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Sample records for fast extraction control

  1. Beam extraction control systems of the fast-cycling synchrotron

    Toumanian, A.; Zapolski, N.; Nickogosian, V.; Ananian, A.; Kazarian, A.; Khoetsian, M.; Agababian, A.; Matevosian, A.

    1992-01-01

    A compact system controlling the extraction of different beams (gamma, electron, synchrotron radiation) in single and simultaneous operation modes at high electromagnetic disturbances level based on using one computer of IBM PC/AT type is described. (author)

  2. Simulation study on control of spill structure of slow extracted beam from a medical synchrotron with feed-forward and feedback using a fast quadruple magnet and RF-knockout system

    Muraoka, Ryo; Nakanishi, Tetsuya, E-mail: nakanishi.tetsuya@nihon-u.ac.jp

    2017-02-21

    A feedback control of the spill structure for the slow beam extraction from the medical synchrotron using a fast quadruple and radio frequency (RF)-knockout (QAR method) is studied to obtain the designed spill structure. In addition the feed-forward control is used so that the feedback control is performed effectively. In this extraction method, the spill of several ms are extracted continuously with an interval time of less than 1 ms. Beam simulation showed that a flat spill structure was effectively obtained with feed-forward and feedback control system as well as a step-wise structure which is useful for the shortening of an irradiation time in a spot scanning operation. The effect of current ripples from main quadruple magnet's power supplies could be also reduced with the feedback control application.

  3. Design of fast extraction system for the KEK proton synchrotron

    McCarthy, J.D.; Kimura, Yoshitaka.

    1975-03-01

    A fast beam extraction system is designed for the KEK 12 GeV Proton Synchrotron. The extraction is performed by the multi-turn beam shaving method in which hyper thin electrostatic septum inflectors are used as shaving elements. The beam loss and the emittance of the extracted beam are analyzed numerically as a function of thickness of the electrostatic septum wires. Specifications of the extraction elements, electrostatic septa, fast and slow bumps, and septum magnets, are given for the configuration of the designed system. (auth.)

  4. Considerations on a new fast extraction kicker concept for SPS

    Barnes, M

    2010-01-01

    An alternative extraction kicker concept is investigated for the SPS, based on open C-type kickers and a fast-bumper system. The beam is moved into the kicker gap some tens of ms before extraction. The concept is illustrated in detail with the LSS4 extraction from the SPS – very similar parameters and considerations apply to LSS6. A similar concept could also be conceived for injection but is more difficult due to the larger beam size. The technical issues are presented and the potential impact on the machine impedance outlined.

  5. Development of alternate extractant systems for fast reactor fuel cycle

    Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Suresh, A.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Raj, Baldev

    2007-01-01

    Due to the limitations of TBP in processing of high burn-up, Pu-rich fast reactor fuels, there is a need to develop alternate extractants for fast reactor fuel processing. In this context, our Centre has been examining the suitability of alternate tri-alkyl phosphates. Third phase formation in the extraction of Th(IV) by TBP, tri-n-amyl phosphate (TAP) and tri-2-methyl-butyl phosphate (T2MBP) from nitric acid media has been investigated under various conditions to derive conclusions on their application for extraction of Pu at macro levels. The chemical and radiolytic degradation of tri-n-amyl-phosphate (TAP) diluted in normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) in the presence of nitric acid has been investigated by the measurement of plutonium retention in organic phase. The potential application of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been explored. Extraction of uranium (VI) and palladium (II) from nitric acid medium by commercially available RTIL and tri-n-butyl phosphate solution in RTIL have been studied and the feasibility of electrodeposition of uranium as uranium oxide (UO 2 ) and palladium (II) as metallic palladium from the loaded organic phase have been demonstrated. This paper describes results of the above studies and discusses the suitability of the systems for fast reactor fuel reprocessing. (authors)

  6. Fast Extraction Kicker for the Accelerator Test Facility

    De Santis, Stefano; Urakawa, Junji; Naito, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of a study for the design of a fast extraction kicker to be installed in the Accelerator Test Facility ring at KEK. This activity is carried on in the framework of the ATF2 project, which will be built on the KEK Tsukuba campus as an extension of the existing ATF, taking advantage of the worlds smallest normalized emittance achieved there. ATF2's primary goal is to operate as a test facility and establish the hardware and beam handling technologies envisaged for the International Linear Collider. In particular, the fast extraction kicker object of the present paper is an important component of the ILC damping rings, since its rise and fall time define the minimum distance between bunches and ultimately the damping rings length itself. Building on the initial results presented at EPAC '06, we report on the present status of the kicker design and define the minimum characteristics for pulsers and other subsystems. In addition to the original scheme with multiple stripline modules producing a total deflection of 5 mrad, we also investigated a scheme with a single kicker module for a reduced deflection of 1 mrad placed inside a closed orbit bump, which takes the electron closer to the extraction septum

  7. Fast betatron tune controller for circulating beam in a synchrotron

    Endo, Takuyuki; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Sato, Kenji

    1997-01-01

    When rf quadrupole (RFQ) electric field is applied to the circulating beam in a synchrotron, an equation of motion is reduced to Mathieu's Equation. A new analytical method to obtain an approximate solution has been developed, while a numerical computation was usually applied. Translating the behavior of approximate solution into terms of an RFQ electric field and betatron oscillation, a fast tune control can be achieved by rapid tuning of both amplitude and frequency of rf voltage. This process could be applied to suppress a tune shift caused by a space charge effect and to control a slow beam extraction with a low ripple. We have started another analytical computation using Hamiltonian with perturbation of RFQ and the results of this computation also suggest that it is applicable to slow beam extraction. The fast tune controller has been constructed and the beam test will be performed at HIMAC synchrotron in cooperation of RCNP and NIRS. (author)

  8. CONTINOUS EXTRACTED BEAM IN THE AGS FAST EXTERNAL BEAM LINE

    GLENN, J.W.; TSOUPAS, N.; BROWN, K.A.; BIRYUKOV, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    A method to split off a few percent of the 6 x 10 13 AGS beam delivered to the Slow External Beam (SEB) lines and send it down the Fast External Beam line (FEB) has been developed. The mission is to feed a counter experiment off the FEB that directly measures the neutrino mass using the muon storage ring. The use of normal thin septum splitters would have an excessive loss overhead and been optically difficult. The AGS Slow Extraction uses a third integer resonance with sextuple strength so the resonance width is a few percent of the beam width. This results in a low density tail which will be clipped by a bent crystal and deflected into the FEB channel. This clipping off of the tail should reduce losses in the SEB transport line. Details of modeled orbits, particle distribution and extraction trajectories into and out off the crystal will be given

  9. Feature extraction from mammographic images using fast marching methods

    Bottigli, U.; Golosio, B.

    2002-01-01

    Features extraction from medical images represents a fundamental step for shape recognition and diagnostic support. The present work faces the problem of the detection of large features, such as massive lesions and organ contours, from mammographic images. The regions of interest are often characterized by an average grayness intensity that is different from the surrounding. In most cases, however, the desired features cannot be extracted by simple gray level thresholding, because of image noise and non-uniform density of the surrounding tissue. In this work, edge detection is achieved through the fast marching method (Level Set Methods and Fast Marching Methods, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999), which is based on the theory of interface evolution. Starting from a seed point in the shape of interest, a front is generated which evolves according to an appropriate speed function. Such function is expressed in terms of geometric properties of the evolving interface and of image properties, and should become zero when the front reaches the desired boundary. Some examples of application of such method to mammographic images from the CALMA database (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 460 (2001) 107) are presented here and discussed

  10. Cyclotrons with fast variable and/or multiple energy extraction

    C. Baumgarten

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the possibility in principle of stripping extraction in combination with reverse bends in isochronous separate-sector cyclotrons (and/or fixed field alternating gradient accelerators. If one uses reverse bends between the sectors (instead of or in combination with drifts and places stripper foils at the sector exit edges, the stripped beam has a reduced bending radius and it should be able to leave the cyclotron within the range of the valley—even if the beam is stripped at less than full energy. We are especially interested in stripping of H_{2}^{+}, as it doubles the charge to mass ratio of the ions. However the method could be applied to other ions or ionized molecules as well. For the production of proton beams by stripping extraction of an H_{2}^{+} beam, we discuss possible designs for three types of machines: First, a low-energy cyclotron for the simultaneous production of several beams at multiple energies—for instance 15, 30, and 70 MeV—thus allowing beam delivery on several isotope production targets. In this case it can be an advantage to have a strong energy dependence of the direction of the extracted beam. Second, we consider a fast variable-energy proton machine for cancer therapy that should allow extraction (of the complete beam at all energies in the range of about 70 MeV to about 250 MeV into the same beam line. Third, we consider a high-intensity high-energy machine, where the main design goals are extraction with low losses, low activation of components, and high reliability. Especially if such a machine is considered for an accelerator driven system (ADS, this extraction mechanism has advantages: Beam trips by the failure of electrostatic elements could be avoided and the turn separation would be less critical, which allows operation at lower main cavity voltages. This would in turn reduce the number of rf trips. The price that has to be paid for these advantages is an increase in size and/or field

  11. Asymmetric anode and cathode extraction structure fast recovery diode

    Xie, Jiaqiang; Ma, Li; Gao, Yong

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents an asymmetric anode structure and cathode extraction fast and soft recovery diode. The device anode is partial-heavily doped and partial-lightly doped. The P+ region is introduced into the cathode. Firstly, the characteristics of the diode are simulated and analyzed. Secondly, the diode was fabricated and its characteristics were tested. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulation results. The results show that, compared with the P–i–N diode, although the forward conduction characteristic of the diode is declined, the reverse recovery peak current is reduced by 47%, the reverse recovery time is shortened by 20% and the softness factor is doubled. In addition, the breakdown voltage is increased by 10%. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51177133).

  12. Fast-acting nuclear reactor control device

    Kotlyar, O.M.; West, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    A fast-acting nuclear reactor control device is described for controlling a safety control rod within the core of a nuclear reactor, the reactor controlled by a reactor control system, the device comprising: a safety control rod drive shaft and an electromagnetic clutch co-axial with the drive shaft operatively connected to the safety control rod for driving and positioning the safety control rod within or without the reactor core during reactor operation, the safety rod being oriented in a substantially vertical position to allow the rod to fall into the reactor core under the influence of gravity during shutdown of the reactor; the safety control rod drive shaft further operatively connected to a hydraulic pump such that operation of the drive shaft simultaneously drives and positions the safety control rod and operates the hydraulic pump such that a hydraulic fluid is forced into an accumulator, filling the accumulator with oil for the storage and supply of primary potential energy for safety control rod insertion such that the release of potential energy in the accumulator causes hydraulic fluid to flow through the hydraulic pump, converting the hydraulic pump to a hydraulic motor having speed and power capable of full length insertion and high speed driving of the safety control rod into the reactor core; a solenoid valve interposed between the hydraulic pump and the accumulator, said solenoid valve being a normally open valve, actuated to close when the safety control rod is out of the reactor during reactor operation; and further wherein said solenoid opens in response to a signal from the reactor control system calling for shutdown of the reactor and rapid insertion of the safety control rod into the reactor core, such that the opening of the solenoid releases the potential energy in the accumulator to place the safety control rod in a safe shutdown position

  13. Enhanced subject-specific resting-state network detection and extraction with fast fMRI.

    Akin, Burak; Lee, Hsu-Lei; Hennig, Jürgen; LeVan, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    Resting-state networks have become an important tool for the study of brain function. An ultra-fast imaging technique that allows to measure brain function, called Magnetic Resonance Encephalography (MREG), achieves an order of magnitude higher temporal resolution than standard echo-planar imaging (EPI). This new sequence helps to correct physiological artifacts and improves the sensitivity of the fMRI analysis. In this study, EPI is compared with MREG in terms of capability to extract resting-state networks. Healthy controls underwent two consecutive resting-state scans, one with EPI and the other with MREG. Subject-level independent component analyses (ICA) were performed separately for each of the two datasets. Using Stanford FIND atlas parcels as network templates, the presence of ICA maps corresponding to each network was quantified in each subject. The number of detected individual networks was significantly higher in the MREG data set than for EPI. Moreover, using short time segments of MREG data, such as 50 seconds, one can still detect and track consistent networks. Fast fMRI thus results in an increased capability to extract distinct functional regions at the individual subject level for the same scan times, and also allow the extraction of consistent networks within shorter time intervals than when using EPI, which is notably relevant for the analysis of dynamic functional connectivity fluctuations. Hum Brain Mapp 38:817-830, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Fast-extraction modulators for Los Alamos Scientific LaboratorY Proton Storage Ring

    Nunnally, W.C.; Hudgings, D.W.; Sarjeant, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a short-bunch mode fast-extraction modulator for the LASL proton storage ring has made necessary the design and development of a resonant transformer charging circuit and the design of a new FIB line circuit to provide bipolar pulse outputs with low prepulse, postpulse, and an optimum high-voltage switch environments. The systems are now being developed to operate reliably at the high-average powers required. The short-bunch mode fast-extraction modulator prototype is presently operating. The initial construction of the long-bunch mode fast-extraction modulator prototype is under way, with results expected within the year

  15. Quartz fast component opticallystimulated luminescence: Towards routine extraction for dating applications

    Shen, Zhixiong; Lang, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Using an uncontaminated fast component is a key for improving the reliability of quartz OSL dating for many deposits. So far no approach to extract the fast component of quartz OSL has routinely been adopted for dating practice. Key challenges for extracting fast components are (1) the difficulty of finding a unique solution in curve-fitting deconvolution of OSL decay curves and (2) the relatively poor dating precision when using experimental fast component extraction. Here, a simple mathematic solution for fast component extraction is presented that is not relying on curve-fitting deconvolution and can easily be adopted into routine dating practices. By using specifically selected data points from smoothed OSL decay curves, the precision of equivalent doses calculated using the extracted fast component can be improved over equivalent doses calculated using bulk OSL. The fast component extraction is tested on a group of age-constrained samples containing both insufficiently bleached and sufficiently bleached deposits. Fast component OSL ages are as accurate as bulk OSL ages for the sufficiently bleached deposits, but more accurate for samples where bulk OSL is affected by insufficient bleaching. We also demonstrate how using a curve smoothing procedure can improve dating precision in case of both sufficiently and insufficiently bleached deposits. - Highlights: • A simple mathematical method to extract quartz OSL fast component is presented. • The method can be adopted in D_e calculation programs for routine extraction. • The method leads to an increase in accuracy and precision of D_e. • The method works for relatively dim samples with low signal-to-noise ratios.

  16. Fast control and data acquisition in the neutral beam test facility

    Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Taliercio, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper describes the fast control and data acquisition in the ITER neutral beam test facility. • The usage of real time control in ion beam generation and extraction is proposed. • Real time management of breakdowns is described. • The implementation of event-driven data acquisition is reported. - Abstract: Fast control and data acquisition are required in the ion source test bed of the ITER neutral beam test facility, referred to as SPIDER. Fast control will drive the operation of the power supply systems with particular reference to special asynchronous events, such as the breakdowns. These are short-circuits among grids or between grids and vessel that can occur repeatedly during beam operation. They are normal events and, as such, they will be managed by the fast control system. Cycle time associated to such fast control is down to hundreds of microseconds. Fast data acquisition is required when breakdowns occur. Event-driven data acquisition is triggered in real time by fast control at the occurrence of each breakdown. Pre- and post-event samples are acquired, allowing capturing information on transient phenomena in a whole time-window centered on the event. Sampling rate of event-driven data acquisition is up to 5 MS/s. Fast data acquisition may also be independent of breakdowns as in the case of the cavity ring-down spectroscopy where data chunks are acquired at 100 MS/s in bursts of 1.5 ms every 100 ms and are processed in real time to produce derived measurements. The paper after the description of the SPIDER fast control and data acquisition application will report the system design based on commercially available hardware and the MARTe and MDSplus software frameworks. The results obtained by running a full prototype of the fast control and data acquisition system are also reported and discussed. They demonstrate that all SPIDER fast control and data acquisition requirements can be met in the prototype solution

  17. Fast control and data acquisition in the neutral beam test facility

    Luchetta, A., E-mail: adriano.luchetta@igi.cnr.it; Manduchi, G.; Taliercio, C.

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • The paper describes the fast control and data acquisition in the ITER neutral beam test facility. • The usage of real time control in ion beam generation and extraction is proposed. • Real time management of breakdowns is described. • The implementation of event-driven data acquisition is reported. - Abstract: Fast control and data acquisition are required in the ion source test bed of the ITER neutral beam test facility, referred to as SPIDER. Fast control will drive the operation of the power supply systems with particular reference to special asynchronous events, such as the breakdowns. These are short-circuits among grids or between grids and vessel that can occur repeatedly during beam operation. They are normal events and, as such, they will be managed by the fast control system. Cycle time associated to such fast control is down to hundreds of microseconds. Fast data acquisition is required when breakdowns occur. Event-driven data acquisition is triggered in real time by fast control at the occurrence of each breakdown. Pre- and post-event samples are acquired, allowing capturing information on transient phenomena in a whole time-window centered on the event. Sampling rate of event-driven data acquisition is up to 5 MS/s. Fast data acquisition may also be independent of breakdowns as in the case of the cavity ring-down spectroscopy where data chunks are acquired at 100 MS/s in bursts of 1.5 ms every 100 ms and are processed in real time to produce derived measurements. The paper after the description of the SPIDER fast control and data acquisition application will report the system design based on commercially available hardware and the MARTe and MDSplus software frameworks. The results obtained by running a full prototype of the fast control and data acquisition system are also reported and discussed. They demonstrate that all SPIDER fast control and data acquisition requirements can be met in the prototype solution.

  18. Activity assay of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp extract for decreasing fasting blood cholesterol level and lipid peroxidation in type-2 diabetic mice

    Husen, Saikhu Akhmad; Winarni, Dwi; Khaleyla, Firas; Kalqutny, Septian Hary; Ansori, Arif Nur Muhammad

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the activity of pericarp extract of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.). Mangosteen pericarp contains various active compounds which are beneficial for human health. In-vivo antioxidant assay of pericarp extract was carried out using 3-4 month male mice of strain BALB/c weighed 30-40 g. The mice were divided into two groups: normal control (KN) group and STZ-induced diabetic group. STZ induction was performed using multiple low-dose method 30 mg/kg body weight treated daily for five consecutive days. Diabetic group was separated into two subgroups: diabetic control (KD), metformin control (KM), and crude extract treatment subgroups. The fasting blood glucose and the cholesterol level were measured before and after lard treatment, we also did it on the first, seventh, and fourteenth day of mangosteen pericarp crude extract treatment. The mice were treated with mangosteen pericarp crude extract for 14 days. The MDA level of the fasting blood serum was measured. The body weight and fasting blood cholesterol level before and after lard treatment were analyzed by t-test, whereas, the fasting blood cholesterol and the MDA level were analyzed using one-way variant analysis continued with Duncan test. The correlation between the increasing body weight and the fasting blood cholesterol level was determined by Pearson correlation test. The results of the study showed that the administration of mangosteen pericarp crude extract was able to reduce the fasting blood cholesterol and the malondialdehide level significantly.

  19. The Septum Magnet System of the New Fast Extraction Channel of the SPS at CERN

    Balhan, B; Rizzo, A; Weterings, W

    2004-01-01

    In the Long Straight Section LSS4 of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN, a new fast extraction system has been installed in order to extract the beam to ring 2 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso facility (CNGS). The system consists of horizontal closed orbit bumper magnets, extraction kicker magnets, enlarged aperture quadrupoles and six conventional DC electromagnetic septum magnets (MSE). A protection element (TPSG) has been placed immediately upstream of the first septum coil. The septum magnets and TPSG are mounted on a single mobile retractable support girder. The MSE septa are connected by a so-called plug-in system to a rigid water-cooled bus-bar, powered by water-cooled cables. The whole system is kept at the required vacuum pressure by ion pumps attached to separate pumping modules. In this note we present the design features and parameters of the MSE septum magnets, describe the function of the related main equipment elements, briefly report on the control...

  20. Application of reflective memory network in Tokamak fast controller

    Weng Chuqiao; Zhang Ming; Liu Rui; Zheng Wei; Zhuang Ge

    2014-01-01

    A specific application of reflective memory network in Tokamak fast controller was introduced in this paper. The PMC-5565 reflective memory card and ACC-5565 network hub were used to build a reflective memory real-time network to test its real- time function. The real-time, rapidity and determinacy of the time delay for fast controller controlling power device under the reflective memory network were tested in the LabVIEW RT real-time operation system. Depending on the reflective memory technology, the data in several fast controllers were synchronized, and multiple control tasks using a single control task were finished. The experiment results show that the reflective memory network can meet the real-time requirements for fast controller to perform the feedback control over devices. (authors)

  1. Blind Extraction of Chaotic Signals by Using the Fast Independent Component Analysis Algorithm

    Hong-Bin, Chen; Jiu-Chao, Feng; Yong, Fang

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of using the fast independent component analysis (FastICA) algorithm to realize blind extraction of chaotic signals. Two cases are taken into consideration: namely, the mixture is noiseless or contaminated by noise. Pre-whitening is employed to reduce the effect of noise before using the FastICA algorithm. The correlation coefficient criterion is adopted to evaluate the performance, and the success rate is defined as a new criterion to indicate the performance with respect to noise or different mixing matrices. Simulation results show that the FastICA algorithm can extract the chaotic signals effectively. The impact of noise, the length of a signal frame, the number of sources and the number of observed mixtures on the performance is investigated in detail. It is also shown that regarding a noise as an independent source is not always correct

  2. A fast, simple and green method for the extraction of carbamate pesticides from rice by microwave assisted steam extraction coupled with solid phase extraction.

    Song, Weitao; Zhang, Yiqun; Li, Guijie; Chen, Haiyan; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Qi; He, Dong; Zhao, Chun; Ding, Lan

    2014-01-15

    This paper presented a fast, simple and green sample pretreatment method for the extraction of 8 carbamate pesticides in rice. The carbamate pesticides were extracted by microwave assisted water steam extraction method, and the extract obtained was immediately applied on a C18 solid phase extraction cartridge for clean-up and concentration. The eluate containing target compounds was finally analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated and optimised. The limits of detection ranging from 1.1 to 4.2ngg(-1) were obtained. The recoveries of 8 carbamate pesticides ranged from 66% to 117% at three spiked levels, and the inter- and intra-day relative standard deviation values were less than 9.1%. Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method cost less extraction time and organic solvent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intermittent fasting: a "new" historical strategy for controlling seizures?

    Hartman, Adam L; Rubenstein, James E; Kossoff, Eric H

    2013-05-01

    In antiquity, fasting was a treatment for epilepsy and a rationale for the ketogenic diet (KD). Preclinical data indicate the KD and intermittent fasting do not share identical anticonvulsant mechanisms. We implemented an intermittent fasting regimen in six children with an incomplete response to a KD. Three patients adhered to the combined intermittent fasting/KD regimen for 2 months and four had transient improvement in seizure control, albeit with some hunger-related adverse reactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A FAST AND ROBUST ALGORITHM FOR ROAD EDGES EXTRACTION FROM LIDAR DATA

    K. Qiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fast mapping of roads plays an important role in many geospatial applications, such as infrastructure planning, traffic monitoring, and driver assistance. How to extract various road edges fast and robustly is a challenging task. In this paper, we present a fast and robust algorithm for the automatic road edges extraction from terrestrial mobile LiDAR data. The algorithm is based on a key observation: most roads around edges have difference in elevation and road edges with pavement are seen in two different planes. In our algorithm, we firstly extract a rough plane based on RANSAC algorithm, and then multiple refined planes which only contains pavement are extracted from the rough plane. The road edges are extracted based on these refined planes. In practice, there is a serious problem that the rough and refined planes usually extracted badly due to rough roads and different density of point cloud. To eliminate the influence of rough roads, the technology which is similar with the difference of DSM (digital surface model and DTM (digital terrain model is used, and we also propose a method which adjust the point clouds to a similar density to eliminate the influence of different density. Experiments show the validities of the proposed method with multiple datasets (e.g. urban road, highway, and some rural road. We use the same parameters through the experiments and our algorithm can achieve real-time processing speeds.

  5. Non-local Fast Extraction from the CERN SPS at 100 and 440 GeV

    Velotti, F M; Bartmann, W; Carlier, E; Cornelis, K; Efthymiopoulos, I; Goddard, B; Jensen, L K; Kain, V; Kowalska, M; Mertens, V; Steerenberg, R

    2013-01-01

    The Long Straight Section 2 (LSS2) of the CERN SPS is connected with the North Area (NA), to which the beam to date has always been extracted using a resonant extraction technique. For new proposed short- and long-baseline neutrino experiments, a fast single turn extraction to this experimental area is required. As there are no kickers in LSS2, and the integration of any new kickers with the existing electrostatic septum would be problematic, a solution has been developed to fast extract the beam using non-local extraction with other SPS kickers. Two different kicker systems have been used, the injection kicker in LSS1 and the stronger extraction kicker in LSS6 to extract 100 and 440 GeV beam, respectively. For both solutions a large emittance beam was extracted after 5 or 9 full betatron periods. The concept and simulation details are presented with the analysis of the aperture and beam loss considerations and experimental results collected during a series of beam tests.

  6. Design of a fast runback feature for PRISM control

    Wagner, W.K.; Rhow, S.K.; Daniel, W.R.; Dayal, Y.; Gaubatz, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    The nine power reactor inherently safe modules (PRISM) are controlled and their operation coordinated by a hierarchical, distributed, digital plant control system (PCS). This paper describes the fast runback features of the PCS. Fast runback consists of PCS directed reactor module shutdown with accompanying reductions of coolant flows. Analyses have shown that the PCS fast runback adequately terminates duty cycle events initiated in the balance of plant and the steam generating system, results in lower thermal shock to the reactor than scram, and reduces the number of scrams by approximately a factor of five

  7. Engineering Design of ITER Prototype Fast Plant System Controller

    Goncalves, B.; Sousa, J.; Carvalho, B.; Rodrigues, A. P.; Correia, M.; Batista, A.; Vega, J.; Ruiz, M.; Lopez, J. M.; Rojo, R. Castro; Wallander, A.; Utzel, N.; Neto, A.; Alves, D.; Valcarcel, D.

    2011-08-01

    The ITER control, data access and communication (CODAC) design team identified the need for two types of plant systems. A slow control plant system is based on industrial automation technology with maximum sampling rates below 100 Hz, and a fast control plant system is based on embedded technology with higher sampling rates and more stringent real-time requirements than that required for slow controllers. The latter is applicable to diagnostics and plant systems in closed-control loops whose cycle times are below 1 ms. Fast controllers will be dedicated industrial controllers with the ability to supervise other fast and/or slow controllers, interface to actuators and sensors and, if necessary, high performance networks. Two prototypes of a fast plant system controller specialized for data acquisition and constrained by ITER technological choices are being built using two different form factors. This prototyping activity contributes to the Plant Control Design Handbook effort of standardization, specifically regarding fast controller characteristics. Envisaging a general purpose fast controller design, diagnostic use cases with specific requirements were analyzed and will be presented along with the interface with CODAC and sensors. The requirements and constraints that real-time plasma control imposes on the design were also taken into consideration. Functional specifications and technology neutral architecture, together with its implications on the engineering design, were considered. The detailed engineering design compliant with ITER standards was performed and will be discussed in detail. Emphasis will be given to the integration of the controller in the standard CODAC environment. Requirements for the EPICS IOC providing the interface to the outside world, the prototype decisions on form factor, real-time operating system, and high-performance networks will also be discussed, as well as the requirements for data streaming to CODAC for visualization and

  8. Robust fast controller design via nonlinear fractional differential equations.

    Zhou, Xi; Wei, Yiheng; Liang, Shu; Wang, Yong

    2017-07-01

    A new method for linear system controller design is proposed whereby the closed-loop system achieves both robustness and fast response. The robustness performance considered here means the damping ratio of closed-loop system can keep its desired value under system parameter perturbation, while the fast response, represented by rise time of system output, can be improved by tuning the controller parameter. We exploit techniques from both the nonlinear systems control and the fractional order systems control to derive a novel nonlinear fractional order controller. For theoretical analysis of the closed-loop system performance, two comparison theorems are developed for a class of fractional differential equations. Moreover, the rise time of the closed-loop system can be estimated, which facilitates our controller design to satisfy the fast response performance and maintain the robustness. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of our methods. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Synchronous timing of multi-energy fast beam extraction during a single AGS cycle

    Gabusi, J.; Naase, S.

    1985-01-01

    Synchronous triggering of fast beams is required because the field of Kicker Magnets must rise within the open space between one beam bunch and the next. Within the Brookhaven AGS, Fast Extracted Beam (FEB) triggering combines nominal timing, based on beam energy with bunch-to-bunch synchronization, based on the accelerating rf waveform. During beam acceleration, a single bunch is extracted at 22 GeV/c and within the same AGS cycle, the remaining eleven bunches are extracted at 28.4 GeV/c. When the single bunch is extracted, a ''hole'', which is left in the remaining circulating beam, can appear in random locations within the second extraction during successive AGS cycles. To overcome this problem, a synchronous rf/12 counting scheme and logic circuitry are used to keep track of the bunch positions relative to each other, and to place the ''hole'' in any desired location within the second extraction. The rf/12 signal is used also to synchronize experimenters triggers

  10. The fast correction coil feedback control system

    Coffield, F.; Caporaso, G.; Zentler, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    A model-based feedback control system has been developed to correct beam displacement errors in the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) electron beam accelerator. The feedback control system drives an X/Y dipole steering system that has a 40-MHz bandwidth and can produce ±300-Gauss-cm dipole fields. A simulator was used to develop the control algorithm and to quantify the expected performance in the presence of beam position measurement noise and accelerator timing jitter. The major problem to date has been protecting the amplifiers from the voltage that is inductively coupled to the steering bars by the beam. 3 refs., 8 figs

  11. Advanced feeder control using fast simulation models

    Verheijen, O.S.; Op den Camp, O.M.G.C.; Beerkens, R.G.C.; Backx, A.C.P.M.; Huisman, L.; Drummond, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    For the automatic control of glass quality in glass production, the relation between process variable and product or glass quality and process conditions/process input parameters must be known in detail. So far, detailed 3-D glass melting simulation models were used to predict the effect of process

  12. Development of a fast voltage control method for electrostatic accelerators

    Lobanov, Nikolai R.; Linardakis, Peter; Tsifakis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a novel fast voltage control loop for tandem electrostatic accelerators is described. This control loop utilises high-frequency components of the ion beam current intercepted by the image slits to generate a correction voltage that is applied to the first few gaps of the low- and high-energy acceleration tubes adjoining the high voltage terminal. New techniques for the direct measurement of the transfer function of an ultra-high impedance structure, such as an electrostatic accelerator, have been developed. For the first time, the transfer function for the fast feedback loop has been measured directly. Slow voltage variations are stabilised with common corona control loop and the relationship between transfer functions for the slow and new fast control loops required for optimum operation is discussed. The main source of terminal voltage instabilities, which are due to variation of the charging current caused by mechanical oscillations of charging chains, has been analysed

  13. Role of ethanol leaf extracts of Ficus Glumosa on fasting blood ...

    Normal saline 5ml/kg, 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of Ficus glumosa ethanol leaves extract respectively via ip while Group V received insulin 6 iu/kg. Fasting blood sugar levels were measured at one day intervals for 7 days. Rats were sacrifice for the Serum liver enzymes and liver the tissue for analysis on the 7 day ...

  14. Role of ethanol leaf extracts of Ficus glumosa on fasting blood ...

    Normal saline 5ml/kg, 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of Ficus glumosa ethanol leaves extract respectively via ip while Group V received insulin 6 iu/kg. Fasting blood sugar levels were measured at one day intervals for 7 days. Rats were sacrifice for the Serum liver enzymes and liver tissue for th analysis on the 7 day.

  15. The fast extraction kicker power supply for the main ring of J-PARC

    Koseki, Kunio, E-mail: kunio.koseki@kek.jp

    2013-11-21

    An effect induced by parasitic inductance in a pulsed power supply for a fast extraction kicker was studied. The parasitic inductance in high voltage capacitors for a low impedance pulse forming network disturbs a sharp rise of an excitation current. A high voltage capacitor with a coaxial structure to minimize the parasitic inductance is proposed. The effectiveness was confirmed experimentally. An impedance mismatch by a leakage inductance of a pulse transformer in a transmission line was studied. The effect is serious at the flat-top period of the excitation current. By introducing a compensation circuit, which is composed by a capacitor and a resistor, impedance matching was established. The pulsed power supply for the fast extraction kicker was operated at a charging voltage of 30 kV. A required rise time of less than 1.1 μs was achieved. The flatness was also confirmed to be in an acceptable value of less than 1%. -- Highlights: ●An effect by parasitic inductance of the energy storage capacitor of the PFN was studied. ●A faster rise time was achieved by introducing a coaxial structure for the PFN capacitor. ●An impedance mismatch by a leakage inductance of a pulse transformer was studied. ●Serious deterioration of the pulsed waveform was cured by a compensation circuit. ●The pulsed power supply for the fast extraction kicker was developed and operated successfully.

  16. Determination of Terpenoid Content in Pine by Organic Solvent Extraction and Fast-GC Analysis

    Harman-Ware, Anne E., E-mail: anne.ware@nrel.gov; Sykes, Robert [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Peter, Gary F. [School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Davis, Mark [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-25

    Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors, and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and after extractions to monitor the extraction efficiency. The pyrolysis studies indicated that the optimal extraction method used a 1:1 hexane/acetone solvent system at 22°C for 1 h. Extracts from the hexane/acetone experiments were analyzed using a low thermal mass modular accelerated column heater for fast-GC/FID analysis. The most abundant terpenoids from the pine samples were quantified, using standard curves, and included the monoterpenes, α- and β-pinene, camphene, and δ-carene. Sesquiterpenes analyzed included caryophyllene, humulene, and α-bisabolene. Diterpenoid resin acids were quantified in derivatized extractions, including pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, abietic, and neoabietic acids.

  17. Determination of Terpenoid Content in Pine by Organic Solvent Extraction and Fast-GC Analysis

    Harman-Ware, Anne E.; Sykes, Robert; Peter, Gary F.; Davis, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors, and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and after extractions to monitor the extraction efficiency. The pyrolysis studies indicated that the optimal extraction method used a 1:1 hexane/acetone solvent system at 22°C for 1 h. Extracts from the hexane/acetone experiments were analyzed using a low thermal mass modular accelerated column heater for fast-GC/FID analysis. The most abundant terpenoids from the pine samples were quantified, using standard curves, and included the monoterpenes, α- and β-pinene, camphene, and δ-carene. Sesquiterpenes analyzed included caryophyllene, humulene, and α-bisabolene. Diterpenoid resin acids were quantified in derivatized extractions, including pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, abietic, and neoabietic acids.

