingaleev, Sergei F; Limonov, Mikhail F; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2016-02-10

    The Purcell effect and Lamb shift are two well-known physical phenomena which are usually discussed in the context of quantum electrodynamics, with the zero-point vibrations as a driving force of those effects in the quantum approach. Here we discuss the classical counterparts of these quantum effects in photonics, and explain their physics trough interference wave phenomena. As an example, we consider a waveguide in a planar photonic crystal with a side-coupled defect, and demonstrate a perfect agreement between the results obtained on the basis of quantum and classic approaches and reveal their link to the Fano resonance. We find that in such a waveguide-cavity geometry the Purcell effect can modify the lifetime by at least 25 times, and the Lamb shift can exceed 3 half-widths of the cavity spectral line.

  2. Observation of the Phononic Lamb Shift with a Synthetic Vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rentrop

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to classical empty space, the quantum vacuum fundamentally alters the properties of embedded particles. This paradigm shift allows one to explain the discovery of the celebrated Lamb shift in the spectrum of the hydrogen atom. Here, we engineer a synthetic vacuum, building on the unique properties of ultracold atomic gas mixtures, offering the ability to switch between empty space and quantum vacuum. Using high-precision spectroscopy, we observe the phononic Lamb shift, an intriguing many-body effect originally conjectured in the context of solid-state physics. We find good agreement with theoretical predictions based on the Fröhlich model. Our observations establish this experimental platform as a new tool for precision benchmarking of open theoretical challenges, especially in the regime of strong coupling between the particles and the quantum vacuum.

  3. Ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets containing castor seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicory, Isis Miranda Carvalho; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Tosto, Manuela Silva Libanio; Costa-Lopes, Lívia Santos; Souza, Fábio Nicory Costa; de Oliveira Nascimento, Camila

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the substitution of soybean meal for castor seed meal (CSM) in diets for feedlot lambs and the effects of these diets on their ingestive behavior. Fifty male Santa Inês lambs were used. The diets were composed of Tifton 85 hay and a concentrate containing detoxified CSM substituting 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 % of the soybean meal. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of the CSM levels on the feeding, rumination, idle times, chews and time spent chewing per bolus, total chewing time, number of boli chewed, and number of chews per day. The dry matter (DM) intake decreased linearly (P  0.05) the numbers of feeding, rumination, and idle periods, but had a quadratic effect (P ingestive behavior.

  4. Modelling of Lamb wave interaction with open and closed fatigue cracks for damage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B C; Staszewski, W J

    2010-01-01

    Lamb waves are the most widely used guided ultrasonic waves for structural damage detection. Lamb wave propagation in complex structures is very complicated due to multiple reflections and mode conversion at geometrical and material features. Numerical simulations can significantly ease wave propagation analysis for damage detection. The local interaction simulation approach is used for Lamb wave interaction with fatigues cracks in an aluminium plate. The results, investigated for various crack lengths, are validated experimentally. The study shows that Lamb wave amplitude and arrival time are different for fully open and closed fatigue cracks. As a result damage detection sensitivity could be affected.

  5. Early bladder outlet obstruction in fetal lambs induces renal dysplasia and the prune-belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, R; Reinberg, Y; Burke, B; Wells, T; Vernier, R L

    1990-03-01

    A model of posterior urethral valves in fetal lambs was developed in order to evaluate the effect of intrauterine urinary obstruction on the developing kidney. Complete urethral obstruction was induced in five fetal lambs at 43 to 45 days of gestation. Two control fetal lambs underwent sham operations. At full term (140 days), two of the five experimental lambs and both control lambs were available for postmortem examination. Results of gross and histological examination of the control lambs were normal. In contrast, the kidneys of the experimental lambs were markedly asymmetrical in size. Histological examination of the kidneys in experimental lambs showed cystic dilatation of the collecting ducts and occasional cystic dilatation of Bowman's spaces, features compatible with obstruction. Also noted were peripheral cortical cysts and primitive tubules lined with cuboidal epithelium and surrounded by fibromuscular collarettes, characteristic of renal dysplasia. One of the infant lambs had many characteristics of the prune-belly syndrome, including a wrinkled, markedly distended abdomen, deficient abdominal wall musculature, flared chest wall, limb deformities, and undescended testes. These results suggest that early in utero urethral obstruction (at the beginning of the second third of gestation) causes renal dysplasia. The results also support the hypothesis that the prune-belly syndrome results from abdominal distention that occurs early in gestation.

  6. Origin assignment by multi-element stable isotopes of lamb tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shumin; Guo, Boli; Wei, Yimin

    2016-12-15

    The carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen isotopic compositions in lamb meat and wool samples under two feeding regimes from five different regions of China were determined by IRMS, which is to investigate their potential for assigning the lamb meat according to geographical origins. The δ(13)C, δ(15)N and δ(2)H values in lamb tissues had significant differences among different regions, with the δ(13)C value is highly related to that of the lamb feeds (pH value is significantly correlated with lamb drinking water (pH values of lamb muscle are all highly correlated with the wool samples. A total correct classification of 88.9% and 83.8% were obtained from the combination of C, N and H isotopes of lamb muscle and wool, respectively. These results demonstrate that multi-element isotopes are effective in identifying the geographical origin of lamb meat. Moreover, both muscle and hair tissue can be used for lamb traceability. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Inclusion of Tarchonanthus camphoratus in finishing diets for lambs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    body mass of ca. 30 kg, were randomly allocated to four groups. The lambs in each group received one of four experi- mental diets on an ad libitum basis. ... Physical composition. (air-dry basis) (%). Maize meal. Voennolb. Protein concentrate C. T. camphoratus. Salt. Dicalcium phosphate. 28,2. 10,0. 10,3. 50,0. 0,5. 1,0. 38,7.

  8. Duration of passive immunity to small ruminant lentiviruses in lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Sampaio de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the passive immunity against small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV in lambs, this study was conducted from two experimental groups. The first one (G1 was established by nine lambs subjected to artificial feeding of colostrum of goats positive for SRLV. The second one (G2 was the control group, consisting of ten lambs subjected to suckling of colostrum from their negative mothers. Blood samples were obtained before the first feeding, after 24 hours of birth and at 7, 15, 30, 50, 70, 90 and 120 days of age. The concentrations of total serum protein (TSP, albumin (ALB, globulin (GLOB and immunoglobulin G (IgG were determined and antibodies to SRLV were surveyed from the techniques of agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa and immunoblotting (IB. In both groups, the lowest averages of TSP, GLOB and IgG were observed at birth and the highest averages were observed at 24 hours of life, due to absorption of colostral immunoglobulins. For G1, transfer of immunity could also be detected by immunodiagnostic tests. At birth, the animals were seronegative. After 24 hours, all animals were positive in three serological tests. Negative results began to be observed after 15 days of age by the AGID test. As for Elisa testing, all animals remained reagent until 50 days old. Only IB was able to detect anti-SRLV at 70 days. Regarding G2, all animals tested negative in AGID and IB, from birth until 120 days of age. However, false-positive results were observed until day 15 in Elisa, due to nonspecific reactions. These data are consistent with the sensitivity and specificity of serological tests and show that starting at 90 days of age, colostral antibodies to SRLV are no longer detected in the serum of lambs.

  9. Carcass characteristics of Karadi lambs as affect by different levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the work described here was to investigate the effect of two levels of Nigella sativa (0 and 7.5 g NS / kg DM) supplementation to rations of Karadi lambs fed three levels of rumen degradable nitrogen (1, 1.3 and 1.6 g RDN / MJ of ME) on carcass characteristics, using 2 x 3 factorial experiment. Twenty four ...

  10. Desert bighorn sheep lambing habitat: Parturition, nursery, and predation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsch, Rebekah C.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.

    2016-01-01

    Fitness of female ungulates is determined by neonate survival and lifetime reproductive success. Therefore, adult female ungulates should adopt behaviors and habitat selection patterns that enhance survival of neonates during parturition and lactation. Parturition site location may play an important role in neonatal mortality of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) when lambs are especially vulnerable to predation, but parturition sites are rarely documented for this species. Our objectives were to assess environmental characteristics at desert bighorn parturition, lamb nursery, and predation sites and to assess differences in habitat characteristics between parturition sites and nursery group sites, and predation sites and nursery group sites. We used vaginal implant transmitters (VITs) to identify parturition sites and capture neonates. We then compared elevation, slope, terrain ruggedness, and visibility at parturition, nursery, and lamb predation sites with paired random sites and compared characteristics of parturition sites and lamb predation sites to those of nursery sites. When compared to random sites, odds of a site being a parturition site were highest at intermediate slopes and decreased with increasing female visibility. Odds of a site being a predation site increased with decreasing visibility. When compared to nursery group sites, odds of a site being a parturition site had a quadratic relationship with elevation and slope, with odds being highest at intermediate elevations and intermediate slopes. When we compared predation sites to nursery sites, odds of a site being a predation were highest at low elevation areas with high visibility and high elevation areas with low visibility likely because of differences in hunting strategies of coyote (Canis latrans) and puma (Puma concolor). Parturition sites were lower in elevation and slope than nursery sites. Understanding selection of parturition sites by adult females and how habitat

  11. CRAMBE CAKE (Crambe abyssinica hochst ON LAMB DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Breda Canova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative feedstuffs in animal diet, such as residues derived from the biodiesel production aims to increase productivity and reduce costs in animal production. Them aim of this study was to evaluate the substitution effect of 0, 22, 44 and 64% of soybean meal protein by Crambe cake (Crambe abyssinica Hochst protein in lamb diet. In the in vivo experiment, 20 lambs were used and evaluated the apparent digestibility, nitrogen balance and voluntary DM intake. The replacement of the protein resulted in a linear decrease in apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, ether extract (EE, gross energy (GE, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, cellulose (CEL and the percentage of total digestible nutrients (TDN, which resulted in decreased daily DM intake. The blood level of urea, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were not affected. In vitro gas production technique (GP evaluation of diets showed a significantly decrease (P<0.05 of the total gas and methane production without altering the true degradability of DM and OM and the partition factor (PF. Replacement of soybean meal protein by the Crambe cake protein decreased digestibility of the fiber fraction of the diet, the voluntary intake of DM and methane, without altering rumen fermentation. Crambe cake can be utilized as lamb's food, because, despite reduced intake, assure a large energy intake and similarity to soybean meal protein.

  12. Mineral mixtures from solid salt residues for lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bomfim Manera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate water, mineral, feed and nutrient voluntary intakes, in addition to dry matter and nutrient digestibility and the nitrogen balance of lambs fed three mineral supplements. The first treatment consisted of solid salt residue (SSR from an aquaculture tank; the second contained SSR from desalination waste; and the third treatment was control, which corresponded to the supplementation of a commercial mineral supplement. The study lasted 20 days, the first 15 of which were used for animals to adapt to the pens and diets, and the last five days were used for data collection. Twenty-four castrated male lambs with a body weight of 19.72±2.52 kg were utilized in the experiment. The mineral supplements evaluated did not affect the intake and digestibility of the dry matter and nutrients, the water and mineral-salt intake or nitrogen balance. Mineral supplements produced from the SSR from aquaculture tanks and from the desalination waste did not reduce feed, nutrient and water intakes or nutrient digestibility, which suggests that these raw materials can be used in the elaboration of mineral mixtures for lambs.

  13. Intrauterine Transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Persistently Infected Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snorre Stuen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which causes the disease tick-borne fever (TBF, is the most important tick-borne pathogen in European animals. TBF may contribute to severe welfare challenges and economic losses in the Norwegian sheep industry. The bacterium causes a persistent infection in sheep and several other animal species. The objective of this study was to investigate whether intrauterine transmission occurs in persistently infected sheep. The study included thirteen 5–6-month-old unmated ewes, of which twelve were experimentally infected with A. phagocytophilum (GenBank acc. no. M73220. Four to six weeks later, all ewes were mated, and nine became pregnant. Blood samples were collected from these ewes and their offspring. If the lamb died, tissue samples were collected. The samples were analyzed with real-time PCR (qPCR targeting the msp2 gene. PCR-positive samples were further analyzed by semi-nested PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing. A total of 20 lambs were born, of which six died within two days. Six newborn lambs (30% were PCR-positive (qPCR, of which one was verified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The present study indicates that intrauterine transmission of A. phagocytophilum in persistently infected sheep may occur. The importance of these findings for the epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum needs to be further investigated.

  14. Intrauterine Transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Persistently Infected Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuen, Snorre; Okstad, Wenche; Sagen, Anne Mette

    2018-02-28

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which causes the disease tick-borne fever (TBF), is the most important tick-borne pathogen in European animals. TBF may contribute to severe welfare challenges and economic losses in the Norwegian sheep industry. The bacterium causes a persistent infection in sheep and several other animal species. The objective of this study was to investigate whether intrauterine transmission occurs in persistently infected sheep. The study included thirteen 5-6-month-old unmated ewes, of which twelve were experimentally infected with A. phagocytophilum (GenBank acc. no. M73220). Four to six weeks later, all ewes were mated, and nine became pregnant. Blood samples were collected from these ewes and their offspring. If the lamb died, tissue samples were collected. The samples were analyzed with real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting the msp2 gene. PCR-positive samples were further analyzed by semi-nested PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing. A total of 20 lambs were born, of which six died within two days. Six newborn lambs (30%) were PCR-positive (qPCR), of which one was verified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The present study indicates that intrauterine transmission of A. phagocytophilum in persistently infected sheep may occur. The importance of these findings for the epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum needs to be further investigated.

  15. Metabolism of exogenously administered natural surfactant in the newborn lamb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatz, T.; Ikegami, M.; Jobe, A.

    1982-09-01

    (/sup 3/H)-Palmitate labeled natural lamb surfactant and free (/sup 14/C)-choline were mixed with the lung fluid of 11 term lambs at cesarean section, before the first breath. After receiving the isotope, the lambs were delivered, allowed to breathe spontaneously, and were subsequently sacrificed from 5 min to 96 h of age. Alveolar washes, lung homogenates, microsomal and lamellar body fractions of lungs, and pulmonary alveolar macrophages were examined for the presence of labeled phosphatidylcholine. Analysis of the labeled natural surfactant kinetic data revealed an apparent t 1/2 of phosphatidylcholine in the whole lung of 6.0 days. This half-life can be interpreted only as a rough estimate. Appearance of considerable (/sup 3/H) labeled phosphatidylcholine in the lung homogenates demonstrated uptake of phosphatidylcholine from alveoli into lung tissue. The surfactant-associated label in homogenates was localized preferentially to lamellar body fractions. Some of the administered (/sup 14/C)-choline appeared in phosphatidylcholine. Almost all of this labeled phosphatidylcholine was associated with the homogenate. Extremely small % of administered (3H) and (14C) were found in pulmonary alveolar macrophages.

  16. Structural Features in Tunica Media of the Aorta in Lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalma CSIBI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In blood vessels situated just after the heart, an irregular blood flow occurs due to some specific structural elements of the tunica media. The current paper describes the histological aspects of some post-cardiac arterial sections in lamb. The tissue samples were collected from five 30 days old male lambs (Țurcană breed. Histological specimens from different regions of the aorta were harvested (i.e., the ascending aorta, aortic arch, thoracic and abdominal regions of the descending aorta. From the specified regions, small pieces (cca. 0.5 cm were fixed in neutral 10% buffered formalin. The tissues were subsequently embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned at 5 μm, and stained with Goldner’s trichrome and Verhoeff methods. Tissue analysis was performed using an Olympus system for image acquisition and analysis. Histological appearance of the assessed segments of the aorta in lamb is unusual. Major changes occur in tunica media of the aorta. In the ascending aorta, aortic arch and thoracic regions of the aorta, the histological outline is somewhat the same. The internal region of the media possesses the typical lamellar arrangement. Concerning the outer part of tunica media, the smooth muscle has a tendency to form bundles of various sizes. The muscle islands are not present in the media of abdominal region of the aorta, which exhibits the classic pattern of elastic arteries.

  17. Engineering a wild fast-growing Mycoplasma bacterium to generate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-12

    Jan 12, 2018 ... This project is a collaboration between The University of Bern in Switzerland and the Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA)-University of Bordeaux. The team will also collaborate with scientists from the J. Craig Venter Institute in the USA. Duration: 24 months; Budget: CA$1.4 million ...

  18. Study on Modification of Fast-growing Chinese Fir Stumpage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Deng, Layun; Chen, Shiqing; Chen, Zejun; Fan, Youhua

    2018-01-01

    This paper focused on the modification of stumpage and the object was to analyse the distribution and diffusion of modifier in wood at different height positions, and further study the form of modifier in wood. In addition, the mechanical properties of modified wood (compressive strength parallel to grain, MOR and MOE) were also investigated. The results showed that the vessels and pores were filled with modifier and the mechanical performance of modified wood were improved in comparison of wood untreated. The concentration of modifier and the added promoter significantly.

  19. Mass production alternatives for fast-growing spruce hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans Nienstaedt

    1977-01-01

    A reciptrocal crossing program of Picea glauca and P. omorika, and P. mariana and P. omorika with adequate intraspecific control crosses was carried out. Yields of full seed/cone ranged from 0 to 2.6 for the P. glauca-P. omorika combination. These low seed sets and a 9-day difference in female receptivity rule out producing this hybrid via seed. The full seed/cone...

  20. Growing up too fast: Rural children working in Addis Ababa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 32, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Environmental education: a fast-growing field in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D W

    1989-01-01

    Private conservation organizations have become more prevalent throughout Latin America in the last decade. They range from well organized and financed, internationally-recognized organizations, to small volunteer groups. They are committed to preserving the natural resources and cover national park management, the protection of wildlife, reforestation, environmental contamination and other issues. Also in Latin America environmental education has become an important part of the resource conservation programs. One of the most advanced and successful programs is in Ecuador and is called Natura. It has produced many educational materials including slide programs, television spots and programs, booklets, a complete primary school curriculum, posters, radio programs and a profile of Ecuador's environment. Their programs have been successful because they analyze their target audience and tailor the program to their needs and desires. They also follow up with evaluation questionnaires and testing for each program. It has been difficult for organizations such as these to implement programs in rural areas. There are some groups developing environmental education programs in rural areas through alliances with development assistance organizations. There are essential for the protection of wild areas where human needs must be balanced with longterm ecological priorities.

  2. Analytical chemistry in Brazil: healthy and growing

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Fábio R. P.; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical sciences in Brazil are growing fast and being one of the main supports for the continuous development of the country. Inspired on the 15th Brazilian Meeting on Analytical Chemistry, ENQA, with a record number of participants and communications, we have decided to review recent developments in analytical chemistry in Brazil. We have chosen the same application areas used for the thematic organization of the ENQA and have searched papers published by Brazilian authors in 7 major and ge...

  3. WHEN COMPASSION GROWS WINGS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicky

    antiretroviral roll-out in full swing, the. WHEN COMPASSION GROWS WINGS. The free time and expertise given by its deeply committed core of professional volunteers. (including pilots) is the lifeblood of the operation. Red Cross Air Mercy Service volunteer, German national Dr Florian Funk, at the AMS Durban base.

  4. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  5. Effects of weaning age on growth, nutrient digestibility and metabolism, and serum parameters in Hu lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Chai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of weaning age on growth performance, nutrient digestion and metabolism, and serological indicators, and to obtain an optimal weaning age in Hu lambs. Forty-eight newborn Hu lambs (birth weight, 2.53 ± 0.14 kg were randomly divided into 4 groups. The lambs in control group (ER suckled their dams. The lambs in other three experimental groups were weaned on milk replacer at 10, 20, and 30 days of age (EW10, EW20, and EW30 groups, respectively. The results were as follows: 1 lambs in EW10 and EW30 groups had a lower (P  0.05 among groups; however, the apparent digestibility and deposition of calcium in early weaned lambs were lower (P < 0.05 than those in ewe-reared lambs. 4 The albumin content in EW30 group was lower (P < 0.05 than that in ER group; the globulin content in EW30 group was higher (P < 0.05 than that in other groups; the content of serum insulin-like growth factor-Ⅰ in weaned lambs tended to increase compared with lambs in ER group. Finally, the growth rate of lambs decreased within 10 days post-weaning, but early weaning boosted creep feed intake, leading to better growth and health later in life. The Hu lambs can be weaned on milk replacer and creep feed at 10 days of age.

  6. Stoichiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB, an outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Gehring, K; Cheng, C H; Nikaido, H; Jap, B K

    1991-01-01

    We have directly measured the stoichiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB. Scatchard plots and computer fitting of flow dialysis (rate-of-dialysis) experiments clearly establish three independent binding sites per LamB trimer, with a dissociation constant of approximately 60 microM for maltoheptaose. The current model for LamB's function as a specific pore is discussed with respect to the symmetry in LamB's kinetic properties and the implications of our results.

  7. 78 FR 31367 - Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...] RIN 0581-AD29 Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and... (including veal), lamb, chicken, goat, and pork; ground beef, ground lamb, ground chicken, ground goat, and... processing and slaughtering firms, 38 chicken processing firms, and 4,335 retailers. This totals 7,181 firms...

  8. 78 FR 15645 - Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm-Raised Fish and Shellfish, Perishable...), lamb, chicken, goat, and pork; ground beef, ground lamb, ground chicken, ground goat, and ground pork... chicken processing firms, and 4,335 retailers. This totals 7,181 firms that [[Page 15646

  9. Influence of Production System, Sex and Litter Size on Growth Rates in Turcana Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Gavojdian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lamb meat production has become the main source of income in the Romanian sheep farming industry, representing over 66% of the total returns. Turcana breed represents over 70% of the national flock, and 92% of the sheep bred in western Romania. However, meat production potential and growth rates of the breed are low, and thus strategies to improve performance of the Turcana lambs need to be identified. Aim of the current research was to evaluate the effects that sex and litter size have on the growth rates of lambs from Turcana breed under extensive and semi-intensive production systems. Weaning weight was significantly (p≤0.001 influenced by the production system, with lambs reared extensively registering a average body weights of 18.23±0.094 kg at the age of 90 days, while the semi-intensively reared lambs registered an average weight of 20.19±0.082 kg. It was concluded that all three factors taken into study significantly influence growth rates in Turcana lambs and that weight of the lamb(s at the age of 28 days should be included as a selection trait within the Turcana breed genetic improvement plan.

  10. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance and carcass characteristics in wool and hair lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel M. Romero-Maya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics of wool and hair lambs. For this purpose, 48 lambs averaging 31.3 kg body weight, of which twenty were wool (Ramboullet x Suffolk and twenty eight were hair (Tabasco lambs, and four levels of RAC (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg diet, dry matter basis were used. Wool lambs fed 20 and 30 mg RAC had higher (P<0.05 total gain weight and lower feed conversion than 0 and 10 mg RAC. Wool lambs fed 20 mg RAC had the highest carcass weight, dressing, legs weight and longissimus area as compared to 0, 10 and 30 mg RAC.  In hair lambs there were not effect of RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics.It was concluded that addition of RAC to finishing diets offered the best growth performance and carcass traits in wool lambs as compared to hair lambs

  11. Microbial performance of food safety management systems implemented in the lamb production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oses, S.M.; Luning, P.A.; Jacxsens, L.; Santillana, S.; Jaime, I.; Rovira, J.

    2012-01-01

    The actual microbial status of the lamb production chain at three slaughterhouses, one processing plant, and five butcher shops selling whole or cut lamb carcasses to consumers was assessed with a previously developed microbial assessment scheme. All studied establishments had a food safety

  12. Effects of different protein sources of diet on yield and quality of lamb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained in the study of the effects of different protein sources in diet on fattening parameters, yield and quality of meat from weaned lambs are presented in this study. Experiment was conducted on 60 lambs of MIS population, weaned at the age of 60 days and divided into three groups. The effect of use of three ...

  13. PZT-on-silicon RF-MEMS Lamb wave resonators and filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yagubizade, H.

    2013-01-01

    Lamb-wave piezoelectric RF-MEMS resonators have demonstrated promising performance, such as low motional impedance and high Q-factor. Lamb-wave resonators are still in the perfectioning state and therefore there is a great demand for further understanding of various issues such as reducing the

  14. Cane molasses and NaOH teated bagacillo diets for lambs | Chicco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cane molasses and NaOH teated bagacillo diets for lambs. C.F. Chicco, G Garcia, C Fernandez, C.R. Prays. Abstract. The eftect of alkali-treated bag acillo in diets varying in proportion of bagacillo and mollasses was studied in lambs. The bagacillo was treated with a concentration solution of NaOH in a horizontald rum-type ...