  18. Biotechnology for uranium extraction and environmental control

    Natarajan, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    India is looking forward to augmenting mining and extraction of uranium mineral for its nuclear energy needs. Being a radio-active mineral, mining and processing of uranium ore deposits need be carried out in an environmentally acceptable fashion. In this respect, a biotechnological approach holds great promise since it is environment-friendly, cost-effective and energy-efficient. There are several types of microorganisms which inhabit uranium ore bodies and biogenesis plays an important role in the mineralisation and transport of uranium-bearing minerals under the earth's crust. Uranium occurrences in India are only meagre and it becomes essential to tap effectively all the available resources. Uraninite and pitchblende occurring along with sulfide mineralisation such as pyrite are ideal candidates for bioleaching. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans present ubiquitously in the ore deposits can be isolated, cultured and utilised to bring about efficient acidic dissolution of uranium. Many such commercial attempts to extract uranium from even lean ores using acidophilic autotrophic bacteria have been made in different parts of the world. Anaerobes such a Geobacter and Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) can be effectively used in uranium mining for environmental control. Radioactive uranium mined wastes and tailing dumps can be cleaned and protected using microorganisms. In this lecture use of biotechnology in uranium extraction and bioremediation is illustrated with practical examples. Applicability of environment-friendly biotechnology for mining and extraction of uranium from Indian deposits is outlined. Commercial potentials for bioremediation in uranium-containing wastes are emphasised. (author)

  19. Fast determination of trace elements in organic fertilizers using a cup-horn reactor for ultrasound-assisted extraction and fast sequential flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Teixeira, Leonel Silva; Vieira, Heulla Pereira; Windmöller, Cláudia Carvalhinho; Nascentes, Clésia Cristina

    2014-02-01

    A fast and accurate method based on ultrasound-assisted extraction in a cup-horn sonoreactor was developed to determine the total content of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in organic fertilizers by fast sequential flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FS FAAS). Multivariate optimization was used to establish the optimal conditions for the extraction procedure. An aliquot containing approximately 120 mg of the sample was added to a 500 µL volume of an acid mixture (HNO3/HCl/HF, 5:3:3, v/v/v). After a few minutes, 500 µL of deionized water was added and eight samples were simultaneously sonicated for 10 min at 50% amplitude, allowing a sample throughput of 32 extractions per hour. The performance of the method was evaluated with a certified reference material of sewage sludge (CRM 029). The precision, expressed as the relative standard deviation, ranged from 0.58% to 5.6%. The recoveries of analytes were found to 100%, 109%, 96%, 92%, 101%, 104% and 102% for Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively. The linearity, limit of detection and limit of quantification were calculated and the values obtained were adequate for the quality control of organic fertilizers. The method was applied to the analysis of several commercial organic fertilizers and organic wastes used as fertilizers, and the results were compared with those obtained using the microwave digestion procedure. A good agreement was found between the results obtained by microwave and ultrasound procedures with recoveries ranging from 80.4% to 117%. Two organic waste samples were not in accordance with the Brazilian legislation regarding the acceptable levels of contaminants. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Contribution to the study of liquid-liquid extraction dynamics in the case of fast transfers. Extractions of uranium, plutonium and neptunium in a laboratory centrifugal extractor

    Bergeonneau, Philippe

    1978-01-01

    The liquid-liquid extraction (also named solvent-based extraction) is a very important technique for the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels. This research thesis is based on the use of a laboratory centrifugal extractor which allows interesting conditions to be achieved: fast transfer due to an intense solution mixing, very short duration of contact between solutions. Thus, after a report of a bibliographical study on chemical mechanisms of extraction, on the composition of extracted species, on extraction kinetics, and on centrifugal extractors, this thesis reports the design, fabrication and use of a centrifugal extractor: presentation of fundamental principles, description and characteristics (materials, hydrodynamic operation test and problems, prototype). It reports studies of fast transfer kinetics: mathematical processing, result interpretation, results and discussions of extraction kinetics for nitric acid, uranium VI and IV, plutonium IV, neptunium IV, and comparison of the different extraction kinetics

  1. FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR EMG BASED PROSTHESES CONTROL

    R. Aishwarya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of prosthetic limb would be more effective if it is based on Surface Electromyogram (SEMG signals from remnant muscles. The analysis of SEMG signals depend on a number of factors, such as amplitude as well as time- and frequency-domain properties. Time series analysis using Auto Regressive (AR model and Mean frequency which is tolerant to white Gaussian noise are used as feature extraction techniques. EMG Histogram is used as another feature vector that was seen to give more distinct classification. The work was done with SEMG dataset obtained from the NINAPRO DATABASE, a resource for bio robotics community. Eight classes of hand movements hand open, hand close, Wrist extension, Wrist flexion, Pointing index, Ulnar deviation, Thumbs up, Thumb opposite to little finger are taken into consideration and feature vectors are extracted. The feature vectors can be given to an artificial neural network for further classification in controlling the prosthetic arm which is not dealt in this paper.

  2. Pyrochemical reprocessing of molten salt fast reactor fuel: focus on the reductive extraction step

    Rodrigues Davide

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear fuel reprocessing is a prerequisite for nuclear energy to be a clean and sustainable energy. In the case of the molten salt reactor containing a liquid fuel, pyrometallurgical way is an obvious way. The method for treatment of the liquid fuel is divided into two parts. In-situ injection of helium gas into the fuel leads to extract the gaseous fission products and a part of the noble metals. The second part of the reprocessing is performed by ‘batch’. It aims to recover the fissile material and to separate the minor actinides from fission products. The reprocessing involves several chemical steps based on redox and acido-basic properties of the various elements contained in the fuel salt. One challenge is to perform a selective extraction of actinides and lanthanides in spent liquid fuel. Extraction of actinides and lanthanides are successively performed by a reductive extraction in liquid bismuth pool containing metallic lithium as a reductive reagent. The objective of this paper is to give a description of the several steps of the reprocessing retained for the molten salt fast reactor (MSFR concept and to present the initial results obtained for the reductive extraction experiments realized in static conditions by contacting LiF-ThF4-UF4-NdF3 with a lab-made Bi-Li pool and for which extraction efficiencies of 0.7% for neodymium and 14.0% for uranium were measured. It was concluded that in static conditions, the extraction is governed by a kinetic limitation and not by the thermodynamic equilibrium.

  3. Panofsky magnet for the beam extraction from the synchrotron using a fast Q-magnet and RF-knockout

    Masubuchi, S.; Nakanishi, T.

    2011-12-01

    The fast control of the beam spill extracted from a synchrotron is a key function for the spot scanning irradiation in cancer therapy application. The authors propose an extraction method which uses the quadruple field of fast response, as well as the RF-knockout. A Panofsky magnet was developed as a quadruple magnet, with a frequency response of around 10 kHz. The Panofsky magnet has a rectangular beam aperture and plate coils attached to the pole face. A model magnet has been manufactured with ferrite, and static and dynamic magnetic fields were measured. From the measurement we observed that the effects of eddy current in the plate coils were large and the uniformity of the magnetic field gradient in the beam aperture was worse than ±5% with a plate thickness of 0.02 cm and a frequency of current of 10 kHz. For the future, in a detailed design the eddy current effects have to be taken into account.

  4. Acacia nilotica leave extract and glyburide: comparison of fasting flood glucose, serum insulin, b-thromboglubulin levels and platelet aggregation in treptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Asad, M.; Munir, T.A.; Afzal, N.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the hypoglycaemic and anti-platelet aggregation effect of aqueous methanol extract of Acacia Nilotica (AN) leaves compared with glyburide on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced in 90 out of 120 albino rats by administering 50 mg/kg body weight (b.w) streptozotocin and was confirmed by measuring fasting blood glucose level >200 mg/dL on fourth post-induction day. The rats were equally divided into 4 groups, A (normal control), B (diabetic control), C (diabetic rats treated with AN extract) and group D (diabetic rats treated with glyburide). The rats of group C and D were given 300 mg/kg b.w AN extract and 900 mu gm/kg b.w glyburide respectively for 3 weeks. Blood glucose was measured by gluco meter, platelet aggregation by Dia-Med method and insulin and b-thrombo globulin by ELISA technique. Results: A significant increase (p<0.05) in fasting blood glucose, b-thrombo globulin and platelet aggregation and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in insulin levels was observed in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats than the normal controls. The rats treated with AN extract and glyburide showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in fasting blood glucose and increase (p<0.05) in insulin levels than the diabetic control rats. However, the levels in both the treatment groups remained significantly different than the normal controls. A significant decrease (p<0.05) in b-thrombo globulin levels was seen in diabetic rats treated with glyburide than the diabetic control rats and diabetic rats treated with AN extract. Conclusions: AN leaves extract result into hypoglycaemic and anti-platelet aggregation activity in diabetic rats as that of glyburide. (author)

  5. Fast beam cut-off method in RF-knockout extraction for spot-scanning

    Furukawa, T

    2002-01-01

    An irradiation method with magnetic scanning has been developed in order to provide accurate irradiation even for an irregular target shape. The scanning method has strongly required a lower ripple of the beam spill and a faster response to beam-on/off in slow extraction from a synchrotron ring. At HIMAC, RF-knockout extraction has utilized a bunched beam to reduce the beam-spill ripple. Therefore, particles near the resonance can be spilled out from the separatrices by synchrotron oscillation as well as by a transverse RF field. From this point of view, a fast beam cut-off method has been proposed and verified by both simulations and experiments. The maximum delay from the beam cut-off signal to beam-off has been improved to around 60 mu s from 700 mu s by a usual method. Unwanted dose has been considerably reduced by around a factor of 10 compared with that by the usual method.

  6. FAST DISCRETE CURVELET TRANSFORM BASED ANISOTROPIC FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR IRIS RECOGNITION

    Amol D. Rahulkar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The feature extraction plays a very important role in iris recognition. Recent researches on multiscale analysis provide good opportunity to extract more accurate information for iris recognition. In this work, a new directional iris texture features based on 2-D Fast Discrete Curvelet Transform (FDCT is proposed. The proposed approach divides the normalized iris image into six sub-images and the curvelet transform is applied independently on each sub-image. The anisotropic feature vector for each sub-image is derived using the directional energies of the curvelet coefficients. These six feature vectors are combined to create the resultant feature vector. During recognition, the nearest neighbor classifier based on Euclidean distance has been used for authentication. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been tested on two different databases namely UBIRIS and MMU1. Experimental results show the superiority of the proposed approach.

  7. A new license plate extraction framework based on fast mean shift

    Pan, Luning; Li, Shuguang

    2010-08-01

    License plate extraction is considered to be the most crucial step of Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) system. In this paper, a region-based license plate hybrid detection method is proposed to solve practical problems under complex background in which existing large quantity of disturbing information. In this method, coarse license plate location is carried out firstly to get the head part of a vehicle. Then a new Fast Mean Shift method based on random sampling of Kernel Density Estimate (KDE) is adopted to segment the color vehicle images, in order to get candidate license plate regions. The remarkable speed-up it brings makes Mean Shift segmentation more suitable for this application. Feature extraction and classification is used to accurately separate license plate from other candidate regions. At last, tilted license plate regulation is used for future recognition steps.

  8. Control rod studies in small and medium sized fast reactors

    John, T.M.; Mohanakrishnan, P.; Mahalakshmi, B.; Singh, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    Control rods are the primary safety mechanism in the operation of fast reactors. Neutronic parameters associated with the control rods have to be evaluated precisely for studying the behaviour of the reactor under various operating conditions. Control rods are strong neutron absorbers discretely distributed in the reactor core. Accurate estimation of control rod parameters demand, in principle transport theory solutions in exact geometry. But computer codes for such evaluations usually consume exorbitantly large computer time and memory for even a single parameter evaluation. During the design of reactors, evaluation of these parameters will be required for many configurations of control rods. In this paper, the method used at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research for estimating the parameters associated with control rods is presented. Diffusion theory solutions were used for computations. A scheme using three dimensional geometry represented by triangular meshes and diffusion theory solutions in few energy groups for control rod parameter evaluation is presented. This scheme was employed in estimating the control rod parameters in a 500 Mw(e) fast reactor. Error due to group collapsing is estimated by comparing with 25 group calculations in three dimensions for typical cases. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  9. Autonomous celestial navigation based on Earth ultraviolet radiance and fast gradient statistic feature extraction

    Lu, Shan; Zhang, Hanmo

    2016-01-01

    To meet the requirement of autonomous orbit determination, this paper proposes a fast curve fitting method based on earth ultraviolet features to obtain accurate earth vector direction, in order to achieve the high precision autonomous navigation. Firstly, combining the stable characters of earth ultraviolet radiance and the use of transmission model software of atmospheric radiation, the paper simulates earth ultraviolet radiation model on different time and chooses the proper observation band. Then the fast improved edge extracting method combined Sobel operator and local binary pattern (LBP) is utilized, which can both eliminate noises efficiently and extract earth ultraviolet limb features accurately. And earth's centroid locations on simulated images are estimated via the least square fitting method using part of the limb edges. Taken advantage of the estimated earth vector direction and earth distance, Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is applied to realize the autonomous navigation finally. Experiment results indicate the proposed method can achieve a sub-pixel earth centroid location estimation and extremely enhance autonomous celestial navigation precision.

  10. Fuel reprocessing of the fast molten salt reactor: actinides et lanthanides extraction

    Jaskierowicz, S.

    2012-01-01

    The fuel reprocessing of the molten salt reactor (Gen IV concept) is a multi-steps process in which actinides and lanthanides extraction is performed by a reductive extraction technique. The development of an analytic model has showed that the contact between the liquid fuel LiF-ThF 4 and a metallic phase constituted of Bi-Li provide firstly a selective and quantitative extraction of actinides and secondly a quantitative extraction of lanthanides. The control of this process implies the knowledge of saline phase properties. Studies of the physico-chemical properties of fluoride salts lead to develop a technique based on potentiometric measurements to evaluate the fluoro-acidity of the salts. An acidity scale was established in order to classify the different fluoride salts considered. Another electrochemical method was also developed in order to determine the solvation properties of solutes in fluoride F- environment (and particularly ThF 4 by F-) in reductive extraction technique, a metallic phase is also involved. A method to prepare this phase was developed by electro-reduction of lithium on a bismuth liquid cathode in LiCl-LiF melt. This technique allows to accurately control the molar fraction of lithium introduced into the liquid bismuth, which is a main parameter to obtain an efficient extraction. (author)

  11. NSRL Extraction Bump Control in the Booster

    Brennan, L.

    2008-01-01

    Due to inadequacies in the user interface of the booster orbit control system, a number of new tools were developed. The first priority was an accurate calculation of the winding currents given specific displacements at each extraction septa. Next, the physical limits of the power supplies (±600 amps) needed to be taken into account. In light of this limit, a system is developed that indicates to the user what the allowed values of one bump parameter are once the other two have been specified. Finally, techniques are developed to account for the orbit behavior once power supplies are requested to exceed their ±600 amp limit. This includes a recalculation of bump parameters and a calculation of the amplitude of the residuals. Following this, possible areas for further development are outlined. These techniques were computationally developed in Mathematica and tested in the Methodical Accelerator Design (MAD) program before they were implemented into the control system. At the end, a description of the implementation of these techniques in a new interface is described. This includes a depiction of the appearance and functionality of the graphical user interface, a description of the input and output flow, and an outline of how each important calculation is performed

  12. Possible approaches to fast quality control of IFE targets

    Koresheva, E.R.; Nikitenko, A.I.; Aleksandrova, I.V.; Bazdenkov, S.V.; Belolipetskiy, A.A.; Chtcherbakov, V.I.; Osipov, I.E.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, research into the development of reliable methods and techniques for characterization and quality control of ICF/IFE targets has been carried out very actively. This is motivated by the need to provide the means for precise and accurate knowledge of cryogenic target parameters. On the other hand, particular emphasis should be paid to the fact that fuelling of a commercial power plant requires ∼6 targets each second. This indicates that the development of fast quality control techniques is of critical importance as well. Therefore, in this report we discuss the issues underlying the construction of different algorithms for characterization and quality control of ICF/IFE targets. Among them are: (a) algorithm banks and their structure, (b) algorithm testing, (c) target reconstruction experiments. The algorithm bank incorporates the algorithms for two stages of target production: the stage of fuel layering technique development (motionless target) and the stage of cryogenic target delivery (injected target). In the first case an inverse algorithm for individual target characterization (3D target reconstruction) and two threshold algorithms for fast control of target quality are presented. They are based on tomographic information processing methods. Experimentally, tomographic data acquisition is carried out by a hundred projections microtomograph. The spatial resolution of the optical system of the microtomograph is 1 μm for 490 nm wavelength, the accuracy of target angular positioning is ±1.5-2.5 min. In the second case we describe the algorithm based on Fourier transform holography for ultra fast target characterization during its injection. The performed computer experiments have demonstrated much promise of this approach in the following directions: recognition of the target imperfections in both low- and high- harmonics; quality control of both a single target and a target batch; simultaneous control of both an injected target quality and

  13. Status of fast reactor control rod development in the United Kingdom

    Kelly, B.T.

    1984-01-01

    The two large fast reactors constructed in the United Kingdom, that is the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR) and the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) differed substantially in their control systems. DFR was controlled by variation of the neutron leakage from the core while PFR uses conventional control rods containing neutron absorbing materials. This paper describes the development of the PFR control systems, the progressive design of the control systems for the prototype Civil Fast Reactor (CFR) and the supporting research and development programmes. (author)

  14. Controlling multi-bunches by a fast phase switching

    Decker, F.J.; Jobe, R.K.; Merminga, N.; Thompson, K.A.

    1990-09-01

    In linear accelerators with two or more bunches the beam loading of one bunch will influence the energy and energy spread the following bunches. This can be corrected by quickly changing the phase of a traveling wave-structure, so that each bunch receives a slightly different net phase. At the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) three bunches, two (e + ,e - ) for the high energy collisions and one (e - -scavenger) for producing positrons should sit at different phases, due to their different tasks. The two e - -bunches are extracted from the damping ring at the same cycle time about 60 ns apart. Fast phase switching of the RF to the bunch length compressor in the Ring-To-Linac (RTL) section can produce the necessary advance of the scavenger bunch (about 6 degree in phase). This allows a low energy spread of this third bunch at the e + -production region at 2/3 of the linac length, while the other bunches are not influenced. The principles and possible other applications of this fast phase switching as using it for multi-bunches, as well as the experimental layout for the actual RTL compressor are presented

  15. Control rod homogenization in heterogeneous sodium-cooled fast reactors

    Andersson, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    The sodium-cooled fast reactor is one of the candidates for a sustainable nuclear reactor system. In particular, the French ASTRID project employs an axially heterogeneous design, proposed in the so-called CFV (low sodium effect) core, to enhance the inherent safety features of the reactor. This thesis focuses on the accurate modeling of the control rods, through the homogenization method. The control rods in a sodium-cooled fast reactor are used for reactivity compensation during the cycle, power shaping, and to shutdown the reactor. In previous control rod homogenization procedures, only a radial description of the geometry was implemented, hence the axially heterogeneous features of the CFV core could not be taken into account. This thesis investigates the different axial variations the control rod experiences in a CFV core, to determine the impact that these axial environments have on the control rod modeling. The methodology used in this work is based on previous homogenization procedures, the so-called equivalence procedure. The procedure was newly implemented in the PARIS code system in order to be able to use 3D geometries, and thereby be take axial effects into account. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first part investigates the impact of different neutron spectra on the homogeneous control-rod cross sections. The second part investigates the cases where the traditional radial control-rod homogenization procedure is no longer applicable in the CFV core, which was found to be 5-10 cm away from any material interface. In the third part, based on the results from the second part, a 3D model of the control rod is used to calculate homogenized control-rod cross sections. In a full core model, a study is made to investigate the impact these axial effects have on control rod-related core parameters, such as the control rod worth, the capture rates in the control rod, and the power in the adjacent fuel assemblies. All results were compared to a Monte

  16. Fast probing of glucose and fructose in plant tissues via plasmonic affinity sandwich assay with molecularly-imprinted extraction microprobes.

    Muhammad, Pir; Liu, Jia; Xing, Rongrong; Wen, Yanrong; Wang, Yijia; Liu, Zhen

    2017-12-01

    Determination of specific target compounds in agriculture food and natural plant products is essential for many purposes; however, it is often challenging due to the complexity of the sample matrices. Herein we present a new approach called plasmonic affinity sandwich assay for the facile and rapid probing of glucose and fructose in plant tissues. The approach mainly relies on molecularly imprinted plasmonic extraction microprobes, which were prepared on gold-coated acupuncture needles via boronate affinity controllable oriented surface imprinting with the target monosaccharide as the template molecules. An extraction microprobe was inserted into plant tissues under investigation, which allowed for the specific extraction of glucose or fructose from the tissues. The glucose or fructose molecules extracted on the microprobe were labeled with boronic acid-functionalized Raman-active silver nanoparticles, and thus affinity sandwich complexes were formed on the microprobes. After excess Raman nanotags were washed away, the microprobe was subjected to Raman detection. Upon being irradiated with a laser beam, surface plasmon on the gold-coated microprobes was generated, which further produced plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering of the silver-based nanotags and thereby provided sensitive detection. Apple fruits, which contain abundant glucose and fructose, were used as a model of plant tissues. The approach exhibited high specificity, good sensitivity (limit of detection, 1 μg mL -1 ), and fast speed (the whole procedure required only 20 min). The spatial distribution profiles of glucose and fructose within an apple were investigated by the developed approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A fast PID controller Design for Modern PLC for Process Control Application

    Mirza, A.; Nafis, A.; Anees, R.M.; Idris, S.

    2004-01-01

    PID is the most widely used control scheme in the process industry. Pill controllers are utilized for the control of such varied parameters as pressure, flow, temperature, etc. One characteristic of these parameters is that they posses slow dynamics. Most of the available digital controllers can manipulate only a single parameter- multiple controllers are required for control of more than one parameter. The Fast PID Controller for Modem PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) developed by the authors, provides control of several parameters at a time (through a single Pill control element), enhanced programmability including variable sampling period, parameter monitoring and data storage, which may be easily implemented in a PLC. (author)

  18. Metabolic profiles and bile acid extraction rate in the liver of cows with fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis.

    Mohamed, T; Oikawa, S; Iwasaki, Y; Mizunuma, Y; Takehana, K; Endoh, D; Kurosawa, T; Sato, H

    2004-04-01

    This study was designed to monitor lipid profile in the portal and hepatic blood of cows with fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis, and to compare the results with those in the jugular blood. The work was also carried out to investigate bile acid (BA) in these vessels, and further to investigate BA extraction rate in the liver. Five cows were equipped with catheters in the portal, hepatic and jugular veins (day 0), fasted for 4 days (day 1-day 4) and then refed (day 5-day 11). Before morning feeding, blood was sampled before, during and after fasting from the catheterized vessels. In the portal blood, the concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) showed a progressive increase and at day 5 there was an approximate twofold rise. Increased NEFA concentrations were also found similarly in the other two veins. At day 5, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in the portal, hepatic and jugular blood rose to 197, 190 and 186% of the pre-fasting value, respectively. However, the concentrations of NEFA and BHBA in the three veins gradually returned to pre-fasting concentration during the refeeding period. Compared with the pre-fasting value at day 0, the content of liver triglyceride (TG) increased significantly at day 5 (P hepatic extraction rate of BA dropped from 3.1 times pre-fasting to 2.2 times during fasting. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of glucose, TG, total cholesterol, cholesterol esters, free cholesterol and phospholipids. The results of the current study show that metabolic alterations occur in the portal, hepatic and jugular veins during induction of hepatic lipidosis in cows, and mostly metabolites, with exception of BA concentration, run parallel. The decreased BA extraction rate in the liver of fasted cows was considered to reflect hepatic cell impairment caused by TG accumulation. Hopefully, the findings, at least in part, contribute to the explanation of the pathophysiology of hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows.

  19. FAST

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections with aqu...

  20. ITER Fast Plant System Controller prototype based on PXIe platform

    Ruiz, M.; Vega, J.; Castro, R.; Sanz, D.; López, J.M.; Arcas, G. de; Barrera, E.; Nieto, J.; Gonçalves, B.; Sousa, J.; Carvalho, B.; Utzel, N.; Makijarvi, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Implementation of Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) for ITER CODAC. ► Efficient data acquisition and data movement using EPICS. ► Performance of PCIe technologies in the implementation of FPSC. - Abstract: The ITER Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) is based on embedded technologies. The FPSC will be devoted to both data acquisition tasks (sampling rates higher than 1 kHz) and control purposes (feedback loop actuators). Some of the essential requirements of these systems are: (a) data acquisition and data preprocessing; (b) interfacing with different networks and high speed links (Plant Operation Network, timing network based on IEEE1588, synchronous data transference and streaming/archiving networks); and (c) system setup and operation using EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) process variables. CIEMAT and UPM have implemented a prototype of FPSC using a PXIe (PCI eXtension for Instrumentation) form factor in a R and D project developed in two phases. The paper presents the main features of the two prototypes developed that have been named alpha and beta. The former was implemented using LabVIEW development tools as it was focused on modeling the FPSC software modules, using the graphical features of LabVIEW applications, and measuring the basic performance in the system. The alpha version prototype implements data acquisition with time-stamping, EPICS monitoring using waveform process variables (PVs), and archiving. The beta version prototype is a complete IOC implemented using EPICS with different software functional blocks. These functional blocks are integrated and managed using an ASYN driver solution and provide the basic functionalities required by ITER FPSC such as data acquisition, data archiving, data pre-processing (using both CPU and GPU) and streaming.

  1. Generic solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for fast determination of drugs in biological fluids

    Schellen, A.; Ooms, B.; Lagemaat, D. van de; Vreeken, R.; Dongen, W.D. van

    2003-01-01

    A generic method was developed for the fast determination of a wide range of drugs in serum or plasma. The methodology comprises generic solid-phase extraction, on-line coupled to gradient HPLC with tandem mass spectrometric detection (SPE-LC-MS/MS). The individual components of the SPE-LC-MS/MS

  2. AFCI : Co-extraction impacts on LWR and fast reactor fuel cycles

    Taiwo, T. A.; Szakalay, F. J.; Kim, T. K.; Hill, R. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the impact of the co-extraction COEXTM process on reactor performance has been performed. The proliferation implication of the process was also evaluated using the critical mass, radioactivity, decay heat and neutron and gamma source rates and gamma doses as indicators. The use of LWR-spent-uranium-based MOX fuel results in a higher initial plutonium content requirement in an LWR MOX core than if natural uranium based MOX fuel is used (by about 1%); the plutonium for both cases is derived from the spent LWR spent fuel. More transuranics are consequently discharged in the spent fuel of the MOX core. The presence of U-236 in the initial fuel was also found to result in higher content of Np-237 in the spent MOX fuel and less consumption of Pu-238 and Am-241 in the MOX core. The higher quantities of Np-237 (factor of 5), Pu-238 (20%) and Am-241 (14%) decrease the effective repository utilization, relative to the use of natural uranium in the PWR MOX core. Additionally, the minor actinides continue to accumulate in the fuel cycle, even if the U-Pu co-extraction products are continuously recycled in the PWR cores, and thus a solution is required for the minor actinides. The utilization of plutonium derived from LWR spent fuel versus weapons-grade plutonium for the startup core of a 1,000 MWT advanced burner fast reactor (ABR) increases the TRU content by about 4%. Differences are negligible for the equilibrium recycle core. The impact of using reactor spent uranium instead of depleted uranium was found to be relatively smaller in the fast reactor (TRU content difference less than 0.4%). The critical masses of the co-extraction products were found to be higher than that of weapons-grade plutonium and the decay heat and radiation sources of the materials (products) were also found to be generally higher than that of weapons-grade plutonium (WG-Pu) in the transuranics content range of 0.1 to 1.0 in the heavy-metal. The magnitude of the

  3. Fast, controlled stepping drive for D2 filament ejection

    Amenda, W.; Lang, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    Centrifugal pellet injectors are required to refuel plasma machines. The pellet feed into the centrifuge should, if possible, be direct to keep the exit angle divergence small. The D 2 filaments used are first stored in a cryostat and then rapidly transported to the intake region of the centrifuge. An intermittent drive for fast, controlled ejection of D 2 filaments is described here. Mean filament speed of up to 0.6 m/s per step (1.2 mm) are achieved for the centrifugal pellet injector which refuels the ASDEX tokamak at Garching. The timing of the (81) step shifts can be synchronized with the rotor motion. The drive allows rates of up to 50 pellets per second. The drive method also seems to be suitable for direct feeding of other known centrifugal pellet injectors

  4. Note on difference spectra for fast extraction of global image information.

    Van Wyk, BJ

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available FOR FAST EXTRACTION OF GLOBAL IMAGE INFORMATION. B.J van Wyk* M.A. van Wyk* and F. van den Bergh** * c29c55c48c51c46c4bc03 c36c52c58c57c4bc03 c24c49c55c4cc46c44c51c03 c37c48c46c4bc51c4cc46c44c4fc03 c2cc51c56c57c4cc57c58c57c48c03 c4cc51c03 c28c4fc48c...46c57c55c52c51c4cc46c56c03 c0bc29cb6c36c24c37c2cc28c0cc03 c44c57c03 c57c4bc48c03 c37c56c4bc5ac44c51c48c03 c38c51c4cc59c48c55c56c4cc57c5cc03 c52c49c03 Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001. ** Remote Sensing Research Group, Meraka Institute...

  5. Instrumentation and control of the fast breeder reactors

    Juengst, U.

    1982-01-01

    Generally the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) in comparison to the Leight Water Reactors hasn't exceptionally different requirements to the instrumentation and control systems. There fore the paper restricts itself to outline the peculiarities of LMFBR's exemplified at the design of the German Breeder SNR-300 beeing under construction. The special sodium instrumentation for temperature level, flow and pressure in the main systems is described. The automatic control system enabled the plant to follow the bad demand of the grid immidiately. The nuclear power production itself is stabilized by inherent coefficients of the core. An exceptional high reliability of the shut down systems is necessary; there fore all LMFBR's have two completely independant and diverse shut down systems. In the SNR-300 also the control of decay heat removal and the active safety systems for enclosure of radioactivity are distributed to two independent and diverse plant protection systems (PPS) so that the first system covered the accidents due to internal events and the second systems managed the external events such as earthquake and aircraft crash. (orig.)

  6. Colour Fastness and Tensile Strength of Cotton Fabric Dyed with Natural Extracts of Alkanna tinctoria by Continuous Dyeing Technique

    Khattak, S. P.; Rafique, S.; Inayat, F.; Ahmad, B.

    2015-01-01

    A natural dye extracted from the roots of alkanet (Alkanna tinctoria) was applied on cotton fabric by pad-steam dyeing technique. The study was designed to evaluate the colour fastness and tensile properties of dyed cotton after using various mordants, cationizing agents, UV absorbers and crosslinkers with this natural dye. Metallic mordants included aluminium sulphate, copper sulphate, ferric chloride, potassium dichromate and hydrated potassium aluminum sulphate or alum. Alkanet root extract produced variety of green shades with different dyeing auxiliaries. Better wash, light, crocking fastness; good colour coordinates such as chroma, hue, colour strength and increase in tensile strength was accomplished with post-mordanting of CuSO/sub 4/. Cationization of cotton with quaternary ammonium compound (both pre-treatment and post-treatment) and post-finishing with soft polyurethane emulsion has enhanced the fastness properties, tensile strength as well as relative colour strength (K/S) , whereas, reactive UV absorber based on oxalanilide and heterocyclic compound as UV absorber greatly increased the light fastness of alkanet dyed cotton. Crosslinkers applied with alkanet dye on cotton (methylolation product based on glyoxalmonourein, modified dimethyloldihydroxyethylene urea, modified dihydroxy ethylene urea) also improved the fastness but could not bring further development in the shade and K/S value of the dyed sample. (author)

  7. Fast calculation of the `ILC norm' in iterative learning control

    Rice, Justin K.; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss and demonstrate a method for the exploitation of matrix structure in computations for iterative learning control (ILC). In Barton, Bristow, and Alleyne [International Journal of Control, 83(2), 1-8 (2010)], a special insight into the structure of the lifted convolution matrices involved in ILC is used along with a modified Lanczos method to achieve very fast computational bounds on the learning convergence, by calculating the 'ILC norm' in ? computational complexity. In this paper, we show how their method is equivalent to a special instance of the sequentially semi-separable (SSS) matrix arithmetic, and thus can be extended to many other computations in ILC, and specialised in some cases to even faster methods. Our SSS-based methodology will be demonstrated on two examples: a linear time-varying example resulting in the same ? complexity as in Barton et al., and a linear time-invariant example where our approach reduces the computational complexity to ?, thus decreasing the computation time, for an example, from the literature by a factor of almost 100. This improvement is achieved by transforming the norm computation via a linear matrix inequality into a check of positive definiteness - which allows us to further exploit the almost-Toeplitz properties of the matrix, and additionally provides explicit upper and lower bounds on the norm of the matrix, instead of the indirect Ritz estimate. These methods are now implemented in a MATLAB toolbox, freely available on the Internet.

  8. An Optimal Control Modification to Model-Reference Adaptive Control for Fast Adaptation

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Boskovic, Jovan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a method that can achieve fast adaptation for a class of model-reference adaptive control. It is well-known that standard model-reference adaptive control exhibits high-gain control behaviors when a large adaptive gain is used to achieve fast adaptation in order to reduce tracking error rapidly. High gain control creates high-frequency oscillations that can excite unmodeled dynamics and can lead to instability. The fast adaptation approach is based on the minimization of the squares of the tracking error, which is formulated as an optimal control problem. The necessary condition of optimality is used to derive an adaptive law using the gradient method. This adaptive law is shown to result in uniform boundedness of the tracking error by means of the Lyapunov s direct method. Furthermore, this adaptive law allows a large adaptive gain to be used without causing undesired high-gain control effects. The method is shown to be more robust than standard model-reference adaptive control. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Application of 241Am EDXRF in detecting and controlling of rare earth separation process by solvent extraction

    Yan Chunhua; Jia Jiangtao; Liao Chunsheng; Wang Mingwen; Li Biaoguo; Xu Guangxian

    1996-01-01

    The article investigated a fast EDXRF analysis method by radioisotope excited ( 241 Am) employing a high-purity germanium detector in rare earth separation process by solvent extraction. Applying the method, hydrochloride aqueous samples of SeEuGd/Tb/Dy separation processes were off-line analyzed. Comparative results measured by ICP were also given out. The results show that the method can be used for a wide rare earth concentration range with low error. Being fast, effective, precise and non-destructive, it can be used for on-line analysis to detect and control rare earth separation process by solvent extraction

  10. Compact wireless control network protocol with fast path switching

    Yasutaka Kawamoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sensor network protocol stacks require the addition or adjustment of functions based on customer requirements. Sensor network protocols that require low delay and low packet error rate (PER, such as wireless control networks, often adopt time division multiple access (TDMA. However, it is difficult to add or adjust functions in protocol stacks that use TDMA methods. Therefore, to add or adjust functions easily, we propose NES-SOURCE, a compact wireless control network protocol with a fast path-switching function. NES-SOURCE is implemented using carrier sense multiple access/collision avoidance (CSMA/CA rather than TDMA. Wireless control networks that use TDMA prevent communication failure by duplicating the communication path. If CSMA/CA networks use duplicate paths, collisions occur frequently, and communication will fail. NES-SOURCE switches paths quickly when communication fails, which reduces the effect of communication failures. Since NES-SOURCE is implemented using CSMA/CA rather than TDMA, the implementation scale is less than one-half that of existing network stacks. Furthermore, since NES-SOURCE’s code complexity is low, functions can be added or adjusted easily and quickly. Communication failures occur owing to changes in the communication environment and collisions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed NES-SOURCE’s path-switching function reduces the amount of communication failures when the communication environment changes owing to human movement and others. Furthermore, we clarify the relationships among the probability of a changing communication environment, the collision occurrence rate, and the PER of NES-SOURCE.

  11. Garlic intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Hou, Li-qiong; Liu, Yun-hui; Zhang, Yi-yi

    2015-01-01

    Garlic is a common spicy flavouring agent also used for certain therapeutic purposes. Garlic's effects on blood glucose have been the subject of many clinical and animal studies, however, studies reporting hypoglycemic effects of garlic in humans are conflicting. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant trials of garlic or garlic extracts on markers of glycemic control [fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial glucose (PPG), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)]. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic intake on human was done to assess garlic's effectiveness in lowering glucose levels. Two reviewers extracted data from each of the identified studies. Seven eligible randomized controlled trials with 513 subjects were identified. Pooled analyses showed that garlic intake results in a statistically significant lowering in FBG [SMD=-1.67; 95% CI (-2.80, -0.55), p=0.004]. Our pooled analyses did not include PPG control and HbA1c outcomes. Because only 1 study included in the meta-analysis reported PPG variables and only 2 studies reported HbA1c variables. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis showed that the administration of garlic resulted in a significant reduction in FBG concentrations. More trials are needed to investigate the effectiveness of garlic on HbA1c and PPG.