  15. Electrophoretic pattern of sera from lambs and kids vaccinated with irradiated Amphistome metacercariae (Cercariae indicae XXVI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, Md.; Rao, B.V.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary work has been done to study certain responses induced by irradiated amphistome metacercariae used as a vaccine to immunise lambs, kids and calves. The electrophoretic pattern of the sera collected from lambs and kids vaccinated with gamma irradiated amphistome matacercariae (C.I. XXVI) has been reported in this study. (author). 10 refs., 1 table

  16. Isolation and molecular characterization of Clostridium perfringens from healthy Merino lambs in Patagonia region, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mignaqui, A. C.; Marcellino, R. B.; Ronco, Troels

    2017-01-01

    The presence and molecular characterization of Clostridium perfringens in healthy Merino lambs over a six-month period was investigated in this study. Overall, a high prevalence of C. perfringens was detected, even in day-old lambs. Even though the majority of the isolates were characterized...

  17. Effect of breed and feeding on the carcass characteristics of the Chilote breed lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ramírez-Retamal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilote sheep has been developed in an isolated environment, based on grazing lands with low nutritive value belonging to small-scale producers, because of which there is little information about the use of this breed for meat production. The objective of this work was to determine the effects on lamb carcasses of two breeds with different productive purposes and fed on pastures with different nutritional quality. Three groups of lambs were used. The first and second groups were composed of 13 and 11 Chilote lambs respectively, and the third composed of six Suffolk Down lambs. Lambs remained with their mothers, the first group on naturalized pasture and the rest on rangeland. Animals were slaughtered at 90 d of age. Live weight, carcass weight and yield, and several zoometric parameters were determined, as well as the weight of commercial cuts and the muscle, bone and fat ratios. Hide and hoof weights were also measured. For the effect of breed, Chilote lamb is narrower (P < 0.05 than Suffolk Down, but with a higher proportion of hide (P < 0.05 and hooves (P < 0.05. The type of pasture only affected hot carcass yield, which was higher in Chilote lamb with naturalized pasture than with rangeland (P < 0.05. There were no effects of breed or pasture type on the main characteristics of the lamb carcasses.

  18. Sheep experimentally infected with sarcocystis from dogs. I. Disease in young lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, R G; Fayer, R; Johnson, A J

    1977-08-01

    Eight Polled Dorset lambs were orally inoculated with Sarcocystis ovicanis sporocysts. Two lambs that received 100,000 or 200,000 sporocysts became clinically ill, recovered, and were killed 67 and 88 days after inoculation (DAI). Numerous intramuscular cysts were found in their skeletal and cardiac muscles. Three lambs received 100,000 sporocysts, three lambs received 1 million sporocysts, and three lambs received no sporocysts. After an acute clinical illness characterized by anemia, inappetence, weight loss, fever, and reduced serum protein, all lambs that received 100,000 sporocysts died 27 to 29 DAI and all that received 1 million sporocysts died 24 or 25 DAI. Hemorrhage involving the striated muscle and visceral organs was the most apparent gross lesion. The heart appeared most severely affected. Schizonts were found in vascular endothelial cells of all six inoculated lambs. Uninoculated lambs remained healthy, and neither lesions nor parasites were found in any tissues. Dogs fed tissues containing S. ovicanis cysts produced sporocytes 11 to 37 days after feeding; cats fed similar stages produced no sporocysts. Dogs fed tissues containing schizonts produced no sporocysts.

  19. studies on risk factors of mortality in lambs in sokoto, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. A.A

    The effect of birth weight showed 47 (57.31%) mortalities in lambs less than. 2kg at birth. Higher deaths were seen during the wet season ... conditions, the loss in Australia is 5 -. 20% with 80% of such deaths occurring within the first ..... single lambs and starvation is more likely among them leading to starvation and death.

  20. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. 311.28 Section 311.28 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves, pigs...

  1. The effect of stocking rate on the performance of ewes and lambs on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    after the ewes were injected with 0.5 ml oxytocin (5 I.U.) ... change, initial lamb mass, mean milk production, season, birth status and sex. Results and Discussion. Chemical composition. The chemical composition of the .... Table 4 The performanceof suckling lambs on Italian ryegrass grazed for 84 days at five different.

  2. Growing up with Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maley, Tom

    2005-01-01

    An account is given of growing up as a child blinded as a result of a cancer of the eye known as retinoblastoma. The role of his mother is brought out, variously as a source of objective knowledge, of one's personal worth, and of the worth of other people in one's community. The strengths and weaknesses of his first school in his home area and…

  3. Can Romney lambs whose scrotums have been shortened by the use of a rubber ring be used as an alternative to vasectomised Perendale rams for inducing early breeding activity in Romney ewe lambs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Pr; Morris, St; West, Dm

    2008-12-01

    To determine if exposure to ram lambs whose scrotums had been shortened by the use of a rubber ring would induce reproductive activity in ewe lambs, and determine if this technique was an effective alternative to vasectomised mature rams. Seven hundred and forty-nine Romney ewe lambs, 7-8 months of age, were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. Treatments included exposure for 17 days prior to breeding to either mature vasectomised rams (Vasec), or ram lambs whose scrotums has been shortened via a rubber ring (Ram SS), or not being exposed to either vasectomised or short-scrotum ram lambs (Unteased). Using crayon marks, ewe lambs were identified as having been marked during the first 17 days only, during both 17-day periods, during the second 17 days only, or not marked. Hoggets were weighed on the day of introduction of entire rams. All ewe lambs were diagnosed for pregnancy status using ultrasound. Unteased ewe lambs and those exposed to ram lambs whose scrotums had been shortened by the use of a rubber ring were less (pewe lambs exposed to mature vasectomised rams. Twin-bearing ewe lambs were heavier (pewe lambs to mature vasectomised rams is an effective means of increasing the numbers of ewe lambs bred and pregnant to the first 17 days of breeding. In contrast, a 17-day exposure to ram lambs whose scrotums had been shortened by the use of a rubber ring, at the ratios utilised in the present study, were not a suitable alternative to mature vasectomised rams for inducing early breeding activity in ewe lambs.

  4. Coding and quantification of a facial expression for pain in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesgen, M J; Beausoleil, N J; Leach, M; Minot, E O; Stewart, M; Stafford, K J

    2016-11-01

    Facial expressions are routinely used to assess pain in humans, particularly those who are non-verbal. Recently, there has been an interest in developing coding systems for facial grimacing in non-human animals, such as rodents, rabbits, horses and sheep. The aims of this preliminary study were to: 1. Qualitatively identify facial feature changes in lambs experiencing pain as a result of tail-docking and compile these changes to create a Lamb Grimace Scale (LGS); 2. Determine whether human observers can use the LGS to differentiate tail-docked lambs from control lambs and differentiate lambs before and after docking; 3. Determine whether changes in facial action units of the LGS can be objectively quantified in lambs before and after docking; 4. Evaluate effects of restraint of lambs on observers' perceptions of pain using the LGS and on quantitative measures of facial action units. By comparing images of lambs before (no pain) and after (pain) tail-docking, the LGS was devised in consultation with scientists experienced in assessing facial expression in other species. The LGS consists of five facial action units: Orbital Tightening, Mouth Features, Nose Features, Cheek Flattening and Ear Posture. The aims of the study were addressed in two experiments. In Experiment I, still images of the faces of restrained lambs were taken from video footage before and after tail-docking (n=4) or sham tail-docking (n=3). These images were scored by a group of five naïve human observers using the LGS. Because lambs were restrained for the duration of the experiment, Ear Posture was not scored. The scores for the images were averaged to provide one value per feature per period and then scores for the four LGS action units were averaged to give one LGS score per lamb per period. In Experiment II, still images of the faces nine lambs were taken before and after tail-docking. Stills were taken when lambs were restrained and unrestrained in each period. A different group of five

  5. Effects of dietary rosemary extract on lamb spoilage under retail display conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañón, Sancho; Méndez, Lorena; Almela, Elisabet

    2012-03-01

    A dietary rosemary extract (RE) was tested to extend the shelf life of raw lamb meat. Lambs were supplemented with 0.6mgkg(-1) RE during fattening (from 13 to 25kg live weight). Meat spoilage (total viable counts, psycrophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, molds and yeasts), TBARS, CIE L*a*b* color and the sensory traits of lamb cuts were analyzed on days 0, 7, 14 or 21 under retail display conditions (70/30 O(2)/CO(2) atmosphere, 2°C temperature and 1600lx lighting). Supplementation of the lamb diet with RE was effective (Pretail display conditions. Dietary rosemary clearly inhibited lipid oxidation and rancidity, and was moderately efficient in preventing sensory deterioration and microbial spoilage. Although the results concerning meat preservation were limited, the dietary use of rosemary extracts in lambs seems to be promising as a nutritional strategy for improving meat quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Organoleptic properties of meat from Altamurana and Trimeticcio lambs slaughtered at two different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Girolami

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was performed with thirty-two Altamurana and Trimeticcio lambs slaughtered at 42 and at 70 days of age. Meat organoleptic characteristics were determined on samples of M. Longissimus lumborum and Longissimus thoracis. Colour parameters were not affected by genotype, while L* value and index of yellow decreased (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively as age of slaughtering increased. Meat from Altamurana lambs showed lower juiciness (P<0.01 and fatness (P<0.05 than Trimeticcio lambs. No genotype and age of slaughtering effects were found for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF values. Meat from younger lambs was more tender and chewable (P<0.01 but less juicy (P<0.001 and fatty (P<0.05 than meat from lambs slaughterd at 70 days.

  7. Experimental Study on Corrosion Detection of Aluminum Alloy Using Lamb Wave Mixing Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heeung; Lee, Jaesun; Cho, Younho [Pusan Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In this study, the Lamb wave mixing technique, which is basised on advanced research on the nonlinear bulk wave mixing technique, is applied for corrosion detection. To demonstrate the validity of the Lamb wave mixing technique, an experiment was performed with normal and corroded specimens. Comparison group in an experimentation are selected to mode and frequency with dominant in-plane displacement and out-of-plane displacement of Lamb waves. The results showed that the Lamb wave mixing technique can monitor corrosion defects, and it has a trend similar to that of the conventional Lamb wave technique. It was confirmed that the dominant displacement and mode matching the theory were generated. Flaw detectability is determined depending on displacement ratio instead of using the measurement method and mode selection.

  8. The development of the pupillary light reflex and menace response in neonatal lambs and kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoofi, Afshin; Mirfakhraie, Pejman; Yourdkhani, Sorush

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of the pupillary light reflex and menace response in neonatal lambs and goat kids. Thirty lambs and 33 kids were assessed daily from birth until the pupillary light reflex and menace response had become established. All animals had a controlled pupillary light reflex within 20 h of birth. Lambs and kids had developed menace responses by 8 ± 3 and 14 ± 2 days, respectively. The Mann-Whitney test revealed a significant difference (P kids developed a menace response. Male kids developed this response significantly (P = 0.006) later than females. There was no sex difference in the menace response in the lambs. Overall, the findings indicated that lambs develop a menace response earlier than kids, and female kids develop this response more rapidly than their male counterparts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Puberty and Fertility of Ewe Lambs Fed on By-products of Palm and Olive Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-T arabany, A.A.; Mostafa, M.M.M.; Mohamed, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to elucidate the effect of palm and olive oil by-products adding to rations on production and reproductive performance of Rahmani and Osimi female sheep. After weaning, Rahmani and Osimi ewe lambs (24 for each) of similar birth type were identified to compare between two rations containing hard fatty acids (HFA) or olive cake (OC) on sexual puberty and fertility of two breeds. The lambs of both breed were randomly divided into three groups: the first group is considered control and received ration which contained concentrate feed mixture (CFM). The second group nourished (OC) consisted of CFM +HFA and the third group nourished (HFA) composed of CFM +OC. The CFM was offered as basal ration to all experimental lambs. Body weight, functions of the liver, kidney, thyroid and progesterone hormones at puberty, and the fertility traits were assayed in the two breeds of ewes. The average body weight of female lambs was higher (P<0.05) with OC than HFA. Female lambs supplied OC reached puberty faster and their thyroid and sexual hormones (progesterone) have been developed earlier than ewe lambs given HFA and those in the control group. Age at puberty and progesterone level in both Rahmani and Osimi ewe lambs were better in ewes fed on OC , than other two groups. The fertility (%) from total ewe lambs and birth weight in ewe lambs fed on OC were higher than ewes fed on HFA and the control. It may be concluded that feeding ewe lambs on diet containing HFA from weaning had positive effects on age at puberty, reproductive fertility and prolificacy

  10. On Lamb and Rayleigh wave convergence in viscoelastic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenadic, Ivan Z; Urban, Matthew W; Aristizabal, Sara; Mitchell, Scott A; Humphrey, Tye C; Greenleaf, James F, E-mail: Nenadic.Ivan@mayo.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, 55905 (United States)

    2011-10-21

    Characterization of the viscoelastic material properties of soft tissue has become an important area of research over the last two decades. Our group has been investigating the feasibility of using a shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) method to excite Lamb waves in organs with plate-like geometry to estimate the viscoelasticity of the medium of interest. The use of Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry to quantify the mechanical properties of viscoelastic solids has previously been reported. Two organs, the heart wall and the spleen, can be readily modeled using plate-like geometries. The elasticity of these two organs is important because they change in pathological conditions. Diastolic dysfunction is the inability of the left ventricle (LV) of the heart to supply sufficient stroke volumes into the systemic circulation and is accompanied by the loss of compliance and stiffening of the LV myocardium. It has been shown that there is a correlation between high splenic stiffness in patients with chronic liver disease and strong correlation between spleen and liver stiffness. Here, we investigate the use of the SDUV method to quantify the viscoelasticity of the LV free-wall myocardium and spleen by exciting Rayleigh waves on the organ's surface and measuring the wave dispersion (change of wave velocity as a function of frequency) in the frequency range 40-500 Hz. An equation for Rayleigh wave dispersion due to cylindrical excitation was derived by modeling the excised myocardium and spleen with a homogenous Voigt material plate immersed in a nonviscous fluid. Boundary conditions and wave potential functions were solved for the surface wave velocity. Analytical and experimental convergence between the Lamb and Rayleigh waves is reported in a finite element model of a plate in a fluid of similar density, gelatin plate and excised porcine spleen and left-ventricular free-wall myocardium.

  11. Cardiovascular and pulmonary consequences of airway recruitment in preterm lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polglase, Graeme R; Hooper, Stuart B; Gill, Andrew W; Allison, Beth J; McLean, Carryn J; Nitsos, Ilias; Pillow, J Jane; Kluckow, Martin

    2009-04-01

    Increases in positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) improve arterial oxygenation in preterm infants, but the effects on cardiopulmonary hemodynamics are understood poorly. We aimed to determine the effect of increased PEEP on cardiopulmonary hemodynamics and to compare measurements from indwelling flow probes with Doppler echocardiography. Preterm lambs (129 +/- 1 days) were ventilated initially with a tidal volume of 7 ml/kg and 4 cmH(2)O of PEEP. In ramp lambs (n = 7), PEEP was increased by 2-cmH(2)O increments to 10 cmH(2)O and then in decrements back to 4 cmH(2)O. PEEP was unchanged in controls (n = 6). Doppler echocardiographic flow measurements in the left pulmonary artery (LPA) and ductus arteriosus (DA) were correlated with flow probe measurements. Compared with controls, high PEEP reduced LPA flow from baseline (10-cmH(2)O PEEP: 43 +/- 8% vs. control: 83 +/- 21%; P = 0.029). High PEEP increased the proportion of right-to-left (R-L) shunting through the DA, with a trend to an increased oxygenation index compared with controls (oxygenation index: 44.5 +/- 13.5 at 10-cmH(2)O PEEP vs. 19.4 +/- 4.5 in controls; P = 0.07). Increasing PEEP decreased heart rate (17 beats/min; P = 0.03) and tended to lower systolic arterial pressure (5.0 mmHg; P = 0.052) compared with controls. Doppler echocardiography measurement of LPA flows correlated strongly with indwelling flow probe (r(2) = 0.73, P < 0.001), except during highly turbulent flows. Increases in PEEP have significant cardiopulmonary consequences in preterm lambs, including reduced LPA flow and increased R-L shunt through the DA. These changes are likely due to the concomitant increase in downstream pulmonary vascular resistance and increased cardiovascular constraint induced by PEEP.

  12. On Lamb and Rayleigh wave convergence in viscoelastic tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenadic, Ivan Z; Urban, Matthew W; Aristizabal, Sara; Mitchell, Scott A; Humphrey, Tye C; Greenleaf, James F

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of the viscoelastic material properties of soft tissue has become an important area of research over the last two decades. Our group has been investigating the feasibility of using a shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) method to excite Lamb waves in organs with plate-like geometry to estimate the viscoelasticity of the medium of interest. The use of Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry to quantify the mechanical properties of viscoelastic solids has previously been reported. Two organs, the heart wall and the spleen, can be readily modeled using plate-like geometries. The elasticity of these two organs is important because they change in pathological conditions. Diastolic dysfunction is the inability of the left ventricle (LV) of the heart to supply sufficient stroke volumes into the systemic circulation and is accompanied by the loss of compliance and stiffening of the LV myocardium. It has been shown that there is a correlation between high splenic stiffness in patients with chronic liver disease and strong correlation between spleen and liver stiffness. Here, we investigate the use of the SDUV method to quantify the viscoelasticity of the LV free-wall myocardium and spleen by exciting Rayleigh waves on the organ's surface and measuring the wave dispersion (change of wave velocity as a function of frequency) in the frequency range 40-500 Hz. An equation for Rayleigh wave dispersion due to cylindrical excitation was derived by modeling the excised myocardium and spleen with a homogenous Voigt material plate immersed in a nonviscous fluid. Boundary conditions and wave potential functions were solved for the surface wave velocity. Analytical and experimental convergence between the Lamb and Rayleigh waves is reported in a finite element model of a plate in a fluid of similar density, gelatin plate and excised porcine spleen and left-ventricular free-wall myocardium.

  13. Co-housing of Rift Valley fever virus infected lambs with immunocompetent or immunosuppressed lambs does not result in virus transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Wichgers Schreur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is transmitted among susceptible animals by mosquito vectors. Although the virus can be isolated from nasal and oral swabs of infected animals and is known to be highly infectious when administered experimentally via oral or respiratory route, horizontal transmission of the virus is only sporadically reported in literature. We considered that immunosuppression resulting from stressful conditions in the field may increase the susceptibility to horizontally transmitted RVFV. Additionally, we reasoned that horizontal transmission may induce immune responses that could affect the susceptibility of contact-exposed animals to subsequent infection via mosquito vectors. To address these two hypotheses, viremic lambs were brought into contact with sentinel lambs. One group of sentinel lambs was treated with the immunosuppressive synthetic glucocorticosteroid dexamethasone and monitored for signs of disease and presence of virus in the blood and target organs. Another group of contact-exposed sentinel lambs remained untreated for three weeks and was subsequently challenged with RVFV. We found that none of the dexamethasone-treated contact-exposed lambs developed detectable viremia, antibody responses or significant increases in cytokine mRNA levels. Susceptibility of immunocompetent lambs to RVFV infection was not influenced by previous contact-exposure. Our results are discussed in light of previous findings.

  14. Some Gastrointestinal Tract Characteristics of Karayaka Ram Lambs Slaughtered at Different Weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one Karayaka ram lambs were slaughtered at different body weights (30 n=7, 35 n=6, 40 n=7, 45 n=6, and 50 n=5 kg of body weight at fast to evaluate the growth of their gastrointestinal tract (GIT characteristics, to determine the relationship among slaughter body weight (SBW and empty body weight (EBW, whole GIT and segments, and the influence of slaughter weight on the pH of rumen, jejunum, and cecal contents. The effects of the SBW on GIT weight P<0.05, stomach P<0.001, and intestine P<0.05, the body length P<0.001 and caecum P<0.05, and the relative weights of GIT P<0.05, stomach P<0.001, and intestine P<0.001 were linear whereas that for the length of intestine were quadratic. The effect of SBW were quadratic P<0.05 on ratios of stomach to GIT weight and intestine length to intestine weight and rumen pH while, for the intestine to GIT weight ratio P<0.001 and caecum pH P<0.05, this effect was linear. The results indicated that for all parameters studied, with the exception of intestinal length and cecal pH, linear relationships were observed with SBW indicating steady growth rates for these tissues.

  15. Phenotypic and genetic relationships between lamb and ewe traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated between lamb and ewe traits in a flock of Sabi sheep reared at the Matopos Research Station. Direct additive estimates of heritability were: 0.28 ? 0.04; 0.17 ? 0.00; 0.25 ? 0.01; 0.39 ? 0.01; 0.59 ? 0.01; 0.50 ? 0.01; 0.68 ? .03; 0.12 ? 0.003; 0.25 ? 0.01; 0.11 ? 0.00; 0.12 ?

  16. Morphology and Function of the Lamb Ileum following Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey J. Flores

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFor infants born moderately/late preterm (32–37 weeks of gestation, immaturity of the intestine has the potential to impact both short- and long-term gastrointestinal function. The aim of this study conducted in sheep was to compare the morphology and smooth muscle contractility of the ileum in term and late preterm lambs.Materials and methodsLambs delivered preterm (132 days gestation; n = 7 or term (147 days gestation; n = 9 were milk-fed after birth and euthanased at 2 days of age. A segment of distal ileum was collected for analysis of the length and cellular composition of the villi and crypts, smooth muscle width and contractility, and mRNA expression of the cell markers Ki67, lysozyme, mucin 2, synaptophysin, chromogranin A, olfactomedin 4, axis inhibition protein 2, and leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5.ResultsThere was no difference in the proportion of inflammatory, proliferating, apoptotic, enterocyte, or goblet cells between groups, but preterm lambs exhibited a significant upregulation of the stem cell marker LGR5 (p = 0.01. Absolute villus height (term: 1,032 ± 147 µm, preterm: 651 ± 52 µm; p < 0.0001 and crypt depth (term: 153 ± 11 µm, preterm: 133 ± 17 µm; p = 0.01 were significantly shorter in the preterm ileums, with a trend (p = 0.06 for a reduction in muscularis externa width. There was no difference between groups in the contractile response to acetylcholine, but peak contractility in response to bradykinin (p = 0.02 and angiotensin II (p = 0.03 was significantly greater in the preterm lambs.ConclusionFindings demonstrate that the crypt-villus units are shorter in the ileum of late preterm offspring, but functionally mature with an equivalent cellular composition and normal contractile response to acetylcholine compared with term offspring. The exaggerated contractility to inflammatory mediators evident in the

  17. Morphology and Function of the Lamb Ileum following Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Tracey J; Nguyen, Vivian B; Widdop, Robert E; Sutherland, Megan R; Polglase, Graeme R; Abud, Helen E; Black, Mary Jane

    2018-01-01

    For infants born moderately/late preterm (32-37 weeks of gestation), immaturity of the intestine has the potential to impact both short- and long-term gastrointestinal function. The aim of this study conducted in sheep was to compare the morphology and smooth muscle contractility of the ileum in term and late preterm lambs. Lambs delivered preterm (132 days gestation; n  = 7) or term (147 days gestation; n  = 9) were milk-fed after birth and euthanased at 2 days of age. A segment of distal ileum was collected for analysis of the length and cellular composition of the villi and crypts, smooth muscle width and contractility, and mRNA expression of the cell markers Ki67, lysozyme, mucin 2, synaptophysin, chromogranin A, olfactomedin 4, axis inhibition protein 2, and leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5). There was no difference in the proportion of inflammatory, proliferating, apoptotic, enterocyte, or goblet cells between groups, but preterm lambs exhibited a significant upregulation of the stem cell marker LGR5 ( p  = 0.01). Absolute villus height (term: 1,032 ± 147 µm, preterm: 651 ± 52 µm; p  preterm: 133 ± 17 µm; p  = 0.01) were significantly shorter in the preterm ileums, with a trend ( p  = 0.06) for a reduction in muscularis externa width. There was no difference between groups in the contractile response to acetylcholine, but peak contractility in response to bradykinin ( p  = 0.02) and angiotensin II ( p  = 0.03) was significantly greater in the preterm lambs. Findings demonstrate that the crypt-villus units are shorter in the ileum of late preterm offspring, but functionally mature with an equivalent cellular composition and normal contractile response to acetylcholine compared with term offspring. The exaggerated contractility to inflammatory mediators evident in the preterm ileum, however, may be of concern.

  18. On the lamb wave propagation in anisotropic laminated composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Keun; Jeong, Hyun Jo; Kim, Moon Saeng

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the propagation of Lamb (or plate) waves in anisotropic laminated composite plates. The dispersion relations are explicitly derived using the classical plate theory (CLT), the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and the exact solution (ES), Attention is paid to the lowest antisymmetric (flexural) and lowest symmetric(extensional) modes in the low frequency, long wavelength limit. Different values of shear correction factor were tested in FSDT and comparisons between flexural wave dispersion curves were made with exact results to asses the range of validity of approximate plate theories in the frequency domain.