  12. Intermittent fasting: A “new” historical strategy for controlling seizures?

    Hartman, Adam L.; Rubenstein, James E.; Kossoff, Eric H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary In antiquity, fasting was a treatment for epilepsy and a rationale for the ketogenic diet (KD). Preclinical data indicate the KD and intermittent fasting do not share identical anticonvulsant mechanisms. We implemented an intermittent fasting regimen in six children with an incomplete response to a KD. Three patients adhered to the combined intermittent fasting/KD regimen for 2 months and four had transient improvement in seizure control, albeit with some hunger-related adverse reactions. PMID:23206889

  13. Intermittent fasting: A “new” historical strategy for controlling seizures?

    Hartman, Adam L.; Rubenstein, James E.; Kossoff, Eric H.

    2012-01-01

    In antiquity, fasting was a treatment for epilepsy and a rationale for the ketogenic diet (KD). Preclinical data indicate the KD and intermittent fasting do not share identical anticonvulsant mechanisms. We implemented an intermittent fasting regimen in six children with an incomplete response to a KD. Three patients adhered to the combined intermittent fasting/KD regimen for 2 months and four had transient improvement in seizure control, albeit with some hunger-related adverse reactions.

  14. Slow extraction control system of HIRFL-CSR

    Liu Wufeng; Qiao Weimin; Yuan Youjin; Mao Ruishi; Zhao Tiecheng

    2013-01-01

    For heavy-ion radiotherapy, HIRFL-CSR (Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooler Storage Ring) needs a long term uniform ion beam extraction from HIRFL-CSR main ring to high energy beam transport line to meet the requirement of heavy-ion radiotherapy's ion beam. Slow extraction control system uses the synchronous signal of HIRFL-CSR control system's timing system to realize process control. When the synchronous event data of HIRFL-CSR control system's timing system trigger controlling and changing data (frequency value, tune value, voltage value), the waveform generator will generate waveform by frequency value, tune value and voltage value, and will amplify the generated waveform by power amplifier to electrostatic deflector to achieve RF-KO slow extraction. The synchronous event receiver of slow extraction system is designed by using FPGA and optical fiber interface to keep high transmission speed and anti-jamming. HIRFL-CSR's running for heavy-ion radiotherapy and ten thousand seconds long period slow extraction experiments show that slow extraction control system is workable and can meet the requirement of heavy-ion radiotherapy's ion beam. (authors)

  15. Radiation control and safety of fast reactor; Radijaciona kontrola i sigurnost postrojenja sa brzim reaktorom

    Pesic, M; Antic, D [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1983-07-01

    The fundamental activities for safeguard of radiation control and safety and the necessary staff for them for fast reactor plant are shown. The basic systems for the plant radiation control are counted, especially with regards to poisoning of some fuel materials. The particular characteristics of the plant radiation control determined by the fast reactor are pointed out. (author)

  16. Antifouling booster biocide extraction from marine sediments: a fast and simple method based on vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase extraction.

    Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Soares, Bruno Meira; Abreu, Fiamma; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the development of an analytical method employing vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) for the extraction of diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMTB (2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole), DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-3-(2H)-isothiazolin-3-one), and dichlofluanid from sediment samples. Separation and determination were performed by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. Important MSPD parameters, such as sample mass, mass of C18, and type and volume of extraction solvent, were investigated by response surface methodology. Quantitative recoveries were obtained with 2.0 g of sediment sample, 0.25 g of C18 as the solid support, and 10 mL of methanol as the extraction solvent. The MSPD method was suitable for the extraction and determination of antifouling biocides in sediment samples, with recoveries between 61 and 103% and a relative standard deviation lower than 19%. Limits of quantification between 0.5 and 5 ng g -1 were obtained. Vortex-assisted MPSD was shown to be fast and easy to use, with the advantages of low cost and reduced solvent consumption compared to the commonly employed techniques for the extraction of booster biocides from sediment samples. Finally, the developed method was applied to real samples. Results revealed that the developed extraction method is effective and simple, thus allowing the determination of biocides in sediment samples.

  17. The potential of papaya leaf extract in controlling Ganoderma boninense

    Tay, Z. H.; Chong, K. P.

    2016-06-01

    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease causes significant losses to the oil palm industry. Numerous controls have been applied in managing the disease but no conclusive result was reported. This study investigated the antifungal potential of papaya leaf extracts against Ganoderma boninense, the causal pathogen of BSR. Among the five different solvents tested in extraction of compounds from papaya leaf, methanol and acetone gave the highest yield. In vitro antifungal activity of the methanol and acetone extracts were evaluated against G. boninense using agar dilution at four concentrations: 5 mg mL-1, 15 mg mL-1, 30 mg mL-1and 45 mg mL-1. The results indicated a positive correlation between the concentration of leaf extracts and the inhibition of G. boninense. ED50 of methanol and acetone crude extracts were determined to be 32.016 mg mL-1and 65.268 mg mL-1, respectively. The extracts were later semi-purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) and the nine bioactive compounds were identified: decanoic acid, 2-methyl-, Z,Z-10-12-Hexadecadien-1-ol acetate, dinonanoin monocaprylin, 2-chloroethyl oleate, phenol,4-(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol,2,4-bis(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol-2-(1-phenylethyl)-, ethyl iso-allocholate and 1- monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether. The findings suggest that papaya leaf extracts have the ability to inhibit the growth of G. boninense, where a higher concentration of the extract exhibits better inhibition effects.

  18. A simple and fast method for extraction and quantification of cryptophyte phycoerythrin

    Thoisen, Christina; Hansen, Benni Winding; Nielsen, S?ren Laurentius

    2017-01-01

    The microalgal pigment phycoerythrin (PE) is of commercial interest as natural colorant in food and cosmetics, as well as fluoroprobes for laboratory analysis. Several methods for extraction and quantification of PE are available but they comprise typically various extraction buffers, repetitive freeze-thaw cycles and liquid nitrogen, making extraction procedures more complicated. A simple method for extraction of PE from cryptophytes is described using standard laboratory materials and equip...

  19. A statistical model of uplink inter-cell interference with slow and fast power control mechanisms

    Tabassum, Hina

    2013-09-01

    Uplink power control is in essence an interference mitigation technique that aims at minimizing the inter-cell interference (ICI) in cellular networks by reducing the transmit power levels of the mobile users while maintaining their target received signal quality levels at base stations. Power control mechanisms directly impact the interference dynamics and, thus, affect the overall achievable capacity and consumed power in cellular networks. Due to the stochastic nature of wireless channels and mobile users\\' locations, it is important to derive theoretical models for ICI that can capture the impact of design alternatives related to power control mechanisms. To this end, we derive and verify a novel statistical model for uplink ICI in Generalized-K composite fading environments as a function of various slow and fast power control mechanisms. The derived expressions are then utilized to quantify numerically key network performance metrics that include average resource fairness, average reduction in power consumption, and ergodic capacity. The accuracy of the derived expressions is validated via Monte-Carlo simulations. Results are generated for multiple network scenarios, and insights are extracted to assess various power control mechanisms as a function of system parameters. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

  20. A statistical model of uplink inter-cell interference with slow and fast power control mechanisms

    Tabassum, Hina; Yilmaz, Ferkan; Dawy, Zaher; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    Uplink power control is in essence an interference mitigation technique that aims at minimizing the inter-cell interference (ICI) in cellular networks by reducing the transmit power levels of the mobile users while maintaining their target received signal quality levels at base stations. Power control mechanisms directly impact the interference dynamics and, thus, affect the overall achievable capacity and consumed power in cellular networks. Due to the stochastic nature of wireless channels and mobile users' locations, it is important to derive theoretical models for ICI that can capture the impact of design alternatives related to power control mechanisms. To this end, we derive and verify a novel statistical model for uplink ICI in Generalized-K composite fading environments as a function of various slow and fast power control mechanisms. The derived expressions are then utilized to quantify numerically key network performance metrics that include average resource fairness, average reduction in power consumption, and ergodic capacity. The accuracy of the derived expressions is validated via Monte-Carlo simulations. Results are generated for multiple network scenarios, and insights are extracted to assess various power control mechanisms as a function of system parameters. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

  1. Pilot studies of an extraction process for reprocessing of spent fuel from fast reactors: Hardware and process details of extractor selection

    Anisimov, V.I.; Pavlovich, V.B.; Smetanin, E.Ya.; Glazunov, N.V.; Shklyar, L.I.; Dubrovskii, V.G.; Serov, A.V.; Zakharkin, B.S.; Konorchenko, V.D.; Korotkov, I.A.; Neumoev, N.V.; Renard, E.V.

    1992-01-01

    While acknowledging the bold and persistent efforts of U.S. and Russian specialists to develop the concept of pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel from fast reactors on remote-controlled equipment for removal of actinides from the fission products one should recognize that the tasks of reprocessing such fuel can be handled only by using water-extraction technology, especially since the known Purex process continues to be improved to the point that a single-cycle scheme may be developed. This article presents results of pilot studies conducted in hot cells using multistage extractors in continuous counterflow operation; data on various extractor types used in reprocessing spent mixed oxide nuclear fuel; advantages and disadvantages of centrifugal and pulsed column extractor; comparison of column-type and centrifugal extractors; and extraction process

  2. The control system for SSRF injection and extraction

    Yuan Qibing; Gu Ming; Wang Ruiping; Cheng Zhihao; Fan Xuerong; Zhu Haijun

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the injection and extraction control system design for SSRF, which is a distributed control system aimed at stability and reliability of the pulse power supplies, PPS (Personnel Protection System) and MPS (Machine Protection System). The hardware environment is mainly based on PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), and ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) is also applied for studying stability of the power supplies. WinCC and EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) have been selected as the platforms of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition). For unifying the interfacing to the control computer, all front-end equipments are connected via Industrial Ethernet. (authors)

  3. Extracting Structure from Optical Flow Using the Fast Error Search Technique

    Srinivasan, Sridar

    1998-01-01

    ...) of an optical flow field, using fast partial search. For each candidate location on a discrete sampling of the image area, we generate a linear system of equations for determining the remaining unknowns, viz...

  4. A simple and fast method for extraction and quantification of cryptophyte phycoerythrin.

    Thoisen, Christina; Hansen, Benni Winding; Nielsen, Søren Laurentius

    2017-01-01

    The microalgal pigment phycoerythrin (PE) is of commercial interest as natural colorant in food and cosmetics, as well as fluoroprobes for laboratory analysis. Several methods for extraction and quantification of PE are available but they comprise typically various extraction buffers, repetitive freeze-thaw cycles and liquid nitrogen, making extraction procedures more complicated. A simple method for extraction of PE from cryptophytes is described using standard laboratory materials and equipment. The cryptophyte cells on the filters were disrupted at -80 °C and added phosphate buffer for extraction at 4 °C followed by absorbance measurement. The cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina was used as a model organism. •Simple method for extraction and quantification of phycoerythrin from cryptophytes.•Minimal usage of equipment and chemicals, and low labor costs.•Applicable for industrial and biological purposes.

  5. A simple and fast method for extraction and quantification of cryptophyte phycoerythrin

    Thoisen, Christina Vinum; Hansen, Benni Winding; Nielsen, Søren Laurentius

    2017-01-01

    The microalgal pigment phycoerythrin (PE) is of commercial interest as natural colorant in food and cosmetics, as well as fluoroprobes for laboratory analysis. Several methods for extraction and quantification of PE are available but they comprise typically various extraction buffers, repetitive...... freeze-thaw cycles and liquid nitrogen, making extraction procedures more complicated. A simple method for extraction of PE from cryptophytes is described using standard laboratory materials and equipment. Filters with the cryptophyte were frozen (−80 °C) and added phosphate buffer for extraction at 4 °C...... followed by absorbance measurement. The cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina was used as a model organism. •Simple method for extraction and quantification of phycoerythrin from cryptophytes. •Minimal usage of equipment and chemicals, and low labor costs. •Applicable for industrial and biological purposes....

  6. Fast Nonconvex Model Predictive Control for Commercial Refrigeration

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2012-01-01

    in fewer than 5 or so iterations. We employ a fast convex quadratic programming solver to carry out the iterations, which is more than fast enough to run in real-time. We demonstrate our method on a realistic model, with a full year simulation, using real historical data. These simulations show substantial...... cost savings, and reveal how the method exhibits sophisticated response to real-time variations in electricity prices. This demand response is critical to help balance real-time uncertainties associated with large penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources in a future smart grid....

  7. Uranium, Plutonium and Neptunium Co-recovery with Irradiated Fast Reactor MOX Fuel by Single Cycle Extraction Process

    Masaumi Nakahara; Yuichi Sano; Kazunori Nomura; Tadahiro Washiya; Jun Komaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1194 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    The behavior of Np in single cycle extraction processes using tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) as an extractant for U, Pu and Np co-recovery was investigated as a part of NEXT (New Extraction System for Transuranium) process. Two approaches for Np co-recovery with U and Pu were carried out with irradiated MOX fuel from fast reactor 'JOYO'; one was the counter current experiment using a feed solution with a high HNO{sub 3} concentration and the other used a scrubbing solution with a high HNO{sub 3} concentration. Experimental results showed that the leakage of Np to the raffinate were 0.986 % and 5.96 % under the condition of high HNO{sub 3} concentration in the feed solution and scrubbing solution, respectively. The simulation results based on these experiments indicated that most of Np could be extracted and co-recovered with U and Pu, just by increasing HNO{sub 3} concentrations in the feed and scrubbing solution on the single cycle extraction process. (authors)

  8. Effect of Ramadan fasting on glycemic control in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

    Norouzy, A; Mohajeri, S M R; Shakeri, S; Yari, F; Sabery, M; Philippou, E; Varasteh, A-R; Nematy, M

    2012-09-01

    Although Muslim patients with Type 2 diabetes may be exempt from fasting during Ramadan for medical reasons, a high proportion of them fast. To investigate the association between Ramadan fasting and glycemic control in patients with Type 2 diabetes. A prospective cohort clinical trial was designed. Eighty-eight patients with Type 2 diabetes (45 male, 43 female, age 51±10 yr) who opted to fast for at least 10 days during the month of Ramadan were recruited. Fasting blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of Ramadan, and 1 month after Ramadan, to assess fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin, full blood count, glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) and fasting lipid profile. Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostatic model assessment. Anthropometrics and blood pressure were also measured. There was a significant deterioration in FBG and HbA(1c) (p=0.002 and p≤0.001, respectively) and significant improvements in HDL and LDL cholesterol and body mass index after Ramadan (pRamadan (9.4±2% at the end of Ramadan vs 8.4±2.5% 1 month after Ramadan; pRamadan deteriorated the glycemic control in Type 2 diabetes patients. This was more evident in patients using oral hypoglycemic medication than diet- controlled patients. However, Ramadan fasting had small positive effects on lipid profile and body weight.

  9. (Azadirachta indica) seed extract for tick control in Small

    Dr. Matayo David

    ... extract for tick control in Small East African and Toggenburg female goat kids in Tanzania ... adoption rate by the local traditional small-scale resource poor farmers, etc.) (de Castro ..... SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North California. Saxena, R.C. ...

  10. The effect of Ramadan fasting on glycaemic control in insulin dependent diabetic patients: A literature review.

    Alabbood, Majid H; Ho, Kenneth W; Simons, Mary R

    Ramadan fasting is one of the five pillars of Islam. People with diabetes are exempted from fasting according to Islamic rules. However, many people with diabetes wish to fast. Physicians are asked frequently by their patients about their ability to fast and the possible impact of fasting on their glycaemic control. Studies about the effect of Ramadan on people with insulin-treated diabetes are scarce. This review aims to provide clinicians with the best recommendations for their patients with insulin-treated diabetes who wish to fast. Four databases (Medline, EMBASE, Scopus and PubMed) were searched using the following MeSH terms and keywords: "insulin dependent diabetes mellitus", "type 1 diabetes mellitus", 'Ramadan' "and" "fasting". In addition, a hand search of key journals and reference lists was performed. Sixteen full text articles were selected for review and critical analysis. All of the included studies except one found improvement or no change in glycaemic control parameters during Ramadan fasting. The incidence of major complications were negligible. Minor hypoglycaemic events were reported in some studies but did not adversely affect fasting. Postprandial hyperglycaemia was a major concern in other studies. However, the incidence of severe hyperglycaemia and diabetic ketoacidosis were trivial. Ramadan fasting is feasible for insulin dependent diabetic patient who wish to fast. Clinicians should advise their patients about the importance of adequate glycaemic control before Ramadan and frequent glucose monitoring during fasting. Certain types of Insulin seem to be more beneficial than other. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A numerically stable, finite memory, fast array recursive least squares algorithm for broadband active noise control

    van Ophem, S.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2016-01-01

    For broadband active noise control applications with a rapidly changing primary path, it is desirable to find algorithms with a rapid convergence, a fast tracking performance, and a low computational cost. Recently, a promising algorithm has been presented, called the fast-array Kalman filter, which

  12. A numerically stable, finite memory, fast array recursive least squares filter for broadband active noise control

    Ophem, S. van; Berkhoff, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary For broadband active noise control applications with a rapidly changing primary path, it is desirable to find algorithms with a rapid convergence, a fast tracking performance, and a low computational cost. Recently, a promising algorithm has been presented, called the fast-array Kalman

  13. Fast Coordinated Control of DFIG Wind Turbine Generators for Low and High Voltage Ride-Through

    Wang, Yun; Wu, Qiuwei; Xu, Honghua

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a fast coordinated control scheme of the rotor side converter (RSC), the DC chopper and the grid side converter (GSC) of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine generators (WTGs) which is to improve the low voltage ride through (LVRT) and high voltage ride through...... were proposed considering the characteristics of the DFIG WTGs during voltage changes. The fast coordinated control of RSC and GSC were developed based on the characteristic analysis in order to realize efficient LVRT and HVRT of the DFIG WTGs. The proposed fast coordinated control schemes were...

  14. Pixel extraction based integral imaging with controllable viewing direction

    Ji, Chao-Chao; Deng, Huan; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2012-01-01

    We propose pixel extraction based integral imaging with a controllable viewing direction. The proposed integral imaging can provide viewers three-dimensional (3D) images in a very small viewing angle. The viewing angle and the viewing direction of the reconstructed 3D images are controlled by the pixels extracted from an elemental image array. Theoretical analysis and a 3D display experiment of the viewing direction controllable integral imaging are carried out. The experimental results verify the correctness of the theory. A 3D display based on the integral imaging can protect the viewer’s privacy and has huge potential for a television to show multiple 3D programs at the same time. (paper)

  15. Experimental study of suitable methods for measuring the radioactivity of 90Sr during its fast quantitation by extraction with dicarbollides

    Svoboda, K.; Kyrs, M.

    1994-04-01

    The measurement of activity of 90 Sr during its fast isolation by extraction with cobalt dicarbollide and Slovafol 909 in a nitrobenzene-carbon tetrachloride mixed solvent and re-extraction with 0.15 M Chelaton IV at pH 10.2 was investigated. The use of a liquid scintillator allows the effect of the 90 Y beta activity to be eliminated more efficiently than if the evaporation residue is measured with a solid scintillator. Traces of dicarbollide, nitrobenzene and CCl 4 passed into the aqueous solution exert an unfavorable effect by shifting the spectral curve of the 90 Sr+ 90 Y beta radiation towards lower energies, the shift being dependent on the concentration of the above interferents in the aqueous phase. This effect can be eliminated by extracting the aqueous phase with the same volume of octyl alcohol or amyl acetate; while removing the organic interferents, this extraction brings about no apparent loss of strontium. (author). 3 tabs., 7 figs., 5 refs

  16. A High-Speed Vision-Based Sensor for Dynamic Vibration Analysis Using Fast Motion Extraction Algorithms

    Dashan Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of image sensor and optics enables the application of vision-based techniques to the non-contact dynamic vibration analysis of large-scale structures. As an emerging technology, a vision-based approach allows for remote measuring and does not bring any additional mass to the measuring object compared with traditional contact measurements. In this study, a high-speed vision-based sensor system is developed to extract structure vibration signals in real time. A fast motion extraction algorithm is required for this system because the maximum sampling frequency of the charge-coupled device (CCD sensor can reach up to 1000 Hz. Two efficient subpixel level motion extraction algorithms, namely the modified Taylor approximation refinement algorithm and the localization refinement algorithm, are integrated into the proposed vision sensor. Quantitative analysis shows that both of the two modified algorithms are at least five times faster than conventional upsampled cross-correlation approaches and achieve satisfactory error performance. The practicability of the developed sensor is evaluated by an experiment in a laboratory environment and a field test. Experimental results indicate that the developed high-speed vision-based sensor system can extract accurate dynamic structure vibration signals by tracking either artificial targets or natural features.

  17. A Simple and Fast Extraction Method for the Determination of Multiclass Antibiotics in Eggs Using LC-MS/MS.

    Wang, Kun; Lin, Kunde; Huang, Xinwen; Chen, Meng

    2017-06-21

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a simple, fast, and specific extraction method for the analysis of 64 antibiotics from nine classes (including sulfonamides, quinolones, tetracyclines, macrolides, lincosamide, nitrofurans, β-lactams, nitromidazoles, and cloramphenicols) in chicken eggs. Briefly, egg samples were simply extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile-water (90:10, v/v) and 0.1 mol·L -1 Na 2 EDTA solution assisted with ultrasonic. The extract was centrifuged, condensed, and directly analyzed on a liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Compared with conventional cleanup methods (passing through solid phase extract cartridges), the established method demonstrated comparable efficiencies in eliminating matrix effects and higher or equivalent recoveries for most of the target compounds. Typical validation parameters including specificity, linearity, matrix effect, limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs), the decision limit, detection capability, trueness, and precision were evaluated. The recoveries of target compounds ranged from 70.8% to 116.1% at three spiking levels (5, 20, and 50 μg·kg -1 ), with relative standard deviations less than 14%. LODs and LOQs were in the ranges of 0.005-2.00 μg·kg -1 and 0.015-6.00 μg·kg -1 for all of the antibiotics, respectively. A total of five antibiotics were successfully detected in 22 commercial eggs from local markets. This work suggests that the method is suitable for the analysis of multiclass antibiotics in eggs.

  18. FAST: FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox

    Travis J. Lawrence

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available FAST (FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox provides simple, powerful open source command-line tools to filter, transform, annotate and analyze biological sequence data. Modeled after the GNU (GNU’s Not Unix Textutils such as grep, cut, and tr, FAST tools such as fasgrep, fascut, and fastr make it easy to rapidly prototype expressive bioinformatic workflows in a compact and generic command vocabulary. Compact combinatorial encoding of data workflows with FAST commands can simplify the documentation and reproducibility of bioinformatic protocols, supporting better transparency in biological data science. Interface self-consistency and conformity with conventions of GNU, Matlab, Perl, BioPerl, R and GenBank help make FAST easy and rewarding to learn. FAST automates numerical, taxonomic, and text-based sorting, selection and transformation of sequence records and alignment sites based on content, index ranges, descriptive tags, annotated features, and in-line calculated analytics, including composition and codon usage. Automated content- and feature-based extraction of sites and support for molecular population genetic statistics makes FAST useful for molecular evolutionary analysis. FAST is portable, easy to install and secure thanks to the relative maturity of its Perl and BioPerl foundations, with stable releases posted to CPAN. Development as well as a publicly accessible Cookbook and Wiki are available on the FAST GitHub repository at https://github.com/tlawrence3/FAST. The default data exchange format in FAST is Multi-FastA (specifically, a restriction of BioPerl FastA format. Sanger and Illumina 1.8+ FastQ formatted files are also supported. FAST makes it easier for non-programmer biologists to interactively investigate and control biological data at the speed of thought.

  19. On fast-ion transport and burn control in Tokamaks

    Wising, F.

    1994-01-01

    Fast ions, generated by e.g. neutral beam injection (NBI), radio frequency (RF) heating or nuclear reactions, play an important role in all large tokamaks. Several issues related to fast ions and burning fusion plasmas are addressed in this thesis. Firstly, a new model of sawtooth oscillations is developed which explains the recent observations that q 0 remains below unity during the entire sawtooth cycle. The model features full reconnection in two current layers and provides a self-consistent description of the plasma states before and after the sawtooth crash. It is applied to the redistribution of fast NBI-ions in JET and comparisons are made with global as well as line-of-sight integrated D-D neutron measurements. Both the new model and the classical Kadomtsev model are found to be in agreement with the measurements. A simplified redistribution model is developed and applied to the redistribution of tritons and thermal ions, again giving reasonable agreement with D-T/D-D neutron measurements. Using a separate method, earlier results on expulsion of NBI-ions are confirmed. Secondly, a numerical study has been carried out of the coupled nonlinear evolution of alpha-particle driven kinetic Alfven wave turbulence and associated alpha transport. The saturated fluctuation spectrum consists of two peaks and results from nonlinear ion Compton scattering-induced transfer of energy from longer to shorter wavelengths. An analytical solution of the saturated spectrum, and estimates of the anomalous alpha diffusion coefficient, are given. The final paper addresses the problem of determining whether an initial temperature profile, established by e.g. auxiliary heating, will evolve to thermonuclear burn or quench under the influence of alpha particle heating and thermal conduction. Explicit burn criteria are presented and the beneficial effects of density and temperature peaking are discussed. 110 refs

  20. Fast, cheap and in control: spectral imaging with handheld devices

    Gooding, Edward A.; Deutsch, Erik R.; Huehnerhoff, Joseph; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2017-05-01

    Remote sensing has moved out of the laboratory and into the real world. Instruments using reflection or Raman imaging modalities become faster, cheaper and more powerful annually. Enabling technologies include virtual slit spectrometer design, high power multimode diode lasers, fast open-loop scanning systems, low-noise IR-sensitive array detectors and low-cost computers with touchscreen interfaces. High-volume manufacturing assembles these components into inexpensive portable or handheld devices that make possible sophisticated decision-making based on robust data analytics. Examples include threat, hazmat and narcotics detection; remote gas sensing; biophotonic screening; environmental remediation and a host of other applications.

  1. The algorithm of fast image stitching based on multi-feature extraction

    Yang, Chunde; Wu, Ge; Shi, Jing

    2018-05-01

    This paper proposed an improved image registration method combining Hu-based invariant moment contour information and feature points detection, aiming to solve the problems in traditional image stitching algorithm, such as time-consuming feature points extraction process, redundant invalid information overload and inefficiency. First, use the neighborhood of pixels to extract the contour information, employing the Hu invariant moment as similarity measure to extract SIFT feature points in those similar regions. Then replace the Euclidean distance with Hellinger kernel function to improve the initial matching efficiency and get less mismatching points, further, estimate affine transformation matrix between the images. Finally, local color mapping method is adopted to solve uneven exposure, using the improved multiresolution fusion algorithm to fuse the mosaic images and realize seamless stitching. Experimental results confirm high accuracy and efficiency of method proposed in this paper.

  2. Flight Research into Simple Adaptive Control on the NASA FAST Aircraft

    Hanson, Curtis E.

    2011-01-01

    A series of simple adaptive controllers with varying levels of complexity were designed, implemented and flight tested on the NASA Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (FAST) aircraft. Lessons learned from the development and flight testing are presented.

  3. Quality control of sputum microscopic examinations for acid fast ...

    Preferred Customer

    in the Southern Region of Ethiopia, and quality control has been initiated as part of this effort. Objective: To evaluate the ... National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme. (TLCP) manual for ..... laboratories in Mexico. Int J Tuberc Lung ...

  4. Fast Control Channel Decoding for LTE UE Power Saving

    Lauridsen, Mads; Jensen, Anders Riis; Mogensen, Preben

    2012-01-01

    in the current TTI. The cost is that some reference signals are not received leading to a degraded channel estimate. Calculations show that this causes an SINR degradation of approximately 0.5 dB, which will result in maximum 4 % throughput loss. Comparing this with energy saving potentials of 5 %-25...... % it is concluded that the FCCD method is a valuable aid to prolong LTE phones' battery lifetime. The results are generated using a two state Markov chain model to simulate traffic and scheduling, and verified mathematically. The work also includes an examination of various data traffic types' on/off relation...... and an evaluation of how the relation affects power consumption. The FCCD method can complement DRX sleep mode since it is applicable when the signal is too aperiodic or fast switching for DRX....

  5. Fast cat-eye effect target recognition based on saliency extraction

    Li, Li; Ren, Jianlin; Wang, Xingbin

    2015-09-01

    Background complexity is a main reason that results in false detection in cat-eye target recognition. Human vision has selective attention property which can help search the salient target from complex unknown scenes quickly and precisely. In the paper, we propose a novel cat-eye effect target recognition method named Multi-channel Saliency Processing before Fusion (MSPF). This method combines traditional cat-eye target recognition with the selective characters of visual attention. Furthermore, parallel processing enables it to achieve fast recognition. Experimental results show that the proposed method performs better in accuracy, robustness and speed compared to other methods.

  6. Fast and robust extraction of hippocampus from MR images for diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease

    Lötjönen, Jyrki; Wolz, Robin; Koikkalainen, Juha

    2011-01-01

    importance in the clinical decision making. We propose a method for computing automatically the volume of hippocampus using a modified multi-atlas segmentation framework, including an improved initialization of the framework and the correction of partial volume effect. The method produced a high similarity......Assessment of temporal lobe atrophy from magnetic resonance images is a part of clinical guidelines for the diagnosis of prodromal Alzheimer's disease. As hippocampus is known to be among the first areas affected by the disease, fast and robust definition of hippocampus volume would be of great...

  7. Control of temperature distribution in a supercritical gas extraction tower

    Yoshida, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Honda, G.; Iwama, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Odagiri, S.

    1989-01-01

    A control scheme recently proposed by the authors is applied to the control of axial temperature distribution in a bench-scale supercritical-gas extractor. The extraction unit is constructed from a packed column 3 m long covered by a coaxial cylindrical casing. Although the actual structure of the extractor is very complicated, it is modeled by a simple double-pipe and therefore its mathematical model can be described by a pair of partial differential equations. The models are reduced to a lumped parameter system with a finite dimension by use of the finite Fourier transform technique. The controller is designed on the basis of the reduced model. An extended Kalman filter is used to estimate simultaneously the state variables and the unknown parameters. The results demonstrate that both the state estimation and the controller performance are satisfactory. This implies that the control scheme is very robust in spite of the incompleteness of the model used

  8. Evaluation and application of a fast module in a PLC based interlock and control system

    Zaera-Sanz, M

    2009-01-01

    The LHC Beam Interlock system requires a controller performing a simple matrix function to collect the different beam dump requests. To satisfy the expected safety level of the Interlock, the system should be robust and reliable. The PLC is a promising candidate to fulfil both aspects but too slow to meet the expected response time which is of the order of μseconds. Siemens has introduced a 'so called' fast module (FM352-5 Boolean Processor). It provides independent and extremely fast control of a process within a larger control system using an onboard processor, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to execute code in parallel which results in extremely fast scan times. It is interesting to investigate its features and to evaluate it as a possible candidate for the beam interlock system. This paper publishes the results of this study. As well, this paper could be useful for other applications requiring fast processing using a PLC.

  9. Catecholamine levels in a Ramadan fasting model in rats: a case control study

    Pakize Gamze Erten Bucaktepe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Eating habits as well as physical exercise are very important for a healthy lifespan. Ramadan-type fasting, which is food and water avoidance during the daylight period for four weeks, has drawn attention due to its positive impacts on metabolism and health. The aim of this study was to compare the blood and urine catecholamine (CA levels in fasting and non-fasting rats, in terms of stress response. A total of 20 male rats were randomly divided into a fasting group and a control group. Four weeks later, blood and urine samples were taken after decapitation. Analysis of CAs was done using high-performance liquid chromatography with florescence detection (HPLC-FLD. The dopamine (DA, adrenaline (ADR and noradrenaline (NA blood and urine concentrations were found to be higher in the fasting group compared to the control group, but the difference was statistically significant only for the blood DA levels (p < 0.05. In the fasting group, the blood values of ADR and NA correlated with each other but not with the DA levels, whereas there was correlation among the urine levels of DA, ADR and NA. In the control group, the blood and urine values of DA, ADR and NA correlated with each other. The differences observed in the blood and urine CAs indicate a specific regulation of CAs in Ramadan-type fasting, which needs to be investigated thoroughly in future studies.

  10. Analysis of control rod worth in experimental fast reactor JOYO

    Arii, Y.; Aoyama, T.; Okimoto, Y.; Yoshida, A.; Mizoo, N.

    1988-01-01

    In JOYO, the measurement of control rod worths have been carried out in the beginning of the each cycle, using both period method and neutron source multiplication method. In this paper, the calculational method of control rod worths in the design stage and the comparison with the design values and measured ones are shown. The reasons that the control rod worths change slightly in each cycle, are also investigated. (author). 13 figs, 12 tabs

  11. NCC-RANSAC: a fast plane extraction method for 3-D range data segmentation.

    Qian, Xiangfei; Ye, Cang

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a new plane extraction (PE) method based on the random sample consensus (RANSAC) approach. The generic RANSAC-based PE algorithm may over-extract a plane, and it may fail in case of a multistep scene where the RANSAC procedure results in multiple inlier patches that form a slant plane straddling the steps. The CC-RANSAC PE algorithm successfully overcomes the latter limitation if the inlier patches are separate. However, it fails if the inlier patches are connected. A typical scenario is a stairway with a stair wall where the RANSAC plane-fitting procedure results in inliers patches in the tread, riser, and stair wall planes. They connect together and form a plane. The proposed method, called normal-coherence CC-RANSAC (NCC-RANSAC), performs a normal coherence check to all data points of the inlier patches and removes the data points whose normal directions are contradictory to that of the fitted plane. This process results in separate inlier patches, each of which is treated as a candidate plane. A recursive plane clustering process is then executed to grow each of the candidate planes until all planes are extracted in their entireties. The RANSAC plane-fitting and the recursive plane clustering processes are repeated until no more planes are found. A probabilistic model is introduced to predict the success probability of the NCC-RANSAC algorithm and validated with real data of a 3-D time-of-flight camera-SwissRanger SR4000. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method extracts more accurate planes with less computational time than the existing RANSAC-based methods.

  12. Fast copper extraction from printed circuit boards using supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Calgaro, C O; Schlemmer, D F; da Silva, M D C R; Maziero, E V; Tanabe, E H; Bertuol, D A

    2015-11-01

    Technological development and intensive marketing support the growth in demand for electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), for which printed circuit boards (PCBs) are vital components. As these devices become obsolete after short periods, waste PCBs present a problem and require recycling. PCBs are composed of ceramics, polymers, and metals, particularly Cu, which is present in highest percentages. The aim of this study was to develop an innovative method to recover Cu from the PCBs of old mobile phones, obtaining faster reaction kinetics by means of leaching with supercritical CO2 and co-solvents. The PCBs from waste mobile phones were characterized, and evaluation was made of the reaction kinetics during leaching at atmospheric pressure and using supercritical CO2 with H2O2 and H2SO4 as co-solvents. The results showed that the PCBs contained 34.83 wt% of Cu. It was found that the supercritical extraction was 9 times faster, compared to atmospheric pressure extraction. After 20 min of supercritical leaching, approximately 90% of the Cu contained in the PCB was extracted using a 1:20 solid:liquid ratio and 20% of H2O2 and H2SO4 (2.5 M). These results demonstrate the efficiency of the process. Therefore the supercritical CO2 employment in the PCBs recycling is a promising alternative and the CO2 is environmentally acceptable and reusable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Design of Measurement and Control System of Composite Fast Transfer Switch Based on PLC

    ZHANG Hong-yi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The fast transfer switch gets more extensive application in the power supply system along with the raising of power supply requirement for continuity and reliability in the sensitivity loads such as in airport,military place,hospital and large scale industrial production line. Therefore it is important that how to make fast transfer switch run safely and reliably. The paper expatiated the structure and principle of a fast transfer switch based on mechanical and electronic compound technology,and,according to the basic requirement and the characteristic of the fast transfer switch,a PLC mastered measuring and controlling system has been designed to raise the operation reliability of the fast transfer switch.