  19. The use of melatonin and progestagen-eCG to initiate reproductive activity in prepuberal Awassi ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawalha, Mohammad N; Kridli, Rami T; Jawasreh, Khalil I; Meza-Herrera, Cesar A

    2011-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of administering hormonal treatments (melatonin and progestagen/equine chronic gonadotropin (eCG)) on advancing puberty in Awassi ewe lambs. Fifty-one 6-month-old ewe lambs of similar body weights (around 28 kg) were randomly assigned into four treatment groups; control (CON; n = 14), melatonin (MEL; n = 13), melatonin plus progestagen-eCG (MELPP; n = 11), and progestagen-eCG (PP; n = 13). Ewe lambs in the PP and MELPP groups were fitted with intravaginal progestagen sponges containing 60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days; 400 IU eCG were administered to each of these ewe lambs on the day of sponge removal. Ewe lambs in the MEL and MELPP groups received subcutaneous melatonin implants (Regulin®, 18 mg melatonin) 36 days before sponge insertion. Hormonal treatment had no effect on ewe lamb body weight change. Estrous behavior was greater (p ewe lambs. The duration from ram introduction to onset of estrus was shorter (p ewe lambs. The number of ewe lambs showing luteal activity was greater (p ewe lambs in the current study either failed to cycle or stopped cycling following the induced estrus. Such failure in advancing puberty may be related to body weight of ewe lambs at the time of mating.

  20. Studies on the immune response of previously infected lambs to vaccination with the radiation attenuated Dictyocaulus filaria vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, D.N.; Sharma, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    The immune response of lambs infected with the lungworm, Dictyocaulus filaria to vaccination with the radiation attenuated D.filaria vaccine was studied under experimental conditions. Healthy, un-infected lambs, 4-6 months of age were randomly distributed into three groups. Group one lambs were previously exposed to single or trickle infections of D.filaria before being vaccinated, group two lambs were vaccinated only whereas the group three lambs received neither infection nor were vaccinated. All the lambs were subsequently challanged with normal infective D.filaria larvae. The results of the experiment indicate that the vaccine confers very little or practically no immunity in lambs already exposed to the infection. The significance of these findings in the use of the vaccine for the control of lungworm disease in sheep under field conditions is discussed. (author)

  1. Ground Juniperus pinchotii and urea in supplements fed to Rambouillet ewe lambs Part 2: Ewe lamb rumen microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, S L; Yeoman, C J; Whitney, T R

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated effects of ground redberry juniper () and urea in dried distillers grains with solubles-based supplements fed to Rambouillet ewe lambs ( = 48) on rumen physiological parameters and bacterial diversity. In a randomized study (40 d), individually-penned lambs were fed ground sorghum-sudangrass hay and of 1 of 8 supplements (6 lambs/treatment; 533 g/d; as-fed basis) in a 4 × 2 factorial design with 4 concentrations of ground juniper (15%, 30%, 45%, or 60% of DM) and 2 levels of urea (1% or 3% of DM). Increasing juniper resulted in minor changes in microbial β-diversity (PERMANOVA, pseudo F = 1.33, = 0.04); however, concentrations of urea did not show detectable broad-scale differences at phylum, family, or genus levels according to ANOSIM ( > 0.05), AMOVA ( > 0.10), and PERMANOVA ( > 0.05). Linear discriminant analysis indicated some genera were specific to certain dietary treatments ( < 0.05), though none of these genera were present in high abundance; high concentrations of juniper were associated with and , low concentrations of urea were associated with , and high concentrations of urea were associated with and . were decreased by juniper and urea. , , and increased with juniper and were positively correlated (Spearman's, < 0.05) with each other but not to rumen factors, suggesting a symbiotic interaction. Overall, there was not a juniper × urea interaction for total VFA, VFA by concentration or percent total, pH, or ammonia ( 0.29). When considering only percent inclusion of juniper, ruminal pH and proportion of acetic acid linearly increased ( < 0.001) and percentage of butyric acid linearly decreased ( = 0.009). Lamb ADG and G:F were positively correlated with (Spearman's, < 0.05) and negatively correlated with Synergistaceae, the BS5 group, and Lentisphaerae. Firmicutes were negatively correlated with serum urea nitrogen, ammonia, total VFA, total acetate, and total propionate. Overall, modest differences in bacterial diversity among

  2. Growing Data User Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggin, B.

    2017-12-01

    Preserving data is not only a technical challenge. Perhaps the best way to protect data is to use it. Grassroots efforts to make research-quality copies of federal data continue to energize communities of data users who often did not previously recognize themselves as open earth data users. Beyond "data rescue" events, the Data Refuge project researches how federal climate and environmental data are used downstream in a variety of local communities and municipal governments to address everyday issues: public health, municipal safety, and even the preservation of cultural heritage assets. Documenting the diverse uses made of open earth data beyond the earth sciences research community grows the community who, in making use of data, also helps to preserve it.

  3. Growing a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  4. Growing Old in Exile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liversage, Anika; Mirdal, Gretty Mizrahi

    2017-01-01

    Some studies on immigrants and ageing focus on the question of return; others focus on how immigrants, who grow old in their countries of destination, ‘age in place’, including whether they turn to their children or to public host country provisions for care and support. However, the issues...... of return and of ageing in place may both hold significance in individual immigrants’ lives. To investigate the changing expectations of old age throughout the life course, this paper draws on longitudinal interviews with immigrant women from Turkey who live in Denmark. We focus on the function of proximity...... to children. Using two women who were interviewed three times over three decades as case studies, the analysis shows that in the middle of life, the women share expectations of returning to Turkey, but these plans are perpetually postponed. As the women age, they must face their inability to leave...

  5. Surfactant phosphatidylcholine metabolism and surfactant function in preterm, ventilated lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobe, A.H.; Ikegami, M.; Seidner, S.R.; Pettenazzo, A.; Ruffini, L.

    1989-01-01

    Preterm lambs were delivered at 138 days gestational age and ventilated for periods up to 24 h in order to study surfactant metabolism and surfactant function. The surfactant-saturated phosphatidylcholine pool in the alveolar wash was 13 +/- 4 mumol/kg and did not change from 10 min to 24 h after birth. Trace amounts of labeled natural sheep surfactant were mixed with fetal lung fluid at birth. By 24 h, 80% of the label had become lung-tissue-associated, yet there was no loss of label from phosphatidylcholine in the lungs when calculated as the sum of the lung tissue plus alveolar wash. De novo synthesized phosphatidylcholine was labeled with choline given by intravascular injection at 1 h of age. Labeled phosphatidylcholine accumulated in the lung tissue linearly to 24 h, and the labeled phosphatidylcholine moved through lamellar body to alveolar pools. The turnover time for alveolar phosphatidylcholine was estimated to be about 13 h, indicating an active metabolic pool. A less surface-active surfactant fraction recovered as a supernatant after centrifugation of the alveolar washes at 40,000 x g increased from birth to 10 min of ventilation, but no subsequent changes in the distribution of surfactant phosphatidylcholine in surfactant fractions occurred. The results were consistent with recycling pathway(s) that maintained surface-active surfactant pools in preterm ventilated lambs

  6. Feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Batista dos Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal replacing maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85% DM. Thirty Santa Inês sheep with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. Feeding time in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDFap increased by 34 min and 99.6 min, respectively, with each level of substitution of maize for the peach palm meal. Rumination and chewing times, in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDF, also increased in response to the substitution of maize for peach palm meal. When expressed in min day–1, rumination and chewing activities decreased by 12.4 and 14.6 min, respectively, as the amount of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The time spent idle increased linearly (P < 0.05, by 14.6 min day–1, with the replacement levels, compared with the control diet. Peach palm meal in the composition of sheep diets reduces the intakes of dry matter and fiber and decreases the feed and rumination efficiencies. Replacing maize by peach palm meal increases the feeding time and rumination and chewing activities of feedlot lambs.

  7. Performance and digestibility in feedlot lambs fed hay based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the performance of feedlot lambs fed diets formulated with hay of different genotypes of Cynodon spp. and to compare the dry matter digestibility of diets using different evaluation methods (total fecal collection and chromium oxide. Suffolk crossbred neutered male lambs (n=30, with an average age of 90 days and average body weight of 21.5 kg ± 1.6. Diets were formulated using a standard concentrate and hay of the following genotypes of Cynodon dactylon: Jiggs, Vaquero, Tifton 68, Coast-Cross, Tifton 85 and Russell, in a 60:40 forage concentrate ratio, composing the treatments distributed in a randomized block design in a factorial 5 x 2 arrangement of 5 diets and 2 digestibility evaluation methods. Animals receiving Vaquero hay showed dry matter intake of 18.3; 16.9; 25.6; 20.7 and 24.2% higher than those fed hay of Jiggs, Tifton 68, Coast Cross, Tifton 85 and Russell, respectively. There was no difference between diets for digestibility using total fecal collection, chromium oxide and final weight of animals. Jiggs hay based diets allowed greater daily weight gain and better feed conversion.

  8. Pulse energy evolution for high-resolution Lamb wave inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Jiadong; Zeng, Liang; Gao, Fei; Lin, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Generally, tone burst excitation methods are used to reduce the effect of dispersion in Lamb wave inspection. In addition, algorithms for dispersion compensation are required to simplify responses, especially in long-range inspection. However, the resolution is always limited by the time duration of tone burst excitation. A pulse energy evolution method is established to overcome this limitation. In this method, a broadband signal with a long time (e.g. a chirp, white noise signal, or a pseudo-random sequence) is used as excitation to actuate Lamb waves. First of all, pulse compression is employed to estimate system impulse response with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Then, dispersion compensation is applied repeatedly with systemically varied compensation distances, obtaining a series of compensated signals. In these signals, amplitude (or energy) evolution associated with the change of compensation distance is utilized to estimate the actual propagation distance of the interested wave packet. Finally, the defect position is detected by an imaging algorithm. Several experiments are given to validate the proposed method. (paper)

  9. The growing fibroadenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Linda M; Sara, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Fibroadenomas (FAs) are the most common tumors of the breast clinically and pathologically in adolescent and young women but may be discovered at any age. With increasing use of core biopsy rather than excision for diagnosis, it is now commonplace to follow these lesions with imaging. To assess the incidence of epithelial abnormalities (atypia, in situ or invasive, ductal or lobular malignancies) in FAs diagnosed by core biopsy and to re-evaluate the management paradigm for any growing FA. A retrospective review of the senior author’s pathology results over 19 years identified 2062 nodular FAs (biopsied by ultrasound or stereotactic guidance). Eighty-three core biopsied FAs were identified which subsequently enlarged. Twelve of 2062 of core biopsied nodules demonstrated atypia, in situ, or invasive malignancy (ductal or lobular) within or adjacent to the FA (0.58%). Eighty-three FAs enlarged and underwent either surgical excision (n = 65), repeat core biopsy (n = 9), or imaging follow-up (n = 9). The incidence of atypia, in situ or invasive malignancy was 0/83 (0%). Two enlarging FAs were subsequently surgically diagnosed as benign phyllodes tumors (PT). Malignancy in or adjacent to a core biopsied FA is rare. The risk of cancer in a growing FA is even rarer; none were present in our series. FAs with abnormal epithelial abnormalities require excision. Otherwise, FAs without epithelial abnormality diagnosed by core biopsy need no specific follow-up considering the negligible incidence of conversion to malignancy. The breast interventionalist must know how to manage discordant pathology results

  10. Productivity of an Atriplex halimus shrubbery and effects of grazing on lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Di Miceli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to 1 evaluate the productivity and forage quality of Atriplex halimus, 2 investigate modifications to shrub structure induced by grazing, and 3 assess live weight changes in lambs grazing on A. halimus with and without a feed supplement (wheat straw ± barley grain. The results showed that A. halimus had low productivity (approximately 1000 kg DM ha–1 but high tolerance to grazing by lambs, although minor modifications in plant structure due to grazing were observed. Lambs grazing A. halimus as a sole diet lost weight (about 60 g lamb−1 d–1; P < 0.01, probably as a consequence of the high salt content of the forage reducing both intake and digestibility. No significant benefits were obtained from the provision of wheat straw as an ad libitum supplement, possibly because the lambs were able to utilize understorey plants having a chemical composition similar to straw. Lambs supplemented with both wheat straw and barley grains (200 g lamb−1 d–1 had a significantly higher live weight (P < 0.01 than those grazing on A. halimus alone. The results suggest that a diet of A. halimus is not sufficient to maintain lamb live weight, and that supplementation with an energy source is necessary for lambs to gain weight.

  11. COLOUR AND pH VALUE OF ISTRIAN SHEEP LAMBS MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentino Držaić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sex and slaughter weight of Istrian sheep lambs on pH value and meat colour. The study included 118 lambs of both sexes (64 male and 54 female which were, prior slaughter, divided into two groups: light (17.76 kg; 28 male and 32 female and heavy (20.17 kg; 3 male and 22 female. Carcass weight was determined immediately after carcass processing and after 24 hours, while the pH value and meat colour were determined 45 minutes and 24 hours after slaughter. Average hot and cold carcass weights in light lambs were 9.76 and 9.47 kg, and in heavy lambs 11.80 and 11.49 kg, with chilling loss of 2.96 and 2.60% respectively. Istrian sheep lambs carcasses are quite uniform in relation to sex in terms of all the investigated traits, except value of L* and a* colour parameters. For the production of larger lamb meat quantities it might be recommended to increase lambs slaughter weight since the higher slaughter weight has the positive effect on carcass weight and chilling loss while retaining the desirable values of meat quality parameters.

  12. Effects of road type during transport on lamb welfare and meat quality in dry hot climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Monge, Paula; Villarroel, Morris; Olleta, Jose Luis; García-Belenguer, Sylvia; María, Gustavo A

    2011-06-01

    This study determined whether transporting lambs on paved (PR) or unpaved roads (UR) for 3 h had an effect on plasma stress indicators (cortisol, lactate, glucose, creatine kinase [CK], red blood cells, white blood cells, hematocrit, and neutrophil/lymphocyte [N/L] ratio) and instrumental meat quality (pH24, bruising score, water holding capacity [WHC], color, and texture). A total of 48 Rasa Aragonesa male lambs were used that were approximately 100 days old (12.5 kg ± 1.64, carcass weight). The results suggest that transport on unpaved roads had a significant influence on physiological and hematological stress parameters. Road type had a significant effect on all variables, except for white and red blood cells, and hematocrit levels. The UR lambs had significantly higher (at least p ≤ 0.01) cortisol, lactate, glucose, and CK levels and a higher N/L ratio than PR lambs. Meat from UR lambs had some dark-cutting characteristics, with a darker color, higher ultimate pH, and higher tenderness values than PR. In conclusion, lambs transported on unpaved roads had a more intense stress response and poorer meat quality than lambs transported on paved roads. An effort to improve the logistics associated with route planning is necessary to prevent welfare problems during transport to slaughter.

  13. Behavior of lambs in rest pens during long-distance transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczel, Peter D; Friend, Ted H; Archer, Greg S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how one group of lambs utilized 2 consecutive rest periods in novel environments with access to food and water that occurred during 22 hr of motor transport. The 18.5 +/- 0.6 kg lambs (n = 15) were transported for 8 hr and then unloaded for a 6-hr rest period. After 6 hr, the lambs were reloaded for another 8 hr of transport followed by a 24-hr rest period. Reloading for a second 8 hr of transport followed the initial rest period. The percentage of lambs engaged in drinking, eating, lying, playing, or "other" was determined at 15-min intervals. During the 6-hr rest period, peak lying behavior occurred during the 2nd and 6th hr of the period. During the first 6 hr of the 24-hr rest period, the percentage of lambs lying increased while the percentage of lambs eating decreased. In addition, the percentage of lambs lying during the first 6 hr of the 24-hr rest period was greater than during the 6-hr rest period. Lying down had a greater priority than eating during the second (24-hr) rest period.

  14. THE EFFECT OF PRODUCTION SYSTEM INFORMATION ON CONSUMER EXPECTATION AND ACCEPTABILITY OF LECCESE LAMB MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Martemucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty lamb meat’s habitual consumers (eight females and twelve males, from 25 to 62 yrs of age took part in a centrallocation test, organised to assess consumers’ expectations generated by information on animal feeding system, lambs fedwith maternal milk from mothers reared on grass (T1 versus lambs fed with maternal milk from mothers reared on stall(T2, and to assess the effect of this knowledge on the hedonic ratings of lamb meat from the Leccese breed. Using anone-point hedonic scale, first blind and then informed scores were collected on two types of Leccese meat. The blind testprovided information which was different from informed test; in fact, T2 meat receiving higher hedonic scores than T1 meat. Onthe contrary, with the label information on animal feeding system, meat from T1 lambs was liked more than meat from T2lambs. The lamb meat’s habitual consumers showed a higher interest in extrinsic quality attributes which referred to the origin orproduction system.

  15. Report: Prevalence and antibiotic trials against Salmonella enterica isolated from diarrheic lambs and kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Ijaz, Muhammad; Aslam, Hassaan Bin; Farooqi, Shahid Hussain; Ahmad, Syed Saleem; Akhtar, Raheela

    2017-11-01

    Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) is the major zoonotic threat for small ruminants and humans responsible for huge economic losses and high mortality in Pakistan. Lambs and kids of Lahore district were examined to determine the prevalence, hematology and chemotherapy of S. enterica. A total of 200 diarrheic samples (n=100 lambs; n=100 kids) were collected and examined; 59 (29.50%) were found positive for S. enterica. Lambs had lightly greater prevalence (31%) than kids (29%). The frequency analysis (OR=1.16 [reciprocal =0.87]) showed non-significant difference in both the lambs and kids. The significant decrease (Pℜ0.001) in hemoglobin, pack cell volume and total erythrocyte count was observed in infected lambs and kids. Results of in-vitro antibiotic susceptibility test revealed that S. enteric isolated from both lambs and kids were susceptible to levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, gentamicin, azithromycin, tobramycin, amoxicillin, ampicillin and nalidixic acid. Where as the results of in vivo antibiotic trials showed that isolates from both lambs and the kids with diarrhea were susceptible to levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin.

  16. Effects of restricted feeding of prepubertal ewe lambs on growth performance and mammary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, L; Cinq-Mars, D; Lacasse, P

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of restricted feeding before puberty on growth performance and mammary gland development in replacement ewe lambs. At weaning, 72 Dorset ewe lambs were assigned to one of the three diets: an ad libitum control diet with medium-quality forage (MQF; diet A-MQF); a restricted diet with the same forage as A, but less feed concentrate (diet R-MQF); or a high-quality forage (HQF) diet (diet F-HQF). The quantity of concentrate offered to the group R-MQF and F-HQF ewe lambs was adjusted to obtain 70% of the control ewe lambs' growth rate. The diets were offered for 75 days after weaning to cover the allometric phase of mammary gland development. During this period, average daily gain (ADG) was 223 and 229 g/day for groups R-MQF and F-HQF, respectively, compared to 305 g/day for group A-MQF (P ewe lambs were slaughtered and their mammary gland was collected. Parenchymal fresh tissue weight tended to be higher for groups R-MQF and F-HQF compared to group A-MQF (P = 0.09). Stroma weight was greater (P ewe lambs than for those in the other treatments. Total DNA and total protein in parenchymal tissue tended to be greater for groups R-MQF and F-HQF (P = 0.09 and P = 0.07, respectively). Dry fat-free tissue was greater for groups R-MQF and F-HQF (P ewe lambs were fed the same haylage and barley diet until their first lambing. During this period, compensatory growth was observed. ADG was greater (P ewe lambs.

  17. FAST scan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anna

    FAST-skanning er en metode, der har til formål at hurtigt diagnosticere fri væske i bughulen hos traumapatienter og andre akutte patienter. Denne skanningsteknik blev først introduceret til hunde i 2004, og omfatter ultralydsskanning af specifikke punkter i bughulen, hvor der er stor chance....../sorte) områder. I dag bruges FAST-skanning meget hyppigt indenfor human og veterinær akutmedicin. Det kan ses som et værktøj for dyrlæger som ikke arbejder med ultralyd til daglig. FAST-skanning har mange fordele; proceduren er effektiv og kan tage under 3 minutter, men har alligevel høj diagnostisk værdi. Det...... nødvendigt. Det skal dog understreges, at de abdominale organer ikke undersøges specifikt. Det kan være svært at skelne mellem væske i peritonealhulen og i det retroperitoneale rum. Man kan heller ikke karakterisere væsken og derved skelne mellem f.eks. blod, pus eller urin. Siden FAST-skanning blev...

  18. Fast ejendom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Peter

    Bogen omfatter en gennemgang af lovgivning, praksis og teori vedrørende køb af fast ejendom og offentligretlig og privatretlig regulering. Bogen belyser bl.a. de privatretlige emner: købers misligholdelsesbeføjelser, servitutter, naboret, hævd og erstatningsansvar for miljøskader samt den...

  19. Amino acid composition of lamb meat from the North East Bulgarian fine fleece breed and its crossbreds with Australian merino and Ile de France from internal breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Slavov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A comparative analysis of amino acid composition of lamb meat from the North East Bulgarian fine fleece breed (I gr. and its crossbreds from internal breeding with 25% heredity from the Australian merino (II gr. and Ile de France (III gr. breeds was conducted. Upon starting the experiment lambs were equal and during the experiment they were placed under similar conditions of feeding and rearing. To establish the amino acid composition of meat slaughter analyses were performed at 100 and 130 days of age. From the carcass of each slaughtered animal individual mean samples were taken. Studies were carried out in the Research Laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture at Trakia University. As a result of the studies the following conclusions were made: ¼ Ile de France crossbreds in a sophisticated crossing have the highest total amino acid content, including essential amino acids in the meat of 100- and 130-day-old lambs, 6.87% and 7.36%, respectively. The lysine/arginine ratio, relating to protein atherogenicity, varies within narrow ranges among groups and marks slight increase with age – from 1.31-1.37 at 100 days to 1.41-1.46 at 130 days. With the increase of age in crossbreds from internal breeding total protein amino acid content grows, that being most prominent in lambs from the III group – from 41.92 to 43.49%. The values of total protein indices increase compared to the reference protein (from 117.97% to 118.22% for II group and from 116.44% to 120.80% for III group and the whole egg protein (from 89.39% to 91.92% for II group and from 90.53% to 93.93 for III group. It has been found that internal breeding of crossbreds with 25% heredity from the Ile de France breed has positive effect concerning the total amino acid content of lamb meat at 100 and 130 days of age, essential amino acid content in it and the levels of total amino acid indices. Internal breeding of crossbreds with 25% heredity from the Australian merino breed

  20. A growing family

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Increasing membership of the CERN family featured strongly at the CERN Council meetings this week, with Serbia’s ratification documents being received along with an application for Associate Membership from Ukraine. We also learned that an official application is on its way from Brazil and I can report that discussions are ongoing with several other countries around the world.   Serbia joins Israel as an Associate Member in the pre-stage to Membership, and since Yugoslavia was a founder member of CERN in 1954, it was good to welcome Belgrade back. Looking forward, the Council has agreed to set up fast fact finding missions to other applicant countries, so I think it’s fair to say that 2012 will be a year of growth for CERN, fulfilling our mission of science bringing nations together. In a similar vein, it was a pleasure for me to be able to report to the Council an important development at SESAME, the light source for the Middle East established in Jordan on the CERN mode...

  1. Increase in Cardiac Troponin I in a Lamb with Tetralogy of Fallot

    Science.gov (United States)

    NEUWALD, Elisa Barp; SOARES, Frederico Aécio Carvalho; DREYER, Cristina Terres; CARNESELLA, Samuel; WOUTERS, Angelica Terezinha Barth; GONZÁLEZ, Félix Hilario Diaz; DRIEMEIER, David

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study describes a case of tetralogy of Fallot in a lamb showing failure to thrive and signs of respiratory distress. Physical examination, electrocardiography, thoracic radiographies, echocardiography and cardiac troponin I evaluation were performed. The value of cardiac troponin I was compared with the values of 10 healthy lambs of the same age and breed, and the affected animal demonstrated an increase in cardiac troponin I. Due to the poor prognosis, euthanasia was indicated, and necropsy confirmed the diagnosis. This is the first report of an increase in cardiac troponin I in a lamb with tetralogy of Fallot. PMID:23685750

  2. Chemical and sensory quality of lamb meat burgers from Manchego Spanish breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, M B; Cózar, A; Garrido, M D; Vergara, H

    2012-11-01

    This study examines the nutritional composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties of two types of lamb burgers from the Spanish Manchego breed (formula 1 = L: completely from leg lamb meat; formula 2 = LNB with 2/3 leg and 1/3 neck and breast meat). A significant effect of the formulation type was found since Formula 1 had a lower fat percentage (p sensorial analysis, non-significant differences were described among both formulas. In conclusion, meat quality characteristics were similar for both formulation types being the storage time, the only factor affecting lamb burger stability.