  14. Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces to Control Aichi Virus.

    D'Souza, Doris H; Dice, Lezlee; Davidson, P Michael

    2016-06-01

    Aqueous Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts possess antimicrobial properties with limited information available on their antiviral effects. Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis. Vaccines are currently unavailable to prevent their disease transmission. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effects of aqueous H. sabdariffa extracts against AiV. AiV at ~5 log PFU/ml was incubated with undiluted (200 mg/ml), 1:1 (100 mg/ml) or 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted aqueous hibiscus extract (pH 3.6), phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control), or malic acid (pH 3.0, acid control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Treatments were stopped by serially diluting in cell-culture media containing fetal bovine serum and titers were determined using plaque assays on confluent Vero cells. Each treatment was replicated thrice and assayed in duplicate. AiV did not show any significant reduction with 1:1 (100 mg/ml) or 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted aqueous hibiscus extracts or malic acid after 0.5, 1, or 2 h at 37 °C. However, AiV titers were reduced to non-detectable levels after 24 h with all the three tested concentrations, while malic acid showed only 0.93 log PFU/ml reduction after 24 h. AiV was reduced by 0.5 and 0.9 log PFU/ml with undiluted extracts (200 mg/ml) after 2 and 6 h, respectively. AiV treated with 1:1 (100 mg/ml) and 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted extracts showed a minimal ~0.3 log PFU/ml reduction after 6 h. These extracts show promise to reduce AiV titers mainly through alteration of virus structure, though higher concentrations may have improved effects.

  15. Activity test of various mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract fractions to decrease fasting blood cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation activity in diabetic mice

    Saikhu Akhmad Husen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of various fractions of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract to the changes of the fasting blood cholesterol and serum malondialdehyde (MDA levels on diabetic mice (Mus musculus. Thirty 3-4 months old male mice strain BALB/c, weight 20-30 g were divided into six groups. The first group was KN as a non diabetic control group, KD as a diabetic control, KM as a group of diabetic mice treated with metformin, and NP, SP, and P as the treatment groups that were treated by using three different fractions from mangosteen pericarp extract, non polar, semi polar, and polar respectively. The induction of Diabetes mellitus was done by the injection of STZ, and the mice were given a high fat diet treatment to induce the hiperlipidemia condition using lard for three weeks. The blood cholesterol levels were measured in all groups before and after the injection of lard, and day 1, 7, and 14 of treatment as well. The serum MDA level as the indicator of lipid peroxidation were measured by using QuantiChrom TBARS Assay Kit (DTBA-100. The data of cholesterol levels were statistically analyzed by t-test, while the data of serum MDA levels were analyzed by variance analysis followed by Duncan test. The results showed that the polar fraction of mangosteen pericarp had effect to decrease the fasting blood cholesterol level in mice, however the non polar and semi polar fraction had no simmilar effect. All of the fractions has shown significant effect to decrease the serum MDA level in mice. Key words: cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, Garcinia mangostana, malondialdehyde (mda, obesity.

  16. Dynamically controlled energy dissipation for fast magnetic vortex switching

    Badea, R.; Berezovsky, J.

    2017-09-01

    Manipulation of vortex states in magnetic media provides new routes towards information storage and processing technology. The typical slow relaxation times (˜100 ns) of magnetic vortex dynamics may present an obstacle to the realization of these applications. Here, we investigate how a vortex state in a ferromagnetic microdisk can be manipulated in a way that translates the vortex core while enhancing energy dissipation to rapidly damp the vortex dynamics. We use time-resolved differential magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy to measure the motion of the vortex core in response to applied magnetic fields. We first map out how the vortex core becomes sequentially trapped by pinning sites as it translates across the disk. After applying a fast magnetic field step to translate the vortex from one pinning site to another, we observe long-lived dynamics of the vortex as it settles to the new equilibrium. We then demonstrate how the addition of a short (<10 ns) magnetic field pulse can induce additional energy dissipation, strongly damping the long-lived dynamics. A model of the vortex dynamics using the Thiele equation of motion explains the mechanism behind this effect.

  17. Fast GPU-based spot extraction for energy-dispersive X-ray Laue diffraction

    Alghabi, F.; Schipper, U.; Kolb, A.; Send, S.; Abboud, A.; Pashniak, N.; Pietsch, U.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method for fast online analysis of X-ray Laue spots taken by means of an energy-dispersive X-ray 2D detector. Current pnCCD detectors typically operate at some 100 Hz (up to a maximum of 400 Hz) and have a resolution of 384 × 384 pixels, future devices head for even higher pixel counts and frame rates. The proposed online data analysis is based on a computer utilizing multiple Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), which allow for fast and parallel data processing. Our multi-GPU based algorithm is compliant with the rules of stream-based data processing, for which GPUs are optimized. The paper's main contribution is therefore an alternative algorithm for the determination of spot positions and energies over the full sequence of pnCCD data frames. Furthermore, an improved background suppression algorithm is presented.The resulting system is able to process data at the maximum acquisition rate of 400 Hz. We present a detailed analysis of the spot positions and energies deduced from a prior (single-core) CPU-based and the novel GPU-based data processing, showing that the parallel computed results using the GPU implementation are at least of the same quality as prior CPU-based results. Furthermore, the GPU-based algorithm is able to speed up the data processing by a factor of 7 (in comparison to single-core CPU-based algorithm) which effectively makes the detector system more suitable for online data processing

  18. Piecewise affine control for fast unmanned ground vehicles

    Benine Neto , André; Grand , Christophe

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) may experience skidding when moving at high speeds, and therefore have its safety jeopardized. For this reason the nonlinear dynamics of lateral tire forces must be taken into account into the design of steering controllers for autonomous vehicles. This paper presents the design of a state feedback piecewise affine controller applied to an UGV to coordinate the steering and torque distribution inputs in order to reduce vehicle skidding on...

  19. Fast non-linear extraction of plasma equilibrium parameters using a neural network mapping

    Lister, J.B.; Schnurrenberger, H.

    1990-07-01

    The shaping of non-circular plasmas requires a non-linear mapping between the measured diagnostic signals and selected equilibrium parameters. The particular configuration of Neural Network known as the multi-layer perceptron provides a powerful and general technique for formulating an arbitrary continuous non-linear multi-dimensional mapping. This technique has been successfully applied to the extraction of equilibrium parameters from measurements of single-null diverted plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak; the results are compared with a purely linear mapping. The method is promising, and hardware implementation is straightforward. (author) 15 refs., 7 figs

  20. Fast non-linear extraction of plasma equilibrium parameters using a neural network mapping

    Lister, J.B.; Schnurrenberger, H.

    1991-01-01

    The shaping of non-circular plasmas requires a non-linear mapping between the measured diagnostic signals and selected equilibrium parameters. The particular configuration of neural network known as the multilayer perceptron provides a powerful and general technique for formulating an arbitrary continuous non-linear multi-dimensional mapping. This technique has been successfully applied to the extraction of equilibrium parameters from measurements of single-null diverted plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak; the results are compared with a purely linear mapping. The method is promising, and hardware implementation is straightforward. (author). 17 refs, 8 figs, 2 tab

  1. The Case for Intelligent Propulsion Control for Fast Engine Response

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Frederick, Dean K.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2009-01-01

    Damaged aircraft have occasionally had to rely solely on thrust to maneuver as a consequence of losing hydraulic power needed to operate flight control surfaces. The lack of successful landings in these cases inspired research into more effective methods of utilizing propulsion-only control. That research demonstrated that one of the major contributors to the difficulty in landing is the slow response of the engines as compared to using traditional flight control. To address this, research is being conducted into ways of making the engine more responsive under emergency conditions. This can be achieved by relaxing controller limits, adjusting schedules, and/or redesigning the regulators to increase bandwidth. Any of these methods can enable faster response at the potential expense of engine life and increased likelihood of stall. However, an example sensitivity analysis revealed a complex interaction of the limits and the difficulty in predicting the way to achieve the fastest response. The sensitivity analysis was performed on a realistic engine model, and demonstrated that significantly faster engine response can be achieved compared to standard Bill of Material control. However, the example indicates the need for an intelligent approach to controller limit adjustment in order for the potential to be fulfilled.

  2. A simple and fast method based on mixed hemimicelles coated magnetite nanoparticles for simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic pollutants.

    Asgharinezhad, Ali Akbar; Ebrahimzadeh, Homeira

    2016-01-01

    One of the considerable and disputable areas in analytical chemistry is a single-step simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic pollutants. In this research, a simple and fast coextraction of acidic and basic pollutants (with different polarities) with the aid of magnetic dispersive micro-solid phase extraction based on mixed hemimicelles assembly was introduced for the first time. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles as an efficient sorbent was successfully applied to adsorb 4-nitrophenol and 4-chlorophenol as two acidic and chlorinated aromatic amines as basic model compounds. Using a central composite design methodology combined with desirability function approach, the optimal experimental conditions were evaluated. The opted conditions were pH = 10; concentration of CTAB = 0.86 mmol L(-1); sorbent amount = 55.5 mg; sorption time = 11.0 min; no salt addition to the sample, type, and volume of the eluent = 120 μL methanol containing 5% acetic acid and 0.01 mol L(-1) HCl; and elution time = 1.0 min. Under the optimum conditions, detection limits and linear dynamic ranges were achieved in the range of 0.05-0.1 and 0.25-500 μg L(-1), respectively. The percent of extraction recoveries and relative standard deviations (n = 5) were in the range of 71.4-98.0 and 4.5-6.5, respectively. The performance of the optimized method was certified by coextraction of other acidic and basic compounds. Ultimately, the applicability of the method was successfully confirmed by the extraction and determination of the target analytes in various water samples, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  3. Relationship Between Wood Color Parameters Measured by the CIELab System and Extractive and Phenol Content in Acacia mangium and Vochysia guatemalensis from Fast-Growth Plantations

    Carolina Tenorio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneity of color distribution between sapwood and heartwood limits the market for wood from fast-growth plantations of tropical species. Wood color is associated with wood extractives contents. This study presents the relationship between wood color parameters measured by the CIELab color system and total amount of extractives and phenolic-type extractives in ethanol-toluene and hot water extracts of wood from two fast-growth plantation species. The results demonstrated that the difference in sapwood and hardwood color in Vochysia guatemalensis and Acacia mangium is caused by lower concentrations of extractives in sapwood of both species. Additionally, variations in total extractive and phenolic content have different effects on the color parameters (L*, a* and b* of both species studied. In Vochysia guatemalensis wood, parameter L* decreases as total extractive and phenolic content increases; however, parameter a* increases as the content of extractives and phenols increases. In Acacia mangium, the amount of phenols showed no relationship with the color parameters. The ethanol-toluene total extractive content, however, shows a relationship with several color parameters. An increase in the content of total extractives in water and ethanol-toluene increases parameter a*, but decreases parameter L*.

  4. Generic solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for fast determination of drugs in biological fluids.

    Schellen, Anniek; Ooms, Bert; van de Lagemaat, Dick; Vreeken, Rob; van Dongen, William D

    2003-05-25

    A generic method was developed for the fast determination of a wide range of drugs in serum or plasma. The methodology comprises generic solid-phase extraction, on-line coupled to gradient HPLC with tandem mass spectrometric detection (SPE-LC-MS/MS). The individual components of the SPE-LC-MS/MS system were optimized in an integrated approach to maximize the application range and minimize the method development time. The optimized generic SPE-LC-MS/MS protocol was evaluated for 11 drugs with different physicochemical properties. Good quantification for 10 out of 11 of the pharmaceuticals in serum or plasma could be readily achieved. The quantitative assays gave recoveries better than 95%, lower quantification limits of 0.2-2.0 ng/ml, acceptable precision and accuracy and good linearity over 2-4 orders of magnitude. Carry-over was determined to be in the range of 0.02-0.10%, without optimization.

  5. Vibration extraction based on fast NCC algorithm and high-speed camera.

    Lei, Xiujun; Jin, Yi; Guo, Jie; Zhu, Chang'an

    2015-09-20

    In this study, a high-speed camera system is developed to complete the vibration measurement in real time and to overcome the mass introduced by conventional contact measurements. The proposed system consists of a notebook computer and a high-speed camera which can capture the images as many as 1000 frames per second. In order to process the captured images in the computer, the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) template tracking algorithm with subpixel accuracy is introduced. Additionally, a modified local search algorithm based on the NCC is proposed to reduce the computation time and to increase efficiency significantly. The modified algorithm can rapidly accomplish one displacement extraction 10 times faster than the traditional template matching without installing any target panel onto the structures. Two experiments were carried out under laboratory and outdoor conditions to validate the accuracy and efficiency of the system performance in practice. The results demonstrated the high accuracy and efficiency of the camera system in extracting vibrating signals.

  6. On-line control of a liquid-liquid extraction column by the modal control method

    Bonnefoi, P.; Poujol, A.; Zwingelstein, G.; Dargier, C.; Rouyer, H.

    1977-02-01

    The application of modal analysis to the on-line control of a liquid-liquid extraction column is presented. This process is used in reprocessing for U purification. U in the aqueous acid phase is extracted by a solvent flowing at counter-current. The process is described by 4 nonlinear equations and gives the U and acid concentrations in the two phases. An approximative model is established adapted to the control of the column. Some results of a numerical simulation are given when a single mode is controled. They show that a single sensor allows a good control [fr

  7. Plant Control Concept for the Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    Kim, Eui Kwang; Kim, S. O.

    2010-12-01

    A power plant is designed for incorporation into a utility's grid system and follows the load demand through the steam generator, intermediate heat exchanger(IHX), from the nuclear core. During the load-following transients, various plant parameters must be controlled to protect the reactor core and other components in the plant. The purpose of this report is to review design considerations to establish SFR plant control and to design plant control concepts. The governing equations and solution procedure of the computer code to calculate plant temperature conditions during the part-load operation was reviewed and 4 types of plant operation concepts were designed, and the results of the calculations were compared

  8. Seismic appraisal test of control rod drive mechanism of China experiment fast reactor

    Song Qing; Yang Hongyi; Jing Yueqing; Wen Jing; Liu Guijuan; Sun Lei

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the control rod drive mechanism in pool type sodium-cooled fast reactor is the characterized by long, thin, and geometric nonlinearity, and the seismic load is multiple activation. The anti-seismic evaluation is always paid great attention by the countries developing the technology worldwide. This article introduces the seismic appraisal test of the control rod drive mechanism of China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) performed on a seismic platform which is vertical shaft style and multiple activation. The result of the test shows the structural integrity and the function of the control rod drive mechanism could meet the design requirements of the earthquake intensity. (authors)

  9. Fast and reliable methods for extracting functional connectivity in large populations

    Roudi, Yasser; Tyrcha, Joanna; Hertz, John

    2009-01-01

    in that time bin, and 1 if it has emitted one spike or more. One then can construct an Ising model, P(s )=Z-1exp{h.s+sJs} for the spike patterns with the same means and pair correlations as the data, using Boltzmann learning, which is in principle exact.  The elements Jij , of the matrix J can be considered...... to be functional couplings. However, Boltzmann learning is prohibitively time-consuming for large networks. Here, we compare the results from five fast approximate methods for finding the couplings with those from Boltzmann learning.      We used data from a simulated network of spiking neurons operating...... in a balanced state of asynchronous firing with a mean rate of ~10 Hz for excitatory neurons. Employing a bin size of 10 ms, we performed Boltzmann learning to fit Ising models for populations of size N up to 200 excitatory neurons chosen randomly from the 800 in the simulated network.  We studied the following...

  10. Control fast or control smart: When should invading pathogens be controlled?

    Robin N Thompson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The intuitive response to an invading pathogen is to start disease management as rapidly as possible, since this would be expected to minimise the future impacts of disease. However, since more spread data become available as an outbreak unfolds, processes underpinning pathogen transmission can almost always be characterised more precisely later in epidemics. This allows the future progression of any outbreak to be forecast more accurately, and so enables control interventions to be targeted more precisely. There is also the chance that the outbreak might die out without any intervention whatsoever, making prophylactic control unnecessary. Optimal decision-making involves continuously balancing these potential benefits of waiting against the possible costs of further spread. We introduce a generic, extensible data-driven algorithm based on parameter estimation and outbreak simulation for making decisions in real-time concerning when and how to control an invading pathogen. The Control Smart Algorithm (CSA resolves the trade-off between the competing advantages of controlling as soon as possible and controlling later when more information has become available. We show-using a generic mathematical model representing the transmission of a pathogen of agricultural animals or plants through a population of farms or fields-how the CSA allows the timing and level of deployment of vaccination or chemical control to be optimised. In particular, the algorithm outperforms simpler strategies such as intervening when the outbreak size reaches a pre-specified threshold, or controlling when the outbreak has persisted for a threshold length of time. This remains the case even if the simpler methods are fully optimised in advance. Our work highlights the potential benefits of giving careful consideration to the question of when to start disease management during emerging outbreaks, and provides a concrete framework to allow policy-makers to make this decision.

  11. Control fast or control smart: When should invading pathogens be controlled?

    Thompson, Robin N; Gilligan, Christopher A; Cunniffe, Nik J

    2018-02-01

    The intuitive response to an invading pathogen is to start disease management as rapidly as possible, since this would be expected to minimise the future impacts of disease. However, since more spread data become available as an outbreak unfolds, processes underpinning pathogen transmission can almost always be characterised more precisely later in epidemics. This allows the future progression of any outbreak to be forecast more accurately, and so enables control interventions to be targeted more precisely. There is also the chance that the outbreak might die out without any intervention whatsoever, making prophylactic control unnecessary. Optimal decision-making involves continuously balancing these potential benefits of waiting against the possible costs of further spread. We introduce a generic, extensible data-driven algorithm based on parameter estimation and outbreak simulation for making decisions in real-time concerning when and how to control an invading pathogen. The Control Smart Algorithm (CSA) resolves the trade-off between the competing advantages of controlling as soon as possible and controlling later when more information has become available. We show-using a generic mathematical model representing the transmission of a pathogen of agricultural animals or plants through a population of farms or fields-how the CSA allows the timing and level of deployment of vaccination or chemical control to be optimised. In particular, the algorithm outperforms simpler strategies such as intervening when the outbreak size reaches a pre-specified threshold, or controlling when the outbreak has persisted for a threshold length of time. This remains the case even if the simpler methods are fully optimised in advance. Our work highlights the potential benefits of giving careful consideration to the question of when to start disease management during emerging outbreaks, and provides a concrete framework to allow policy-makers to make this decision.

  12. Extraction of gadolinium from high flux isotope reactor control plates

    Kohring, M.W.

    1987-04-01

    Gadolinium-153 is an important radioisotope used in the diagnosis of various bone disorders. Recent medical and technical developments in the detection and cure of osteoporosis, a bone disease affecting an estimated 50 million people, have greatly increased the demand for this isotope. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has produced 153 Gd since 1980 primarily through the irradiation of a natural europium-oxide powder followed by the chemical separation of the gadolinium fraction from the europium material. Due to the higher demand for 153 Gd, an alternative production method to supplement this process has been investigated. This process involves the extraction of gadolinium from the europium-bearing region of highly radioactive, spent control plates used at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) with a subsequent re-irradiation of the extracted material for the production of the 153 Gd. Based on the results of experimental and calculational analyses, up to 25 grams of valuable gadolinium (≥60% enriched in 152 Gd) resides in the europium-bearing region of the HFIR control components of which 70% is recoverable. At a specific activity yield of 40 curies of 153 Gd for each gram of gadolinium re-irradiated, 700 one-curie sources can be produced from each control plate assayed

  13. Fast control of a M.A. 23 manipulator

    Mouhamed, Mayez al.

    1981-07-01

    The present paper deals with the problem of the control of manipulating robots. Several methodologies used to define the basic elements of a command language are described. Our main interest lies in the movement coordination level. For this purpose we shall study in more detail the functions built around a module representing a geometrical model. Then the problem of effort analysis by computer is investigated. Two heuristic methods enabling the computation of the forces applied to the effector are proposed. The functions described above are implemented in a 16 bits microprocessor unit (INTEL 8086) associated with a floating point coprocessor (INTEL 8087). Finally, the performance of the control system, particularly the 8 ms command cycle and the low cost of system are discussed [fr

  14. Fast core prediction simulator for load follow control

    Yim, Man Sung; Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Un Chul

    1990-01-01

    An operator-assisting system for the reactor core control under power changing operating condition was developed. The system is consisted of core simulator routine and Xenon and Iodine initial condition generation routine. The initial condition generation routine, without exactly knowing the core status, is capable of providing accurate number densities and axial offset conditions of Xenon and Iodine after several hours of predictor- corrector calculations using the plant instrumentation signals of power level and power axial offset. The core simulator routine, even with the two node core model, gives equivalently accurate results as the one-dimensional model for the core behaviour simulation under power changing condition and can provide proper control strategies for load follow operation. The core simulator can also be used by the operator to develop remedial actions to restore the distorted power distribution by using its prediction capability

  15. Controlling microwave signals by means of slow and fast light effects in SOA-EA structures

    Sales, Salvador; Öhman, Filip; Capmany, José

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel scheme for the control of microwave signals in the optical domain. We propose the use of alternating amplifying and absorbing sections to implement phase control by using fast and slow light effects in semiconductors. The potential benefits from the proposed semiconductor optic...

  16. FPGA based, modular, configurable controller with fast synchronous optical network

    Graczyk, R.; Pozniak, K.T.; Romaniuk, R.S. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Electronic Systems

    2006-07-01

    The paper describes a configurable controller equipped with programmable VLSI FPGA circuit, universal expansion modules PMC, synchronous, optical, multi-gigabit links, commonly used industrial and computer communication interfaces, Ethernet 100TB, system of automatic initialization ACE etc. There are characterized the basic functional characteristics of the device. The possibilities of its usage in various work modes were presented. Realization of particular blocks of the device were discussed. Resulting, during the realization of this project, new hardware layer solutions were also characterized. (orig.)

  17. FPGA based, modular, configurable controller with fast synchronous optical network

    Graczyk, R.; Pozniak, K.T.; Romaniuk, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a configurable controller equipped with programmable VLSI FPGA circuit, universal expansion modules PMC, synchronous, optical, multi-gigabit links, commonly used industrial and computer communication interfaces, Ethernet 100TB, system of automatic initialization ACE etc. There are characterized the basic functional characteristics of the device. The possibilities of its usage in various work modes were presented. Realization of particular blocks of the device were discussed. Resulting, during the realization of this project, new hardware layer solutions were also characterized. (orig.)

  18. Moringa Oleifera leaf extract increases plasma antioxidant status associated with reduced plasma malondialdehyde concentration without hypoglycemia in fasting healthy volunteers.

    Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Khannongpho, Teerawat; Siriwatanapaiboon, Marent; Sirikwanpong, Sukrit; Dahlan, Winai; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2016-12-29

    To investigate the effect of Moringa Oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) on plasma glucose concentration and antioxidant status in healthy volunteers. A randomized crossover design was used in this study. Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either 200 mL of warm water (10 cases) or 200 mL of MOLE (500 mg dried extract, 10 cases). Blood samples were drawn at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min for measuring fasting plasma glucose (FPG), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA). FPG concentration was not signifificantly different between warm water and MOLE. The consumption of MOLE acutely improved both FRAP and TEAC, with increases after 30 min of 30 μmol/L FeSO 4 equivalents and 0.18 μmol/L Trolox equivalents, respectively. The change in MDA level from baseline was signifificantly lowered after the ingestion of MOLE at 30, 60, and 90 min. In addition, FRAP level was negatively correlated with plasma MDA level after an intake of MOLE. MOLE increased plasma antioxidant capacity without hypoglycemia in human. The consumption of MOLE may reduce the risk factors associated with chronic degenerative diseases.

  19. An integrated approach to the biomechanics and motor control of cricket fast bowling techniques.

    Glazier, Paul S; Wheat, Jonathan S

    2014-01-01

    To date, scientific investigations into the biomechanical aspects of cricket fast bowling techniques have predominantly focused on identifying the mechanical factors that may predispose fast bowlers to lower back injury with a relative paucity of research being conducted on the technical features that underpin proficient fast bowling performance. In this review paper, we critique the scientific literature examining fast bowling performance. We argue that, although many published investigations have provided some useful insights into the biomechanical factors that contribute to a high ball release speed and, to a lesser extent, bowling accuracy, this research has not made a substantive contribution to knowledge enhancement and has only had a very minor influence on coaching practice. To significantly enhance understanding of cricket fast bowling techniques and, therefore, have greater impact on practice, we recommend that future scientific research adopts an interdisciplinary focus, integrating biomechanical measurements with the analytical tools and concepts of dynamical systems motor control theory. The use of qualitative (topological) analysis techniques, in particular, promises to increase understanding of the coordinative movement patterns that define 'technique' in cricket fast bowling and potentially help distinguish between functional and dysfunctional aspects of technique for individual fast bowlers.

  20. Hardware support for software controlled fast reconfiguration of performance counters

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2013-06-18

    Hardware support for software controlled reconfiguration of performance counters may include a plurality of performance counters collecting one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A storage element stores data value representing a time interval, and a timer element reads the data value and detects expiration of the time interval based on the data value and generates a signal. A plurality of configuration registers stores a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine receives the signal and selects a configuration register from the plurality of configuration registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters.

  1. Fast Coordinated Control of DFIG Wind Turbine Generators for Low and High Voltage Ride-Through

    Yun Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fast coordinated control scheme of the rotor side converter (RSC, the Direct Current (DC chopper and the grid side converter (GSC of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG wind turbine generators (WTGs to improve the low voltage ride through (LVRT and high voltage ride through (HVRT capability of the DFIG WTGs. The characteristics of DFIG WTGs under voltage sags and swells were studied focusing on the DFIG WTG stator flux and rotor voltages during the transient periods of grid voltage changes. The protection schemes of the rotor crowbar circuit and the DC chopper circuit were proposed considering the characteristics of the DFIG WTGs during voltage changes. The fast coordinated control of RSC and GSC were developed based on the characteristic analysis in order to realize efficient LVRT and HVRT of the DFIG WTGs. The proposed fast coordinated control schemes were verified by time domain simulations using Matlab-Simulink.

  2. Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake.

    de Graaf, Cees; Kok, Frans J

    2010-05-01

    This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings of a number of studies show that foods that can be eaten quickly lead to high food intake and low satiating effects-the reason being that these foods only provide brief periods of sensory exposure, which give the human body insufficient cues for satiation. Future research should focus on the underlying physiological, neurological and molecular mechanisms through which our current eating environment affects our control of food intake.

  3. Extraction of 152Gd from HFIR control plates

    Kohring, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The primary method of 153 Gd production at the Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL) research reactors since 1980 has been the irradiation of a natural europium oxide powder (Eu 2 O 3 ) followed by the chemical extraction of the gadolinium fraction. The specific activity of the resulting source is 45 to 50 Ci/g with a radiochemical purity of > 99.99%. A potential alternative method involves the extraction of gadolinium from the europium-bearing region of highly radioactive, spent control plates used in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), followed by neutron irradiation. This alternative to the traditional process is attractive in that chemical separation of the europium and gadolinium occurs before the 153 Gd production irradiation, thus reducing process and decay losses and, most significantly, the gadolinium is highly enriched in the parent isotope, 152 Gd. Investigation into the usefulness of the gadolinium isotopes contained in spent HFIR control plates began in the late 1960s. However, separation of the gadolinium from the europium to the purity levels required for a marketable specific activity could not be attained. Due to the recent increase in 153 Gd demand and separation process improvements, research into this valuable source of parent material was resurrected

  4. Overview of environmental control aspects for the gas-cooled fast reactor

    Nolan, A.M.

    1981-05-01

    Environmental control aspects relating to release of radionuclides have been analyzed for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). Information on environmental control systems was obtained for the most recent GCFR designs, and was used to evaluate the adequacy of these systems. The GCFR has been designed by the General Atomic Company as an alternative to other fast breeder reactor designs, such as the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). The GCFR design includes mixed oxide fuel and helium coolant. The environmental impact of expected radionuclide releases from normal operation of the GCFR was evaluated using estimated collective dose equivalent commitments resulting from 1 year of plant operation. The results were compared to equivalent estimates for the Light Water Reactor (LWR) and High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). A discussion of uncertainties in system performances, tritium production rates, and radiation quality factors for tritium is included

  5. An analysis of control scheme and test results of fast feedback power supply

    Gupta, Shivam Kumar; Gupta, C.N.; Shah, Kunal; Makwana, Moti

    2017-01-01

    Real time Plasma Position Control is essential for obtaining long duration plasma in tokamaks. For that purpose four external coils has been installed in toroidal direction. Magnetic field of these coils interact with the plasma and tries to keep it radially stable in vacuum vessel to avoid direct contact of plasma to wall of tokamak. A fast feedback power supply has been installed in Aditya Tokamak which is able to set the appropriate current in either direction and current magnitude in external coils on the fast scale. In this paper, an analysis of control scheme and testing of Fast Feedback Power Supply (FFPS) has been described. FFPS is IGBT based H-bridge inverter programmable power supply

  6. Heterocyclic aromatic amine content in chicken burgers and chicken nuggets sold in fast food restaurants and effects of green tea extract and microwave thawing on their formation

    The aims of the current study were to investigate the presence of carcinogenic and mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in chicken burgers (CBs) and chicken nuggets (CNs) purchased from fast food restaurants and the effects of green tea extract addition (GTE) to the covering material as wel...

  7. Fast Swinnex Filtration (FSF): A fast and robust sampling and extraction method suitable for metabolomics analysis of cultures grown in complex media

    McCloskey, Douglas; Utrilla, Jose; Naviaux, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    , we develop a fast-filtration method using pressuredriven Swinnex filters. We show that the method is fast enough to provide an accurate snapshot of intracellular metabolism, reduces matrix interference from the media to improve the number of compounds that can be detected, and is applicable...... to anaerobic and aerobic liquid cultures grown in a variety of culturing systems. Furthermore, we apply the fast filtration method to investigate differences in the absolute intracellular metabolite levels of anaerobic cultures grown in minimal and complex media....

  8. Plant extracts in the control of Phytophthora cryptogea.

    Orlikowski, L B

    2001-01-01

    Grapefruit extract at dose 40 micrograms/cm3 inhibited Phytophtora cryptogea linear growth about 50% and almost completely suppressed zoosporangia formation. Drenching of gerbera plants with the extract at dose 165 micrograms/cm3 reduced population density of the pathogen about 70% and this high efficacy was noted at least one month after application. Treatment of gerberas with grapefruit extract resulted in protection of about 50% of plants against the pathogen. Biological activity of purple coneflower extract was lower than extract from grapefruit. Significant decrease of population density of the pathogen during the first 5 days and increase of gerbera healthy stand was observed, however, in peat treated with that extract.

  9. Basic principles of accounting and control of nuclear materials in the BOR-60 experimental fast reactor

    Gryazev, V.M.; Gadzhiev, G.I.; Alekseev, I.N.

    1979-01-01

    Under a contract with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the V.I. Lenin Atomic Reactor Research Institute is currently carrying out a study of ways of organizing a nuclear materials accounting and control system for the BOR-60 fast reactor. Some results of this study are presented in the paper. The special physical and technological features of fast reactors create additional difficulties in safeguards systems and give rise to a number of new possibilities for the illicit removal of nuclear materials. These questions are discussed with reference to the BOR-60 reactor but the conclusions are probably applicable to all fast reactors. The proposed accounting and control system is based on non-destructive measurements of the amount of fissile materials in the operating fuel assemblies and screened bundles of the reactor, on the independent control of the principal facility parameters (a list of which is given) and on an automated information collection and evaluation system. Visual means of inspection can be very effective in fast reactor safeguards systems, especially for controlling storage, but they are not used with the BOR-60 reactor. (author)

  10. A Control Algorithm for Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Stations Equipped with Flywheel Energy Storage Systems

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a control strategy for plugin electric vehicle (PEV) fast charging station (FCS) equipped with a flywheel energy storage system (FESS). The main role of the FESS is not to compromise the predefined charging profile of PEV battery during the provision of a hysteresis-type active...

  11. Two-Level Control for Fast Electrical Vehicle Charging Stations with Multi Flywheel Energy Storage System

    SUN, BO; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This paper applies a hierarchical control for a fast charging station (FCS) composed of paralleled PWM rectifier and dedicated paralleled multiple flywheel energy storage systems (FESSs), in order to mitigate peak power shock on grid caused by sudden connection of electrical vehicle (EV) chargers...

  12. Global fast dynamic terminal sliding mode control for a quadrotor UAV.

    Xiong, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guo-Bao

    2017-01-01

    A control method based on global fast dynamic terminal sliding mode control (TSMC) technique is proposed to design the flight controller for performing the finite-time position and attitude tracking control of a small quadrotor UAV. Firstly, the dynamic model of the quadrotor is divided into two subsystems, i.e., a fully actuated subsystem and an underactuated subsystem. Secondly, the dynamic flight controllers of the quadrotor are formulated based on global fast dynamic TSMC, which is able to guarantee that the position and velocity tracking errors of all system state variables converge to zero in finite-time. Moreover, the global fast dynamic TSMC is also able to eliminate the chattering phenomenon caused by the switching control action and realize the high precision performance. In addition, the stabilities of two subsystems are demonstrated by Lyapunov theory, respectively. Lastly, the simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control method in the presence of external disturbances. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Semi-Global Filtering of Airborne LiDAR Data for Fast Extraction of Digital Terrain Models

    Xiangyun Hu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Automatic extraction of ground points, called filtering, is an essential step in producing Digital Terrain Models from airborne LiDAR data. Scene complexity and computational performance are two major problems that should be addressed in filtering, especially when processing large point cloud data with diverse scenes. This paper proposes a fast and intelligent algorithm called Semi-Global Filtering (SGF. The SGF models the filtering as a labeling problem in which the labels correspond to possible height levels. A novel energy function balanced by adaptive ground saliency is employed to adapt to steep slopes, discontinuous terrains, and complex objects. Semi-global optimization is used to determine labels that minimize the energy. These labels form an optimal classification surface based on which the points are classified as either ground or non-ground. The experimental results show that the SGF algorithm is very efficient and able to produce high classification accuracy. Given that the major procedure of semi-global optimization using dynamic programming is conducted independently along eight directions, SGF can also be paralleled and sped up via Graphic Processing Unit computing, which runs at a speed of approximately 3 million points per second.

  14. Research on Precision Tracking on Fast Steering Mirror and Control Strategy

    Di, Lin; Yi-ming, Wu; Fan, Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Fast steering mirror is a device used for controlling the beam direction precisely. Due to the short travel of the push-pull FSM, a compound fast steering mirror system driven by both limited-angle voice coil motor and push-pull FSM together is proposed. In the compound FSM system, limited-angle voice coil motor quickly swings at wide angle, while the push-pull FSM do high frequency movement in a small range, which provides the system with the high bandwidth and long travel. In the control strategy, the method of combining feed-forward control in Kalman filtering with auto-disturbance rejection control is used to improve trajectory tracking accuracy. The simulation result shows that tracking accuracy measured by the compound method can be improved by more than 5 times than that of the conventional PID.

  15. Extracting rate coefficients from single-molecule photon trajectories and FRET efficiency histograms for a fast-folding protein.

    Chung, Hoi Sung; Gopich, Irina V; McHale, Kevin; Cellmer, Troy; Louis, John M; Eaton, William A

    2011-04-28

    Recently developed statistical methods by Gopich and Szabo were used to extract folding and unfolding rate coefficients from single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) data for proteins with kinetics too fast to measure waiting time distributions. Two types of experiments and two different analyses were performed. In one experiment bursts of photons were collected from donor and acceptor fluorophores attached to a 73-residue protein, α(3)D, freely diffusing through the illuminated volume of a confocal microscope system. In the second, the protein was immobilized by linkage to a surface, and photons were collected until one of the fluorophores bleached. Folding and unfolding rate coefficients and mean FRET efficiencies for the folded and unfolded subpopulations were obtained from a photon by photon analysis of the trajectories using a maximum likelihood method. The ability of the method to describe the data in terms of a two-state model was checked by recoloring the photon trajectories with the extracted parameters and comparing the calculated FRET efficiency histograms with the measured histograms. The sum of the rate coefficients for the two-state model agreed to within 30% with the relaxation rate obtained from the decay of the donor-acceptor cross-correlation function, confirming the high accuracy of the method. Interestingly, apparently reliable rate coefficients could be extracted using the maximum likelihood method, even at low (rate coefficients and mean FRET efficiencies were also obtained in an approximate procedure by simply fitting the FRET efficiency histograms, calculated by binning the donor and acceptor photons, with a sum of three-Gaussian functions. The kinetics are exposed in these histograms by the growth of a FRET efficiency peak at values intermediate between the folded and unfolded peaks as the bin size increases, a phenomenon with similarities to NMR exchange broadening. When comparable populations of folded and unfolded

  16. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) - a fast and automated technique with low solvent consumption for the extraction of solid samples (T12)

    Hoefler, F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is a modern extraction technique that significantly streamlines sample preparation. A common organic solvent as well as water is used as extraction solvent at elevated temperature and pressure to increase extraction speed and efficiency. The entire extraction process is fully automated and performed within 15 minutes with a solvent consumption of 18 ml for a 10 g sample. For many matrices and for a variety of solutes, ASE has proven to be equivalent or superior to sonication, Soxhlet, and reflux extraction techniques while requiring less time, solvent and labor. First ASE has been applied for the extraction of environmental hazards from solid matrices. Within a very short time ASE was approved by the U.S. EPA for the extraction of BNAs, PAHs, PCBs, pesticides, herbicides, TPH, and dioxins from solid samples in method 3545. Especially for the extraction of dioxins the extraction time with ASE is reduced to 20 minutes in comparison to 18 h using Soxhlet. In food analysis ASE is used for the extraction of pesticide and mycotoxin residues from fruits and vegetables, the fat determination and extraction of vitamins. Time consuming and solvent intensive methods for the extraction of additives from polymers as well as for the extraction of marker compounds from herbal supplements can be performed with higher efficiencies using ASE. For the analysis of chemical weapons the extraction process and sample clean-up including derivatization can be automated and combined with GC-MS using an online ASE-APEC-GC system. (author)

  17. Multivariable PD controller design for fast chaos synchronization of Lur'e systems

    Wen, Guilin; Wang, Qing-Guo; He, Yong; Ye, Zhen

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter, a strategy for fast master-slave synchronization is proposed for Lur'e systems under PD control based on the free-weighting matrix approach and the S-procedure. The purpose of the derivative action is to improve the closed-loop stability and speed synchronization response. The proposed strategy covers the existing result for the proportional control alone as a special case. This approach is illustrated by the Chua's chaotic circuit system

  18. Fuel cycle facility control system for the Integral Fast Reactor Program

    Benedict, R.W.; Tate, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Fuel Demonstration, a new distributed control system designed, implemented and installed. The Fuel processes are a combination of chemical and machining processes operated remotely. To meet this special requirement, the new control system provides complete sequential logic control motion and positioning control and continuous PID loop control. Also, a centralized computer system provides near-real time nuclear material tracking, product quality control data archiving and a centralized reporting function. The control system was configured to use programmable logic controllers, small logic controllers, personal computers with touch screens, engineering work stations and interconnecting networks. By following a structured software development method the operator interface was standardized. The system has been installed and is presently being tested for operations

  19. Instrumentation and control of future sodium cooled fast reactors - Design improvements

    Madhusoodanan, K.; Sakthivel, M.; Chellapandi, P.

    2013-06-01

    India's fast reactor program started with the 40 MWt Fast Breeder Test Reactor. 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is currently under construction at Kalpakkam. Safety of PFBR is enhanced by improved design features of I and C system. Since the design of Instrumentation and control (I and C) of PFBR, considerable improvements in terms of advancement in technology and indigenization has taken place. Further improvements in I and C is proposed for solving many of the difficulties faced during the design and construction phases of PFBR. Design improvements proposed are covered in this paper which will make the implementation and maintenance of I and C of future SFRs easier. (authors)

  20. Application of hafnium hydride control rod to large sodium cooled fast breeder reactor

    Ikeda, Kazumi, E-mail: kazumi_ikeda@mfbr.mhi.co.jp [Mitsubishi FBR Systems, Inc., 34-17, Jingumae 2-Chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-0001 (Japan); Moriwaki, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hiroyuki_moriwaki@mfbr.mhi.co.jp [Mitsubishi FBR Systems, Inc., 34-17, Jingumae 2-Chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-0001 (Japan); Ohkubo, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: yoshiyuki_okubo@mfbr.mhi.co.jp [Mitsubishi FBR Systems, Inc., 34-17, Jingumae 2-Chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-0001 (Japan); Iwasaki, Tomohiko, E-mail: tomohiko.iwasaki@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai-shi, Miyagi-ken 980-8579 (Japan); Konashi, Kenji, E-mail: konashi@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki-ken 311-1313 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Application of hafnium hydride control rod to large sodium cooled fast breeder reactor. • This paper treats application of an innovative hafnium hydride control rod to a large sodium cooled fast breeder reactor. • Hydrogen absorption triples the reactivity worth by neutron spectrum shift at H/Hf ratio of 1.3. • Lifetime of the control rod quadruples because produced daughters of hafnium isotopes are absorbers. • Nuclear and thermal hydraulic characteristics of the reactor are as good as or better than B-10 enriched boron carbide. - Abstract: This study treats the feasibility of long-lived hafnium hydride control rod in a large sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor by nuclear and thermal analyses. According to the nuclear calculations, it is found that hydrogen absorption of hafnium triples the reactivity by the neutron spectrum shift at the H/Hf ratio of 1.3, and a hafnium transmutation mechanism that produced daughters are absorbers quadruples the lifetime due to a low incineration rate of absorbing nuclides under irradiation. That is to say, the control rod can function well for a long time because an irradiation of 2400 EFPD reduces the reactivity by only 4%. The calculation also reveals that the hafnium hydride control rod can apply to the reactor in that nuclear and thermal characteristics become as good as or better than 80% B-10 enriched boron carbide. For example, the maximum linear heat rate becomes 3% lower. Owing to the better power distribution, the required flow rate decreases approximately by 1%. Consequently, it is concluded on desk analyses that the long lived hafnium hydride control rod is feasible in the large sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor.

  1. Control of yam tuber rot with leaf extracts of Xylopia aethiopica and ...

    JOHN

    Investigation was carried out to test the potency of some plant extracts for the control of yam tuber rot caused by Fusarium ... The extracts of suppressed the growth of these fungi in culture ..... Methodolgy for analysis of Vegetable drug. Practical.

  2. Integrated Solid-Phase Extraction-Capillary Liquid Chromatography (speLC) Interfaced to ESI-MS/MS for Fast Characterization and Quantification of Protein and Proteomes

    Falkenby, Lasse Gaarde; Such-Sanmartín, Gerard; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    2014-01-01

    min speLC-MS/MS experiment. Analysis by selected reaction monitoring by speLC-SRM-MS/MS of distinct peptides derived from the blood proteins IGF1, IGF2, IBP2, and IBP3 demonstrated protein quantification with CV values below 10% across 96 replicates. The speLC-MS/MS system is ideally suited for fast......The high peptide sequencing speed provided by modern hybrid tandem mass spectrometers enables the utilization of fast liquid chromatographic (LC) separation techniques. We present a robust solid-phase extraction/capillary LC system (speLC) for 5-10 min separation of semicomplex peptide mixtures...

  3. Fast engineering optimization: A novel highly effective control parameterization approach for industrial dynamic processes.

    Liu, Ping; Li, Guodong; Liu, Xinggao

    2015-09-01

    Control vector parameterization (CVP) is an important approach of the engineering optimization for the industrial dynamic processes. However, its major defect, the low optimization efficiency caused by calculating the relevant differential equations in the generated nonlinear programming (NLP) problem repeatedly, limits its wide application in the engineering optimization for the industrial dynamic processes. A novel highly effective control parameterization approach, fast-CVP, is first proposed to improve the optimization efficiency for industrial dynamic processes, where the costate gradient formulae is employed and a fast approximate scheme is presented to solve the differential equations in dynamic process simulation. Three well-known engineering optimization benchmark problems of the industrial dynamic processes are demonstrated as illustration. The research results show that the proposed fast approach achieves a fine performance that at least 90% of the computation time can be saved in contrast to the traditional CVP method, which reveals the effectiveness of the proposed fast engineering optimization approach for the industrial dynamic processes. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Versatile synchronized real-time MEG hardware controller for large-scale fast data acquisition

    Sun, Limin; Han, Menglai; Pratt, Kevin; Paulson, Douglas; Dinh, Christoph; Esch, Lorenz; Okada, Yoshio; Hämäläinen, Matti

    2017-05-01

    Versatile controllers for accurate, fast, and real-time synchronized acquisition of large-scale data are useful in many areas of science, engineering, and technology. Here, we describe the development of a controller software based on a technique called queued state machine for controlling the data acquisition (DAQ) hardware, continuously acquiring a large amount of data synchronized across a large number of channels (>400) at a fast rate (up to 20 kHz/channel) in real time, and interfacing with applications for real-time data analysis and display of electrophysiological data. This DAQ controller was developed specifically for a 384-channel pediatric whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system, but its architecture is useful for wide applications. This controller running in a LabVIEW environment interfaces with microprocessors in the MEG sensor electronics to control their real-time operation. It also interfaces with a real-time MEG analysis software via transmission control protocol/internet protocol, to control the synchronous acquisition and transfer of the data in real time from >400 channels to acquisition and analysis workstations. The successful implementation of this controller for an MEG system with a large number of channels demonstrates the feasibility of employing the present architecture in several other applications.

  5. Voluntary Fasting to Control Post-Ramadan Weight Gain among Overweight and Obese Women

    Suriani Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of an Islamic voluntary fasting intervention to control post-Ramadan weight gain. Methods: This study was conducted between July and November 2011. Two weight loss intervention programmes were developed and implemented among groups of overweight or obese Malay women living in the Malaysian cities of Putrajaya and Seremban: a standard programme promoting control of food intake according to national dietary guidelines (group B and a faith-based programme promoting voluntary fasting in addition to the standard programme (group A. Participants’ dietary practices (i.e., voluntary fasting practices, frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week and quantity of carbohydrates/protein consumed per day, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, fasting blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and total cholesterol (TC:HDL-C ratio were assessed before Ramadan and three months post-Ramadan. Results: Voluntary fasting practices increased only in group A (P <0.01. Additionally, the quantity of protein/carbohydrates consumed per day, mean diastolic pressure and TC:HDL-C ratio decreased only in group A (P <0.01, 0.05, 0.02 and <0.01, respectively. Frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week, as well as HDL-C levels, increased only in group A (P = 0.03 and <0.01, respectively. Although changes in BMI between the groups was not significant (P = 0.08, BMI decrease among participants in group A was significant (P <0.01. Conclusion: Control of post-Ramadan weight gain was more evident in the faith-based intervention group. Healthcare providers should consider faith-based interventions to encourage weight loss during Ramadan and to prevent post-Ramadan weight gain among patients.

  6. Voluntary Fasting to Control Post-Ramadan Weight Gain among Overweight and Obese Women

    Ismail, Suriani; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Latiff, Khalib A.; Saad, Hazizi A.; Majid, Latifah A.; Othman, Fadlan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of an Islamic voluntary fasting intervention to control post-Ramadan weight gain. Methods: This study was conducted between July and November 2011. Two weight loss intervention programmes were developed and implemented among groups of overweight or obese Malay women living in the Malaysian cities of Putrajaya and Seremban: a standard programme promoting control of food intake according to national dietary guidelines (group B) and a faith-based programme promoting voluntary fasting in addition to the standard programme (group A). Participants’ dietary practices (i.e., voluntary fasting practices, frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week and quantity of carbohydrates/protein consumed per day), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, fasting blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC):HDL-C ratio were assessed before Ramadan and three months post-Ramadan. Results: Voluntary fasting practices increased only in group A (P <0.01). Additionally, the quantity of protein/carbohydrates consumed per day, mean diastolic pressure and TC:HDL-C ratio decreased only in group A (P <0.01, 0.05, 0.02 and <0.01, respectively). Frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week, as well as HDL-C levels, increased only in group A (P = 0.03 and <0.01, respectively). Although changes in BMI between the groups was not significant (P = 0.08), BMI decrease among participants in group A was significant (P <0.01). Conclusion: Control of post-Ramadan weight gain was more evident in the faith-based intervention group. Healthcare providers should consider faith-based interventions to encourage weight loss during Ramadan and to prevent post-Ramadan weight gain among patients. PMID:25685394

  7. Low-parachor solvents extraction and thermostated micro-thin-layer chromatography separation for fast screening and classification of spirulina from pharmaceutical formulations and food samples.

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Zarzycka, Magdalena B; Clifton, Vicki L; Adamski, Jerzy; Głód, Bronisław K

    2011-08-19

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the separation and detection capability of eco-friendly micro-TLC technique for the classification of spirulina and selected herbs from pharmaceutical and food products. Target compounds were extracted using relatively low-parachor liquids. A number of the spirulina samples which originated from pharmaceutical formulations and food products, were isolated using a simple one step extraction with small volume of methanol, acetone or tetrahydrofuran. Herb samples rich in chlorophyll dyes were analyzed as reference materials. Quantitative data derived from micro-plates under visible light conditions and after iodine staining were explored using chemometrics tools including cluster analysis and principal components analysis. Using this method we could easily distinguish genuine spirulina and non-spirulina samples as well as fresh from expired commercial products and furthermore, we could identify some biodegradation peaks appearing on micro-TLC profiles. This methodology can be applied as a fast screening or fingerprinting tool for the classification of genuine spirulina and herb samples and in particular may be used commercially for the rapid quality control screening of products. Furthermore, this approach allows low-cost fractionation of target substances including cyanobacteria pigments in raw biological or environmental samples for preliminary chemotaxonomic investigations. Due to the low consumption of the mobile phase (usually less than 1 mL per run), this method can be considered as environmentally friendly analytical tool, which may be an alternative for fingerprinting protocols based on HPLC machines and simple separation systems involving planar micro-fluidic or micro-chip devices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. High-Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometry for Arms Control and Treaty Verification

    David L. Chichester; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury

    2012-07-01

    Many nondestructive nuclear analysis techniques have been developed to support the measurement needs of arms control and treaty verification, including gross photon and neutron counting, low- and high-resolution gamma spectrometry, time-correlated neutron measurements, and photon and neutron imaging. One notable measurement technique that has not been extensively studied to date for these applications is high-resolution fast-neutron spectrometry (HRFNS). Applied for arms control and treaty verification, HRFNS has the potential to serve as a complimentary measurement approach to these other techniques by providing a means to either qualitatively or quantitatively determine the composition and thickness of non-nuclear materials surrounding neutron-emitting materials. The technique uses the normally-occurring neutrons present in arms control and treaty verification objects of interest as an internal source of neutrons for performing active-interrogation transmission measurements. Most low-Z nuclei of interest for arms control and treaty verification, including 9Be, 12C, 14N, and 16O, possess fast-neutron resonance features in their absorption cross sections in the 0.5- to 5-MeV energy range. Measuring the selective removal of source neutrons over this energy range, assuming for example a fission-spectrum starting distribution, may be used to estimate the stoichiometric composition of intervening materials between the neutron source and detector. At a simpler level, determination of the emitted fast-neutron spectrum may be used for fingerprinting 'known' assemblies for later use in template-matching tests. As with photon spectrometry, automated analysis of fast-neutron spectra may be performed to support decision making and reporting systems protected behind information barriers. This paper will report recent work at Idaho National Laboratory to explore the feasibility of using HRFNS for arms control and treaty verification applications, including simulations

  9. NetCDF based data archiving system applied to ITER Fast Plant System Control prototype

    Castro, R.; Vega, J.; Ruiz, M.; De Arcas, G.; Barrera, E.; López, J.M.; Sanz, D.; Gonçalves, B.; Santos, B.; Utzel, N.; Makijarvi, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Implementation of a data archiving solution for a Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) for ITER CODAC. ► Data archiving solution based on scientific NetCDF-4 file format and Lustre storage clustering. ► EPICS control based solution. ► Tests results and detailed analysis of using NetCDF-4 and clustering technologies on fast acquisition data archiving. - Abstract: EURATOM/CIEMAT and Technical University of Madrid (UPM) have been involved in the development of a FPSC (Fast Plant System Control) prototype for ITER, based on PXIe (PCI eXtensions for Instrumentation). One of the main focuses of this project has been data acquisition and all the related issues, including scientific data archiving. Additionally, a new data archiving solution has been developed to demonstrate the obtainable performances and possible bottlenecks of scientific data archiving in Fast Plant System Control. The presented system implements a fault tolerant architecture over a GEthernet network where FPSC data are reliably archived on remote, while remaining accessible to be redistributed, within the duration of a pulse. The storing service is supported by a clustering solution to guaranty scalability, so that FPSC management and configuration may be simplified, and a unique view of all archived data provided. All the involved components have been integrated under EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System), implementing in each case the necessary extensions, state machines and configuration process variables. The prototyped solution is based on the NetCDF-4 (Network Common Data Format) file format in order to incorporate important features, such as scientific data models support, huge size files management, platform independent codification, or single-writer/multiple-readers concurrency. In this contribution, a complete description of the above mentioned solution is presented, together with the most relevant results of the tests performed, while focusing in the

  10. Model-Based Evolution of a Fast Hybrid Fuzzy Adaptive Controller for a Pneumatic Muscle Actuator

    Alexander Hošovský

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic artificial muscle-based robotic systems usually necessitate the use of various nonlinear control techniques in order to improve their performance. Their robustness to parameter variation, which is generally difficult to predict, should also be tested. Here a fast hybrid adaptive control is proposed, where a conventional PD controller is placed into the feedforward branch and a fuzzy controller is placed into the adaptation branch. The fuzzy controller compensates for the actions of the PD controller under conditions of inertia moment variation. The fuzzy controller of Takagi-Sugeno type is evolved through a genetic algorithm using the dynamic model of a pneumatic muscle actuator. The results confirm the capability of the designed system to provide robust performance under the conditions of varying inertia.

  11. A Decentralized Current-Sharing Controller Endows Fast Transient Response to Parallel DC-DC Converters

    Wang, Haojie; Han, Minxiao; Han, Renke

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a decentralized current-sharing control strategy to endow fast transient response to paralleled DC-DC converters systems, such as DC microgrids or distributed power systems. The proposed controller consist of two main control loops: an external voltage droop control for current......-sharing proposes and an internal current loop. The external droop control loop is designed as a voltage loop with embedded virtual impedance, which avoids the use of a slow voltage loop and a separate extra virtual impedance loop that may limit the system bandwidth. The internal current loop, thanks...... and the proposed embedded-virtual-impedance based I-V droop. In order to compare the dynamic response performances between two droop controllers, their state-space models have been developed and analyzed in this paper. The results show that the dynamic response of the I-V droop control is faster than...

  12. Identification and adoptive multivariable control method. Application to fast breeder nuclear reactors

    Dang Van Mien, H.; Irving, E.; Rousseau, I.

    1982-01-01

    Motivated by the limitations inherent in the standard approach, a new model reference multivariable adaptive control method is described. This latter control method utilizes as a design tool a simple vector difference equation of the controlled system. The adaptive control method is of the series-parallel direct reference model type and the adjustment algorithm is the standard least squares estimation technics with hyperstability conditions, controlled convergence speed forgetting, regularization and threshold operations. Numerical results are presented which illustrate the interest of the latter approach. The precise problem which has been tackled is the control of the steam generator of the second fast breeder French nuclear reactor called Super-Phenix. After a short description of the plant and its responses at different loads, the principles and the performances of the standard technique control scheme which has been adopted are discussed [fr

  13. Optimal Orientation Planning and Control Deviation Estimation on FAST Cable-Driven Parallel Robot

    Hui Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted theoretically to the optimal orientation planning and control deviation estimation of FAST cable-driven parallel robot. Regarding the robot characteristics, the solutions are obtained from two constrained optimizations, both of which are based on the equilibrium of the cabin and the attention on force allocation among 6 cable tensions. A kind of control algorithm is proposed based on the position and force feedbacks. The analysis proves that the orientation control depends on force feedback and the optimal tension solution corresponding to the planned orientation. Finally, the estimation of orientation deviation is given under the limit range of tension errors.

  14. Detection of {alpha} particles using semiconductors. Application to the control of plutonium extraction; Detection des particules {alpha} par semiconducteurs application au controle de l'extraction du plutonium

    Tanguy, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-03-01

    A study is made of a particles produced by thick sources, using either diffused junction or surface barrier semiconductor detectors for controlling continuously the plutonium extraction process. For this, a presenting apparatus is described in which the solutions to be analyzed flow in contact with the detector protected by a thin mica membrane. A method is described which gives a precise recording of the spectra and which thus allows the separation of two or more {alpha} emitters present in the same solution. This method has been applied to the measurement of {sup 239}Pu in the the presence of {sup 241}Am with an accuracy of {+-}5 per cent. In the second part of the report is considered the detection of plutonium in solutions of {beta} - {gamma} emitting fission products. Pile-up is reduced by using a fast amplification chain associated to totally depleted thin detectors. Under these conditions a few mg of {sup 239}Pu can be detected in solutions of fission products having an activity of 100 curies/liter. A method is given for discriminating {alpha} and {beta} particles, it is based on the difference in the collection times for the charges liberated by these particles in the detector. (author) [French] On etudie la detection de particules {alpha} issues de sources epaisses par detecteurs semiconducteurs a jonction diffusee ou a barriere de surface pour le controle continu du procede d'extraction du plutonium. A cet effet on decrit un appareil presentateur dans lequel les solutions a analyser circulent au contact du detecteur protege par une membrane mince de mica. On decrit une methode qui permet par le trace precis des spectres de separer deux ou plusieurs emetteurs {alpha} presents dans une meme solution. Cette methode a ete appliquee a la mesure du {sup 239}Pu en presence de {sup 241}Am avec une precision de {+-} 5 pour cent. Dans la deuxieme partie on traite de la detection du plutonium dans des solutions de produits de fission emetteurs {beta} and {gamma}. On

  15. Periodic boundary conditions and the error-controlled fast multipole method

    Kabadshow, Ivo

    2012-08-22

    The simulation of pairwise interactions in huge particle ensembles is a vital issue in scientific research. Especially the calculation of long-range interactions poses limitations to the system size, since these interactions scale quadratically with the number of particles. Fast summation techniques like the Fast Multipole Method (FMM) can help to reduce the complexity to O(N). This work extends the possible range of applications of the FMM to periodic systems in one, two and three dimensions with one unique approach. Together with a tight error control, this contribution enables the simulation of periodic particle systems for different applications without the need to know and tune the FMM specific parameters. The implemented error control scheme automatically optimizes the parameters to obtain an approximation for the minimal runtime for a given energy error bound.

  16. Revisit of analytical methods for the process and plant control analyses during reprocessing of fast reactor fuels

    Subba Rao, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    CORAL (COmpact facility for Reprocessing of Advanced fuels in Lead cell) is an experimental facility for demonstrating the reprocessing of irradiated fast reactor fuels discharged from the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR). The objective of the reprocessing plant is to achieve nuclear grade plutonium and uranium oxides with minimum process waste volumes. The process flow sheet for the reprocessing of spent Fast Reactor Fuel consists of Transport of spent fuel, Chopping, Dissolution, Feed conditioning, Solvent Extraction cycle, Partitioning Cycle and Re-conversion of Plutonium nitrate and uranium nitrate to respective oxides. The efficiency and performance of the plant to achieve desired objective depends on the analyses of various species in the different steps adopted during reprocessing of fuels. The analytical requirements in the plant can be broadly classified as 1. Process control Analyses (Analyses which effect the performance of the plant- PCA); 2. Plant control Analyses (Analyses which indicates efficiency of the plant-PLCA); 3. Nuclear Material Accounting samples (Analyses which has bearing on nuclear material accounting in the plant - NUMAC) and Quality control Analyses (Quality of the input bulk chemicals as well as products - QCA). The analytical methods selected are based on the duration of analyses, precision and accuracies required for each type analytical requirement classified earlier. The process and plant control analyses requires lower precision and accuracies as compared to NUMAC analyses, which requires very high precision accuracy. The time taken for analyses should be as lower as possible for process and plant control analyses as compared to NUMAC analyses. The analytical methods required for determining U and Pu in process and plant samples from FRFR will be different as compared to samples from TRFR (Thermal Reactor Fuel Reprocessing) due to higher Pu to U ratio in FRFR as compared TRFR and they should be such that they can be easily

  17. Aloe plant extracts as alternative larvicides for mosquito control ...

    The larvicidal activity of extracts from Aloe turkanensis, Aloe ngongensis and Aloe fibrosa against the common malaria vector, Anopheles gambie, was determined. Ground Aloe leaves from the three plants were sequentially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone and methanol. Only the ethyl acetate ...

  18. Determination of the phosphorylated sugars of the Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas Pathway in Lactococcus lactis using a fast sampling technique and solid phase extraction

    Jensen, Niels B.s.; Jokumsen, Kirsten Væver; Villadsen, John

    1999-01-01

    with chloroform at -25 degrees C ensures a total permeability of the cellular membrane towards the metabolites of interest as well as the inactivation of enzymes liable to alter their levels. The final step of the procedure consists in a solid phase extraction using columns with a high affinity for phosphorylated...... to -35 degrees C, bringing about a fast and complete stop of all metabolic activity. In contrast to yeast the metabolites leak out of the cells when these are brought into contact with methanol and are present in the medium and in the biomass after the quenching. A liquid-liquid extraction...

  19. FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility] performance measurements for safety, productivity and control

    Newland, D.J.; Praetorius, P.R.; Tomaszewski, T.A.

    1987-05-01

    A useful set of performance measurements for Safety, Productivity and Control has evolved at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). In response to declining budgets and the resulting need to safely manage a manpower rampdown, an ''Early Warning System'' was developed in 1984. Its purpose was to monitor the effects of the staffing rampdown such that appropriate remedial action could be taken to correct adverse trends before a significant problem occurred. 1 tab

  20. Application of MEMS Accelerometers and Gyroscopes in Fast Steering Mirror Control Systems

    Jing Tian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In a charge-coupled device (CCD-based fast steering mirror (FSM tracking control system, high control bandwidth is the most effective way to enhance the closed-loop performance. However, the control system usually suffers a great deal from mechanical resonances and time delays induced by the low sampling rate of CCDs. To meet the requirements of high precision and load restriction, fiber-optic gyroscopes (FOGs are usually used in traditional FSM tracking control systems. In recent years, the MEMS accelerometer and gyroscope are becoming smaller and lighter and their performance have improved gradually, so that they can be used in a fast steering mirror (FSM to realize the stabilization of the line-of-sight (LOS of the control system. Therefore, a tentative approach to implement a CCD-based FSM tracking control system, which uses MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes as feedback components and contains an acceleration loop, a velocity loop and a position loop, is proposed. The disturbance suppression of the proposed method is the product of the error attenuation of the acceleration loop, the velocity loop and the position loop. Extensive experimental results show that the MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes can act the similar role as the FOG with lower cost for stabilizing the LOS of the FSM tracking control system.

  1. Correlation between pre-ramadan glycemic control and subsequent glucose fluctuation during fasting in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes.

    Afandi, B; Kaplan, W; Al Hassani, N; Hadi, S; Mohamed, A

    2017-07-01

    Even though patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are exempted from fasting, the vast majority elect to fast against the advice of their healthcare providers. We have previously reported the incidence of wide fluctuations in blood glucose (BG) along with "unrecognized" severe hypoglycemia during Ramadan fasting in adolescents with T1DM. This report compares the continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data during fasting in adolescents with T1DM according to their Pre-Ramadan diabetes control. Children and adolescents with T1DM who intended to fast the month of Ramadan were asked to wear the CGM during fasting for a minimum of 3 days. Hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and severe hyperglycemia were identified as BG 300 mg/dL (16.7 mmol/L) respectively, while normoglycemia was identified as BG 70-200 mg/dL (3.9-11.1 mmol/L). Patients were categorized as well-controlled (Group 1) and poorly controlled (Group 2) if the pre-fasting HbA1C was ≤8% (64 mmol/mol) and >8%, respectively. We compared the mean BG and the percentages of time spent in hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and severe hyperglycemia between the two groups using Chi-square (significant difference when P value was fasting. Our data suggest that optimal glycemic control before Ramadan may reduce the potential risks associated with fasting and minimize glucose fluctuation.

  2. On a mean field game optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in human crowds

    Burger, Martin; Di Francesco, Marco; Markowich, Peter A.; Wolfram, Marie Therese

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of fast exit and evacuation situations in crowd motion research has received a lot of scientific interest in the last decades. Security issues in larger facilities, like shopping malls, sports centers, or festivals necessitate a better understanding of the major driving forces in crowd dynamics. In this paper we present an optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in pedestrian crowds. The model is formulated in the framework of mean field games and based on a parabolic optimal control problem. We consider the case of a large human crowd trying to exit a room as fast as possible. The motion of every pedestrian is determined by minimizing a cost functional, which depends on his/her position and velocity, the overall density of people, and the time to exit. This microscopic setup leads in a mean-field formulation to a nonlinear macroscopic optimal control problem, which raises challenging questions for the analysis and numerical simulations.We discuss different aspects of the mathematical modeling and illustrate them with various computational results. ©2013 IEEE.

  3. On a mean field game optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in human crowds

    Burger, Martin

    2013-12-01

    The understanding of fast exit and evacuation situations in crowd motion research has received a lot of scientific interest in the last decades. Security issues in larger facilities, like shopping malls, sports centers, or festivals necessitate a better understanding of the major driving forces in crowd dynamics. In this paper we present an optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in pedestrian crowds. The model is formulated in the framework of mean field games and based on a parabolic optimal control problem. We consider the case of a large human crowd trying to exit a room as fast as possible. The motion of every pedestrian is determined by minimizing a cost functional, which depends on his/her position and velocity, the overall density of people, and the time to exit. This microscopic setup leads in a mean-field formulation to a nonlinear macroscopic optimal control problem, which raises challenging questions for the analysis and numerical simulations.We discuss different aspects of the mathematical modeling and illustrate them with various computational results. ©2013 IEEE.

  4. Rapid-L Operator-Free Fast Reactor Concept Without Any Control Rods

    Kambe, Mitsuru; Tsunoda, Hirokazu; Mishima, Kaichiro; Iwamura, Takamichi

    2003-01-01

    The 200-kW(electric) uranium-nitride-fueled lithium-cooled fast reactor concept 'RAPID-L' to achieve highly automated reactor operation has been demonstrated. RAPID-L is designed for a lunar base power system. It is one of the variants of the RAPID (Refueling by All Pins Integrated Design) fast reactor concept, which enables quick and simplified refueling. The essential feature of the RAPID concept is that the reactor core consists of an integrated fuel assembly instead of conventional fuel subassemblies. In this small-size reactor core, 2700 fuel pins are integrated and encased in a fuel cartridge. Refueling is conducted by replacing a fuel cartridge. The reactor can be operated without refueling for up to 10 yr.Unique challenges in reactivity control systems design have been addressed in the RAPID-L concept. The reactor has no control rod but involves the following innovative reactivity control systems: lithium expansion modules (LEM) for inherent reactivity feedback, lithium injection modules (LIM) for inherent ultimate shutdown, and lithium release modules (LRM) for automated reactor startup. All these systems adopt 6 Li as a liquid poison instead of B 4 C rods. In combination with LEMs, LIMs, and LRMs, RAPID-L can be operated without an operator. This reactor concept is also applicable to the terrestrial fast reactors. In this paper, the RAPID-L reactor concept and its transient characteristics are presented

  5. ATCA/AXIe compatible board for fast control and data acquisition in nuclear fusion experiments

    Batista, A.J.N.; Leong, C.; Bexiga, V.; Rodrigues, A.P.; Combo, A.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fortunato, J.; Correia, M.; Teixeira, J.P.; Teixeira, I.C.; Sousa, J.; Gonçalves, B.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► High performance board for fast control and data acquisition. ► Large IO channel number per board with galvanic isolation. ► Optimized for high reliability and availability. ► Targeted for nuclear fusion experiments with long duration discharges. ► To be used on the ITER Fast Plant System Controller prototype. - Abstract: An in-house development of an Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) board for fast control and data acquisition, with Input/Output (IO) processing capability, is presented. The architecture, compatible with the ATCA (PICMG 3.4) and ATCA eXtensions for Instrumentation (AXIe) specifications, comprises a passive Rear Transition Module (RTM) for IO connectivity to ease hot-swap maintenance and simultaneously to increase cabling life cycle. The board complies with ITER Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) guidelines for rear IO connectivity and redundancy, in order to provide high levels of reliability and availability to the control and data acquisition systems of nuclear fusion devices with long duration plasma discharges. Simultaneously digitized data from all Analog to Digital Converters (ADC) of the board can be filtered/decimated in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), decreasing data throughput, increasing resolution, and sent through Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) Express to multi-core processors in the ATCA shelf hub slots. Concurrently the multi-core processors can update the board Digital to Analog Converters (DAC) in real-time. Full-duplex point-to-point communication links between all FPGAs, of peer boards inside the shelf, allow the implementation of distributed algorithms and Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) systems. Support for several timing and synchronization solutions is also provided. Some key features are onboard ADC or DAC modules with galvanic isolation, Xilinx Virtex 6 FPGA, standard Dual Data Rate (DDR) 3 SODIMM memory, standard CompactFLASH memory card, Intelligent

  6. Metabolomics of Ramadan fasting: an opportunity for the controlled study of physiological responses to food intake.

    Mathew, Sweety; Krug, Susanne; Skurk, Thomas; Halama, Anna; Stank, Antonia; Artati, Anna; Prehn, Cornelia; Malek, Joel A; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Adamski, Jerzy; Hauner, Hans; Suhre, Karsten

    2014-06-06

    High-throughput screening techniques that analyze the metabolic endpoints of biological processes can identify the contributions of genetic predisposition and environmental factors to the development of common diseases. Studies applying controlled physiological challenges can reveal dysregulation in metabolic responses that may be predictive for or associated with these diseases. However, large-scale epidemiological studies with well controlled physiological challenge conditions, such as extended fasting periods and defined food intake, pose logistic challenges. Culturally and religiously motivated behavioral patterns of life style changes provide a natural setting that can be used to enroll a large number of study volunteers. Here we report a proof of principle study conducted within a Muslim community, showing that a metabolomics study during the Holy Month of Ramadan can provide a unique opportunity to explore the pre-prandial and postprandial response of human metabolism to nutritional challenges. Up to five blood samples were obtained from eleven healthy male volunteers, taken directly before and two hours after consumption of a controlled meal in the evening on days 7 and 26 of Ramadan, and after an over-night fast several weeks after Ramadan. The observed increases in glucose, insulin and lactate levels at the postprandial time point confirm the expected physiological response to food intake. Targeted metabolomics further revealed significant and physiologically plausible responses to food intake by an increase in bile acid and amino acid levels and a decrease in long-chain acyl-carnitine and polyamine levels. A decrease in the concentrations of a number of phospholipids between samples taken on days 7 and 26 of Ramadan shows that the long-term response to extended fasting may differ from the response to short-term fasting. The present study design is scalable to larger populations and may be extended to the study of the metabolic response in defined patient

  7. EXTRACT

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  8. Instant controlled pressure drop technology and ultrasound assisted extraction for sequential extraction of essential oil and antioxidants.