  3. Modeling and experimental investigations of Lamb waves focusing in anisotropic plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapuis, Bastien [Departement Materiaux et Structures Composites, ONERA, 29 avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92322 Chatillon Cedex (France); Terrien, Nicolas [CETIM, 74 route de la Joneliere, 44326 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Royer, Daniel, E-mail: Bastien.Chapuis@onera.fr [Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique, ESPCI, Universite Paris 7, CNRS UMR 7587, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of Lamb waves focusing in anisotropic plates is theoretically and experimentally investigated. An analysis based on a far field approximation of the Green's function shows that Lamb waves focusing is analog to the phonon focusing effect. In highly anisotropic structures like composite plates the focusing of A{sub 0} and S{sub 0} mode is strong; the energy propagates preferentially in the fibre directions, which are minima of the slowness. This has to be taken into account when developing, for example, a transducer array for structural health monitoring systems based on Lamb waves in order to avoid dead zones.

  4. Melting ice, growing trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Bensassi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR. Two key constraints on the future viability of the NSR pertain to bathymetry and the future evolution of the sea ice cover. Climate model projections of future sea ice conditions throughout the rest of the century suggest that even under the most “aggressive” emission scenario, increases in international trade between Europe and Asia will be very low. The large inter-annual variability of weather and sea ice conditions in the route, the Russian toll imposed for transiting the NSR, together with high insurance costs and scarce loading/unloading opportunities, limit the use of the NSR. We show that even if these obstacles are removed, the duration of the opening of the NSR over the course of the century is not long enough to offer a consequent boost to international trade at the macroeconomic level.

  5. Feeding behavior of lambs fed with diets containing mulberry hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gabriel Alves Cirne

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed with diets containing 0, 12.5 and 25.0% of mulberry hay as a substitute for the concentrate. Twenty four Ile de France lambs, non castrated, with 25 kg of body weight and four months old, confined, in a completely randomized design, were used. The feeding daily time (242.01 minutes, rumination (435.48 minutes and leisure (762.50 minutes, the numbers of cakes ruminated per day (658.36 and the time spent per cake (40.03 sec were not affected (P>0.05 by different levels of hay in mulberry concentrate. The dry matter voluntary intake (1.258 kg/day and neutral detergent fiber intake (0.302 kg/day, as well as the efficiency of dry matter intake and rumination (316.24 and 173.54 g/h, respectively and efficiency of neutral detergent fiber intake and rumination (75.89 and 41.68 g/h, respectively were similar in all treatments. The ruminating chew expressed in hour/day (11.29 and the number of chews expressed per cake (72.65 and per day (47.638.06, as well as the number and the feeding time (22.02 meals and 11.23 min/meal, rumination (25.95 ruminations and 17.29 min/rumination and idle (41.81 idle and 18.30 min/idle time, were also not affected (P>0.05. The inclusion of mulberry hay did not change the rumination expressed in g of DM and NDF/cake (1.91 and 0.46, respectively and min/kg of DM and NDF (361.51 and 1.505.78, respectively, as well as the total chew expressed in min/kg of DM and NDF (563.70 and 2.347.19, respectively. The use of mulberry hay partially replacing the concentrated, does not change the feeding behavior of feedlot lambs.

  6. Measures of lamb production efficiency in a temperate grass-based system differing in ewe prolificacy potential and stocking rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, E; Boland, T M; McHugh, N; Creighton, P

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of ewe prolificacy potential (PP; predicted number of lambs born ewe yr), as dictated by sire breed type, and stocking rate (SR; ewes ha) on ewe production efficiency (kg lamb live weight weaned:kg ewe live weight mated), lamb growth, lamb carcass output, and dry matter (DM; kg) and energy (UFL; unit of energy kg DM) consumption (in the form of both grazed and conserved herbage, concentrate supplementation, and total) in a temperate grass-based lamb production system. The study was a 2 × 3 factorial design, consisting of 2 differing ewe prolificacy potentials (medium prolificacy [MP]-Suffolk-sired crossbred ewes and high prolificacy [HP]-Belclare-sired crossbred ewes) and 3 stocking rates: low (LSR; 10 ewes ha), medium (MSR; 12 ewes ha), and high (HSR: 14 ewes ha). Each treatment was managed in a 5-paddock rotational system for the duration of the study. The HP treatment weaned more lambs ewe and ha ( ewes had a 4% higher production efficiency ( ewes. Ewe prolificacy potential had no effect on the total quantity of DM and UFL consumed ewe and lamb unit ( > 0.05). Increasing stocking rate increased the number of lambs weaned ha ( ewe and lamb unit and kg of lamb carcass produced ha increased as stocking rate increased ( ewes to be more efficient in the production of lamb. Increasing stocking rate provides the opportunity to increase lamb carcass output ha; however, achieving this increase in output required additional DM and UFL ewe and lamb unit above 12 ewes ha.

  7. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2013-12-01

    10, hair decreased from average 21.26 ± 5.72 mm to 4.50 ± 0.83 mm. On the sheared side a hair growth of 26 mm was observed during the first two weeks, increasing to 40 mm for the next two weeks and at the end of 28 days there was still a significant difference (Z= -3.195; P= 0.001 for the non sheared hair (19.42 ± 7.33 mm and sheared hair (11.15 ± 3.23 mm. Such procedure was done by the beginning of August, still winter time. Using the blade size 30, sheared hair had an average of 4.76 ± 1.1 mm. A 24 mm hair growth was observed for the first two weeks and 20 mm for the next two weeks, decreasing its growth speed to 9 mm and after 57 days no significant difference was observed between sheared side (11.47 ± 5.61 mm and non sheared side (14.78 ± 8.06 mm, Z= -1.915; P= 0.055. Second cut was performed by  the beginning of October, spring time, period where there is a change of hair in European cattle  from winter season (thin and long hair to summer season (thick and short hair, starting on spring time. In this work we could observe the fast growing of hair when cut was done in winter time and the closer to the skin the better the benefits to the animals, as heat tolerance and fewer tick infestations. If shearing is done in spring time, it must be every 45-50 days.

  8. Growing Galaxies Gently

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  9. An extra-uterine system to physiologically support the extreme premature lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Emily A.; Davey, Marcus G.; Hornick, Matthew A.; McGovern, Patrick E.; Mejaddam, Ali Y.; Vrecenak, Jesse D.; Mesas-Burgos, Carmen; Olive, Aliza; Caskey, Robert C.; Weiland, Theodore R.; Han, Jiancheng; Schupper, Alexander J.; Connelly, James T.; Dysart, Kevin C.; Rychik, Jack; Hedrick, Holly L.; Peranteau, William H.; Flake, Alan W.

    2017-04-01

    In the developed world, extreme prematurity is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity due to a combination of organ immaturity and iatrogenic injury. Until now, efforts to extend gestation using extracorporeal systems have achieved limited success. Here we report the development of a system that incorporates a pumpless oxygenator circuit connected to the fetus of a lamb via an umbilical cord interface that is maintained within a closed `amniotic fluid' circuit that closely reproduces the environment of the womb. We show that fetal lambs that are developmentally equivalent to the extreme premature human infant can be physiologically supported in this extra-uterine device for up to 4 weeks. Lambs on support maintain stable haemodynamics, have normal blood gas and oxygenation parameters and maintain patency of the fetal circulation. With appropriate nutritional support, lambs on the system demonstrate normal somatic growth, lung maturation and brain growth and myelination.

  10. Effect of breed on mineral composition of meat from light lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Barać

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition and mineral content of light lambs muscle (derived from Istrian and Dalmatian Pramenka breeds were studied. The M. Longissimus dorsi (MLD samples of 30 carcasses were analysed and the effects of breed and sex were studied. Although lambs of investigated breeds were similar for slaughter age (2.5 months, Dalmatian Pramenka had significantly higher carcass weights (CW; P<0.05. Breed had a significant influence on moisture and fat contents, whilst mineral composition (with the exception of selenium was scarcely affected by breed and sex. Fat and moisture contents were significantly correlated with cold CW. The magnesium, calcium, manganese and selenium contents were significantly correlated (r=0.50, -0.46, 0.44, 0.54; P<0.05 respectively with CW. This study contributes to characterization of lamb carcasses from Istrian Sheep and Dalmatian Pramenka breeds and provides new data on the composition of the MLD of light lambs.

  11. An interview with Dr. Martin Lamb on research in English language learning and teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Torras Vila, Berta

    2016-01-01

    The author interviewed Dr. Martin Lamb (University of Leeds, United Kingdom) at the School of Education in Leeds, about research on English language learning and teaching and about the main challenges that this field of research currently faces.

  12. Soliton-like Lamb waves in elastic layer with negative Poisson ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avershyeva Anna Vladimirovna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The uniqueness of Lamb waves is in features of their distribution. They are distributed all through a slab or a layer. The Lamb waves may cover great distances. With the help of Lamb waves it is easy to monitor the defects in multilayered slabs and shells. In order to monitor the defects it is necessary to possess the knowledge about the disperse behavior of these waves depending on mechanical characteristics of the analyzed body. Dispersion curves are analyzed for Lamb waves of different modes. The dispersion relations are constructed by the exponential mappings coupled with a 6-dimentional complex Cauchy formalism. For an isotropic medium with negative Poisson’s ratio the dispersion curves are obtained and analyzed, special attention is paid to the zero fundamental symmetric modes. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of the results obtained in disserent literature. The results obtained in the article are confirmed by the asymptotic solutions worked out before.

  13. Experimental Lamb mode identification in a plate containing a hole using dual signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grondel, Sébastien; Assaad, Jamal; Youbi, Faysal El; Moulin, Emmanuel; Leyla, Najib Abou

    2008-01-01

    The identification of Lamb mode amplitude variation as a function of the damage evolution is still the most difficult step in the process of damage monitoring using embedded Lamb wave-based systems. The aim of this paper is to propose a simple system based on the generation of two different frequencies in order to better identify Lamb mode amplitude and to avoid false data interpretation in plates containing a hole of variable diameter. This identification is based on a simple relation between the short-time Fourier transform and the two-dimensional Fourier transform. Experimentally, a 3 mm thick aluminium plate is used and the two frequencies have been chosen equal to 400 kHz and 600 kHz in order to generate the two first fundamental Lamb waves

  14. Chemoprophylaxis of coccidiosis in lambs with a single oral dose of toltrazuril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, B; Helle, O

    1991-03-01

    The prophylactic efficacy of a single oral dose of toltrazuril against coccidiosis (mixed Eimeria infections) in naturally infected lambs was evaluated in two experiments. Toltrazuril at 20 mg kg-1, given on Day 7 or Day 10 after turnout on pasture, proved to be highly efficacious in preventing clinical coccidiosis under Norwegian conditions. Toltrazuril reduced the oocyst output to very low levels, prevented the development of diarrhoea and improved weight gain during the first 4-5 weeks after treatment. Treatment on Day 7 was superior to treatment on Day 10 with respect to improving weight gain and preventing the development of soft faeces. Lambs treated with toltrazuril on Day 7 seemed to be as immune as untreated lambs to natural reinfections with coccidia later in the grazing season. In one of the experiments, natural infections with the nematode Nematodirus battus produced a coccidiosis-like disease in some lambs simultaneously with the outbreak of coccidiosis.

  15. Lamb Wave Interaction with Adhesively Bonded Stiffeners and Disbonds Using 3D Vibrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Marks

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many advantages to adhesively bonding stiffeners onto aircraft structures rather than using traditional mechanical fastening methods. However there is a lack of confidence of the structural integrity of adhesively bonded joints over time. Acousto-ultrasonic Lamb waves have shown great potential in structural health monitoring applications in both metallic and composite structures. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the use of acousto-ultrasonic Lamb waves for the monitoring of adhesively bonded joints in metallic structures using 3D scanning laser vibrometry. Two stiffened panels were manufactured, one with an intentional disbonded region. Lamb wave interaction with the healthy and disbonded stiffeners was investigated at three excitation frequencies. A windowed root-mean-squared technique was applied to quantify where Lamb wave energy was reflected, attenuated and transmitted across the structure enabling the size and shape of the defect to be visualised which was verified by traditional ultrasonic inspection techniques.

  16. Technology transfer of large aggregate mix base [LAMBS] on Johannesburg roads.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Horak, E

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available done by the Department of Transport. The need for structural strengthening of the M2-Motorway in Johannesburg during its rehabilitation afforded opportunity of transferring the technology to the road construction industry. LAMBS were selected...

  17. Factors associated with fetal losses in ewe lambs on a New Zealand sheep farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridler, A L; Vallee, E; Corner, R A; Kenyon, P R; Heuer, C

    2015-11-01

    As part of a production study of ewe lambs on a large farm in the Waikato region of New Zealand in 2011, pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken twice by trans-abdominal ultrasonography at 68-103 and 97-132 days of gestation. At the second pregnancy diagnosis 257/3,790 (6.8%) ewe lambs had evidence of non-viable fetuses or absence of a pregnancy that was present at the previous pregnancy diagnosis (fetal loss). Serum antibody titres for Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona appeared generally higher in 10 ewe lambs with fetal loss compared with 10 that were still pregnant. Histopathological investigation was not able to confirm that fetal loss was associated with leptospial infection. In the 2012-born cohort of ewe lambs 443 were vaccinated with a bivalent leptospirosis vaccine and 882 unvaccinated. Serum was collected from 124 non-vaccinated ewe lambs between January and December 2013 for measurement of antibodies to Leptospira serovar Pomona and L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo-bovis using a microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Less than 5% of these ewe lambs were seropositive until May, but by August 85% and 48% of animals were seropositive to Leptospira serovars Hardjo-bovis and Pomona, respectively. Fetal loss in non-vaccinated ewe lambs was 78/882 (9%) compared with 23/443 (5%) in vaccinated ewe lambs. Combined data from the 2011- and 2012-born ewe lambs (n=5,115) were analysed using a logistic regression model and fetal loss as the dependent variable. In the final model fetal loss was associated with pre-mating bodyweight (p=0.003), weight change from pre-mating to initial pregnancy diagnosis (pewe lambs, there were associations between fetal loss and being seropositive to Leptospira serovar Pomona using titre cut-points of 1:48 and 1:768 (pewe lambs achieving target pre-mating weights and liveweight gains during pregnancy. Infection with Leptospira serovar Pomona was associated with fetal loss in the 2012-born cohort and the possibility of infection with this

  18. Colostrum composition of Santa Inês sheep and passive transfer of immunity to lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, A C; Alves, N G; Ascari, I J; Junqueira, F B; Coutinho, A S; Lima, R R; Pérez, J R O; De Paula, S O; Furusho-Garcia, I F; Abreu, L R

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to analyze the chemical composition and the IgG concentration of the colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk of Santa Inês ewes as well as the transfer of passive immunity to lambs. Thirty-two pregnant ewes and 38 lambs were used. Ewes were milked immediately after lambing and at 12, 24, 36 h and 10 d postpartum. Colostrum was provided to the lambs at 40±15 min (mean±SE) after birth and then at 30-min intervals for obtaining the intake closest to 10% of body weight, and transitional milk was provided ad libitum. Blood from the lambs was collected 36 h after birth for measuring the serum concentrations of IgG, total protein, albumin, and gamma-globulin. The production was lower in primiparous than in multiparous ewes with body condition score (BCS)lambing or by the parity. The total solids percentage in the colostrum was higher in ewes with BCSlambing. Moreover, the parity, the BCS, the ewe's type of gestation, and the lamb's sex did not influence the serum concentrations of IgG, total protein, albumin, and gamma-globulin in lambs. Adequate passive immune transfer (PIT) was observed in lambs for which the IgG intake was higher than 30 g. Failure in PIT was observed in 39.5% of lambs when considering a serum IgG concentration lower than 15 mg/mL and in 21% when considering a serum total protein concentration lower than 45 mg/mL. The mean apparent efficiency of absorption was 38.10%, with values between 0.02% and 98.80%. The serum IgG concentration was correlated with the total protein concentration (according to the enzymatic colorimetric method), the gamma-globulin concentration, and the absorption efficiency. The extreme variation on apparent efficiency of absorption may have an effect on the success of PIT. Lambs should consume at least 30 g of IgG in the first 24 h of life to ensure adequate PIT. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Associations between trichostrongylid worm egg count and productivity measures in Dorper lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Joshua P A; Gardner, Graham E; Dobson, Robert J; Jacobson, Caroline; Bell, Kevin

    2011-08-25

    Two flocks of pure bred Dorper lambs were managed separately according to sex (283 ewe lambs and 212 ram lambs) in southern Western Australia. Faecal sample collection, weighing and body condition assessments were performed for each lamb on 2 occasions, specifically pre-weaning (approximately 14 weeks of age) and post-weaning (approximately 9 months of age). Body condition score (BCS) was assessed using a scale of 1 (very thin, emaciated) to 5 (excessively fat). Faecal worm egg counts (WECs) were measured using a modified McMaster technique and larval cultures were performed to identify trichostrongylid nematode genera present. Eye muscle and c-site fat depths were measured using ultrasound at post-weaning. Lambs received an abamectin anthelmintic treatment at weaning (18 weeks of age). Worm egg count data was assessed for normality of data distribution and homogeneity of variance. This data was transformed using log(10)(WEC+25) to stabilise variances between groups prior to statistical analyses and general linear models were used to assess relationships between WEC and productivity measures. Mean WECs were 564 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) and 514 EPG at pre- and post-weaning in the ewe flock and 552 EPG and 480 EPG at pre- and post-weaning in the ram flock. Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. larvae were identified. No lambs with WECWEC>1000 EPG post-weaning. Ewe and ram lambs with WEC>1000 EPG at pre-weaning were 42 (12-145 95% CI) and 37 (9-153) times more likely to have WEC>1000 EPG at post-weaning than lambs with WEC 501-1000 EPG at pre-weaning. There were no significant relationships between WEC and live weight in the ram flock, while relationships between WEC and live weight were inconsistent in the ewe lamb flock. There was no relationship between WEC and eye muscle or c-site fat depth. Significant negative relationships between WEC and BCS were identified at pre- and post-weaning for both flocks. Lambs

  20. Rumen microbial communities influence metabolic phenotypes in lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego P. Morgavi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The rumen microbiota is an essential part of ruminants forging their nutrition and health. Despite its importance, it is not fully understood how various groups of rumen microbes affect host-microbe relationships and functions. The aim of the study was to simultaneously explore the rumen microbiota and the metabolic phenotype of lambs for identifying host-microbe associations and potential biomarkers of digestive functions. Twin lambs, separated in two groups after birth were exposed to practices (isolation and gavage with rumen fluid with protozoa or protozoa-depleted that differentially restricted the acquisition of microbes. Rumen microbiota, fermentation parameters, digestibility and growth were monitored for up to 31 weeks of age. Microbiota assembled in isolation from other ruminants lacked protozoa and had low bacterial and archaeal diversity whereas digestibility was not affected. Exposure to adult sheep microbiota increased bacterial and archaeal diversity independently of protozoa presence. For archaea, Methanomassiliicoccales displaced Methanosphaera. Notwithstanding, protozoa induced differences in functional traits such as digestibility and significantly shaped bacterial community structure, notably Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae lower up to 6 folds, Prevotellaceae lower by ~40%, and Clostridiaceae and Veillonellaceae higher up to 10 folds compared to microbiota without protozoa. An orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis of urinary metabolome matched differences in microbiota structure. Discriminant metabolites were mainly involved in amino acids and protein metabolic pathways while a negative interaction was observed between methylotrophic methanogens Methanomassiliicoccales and trimethylamine N-oxide. These results stress the influence of gut microbes on animal phenotype and show the potential of metabolomics for monitoring rumen microbial functions.

  1. Body composition and net energy requirements of Brazilian Somali lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia S. Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance (NEm and growth of 48 Brazilian Somali ram lambs with an average initial body weight of 13.47±1.76 kg. Eight animals were slaughtered at the trials beginning as a reference group to estimate the initial empty body weight (EBW and body composition. The remaining animals were assigned to a randomised block design with eight replications per block and five diets with increasing metabolisable energy content (4.93, 8.65, 9.41, 10.12 and 11.24 MJ/kg dry matter. The logarithm of heat production was regressed against metabolisable energy intake (MEI, and the NEm (kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day were estimated by extrapolation, when MEI was set at zero. The NEm was 239.77 kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day. The animal’s energy and EBW fat contents increased from 11.20 MJ/kg and 208.54 g/kg to 13.54 MJ/kg and 274.95 g/kg of EBW, respectively, as the BW increased from 13 to 28.70 kg. The net energy requirements for EBW gain increased from 13.79 to 16.72 MJ/kg EBW gain for body weights of 13 and 28.70 kg. Our study indicated the net energy requirements for maintenance in Brazilian Somali lambs were similar to the values commonly recommended by the United States’ nutritional system, but lower than the values recommended by Agricultural Research Council and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Net requirements for weight gain were less compared to the values commonly recommended by nutritional system of the United States.

  2. Dynamic model for the transfer of CS-137 through the soil-grass-lamb foodchain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A dynamic radioecological model for the transfer of radiocaesium through the soil-grass-lamb foodchain was constructed on the basis of field data collected in 1990–1993 from the Nordic countries: Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The model assumes an initial soil....... The implementation of the metabolism of the lamb includes an assumption of a biological halflife of three weeks for radiocaesium....

  3. Intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) leaves by lambs using different levels of activated charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 24-day feeding trial was conducted to assess the effect of feeding four levels of activated charcoal (0.0, 0.33, 0.67 and 1.00 g/kg of body weight) on intake of honey mesquite leaves (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) by 20 wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) that were randomly assigned to treatments. Lambs wer...

  4. Influence of selected factors on growth performance of Suffolk lambs and their crossbreds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ptáček

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring was performed in one year period in selected population of Suffolk sheep (SF, n = 257 and their crossbreds with Merinolandschaf (SF × ML, n = 87. Total of 627 lambs (SF, n = 463; SF × ML, n = 164 were observed in breeding conditions of two semi-extensive flocks. Lambs’ live weight at 100 days of age (LW100; musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis (MLLT100 depth and backfat thickness (BT100 at the same age were assessed. Effects of breed, ewes’ live weight at mating, litter size, sex of lambs and ewe’s age as linear regression were evaluated using SAS 9.1. Significant differences (P < 0.05 in LW100, MLLT100 and BT100 between SF and SF × ML were observed. All the evaluated traits of growth performance were also influenced (P < 0.05 by ewes’ live weight at mating. The highest lambs’ growth performance traits were detected in lambs of ewes with highest live weight at mating (group of ≥ 80.7 kg. Significant differences (P < 0.05 were observed among singles, twins and triplets lambs as well. Significantly higher LW100 was marked in ram lambs compared to ewe lambs (P < 0.05.

  5. iTRAQ-based proteomic profiling of granulosa cells from lamb and ewe after superstimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiapeng; Wu, Yangsheng; Han, Bing; Chen, Ying; Wang, Liqin; Li, Xiaolin; Liu, Mingjun; Huang, Juncheng

    2017-10-01

    The number of oocytes obtained from lambs after FSH treatment is far greater than those acquired from adult ewes. However, these oocytes typically have reduced viability in comparison with adult ewe oocytes. However, the molecular mechanisms of differences in viability between lamb and ewe oocytes remain unknown. In the present research, we applied iTRAQ coupled with LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis in order to investigate the proteomic expression profile of granulosa cells from lambs and ewes following stimulation with FSH. We detected 5649 proteins; 574 were differentially expressed between adults and juveniles. Based on Gene Ontology enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis, the majority of DEPs are participated in metabolic processes, ribosome and MAPK signaling pathways. Expression levels in ewes turned out to be lower than lambs. Protein interaction network analysis generated by STRING identified MAPK1, SMAD2, SMAD4, CDK1, FOS and ATM as the major findings among 54 significant differentially expressed of proteins. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was applied to verify the proteomic analysis. These proteins which were identified in lambs may contribute to the reduction of oocyte quality compared to adults. The present research provides understanding of the molecular mechanism for follicle development in lambs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The Effect of Concentrate Supplementation on Creatinine Excretion in Thin-Tailed Lambs and Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnami, N. A.; Prima, A.

    2018-02-01

    An experimental study was carried out to examine the effect of concentrates supplementation on creatinine excretion in lambs and sheep. The study used 8 male thin tailed lambs (aged ±3-4 months, weighed ±15.20 kg) and 8 sheep (aged ±1 year and weighed ±22.71kg). The animals were fed the diet contained 100% napier grass (100G) and 50% napier grass 50% concentrate as much as 3.5% of body weight (50G50C). This study used a complete randomized nested design. The parameters observed were dry matter intake (DMI) and creatinine excretion. The results showed that the diet significantly affect (P<0.05) DMI. The consumption of 100G was lower than that of 50G50C both lambs (0.32 vs 0.62 kg/d) and sheep (0.47 vs 0.88 kg/d). On the other hand, the diet did not affect the creatinine excretion (P 0.05) either G100 or G50C50 in lambs or sheep. However, the creatinine excretion in sheep (185.66 mg/d) was higher than that of lambs (299.1 md/d) (P<0.05). It can be concluded that concentrate supplementation of grass diet increased DMI but did not affect creatinine excretion. The creatinine excretion of sheep was higher than that of lambs .

  7. Identification of a rare LAMB4 variant associated with familial diverticulitis through exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Joel L; Sheldon, Kathryn E; Yue, Feng; Salameh, Tarik J; Harris, Leonard R; Deiling, Sue; Ruggiero, Francesca M; Eshelman, Melanie A; Yochum, Gregory S; Koltun, Walter A; Gerhard, Glenn S; Broach, James R

    2017-08-15

    Diverticulitis is a chronic disease of the colon in which diverticuli, or outpouching through the colonic wall, become inflamed. Although recent observations suggest that genetic factors may play a significant role in diverticulitis, few genes have yet been implicated in disease pathogenesis and familial cases are uncommon. Here, we report results of whole exome sequencing performed on members from a single multi-generational family with early onset diverticulitis in order to identify a genetic component of the disease. We identified a rare single nucleotide variant in the laminin β 4 gene (LAMB4) that segregated with disease in a dominant pattern and causes a damaging missense substitution (D435N). Targeted sequencing of LAMB4 in 148 non-familial and unrelated sporadic diverticulitis patients identified two additional rare variants in the gene. Immunohistochemistry indicated that LAMB4 localizes to the myenteric plexus of colonic tissue and patients harboring LAMB4 variants exhibited reduced LAMB4 protein levels relative to controls. Laminins are constituents of the extracellular matrix and play a major role in regulating the development and function of the enteric nervous system. Reduced LAMB4 levels may therefore alter innervation and morphology of the enteric nervous system, which may contribute to colonic dysmotility associated with diverticulitis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Transfer of radiocesium from different environmental sources to ewes and suckling lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Mayes, R.W.; Beresford, N.A.; Lamb, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor experiments are described that compare the transfer of radiocesium to ewe and lamb tissues from different sources. Lactating ewes were fed either perennial ryegrass contaminated by Chernobyl fallout, or saltmarsh vegetation contaminated by marine discharges from the Sellafield reprocessing plant. The transfer to ewe tissues and milk was greater from the Chernobyl contaminated herbage than from saltmarsh vegetation. Lambs receiving a mixture of vegetation and milk were given radiocesium from one of the two vegetation sources or from milk obtained from the experimental ewes. Transfer to lamb tissues declined in the order milk greater than Chernobyl fallout greater than Sellafield discharge. The radiocesium transfer to lamb tissues exceeded that to ewe tissues. Transfer coefficients for 137Cs in the Chernobyl fallout were higher than most previously published figures at 0.12 d kg-1 for ewe muscle and 0.50 d kg-1 for lamb muscle. The transfer coefficient for 137Cs from ewe milk to lamb muscle was 1.20 d kg-1

  9. Meat quality of suckling lambs supplemented with contents of crude glycerin in creep feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Ribeiro Sanquetta de Pellegrin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of crude glycerin in the supplement provided in creep feeding on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of meat from suckling lambs kept in pasture ryegrass. Thirty two suckling lambs, sixteen male and sixteen female, were distributed into 4 diets with different concentrations of crude glycerin: 0, 10, 20 and 30% crude glycerin, in the replacement of corn, in the isoproteic supplement (18% CP provided daily in amounts equivalent to 2% of body weight. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with each variable data submitted to analysis of variance at 5% significance and the significant results subjected to regression analysis. There was no effect (P>0,05 of contents of crude glycerin on the chemical composition and cholesterol content of lamb meat. On the other hand, there was increased linearly (P>0,05 pH and cooking losses by the use of crude glycerin. No influence (P>0,05 of crude glycerin concentration on the texture profile analysis (TPA, sensorial analysis by triangular test and even when was evaluated attributes color, tenderness and juiciness of lamb meat. Up to 30% of crude glycerin in the supplement provided in creep feeding for suckling lambs grazing ryegrass do not compromise the physical-chemical and sensorial quality of the lamb meat.

  10. First Japanese case of Pierson syndrome with mutations in LAMB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togawa, Hiroko; Nakanishi, Koichi; Mukaiyama, Hironobu; Hama, Taketsugu; Shima, Yuko; Nakano, Masaru; Fujita, Naoya; Iijima, Kazumoto; Yoshikawa, Norishige

    2013-04-01

    Pierson syndrome (OMIM 609049) is typically characterized by congenital nephritic syndrome and peculiar ocular anomalies with microcoria. It is caused by mutations in LAMB2, which encodes laminin β2. Approximately 50 mutations of LAMB2 from approximately 40 unrelated families have been identified; however, most of them were from Western countries. Although three patients in Asia with mutations of LAMB2 have been reported, they were not typical cases. We report the first Japanese case of Pierson syndrome with proven causative LAMB2 mutations. She presented with congenital nephrotic syndrome and bilateral microcoria at birth, and developed end-stage renal disease at 2 months of age. This is the first report of a typical case from Asia. LAMB2 analysis by direct sequencing revealed the compound heterozygous mutations c.3974_3975insA (p.N1325KfsX1331, maternal, novel) in exon 25 and c.4519C>T (p.Q1507X, paternal) in exon 27. The phenotype due to LAMB2 mutations appears to be similar between different ethnic groups. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  11. The impact of supplementing lambs with algae on growth, meat traits and oxidative status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, D L; Clayton, E H; Lamb, T A; van de Ven, R J; Refshauge, G; Kerr, M J; Bailes, K; Lewandowski, P; Ponnampalam, E N

    2014-10-01

    The current study examined the effect of supplementing lambs with algae. Forty, three month old lambs were allocated to receive a control ration based on oats and lupins (n=20) or the control ration with DHA-Gold™ algae (~2% of the ration, n=20). These lambs came from dams previously fed a ration based on either silage (high in omega-3) or oats and cottonseed meal (OCSM: high in omega-6) at joining (dam nutrition, DN). Lamb performance, carcase weight and GR fat content were not affected by treatment diet (control vs algae) or DN (silage vs OSCM). Health claimable omega-3 fatty acids (EPA+DHA) were significantly greater in the LL of lambs fed algae (125±6mg/100g meat) compared to those not fed algae (43±6mg/100g meat) and this effect was mediated by DN. Supplementing with algae high in DHA provides a means of improving an aspect of the health status of lamb meat. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ingestive behavior and performance of female lambs grazing on Marandu palisadegrass under different stocking rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Vieira Júnior

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The ingestive behavior and performance of female lambs grazing on Marandu pasture submitted to different stocking rates during the rainy and transition season were evaluated. The experimental area with 4,500 m² was divided into 45 paddocks of 100 m². Twenty-seven Santa Ines female lambs (purebred with 4 months age and 22 kg of initial body weight were distributed in a completely randomized design, with nine replicates. Lambs were divided into 9 groups with the same initial weight and submitted to three stocking rates: 2, 3 and 4 lambs/paddock, which corresponded to 40, 60 and 80 lambs/ha, respectively. Each group of animals had a module of five paddocks, managed on intermittent grazing system, with 7 days of occupation and 28 d of rest. Increase on time grazing and reduction on time ruminating and resting were observed as stocking rates increased. There was 14% raise in time grazing and 41% decline on time resting by lambs subjected to the highest stocking rate compared with those in the lower stocking rate. The number of animals/ha promoted linear effect on average daily gain, which was higher for animals in the lowest stocking rate of 90 g/d. For gain per area, the best result was obtained with 60 animals/ha featuring an average value of 426 kg/ha.

  13. Neonatal milk supplementation in lambs has persistent effects on growth and metabolic function that differ by sex and gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Mary J; Jaquiery, Anne L; Oliver, Mark H; Harding, Jane E; Bloomfield, Frank H

    2016-12-01

    The perinatal environment has a major influence on long-term health and disease risk. Preterm birth alters early-life environment and is associated with altered metabolic function in adulthood. Whether preterm birth per se or the early nutritional interventions used to support growth in preterm infants underpins this association is unknown. Lambs born preterm, following dexamethasone induction of labour, or spontaneously at term were randomised to receive nutrient supplementation, analogous to the milk fortifier used clinically or water as a control for the first 2 weeks after birth. Thereafter, nutrition was not different between groups. Growth was monitored, and the glucose-insulin axis function was assessed in juvenile (4 months) and adult life (14 months). Early nutrition influenced adult metabolic function and body composition to a greater extent than preterm birth. In supplemented females, arginine-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in preterm but reduced in term-born juveniles compared with controls (repeated-measures ANOVA Psupplemented preterm males, adult weight, ponderal index (PI) and fasting insulin concentrations were elevated compared with preterm controls (weight, 75 (sem 3) v. 69 (sem 2) kg; PI, 48·0 (sem 2·1) v. 43·7 (sem 1·7) kg/m3; fasting insulin, 0·19 (sem 0·02) v. 0·10 (sem 0·02) ng/ml). Conversely, supplemented term-born males had reduced adult weight, PI and fasting insulin concentrations compared with term-born controls (weight, 64 (sem 2) v. 70 (sem 2) kg; PI, 44·4 (sem 1·8) v. 48·2 (sem 1·7) kg/m3; fasting insulin, 0·09 (sem 0·02) v. 0·14 (sem 0·02) ng/ml; all group×supplement interactions Pbirth and early nutrition. Human studies are urgently needed to investigate the adult sex-specific health implications of neonatal nutritional strategies.

  14. The effect of colostrum period management on BW and immune system in lambs: from birth to weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Suárez-Trujillo, A.; Martell-Jaizme, D.

    2015-01-01

    (natural rearing (NR) group). Forty lambs were removed from their dams at birth. Lambs were bottle-fed with a pool of sheep colostrum, receiving either 4 g of IgG/kg of BW at birth (C4 group) or 8 g of IgG/kg of BW at birth (C8 group). The total colostrum amount was equally divided into three meals at 2...... frequency, can affect the final immune status of lambs....

  15. Detection of leak-defective fuel rods using the circumferential Lamb waves excited by the resonance backscattering of ultrasonic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, M.S.; Yang, M.S.; Kim, H.C.

    1992-01-01

    A new ultrasonic technique for detecting the infiltrated water in leaked fuel rods is developed. Propagation characteristics of the circumferential Lamb waves in the cladding tubes are estimated by the resonance scattering theory. The Lamb waves are excited by the resonance backscattering of ultrasonic pulses. In sound fuel rods, the existence of the Lamb waves is revealed by a series of periodic echoes. In leaked fuel rods, however, the Lamb waves are perturbed strongly by the scattered waves from the surface of fuel pellets, thus the periodic echoes are not observed. (author)

  16. High-sensitivity detection of newly induced LamB protein on the Escherichia coli cell surface.

    OpenAIRE

    Vos-Scheperkeuter, G H; Hofnung, M; Witholt, B

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of the appearance at the cell surface of the outer membrane LamB protein after induction were determined by using specific antibodies and radioiodinated protein A as a probe. This was done in two different induction systems. First, LamB protein was induced in a wild-type strain by the simultaneous addition of cyclic AMP and maltose. Second, an operon fusion strain in which the lamB gene is expressed under lac promoter control was used; in this system, LamB protein can be induced ...

  17. Effect of pre-slaughter handling, exercise and the presence of a dog on lamb welfare and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, M A; Worth, G M; Stuart, A D; Dobbie, P M; Clerens, S

    2016-08-01

    Before slaughter, lambs may experience several stressors such as feed and water deprivation, handling and transport that have the potential to negatively impact welfare and meat quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-slaughter handling, exercise and the presence of a dog on the behaviour and physiology of lambs and meat quality at slaughter. At 6 months of age, 60 lambs (n=20 lambs/replicate; three replicates) were allocated to one of the two treatment groups (n=30 lambs/treatment): low (LOW) intensive handling or high (HIGH) intensive handling. LOW lambs were moved short distances, quietly and without the use of a dog before transport. HIGH lambs were moved quickly, long distances and with a dog present before transport. Lamb behaviour (standing, lying, rumination and panting) was recorded for 1 h before (post-treatment) and after transport (post-transport), and for 30 min before slaughter (pre-slaughter). Blood samples were collected before (baseline), after transport (post-transport) and at exsanguination (at slaughter) to assess cortisol, lactate and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. At slaughter, lamb carcases (M. longissimus lumborum) were evaluated for pH levels, drip and cook loss, and tenderness. HIGH lambs spent more time standing (Plambs, but more (Ptransport. All lambs spent more time standing (Ptransport and pre-slaughter than post-treatment. Cortisol concentrations were greater (Plambs post-transport and at slaughter compared with baseline values. Lactate concentrations were lower (P=0.002) in HIGH than LOW lambs. In addition, NEFA concentrations were higher (Ptransport and at slaughter in HIGH compared with LOW lambs. Ultimate pH was higher (Plambs and pH declined quicker (P=0.012) in LOW than HIGH lambs. Cook loss, drip loss and shear force were lower (P⩽0.05) in HIGH than LOW lambs. The HIGH intensive pre-slaughter handling regime used in the present study caused stress in lambs and increased

  18. Contact zoonosis related to aquaculture: a growing concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture develops fast worldwide, with new cultured species and increased global transport of live aquaculture products. There is a growing recognition of zoonotic disease agents causing epidemics and carrier states in cultured fish and shellfish, especially from warm water systems, transmitted t...

  19. Determining the optimal age for recording the retinal vascular pattern image of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Olivares, M A; Caja, G; Carné, S; Salama, A A K; Adell, N; Puig, P

    2012-03-01

    Newborn Ripollesa lambs (n = 143) were used to assess the optimal age at which the vascular pattern of the retina can be used as a reference for identification and traceability. Retinal images from both eyes were recorded from birth to yearling (d 1, 8, 30, 82, 180, and 388 of age) in duplicate (2,534 images) using a digital camera specially designed for livestock (Optibrand, Fort Collins, CO). Intra- and inter-age image comparisons (9,316 pairs of images) were carried out, and matching score (MS) was used as the exclusion criterion of lamb identity (MS ovino mayor," 6 mo of age and ~35 kg of BW, n = 59); and yearling replacement lambs (YR; >12 mo of age and ~50 kg of BW, n = 25). Values of MS were treated with a model based on the 1-inflated bivariate beta distribution, and treated data were compared by using a likelihood ratio test. Intra-age image comparisons showed that average MS and percentage of images with MS ≥70 increased (P 0.05); no differences were detected for 30-d images (97.4 and 98.0%, respectively, for RR and YR lambs; P > 0.05). Total percentage of matching was achieved when images were obtained from older lambs (180 and 388 d). In conclusion, retinal imaging was a useful tool for verifying the identity and auditing the traceability of live lambs from suckling to yearling. Matching scores were satisfactory when the reference retinal images were obtained from 1-mo-old or older lambs.

  20. Carcass and meat quality characteristics of Churra and Assaf suckling lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, J; Caro, I; Carballo, D E; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Arranz, J J; Gutiérrez-Gil, B

    2017-10-02

    Suckling lamb meat is traditionally produced in Mediterranean Europe. Breed can affect the quality of the lamb carcass and meat. This study is aimed at comparing the carcass and meat quality between suckling lambs from a local and a non-native dairy breed, Churra and Assaf. Churra is included in the Spanish Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) 'Lechazo de Castilla y León', whereas Assaf is not. However, Assaf breeders have requested the inclusion of the breed in the PGI. Carcasses and meat from 16 male lambs (eight Churra and eight Assaf) were used in this study. The lambs were all raised under an intensive rearing system and fed on a milk substitute to minimise maternal influence. The carcasses were evaluated for conformation, fatness, joint and leg tissue proportions and the meat was analysed for composition (i.e. proximate composition, iron, haematin, fatty acids and volatiles) and technological quality traits (i.e. texture, water holding capacity, colour and lipid stability). Churra carcasses were larger than Assaf carcasses. However, the proportions of commercial joints and main tissues did not differ between breeds. Cavity and intermuscular leg fat, but not total leg fat, were higher in Churra carcasses. Churra meat showed a higher proportion of n-6 fatty acids, higher redness and better colour stability during aerobic storage. In contrast, Assaf lamb was more resistant to lipid oxidation after cooking. This is a preliminary study to measure the influence of breed on a wide range of quality characteristics in Churra and Assaf suckling lamb carcass and meat. It may be of relevance for breeders, consumers and food policy makers, setting the basis for future studies that include larger commercial populations.

  1. Effect of Spirulina supplementation on plasma metabolites in crossbred and purebred Australian Merino lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E.O. Malau-Aduli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementing purebred and crossbred Merino lambs with Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina on plasma metabolite concentrations under pasture-based management system and the influences of sire breed and sex were investigated. A completely randomized experimental design balanced by 4 sire breeds (Merino, White Suffolk, Dorset and Black Suffolk, 3 Spirulina supplementation levels (0, 100 and 200 ml representing the control, low and high, respectively and 2 sexes (ewe and wether lambs was utilised. All lambs had ad libitum access to the basal diet of ryegrass pastures and barley. Lambs in the treatment groups were individually drenched daily with Spirulina prior to being released with the control group of lambs for grazing over a 6-week period following a 3-week adjustment phase. At the start and completion of the feeding trial, blood samples were centrifuged and plasma metabolites measured. Data were analysed with Spirulina supplementation level, sire breed, sex and their second-order interactions fitted as fixed effects and metabolite concentrations as dependent variables. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT concentrations decreased (from 79.40 to 69.25 UI and glucose increased (from 3.81 to 4.19 mmol/L as the level of Spirulina supplementation increased from 0 ml in the control to 200 ml in the high treatment groups (P < 0.05. Lambs supplemented at low Spirulina levels had the highest creatinine concentrations (61.75 μmol/L. Interactions between sex and supplementation level significantly affected glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and Mg concentrations (P < 0.05, while sire breed and supplementation level interactions influenced albumin to globulin (A/G ratio, creatinine and GGT concentrations. It was demonstrated that Spirulina supplementation does not negatively impact lamb health and productivity.

  2. The effect of vitamin A supplementation on postnatal adipose tissue development of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, A; Mendizabal, J A; Alzón, M; Soret, B; Purroy, A

    2008-12-01

    Vitamin A (retinoic acid) is known to be an adipogenic factor influencing both in vitro and in vivo cell development. This study aimed to determine its effect on lamb adipose tissue development during the early phase of postnatal development until 100 d of age. Male lambs (n = 24) of the Rasa Aragonesa breed were used. At birth, lambs were assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: 1) the control (C) group, which received feed without vitamin A supplementation, and 2) the vitamin A (V) group, which received a supplement of 500,000 IU/animal twice per week from birth to slaughter. The effect of vitamin A supplementation was studied at 16.8 +/- 0.35 kg of BW (58 +/- 0.7 d of age) and at 27.8 +/- 0.78 kg of BW (101 +/- 6.5 d of age). The variables of lamb growth, carcass, LM area, and lipid content were analyzed. To study adipose tissue development, the amount of adipose tissue accumulated, the size and number of adipocytes, and lipogenic enzyme activities (glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthase, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase) of the omental, perirenal, and s.c. depots were quantified. Results showed that vitamin A supplementation had no influence on growth, carcass variables, LM area, and lipid content during lamb growth but that the number of adipocytes in the perirenal depot was 30% greater in lambs of the V group (P vitamin A during the whole period of growth of the lambs influenced the processes of hyperplasia and hypertrophy in the different adipose depots, depending on their degree of maturity.

  3. Physicochemical characteristics of meat from pantaneiro lambs slaughtered with different of subcutaneous fat thicknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Holtz Alves Pedroso Mora

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four lambs of the pantaneiro genetic group were used in a completely randomized design with eight replicates, slaughtered with subcutaneous fat thicknesses (SFT of 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mm, which was evaluated by ultrasound in the longissimus dorsi muscle to measure the effect of the SFT on the physicochemical properties of the meat. The animals received water ad libitum throughout the experimental period and were fed a complete, pelleted ration formulated to provide an average daily gain of 0.300 kg-1. As the lambs reached the predetermined SFT in the fortnightly evaluation by ultrasound, they were slaughtered the day after the measurements, regardless of weight. The pH values for 0h00 (6.58 and 24h00 (5.50 and cooking loss (23.99% did not differ between treatments. Regarding the meat color, lambs slaughtered with 2.0 mm and 3.0 mm SFT had meat with greater lightness and the meat from those with 3.0 and 4.0 mm SFT showed higher values for the intensity of red and yellow. Lambs slaughtered with 4.0 mm SFT (1.43 kgf had more tender meat than those slaughtered with a SFT of 2.0 mm. Lambs slaughtered with 4.0 mm SFT had the greatest sarcomere length (1.47 ?m. The crude protein (21.15% and moisture (72.38% contents in the 2.0 mm treatment were higher than those in the 4.0 mm treatment. The total lipids (4.84% in the meat from 4.0 mm SFT animals were higher than those in the meat from 2.0 mm SFT lambs. Slaughtering lambs with 3.0 mm of fat thickness in the loin is recommended, as these animals comprise a larger number of favorable characteristics with regard to the meat chemical composition, softness, and color.

  4. Thyroid gland in vitro activity and reactivity to TRH in newborn lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronska, D

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the thyroid gland tissue concentration and activity on T4 and T3 in vitro release to the medium without (control) or with TRH (10 μg/ml) for 90 min of incubation in lambs just after birth and after the first 6h of postnatal life. The results obtained show that T4 concentration in the blood plasma in newborn lambs as well after 6h of life is higher than in thyroid gland tissue. In the case of T3 the concentration in blood plasma of lambs just after birth is lower than after 6h of postnatal life. Inversely, the higher level of that hormone concentration in blood plasma just after birth is higher than in the thyroid gland tissue. The results clearly indicate the inhibitory TRH effect on in vitro T4 especially, and in lesser degree T3 release from the thyroid gland tissue of lambs just after birth. Stimulation of the TRH thyroid gland tissue from lambs after 6h of life caused an increase in T4 release, especially after 60 min of the experiment. Similarly, a significant increase of T3 release was found only after 60 min of incubation. The transient promoting TRH effect on the amount of iodothyronine release from the thyroid gland in older lambs is probably connected with this gland's function not occurring before the designated time of postnatal adaptation. The described in vitro experiment visibly shows that changing thyroid gland activity in newborn lambs is not only conditioned by the entire HPT activity, but by the immanent thyroid gland attributes as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Polwarth and Texel ewe parturition duration and its association with lamb birth asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, F; Banchero, G

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that parturition duration is related to birth asphyxia in lambs and that asphyxia affects newborn lamb viability and vigor. Two sire and dam genotypes (Texel: TX; Polwarth: PW) and their crosses were represented in the study. Eighty lambs (25 PW sire × PW dam, 13 TX × TX, 25 TX × PW, and 17 PW × TX) born to 69 grazing ewes were used. At birth, the log₁₀ length of the second stage of parturition, birth weight, placental weight, and several body measurements were recorded on all lambs, and jugular blood samples were analyzed with the i-Stat Portable Clinical Analyzer (Abbott, Montevideo, Uruguay). A modified Apgar viability score at birth and lamb behavior during their first hour of life were recorded. Brain weight, muscle:bone ratio, and bone density were recorded in 20 male lambs (5 from each breed group) that were euthanized and dissected 24 h after birth. Data were analyzed by linear regression, least squares ANOVA, and ordinal and binary logistic regressions. Mean blood gas and acid-base variables were 7.21 ± 0.09 for pH, 18.4 ± 9.8 mmHg for partial pressure of oxygen, 53 ± 12.5 mmHg for partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and -4 ± 5.1 mmol/L for extracellular fluid base excess. Parturition duration increased with birth weight (P birth a 16-fold greater risk of asphyxia (P birth, with less bone density (P birth asphyxia is an important risk factor in perinatal lamb mortality.

  6. Performance, carcass traits and meat quality of crossbred lambs fed whole cottonseed levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Ruegger Corte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Byproduct as whole cottonseed (WCS and soybean hulls are quite used in finishing diets to feedlot lambs and WCS is a potential source to be included in lambs diet when prices are advantageous. The most part of the studies with WCS is used as a replacement of cereals as corn. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing a fibrous byproduct (soybean hulls with increasing levels of WCS (0, 10 and 20% on the performance, carcass traits and meat quality of feedlot lambs. Thirty crossbred lambs (15 males and 15 females, 20±1.6 kg were fed 1 of 3 high concentration diets: CTL (without WCS, WCS10 (with 10% WCS, and WCS20 (with 20% WCS in a block design (sex for 56 days. Feeding 10 or 20% WCS significantly (P=0.013 improved the feed conversion without affecting the final weight gain, average daily gain or dry matter intake in kg/d. However, the DMI (in % of live weight was affected by treatments (P<0.0001: lambs fed the CTL and the WCS10 diet consumed more DMI than the lambs from WCS20 diet (4.19, 4.03 and 3.6%, respectively. The hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, longissimus muscle area and fat thickness were not affected by the WCS levels. The shear force and meat colour were similar among treatments. These results suggested that fattening lambs may benefit from an increase in feed efficiency from 10% WCS up to 20% without negatively impacting carcass and meat quality.