    Allaf, Tamara; Tomao, Valérie; Ruiz, Karine; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    The instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) technology enabled both the extraction of essential oil and the expansion of the matrix itself which improved solvent extraction. The sequential use of DIC and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) triggered complementary actions materialized by supplementary effects. We visualized these combination impacts by comparing them to standard techniques: Hydrodistillation (HD) and Solvent Extraction (SE). First, the extraction of orange peel Essential Oils (EO) was achieved by HD during 4h and DIC process (after optimization) during 2 min; EO yields was 1.97 mg/g dry material (dm) with HD compared to 16.57 mg/g d m with DIC. Second, the solid residue was recovered to extract antioxidant compounds (naringin and hesperidin) by SE and UAE. Scanning electron microscope showed that after HD the recovered solid shriveled as opposite to DIC treatment which expanded the product structure. HPLC analyses showed that the best kinetics and yields of naringin and hesperidin extraction was when DIC and UAE are combined. Indeed, after 1h of extraction, DIC treated orange peels with UAE were 0.825 ± 1.6 × 10(-2)g/g of dry material (dm) for hesperidin and 6.45 × 10(-2) ± 2.3 × 10(-4)g/g d m for naringin compared to 0.64 ± 2.7 × 10(-2)g/g of dry material (dm) and 5.7 × 10(-2) ± 1.6 × 10(-3)g/g d m, respectively with SE. By combining DIC to UAE, it was possible to enhance kinetics and yields of antioxidant extraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Control of Aspergillus niger with garlic, onion and leek extracts

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Feb 19, 2007 ... Key words: Aspergillus niger, garlic, onion, leek, antifungal activity. ..... Antimicrobial activity of essential oil extracts of various onions (Allium cepa) ... activity of oregano and thyme essential oils applied as fumigants against.

  10. Specialists' meeting on advanced controls for fast reactors, Argonne, Illinois, USA June 20-22, 1989

    1989-01-01

    The Specialists' Meeting on ''Advanced Controls for Fast Reactors'' was held in Argonne, Illinois, USA, from June 20 to 22, 1989. The meeting was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency on the recommendation of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors and was hosted by Argonne National Laboratory and the US Department of Energy. It was attended by 20 participants and observers from Argentina, France, Germany, Japan, India, the USSR, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and the IAEA. The purpose of the meeting was to provide an opportunity for participating countries to review and discuss their views on design and technology for advanced control in fast reactors. During the meeting papers were presented by the participants on behalf of their countries and organizations. Presentations were followed by open discussions on the subjects covered by the papers and summaries of the discussions were drafted. After the formal sessions were completed, a final discussion session was held and summaries, general conclusions and recommendations were approved by consensus. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 22 papers presented at this meeting. Refs, figs, tabs, diagrams and photos

  11. Digitally Controlled Point of Load Converter with Very Fast Transient Response

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2007-01-01

    voltage mode control and very fast transient response. The DiSOM modulator is combined with a digital PID compensator algorithm is implemented in a hybrid CPLD/FPGA and is used to control a synchronous Buck converter, which is used in typical Point of Load applications. The computational time is only......This paper presents a new Digital Self-Oscillating Modulator (DiSOM) that allows the duty cycle to be changed instantly. The DiSOM modulator is shown to have variable switching that is a function of the duty cycle. Compared to a more traditional digital PWM modulator based on a counter...... and comparator the DiSOM modulator allows the sampling frequency of the output voltage control loop to be higher than the switching frequency of the power converter, typically a DC/DC converter. The features of the DiSOM modulator makes it possible to design a digitally controlled DC/DC converter with linear...

  12. Fast and comprehensive analysis of secondary metabolites in cocoa products using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography directly after pressurized liquid extraction.

    Damm, Irina; Enger, Eileen; Chrubasik-Hausmann, Sigrun; Schieber, Andreas; Zimmermann, Benno F

    2016-08-01

    Fast methods for the extraction and analysis of various secondary metabolites from cocoa products were developed and optimized regarding speed and separation efficiency. Extraction by pressurized liquid extraction is automated and the extracts are analyzed by rapid reversed-phase ultra high-performance liquid chromatography and normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography methods. After extraction, no further sample treatment is required before chromatographic analysis. The analytes comprise monomeric and oligomeric flavanols, flavonols, methylxanthins, N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids, and phenolic acids. Polyphenols and N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids are separated in a single run of 33 min, procyanidins are analyzed by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography within 16 min, and methylxanthins require only 6 min total run time. A fourth method is suitable for phenolic acids, but only protocatechuic acid was found in relevant quantities. The optimized methods were validated and applied to 27 dark chocolates, one milk chocolate, two cocoa powders and two food supplements based on cocoa extract. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Revealing Hidden Structural Order Controlling Both Fast and Slow Glassy Dynamics in Supercooled Liquids

    Hua Tong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of a supercooled liquid near the glass transition is characterized by two-step relaxation, fast β and slow α relaxations. Because of the apparently disordered nature of glassy structures, there have been long debates over whether the origin of drastic slowing-down of the α relaxation accompanied by heterogeneous dynamics is thermodynamic or dynamic. Furthermore, it has been elusive whether there is any deep connection between fast β and slow α modes. To settle these issues, here we introduce a set of new structural order parameters characterizing sterically favored structures with high local packing capability, and then access structure-dynamics correlation by a novel nonlocal approach. We find that the particle mobility is under control of the static order parameter field. The fast β process is controlled by the instantaneous order parameter field locally, resulting in short-time particle-scale dynamics. Then the mobility field progressively develops with time t, following the initial order parameter field from disorder to more ordered regions. As is well known, the heterogeneity in the mobility field (dynamic heterogeneity is maximized with a characteristic length ξ_{4}, when t reaches the relaxation time τ_{α}. We discover that this mobility pattern can be predicted solely by a spatial coarse graining of the initial order parameter field at t=0 over a length ξ without any dynamical information. Furthermore, we find a relation ξ∼ξ_{4}, indicating that the static length ξ grows coherently with the dynamic one ξ_{4} upon cooling. This further suggests an intrinsic link between τ_{α} and ξ: the growth of the static length ξ is the origin of dynamical slowing-down. These we confirm for the first time in binary glass formers both in two and three spatial dimensions. Thus, a static structure has two intrinsic characteristic lengths, particle size and ξ, which control dynamics in local and nonlocal manners, resulting

  14. Revealing Hidden Structural Order Controlling Both Fast and Slow Glassy Dynamics in Supercooled Liquids

    Tong, Hua; Tanaka, Hajime

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics of a supercooled liquid near the glass transition is characterized by two-step relaxation, fast β and slow α relaxations. Because of the apparently disordered nature of glassy structures, there have been long debates over whether the origin of drastic slowing-down of the α relaxation accompanied by heterogeneous dynamics is thermodynamic or dynamic. Furthermore, it has been elusive whether there is any deep connection between fast β and slow α modes. To settle these issues, here we introduce a set of new structural order parameters characterizing sterically favored structures with high local packing capability, and then access structure-dynamics correlation by a novel nonlocal approach. We find that the particle mobility is under control of the static order parameter field. The fast β process is controlled by the instantaneous order parameter field locally, resulting in short-time particle-scale dynamics. Then the mobility field progressively develops with time t , following the initial order parameter field from disorder to more ordered regions. As is well known, the heterogeneity in the mobility field (dynamic heterogeneity) is maximized with a characteristic length ξ4, when t reaches the relaxation time τα. We discover that this mobility pattern can be predicted solely by a spatial coarse graining of the initial order parameter field at t =0 over a length ξ without any dynamical information. Furthermore, we find a relation ξ ˜ξ4, indicating that the static length ξ grows coherently with the dynamic one ξ4 upon cooling. This further suggests an intrinsic link between τα and ξ : the growth of the static length ξ is the origin of dynamical slowing-down. These we confirm for the first time in binary glass formers both in two and three spatial dimensions. Thus, a static structure has two intrinsic characteristic lengths, particle size and ξ , which control dynamics in local and nonlocal manners, resulting in the emergence of the two

  15. Fast digital feedback control systems for accelerator RF system using FPGA

    Bagduwal, Pritam Singh; Sharma, Dheeraj; Tiwari, Nitesh; Lad, M.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2012-01-01

    Feedback control system plays important role for proper injection and acceleration of beam in particle accelerators by providing the required amplitude and phase stability of RF fields in accelerating structures. Advancement in the field of digital technology enables us to develop fast digital feedback control system for RF applications. Digital Low Level RF (LLRF) system offers the inherent advantages of Digital System like flexibility, adaptability, good repeatability and reduced long time drift errors compared to analog system. To implement the feedback control algorithm, I/Q control scheme is used. By properly sampling the down converted IF signal using fast ADC we get accurate feedback signal and also eliminates the need of two separate detectors for amplitude and phase detection. Controller is implemented in Vertex-4 FPGA. Codes for control algorithms which controls the amplitude and phase in all four quadrants with good accuracy are written in the VHDL. I/Q modulator works as common actuator for both amplitude and phase correction. Synchronization between RF, LO and ADC clock is indispensable and has been achieved by deriving the clock and LO signal from RF signal itself. Control system has been successfully tested in lab with phase and amplitude stability better then ±1% and ±1° respectively. High frequency RF signal is down converted to IF using the super heterodyne technique. Super heterodyne principal not only brings the RF signal to the Low IF frequency at which it can be easily processed but also enables us to use the same hardware and software for other RF frequencies with some minor modification. (author)

  16. Analysis of the servo-spill control for slow beam extraction

    Sato, Hikaru; Toyama, Takeshi; Marutsuka, Katsumi; Shirakata, Masashi.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes an analysis of servo-spill control system for the slow beam extraction from the KEK PS. Transfer function of extraction process is derived from measurement of the closed-loop characteristic using measured frequency response of each equipment. Result indicates the restriction of the present servo-spill control and give a guide line for the improvement. (author)

  17. Stability control of senna leaves and senna extracts.

    Goppel, Martin; Franz, Gerhard

    2004-05-01

    Powdered senna leaves and a commercial methanolic senna leaf extract were investigated for apparent degradation pathways of known constituents. Different defined storage conditions were chosen according to the guidelines of the international conference on harmonization. Analytical fingerprinting was carried out by HPLC with photodiode array detection. Differences in degradation pathways were observed between the powdered herbal drug material and the extract, depending on storage conditions and packaging materials. Within the crude plant material sennosides were shown to be degraded to sennidine monoglycosides, while rhein 8-O-glucoside was hydrolysed to rhein by enzymatic processes. Degradation of the anthranoid compounds was not due to the same pathways in the investigated commercial extracts. Only unspecific alterations of all compounds were observed. Forced decomposition of this herbal drug preparation under high temperature caused oxidative decomposition of the sennosides to rhein 8-O-glucoside. Furthermore flavonoid glycosides decomposition were observed with an apparent increase in the content of flavone aglyca.

  18. Improved glycemic control in patients with advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus taking Urtica dioica leaf extract: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Kianbakht, Saeed; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Farahnaz; Dabaghian, Fataneh Hashem

    2013-01-01

    Advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) needing insulin therapy is common. Most conventional anti-hyperglycemic drugs have limited efficacies and significant side effects, so that better anti-hyperglycemic agents are needed. Urtica dioica L. (nettle) leaves have insulin secretagogue, PPARgamma agonistic, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effects. Moreover, nettle leaves are used in traditional medicine as an anti-hyperglycemic agent to treat diabetes mellitus. Thus, efficacy and safety of nettle in the treatment of patients with advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus needing insulin were studied. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, we evaluated the effects of taking nettle leaf extract (one 500 mg capsule every 8 hours for 3 months) combined with the conventional oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs on the blood levels of fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), creatinine and liver enzymes SGOT and SGPT, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures in 46 patients and compared with the placebo group (n = 46). At the endpoint, the extract lowered the blood levels of fasting glucose, 2 hours postprandial glucose, and HbA1c significantly (p 0.05) compared with placebo. Nettle may safely improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients needing insulin therapy.

  19. Design and Analysis of the Power Control System of the Fast Zero Energy Reactor FR-0

    Schuh, N J.H.

    1966-12-15

    This report describes the power control by means of the fine-control rod and the design of the control system of the fast zero energy reactor FR-0 located in Studsvik, Sweden. System requirements and some operational conditions were used as design criteria. Manual and automatic control is possible. Variable electronic end-stops for the control rod have been designed, because of the special construction of the reactor and control rod. Noise in the control system caused by the reactor, detector and electronics caused disturbances of the control system at the lower power levels. The noise power-spectrum was measured. Statistical design methods, using the measured noise power spectrum, were used to design filters, which will reduce the influence of the noise at the lower power levels. Root Loci sketches and Bode diagrams were used for stability analyses. The system was simulated on an analogue computer, taking into account even nonlinearities of the control system and noise. Typical cases of reactor operation were simulated and stability analysis performed.

  20. Design and Analysis of the Power Control System of the Fast Zero Energy Reactor FR-0

    Schuh, N.J.H.

    1966-12-01

    This report describes the power control by means of the fine-control rod and the design of the control system of the fast zero energy reactor FR-0 located in Studsvik, Sweden. System requirements and some operational conditions were used as design criteria. Manual and automatic control is possible. Variable electronic end-stops for the control rod have been designed, because of the special construction of the reactor and control rod. Noise in the control system caused by the reactor, detector and electronics caused disturbances of the control system at the lower power levels. The noise power-spectrum was measured. Statistical design methods, using the measured noise power spectrum, were used to design filters, which will reduce the influence of the noise at the lower power levels. Root Loci sketches and Bode diagrams were used for stability analyses. The system was simulated on an analogue computer, taking into account even nonlinearities of the control system and noise. Typical cases of reactor operation were simulated and stability analysis performed

  1. Evaluation and standardisation of fast analytical techniques for destructive radwaste control

    De Simone, A.; Troiani, F.

    2001-01-01

    The document describes the work programme carried out by the Laboratorio Nazionale per la 'Caratterizzazione dei Refit Radioattivi', in the frame of the European research project Destructive Radwaste Control. The main tasks of the research work were the evaluation of fast sample pre-treatment procedures and the development of chromatographic methods coupled to fast nuclide detection by Liquid Scintillation Counting. In order to test the High Performance Ion Chromatograph (HPIC) coupled to the Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) on high salt content solutions, synthetic cement solutions have been prepared and spiked with several β-emitters hard to be measured with non-destructive analyses, along with other radionuclides important for the determination of the radiological inventory in radwastes. As the validation tests for the new analytical methods involved the manipulation of radioactive solutions, a remote area for HPIC-LSC apparatus has been designed and performed, in order to operate in safe conditions. According to the research programme, fast analytical methods for the chemical separation and radionuclide detection of the radioactive elements of interest, have been developed and qualified. From the results of the work, some protocols of analysis have been defined: they contain all information about operative conditions for HPIC-LSC apparatus, field of applicability, chemical and radioactive detection limits [it

  2. Controlling type I error rate for fast track drug development programmes.

    Shih, Weichung J; Ouyang, Peter; Quan, Hui; Lin, Yong; Michiels, Bart; Bijnens, Luc

    2003-03-15

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Modernization Act of 1997 has a Section (No. 112) entitled 'Expediting Study and Approval of Fast Track Drugs' (the Act). In 1998, the FDA issued a 'Guidance for Industry: the Fast Track Drug Development Programs' (the FTDD programmes) to meet the requirement of the Act. The purpose of FTDD programmes is to 'facilitate the development and expedite the review of new drugs that are intended to treat serious or life-threatening conditions and that demonstrate the potential to address unmet medical needs'. Since then many health products have reached patients who suffered from AIDS, cancer, osteoporosis, and many other diseases, sooner by utilizing the Fast Track Act and the FTDD programmes. In the meantime several scientific issues have also surfaced when following the FTDD programmes. In this paper we will discuss the concept of two kinds of type I errors, namely, the 'conditional approval' and the 'final approval' type I errors, and propose statistical methods for controlling them in a new drug submission process. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The ITER Fast Plant System Controller ATCA prototype Real-Time Software Architecture

    Carvalho, B.B.; Santos, B.; Carvalho, P.F.; Neto, A.; Boncagni, L.; Batista, A.J.N.; Correia, M.; Sousa, J.; Gonçalves, B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► High performance ATCA systems for fast control and data acquisition. ► IEEE1588 timing system and synchronization. ► Plasma control algorithms. ► Real-time control software frameworks. ► Targeted for nuclear fusion experiments with long duration discharges. -- Abstract: IPFN is developing a prototype Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) based in ATCA embedded technologies dedicated to ITER CODAC data acquisition and control tasks in the sub-millisecond range. The main goal is to demonstrate the usability of the ATCA standard and its enhanced specifications for the high speed, very high density parallel data acquisition needs of the most demanding ITER tokamak plasma Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems. This effort included the in-house development of a new family of high performance ATCA I/O and timing boards. The standard ITER software system CODAC Core System (CCS) v3.1, with the control based in the EPICS system does not cover yet the real-time requirements fulfilled by this hardware, so a new set of software components was developed for this specific platform, attempting to integrate and leverage the new features in CSS, for example the Multithreaded Application Real Time executor (MARTe) software framework, the new Data Archiving Network (DAN) solution, an ATCA IEEE-1588-2008 timing interface, and the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) for system monitoring and remote management. This paper presents the overall software architecture for the ATCA FPSC, as well a discussion on the ITER constrains and design choices and finally a detailed description of the software components already developed

  4. The ITER Fast Plant System Controller ATCA prototype Real-Time Software Architecture

    Carvalho, B.B., E-mail: bernardo@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associacao EURATOM/IST Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, B.; Carvalho, P.F.; Neto, A. [Associacao EURATOM/IST Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Boncagni, L. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati Research Centre, Division of Fusion Physics, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Batista, A.J.N.; Correia, M.; Sousa, J.; Gonçalves, B. [Associacao EURATOM/IST Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► High performance ATCA systems for fast control and data acquisition. ► IEEE1588 timing system and synchronization. ► Plasma control algorithms. ► Real-time control software frameworks. ► Targeted for nuclear fusion experiments with long duration discharges. -- Abstract: IPFN is developing a prototype Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) based in ATCA embedded technologies dedicated to ITER CODAC data acquisition and control tasks in the sub-millisecond range. The main goal is to demonstrate the usability of the ATCA standard and its enhanced specifications for the high speed, very high density parallel data acquisition needs of the most demanding ITER tokamak plasma Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems. This effort included the in-house development of a new family of high performance ATCA I/O and timing boards. The standard ITER software system CODAC Core System (CCS) v3.1, with the control based in the EPICS system does not cover yet the real-time requirements fulfilled by this hardware, so a new set of software components was developed for this specific platform, attempting to integrate and leverage the new features in CSS, for example the Multithreaded Application Real Time executor (MARTe) software framework, the new Data Archiving Network (DAN) solution, an ATCA IEEE-1588-2008 timing interface, and the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) for system monitoring and remote management. This paper presents the overall software architecture for the ATCA FPSC, as well a discussion on the ITER constrains and design choices and finally a detailed description of the software components already developed.

  5. Finite Time Fault Tolerant Control for Robot Manipulators Using Time Delay Estimation and Continuous Nonsingular Fast Terminal Sliding Mode Control.

    Van, Mien; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Ren, Hongliang

    2016-04-28

    In this paper, a novel finite time fault tolerant control (FTC) is proposed for uncertain robot manipulators with actuator faults. First, a finite time passive FTC (PFTC) based on a robust nonsingular fast terminal sliding mode control (NFTSMC) is investigated. Be analyzed for addressing the disadvantages of the PFTC, an AFTC are then investigated by combining NFTSMC with a simple fault diagnosis scheme. In this scheme, an online fault estimation algorithm based on time delay estimation (TDE) is proposed to approximate actuator faults. The estimated fault information is used to detect, isolate, and accommodate the effect of the faults in the system. Then, a robust AFTC law is established by combining the obtained fault information and a robust NFTSMC. Finally, a high-order sliding mode (HOSM) control based on super-twisting algorithm is employed to eliminate the chattering. In comparison to the PFTC and other state-of-the-art approaches, the proposed AFTC scheme possess several advantages such as high precision, strong robustness, no singularity, less chattering, and fast finite-time convergence due to the combined NFTSMC and HOSM control, and requires no prior knowledge of the fault due to TDE-based fault estimation. Finally, simulation results are obtained to verify the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  6. Aloe plant extracts as alternative larvicides for mosquito control

    SERVER

    2008-04-03

    Apr 3, 2008 ... Key words: Aloe, anopheles gambie, larvicidal activity. INTRODUCTION. Extracts from plants in the genus Aloe (Aloeaceae) have been widely used by pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Aloe species have long been known as medicinal plants (Cheney, 1970) and Aloe vera species is most widely ...

  7. On the actual controlling of standards concerning the 'fast breeder reactor'

    Rengeling, H.W.

    1978-01-01

    If the decision of the OVG Muenster to present the case to the Federal Constitutional Court asking whether Article 7 of the atomic energy law corresponds to the constitution or not, as far as the article allows the licensing of a fast breeder reactor, two problems arise: The legal question in how far the actual controlling of standards is to be preceeded by a statement of facts given by the court of first instance, and the problem behind concerning the responsibility of decision. The Federal Constitutional Court should accept the responsibility of decision to be borne by it. (orig.) [de

  8. Fast prototyping of conducting polymer microelectrodes using resistance-controlled high precision drilling

    Kafka, Jan Robert; Geschke, Oliver; Skaarup, Steen

    2011-01-01

    We present a straightforward method for fast prototyping of microelectrode arrays in the highly conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Microelectrode arrays were produced by electrical resistance-controlled microdrilling through an insulating polymer layer (TOPAS® 5013...... approach the steady state currents predicted from modeling, but at a much slower rate than expected. This is shown to be caused by the use of electroactive PEDOT electrodes. Subtraction of the latter contribution gives approach to steady state currents within a few seconds, which is in very good agreement...

  9. A fast automatic power control circuit for a small form-factor pluggable laser diode drive

    Wang Huan; Wang Zhigong; Xu Jian; Miao Peng; Li Wei [Institute of RF- and OE-ICs, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Luo Yin; Yang Siyong, E-mail: wanghuan@seu.edu.c [Jiangsu Sino-Chip OE-IC Co. Ltd, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2010-06-15

    A fast automatic power control (APC) circuit for a laser diode driver (LDD) has been implemented in a 0.6-{mu}m BiCMOS process. The APC circuit adopts double-loops and variable-bandwidth techniques to achieve a turn-on time of < 400 {mu}s for most kinds of TOSAs. Thus, it meets the small form-factor pluggable (SFP) agreement. Such techniques make a good tradeoff between stability, accuracy, turn-on time, noise and convenience. The measured results indicate that the APC circuit is suitable for SFP LDD. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  10. Methods for reactor physics calculations for control rods in fast reactors

    Grimstone, M.J.; Rowlands, J.L.

    1988-12-01

    The IAEA Specialists' Meeting on ''Methods for Reactor Physics Calculations for Control Rods in Fast Reactors'' was held in Winfrith, United Kingdom, on 6-8 December, 1988. The meeting was attended by 23 participants from nine countries. The purpose of the meeting was to review the current calculational methods and their accuracy as assessed by theoretical studies and comparisons with measurements, and then to identify the requirements for improved methods or additional studies and comparisons. The control rod properties or effects to be considered were their reactivity worths, their effect on the power distribution through the core, and the reaction rates and energy deposition both within and adjacent to the rods. The meeting was divided into five sessions, in the first of which each national delegation presented a brief overview of their programme of work on calculational methods for fast reactor control rods. In the next three sessions a total of seventeen papers were presented describing calculational methods and assessments of their accuracy. The final session was a discussion to draw conclusions regarding the current status of methods and the further developments and validation work required. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 23 papers presented at the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. A novel integrated renewable energy system modelling approach, allowing fast FPGA controller prototyping

    Teodorescu, Remus; Ruiz, Alberto Parera; Cirstea, Marcian

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes a new holistic approach to the modeling of integrated renewable energy systems. The method is using the DK5 modeling/design environment from Celoxica and is based on the new Handel-C programming language. The goal of the work carried out was to achieve a combined model...... containing a Xilinx Spartan II FPGA and was successfully experimentally tested. This approach enables the design and fast hardware implementation of efficient controllers for Distributed Energy Resource (DER) hybrid systems....... of a photovoltaic energy system and a wind power system, which would allow an optimized holistic digital control system design, followed by rapid prototyping of the controller into a single Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Initially, the system was simulated using Matlab / Simulink, to create a reference...

  12. Fast and reliable control of steering mirrors with application to free-space communication

    Ibrir, Salim; Su, Chun-Yi; Ooi, Boon S.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    After modeling a laser beam pointing system actuated by a piezo-electric fast steering mirror (FSM), an observer-based linear feedback controller is developed to correct the position of the laser spot communicated by the position sensing detector (PSD). The modeling and the control actions have been considered with and without the hysteresis effect induced by the piezoelectric actuators of the FSM. The design of the feedback is given through the solution of parametric matrix inequalities. It was found that the integral feedback design is very efficient in handling input and system uncertainty. The linearity of the observer-based feedback has facilitated both the real-time implementation of the control strategy and the proof of stability using dynamic-output feedbacks.

  13. Sliding Mode Control of DFIG Wind Turbines with a Fast Exponential Reaching Law

    Linyun Xiong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel sliding mode control (SMC technique for doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs based on the fast exponential reaching law (FERL. The proposed FERL-based SMC is capable of reducing to a large extent the chattering phenomena existing in the sliding stage. Meanwhile, the reaching stage is accelerated with the introduction of an adaptive gain. The proposed method is employed in a DFIG-based wind energy conversion system (WECS for direct power control (DPC. The FERL-based DPC approach is tested with simulations conducted in Matlab/Simulink under the scenarios of unbalanced grid voltage, grid fault conditions and highly unstable wind speed accompanied by an experimental study. The simulations and experimental results reveal the better performance of the proposed control method in active/reactive power tracking and dc-link voltage maintenance.

  14. Fast and reliable control of steering mirrors with application to free-space communication

    Ibrir, Salim

    2018-03-15

    After modeling a laser beam pointing system actuated by a piezo-electric fast steering mirror (FSM), an observer-based linear feedback controller is developed to correct the position of the laser spot communicated by the position sensing detector (PSD). The modeling and the control actions have been considered with and without the hysteresis effect induced by the piezoelectric actuators of the FSM. The design of the feedback is given through the solution of parametric matrix inequalities. It was found that the integral feedback design is very efficient in handling input and system uncertainty. The linearity of the observer-based feedback has facilitated both the real-time implementation of the control strategy and the proof of stability using dynamic-output feedbacks.

  15. Distributed Cooperative Control of Multi Flywheel Energy Storage System for Electrical Vehicle Fast Charging Stations

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in electrical vehicles will play a critical role in future smart grid and sudden connection of electrical vehicles chargers may cause huge power-peaks with high slew-rates on grid. In order to cope with this issue, this paper applies a distributed cooperative control for fast charging station...... with dedicated paralleled flywheel-based energy storage system. The distributed DC-bus signaling method is employed in the power coordination of grid and flywheel converters, and a distributed secondary controller generates DC voltage correction term to adjust the local voltage set-point through a dynamic...... consensus based voltage observer by communicating with its neighbors. The control system can realize the power balancing and DC voltage regulation with low reliance on communications. Finally, real-time hardware-in-the-loop results have been reported in order to verify the feasibility of proposed approach....

  16. Improved Load Frequency Control Using a Fast Acting Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    Md Mijanur Rahman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available System frequency may change from defined values while transmitting power from one area to another in an interconnected power system due to various reasons such as load changes and faults. This frequency change causes a frequency error in the system. However, the system frequency should always be maintained close to the nominal value even in the presence of model uncertainties and physical constraints. This paper proposes an Active Disturbance Rejection Controller (ADRC-based load frequency control (LFC of an interconnected power system. The controller incorporates effects of generator inertia and generator electrical proximity to the point of disturbances. The proposed controller reduces the magnitude error of the area control error (ACE of an interconnected power system compared to the standard controller. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of proposed ADRC in the application of LFC of an interconnected power system.

  17. Real Time Computer for Plugging Indicator Control of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor

    Manimaran, M.; Manoj, P.; Shanmugam, A.; Murali, N.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.

    2013-06-01

    Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is in the advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam, India. Liquid sodium is used as coolant to transfer the heat produced in the reactor core to steam water circuit. Impurities present in the sodium are removed using purification circuit. Plugging indicator is a device used to measure the purity of the sodium. Versa Module Europa bus based Real Time Computer (RTC) system is used for plugging indicator control. Hot standby architecture consisting of dual redundant RTC system with switch over logic system is the configuration adopted to achieve fault tolerance. Plugging indicator can be controlled in two modes namely continuous and discontinuous mode. Software based Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) algorithms are developed for plugging indicator control wherein the set point changes dynamically for every scan interval of the RTC system. Set points and PID constants are kept as configurable in runtime in order to control the process in very efficient manner, which calls for reliable communication between RTC system and control station, hence TCP/IP protocol is adopted. Performance of the RTC system for plugging indicator control was thoroughly studied in the laboratory by simulating the inputs and monitored the control outputs. The control outputs were also monitored for different PID constants. Continuous and discontinuous mode plots were generated. (authors)

  18. Control rod shadowing and anti-shadowing effects in a large gas-cooled fast reactor

    Girardin, G.; Chawla, R.; Rimpault, G.; Coddington, P.

    2007-01-01

    An investigation of control rod shadowing and anti-shadowing (interaction) effects has been carried out in the context of a design study of the control rod pattern for the large 2400 MWth Generation IV Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR). For the calculations, the deterministic code system ERANOS-2.0 has been used, in association with a full core model including a European Fast Reactor (EFR)-type pattern for the control rods. More specifically, the core contains a total of 33 control (CSD) and safety (DSD) rods implemented in three banks: -1) a first bank of 6 CSD rods, placed at 64 cm from core centre in the inner fuel zone (Pu content 16.3 % vol.), -2) a safety bank consisting of 9 DSD rods, at an average distance of 118 cm, and -3) a third bank with 18 CSD rods, placed at 171 cm, i.e. at the interface between the inner and outer (Pu content 19.2 % vol.) core regions. Each control rod has been modelled as a homogeneous material containing 90%-enriched B 4 C, steel and helium. Considerable shadowing effects have been observed between the first bank and the safety bank, as also between individual rods within the first bank. Large anti-shadowing effects take place in an even greater number of the studied rod configurations. The largest interaction is between the two CSD banks, the anti-shadowing value being 46% in this case, implying that the total rod worth is increased by a factor of almost 2 when compared to the sum of the individual bank values. Additional investigations have been performed, in particular the computation of the first order eigenvalue and the eigenvalue separation. The main finding is that the interactions are lower when one of the control rod banks is located at a radial position corresponding to half the core radius. (authors)

  19. A SIMPLE AND FAST EXTRACTION METHOD FOR ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SMALL VOLUMES OF AVIAN SERUM

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed using 8 M urea to desorb and extract organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from avian serum for analysis by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The analytes were ...

  20. Molecularly imprinted microspheres synthesized by a simple, fast, and universal suspension polymerization for selective extraction of the topical anesthetic benzocaine in human serum and fish tissues.

    Sun, Hui; Lai, Jia-Ping; Chen, Fang; Zhu, De-Rong

    2015-02-01

    A simple, fast, and universal suspension polymerization method was used to synthesize the molecularly imprinted microspheres (MIMs) for the topical anesthetic benzocaine (BZC). The desired diameter (10-20 μm) and uniform morphology of the MIMs were obtained easily by changing one or more of the synthesis conditions, including type and amount of surfactant, stirring rate, and ratio of organic to water phase. The MIMs obtained were used as a molecular-imprinting solid-phase-extraction (MISPE) material for extraction of BZC in human serum and fish tissues. The MISPE results revealed that the BZC in these biosamples could be enriched effectively after the MISPE operation. The recoveries of BZC on MIMs cartridges were higher than 90% (n = 3). Finally, an MISPE-HPLC method with UV detection was developed for highly selective extraction and fast detection of trace BZC in human serum and fish tissues. The developed method could also be used for the enrichment and detection of BZC in other complex biosamples.

  1. Advanced control system for the Integral Fast Reactor fuel pin processor

    Lau, L.D.; Randall, P.F.; Benedict, R.W.; Levinskas, D.

    1993-01-01

    A computerized control system has been developed for the remotely-operated fuel pin processor used in the Integral Fast Reactor Program, Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF). The pin processor remotely shears cast EBR- reactor fuel pins to length, inspects them for diameter, straightness, length, and weight, and then inserts acceptable pins into new sodium-loaded stainless-steel fuel element jackets. Two main components comprise the control system: (1) a programmable logic controller (PLC), together with various input/output modules and associated relay ladder-logic associated computer software. The PLC system controls the remote operation of the machine as directed by the OCS, and also monitors the machine operation to make operational data available to the OCS. The OCS allows operator control of the machine, provides nearly real-time viewing of the operational data, allows on-line changes of machine operational parameters, and records the collected data for each acceptable pin on a central data archiving computer. The two main components of the control system provide the operator with various levels of control ranging from manual operation to completely automatic operation by means of a graphic touch screen interface

  2. Design and adjustment on test bed of replacing subassembly machine control system for China experimental fast reactor

    Dong Shengguo; Ma Hongsheng; Zhao Lixia

    2008-01-01

    The present research concerns in the design and adjustment of replacing sub- assembly machine control system of China Experimental Fast Reactor. The design of replacing subassembly machine control system adopts some electric equipments, such as programmable controllers, digital DC drivers. The designed control system was adjusted on the test bed. The results indicate that the operation of the control system is steady and reliable, and designed control system can meet the needs of the design specification. (authors)

  3. High Voltage, Fast-Switching Module for Active Control of Magnetic Fields and Edge Plasma Currents

    Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth; Prager, James; Slobodov, Ilia

    2016-10-01

    Fast, reliable, real-time control of plasma is critical to the success of magnetic fusion science. High voltage and current supplies are needed to mitigate instabilities in all experiments as well as disruption events in large scale tokamaks for steady-state operation. Silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFETs offer many advantages over IGBTs including lower drive energy requirements, lower conduction and switching losses, and higher switching frequency capabilities; however, these devices are limited to 1.2-1.7 kV devices. As fusion enters the long-pulse and burning plasma eras, efficiency of power switching will be important. Eagle Harbor Technologies (EHT), Inc. developing a high voltage SiC MOSFET module that operates at 10 kV. This switch module utilizes EHT gate drive technology, which has demonstrated the ability to increase SiC MOSFET switching efficiency. The module will allow more rapid development of high voltage switching power supplies at lower cost necessary for the next generation of fast plasma feedback and control. EHT is partnering with the High Beta Tokamak group at Columbia to develop detailed high voltage module specifications, to ensure that the final product meets the needs of the fusion science community.

  4. Ultrasound assisted extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (US-DLLME)-a fast new approach to measure phthalate metabolites in nails.

    Alves, Andreia; Vanermen, Guido; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    A new, fast, and environmentally friendly method based on ultrasound assisted extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (US-DLLME) was developed and optimized for assessing the levels of seven phthalate metabolites (including the mono(ethyl hexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5-OH-MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5-oxo-MEHP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), and mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP)) in human nails by UPLC-MS/MS. The optimization of the US-DLLME method was performed using a Taguchi combinatorial design (L9 array). Several parameters such as extraction solvent, solvent volume, extraction time, acid, acid concentration, and vortex time were studied. The optimal extraction conditions achieved were 180 μL of trichloroethylene (extraction solvent), 2 mL trifluoroacetic acid in methanol (2 M), 2 h extraction and 3 min vortex time. The optimized method had a good precision (6-17 %). The accuracy ranged from 79 to 108 % and the limit of method quantification (LOQm) was below 14 ng/g for all compounds. The developed US-DLLME method was applied to determine the target metabolites in 10 Belgian individuals. Levels of the analytes measured in nails ranged between <12 and 7982 ng/g. The MEHP, MBP isomers, and MEP were the major metabolites and detected in every sample. Miniaturization (low volumes of organic solvents used), low costs, speed, and simplicity are the main advantages of this US-DLLME based method. Graphical Abstract Extraction and phase separation of the US-DLLME procedure.