  7. Volatile Profile of Raw Lamb Meat Stored at 4 ± 1 °C: The Potential of Specific Aldehyde Ratios as Indicators of Lamb Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Konstantinos Karabagias

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were: (a to evaluate the aroma evolution of raw lamb packaged in multi-layer coating film and stored at 4 ± 1 °C, with respect to storage time and (b to investigate whether specific aldehyde ratios could serve as markers of lamb meat freshness and degree of oxidation. Volatile compounds were determined using headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results showed that the most dominant volatiles were 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethyl-heptane, hexanal, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-hexanol, carbon disulfide and p-cymene. Volatile compound content was increased during storage time. However, statistically significant differences were recorded only for hexanal, heptanal, and nonanal (p < 0.05. Additionally, the evolution of aldehydes during storage recorded a positive Pearson’s correlation (r (p < 0.05, whereas hexanal to nonanal, heptanal to nonanal, octanal to nonanal ratios, along with the sum of aldehydes to nonanal ratio, were positively correlated (r = 0.83–1.00 with the degree of oxidation (mg malonic dialdehyde per kg of lamb meat. A perfect Pearson’s correlation (r = 1 was obtained for the ratio hexanal to nonanal. Therefore, this ratio is proposed as an indicator of lamb meat freshness and overall quality.

  8. Growing container seedlings: Three considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis

    2015-01-01

    The science of growing reforestation and conservation plants in containers has continually evolved, and three simple observations may greatly improve seedling quality. First, retaining stock in its original container for more than one growing season should be avoided. Second, strongly taprooted species now being grown as bareroot stock may be good candidates...

  9. Supplementing metabolizable protein to ewes during late gestation: II. Effects on ewe lamb performance and reproductive efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Emon, M L; Schauer, C S; Eckerman, S R; Maddock Carlin, K R; Vonnahme, K A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of maternal MP intake in isocaloric diets during late gestation on female offspring growth from birth to breeding and measure reproductive performance of those offspring in their first breeding season. In yr 1, maternal dietary treatments were applied at d 100 of gestation, were similar in total energy, and contained 60MP1, 60% of MP requirements; 80MP1, 80% of MP requirements; and 100MP1, 100% of the MP requirements on a DM basis during late gestation. In yr 2, maternal dietary treatments were similar in total energy and contained 60MP2, 60% of MP requirements; 100MP2, 100% of the MP requirements; and 140MP2, 140% of MP requirements on a DM basis during late gestation. While there was a quadratic effect ( = 0.003) for ewe lamb birth weight with the ewe lambs from 80MP1 ewes having increased birth weights compared with ewe lambs from 60MP1 and 100MP1 ewes in yr 1, there was no effect ( ≥ 0.22) of maternal diet on growth of ewe lamb offspring thereafter. A quadratic effect ( = 0.02) was observed for the percentage of ewe lambs bred during the first 17 d of the breeding season, with more ewe lambs born to ewes fed 80MP1 bred compared with ewe lambs born to ewes fed 60MP1 and 100MP1. Ewe lambs giving birth within the first 17 d of lambing season increased ( = 0.001) linearly as MP intake increased in the maternal diet. In yr 2, there was no effect ( ≥ 0.07) of maternal MP treatment during late gestation on growth of ewe lambs and reproductive performance except ADG from birth to weaning and lamb birth weight. There was a quadratic effect ( = 0.01) for ADG from birth to weaning of ewe lambs from ewes consuming 100MP2 being increased compared with ewe lambs from ewes fed 60MP2 and 140MP2. There was a linear ( = 0.04) reduction in birth weight of lambs born to ewe lambs as the dam's maternal dietary MP intake increased. The data from the current study suggest that feeding 80% or 100% of MP requirements

  10. Familial episodic ataxia in lambs is potentially associated with a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor 14 (FGF14 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K E Dittmer

    Full Text Available Familial episodic ataxia of lambs is a congenital transient autosomal dominant disorder of newborn lambs, with varying expressivity. Affected lambs show episodes of an asymmetric ataxic gait, base-wide extensor hypertonia of the thoracic limbs and flexor hypertonia of the pelvic limbs. The aim of the study was to determine the genetic variant causing familial episodic ataxia in lambs. Using whole genome sequencing of two half-sib affected lambs, their sire, and their two normal dams, a heterozygous C>T transition at OAR10:77593415 (Oar_v3.1 in exon 1 of the fibroblast growth factor 14 (FGF14 gene (c.46C>T was identified. The c.46C>T transition resulted in a premature stop codon at position 16 of the 247 amino acid FGF14 protein (p.Q16*. PCR and Sanger sequencing was used to genotype an additional 20 clinically affected animals, demonstrating all lambs carried the c.46C>T variant but 1 clinically more severely affected inbred lamb was homozygous (TT. A further 11 unrelated normal ewes were positionally sequenced, none of which had the variant, while in 18 lambs of unknown status born over 2 years of breeding trials six lambs were found to have the c.46C>T variant, likely clinically unidentified heterozygotes due to the variable expressivity, while 12 did not. In conclusion, familial episodic ataxia of lambs is potentially associated with a c.46C>T variant in the FGF14 gene. Further research is required into the mechanism behind the apparent recovery of lambs.

  11. The Growing Challenge of "Diabesity"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... times calories were hard to come by. Today, fast food and junk food are everywhere. Coupled with our increasingly inactive lifestyle, the result is obesity. "Diabetes is everywhere around the world," says Dr. Kaufman, " ...

  12. An investigation into the effects of maternal supplementation with excess iodine on the mechanisms and impacts of reduced IgG absorption in the lamb postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, F M; Sweeney, T; Ryan, M T; Lott, S; Campion, F P; Boland, T M

    2017-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine: (1) the effect of excess maternal I supplementation on the thyroid hormone status of the ewe and her progeny; (2) potential mechanisms underpinning the failure of passive transfer associated with excess I and (3) the growing lambs' response to natural gastrointestinal infection. Twin-bearing ewes received one of two treatments (n 32/treatment group): basal diet (C) or C plus 26·6 mg of iodine/ewe per d (I), supplied as calcium iodate. Ewes were individually fed from day 119 of gestation to parturition. Progeny of I ewes had lower (Ph to 28 d postpartum but higher serum IgG concentrations at day 70 postpartum (Plamb at 24 h postpartum; however, thyroid hormone receptor-β (THRB) and β-2-microglobulin (B2M) expression declined (Plamb postpartum. These effects were followed by an enhancement of average daily gain and lower N. battus FEC in the pre-weaning period of I-supplemented lambs.

  13. Effect of Testosterone on Neuronal Morphology and Neuritic Growth of Fetal Lamb Hypothalamus-Preoptic Area and Cerebral Cortex in Primary Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika C Reddy

    Full Text Available Testosterone plays an essential role in sexual differentiation of the male sheep brain. The ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN, is 2 to 3 times larger in males than in females, and this sex difference is under the control of testosterone. The effect of testosterone on oSDN volume may result from enhanced expansion of soma areas and/or dendritic fields. To test this hypothesis, cells derived from the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA and cerebral cortex (CTX of lamb fetuses were grown in primary culture to examine the direct morphological effects of testosterone on these cellular components. We found that within two days of plating, neurons derived from both the HPOA and CTX extend neuritic processes and express androgen receptors and aromatase immunoreactivity. Both treated and control neurites continue to grow and branch with increasing time in culture. Treatment with testosterone (10 nM for 3 days significantly (P < 0.05 increased both total neurite outgrowth (35% and soma size (8% in the HPOA and outgrowth (21% and number of branch points (33% in the CTX. These findings indicate that testosterone-induced somal enlargement and neurite outgrowth in fetal lamb neurons may contribute to the development of a fully masculine sheep brain.

  14. Influence of hydroponic and soil cultivation on quality and shelf life of ready-to-eat lamb's lettuce (Valerianella locusta L. Laterr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzocco, Lara; Foschia, Martina; Tomasi, Nicola; Maifreni, Michela; Dalla Costa, Luisa; Marino, Marilena; Cortella, Giovanni; Cesco, Stefano

    2011-06-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in the hydroponic floating system to cultivate leafy vegetables for ready-to-eat salads. It is reasonable that different growing systems could affect the quality and shelf life of these salads. The quality and shelf life of ready-to-eat lamb's lettuce grown in protected environment in soil plot or in soil-less system over hydroponic solution with or without the addition of 30 µmol L⁻¹ silicon were evaluated. Minimum effects were observed on colour, firmness and microbial counts. Hydroponic cultivation largely affected plant tissue hydration, leading to weight loss and structural modifications during refrigerated storage. The shelf life of lamb's lettuce was limited by the development of visually detectable unpleasant sensory properties. Shelf life, calculated by survival analysis of consumer acceptability data, resulted about 7 days for soil-cultivated salad and 2 days for the hydroponically grown ones. The addition of silicon to the hydroponic solution resulted in an interesting strategy to increase plant tissue yield and reduce nitrate accumulation. Although hydroponic cultivation may have critical consequences on product quality and shelf life, these disadvantages could be largely counterbalance by increased yield and a reduction of nitrate accumulation when cultivation is performed on nutritive solutions with supplemental addition of silicon. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Diffusion tensor imaging detects ventilation-induced brain injury in preterm lambs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhafer M Alahmari

    Full Text Available Injurious mechanical ventilation causes white matter (WM injury in preterm infants through inflammatory and haemodynamic pathways. The relative contribution of each of these pathways is not known. We hypothesised that in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can detect WM brain injury resulting from mechanical ventilation 24 h after preterm delivery. Further we hypothesised that the combination of inflammatory and haemodynamic pathways, induced by umbilical cord occlusion (UCO increases brain injury at 24 h.Fetuses at 124±2 days gestation were exposed, instrumented and either ventilated for 15 min using a high tidal-volume (VT injurious strategy with the umbilical cord intact (INJ; inflammatory pathway only, or occluded (INJ+UCO; inflammatory and haemodynamic pathway. The ventilation groups were compared to lambs that underwent surgery but were not ventilated (Sham, and lambs that did not undergo surgery (unoperated control; Cont. Fetuses were placed back in utero after the 15 min intervention and ewes recovered. Twenty-four hours later, lambs were delivered, placed on a protective ventilation strategy, and underwent MRI of the brain using structural, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS techniques.Absolute MRS concentrations of creatine and choline were significantly decreased in INJ+UCO compared to Cont lambs (P = 0.03, P = 0.009, respectively; no significant differences were detected between the INJ or Sham groups and the Cont group. Axial diffusivities in the internal capsule and frontal WM were lower in INJ and INJ+UCO compared to Cont lambs (P = 0.05, P = 0.04, respectively. Lambs in the INJ and INJ+UCO groups had lower mean diffusivities in the frontal WM compared to Cont group (P = 0.04. DTI colour mapping revealed lower diffusivity in specific WM regions in the Sham, INJ, and INJ+UCO groups compared to the Cont group, but the differences did not reach significance. INJ+UCO lambs more likely to exhibit

  16. Phenotypic characterisation of colour stability of lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Robin H; D'Antuono, Mario F; Gilmour, Arthur R; Warner, Robyn D

    2014-02-01

    A study was undertaken, using 2701 overwrapped loin samples aged for 5 days and subjected to a simulated retail display (SRD) for 3 days; sourced from lambs in the Cooperative Research Centre for Sheep Industry Innovation information nucleus flock, born 2007-2009. The ratio of reflectance of light in the wavelengths of 630 nm and 580 nm (oxy/met) was measured daily during the SRD, using a Hunterlab spectrophotometer. A series of linear mixed models was fitted to the oxy/met and time data to compare 4 breed types and identify relevant covariates, of 19, using a forward selection process. Breed type, pH at 24 h post slaughter and Linoleic acid concentration (LA) were the most important factors and covariates, in that order. Merino breed type, high pH and high LA reduced colour stability. Fitting a spline model to predict the time for oxy/met to reach a set value, represents an alternative to comparing oxy/met at a set time, for describing colour stability. Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Crude glycerin combined with sugar cane silage in lamb diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Camilla Flávia Portela Gomes; Cabral, Ícaro dos Santos; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; dos Reis, Larissa Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Souza, Lígia Lins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the level of crude glycerin (CG) on in vitro fermentation kinetics (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), on in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation (0, 30, 60, and 90 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), and intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance (0, 20, 55, 82, and 108 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage) in lambs. The in vitro trials were conducted in a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The in vivo trial was conducted in a Latin square design with five repetitions (5 × 5). For variables in which the F test was considered significant, the statistical interpretation of the effect of CG substitution levels was carried out through regression analyses. Kinetic parameters were not affected by CG inclusion. On in vitro NDF degradation, a significant effect of CG levels was observed on the potentially degradable fraction of NDF, the insoluble potentially degradable fraction of NDF, and the undegradable NDF fraction. The intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance were not affected by CG inclusion. The CG levels change in vitro NDF degradability parameters; however, there were no changes in animal intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance with the inclusion levels used.

  18. Lamb wave interactions through dispersion 2D filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, L.; Wilkie-Chancellier, N.; Caplain, E.; Sarens, B.; Glorieux, C.

    2012-03-01

    Acoustic surface waves are widely used to sense and map the properties of the propagation media. In order to characterise local space-time waves, methods such as Gabor analysis are powerful. Nevertheless, knowing which wave is observed, extracting its full bandwidth contribution from the others and to map it in the signal domain is also of great interest. In the Fourier domain, the acoustic energy of a wave is concentrated along the wave-number frequency (k-ω) dispersion curve, a way to extract one wave from others is to filter the signals by mean of k-ω band-pass area that keeps only the selected surface wave. The objective of the present paper is to propose 2D Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters based on an arbitrary area shape designed to extract selected waves. FIR filtering is based on convolving the impulse response of the filter with the signals. Impulse responses derived from using k-ω elliptical areas (E-FIR) are presented. The E-FIR filters are successfully tested on three experimental space-time signals corresponding to the propagation of Lamb waves measured by standard transducers on a cylindrical shell, by laser Doppler on a plate and generated by a circular pulse and observed by shearography on a rectangular plate.

  19. Dispersion of Lamb waves in a honeycomb composite sandwich panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baid, Harsh; Schaal, Christoph; Samajder, Himadri; Mal, Ajit

    2015-02-01

    Composite materials are increasingly being used in advanced aircraft and aerospace structures. Despite their many advantages, composites are often susceptible to hidden damages that may occur during manufacturing and/or service of the structure. Therefore, safe operation of composite structures requires careful monitoring of the initiation and growth of such defects. Ultrasonic methods using guided waves offer a reliable and cost effective method for defects monitoring in advanced structures due to their long propagation range and their sensitivity to defects in their propagation path. In this paper, some of the useful properties of guided Lamb type waves are investigated, using analytical, numerical and experimental methods, in an effort to provide the knowledge base required for the development of viable structural health monitoring systems for composite structures. The laboratory experiments involve a pitch-catch method in which a pair of movable transducers is placed on the outside surface of the structure for generating and recording the wave signals. The specific cases considered include an aluminum plate, a woven composite laminate and an aluminum honeycomb sandwich panel. The agreement between experimental, numerical and theoretical results are shown to be excellent in certain frequency ranges, providing a guidance for the design of effective inspection systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lamb Wave Damage Quantification Using GA-Based LS-SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fuqiang; Wang, Ning; He, Jingjing; Guan, Xuefei; Yang, Jinsong

    2017-06-12

    Lamb waves have been reported to be an efficient tool for non-destructive evaluations (NDE) for various application scenarios. However, accurate and reliable damage quantification using the Lamb wave method is still a practical challenge, due to the complex underlying mechanism of Lamb wave propagation and damage detection. This paper presents a Lamb wave damage quantification method using a least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) and a genetic algorithm (GA). Three damage sensitive features, namely, normalized amplitude, phase change, and correlation coefficient, were proposed to describe changes of Lamb wave characteristics caused by damage. In view of commonly used data-driven methods, the GA-based LS-SVM model using the proposed three damage sensitive features was implemented to evaluate the crack size. The GA method was adopted to optimize the model parameters. The results of GA-based LS-SVM were validated using coupon test data and lap joint component test data with naturally developed fatigue cracks. Cases of different loading and manufacturer were also included to further verify the robustness of the proposed method for crack quantification.

  1. The role of thresholds in the response of lambs to vaccination with irradiated Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windon, R.G.; Dineen, J.K.; Gregg, P.; Donald, A.D.; Griffiths, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    A piecewise logarithmic model fitted to worm counts of ewe lambs vaccinated and challenged in pens with a range of doses of irradiated and normal Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae respectively, indicated that the threshold for response to both vaccine (V 0 =4400) and challenge dose is exceeded by 5000 larvae. Whereas response was vaccine dose dependent, it was independent of challenge dose. Ram lambs vaccinated at low dose levels were as resistant against challenge as ewe lambs, but by contrast, failed to show increased protection after vaccination with high doses of irradiated larvae. Serum titre of antiworm complement-fixing antibodies at the time of challenge also indicated that ram lambs were less responsive immunologically than ewe lambs following vaccination at the higher dose levels. A field study showed that response to vaccination was only apparent after transfer of the sheep to heavily contaminated pastures, suggesting that previous exposure of the vaccinated animals to the low dose of infective larvae available on a lightly contaminated pasture constituted a challenge which was below the threshold. (author)

  2. Reproductive characteristics of Awassi ewes under Cornell alternate month accelerated lambing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Gül

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the reproductive responses of Awassi ewes under Cornell alternate month accelerated lambing (CAMAL system. Ewes were randomly allocated to two experimental groups. The first group (control group consists of 20 ewes exposed to rams in September under conventional management system while the second group (CAMAL were divided into four sub-flocks contain 20 head of ewes each one were exposed to rams to obtain three lambing in two years with different breeding and lambing months. In CAMAL ewes, oestrus was synchronized using intra-vaginal sponges with progesterone and PMSG administration. Results revealed that within CAMAL group, the percentage of animals in heat, onset of oestrus, litter size, birth weight and weaning weight were affected by mating months. September and November were the most appropriate months for oestrus ratio (97.5 % and litter size (1.18 and 0.98, respectively. Lambs of control group were heavier at birth and weaning than those of CAMAL group. On the other hand lamb yield was not affected statistically by the CAMAL administration.

  3. Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Meat Quality of Lamb and Goat Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Cetin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of various voltage of electrical stimulation (ES on meat quality of lamb and goat was investigated by using a total of 36 animals at 3–5 years old. Constant 50 Hz frequency and 50, 100, and 250 V, 90 sec of ES were administered to 1/2 carcasses and were examined according their textural, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. ES decreased the pH values of lamb and goat meat, and accelerated the rigor mortis (<0.05. Additionally, ES enhanced the water activity, water-holding capacity, and drip loss of both animals. Shear force varied between lamb and goat meat, and tenderness was improved depending on voltage range used (<0.001. ES caused difference in instrumental colour (CIE ∗, ∗, ∗ values of lamb and goat meat compared with the control groups (<0.05 during aging period at 4°C. Sensorial characteristics were also improved with various levels of ES treatments. In conclusion, ES had positive effects on meat quality of lamb and goat, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences.

  4. A model-dependent approach to the non-relativistic Lamb shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Valdes, J. F.; Bruce, S. A.

    2018-02-01

    The precise observation of the Lamb shift, between the 2s_{1/2} and 2p_{1/2} levels in hydrogen, was a genuine motivation for the development of modern quantum electrodynamics. According to Dirac theory, the 2s_{1/2} and 2p_{1/2} levels should have equal energies. However, "radiative corrections" due to the interaction between the atomic electron and the vacuum, shift the 2s_{1/2} level higher in energy by around 4.37493× 10^{-6} eV or 2π\\hbar× 1057.85 MHz relative to the 2p_{1/2} level. The measurement of Lamb and Retherford provided the stimulus for renormalization theory which has been so successful in handling troublesome divergences. The Lamb shift is still a central theme in atomic physics. W.E. Lamb was the first to see that this tiny shift, so elusive and hard to measure, would clarify in a fundamental way our thinking about particles and fields. In this article, the Lamb shift for the 2 s energy level in hydrogen is assessed for three different electron models by using the variational principle. It is then verified that this shift arises mostly from the interaction of a bound electron with the zero-point fluctuations of the free electromagnetic field (Welton's interpretation). We briefly comment on the construct validity of the proposed electron models.

  5. Utility of large-animal models of BPD: chronically ventilated preterm lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertine, Kurt H

    2015-05-15

    This paper is focused on unique insights provided by the preterm lamb physiological model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Connections are also made to insights provided by the former preterm baboon model of BPD, as well as to rodent models of lung injury to the immature, postnatal lung. The preterm lamb and baboon models recapitulate the clinical setting of preterm birth and respiratory failure that require prolonged ventilation support for days or weeks with oxygen-rich gas. An advantage of the preterm lamb model is the large size of preterm lambs, which facilitates physiological studies for days or weeks during the evolution of neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD). To this advantage is linked an integrated array of morphological, biochemical, and molecular analyses that are identifying the role of individual genes in the pathogenesis of neonatal CLD. Results indicate that the mode of ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation vs. less invasive high-frequency nasal ventilation, is related to outcomes. Our approach also includes pharmacological interventions that test causality of specific molecular players, such as vitamin A supplementation in the pathogenesis of neonatal CLD. The new insights that are being gained from our preterm lamb model may have important translational implications about the pathogenesis and treatment of BPD in preterm human infants. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Effect of Different Levels of Oregano Essential Oil on Some Rumen Parameters in Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin ÜNAL BARUH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of oregano (Origanum vulgare essential oil (OEO on ruminal fermentation in lambs. Thirty-six weaned male Kivircik lambs were used as trial materials. Lambs were divided into one control and two treatment groups. For the two treatment groups, OEO was added into grower feed at a level of 250 and 500 ppm, respectively. Treatment period lasted for 9 weeks, including adaptation period. Feed and water was supplied ad libitum during the trial. Rumen fluid samples were collected from 9 lambs of each group, before the morning feeding and 3 and 6 hours after the feeding. From the ruminal fluid, pH, total volatile fatty acids (VFA, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and ammonia-nitrogen concentrations were determined. There were no effects of OEO on ruminal pH and concentrations of ammonia. In some of the rumen parameters (pH and total VFA, the results were statistically different periodically between groups and it was established that the time of measurement had an important role on the results of the rumen parameters. Furthermore, the quantitative increase of the total volatile fatty acid concentrations in the treatment groups according to the control was directly proportional to the increase of the oregano levels, in the periods except for the beginning. This situation makes us think that the oregano essential oil could have positive effects on digestion in lambs.

  7. Effect of transport on blood selenium and glutathione status in feeder lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J A; Bobe, G; Nixon, B K; Vorachek, W R; Hugejiletu; Nichols, T; Mosher, W D; Pirelli, G J

    2014-09-01

    Stress from transport may be linked to increased generation of reactive oxygen species, the removal of which requires reduced glutathione and selenium. The aim of this experiment was to examine the effect of transport on glutathione and Se status of feeder lambs. Recently weaned lambs (n = 40) were blocked by gender and BW on d 0 of the experiment and randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups: group 1, no transport and full access to feed and water (control), and group 2, 8-h road transport followed by another 16 h of feed deprivation (transport). After 24 h, both treatment groups were treated the same. All lambs were weighed, and blood samples were collected at 0, 8, 24, and 72 h and analyzed for whole-blood (WB) and serum Se concentrations, serum NEFA concentrations, and erythrocyte concentrations of glutathione. Transport of feeder lambs for 8 h followed by another 16 h of feed deprivation transiently (significant at 24 h but no longer different at 72 h) decreased BW and erythrocyte glutathione concentrations and increased serum NEFA and blood Se concentrations compared with control lambs. Our results suggest that 8 h of transport followed by another 16 h of feed deprivation results in fatty acid and Se mobilization from tissue stores with a coincident decrease in erythrocyte glutathione concentrations.

  8. Effect of the dam’s feeding regimen on the meat quality of light suckling lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Molle

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the effect of the introduction of concentrates without GMO risk and at low aflatoxin risk in the diet of grazing milk ewes on the quanti-qualitative production of meat of their milk-fed light lambs, two trials were carried out - in Sicily, on 32 Comisana lambs, slaughtered at 49±4 days (trial 1; and in Sardinia, on 28 Sarda lambs, slaughtered at 31±4 days(trial 2 - comparing the following grazing dams’ feeding regimes: High stocking rate + Organic (barley – tickbean or pea Concentrate (HO; High stocking rate + Conventional (maize-soybean Concentrate (HC; Low stocking rate + Organic Concentrate (LO; Low stocking rate + Conventional Concentrate (LC. Lamb performances, carcass quality, meat colour and lipid content were not modified by dam’s feeding regimen. However, significant differences were observed in the fatty acid (FA composition of the intramuscular fat of the older suckling lambs of trial 1. The main variation concerned n-3 polyunsaturated FAs and conjugated linoleic acids.