  5. Steam temperature control of essential oil extraction system using ...

    This research proposed a closed-loop temperature control using a self-tuning fuzzy fractional-order PI (FOPI) controller to overcome the problem. The controller will regulate the steam temperature at a desired level to protect the oil from excessive heat. Self capability of fuzzy rules was found to facilitate the tuning using only ...

  6. Tevatron extraction microcomputer

    Chapman, L.; Finley, D.A.; Harrison, M.; Merz, W.; Batavia, IL)

    1985-01-01

    Extraction in the Fermilab Tevatron is controlled by a multi-processor Multibus microcomputer system called QXR (Quad eXtraction Regulator). QXR monitors several analog beam signals and controls three sets of power supplies: the ''bucker'' and ''pulse'' magnets at a rate of 5760 Hz, and the ''QXR'' magnets at 720 Hz. QXR supports multiple slow spills (up to a total of 35 seconds) with multiple fast pulses intermixed. It linearizes the slow spill and bucks out the high frequency components. Fast extraction is done by outputting a variable pulse waveform. Closed loop learning techniques are used to improve performance from cycle to cycle for both slow and fast extraction. The system is connected to the Tevatron clock system so that it can track the machine cycle. QXR is also connected to the rest of the Fermilab control system, ACNET. Through ACNET, human operators and central computers can monitor and control extraction through communications with QXR. The controls hardware and software both employ some standard and some specialized components. This paper gives an overview of QXR as a control system; another paper (1) summarizes performance

  7. Tevatron extraction microcomputer

    Chapman, L.; Finley, D.A.; Harrison, M.; Merz, W.

    1985-06-01

    Extraction in the Fermilab Tevatron is controlled by a multi-processor Multibus microcomputer system called QXR (Quad eXtraction Regulator). QXR monitors several analog beam signals and controls three sets of power supplies: the ''bucker'' and ''pulse'' magnets at a rate of 5760 Hz, and the ''QXR'' magnets at 720 Hz. QXR supports multiple slow spills (up to a total of 35 seconds) with multiple fast pulses intermixed. It linearizes the slow spill and bucks out the high frequency components. Fast extraction is done by outputting a variable pulse waveform. Closed loop learning techniques are used to improve performance from cycle to cycle for both slow and fast extraction. The system is connected to the Tevatron clock system so that it can track the machine cycle. QXR is also connected to the rest of the Fermilab control system, ACNET. Through ACNET, human operators and central computers can monitor and control extraction through communications with QXR. The controls hardware and software both employ some standard and some specialized components. This paper gives an overview of QXR as a control system; another paper summarizes performance

  8. Temperature control characteristics analysis of lead-cooled fast reactor with natural circulation

    Yang, Minghan; Song, Yong; Wang, Jianye; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Guangyu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The LFR temperature control system are analyzed with frequency domain method. • The temperature control compensator is designed according to the frequency analysis. • Dynamic simulation is performed by SIMULINK and RELAP5-HD. - Abstract: Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) with natural circulation in primary system is among the highlights in advance nuclear reactor research, due to its great superiority in reactor safety and reliability. In this work, a transfer function matrix describing coolant temperature dynamic process, obtained by Laplace transform of the one-dimensional system dynamic model is developed in order to investigate the temperature control characteristics of LFR. Based on the transfer function matrix, a close-loop coolant temperature control system without compensator is built. The frequency domain analysis indicates that the stability and steady-state of the temperature control system needs to be improved. Accordingly, a temperature compensator based on Proportion–Integration and feed-forward is designed. The dynamic simulation of the whole system with the temperature compensator for core power step change is performed with SIMULINK and RELAP5-HD. The result shows that the temperature compensator can provide superior coolant temperature control capabilities in LFR with natural circulation due to the efficiency of the frequency domain analysis method.

  9. Enhanced thermal expansion control rod drive lines for improving passive safety of fast reactors

    Edelmann, M.; Baumann, W.; Kuechle, M.; Kussmaul, G.; Vaeth, W.; Bertram, A.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents a device for increasing the thermal expansion effect of control rod drive lines on negative reactivity feedback in fast reactors. The enhanced thermal expansion of this device can be utilized for both passive rod drop and forced insertion of absorbers in unprotected transients, e.g. ULOF. In this way the reactor is automatically brought into a permanently subcritical state and temperatures are kept well below the boiling point of the coolant. A prototype of such a device called ATHENa (German: Shut-down by THermal Expansion of Na) is presently under construction and will be tested. The paper presents the principle, design features and thermal properties of ATHENs as well as results of reactor dynamics calculations of ULOF's for EFR with enhanced thermal expansion control rod drive lines. (author)

  10. The timing of control signals underlying fast point-to-point arm movements.

    Ghafouri, M; Feldman, A G

    2001-04-01

    It is known that proprioceptive feedback induces muscle activation when the facilitation of appropriate motoneurons exceeds their threshold. In the suprathreshold range, the muscle-reflex system produces torques depending on the position and velocity of the joint segment(s) that the muscle spans. The static component of the torque-position relationship is referred to as the invariant characteristic (IC). According to the equilibrium-point (EP) hypothesis, control systems produce movements by changing the activation thresholds and thus shifting the IC of the appropriate muscles in joint space. This control process upsets the balance between muscle and external torques at the initial limb configuration and, to regain the balance, the limb is forced to establish a new configuration or, if the movement is prevented, a new level of static torques. Taken together, the joint angles and the muscle torques generated at an equilibrium configuration define a single variable called the EP. Thus by shifting the IC, control systems reset the EP. Muscle activation and movement emerge following the EP resetting because of the natural physical tendency of the system to reach equilibrium. Empirical and simulation studies support the notion that the control IC shifts and the resulting EP shifts underlying fast point-to-point arm movements are gradual rather than step-like. However, controversies exist about the duration of these shifts. Some studies suggest that the IC shifts cease with the movement offset. Other studies propose that the IC shifts end early in comparison to the movement duration (approximately, at peak velocity). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the duration of the IC shifts underlying fast point-to-point arm movements. Subjects made fast (hand peak velocity about 1.3 m/s) planar arm movements toward different targets while grasping a handle. Hand forces applied to the handle and shoulder/elbow torques were, respectively, measured from a force sensor placed

  11. Preparation of magnetic core mesoporous shell microspheres with C18-modified interior pore-walls for fast extraction and analysis of phthalates in water samples.

    Li, Zhongbo; Huang, Danni; Fu, Chinfai; Wei, Biwen; Yu, Wenjia; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2011-09-16

    In this study, core-shell magnetic mesoporous microspheres with C18-functionalized interior pore-walls were synthesized through coating Fe(3)O(4) microspheres with a mesoporous inorganic-organic hybrid layer with a n-octadecyltriethoxysilane (C18TES) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as the silica source and cetyltrimethylammonia bromide (CTAB) as a template. The obtained C18-functionalized Fe(3)O(4)@mSiO(2) microspheres possess numerous C18 groups anchored in the interior pore-walls, large surface area (274.7 m(2)/g, high magnetization (40.8 emu/g) and superparamagnetism, uniform mesopores (4.1 nm), which makes them ideal absorbents for simple, fast, and efficient extraction and enrichment of hydrophobic organic compounds in water samples. Several kinds of phthalates were used as the model hydrophobic organic compounds to systematically evaluate the performance of the C18-functionalized Fe(3)O(4)@mSiO(2) microspheres in extracting hydrophobic molecules by using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Various parameters, including eluting solvent, the amounts of absorbents, extraction time and elution time were optimized. Hydrophobic extraction was performed in the interior pore of magnetic mesoporous microspheres, and the materials had the anti-interference ability to macromolecular proteins, which was also investigated in the work. Under the optimized conditions, C18-functionalized Fe(3)O(4)@mSiO(2) microspheres were successfully used to analyze the real water samples. The results indicated that this novel method was fast, convenient and efficient for the target compounds and could avoid being interfered by macromolecules. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sound Control-Flow Graph Extraction for Java Programs with Exceptions

    Amighi, A.; de Carvalho Gomes, Pedro; Gurov, Dilian; Huisman, Marieke; Eleftherakis, George; Hinchey, Mike; Holcombe, Mike

    2012-01-01

    We present an algorithm to extract control-flow graphs from Java bytecode, considering exceptional flows. We then establish its correctness: the behavior of the extracted graphs is shown to be a sound over-approximation of the behavior of the original programs. Thus, any temporal safety property

  13. FNAL Booster intensity, extraction, and synchronization control for collider operation

    Ducar, R.J.; Lackey, J.R.; Tawzer, S.R.

    1987-03-01

    Booster operation for collider physics is considerably different than for fixed target operation. Various scenarios for collider physics, machine studies, and P-Bar targeting may require that the intensity vary from 5E10 PPP to 3E12 PPP at a 15 Hertz machine cycle rate. In addition to the normal Booster single turn extraction mode, collider operations require that the Booster inject into the Main Ring a small number of beam bunches for coalescing into a single high intensity bunch. These bunches must be synchronized such that the center bunch arrives in the RF bucket which corresponds to the zero phase of the coalescing cavity. The system implemented has the ability to deliver a precise fraction of the available 84 Booster beam bunches to Main Ring or to the P-Bar Debuncher via the newly installed AP-4 beam line for tune-up and studies. It is required that all of the various intensity and extraction scenarios be accommodated with minimal operator intervention

  14. Extraction and LOD control of colored interval volumes

    Miyamura, Hiroko N.; Takeshima, Yuriko; Fujishiro, Issei; Saito, Takafumi

    2005-03-01

    Interval volume serves as a generalized isosurface and represents a three-dimensional subvolume for which the associated scalar filed values lie within a user-specified closed interval. In general, it is not an easy task for novices to specify the scalar field interval corresponding to their ROIs. In order to extract interval volumes from which desirable geometric features can be mined effectively, we propose a suggestive technique which extracts interval volumes automatically based on the global examination of the field contrast structure. Also proposed here is a simplification scheme for decimating resultant triangle patches to realize efficient transmission and rendition of large-scale interval volumes. Color distributions as well as geometric features are taken into account to select best edges to be collapsed. In addition, when a user wants to selectively display and analyze the original dataset, the simplified dataset is restructured to the original quality. Several simulated and acquired datasets are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the present methods.

  15. Definition of a Robust Supervisory Control Scheme for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors

    Ponciroli, R.; Passerini, S.; Vilim, R. B.

    2016-04-17

    In this work, an innovative control approach for metal-fueled Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors is proposed. With respect to the classical approach adopted for base-load Nuclear Power Plants, an alternative control strategy for operating the reactor at different power levels by respecting the system physical constraints is presented. In order to achieve a higher operational flexibility along with ensuring that the implemented control loops do not influence the system inherent passive safety features, a dedicated supervisory control scheme for the dynamic definition of the corresponding set-points to be supplied to the PID controllers is designed. In particular, the traditional approach based on the adoption of tabulated lookup tables for the set-point definition is found not to be robust enough when failures of the implemented SISO (Single Input Single Output) actuators occur. Therefore, a feedback algorithm based on the Reference Governor approach, which allows for the optimization of reference signals according to the system operating conditions, is proposed.

  16. Adaptation of fast responding power supply for radial position control in SST-1

    Sharma, Dinesh Kumar; Patel, Kiritkumar B.; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Dhongde, Jasraj

    2013-01-01

    A high current, fast responding power supply was installed in 2005 for vertical stabilization of elongated plasmas in SST-1 tokamak. Presently, during initial experiments of SST-1 tokamak the need for radial control during current build-up was envisaged. For this purpose the existing power supply was suitable and the same was re-commissioned and control adaptations were carried as per experimental requirements. This paper highlights the capabilities of the power supply and details the modifications in the control interfaces and test programs for the radial control purpose. Details of the operation of the power supply along with control interfaces with performance measurements are provided. The re-commissioning provided an opportunity in the trouble shooting methods and sequential operation of the system. With the operational use on the actual coil the mutual effects are understood better and appropriate test programs are prepared. The power supply provided satisfactory performance for the intended use. In additional the system is suitable to simulate a plasma current loop to enable the testing and calibration of Rogowski coil used for plasma current measurement. (author)

  17. Power supply for control and instrumentation in Fast Breeder Test Reactor

    Raghavan, K.; Shanmugam, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    The design and operation of the four 'no-break' power supplies for control and instrumentation in the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR), Kalpakkam, are described. Interruptions in the power supplies are eliminated by redundancy and battery back-up source while voltage dips and transients are taken care by automatic regulation system. The four power supplies are : (1) 24 V D.C. exclusively for neutronic and safety circuits, (2) 48 V D.C. for control logic indication lamps and solenoid valves, (3) 220 V D.C. for switchgear control, control room emergency lighting and D.C. flushing oil pump for the turbine and (4) 220 V A.C. single-phase 50 H/Z for computers and electronics of control and instrumentation. Stationary lead-acid batteries (lead antimony type) in floating mode operation with rectifier/charger are used for emergency back-up. All these power supplies are fed by 415 V, 3-phase, 50 HZ emergency supply buses which are provided with diesel generator back-up. Static energy conversion system (in preference to mechanical rotation system) is used for A.C. to D.C. and also for A.C. to A.C. conversion. (M.G.B.)

  18. Simultaneous extraction and determination of trace amounts of diclofenac from whole blood using supported liquid membrane microextraction and fast Fourier transform voltammetry.

    Mofidi, Zahra; Norouzi, Parviz; Sajadian, Masumeh; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2018-04-01

    A novel, simple, and inexpensive analytical technique based on flat sheet supported liquid membrane microextraction coupled with fast Fourier transform stripping cyclic voltammetry on a reduced graphene oxide carbon paste electrode was used for the extraction and online determination of diclofenac in whole blood. First, diclofenac was extracted from blood samples using a polytetrafluoroethylene membrane impregnated with 1-octanol and then into an acceptor solution, subsequently it was oxidized on a carbon paste electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide nanosheets. The optimal values of the key parameters influencing the method were as follows: scan rate, 6 V/s; stripping potential, 200 mV; stripping time, 5 s; pH of the sample solution, 5; pH of the acceptor solution,7; and extraction time, 240 min. The calibration curves were plotted for the whole blood samples and the method was found to have a good linearity within the range of 1-25 μg/mL with a determination coefficient of 0.99. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.1 and 1.0 μg/mL, respectively. Using this coupled method, the extraction and determination were merged into one step. Accordingly, the speed of detection for sensitive determination of diclofenac in complex samples, such as blood, increased considerably. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Control Loop for a Pulse Generator of a Fast Septum Magnet using DSP and Fuzzy Logic

    Aldaz-Carroll, E; Dieperink, J H; Schröder, G; Vossenberg, Eugène B

    1997-01-01

    A prototype of a fast pulsed eddy current septum magnet for one of thebeam extraction's from the SPS towards LHC is under development. The precision of the magnetic field must be better than ±1.0 10-4 during a flat top of 30 µs. The current pulse is generated by discharging the capacitors of a LC circuit that resonates on the 1st and on the 3rd harmonic of a sine wave with a repetition rate of 15 s. The parameters of the circuit and the voltage on the capacitors must be carefully adjusted to meet the specifications. Drifts during operation must be corrected between two pulses by mechanically adjusting the inductance of the coil in the generator as well as the primary capacitor voltage. This adjustment process is automated by acquiring the current pulse waveform with sufficient time and amplitude resolution, calculating the corrections needed and applying these corrections to the hardware for the next pulse. A very cost-effective and practical solution for this adjustment process is the integration of off-th...

  20. Model analysis of mechanisms controlling pneumatic soil vapor extraction

    Høier, Camilla Kruse; Sonnenborg, Torben Obel; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2009-01-01

    of heterogeneous soils by enforcing large fluctuating pressure fronts through the contaminated area. Laboratory experiments have suggested that pneumatic SVE considerably improves the recovery rate from low-permeable units. We have analyzed the experimental results using a numerical code and quantified......The efficiency of traditional soil venting or soil vapor extraction (SVE) highly depends on the architecture of the subsurface because imposed advective air flow tends to bypass low-permeable contaminated areas. Pneumatic SVE is a technique developed to enhance remediation efficiency...... level the pneumatic venting technology is superior to the traditional technique, and that the method is particularly efficient in cases where large permeability contrasts exist between soil units in the subsurface....

  1. Efficacy of four plant extracts in the control of root rot disease of ...

    Garcinia cola) and neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts in the control of root rot of cowpea caused by Pythium aphanidermatum was carried out in vitro and in the field (in vivo). They were evaluated for their antifungal activity over P.

  2. Modified source of a fast neutral atom beam with a controlled energy

    Gostev, V.A.; Elakhovskij, D.V.; Khakhaev, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    A source of a metastable helium atom beam with a controlled energy based on a phenomenon of resonant ion neutralization on the surface of a solid body is described. The neutral particle energy control is carried out by changing ion velocities before their transformation into metastable atoms. The results of experiments with a modified construction of atomic beam source are stated. These experiments were conducted to find the possibilities to control velocities of atoms in a flow as well as to elucidate the peculiarities of operation of a collimator-converter of this construction. Dependences of a halfwidth of the ion velocity distribution function on the ion source parameters have been investigated. The possibility for particle energy control in a collimated flow of fast neutral. atoms has been experimentally shown, it is also shown that a mean value of atom energy in a beam coincides with a value of mean energy of ions from which atoms are produced by the resonant neutralization method; the construction of the source provides the possibility to realize the method of ''overtaking beams'' for neutral atoms and as a result of this to give a possibility for studying atom-atom collisions in a wide energy range at relatively high densities of flows

  3. Real-Time Attitude Control Algorithm for Fast Tumbling Objects under Torque Constraint

    Tsuda, Yuichi; Nakasuka, Shinichi

    This paper describes a new control algorithm for achieving any arbitrary attitude and angular velocity states of a rigid body, even fast and complicated tumbling rotations, under some practical constraints. This technique is expected to be applied for the attitude motion synchronization to capture a non-cooperative, tumbling object in such missions as removal of debris from orbit, servicing broken-down satellites for repairing or inspection, rescue of manned vehicles, etc. For this objective, we have introduced a novel control algorithm called Free Motion Path Method (FMPM) in the previous paper, which was formulated as an open-loop controller. The next step of this consecutive work is to derive a closed-loop FMPM controller, and as the preliminary step toward the objective, this paper attempts to derive a conservative state variables representation of a rigid body dynamics. 6-Dimensional conservative state variables are introduced in place of general angular velocity-attitude angle representation, and how to convert between both representations are shown in this paper.

  4. Phase distribution of ecologically controlled chemical elements in production of extraction phosphoric acid

    Kazak, V.G.; Agnelov, A.I.; Zajtsev, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Content of 16 ecologically controlled chemical element (among them Cd, Sr, Th, U, V, Y) in solid and liquid phases of extraction phosphorus acid (EPA) production is determined. These elements are recommended to control by Scientific research institute of human ecology and environment to establish their extraction coefficients to phosphogypsum and EPA and optimal variant of production of ecologically sate phosphorus fertilizers. X-ray fluorescent, atomic-absorption and polarographic methods are used for analysis these elements

  5. Aggregate modeling of fast-acting demand response and control under real-time pricing

    Chassin, David P.; Rondeau, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Demand elasticity for fast-acting demand response load under real-time pricing. • Validated first-principles logistic demand curve matches random utility model. • Logistic demand curve suitable for diversified aggregate loads market-based transactive control systems. - Abstract: This paper develops and assesses the performance of a short-term demand response (DR) model for utility load control with applications to resource planning and control design. Long term response models tend to underestimate short-term demand response when induced by prices. This has two important consequences. First, planning studies tend to undervalue DR and often overlook its benefits in utility demand management program development. Second, when DR is not overlooked, the open-loop DR control gain estimate may be too low. This can result in overuse of load resources, control instability and excessive price volatility. Our objective is therefore to develop a more accurate and better performing short-term demand response model. We construct the model from first principles about the nature of thermostatic load control and show that the resulting formulation corresponds exactly to the Random Utility Model employed in economics to study consumer choice. The model is tested against empirical data collected from field demonstration projects and is shown to perform better than alternative models commonly used to forecast demand in normal operating conditions. The results suggest that (1) existing utility tariffs appear to be inadequate to incentivize demand response, particularly in the presence of high renewables, and (2) existing load control systems run the risk of becoming unstable if utilities close the loop on real-time prices.

  6. An investigation into the equivalent parameter method for homogeneous transport equivalent parameters for use in fast reactor control assemblies

    Tullett, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    P Benoist has developed a method for calculating cross-sections for Fast Reactor control rods and their followers described by a single homogenised region (the Equivalent Parameter Method). When used in a diffusion theory calculation, these equivalent cross-sections should give the same rod worth as one would obtain from a transport theory calculation with a heterogeneous description of the control rod and the follower. In this report, Benoist's theory is described, and a comprehensive set of tests is presented. These tests show that the method gives very good results over a range of geometries and control rod positions for a model fast reactor core. (author)

  7. EPICS device support module as ATCA system manager for the ITER fast plant system controller

    Carvalho, Paulo F., E-mail: pricardofc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, Bruno; Gonçalves, Bruno; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Sousa, Jorge; Rodrigues, A.P.; Batista, António J.N.; Correia, Miguel; Combo, Álvaro [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, Carlos M.B.A. [Centro de Instrumentação, Departamento de Física, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Varandas, Carlos A.F. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► In Nuclear Fusion, demanding security and high-availability requirements call for redundancy to be available. ► ATCA based Nuclear Fusion Systems are composed by several electronic and mechanical component. ► Control and monitoring of ATCA electronic systems are recommended. ► ITER Fast Plant System Controller Project CODAC system prototype. ► EPICS device support module as External ATCA system manager solution. -- Abstract: This paper presents an Enhanced Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) device support module for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) project based in Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) specification. The developed EPICS device support module provides an External System Manager (ESM) solution for monitoring and control the ITER FPSC ATCA shelf system and data acquisition boards in order to take proper action and report problems to a control room operator or high level management unit in case of any system failure occurrence. EPICS device support module acts as a Channel Access (CA) server to report problems and publish ATCA system data information to the control room operator, high level management unit or other CA network clients such as Control System Studio Operator Interfaces (CSS OPIs), Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit (BEAST), Best Ever Archive Utility (BEAUTY) or other CA client applications. EPICS device support module communicates with the ATCA Shelf manager (ShM) using HTTP protocol to send and receive commands through POST method in order to get and set system and shelf components properties such as fan speeds measurements, temperatures readings, module status and ATCA boards acquisition and configuration parameters. All system properties, states, commands and parameters are available through the EPICS device support module CA server in EPICS Process Variables (PV) and signals format. ATCA ShM receives the HTTP protocol

  8. Fast and error-resilient coherent control in an atomic vapor

    He, Yizun; Wang, Mengbing; Zhao, Jian; Qiu, Liyang; Wang, Yuzhuo; Fang, Yami; Zhao, Kaifeng; Wu, Saijun

    2017-04-01

    Nanosecond chirped pulses from an optical arbitrary waveform generator is applied to both invert and coherently split the D1 line population of potassium vapor within a laser focal volume of 2X105 μ m3. The inversion fidelity of f>96%, mainly limited by spontaneous emission during the nanosecond pulse, is inferred from both probe light transmission and superfluorescence emission. The nearly perfect inversion is uniformly achieved for laser intensity varying over an order of magnitude, and is tolerant to detuning error of more than 1000 times the D1 transition linewidth. We further demonstrate enhanced intensity error resilience with multiple chirped pulses and ``universal composite pulses''. This fast and robust coherent control technique should find wide applications in the field of quantum optics, laser cooling, and atom interferometry. This work is supported by National Key Research Program of China under Grant No. 2016YFA0302000, and NNSFC under Grant No. 11574053.

  9. Plant dynamics analyses of fast reactor concept: RAPID-A without any control rod

    Kambe, Mitsuru

    1996-01-01

    Plant dynamics analyses of a fast reactor concept RAPID-A without any control rod have been demonstrated in case of reactor startup and sudden change of the primary flow rate. RAIP-A concept involves Lithium Expansion Module (LEM) for inherent reactivity feedback, Lithium Injection Module (LIM) for inherent ultimate shutdown and Lithium Release Module (LRM) for automated reactor startup. LEM consists of Quick-LEM and Slow-LEM. Slow-LEM provides with moderate reactivity addition as decreasing temperature. Quick-LEM assures quick negative reactivity feedback as increasing temperature. Plant dynamics analyses revealed that reactor power is nearly proportional to the primary flow rate even if the flow rate increases suddenly. Fully automated reactor startup from the subcritical condition has been attempted by inserting reactivity at a constant rate by LRM. Allowable rate of reactivity addition has been obtained in respect to Quick-LEM reactivity worth. (author)

  10. Control of highly vertically unstable plasmas in TCV with internal coils and fast power supply

    Favre, A.; Moret, J.M.; Chavan, R.; Fasel, D.; Hofmann, F.; Lister, J.B.; Mayor, J.M.; Perez, A.; Elkjaer, A.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of TCV (Tokamak a Configuration Variable) is to investigate effects of plasma shape, in particular high elongation (up to 3), on tokamak physics. Such elongated configurations (I p ≅1 MA) are highly vertically unstable with growth rates up to γ=4000 s -1 . Control of the vertical position using the poloidal coils located outside the vessel is limited to γ≤1000 s -1 because of the shielding effect of the conductive vessel and because of the relative slow time response of their power supplies (0.8 ms thyristor 12 pulse switching at 120 Hz). This dictated the necessity to install a coil set inside the vacuum vessel fed with a Fast Power Supply (FPS). The choice and design of the system with a special attention to the mechanical and electrical constraints in TCV tokamak, as the results and real performances, will be presented. (author) 3 figs., 2 tabs., 2 refs

  11. Testing and qualification of Control and Safety Rod and its drive mechanism of Fast Breeder Reactor

    Rajan Babu, V.; Veerasamy, R.; Patri, Sudheer; Ignatius Sundar Raj, S.; Kumar Krovvidi, S.C.S.P.; Dash, S.K.; Meikandamurthy, C.; Rajan, K.K.; Puthiyavinayagam, P.; Chellapandi, P.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Chetal, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) has two independent fast acting diverse shutdown systems. The absorber rod of the first system is called Control and Safety Rod (CSR). CSR and its Drive Mechanism (CSRDM) are used for reactor control and for safe shutdown of the reactor by scram action. In view of the safety role, the qualification of CSRDM is one of the important requirements. CSR and CSRDM were qualified in two stages by extensive testing. In the first stage, the critical subassemblies of the mechanism, such as scram release electromagnet, hydraulic dashpot and dynamic seals and CSR subassembly, were tested and qualified individually simulating the operating conditions of the reactor. Experiments were also carried out on sodium vapour deposition in the annular gaps between the stationary and mobile parts of the mechanism. In the second stage, full-scale CSRDM and CSR were subjected to all the integrated functional tests in air, hot argon and subsequently in sodium simulating the operating conditions of the reactor and finally subjected to endurance tests. Since the damage occurring in CSRDM and CSR is mainly due to fatigue cycles during scram actions, the number of test cycles was decided based on the guidelines given in ASME, Section III, Div. 1. The results show that the performance of CSRDM and CSR is satisfactory. Subsequent to the testing in sodium, the assemblies having contact with liquid sodium/sodium vapour were cleaned using CO 2 process and the total cleaning process has been established, so that the mechanism can be reused in sodium. The various stages of qualification programmes have raised the confidence level on the performance of the system as a whole for the intended and reliable operation in the reactor.

  12. Lane Detection in Video-Based Intelligent Transportation Monitoring via Fast Extracting and Clustering of Vehicle Motion Trajectories

    Jianqiang Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lane detection is a crucial process in video-based transportation monitoring system. This paper proposes a novel method to detect the lane center via rapid extraction and high accuracy clustering of vehicle motion trajectories. First, we use the activity map to realize automatically the extraction of road region, the calibration of dynamic camera, and the setting of three virtual detecting lines. Secondly, the three virtual detecting lines and a local background model with traffic flow feedback are used to extract and group vehicle feature points in unit of vehicle. Then, the feature point groups are described accurately by edge weighted dynamic graph and modified by a motion-similarity Kalman filter during the sparse feature point tracking. After obtaining the vehicle trajectories, a rough k-means incremental clustering with Hausdorff distance is designed to realize the rapid online extraction of lane center with high accuracy. The use of rough set reduces effectively the accuracy decrease, which results from the trajectories that run irregularly. Experimental results prove that the proposed method can detect lane center position efficiently, the affected time of subsequent tasks can be reduced obviously, and the safety of traffic surveillance systems can be enhanced significantly.

  13. Fast and effective low-temperature freezing extraction technique to determine organotin compounds in edible vegetable oil.

    Liu, Yingxia; Ma, Yaqian; Wan, Yiqun; Guo, Lan; Wan, Xiaofen

    2016-06-01

    Most organotin compounds that have been widely used in food packaging materials and production process show serious toxicity effects to human health. In this study, a simple and low-cost method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of four organotins in edible vegetable oil samples was developed. Four organotins including dibutyltin dichloride, tributyltin chloride, diphenyltin dichloride, and triphenyltin chloride were simultaneously extracted with methanol using the low-temperature precipitation process. After being concentrated, the extracts were purified by matrix solid-phase dispersion using graphitized carbon black. The experimental parameters such as extraction solvent and clean-up material were optimized. To evaluate the accuracy of the new method, the recoveries were investigated. In addition, a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was also proposed for comparison. The procedures of extracting and purifying samples for the analysis were simple and easy to perform batch operations, also showed good efficiency with lower relative standard deviation. The limits of detection of the four organotins were 0.28-0.59 μg/L, and the limits of quantification of the four organotins were 0.93-1.8 μg/L, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous analysis of the four organotins in edible vegetable oil. Some analytes were detected at the level of 2.5-28.8 μg/kg. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Suitable Method of Overloading for Fast Primary Frequency Control from Offshore Wind Power Plants in Multi-Terminal DC Grid

    Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    2017-01-01

    Increased penetration of offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) demands frequency control services from them. Overloading the wind turbine, for few seconds after the under frequency event, to utilize its kinetic energy seems promising option for fast primary frequency control. Two methods...

  15. Study on automatic control of high uranium concentration solvent extraction with pulse sieve-plate column

    You Wenzhi; Xing Guangxuan; Long Maoxiong; Zhang Jianmin; Zhou Qin; Chen Fuping; Ye Lingfeng

    1998-01-01

    The author mainly described the working condition of the automatic control system of high uranium concentration solvent extraction with pulse sieve-plate column on a large scale test. The use of the automatic instrument and meter, automatic control circuit, and the best feedback control point of the solvent extraction processing with pulse sieve-plate column are discussed in detail. The writers point out the success of this experiment on automation, also present some questions that should be cared for the automatic control, instruments and meters in production in the future

  16. Self-excited vibration control for axially fast excited beam by a time delay state feedback

    Hamdi, Mustapha; Belhaq, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    This work examines the control of self-excited vibration of a simply-supported beam subjected to an axially high-frequency excitation. The investigation of the resonant cases are not considered in this paper. The control is implemented via a corrective position feedback with time delay. The objective of this control is to eliminate the undesirable self-excited vibrations with an appropriate choice of parameters. The issue of stability is also addressed in this paper. Using the technique of direct partition of motion, the dynamic of discretized equations is separated into slow and fast components. The multiple scales method is then performed on the slow dynamic to obtain a slow flow for the amplitude and phase. Analysis of this slow flow provides analytical approximations locating regions in parameters space where undesirable self-excited vibration can be eliminated. A numerical study of these regions is performed on the original discretized system and compared to the analytical prediction showing a good agreement.

  17. Grape seed extract for control of human enteric viruses.

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2011-06-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is reported to have many pharmacological benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antimicrobial properties. However, the effect of this inexpensive rich source of natural phenolic compounds on human enteric viruses has not been well documented. In the present study, the effect of commercial GSE, Gravinol-S, on the infectivity of human enteric virus surrogates (feline calicivirus, FCV-F9; murine norovirus, MNV-1; and bacteriophage MS2) and hepatitis A virus (HAV; strain HM175) was evaluated. GSE at concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml was individually mixed with equal volumes of each virus at titers of ∼7 log(10) PFU/ml or ∼5 log(10) PFU/ml and incubated for 2 h at room temperature or 37°C. The infectivity of the recovered viruses after triplicate treatments was evaluated by standardized plaque assays. At high titers (∼7 log(10) PFU/ml), FCV-F9 was significantly reduced by 3.64, 4.10, and 4.61 log(10) PFU/ml; MNV-1 by 0.82, 1.35, and 1.73 log(10) PFU/ml; MS2 by 1.13, 1.43, and 1.60 log(10) PFU/ml; and HAV by 1.81, 2.66, and 3.20 log(10) PFU/ml after treatment at 37°C with 0.25, 0.50, and 1 mg/ml GSE, respectively (P PFU/ml) at 37°C also showed viral reductions. Room-temperature treatments with GSE caused significant reduction of the four viruses, with higher reduction for low-titer FCV-F9, MNV-1, and HAV compared to high titers. Our results indicate that GSE shows promise for application in the food industry as an inexpensive novel natural alternative to reduce viral contamination and enhance food safety.

  18. Soft real-time EPICS extensions for fast control: A case study applied to a TCV equilibrium algorithm

    Castro, R.; Romero, J.A.; Vega, J.; Nieto, J.; Ruiz, M.; Sanz, D.; Barrera, E.; De Arcas, G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Implementation of a soft real-time control system based on EPICS technology. • High data throughput system control implementation. • GPU technology applied to fast control. • EPICS fast control based solution. • Fast control and data acquisition in Linux. - Abstract: For new control systems development, ITER distributes CODAC Core System that is a software package based on Linux RedHat, and includes EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) as software control system solution. EPICS technology is being widely used for implementing control systems in research experiments and it is a very well tested technology, but presents important lacks to meet fast control requirements. To manage and process massive amounts of acquired data, EPICS requires additional functions such as: data block oriented transmissions, links with speed-optimized data buffers and synchronization mechanisms not based on system interruptions. This EPICS limitation turned out clearly during the development of the Fast Plant System Controller Prototype for ITER based on PXIe platform. In this work, we present a solution that, on the one hand, is completely compatible and based on EPCIS technology, and on the other hand, extends EPICS technology for implementing high performance fast control systems with soft-real time characteristics. This development includes components such as: data acquisition, processing, monitoring, data archiving, and data streaming (via network and shared memory). Additionally, it is important to remark that this system is compatible with multiple Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and is able to integrate MatLab code through MatLab engine connections. It preserves EPICS modularity, enabling system modification or extension with a simple change of configuration, and finally it enables parallelization based on data distribution to different processing components. With the objective of illustrating the presented solution in an actual

  19. Magnetic resonance measurements of azygos and portal venous blood flow under fasting and postprandial conditions in healthy controls and cirrhotics

    Takamura, Naoko

    2001-01-01

    Using MR velocity mapping, we studied measurements azygos (A) and portal venous blood flow (P) under fasting and postprandial conditions in 7 healthy controls (C) and 10 cirrhotics (LC). Fasting A in LC was higher than that in C. Fasting P in C was higher than that in LC. Variability of repeated measuring A and P was low in C and LC. A postprandial increase of A in LC was higher than that in C. Fasting A/P ratio in LC was higher than that in C. Our results suggest that MR velocity mapping is expected as the reproducible method for monitoring the hemodynamic change in the azygos and portal venous system. (author)

  20. Extraction of fast neuronal changes from multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy signals using independent component analysis

    Morren, Geert; Wolf, Martin; Lemmerling, Philippe; Wolf, Ursula; Choi, Jee H.; Gratton, Enrico; De Lathauwer, Lieven; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2002-06-01

    Fast changes in the range of milliseconds in the optical properties of cerebral tissue, which are associated with brain activity, can be detected using non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). These changes in light scattering are due to an alteration in the refractive index at neuronal membranes. The aim of this study was to develop highly sensitive data analysis algorithms to detect this fast signal, which is small compared to other physiological signals. A frequency-domain tissue oximeter, whose laser diodes were modulated at 110MHz was used. The amplitude, mean intensity and phase of the modulated optical signal was measured at 96Hz sample rate. The probe consisting of 4 crossed source detector pairs was placed above the motor cortex, contralateral to the hand performing a tapping exercise consisting of alternating rest- and tapping periods of 20s each. The tapping frequency, which was set to 3.55Hz or 2.5 times the heart rate of the subject to avoid the influence of harmonics on the signal, could not be observed in any of the individual signals measured by the detectors. An adaptive filter was used to remove the arterial pulsatility from the optical signals. Independent Component Analysis allowed to separate signal components in which the tapping frequency was clearly visible.