  9. Lamb Wave Line Sensing for Crack Detection in a Welded Stiffener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Kyu An

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Lamb wave line sensing technique for crack detection in a welded stiffener. The proposed technique overcomes one of the biggest technical challenges of Lamb wave crack detection for real structure applications: crack-induced Lamb waves are often mixed with multiple reflections from complex waveguides. In particular, crack detection in a welded joint, one of the structural hot spots due to stress concentration, is accompanied by reflections from the welded joint as well as a crack. Extracting and highlighting crack-induced Lamb wave modes from Lamb wave responses measured at multi-spatial points along a single line can be accomplished through a frequency-wavenumber domain analysis. The advantages of the proposed technique enable us not only to enhance the crack detectability in the welded joint but also to minimize false alarms caused by environmental and operational variations by avoiding the direct comparison with the baseline data previously accumulated from the pristine condition of a target structure. The proposed technique is experimentally and numerically validated in vertically stiffened metallic structures, revealing that it successfully identifies and localizes subsurface cracks, regardless of the coexistence with the vertical stiffener.

  10. Effect of yoghurt serum powder dietary supplementation on growth performance and antioxidant status in fattening lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis E Simitzis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of serum are produced during the strained yoghurt manufacturing process, which is the predominant type of yoghurt in Greece. However, the exploitation of this by-product as an alternative source of energy, protein and mineral elements in animal diets has not yet been examined. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary yoghurt serum supplementation on growth performance and antioxidant status in sheep. Fourty eight male 2 months old lambs of Chios breed were randomly assigned to three experimental groups; control group was fed with a commercial basal diet, whereas the other two groups consumed the same diet, with the only difference that concentrated feed was uniformly supplemented with two levels of yoghurt serum powder (YS1: 25 g/kg feed or YS2: 50 g/kg feed. Lambs were weighed in a weekly basis from the beginning until the end of the experiment and blood samples were collected to measure antioxidant status. No significant effect of yoghurt serum powder on growth performance of fattening lambs was demonstrated, even after 28 days of dietary supplementation (P>0.05. At the same time, malondialdehyde (MDA levels in blood plasma were not significantly different among the experimental groups (P>0.05 and no incidents of lambs with diarrhea were recorded. It can be concluded that yoghurt serum powder appears as a promising alternative of the cereals in the diets of fattening lambs, since no negative effects on growth performance and health status were observed.

  11. Gas Control and Thermal Modeling Methods for Pressed Pellet and Fast Rise Thin-Film Thermal Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    E PIEKOS 2 ADVANCED THERMAL (PDF) BATTERIES , INC D BRISCOE G CHAGNON 3 EAGLE PICHER (PDF) TECHNOLOGIES, LLC C LAMB J...Thin-Film Thermal Batteries by Frank C Krieger and Michael S Ding Approved for public release; distribution unlimited...Laboratory Gas Control and Thermal Modeling Methods for Pressed Pellet and Fast Rise Thin-Film Thermal Batteries by Frank C Krieger and Michael S

  12. THE FASTEST GROWING LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta NOWAK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents trends in economic growth and development in twelve least developed countries from 2006 to 2015. The study is based on the data retrieved from the World Bank Database. During the analysed 10 years, seven Asian (Myanmar, Lao PDR, Bhutan, Cambodia, Timor-Leste, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan and five African (Ethiopia, Rwanda, Angola, Sudan, and Mozambique LDCs had average annual GDP per capita growth rates higher than 4.0%. GDP has been largely generated through the services and industry sectors. A few LDCs sustained strong growth mainly because of foreign assistance and in other countries remittances were a significant source of development finance. Resource rich countries recorded high inflows of foreign direct investment. In a few fast growing LDCs the state has been heavily engaged in economy. The analysed LDCs substantially improved their development indicators.

  13. Ewe lambs with higher breeding values for growth achieve higher reproductive performance when mated at age 8 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, C A Rosales; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Wood, D A; Martin, G B; Thompson, A N

    2013-09-15

    We studied the relationships among growth, body composition and reproductive performance in ewe lambs with known phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT) and Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post-weaning live weight (PWT) and depth of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT). To detect estrus, vasectomized rams were placed with 190 Merino ewe lambs when on average they were 157 days old. The vasectomized rams were replaced with entire rams when the ewe lambs were, on average, 226 days old. Lambs were weighed every week and blood was sampled on four occasions for assay of ghrelin, leptin and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Almost 90% of the lambs attained puberty during the experiment, at an average live weight of 41.4 kg and average age of 197 days. Ewe lambs with higher values for EMD (P ewe lambs attained puberty, as detected by vasectomized rams, but then failed to become pregnant after mating with entire rams. Nevertheless, we can conclude that in ewe lambs mated at 8 months of age, higher breeding values for growth, muscle and fat are positively correlated with reproductive performance, although the effects of breeding values and responses to live weight are highly variable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of supplemental organic cobalt on nutrient digestion and nitrogen balance in lambs fed forage-based diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplemental organic cobalt on nutrient digestion and nitrogen balance in lambs fed forage-based diets. Sixteen wether lambs (avg initial BW = 28.6 ± 1.3 kg) were used in a 2 × 2 Latin square and randomly allotted to one of two treatments b...

  15. Proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) for the authentication of regionally unique South African lamb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, Sara W.; Muller, Magdalena; Alewijn, Martin; Koot, Alex H.; Ruth, van Saskia M.; Hoffman, Louwrens C.

    2017-01-01

    The volatile fingerprints of South African lamb meat and fat were measured by proton-transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to evaluate it as an authentication tool. Meat and fat of the Longissimus lumborum (LL) of lambs from six different regions were assessed. Analysis showed that the volatile

  16. Effect of Different Slaughter Weights on Slaughter and Carcass Traits of Male Karayaka Lambs Reared under Intensive Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Aksoy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the carcass traits of Karayaka lambs slaughtered at different slaughter weights (SWs and to find out optimum SWs. Male Karayaka lambs with 20 kg live weight (n=30 constituted the animal material of the study. Lambs were randomly divided into five SW groups; 30 (GI; n=6, 35 (GII; n=6, 40 (GIII; n=6; 45 (GIV; n=6 and 50 (GV; n=6 kg. Lamb fattening feed (concentrate feed, ad libitum and forage (lentil straw, 100g/lamb/day were used as the feed material. Lambs were sent to slaughter at target SWs. Following the slaughter, non-carcass components, tailless hot and cold carcass weights were taken. Carcasses were separated into six sections as leg, foreleg, back, loin, neck and others. Physical dissection was performed to investigate carcass composition. Only the differences in carcass dressing and skin percentages of slaughter groups were not found to be significant. Increasing carcass fat percentages and decreasing carcass lean and bone percentages were observed with increasing SWs. Considering the consumer preferences, current findings revealed that Karayaka lambs should be sent to slaughter at weights between 30-35 kg. However, considering the red meat deficit of the country, current market conditions and producer preferences, the optimum SW for Karayaka lambs were recommended to be between 40-45 kg.

  17. 78 FR 28121 - Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Amendment to the Order To Raise the Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ...: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends the Lamb Promotion..., Agricultural Marketing Specialist, Research and Promotion Division, on 202-690-2611, fax 202- 720-1125, or by... the lamb checkoff revenue and get its marketing and promotion budget back to the original budget...

  18. Effects of prenatal stress and emotional reactivity of the mother on emotional and cognitive abilities in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Marjorie; Nowak, Raymond; Andanson, Stephane; Petit, Bérengère; Lévy, Frédéric; Boissy, Alain

    2015-07-01

    Consequences of prenatal stress on emotional reactivity and cognitive abilities in offspring are under-documented in precocial mammals. Here, we investigated to what extent emotional reactivity, judgment bias and spatial learning abilities of lambs are affected by chronic stress during late pregnancy and by their dams' emotional reactivity. The 20 highest-responsive (HR) and 20 lowest-responsive (LR) ewes from a population of 120 Romane ewes were selected according to their pre-mating reactivity to social isolation in a new environment. Over the final third of pregnancy, 10 HR ewes and 10 LR ewes were exposed daily to various unpredictable aversive events such as restraint, mixing groups and transport while the other 20 selected ewes were not. In a human and an object test, prenatally-stressed lambs were more fearful than control lambs, but the prenatal stress effect was moderated by the reactivity of the mothers: prenatally-stressed lambs from ewes with high emotional reactivity were more affected. Prenatally-stressed lambs did not perform as well as control lambs in a maze test and showed pessimistic-like judgment in a cognitive bias test. Prenatally-stressed lambs were thus characterized by a negative affective state with increased fear reactions and impaired cognitive evaluation. The development of negative moods could have long-lasting consequences on the coping strategies of the lambs in response to their rearing conditions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACOG Pregnancy Book How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy Patient Education FAQs How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy ...

  20. Estimation of Inbreeding Coefficient and Its Effects on Lamb Survival in Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad almasi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The mating of related individuals produces an inbred offspring and leads to an increased homozygosity in the progeny, genetic variance decrease within families and increase between families. The ration of homozygosity for individuals was calculated by inbreeding coefficient. Inbred individuals may carry two alleles at a locus that are replicated from one gene in the previous generations, called identical by descent. The inbreeding coefficient should be monitored in a breeding program, since it plays an important role at decreasing of homeostasis, performance, reproduction and viability. The trend of inbreeding is an indicator for determining of inbreeding level in the herd. Inbreeding affects both phenotypic means of traits and genetic variances within population, thus it is an important factor for delimitations of genetic progress in a population. Reports showed an inbreeding increase led to decrease of phenotypic value in some of the productive and reproductive traits. Materials and Methods In the current study, the pedigree data of 14030 and 6215 records of Baluchi and Iranblack lambs that collected from 1984 to 2011 at the Abbasabad Sheep Breeding Station in Mashhad, Iran, 3588 records of Makoei lambs that collected from 1994 to 2011 at the Makoei sheep breeding station and 6140, records of Zandi lambs that collected from 1991 to 2011 at the Khejir Sheep Breeding Station in Tehran, Iran were used to estimating the inbreeding coefficient and its effects on lamb survival in these breeds. Lamb survival trait was scored as 1 and 0 for lamb surviving and not surviving at weaning weight, respectively. Inbreeding coefficient was estimated by relationship matrix algorithm (A=TDT' methodology using the CFC software program. Effects of inbreeding coefficient on lamb survival were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood (REML method under 12 different animal models using ASReml 3.0 computer programme. Coefficient of inbreeding for each

  1. Lamb wave acousto-optic modulator in ZnO/MgO multiple quantum wells and comparison with classical modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryba, T; Lefebvre, J-E; Elmaimouni, L; Ratolojanahary, F E

    2015-10-10

    An analysis of a ZnO/MgO multiple quantum well (MQW) acousto-optic modulator with Lamb waves is performed. With the MQW thickness in the range of 0.2 times the Lamb wavelength, the only observed Lamb modes are the lowest-order symmetric S0 and antisymmetric A0 modes. These modes induce strain and electric field components which influence the absorption coefficient of the modulator by the associated variation of the excitonic energies of MQW. The optical absorption coefficient spectra of the modulator as a function of the Lamb waves' power is presented. The Lamb-wave-based modulator gives a better absorption coefficient than the Rayleigh-wave-based one. An analysis of a classical acousto-optic modulator is also performed for comparison of performance.

  2. Personal Factors and Fast Food Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Saraniya Devendra

    2016-01-01

    Asian peoples including Sri Lankans are generally fond of cooking food items in their homes. It is understandable that on the other hand, growing knowledge and adoption of western culture bring a modification in food consumption pattern among Sri Lankan families who lives in a particular city area. As such, it is useful to identify the Personal Factors (PF) that influence on Fast Food Consumption (FFC), since the Sri Lankans change their behavior to have fast foods of developed countries from...

  3. Multi-Mode Lamb Wave Arrival Time Extraction for Improved Tomographic Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinders, Mark K.; Hou Jidong; Leonard, Kevin R.

    2005-01-01

    An ultrasonic signal processing technique is applied to multi-mode arrival time estimation from Lamb waveforms. The basic tool is a simplified time-scale projection called a dynamic wavelet fingerprint (DWFP) which enables direct observation of the variation of features of interest in non-stationary ultrasonic signals. The DWFP technique was used to automatically detect and evaluate each candidate through-transmitted Lamb mode. The area of the dynamic wavelet fingerprint was then used as a feature to distinguish false modes caused by noise and other interference from the true modes of interest. The set of estimated arrival times were then used as inputs for tomographic reconstruction. The Lamb wave tomography images generated with these estimated arrival times were able to indicate different defects in aluminum plates

  4. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simitzis, P E; Bronis, M; Charismiadou, M A; Mountzouris, K C; Deligeorgis, S G

    2014-09-01

    A trial was conducted to examine the effect of cinnamon essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality. Sixteen male lambs were randomly assigned to two groups. The first group served as control and was given a basal diet, and the second group was given the same diet supplemented with cinnamon oil (1 ml/kg of concentrated feed) for 35 days. Incorporation of cinnamon oil did not affect growth performance (P>0.05). Meat pH, colour, water-holding capacity, shear force, intramuscular fat and lipid oxidation values of longissimus thoracis muscle were not significantly influenced by cinnamon oil supplementation (P>0.05). The post-inoculation counts of Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes on raw meat during refrigerated storage for 6 days did not differ (P>0.05) between the two groups. The results show that cinnamon oil supplementation may not have the potential to improve lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

  5. Lamb-Wave-Based Tomographic Imaging Techniques for Hole-Edge Corrosion Monitoring in Plate Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengjiang Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel monitoring method for hole-edge corrosion damage in plate structures based on Lamb wave tomographic imaging techniques. An experimental procedure with a cross-hole layout using 16 piezoelectric transducers (PZTs was designed. The A0 mode of the Lamb wave was selected, which is sensitive to thickness-loss damage. The iterative algebraic reconstruction technique (ART method was used to locate and quantify the corrosion damage at the edge of the hole. Hydrofluoric acid with a concentration of 20% was used to corrode the specimen artificially. To estimate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the real corrosion damage was compared with the predicted corrosion damage based on the tomographic method. The results show that the Lamb-wave-based tomographic method can be used to monitor the hole-edge corrosion damage accurately.

  6. Data for in-depth characterisation of the lamb meat proteome from longissimus lumborum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer-Yang Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This Data article provides Supplementary data related to the research article titled “In-depth characterisation of the lamb meat proteome from longissimus lumborum” by Yu et al. [1]. This research article reports the proteome catalogue of the 48 h post-mortem lamb longissimus lumborum. A list of 388 ovine-specific proteins were identified and characterised after separating the samples into sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar and insoluble fractions, followed by an in-depth shotgun proteomic evaluation and bioinformatic analysis. The detailed list of identified proteins, the annotated MS/MS spectra corresponding to the proteins identified by a single peptide-spectrum match, the raw Gene Ontology annotation data and other miscellaneous files, as will be described below, were contained in this Data article. We hope the data presented here will contribute to the current knowledge of the global protein composition of lamb skeletal muscle/meat.

  7. Gamma irradiation effects on thiamin and riboflavin in beef, lamb, pork, and turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.B. Jr.; Lakritz, L.; Hampson, J.; Richardson, R.; Ward, K.; Thayer, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A study was made of the loss of thiamin and riboflavin due to gamma irradiation of beef, lamb and pork longissimus dorsi, turkey breast and leg muscles. Thiamin losses averaged 11%/kiloGray (kGy) and riboflavin losses 2.5%/kGy above three kGy. The rate of loss of thiamin in beef was higher than that in lamb, pork and turkey leg, but not turkey breast, with losses of 16%/kGy in beef and 8%/kGy in lamb. The rate of thiamin loss was not related to sulfhydryl, protein, moisture, fat or water content, pH or reducing capacity by redox titration. Loss of riboflavin was not different among species. Any detriment from such slight losses would seem to be more than compensated by the advantage of controlling bacteriological contamination by irradiation processing

  8. Capacitive lamb wave transducers with multiple even-modes for biochemical detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Li-Feng; Shao, Jin-Ping

    2010-08-01

    The high-order even-modes of high-aspect-ratio rectangular diaphragms are further exploited in this paper to excite Lamb waves. Thus the capacitive Lamb wave transducer (CLWT) can be excited by not only the second-order mode but also higher order even-modes, so that we can obtain higher operation frequencies, and make the CLWTs operate at several different frequencies for different applications. An optimized design with a 3μm thick silicon plate and submicrometer thick conducting silicon diaphragms is given according to the characteristics of the lowest order Lamb wave (i.e. A0 wave) and the TDK model for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUT) with high-aspect-ratio rectangular diaphragms. Such a CLWT with multiple even-modes is significant and attractive for gas and liquid sensing in the field of biochemical measurements.

  9. Lamb meat quality as affected by a natural or artificial milk feeding regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, M; Bella, M; Priolo, A; Barbagallo, D; Galofaro, V; Landi, C; Pennisi, P

    2006-06-01

    Fourteen Barbaresca lambs were divided into two groups of seven at 24h from birth and reared exclusively on natural milk (NR) or on artificial milk (AR). Lambs were slaughtered at 40 days of age. The NR group tended (Pmeat was darker (Pmeat from the AR group, resulting in a higher (Pmeat than in the NR group. On the other hand, α-linolenic (Pmeat from the NR group than in the AR group, leading to a lower (Pmeat compared to AR meat. Finally, a milk-feeding regime exclusively based on artificial milk adversely affected the dietetic value of lamb meat compared to a natural rearing system, reducing the level of desirable fatty acids such as n-3 series and CLA.

  10. Simulation of Lamb wave reflections at plate edges using the semi-analytical finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Z A B; Gabbert, U

    2012-09-01

    In typical Lamb wave simulation practices, effects of plate edge reflections are often not considered in order to simplify the wave signal interpretations. Methods that are based on infinite plates such as the semi-analytical finite element method is effective in simulating Lamb waves as it excludes the effect of plate edges. However, the inclusion of plate edges in a finite plate could render this method inapplicable, especially for transient response simulations. Here, by applying the ratio of Lamb mode reflections at plate edges, and representing the reflection at plate edges using infinite plate solutions, the semi-analytical finite element method can be applied for transient response simulation, even when the plate is no longer infinite. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Numerical Time-Domain Modeling of Lamb Wave Propagation Using Elastodynamic Finite Integration Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Rappel

    2014-01-01

    integration technique (EFIT as well as its validation with analytical results. Lamb wave method is a long range inspection technique which is considered to have unique future in the field of structural health monitoring. One of the main problems facing the lamb wave method is how to choose the most appropriate frequency to generate the waves for adequate transmission capable of properly propagating in the material, interfering with defects/damages, and being received in good conditions. Modern simulation tools based on numerical methods such as finite integration technique (FIT, finite element method (FEM, and boundary element method (BEM may be used for modeling. In this paper, two sets of simulation are performed. In the first set, group velocities of lamb wave in a steel plate are obtained numerically. Results are then compared with analytical results to validate the simulation. In the second set, EFIT is employed to study fundamental symmetric mode interaction with a surface braking defect.

  12. Detecção óptica de onda de Lamb

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Andrade Cavalcanti Araujo

    1996-01-01

    Esta tese apresenta a análise teórica e experimental da detecção de onda de Lamb em sólido isotrópico, através da utilização de um interferômetro óptico tipo Mach-Zehnder heterodino. Foi desenvolvida uma formulação para analisar a interação acusto-óptica superficial que utiliza a onda de Lamb, levando-se em consideração ambas as componentes de deslocamento acústico geradas pela onda de Lamb. Os resultados dessa análise revelaram que, ao contrário do que é regularmente divulgado na literatura,...

  13. A case of conjoined twins (thoraco-omphalopygopagus tribrachius tetrapus in lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Mazaheri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheep conjoined twins have been reported less than cow. An apparently female conjoined twin lambs was examined based on external and internal features. In radiology, two vertebral columns and two pairs of the ribs were seen. Only two heads and two necks were separated (thoraco-omphalopygopagus. There were three forelimbs (tribrachius, one of which grew on dorsal region as a notomelus. Teat buds of the monsters differed in number. Only one lamb had umbilicus, including one umbilical vein, and two umbilical arteries locating besides one urinary bladder. This lamb had also one uterus. Two-separated alimentary tracts were observed in a common abdomen. Common thorax and abdominal cavities were separated by a diaphragm. There were two esophageal hiatuses, and two caval foramina but only one aortic hiatus. Two pairs of lungs and two unequal and connected hearts in a common pericardium were observed. Abnormality of the circulatory system might have caused the death of the twins.

  14. Effects of electrical stimulation on meat quality of lamb and goat meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Omer; Bingol, Enver Baris; Colak, Hilal; Hampikyan, Hamparsun

    2012-01-01

    Effect of various voltage of electrical stimulation (ES) on meat quality of lamb and goat was investigated by using a total of 36 animals at 3-5 years old. Constant 50 Hz frequency and 50, 100, and 250 V, 90 sec of ES were administered to 1/2 carcasses and were examined according their textural, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. ES decreased the pH values of lamb and goat meat, and accelerated the rigor mortis (P meat, and tenderness was improved depending on voltage range used (P meat compared with the control groups (P Sensorial characteristics were also improved with various levels of ES treatments. In conclusion, ES had positive effects on meat quality of lamb and goat, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences.

  15. Presence of Fluorescent Carbon Nanoparticles in Baked Lamb: Their Properties and Potential Application for Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Xie, Yisha; Liu, Shan; Cong, Shuang; Song, Yukun; Xu, Xianbing; Tan, Mingqian

    2017-08-30

    The presence of nanoparticles in food has drawn much attention in recent years. Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles are a new class of nanostructures; however, the distribution and physicochemical properties of such nanoparticles in food remain unclear. Herein, the presence of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles in baked lamb was confirmed, and their physicochemical properties were investigated. The fluorescent carbon nanoparticles from baked lamb emit strong blue fluorescence under ultraviolet light with a 10% fluorescent quantum yield. The nanoparticles are roughly spherical in appearance with a diameter of around 2.0 nm. Hydroxyl, amino, and carboxyl groups exist on the surface of nanoparticles. In addition, the nanoparticles could serve as a fluorescence sensor for glucose detection through an oxidation-reduction reaction. This work is the first report on fluorescent carbon nanoparticles present in baked lamb, which provides valuable insight into the physicochemical properties of such nanoparticles and their potential application in sensors.

  16. Influence of lamb rennet paste on the lipolytic and sensory profile of Murcia al Vino cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandini, E; Castillo, M; de Renobales, M; Virto, M D; Garrido, M D; Rovira, S; López, M B

    2012-06-01

    The influence of lamb rennet paste (71.1% chymosin, 177 international milk-clotting units/mL, 4.57U/g of lipase activity) during the ripening of Murcia al Vino goat cheese was studied. The aim of this study was to improve the knowledge of the effect of lamb rennet paste on the lipolytic patterns in this type of cheese by reference to the evolution of total and free fatty acids. A sensory analysis was carried out to compare cheeses made with commercial and paste rennet. The rennet paste showed higher lipolytic activity, enhancing the production of short-chain free fatty acids. In addition, the cheese produced with lamb rennet paste had a slightly more bitter and piquant taste, making it an attractive commercial alternative that can be used to develop new varieties of goat cheese. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fast Convolution Module (Fast Convolution Module)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bierens, L

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the design and realisation of a real-time range azimuth compression module, the so-called 'Fast Convolution Module', based on the fast convolution algorithm developed at TNO-FEL...

  18. Innovation activity as a condition for growing companied to improve their competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Barinova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article was conducted to identify the impact of innovative and scientific activities on competitiveness of fast growing Russian companies. The authors demonstrated that the competitiveness of domestic companies depends on their expenditures on R&D and technological innovation, the costs of staff training and other factors. Dataset for the study is based on the national ranking of fast-growing high-tech companies «TechUp 2013».

  19. Comportamento ingestivo de cordeiros em terminação a pasto = Intake behaviour of lambs finished on pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Von Linsingen Piazzetta

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o comportamento ingestivo e o consumo de forragem de cordeiros em sistemas de terminação a pasto. Os tratamentos foram: cordeiros mantidos junto às ovelhas em pastagem de azevém sem suplementação; cordeiros mantidos junto às ovelhas na mesma pastagem, suplementados em creep feeding; cordeiros mantidosjunto às ovelhas na mesma pastagem, suplementados em creep grazing com trevo branco. Foram realizadas três avaliações do comportamento ingestivo, verificando-se as atividades realizadas pelos animais (pastejo, ruminação, amamentação e outras atividades. Houve diferença (p The objective of this study was to evaluate intake behavior of lambs in pasture systems: (1 lambs kept with their dams in ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. without supplementation; (2 lambs kept with their dams in the same pasture but supplemented in creep feeding; (3 lambs kept with their dams in the same pasture but supplemented in creep grazing with white clover. Three evaluations of intake behavior were performed to check the activities carried out by animals (grazing, rumination, suckling and other activities. Grazing, rumination and other activities times were different(p < 0.05 for non-supplemented lambs. For these lambs, grazing and rumination times were longer than other activities time compared to other systems. Creep feeding reduced grazing time (p < 0.05, probably due to easy access and quality of concentrate. Lambs in creep grazing had reduced (p < 0.05 rumination time. Bite mass in creep grazing was higher (p < 0.05, probably due to easy harvesting of leaves by lambs. It was concluded that the production system affects feeding strategy of lambs and the preference for legumes suggests the use of creep grazing for finishing lambs.

  20. Neonatal exposure to xenoestrogens impairs the ovarian response to gonadotropin treatment in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Oscar E; Varayoud, Jorgelina; Rodríguez, Horacio A; Santamaría, Clarisa G; Bosquiazzo, Verónica L; Osti, Mario; Belmonte, Norberto M; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Luque, Enrique H

    2015-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) are xenoestrogens, which have been associated with altered effects on reproduction. We hypothesized that neonatal xenoestrogen exposure affects the ovarian functionality in lambs. Thus, we evaluated the ovarian response to exogenous ovine FSH (oFSH) administered from postnatal day 30 (PND30) to PND32 in female lambs previously exposed to low doses of DES or BPA (BPA50: 50 μg/kg per day, BPA0.5: 0.5 μg/kg per day) from PND1 to PND14. We determined: i) follicular growth, ii) circulating levels of 17β-estradiol (E2), iii) steroid receptors (estrogen receptor alpha, estrogen receptor beta, and androgen receptor (AR)) and atresia, and iv) mRNA expression levels of the ovarian bone morphogenetic protein (BMPs) system (BMP6, BMP15, BMPR1B, and GDF9) and FSH receptor (FSHR). Lambs neonatally exposed to DES or BPA showed an impaired ovarian response to oFSH with a lower number of follicles ≥2 mm in diameter together with a lower number of atretic follicles and no increase in E2 serum levels in response to oFSH treatment. In addition, AR induction by oFSH was disrupted in granulosa and theca cells of lambs exposed to DES or BPA. An increase in GDF9 mRNA expression levels was observed in oFSH-primed lambs previously treated with DES or BPA50. In contrast, a decrease in BMPR1B was observed in BPA0.5-postnatally exposed lambs. The modifications in AR, GDF9, and BMPR1B may be associated with the altered ovarian function due to neonatal xenoestrogen exposure in response to an exogenous gonadotropin stimulus. These alterations may be the pathophysiological basis of subfertility syndrome in adulthood. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  1. Life span and tissue distribution of 111indium-labeled blood platelets in hypomagnesemic lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.D.; Miller, J.K.; White, P.K.; Ramsey, N.

    1983-01-01

    Circulating platelets may be activated by exposed triple-helical collagen in atherosclerotic lesions in Mg-deficient ruminants. Autologous platelets, labeled in vitro with 111In and determined to be active, were injected into 5 hypomagnesemic and 3 control lambs fed semipurified diets with 100 or 2,000 mg of Mg/kg of feed for 3 months. During the first 68 hours, 111In concentrations were 11 times higher in packed cells than in plasma. Packed-cell 111In increased 60% during the first 2 hours, probably due to initial tissue sequestration and later release of labeled platelets. Thereafter, platelet half-life span averaged 60 and 63 hours for hypomagnesemic and control lambs. After 68 hours, lambs were injected with native vascular collagen fibrils at 500 micrograms/kg of body weight to initiate reversible platelet aggregation. Within 1 minute, 83% of packed-cell 111In disappeared from circulation. Thirty minutes later, the lambs were euthanatized and necropsied and in the lungs, liver, and spleen, 111In averaged 24%, 19%, and 9%, respectively, of 111In injected 68 hours earlier. Organ deposits were not affected by Mg intake, but 111In in the lungs was somewhat lower in 2 lambs injected with inactivated collagen. Pathologic changes induced by reversible platelet aggregation were compatible with right ventricular failure complicated by pulmonary edema, similar to changes in hypomagnesemic lambs that died spontaneously. Platelets in blood exposed to vascular lesions in hypomagnesemic ruminants could be a major mortality risk factor in grass tetany disease

  2. Linseed, microalgae or fish oil dietary supplementation affects performance and quality characteristics of light lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus de la Fuente-Vazquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to improve the fatty acid profile of meat from light lamb, frequently reared in Spain and in other Mediterranean countries. A total of 44 light lambs fed different n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids sources were studied: control (C (palm oil, extruded linseed (L, extruded linseed mixed with microalgae (LM and fish oil (FO. The productive performance from 14.7 to 26.2 kg of live weights and meat quality characteristics during refrigerated storage were assessed. Lambs fed FO showed lower feed intake (p <0.001, average daily gain (p <0.001 and higher feed conversion ratio (p <0.001 than lambs from the other treatments. Fish oil meat had the lowest (p <0.01 protein proportion and the highest (p <0.001 C20:5n-3, C22:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 proportions, while L or LM produced the highest (p <0.001 C18:3n-3 deposition. Fish oil meat had higher (p <0.05 L* and lower (p <0.001 a* than meats from the other treatments. After 7 days of storage, FO meat showed the highest TBARS (p <0.001, while C meat showed similar value to 0 days of storage. Additionally, FO underwent higher microbial growth after 7 days of storage as compared to the other treatments. Dietary supplementation with L and LM leads to C18:3n-3 meat enrichment and to a microbial load and colour characteristics similar to those of C, without adverse effect on lamb performance. However the use of FO improves the fatty acid profile of meat, but negatively affects lamb performance and meat quality.

  3. Excitation of plane Lamb wave in plate-like structures under applied surface loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kai; Xu, Xinsheng; Zhao, Zhen; Yang, Zhengyan; Zhou, Zhenhuan; Wu, Zhanjun

    2018-02-01

    Lamb waves play an important role in structure health monitoring (SHM) systems. The excitation of Lamb waves has been discussed for a long time with absorbing results. However, little effort has been made towards the precise characterization of Lamb wave excitation by various transducer models with mathematical foundation. In this paper, the excitation of plane Lamb waves with plane strain assumption in isotropic plate structures under applied surface loading is solved with the Hamiltonian system. The response of the Lamb modes excited by applied loading is expressed analytically. The effect of applied loading is divided into the product of two parts as the effect of direction and the effect of distribution, which can be changed by selecting different types of transducer and the corresponding transducer configurations. The direction of loading determines the corresponding displacement of each mode. The effect of applied loading on the in-plane and normal directions depends on the in-plane and normal displacements at the surface respectively. The effect of the surface loading distribution on the Lamb mode amplitudes is mainly reflected by amplitude versus frequency or wavenumber. The frequencies at which the maxima and minima of the S0 or A0 mode response occur depend on the distribution of surface loading. The numerical results of simulations conducted on an infinite aluminum plate verify the theoretical prediction of not only the direction but also the distribution of applied loading. A pure S0 or A0 mode can be excited by selecting the appropriate direction and distribution at the corresponding frequency.

  4. Lamb Wave-Based Structural Health Monitoring on Composite Bolted Joints under Tensile Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Online and offline monitoring of composite bolted joints under tensile load were investigated using piezoelectric transducers. The relationships between Lamb wave signals, pre-tightening force, the applied tensile load, as well as the failure modes were investigated. Results indicated that S0/A0 wave amplitudes decrease with the increasing of load. Relationships between damage features and S0/A0 mode were built based on the finite element (FE simulation and experimental results. The possibility of application of Lamb wave-based structure health monitoring in bolted joint-like composite structures was thus achieved.

  5. Measurement of the nuclear polarization of hydrogen and deuterium molecules using a Lamb-shift polarimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, Ralf, E-mail: r.w.engels@fz-juelich.de; Gorski, Robert; Grigoryev, Kiril; Mikirtychyants, Maxim; Rathmann, Frank; Seyfarth, Hellmut; Ströher, Hans; Weiss, Philipp [Institut für Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Wilhelm-Johnen-Str. 1, 52428 Jülich (Germany); Kochenda, Leonid; Kravtsov, Peter; Trofimov, Viktor; Tschernov, Nikolay; Vasilyev, Alexander; Vznuzdaev, Marat [Laboratory of Cryogenic and Superconductive Technique, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Orlova Roscha 1, 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Schieck, Hans Paetz gen. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, 50937 Köln (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Lamb-shift polarimeters are used to measure the nuclear polarization of protons and deuterons at energies of a few keV. In combination with an ionizer, the polarization of hydrogen and deuterium atoms was determined after taking into account the loss of polarization during the ionization process. The present work shows that the nuclear polarization of hydrogen or deuterium molecules can be measured as well, by ionizing the molecules and injecting the H{sub 2}{sup +} (or D{sub 2}{sup +}) ions into the Lamb-shift polarimeter.

  6. Cut-off frequencies of Lamb waves in various functionally graded thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoshan; Shi, Junping; Jin, Feng

    2011-09-01

    An analytical study is carried out on the cut-off frequencies of Lamb waves in freestanding thin films made of various functionally graded elastic, piezoelectric, or piezoelectric-piezomagnetic materials. Results show that the set of cut-off frequencies is a union of two series of approximate arithmetic progression, in which the differences are inversely proportional to the definite integral of a function of the material parameters along thickness. Given the simple and universal relationship between cut-off frequencies and material parameters, this study provides theoretical guidance not only for nondestructive evaluation in engineering applications but for designing high-performance sensors based on Lamb waves.

  7. Evaluation of Slaughtered lambs Results from Varamini Ewes Crossing with Shal, Afshar, Moghani and Varamini Rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza seyedsharifi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the animal breeding aims is increasing the economic efficiency. Therefore, mating among selected animals in order to enhance economic efficiency should also supply variation in population for next generations’ selection. This study was performed to estimate performance in cross breed lambs resulting from crosses of shal, moghani, afshari and varamini rams with varamini ewes, compained it to pure varamini lambs. Materials and Methods The objective of this study was the progeny evaluation from slaughter in one way crossing between Varamini ewes with Shal, Afshari, Moghani and Varamini rams and comparing their progeny efficiency. Thus, three 1.5 and 3 years rams were selected from each of Shal, Afshari, Moghani and Varamini breeds. A sample was separated from 10, 11 and 12 ribs was separated for examination of the fat, meat and bone percentage in different breed group lambs carcass. Data statistical analyze was done by GLM procedure of SAS 9.1 software. Results and Discussion Afshari crossbreed lambs had better carcass performance rather than the other breed groups although before slaughtering live weight of Shal and Moghani lambs were higher. Male lambs had better live weight and carcass quality before slaughtering than female lambs. The analyze of carcass parts percentage indicated that crossbreed lambs from Afshari rams with Varamini ewes had the highest efficiency and lowest rump percentage between genetic groups about valuable parts total percentage of thigh, roast, wristband and low price flank steak, brisket and neck. The analyze results of carcass tissue proportions combination showed Shal, Moghani and Afshar crossbreeds had more meat percentage and lower fat percentage on numbers 10, 11 and 12 of ribs than Varamini net breed. Conclusion According to our findings about cross surface and length from carcass the highest amount of them was belong to Shal and Afshari breeds, although difference amount between breeds was

  8. Melatonin and puberty in female lambs exposed to EMF: A replicate study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.M. Jr. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States); Stormshak, F.; Thompson, J.M. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Animal Sciences; Hess, D.L. [Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, Beaverton, OR (United States); Foster, D.L. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1995-06-01

    In an earlier study, the authors found no effects of 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields (EMF) from a 500 kV transmission line on serum melatonin patterns or on puberty in ten female Suffolk lambs (Ovis aries). The authors conducted a larger replicate study of 15 lambs exposed to a mean electric field of 6.3 kV/m and a mean magnetic field of 3.77 {mu}T and 15 controls exposed to EMF two orders of magnitude weaker than in the line area. The replicate produced essentially the same results as their previous study.

  9. Economic effect of pneumonia and pleurisy in lambs in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin-Ray, K A; Stevenson, M A; Heuer, C; Cogger, N

    2008-06-01

    To estimate the cost of pneumonia and pleurisy in lambs to the sheep industry in New Zealand, in order to provide a reference for future cost-benefit calculations for control programmes to reduce the incidence of pneumonia. An estimate of the economic cost of pneumonia and pleurisy in lambs was based on: cohort studies of the association between growth rate and the extent of pneumonic lesions at slaughter (n=14 flocks), the prevalence of moderate to severe (MS) pneumonia (> or =10% lung surface area affected) and pleurisy (n=1,719 flocks), the correlation between the prevalence of MS pneumonia and economic loss at the flock level, and data on annual slaughter statistics and carcass value in New Zealand. A stochastic spreadsheet model was developed and run with 1,000 iterations. Input variables represented by probability distributions were growth rate, average cost of loss according to the prevalence of pneumonia per month, carcass value, prevalence of pleurisy, and carcasses downgraded for pleurisy, and annual national slaughter statistics. The output was a posterior distribution of the annual cost of disease. The cost of pneumonia only included the loss associated with reduced growth rate, while mortality due to pneumonia was assumed to be low and was ignored. The cost of pleurisy included the loss associated with downgraded or condemned carcasses. Thus, the simulated annual average cost of pneumonia was NZ$28.1 (95% CI=NZ$15.0-42.0) million, and that of pleurisy NZ$25.1 (95% CI=NZ$10.2-48.1) million. The combined cost of pneumonia and pleurisy averaged NZ$53.2 (95% CI=NZ$32.4-78.9) million. The parameters with the greatest impact on the combined cost of pneumonia and pleurisy were prevalence of pleurisy between March and May, and cost of reduced growth due to pneumonia for lambs slaughtered in June. The average cost of pneumonia and pleurisy to the sheep industry in New Zealand due to reduced lamb growth and decreased carcass value is likely to be between NZ$32

  10. Influence of pre-slaughter management on cortisol level in lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Titto, E.A.L.; Leme, T. M. C.; Titto, C. G.; Amadeu, C. C. B.; Fantinato Neto, P.; Vilela, R. A.; Pereira, A.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the influence of the transport in open or closed compartments, followed by two resting periods (1 and 3 hours) for the slaughter process on the levels of cortisol as a indicative of stress level in lambs. The slaughterhouse was located 85 km away from the place of confinement and the transportation of the lambs was carried out in a cage truck type, each cage had a divider in the middle making the front without external visual access to the environment, and the...

  11. Rotavirus strains in neglected animal species including lambs, goats and camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Hajnalka; Malik, Yashpal S; Farkas, Szilvia L; Jakab, Ferenc; Martella, Vito; Bányai, Krisztián

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance of rotavirus infections and circulating strains in small ruminants (i.e. lambs, goats and camelids) has been a neglected research area in the past. However, recent years that have seen an intensification of surveillance in humans and livestock animals, where vaccines to reduce disease burden caused by Rotavirus A (RVA) are available, led to the efforts to better understand the epidemiology, ecology and evolution of RVA strains in other hosts, including lambs, goats and camelids. The aim of this review is to provide an update of the epidemiology and strain diversity of RV strains in these species through searching for relevant information in public data bases.

  12. Lamb Wave-Based Structural Health Monitoring on Composite Bolted Joints under Tensile Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Xuan, Fu-Zhen; Xiang, Yanxun; Li, Dan; Zhu, Wujun; Tang, Xiaojun; Xu, Jichao; Yang, Kang; Luo, Chengqiang

    2017-01-01

    Online and offline monitoring of composite bolted joints under tensile load were investigated using piezoelectric transducers. The relationships between Lamb wave signals, pre-tightening force, the applied tensile load, as well as the failure modes were investigated. Results indicated that S0/A0 wave amplitudes decrease with the increasing of load. Relationships between damage features and S0/A0 mode were built based on the finite element (FE) simulation and experimental results. The possibility of application of Lamb wave-based structure health monitoring in bolted joint-like composite structures was thus achieved. PMID:28773014

  13. Exact Closed-form Solutions for Lamb's Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we report on an exact closedform solution for the displacement at the surfaceof an elastic halfspace elicited by a buried point source that acts at some point underneath thatsurface. This is commonly referred to as the 3D Lamb's problem, for which previous solutionswere restricted to sources and receivers placed at the free surface. By means of the reciprocitytheorem, our solution should also be valid as a means to obtain the displacements at interior pointswhen the source is placed at the free surface. We manage to obtain explicit results by expressingthe solution in terms of elementary algebraic expression as well as elliptic integrals. We anchorour developments on Poissons ratio 0.25 starting from Johnson's numerical, integral transformsolutions. Furthermore, the spatial derivatives of our solutions can be easily acquired in termsof our methods. In the end, our closed-form results agree perfectly with the numerical results ofJohnson, which strongly conrms the correctness of our explicit formulas. It is hoped that in duetime, these formulas may constitute a valuable canonical solution that will serve as a yardstickagainst which other numerical solutions can be compared and measured.In addition, we abstract some terms from our solutions as the generator of the Rayleigh waves.Some basic properties of the Rayleigh waves in the time domain will be indicated in terms of thegenerator. The fareld radiation patterns of P-wave and S-wave elicited by the double-couple forcein the uniform half-space medium could also be acquired from our results.

  14. Growing Oppression, Growing Resistance : LGBT Activism and Europeanisation in Macedonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miškovska Kajevska, A.; Bilić, B.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides one of the first socio-historical overviews of the LGBT groups in Macedonia and argues that an important impetus for the proliferation of LGBT activities has been the growing state-endorsed homophobia starting from 2008. The homophobic rhetoric of the ruling parties was clearly

  15. Crucible Grows Wide Silicon Ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidensticker, R.

    1982-01-01

    Inexpensive manufacture of solar cells may require quality silicon ribbon crystals. One way to produce them is by growing wide dendritic webs, which can be very long and have high structural perfection. Dendrites grow from supercooled melt, so width of ribbon depends on how wide a region of supercooled molten silicon can be maintained in crucible. Elongated geometry of suscepter/crucible/lid assembly allows molten silicon to supercool over a wider region -- a necessary condition for the growth of wide dendritic crystal ribbon.

  16. Desempenho de cordeiros Santa Inês puros e cruzas Santa Inês com Texel, Ile de France e Bergamácia Performance of Santa Inês lambs and its crosses with Texel, Ile de France e Bergamacia lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraides Ferreira Furusho-Garcia

    2004-12-01

    between Santa Inês and Texel (TS, Ile de France (FS and Bergamacia (BS were fedlot in individual cages. Diet and orts were daily collected to calculate the intakes of dry matter (MS, metabolizable energy (EM, digestible protein (PD and neutral fiber detergent (FDN. The lambs were slaughtered at four weights: 15, 25, 35 and 45 kg of live weight. Weight gain (GPD, number of days in confinement (ND, feed:gain ratio (CA and intakes of MS, PD, EM and FD were analyzed during three growing phases: 15 to 25 kg (1, 25 to 35 kg (2 and 35 to 45 kg (3, for each genetic group and each sex. The slaughter age (IA and the empty body weight (PCVZ were also analyzed. At high weights, TS and FS male lambs showed inferior IA, and the female lambs, superior IA. ND of BS lambs from 35 to 45 kg was superior than TS lambs. From 35 to 45 kg, PCVZ of TS and FS lambs was inferior. The best GPD was observed for TS lambs, followed by FS and SS. The intakes of MS, PD, EM and FDN were similar among the genetic groups, during the phases 1 and 2. TS lambs intake tended to increase as body weight increased, whereas the other groups showed tended to decrease. CA increased as slaughter weight increased. The males did not show differences in CA among the genetic groups, but TS and FS females showed better results. At 35 and 45 kg, the females showed superior RC than the males. At 35 kg, the TS males showed better RC than the other groups.

  17. An innovative method for automatic determination of time of arrival for Lamb waves excited by impact events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junxiao; Parvasi, Seyed Mohammad; Ho, Siu Chun Michael; Patil, Devendra; Ge, Maochen; Li, Hongnan; Song, Gangbing

    2017-05-01

    Lamb waves have great potential as a diagnostic tool in the application of structural health monitoring. Propagation properties of Lamb waves are affected by the state of the structure that the waves are traveling upon. Thus Lamb waves can carry information about the structure as they travel across a structure. However, the dispersive, multimodal and attenuation characteristics of Lamb waves make it difficult to determine the time of arrival of Lamb waves. To deal with these characteristics, an innovative method to automatically determine the time of arrival for impact-induced Lamb waves without human intervention is proposed in this paper. Lead zirconate titanate sensors mounted on the surface of an aluminum plate were used to measure the Lamb waves excited by an impact. The time of arrival was determined based on wavelet decomposition, Hilbert transform and statistics (Grubbs’ test and maximum likelihood estimation). Both of numerical analysis and physical measurements have verified the accuracy of this method for impacts on an aluminum plate.

  18. Safety and immunogenicity of a prototype anti-Chlamydia pecorum recombinant protein vaccine in lambs and pregnant ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desclozeaux, Marion; Jelocnik, Martina; Whitting, Katrina; Saifzadeh, Siamak; Bommana, Sankhya; Potter, Andrew; Gerdts, Volker; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2017-06-14

    Arthritis and kerato-conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia pecorum in lambs are difficult to diagnose and treat. We tested the ability of a prototype C. pecorum vaccine (SC-vaccine), comprised of C. pecorum major outer membrane protein (MOMP-G) and polymorphic membrane protein G (PmpG), to trigger a Chlamydia-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune response in lambs and pregnant ewes. Vaccinations with the SC-vaccine (one and two injections) were very well tolerated by all ewes and lambs. Although the overall immune responses of ewes to SC-vaccination was poor, their lambs showed stronger antigen-specific immune response than lambs from control vaccine ewes. SC-vaccination in lambs triggered production of systemic anti-MOMP-G and anti-PmpG IgG antibodies and secretory IgA in the ocular mucosa. Double vaccination caused statistically significant increases in the height and duration of the humoral response. Antigen-specific IFN-γ was produced in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of vaccinated lambs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Carcass traits of improved and indigenous lamb breeds of North-Western Turkey under an intensive production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omur Kocak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the carcass quality of Turkish Merino, Ramlic, Kivircik, Chios and Imroz breeds in north-western Turkey under an intensive production system. After weaning at approximately 85 days of age, 46 lambs from Turkish Merino, Ramlic, Kivircik, Chios and Imroz breeds were fattened for 56 days. Slaughter weights were 47.39, 45.68, 47.27, 31.08 and 29.82 kg and chilled carcass weights were 23.35, 22.33, 23.51, 14.33 and 13.75 kg, respectively (P<0.001. Improved Turkish Merino and Ramlic and indigenous Kivircik lambs had higher carcass measurements than indigenous Chios and Imroz lambs. Chios lamb carcasses had the highest tail root fat yellowness and tail percentage while having the lowest fatness score, omental and mesenteric fat percentage and kidney knob and channel fat percentage. Turkish Merino lambs had higher shoulder percentage, lean percentage and lean/total fat ratio in the hind leg and produced less total fat in the hind leg than Ramlic and Kivircik lambs. These results indicate that improved Turkish Merino might be used to produce high quality lamb carcasses in north-western Turkey. Among indigenous breeds Kivircik showed an outstanding carcass production performance.

  20. Comparison of the Microbial Quality of Lamb and Goat Meat Acquired from Internet and Local Retail Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chyer; Stein, Roslyn A; Pao, Steven

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial quality of lamb and goat meat sold through local (Virginia) and Internet (U. S.) retail markets. A total of 134 frozen meat products consisting of locally purchased lamb ground (LLG) and lamb chops and Internet-procured lamb ground, goat ground, lamb chops (ILC), goat chops (IGC), lamb stew, and goat stew were tested. Significantly higher levels of aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophs, and coliforms were found in the meat locally acquired than in the meat procured from the Internet. Similar average prevalence (27%) of Escherichia coli was observed regardless of market source. Ground meat had significantly high levels and prevalence of mesophiles, psychrotrophs, coliforms, and Listeria spp. One sample of LLG contained Campylobacter, and one sample of IGC contained Salmonella. Listeria spp. were present in 23 to 40% and 17 to 80% of samples from local and Internet markets, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of isolated E. coli strains revealed brand specificity and genomic diversity. No isolate from different brands and market sources had matching PFGE profiles. The average price of Internet meat ($23.4/kg) was about 1.2 times higher than the price of local meat, except for ILC, whose price was 2.7 times higher. This study revealed differences in microbial quality of lamb and goat meat based on market source; thus, meat products should be handled carefully regardless of market source because of the presence of high microbial levels and the high prevalence of pathogens.