  1. LiveWire interactive boundary extraction algorithm based on Haar wavelet transform and control point set direction search

    Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Jun; Tian, Jinwen

    2015-12-01

    Based on deep analysis of the LiveWire interactive boundary extraction algorithm, a new algorithm focusing on improving the speed of LiveWire algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the Haar wavelet transform is carried on the input image, and the boundary is extracted on the low resolution image obtained by the wavelet transform of the input image. Secondly, calculating LiveWire shortest path is based on the control point set direction search by utilizing the spatial relationship between the two control points users provide in real time. Thirdly, the search order of the adjacent points of the starting node is set in advance. An ordinary queue instead of a priority queue is taken as the storage pool of the points when optimizing their shortest path value, thus reducing the complexity of the algorithm from O[n2] to O[n]. Finally, A region iterative backward projection method based on neighborhood pixel polling has been used to convert dual-pixel boundary of the reconstructed image to single-pixel boundary after Haar wavelet inverse transform. The algorithm proposed in this paper combines the advantage of the Haar wavelet transform and the advantage of the optimal path searching method based on control point set direction search. The former has fast speed of image decomposition and reconstruction and is more consistent with the texture features of the image and the latter can reduce the time complexity of the original algorithm. So that the algorithm can improve the speed in interactive boundary extraction as well as reflect the boundary information of the image more comprehensively. All methods mentioned above have a big role in improving the execution efficiency and the robustness of the algorithm.

  2. Fast computational scheme for feedback control of high current fusion tokamaks

    Dong, J.Q.; Khayrutdinov, R.; Azizov, E.; Jardin, S.

    1992-01-01

    An accurate and fast numerical model of tokamak plasma evolution is presented. In this code (DINA) the equilibrium problem of plasmas with free boundaries in externally changing magnetic fields is solved simultaneously with the plasma transport equation. The circuit equations are solved for the vacuum vessel and passive and active coils. The code includes pellet injection, neutral beam heating, auxiliary heating, and alpha particle heating. Bootstrap and beam-driven plasma currents are accounted for. An inverse variable technique is utilized to obtain the coordinates of the equilibrium magnetic surfaces. This numerical algorithm permits to determine the flux coordinates very quickly and accurately. The authors show that using the fully resistive MHD analysis the region of stability (to vertical motions) is wider than using the rigid displacement model. Comparing plasma motions with the same gain, it is seen that the plasma oscillates more in the rigid analysis than in the MHD analysis. They study the influence of the pick up coil's location and the possibility of control of the plasma vertical position. They use a simple modification of the standard control law that enables the control of the plasma with pick up coils located at any position. This flexibility becomes critical in the design of future complex high current tokamak systems. The fully resistive MHD model permits to obtain accurate estimates of the plasma response. This approach yields computational time savings of one to two orders of magnitude with respect to other existing MHD models. In this sense, conventional numerical algorithms do not provide suitable models for application of modern control techniques into real time expert systems. The proposed inverse variable technique is rather suitable for incorporation in a comprehensive expert system for feedback control of fusion tokamaks in real time

  3. Magnetic metal-organic frameworks for fast and efficient solid-phase extraction of six Sudan dyes in tomato sauce.

    Shi, Xin-Ran; Chen, Xue-Lei; Hao, Yu-Lan; Li, Li; Xu, Hou-Jun; Wang, Man-Man

    2018-06-01

    Magnetic solid-phase extraction is an effective and useful technique to preconcentrate trace analytes from food samples. In this study, a magnetic trimeric chromium octahedral metal-organic framework (Fe 3 O 4 -NH 2 @MIL-101) was fabricated and characterized. Fe 3 O 4 -NH 2 @MIL-101 was applied as an adsorbent of magnetic solid-phase extraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography to effectively isolate and simultaneously determine six Sudan dyes (Para Red, Sudan I-IV, and Sudan Red 7B) from tomato sauce. Potential factors affecting the MSPE were investigated in detail, and adsorption efficiency of Fe 3 O 4 -NH 2 @MIL-101 was compared with those of conventional adsorbents, such as neutral alumina, HLB, and C 18 . The developed method facilitated the extraction with using only 3 mg of adsorbent in 2 min. In addition, enhancement factors of 50, linear range of 0.01-25 μg/mL, and detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.5-2.5 μg/kg were obtained. The intra-day and inter-day recoveries for spiked Sudan dyes were in the range of 72.6%-92.9% and 69.6%-91.6%, respectively, with relative standard deviations of ≤9.2%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation and standardisation of fast analytical techniques for destructive radwaste control

    De Simone, A.; Troiani, F. [ENEA, Unita' Rifiuti Radioattivi e Disattivazione Impianti, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The document describes the work programme carried out by the Laboratorio Nazionale per la 'Caratterizzazione dei Rifiuti Radioattivi', in the frame of the European research project Destructive Radwaste Control. The main tasks of the research work were the evaluation of fast sample pre-treatment procedures and the development of chromatographic methods coupled to fast nuclide detection by Liquid Scintillation Counting. In order to test the High Performance Ion Chromatograph (HPIC) coupled to the Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) on high salt content solutions, synthetic cement solutions have been prepared and spiked with several {beta}-emitters hard to be measured with non-destructive analyses, along with other radionuclides important for the determination of the radiological inventory in radwastes. As the validation tests for the new analytical methods involved the manipulation of radioactive solutions, a remote area for HPIC-LSC apparatus has been designed and performed, in order to operate in safe conditions. According to the research programme, fast analytical methods for the chemical separation and radionuclide detection of the radioactive elements of interest, have been developed and qualified. From the results of the work, some protocols of analysis have been defined: they contain all information about operative conditions for HPIC-LSC apparatus, field of applicability, chemical and radioactive detection limits. [Italian] Questo documento riporta il lavoro realizzato dal Laboratorio Nazionale per la Caratterizzazione dei Rifiuti Radioattivi, nell'ambito del progetto di ricerca Europeo sulle tecniche di misura distruttive per rifiuti radioattivi. Il lavoro era finalizzato sia alla valutazione di nuove procedure veloci per la preparazione dei campioni da analizzare sia allo sviluppo di metodi Cromatografici accoppiati alla rivelazione di radionuclidi mediante Conteggio a Scintillazione Liquida. La sperimentazione della Cromatografia Ionica ad

  5. A Novel Supercapacitor/Lithium-Ion Hybrid Energy System with a Fuzzy Logic-Controlled Fast Charging and Intelligent Energy Management System

    Muhammad Adil Khan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The electric powered wheelchair (EPW is an essential assistive tool for people with serious injuries or disability. This manuscript describes the validation of applied research for reducing the charging time of an electric wheelchair using a hybrid electric system (HES composed of a supercapacitor (SC bank and a lithium-ion battery with a fuzzy logic controller (FLC-based fast charging system for Li-ion batteries and a fuzzy logic-based intelligent energy management system (FLIEMS for controlling the power flow within the HES. The fast charging FLC was designed to drive the voltage difference (Vd among the different cells of a multi-cell battery and the cell voltage (Vc of an individual cell. These parameters (voltage difference and cell voltage were used as input voltages to reduce the charge time and activate a bypass equalization (BPE scheme. BPE was introduced in this paper so that the battery operates within the safe voltage range. For SC/Li-ion HES, the FLIEMS presented in this paper controls the bi-directional power flow to smooth the power extracted from Li-ion batteries. Moreover, a dual active bridge isolated bidirectional DC converter (DAB-IBDC was used for power conversion. The DAB-IBDC presented in this paper has the characteristics of galvanic isolation, and high power conversion efficiency compared to the conventional converter circuits due to the reduced reverse power flow and current stresses.

  6. High-capacity conductive nanocellulose paper sheets for electrochemically controlled extraction of DNA oligomers.

    Aamir Razaq

    Full Text Available Highly porous polypyrrole (PPy-nanocellulose paper sheets have been evaluated as inexpensive and disposable electrochemically controlled three-dimensional solid phase extraction materials. The composites, which had a total anion exchange capacity of about 1.1 mol kg(-1, were used for extraction and subsequent release of negatively charged fluorophore tagged DNA oligomers via galvanostatic oxidation and reduction of a 30-50 nm conformal PPy layer on the cellulose substrate. The ion exchange capacity, which was, at least, two orders of magnitude higher than those previously reached in electrochemically controlled extraction, originated from the high surface area (i.e. 80 m(2 g(-1 of the porous composites and the thin PPy layer which ensured excellent access to the ion exchange material. This enabled the extractions to be carried out faster and with better control of the PPy charge than with previously employed approaches. Experiments in equimolar mixtures of (dT(6, (dT(20, and (dT(40 DNA oligomers showed that all oligomers could be extracted, and that the smallest oligomer was preferentially released with an efficiency of up to 40% during the reduction of the PPy layer. These results indicate that the present material is very promising for the development of inexpensive and efficient electrochemically controlled ion-exchange membranes for batch-wise extraction of biomolecules.

  7. A New Fast Nonsingular Terminal Sliding Mode Control for a Class of Second-Order Uncertain Systems

    Linjie Xin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the robust and adaptive nonsingular terminal sliding mode (NTSM control for a class of second-order uncertain systems. First, a new fast NTSM was proposed which had global fast convergence rate in the sliding phase. Then, a new form of robust NTSM controller was designed to handle a wider class of second-order uncertain systems. Moreover, an exponential-decline switching gain was introduced for chattering suppression. After that, a double sliding surfaces control scheme was constructed to combine the NTSM control with the adaptive technique. The benefit is that a strict demonstration can be given for the stagnation problem in the stability analysis of NTSM. Finally, a case study for tracking control of a variable-length pendulum was performed to verify the proposed controllers.

  8. Application of an EPID for fast daily dosimetric quality control of a fully computer-controlled treatment unit

    Dirkx, M.L.P.; Kroonwijk, M.; De Boer, J.C.J.; Heijmen, B.J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The MM50 Racetrack Microtron, suited for sophisticated three-dimensional computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy techniques, is a complex treatment unit in various respects. Therefore, for a number of gantry angles, daily quality control of the absolute output and the profiles of the scanned photon beams in mandatory. A fast method for these daily checks, based on dosimetric measurements with the Philips SRI-100 Electronic Portal Imaging Device, has been developed and tested. Open beams are checked for four different gantry angles; for gantry angle 0, a wedged field is checked as well. The fields are set up one after another under full computer control. Performing and analyzing the measurements takes about ten minutes. The applied EPID has favourable characteristics for dosimetric quality control measurements: absolute measurements reproduce within 0.5% (1 SD) and the reproducibility of a relative (2-D) fluence profile is 0.2% (1 SD). The day-to-day sensitivity stability over a period of a month is 0.6% (1 SD). EPID-signals are within 0.2% linear with the applied dose. The 2-D fluence profile of the 25 MV photon beam of the MM50 is very stable in time: during a period of one year, a maximum fluctuation of 2.6% was observed. Once, a deviation in the cGy/MU-value of 6% was detected. Only because of the performed morning quality control checks with the EPID, erroneous dose delivery to patients could be avoided; there is no interlock in the MM50-system that would have prevented patient treatment. Based on our experiences and on clinical requirements regarding the acceptability of deviations of beam characteristics, a protocol has been developed including action levels for additional investigations. Studies on the application of the SRI-100 for in vivo dosimetry on the MM50 have been started

  9. Application of an EPID for fast daily dosimetric quality control of a fully computer-controlled treatment unit

    Dirkx, M L.P.; Kroonwijk, M; De Boer, J C.J.; Heijmen, B J.M. [Nederlands Kanker Inst. ` Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis` , Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    The MM50 Racetrack Microtron, suited for sophisticated three-dimensional computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy techniques, is a complex treatment unit in various respects. Therefore, for a number of gantry angles, daily quality control of the absolute output and the profiles of the scanned photon beams in mandatory. A fast method for these daily checks, based on dosimetric measurements with the Philips SRI-100 Electronic Portal Imaging Device, has been developed and tested. Open beams are checked for four different gantry angles; for gantry angle 0, a wedged field is checked as well. The fields are set up one after another under full computer control. Performing and analyzing the measurements takes about ten minutes. The applied EPID has favourable characteristics for dosimetric quality control measurements: absolute measurements reproduce within 0.5% (1 SD) and the reproducibility of a relative (2-D) fluence profile is 0.2% (1 SD). The day-to-day sensitivity stability over a period of a month is 0.6% (1 SD). EPID-signals are within 0.2% linear with the applied dose. The 2-D fluence profile of the 25 MV photon beam of the MM50 is very stable in time: during a period of one year, a maximum fluctuation of 2.6% was observed. Once, a deviation in the cGy/MU-value of 6% was detected. Only because of the performed morning quality control checks with the EPID, erroneous dose delivery to patients could be avoided; there is no interlock in the MM50-system that would have prevented patient treatment. Based on our experiences and on clinical requirements regarding the acceptability of deviations of beam characteristics, a protocol has been developed including action levels for additional investigations. Studies on the application of the SRI-100 for in vivo dosimetry on the MM50 have been started.

  10. Fast-Spiking Interneurons Supply Feedforward Control of Bursting, Calcium, and Plasticity for Efficient Learning.

    Owen, Scott F; Berke, Joshua D; Kreitzer, Anatol C

    2018-02-08

    Fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) are a prominent class of forebrain GABAergic cells implicated in two seemingly independent network functions: gain control and network plasticity. Little is known, however, about how these roles interact. Here, we use a combination of cell-type-specific ablation, optogenetics, electrophysiology, imaging, and behavior to describe a unified mechanism by which striatal FSIs control burst firing, calcium influx, and synaptic plasticity in neighboring medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs). In vivo silencing of FSIs increased bursting, calcium transients, and AMPA/NMDA ratios in MSNs. In a motor sequence task, FSI silencing increased the frequency of calcium transients but reduced the specificity with which transients aligned to individual task events. Consistent with this, ablation of FSIs disrupted the acquisition of striatum-dependent egocentric learning strategies. Together, our data support a model in which feedforward inhibition from FSIs temporally restricts MSN bursting and calcium-dependent synaptic plasticity to facilitate striatum-dependent sequence learning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fasting plasma carotenoids concentrations in Crohn's and pancreatic cancer patients compared to control subjects.

    Drai, J; Borel, P; Faure, H; Galabert, C; Le Moël, G; Laromiguière, M; Fayol, V

    2009-03-01

    Carotenoids are colored molecules that are widespread in the plant kingdom, but animals cannot synthesize them. Carotenes are long, apolar molecules which require fully functioning digestive processes to be absorbed properly. Hence they could be interesting markers of intestinal absorption and digestion. Indeed, only few tests are available to assess these processes and only the D-xylose tolerance test is routinely used. However D-xylose is a sugar that tests only the absorption of water-soluble compounds and it only tests duodenal absorption. In this study, we have evaluated carotenoids as markers of digestion and absorption. We compared fasting plasma carotenoids concentrations in 21 control subjects, 20 patients with Crohn's disease, and 18 patients with pancreatic cancer. Crohn's disease alters intestinal absorption while pancreatic cancer decreases pancreatic enzyme secretion thus impairing digestion. Results show that all carotenoids are significantly lower in Crohn's and cancer patients as compared to control subjects and the multifactorial analysis shows that this decrease is mostly independent of dietary intake. Interestingly, maldigestion as seen in pancreatic cancer more strongly influences plasma lutein and lycopene concentrations while malabsorption in Crohn's disease acts on other carotenoids. Thus carotenoids could be interesting alternatives for testing and following patients that are suspected of having malabsorption or maldigestion syndromes.

  12. Measurement control design and performance assessment in the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycle

    Orechwa, Y.; Bucher, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR)--consisting of a metal fueled and liquid metal cooled reactor together with an attendant fuel cycle facility (FCF)--is currently undergoing a phased demonstration of the closed fuel cycle at Argonne National Laboratory. The recycle technology is pyrometalurgical based with incomplete fission product separation and all transuranics following plutonium for recycle. The equipment operates in batch mode at 500 to 1,300 C. The materials are highly radioactive and pyrophoric, thus the FCF requires remote operation. Central to the material control and accounting system for the FCF are the balances for mass measurements. The remote operation of the balances limits direct adjustment. The radiation environment requires that removal and replacement of the balances be minimized. The uniqueness of the facility precludes historical data for design and performance assessment. To assure efficient operation of the facility, the design of the measurement control system has called for procedures which assess the performance of the balances in great detail and will support capabilities for the correction of systematic changes in the performance of the balances through software

  13. System-level Specifications of the Timing and Fast Control system for the LHCb Upgrade

    Alessio, Federico

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times the initial design luminosity. The various sub-systems in the readout architecture will need to be upgraded in order to cope with higher sub-detector occupancies, higher rate and higher network load. In this paper, we describe the specifications of the new Timing and Fast Control (S- TFC) system. We define the requirements for the new S-TFC, and specify its architecture and the individual components. The system is based on a single new Readout Supervisor (S-ODIN) instantiating several S-TFC masters to allow partitioning. The communication with the readout electronics is ensured by a shared high-speed optical link network for both the distribution of timing and synchronous control information, as well as trigger/throttle communication. An interface board (SOL40) with fan-out capabilities for timing and synchronous information and fan-in capabilities for throttle and rate regulation of the...

  14. Fast Dynamic Simulation-Based Small Signal Stability Assessment and Control

    Acharya, Naresh [General Electric Company, Fairfield, CT (United States); Baone, Chaitanya [General Electric Company, Fairfield, CT (United States); Veda, Santosh [General Electric Company, Fairfield, CT (United States); Dai, Jing [General Electric Company, Fairfield, CT (United States); Chaudhuri, Nilanjan [General Electric Company, Fairfield, CT (United States); Leonardi, Bruno [General Electric Company, Fairfield, CT (United States); Sanches-Gasca, Juan [General Electric Company, Fairfield, CT (United States); Diao, Ruisheng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wu, Di [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Zhenyu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Yu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jin, Shuangshuang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zheng, Bin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chen, Yousu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Power grid planning and operation decisions are made based on simulation of the dynamic behavior of the system. Enabling substantial energy savings while increasing the reliability of the aging North American power grid through improved utilization of existing transmission assets hinges on the adoption of wide-area measurement systems (WAMS) for power system stabilization. However, adoption of WAMS alone will not suffice if the power system is to reach its full entitlement in stability and reliability. It is necessary to enhance predictability with "faster than real-time" dynamic simulations that will enable the dynamic stability margins, proactive real-time control, and improve grid resiliency to fast time-scale phenomena such as cascading network failures. Present-day dynamic simulations are performed only during offline planning studies, considering only worst case conditions such as summer peak, winter peak days, etc. With widespread deployment of renewable generation, controllable loads, energy storage devices and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles expected in the near future and greater integration of cyber infrastructure (communications, computation and control), monitoring and controlling the dynamic performance of the grid in real-time would become increasingly important. The state-of-the-art dynamic simulation tools have limited computational speed and are not suitable for real-time applications, given the large set of contingency conditions to be evaluated. These tools are optimized for best performance of single-processor computers, but the simulation is still several times slower than real-time due to its computational complexity. With recent significant advances in numerical methods and computational hardware, the expectations have been rising towards more efficient and faster techniques to be implemented in power system simulators. This is a natural expectation, given that the core solution algorithms of most commercial simulators were developed

  15. Fast and automatic depth control of iterative bone ablation based on optical coherence tomography data

    Fuchs, Alexander; Pengel, Steffen; Bergmeier, Jan; Kahrs, Lüder A.; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    Laser surgery is an established clinical procedure in dental applications, soft tissue ablation, and ophthalmology. The presented experimental set-up for closed-loop control of laser bone ablation addresses a feedback system and enables safe ablation towards anatomical structures that usually would have high risk of damage. This study is based on combined working volumes of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Er:YAG cutting laser. High level of automation in fast image data processing and tissue treatment enables reproducible results and shortens the time in the operating room. For registration of the two coordinate systems a cross-like incision is ablated with the Er:YAG laser and segmented with OCT in three distances. The resulting Er:YAG coordinate system is reconstructed. A parameter list defines multiple sets of laser parameters including discrete and specific ablation rates as ablation model. The control algorithm uses this model to plan corrective laser paths for each set of laser parameters and dynamically adapts the distance of the laser focus. With this iterative control cycle consisting of image processing, path planning, ablation, and moistening of tissue the target geometry and desired depth are approximated until no further corrective laser paths can be set. The achieved depth stays within the tolerances of the parameter set with the smallest ablation rate. Specimen trials with fresh porcine bone have been conducted to prove the functionality of the developed concept. Flat bottom surfaces and sharp edges of the outline without visual signs of thermal damage verify the feasibility of automated, OCT controlled laser bone ablation with minimal process time.

  16. Evaluation of Some Plant Extracts and Gamma Radiation for Controlling Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimea operculella (Zeller)

    Ghally, S.E.; Abdel Kawy, F.K; Abd-alla, M.S; Mohamed, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    In This work two plant species: fruits of chinaberry, Melia azedarach and leaves of Duranta plumieri were chosen to study the efficiency of these plant extracts with concentrations from 2 to 6 % (w/v) for the first and from 15 to 25% (w/v) for the second with joint action of gamma radiation at 200 Gy in controlling potato tuber moth Ph. operculella. It was noticed that, the solved used have no effect on the larval development. Percent pupation was adversely affected by increasing the concentration of plant extracts. Also the reduction in adult emergence was increased with increasing treatments used. The gradual increase in susceptibility of insect larvae to plant extract was noticed as the dose of gamma irradiation applied. The sex ratio of the resulting adults was not affected at all concentrations used. Duranta extracts have a slight effects on all the stages of Ph. operculella. Percent pupation was 19.54% with Melia fruits extract at concentration 5%, while it was 45.05% with Duranta leaves extract at 15% concentration. Finally Duranta extract had a little toxicity against Ph. operculella comparing with another extract

  17. Antifungal (in vitro) activity of plant extracts for the control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum)

    Villacís-Aldaz Luis Alfredo; León-Gordon Olguer; Santana-Mayorga Rita; Mangui-Tobar José; Carranza Galo; Pazmiño-Miranda Pilar

    2017-01-01

    The antifungal effect of five plant extracts: nettle (Urtica dioica), chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile), frame (Artemisia vulgaris), lavender (Lavandula officinalis) and chamico (Datura ferox) were evaluated at laboratory level for control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum) of the tree tomato (Solanum betaceum), using two methods of extraction (maceration and steam trapping), in the results obtained, statistical differences were observed in the percentage of inhibition of mycelial growth o...

  18. Easy and fast extraction methods to determine organochlorine pesticides in sewage sludge, soil, and water samples based at low temperature.

    Mesquita, Tayane C R; Santos, Rizia R; Cacique, Ane P; De Sá, Ludimara J; Silvério, Flaviano O; Pinho, Gevany P

    2018-03-04

    Organochlorine pesticides present in sewage sludge can contaminate soil and water when they are used as either fertilizer or agricultural soil conditioner. In this study, the technique solid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification was optimized and validated for determination of ten organochlorine pesticides in sewage sludge and soil samples. Liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification was also validated for the same compounds in water. Analyses were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry operating in the selective ion monitoring mode. After optimization, the methods showed recoveries between 70% and 115% with relative standard deviation lower than 13% for all target analytes in the three matrices. The linearity was demonstrated in the range of 20 to 70 µg L -1 , 0.5 to 60 µg L -1 , and 3 to 13 µg L -1 , for sludge, soil, and acetonitrile, respectively. The limit of quantification ranged between 2 and 40 µg kg -1 , 1 and 6 µg kg -1 , and 0.5 µg L -1 for sludge, soil, and water, respectively. The methods were used in the study of pesticide lixiviation carried out in a poly vinyl chlorine column filled with soil, which had its surface layer mixed with sludge. The results showed that pesticides are not leached into soil, part of them is adsorbed by the sewage sludge (4-40%), and most pesticides are lost by volatilization.

  19. Effect of non-condensable gas on heat transfer in steam turbine condenser and modelling of ejector pump system by controlling the gas extraction rate through extraction tubes

    Strušnik, Dušan; Golob, Marjan; Avsec, Jurij

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Control of the amount of the pumped gases through extraction tubes. The connecting locations interconnect the extraction tubes for STC gas pumping. The extraction tubes are fitted with 3 control valves to control the amount of the pumped gas depending on the temperature of the pumped gas. The amount of the pumped gas increases through the extraction tubes, where the pumped gases are cooler and decreases, at the same time, through the extraction tubes, where the pumped gases are warmer. As a result, pumping of a larger amount of NCG is ensured and of a smaller amount of CG, given that the NCG concentration is the highest on the colder places. This way, the total amount of the pumped gases from the STC can be reduced, the SEPS operates more efficiently and consumes less energy for its operation. - Highlights: • Impact of non-condensable gas on heat transfer in a steam turbine condenser. • The ejector system is optimised by selecting a Laval nozzle diameter. • Simulation model of the control of the amount of pumped gases through extraction tubes. • Neural network and fuzzy logic systems used to control gas extraction rate. • Simulation model was designed by using real process data from the thermal power plant. - Abstract: The paper describes the impact of non-condensable gas (NCG) on heat transfer in a steam turbine condenser (STC) and modelling of the steam ejector pump system (SEPS) by controlling the gas extraction rate through extraction tubes. The ideal connection points for the NCG extraction from the STC are identified by analysing the impact of the NCG on the heat transfer and measuring the existing system at a thermal power plant in Slovenia. A simulation model is designed using the Matlab software and Simulink, Neural Net Work, Fuzzy Logic and Curve Fitting Toolboxes, to control gas extraction rate through extraction tubes of the gas pumped from the STC, thus optimising the operation of the steam ejector pump system (SEPS). The

  20. A Method for Extracting the Free Energy Surface and Conformational Dynamics of Fast-Folding Proteins from Single Molecule Photon Trajectories

    2015-01-01

    Single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy holds the promise of providing direct measurements of protein folding free energy landscapes and conformational motions. However, fulfilling this promise has been prevented by technical limitations, most notably, the difficulty in analyzing the small packets of photons per millisecond that are typically recorded from individual biomolecules. Such limitation impairs the ability to accurately determine conformational distributions and resolve sub-millisecond processes. Here we develop an analytical procedure for extracting the conformational distribution and dynamics of fast-folding proteins directly from time-stamped photon arrival trajectories produced by single molecule FRET experiments. Our procedure combines the maximum likelihood analysis originally developed by Gopich and Szabo with a statistical mechanical model that describes protein folding as diffusion on a one-dimensional free energy surface. Using stochastic kinetic simulations, we thoroughly tested the performance of the method in identifying diverse fast-folding scenarios, ranging from two-state to one-state downhill folding, as a function of relevant experimental variables such as photon count rate, amount of input data, and background noise. The tests demonstrate that the analysis can accurately retrieve the original one-dimensional free energy surface and microsecond folding dynamics in spite of the sub-megahertz photon count rates and significant background noise levels of current single molecule fluorescence experiments. Therefore, our approach provides a powerful tool for the quantitative analysis of single molecule FRET experiments of fast protein folding that is also potentially extensible to the analysis of any other biomolecular process governed by sub-millisecond conformational dynamics. PMID:25988351

  1. Fast UPLC/PDA determination of squalene in Sicilian P.D.O. pistachio from Bronte: Optimization of oil extraction method and analytical characterization.

    Salvo, Andrea; La Torre, Giovanna Loredana; Di Stefano, Vita; Capocchiano, Valentina; Mangano, Valentina; Saija, Emanuele; Pellizzeri, Vito; Casale, Katia Erminia; Dugo, Giacomo

    2017-04-15

    A fast reversed-phase UPLC method was developed for squalene determination in Sicilian pistachio samples that entry in the European register of the products with P.D.O. In the present study the SPE procedure was optimized for the squalene extraction prior to the UPLC/PDA analysis. The precision of the full analytical procedure was satisfactory and the mean recoveries were 92.8±0.3% and 96.6±0.1% for 25 and 50mgL -1 level of addition, respectively. Selected chromatographic conditions allowed a very fast squalene determination; in fact it was well separated in ∼0.54min with good resolution. Squalene was detected in all the pistachio samples analyzed and the levels ranged from 55.45-226.34mgkg -1 . Comparing our results with those of other studies it emerges that squalene contents in P.D.O. Sicilian pistachio samples, generally, were higher than those measured for other samples of different geographic origins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An Optimal Control Method for Maximizing the Efficiency of Direct Drive Ocean Wave Energy Extraction System

    Chen, Zhongxian; Yu, Haitao; Wen, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The goal of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system is to convert ocean wave energy into electricity. The problem explored in this paper is the design and optimal control for the direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system. An optimal control method based on internal model proportion integration differentiation (IM-PID) is proposed in this paper though most of ocean wave energy extraction systems are optimized by the structure, weight, and material. With this control method, the heavy speed of outer heavy buoy of the energy extraction system is in resonance with incident wave, and the system efficiency is largely improved. Validity of the proposed optimal control method is verified in both regular and irregular ocean waves, and it is shown that IM-PID control method is optimal in that it maximizes the energy conversion efficiency. In addition, the anti-interference ability of IM-PID control method has been assessed, and the results show that the IM-PID control method has good robustness, high precision, and strong anti-interference ability. PMID:25152913

  3. An optimal control method for maximizing the efficiency of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system.

    Chen, Zhongxian; Yu, Haitao; Wen, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The goal of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system is to convert ocean wave energy into electricity. The problem explored in this paper is the design and optimal control for the direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system. An optimal control method based on internal model proportion integration differentiation (IM-PID) is proposed in this paper though most of ocean wave energy extraction systems are optimized by the structure, weight, and material. With this control method, the heavy speed of outer heavy buoy of the energy extraction system is in resonance with incident wave, and the system efficiency is largely improved. Validity of the proposed optimal control method is verified in both regular and irregular ocean waves, and it is shown that IM-PID control method is optimal in that it maximizes the energy conversion efficiency. In addition, the anti-interference ability of IM-PID control method has been assessed, and the results show that the IM-PID control method has good robustness, high precision, and strong anti-interference ability.

  4. Fast Extraction and Detection of 4-Methylimidazole in Soy Sauce Using Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Polymer by HPLC.

    Feng, Zufei; Lu, Yan; Zhao, Yingjuan; Ye, Helin

    2017-11-02

    On the basis of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MMIP) solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography, we established a new method for the determination of the 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) in soy sauce. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used to characterize the synthesized MMIPs. To evaluate the polymers, batch rebinding experiments were carried out. The binding strength and capacity were determined from the derived Freundlich isotherm (FI) equation. The selective recognition capability of MMIPs was investigated with a reference compound and a structurally similar compound. As a selective pre-concentration sorbents for 4-methylimidazole in soy sauce, the MMIPs showed a satisfied recoveries rate of spiked samples, ranged from 97% to 105%. As a result, the prepared MMIPs could be applied to selectively pre-concentrate and determine 4-methylimidazole in soy sauce samples.

  5. Encapsulation of low density plastic foam materials for the fast ignition realization experiment (FIREX). Control of microstructure and density

    Nagai, Keiji; Yang, H.; Iwamoto, A.

    2008-10-01

    Development of foam capsule fabrication for cryogenically cooled fuel targets is overviewed in the present paper. The fabrication development was initiated as a part of the Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FIREX) Project at the ILE, Osaka University in the way of bilateral collaboration between Osaka University and National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS). A foam cryogenic target was designed where low-density foam shells with a conical light guide will be cooled down to the cryogenic temperature and will be fueled through a narrow pipe. The required diameter and thickness of the capsule are 500 μm and 20 μm, respectively. The material should be low-density plastics foam. We have prepared such capsules using 1) mixtureing a new material of (phloroglucinolcarboxylic acid)/formalin (PF) linear polymer to control kinematic viscosity of the precursor, 2) phase-transfer-catalyzed gelation process to keep density matching of three phases of the emulsion. 3) non-volatile silicone oil as outer oil of emulsion in order to prevent hazard halogenated hydrocarbon and flammable mineral oil. The obtained foam capsule had fine structure of 180 nm (outer surface) to 220 nm (inner surface) and uniform thickness reaching to resolution limit of optical analysis (∼0.5 μm). A small hole was made before the solvent exchange and the drying process to prevent distortion due to volume changes. The density of dried foam was 0.29 g/cm 3 . After attaching the petawatt laser guiding cone and fueling glass tube, poly([2,2]paracyclophane) was coated on the foam surface and supplied for a fueling test of cryogenic hydrogen. Generally, lower density is from larger pore, then precise control of thickness and its encapsulation becomes more difficult. We have clarified the relation between pore size and preparation conditions using several precursor materials, and revealed how to control pore size of low density foams, where the solvent affinity for the polymer chain plays fundamental

  6. A novel scalable and low latency hybrid data center network architecture based on flow controlled fast optical switches

    Yan, Fulong; Guelbenzu, Gonzalo; Calabretta, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    We present a novel hybrid DCN based on flow-controlled fast optical switches. Results show packet loss < 1.4E-5 and latency < 2.4μs for 100,000 servers (0.3 load). Costs and power consumptions are also compared with current technologies.

  7. Objective Provision Trees of Reactivity Control Safety Function for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    Kang, Bongsuk; Yang, Huichang; Suh, Namduk

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this OPT is first to assure the DiD design during the licensing of Sf, but it will also contribute in evaluating the completeness of regulatory requirements under development by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). Based on the definition of Defense-in-Depth (DiD) levels and safety functions for KALIMER Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), suggested in the reference and, Objective Provision Trees (OPTs) of reactivity control function for level 1, 2, 3 and 4 DiD were developed and suggested in this paper. The challenges and mechanisms and provisions were briefly explained in this paper. Comparing the mechanisms and provisions with the requirements will contribute in identifying the missing requirements. Since the design of Prototype Gen-IV Sf (PGSFR) is not mature yet, the OPT is developed for KALIMER design. Developed level 1 to 4 OPTs in this study can be used for the identification of potential design vulnerabilities. When detailed identification of provisions in terms of design features were achieved through the next step of this study, it can contribute to the establishment of defense-in-depth evaluation frame for the regulatory reviews for the licensing process. In the next stage of this study, other safety function will be researched and findings can be suggested as recommendations for the safety improvement

  8. Objective Provision Trees of Reactivity Control Safety Function for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    Kang, Bongsuk; Yang, Huichang [TUEV Rheinland Korea Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Namduk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this OPT is first to assure the DiD design during the licensing of Sf, but it will also contribute in evaluating the completeness of regulatory requirements under development by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). Based on the definition of Defense-in-Depth (DiD) levels and safety functions for KALIMER Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), suggested in the reference and, Objective Provision Trees (OPTs) of reactivity control function for level 1, 2, 3 and 4 DiD were developed and suggested in this paper. The challenges and mechanisms and provisions were briefly explained in this paper. Comparing the mechanisms and provisions with the requirements will contribute in identifying the missing requirements. Since the design of Prototype Gen-IV Sf (PGSFR) is not mature yet, the OPT is developed for KALIMER design. Developed level 1 to 4 OPTs in this study can be used for the identification of potential design vulnerabilities. When detailed identification of provisions in terms of design features were achieved through the next step of this study, it can contribute to the establishment of defense-in-depth evaluation frame for the regulatory reviews for the licensing process. In the next stage of this study, other safety function will be researched and findings can be suggested as recommendations for the safety improvement.

  9. Efficacy of vildagliptin and sitagliptin in lowering fasting plasma glucose: Results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Göke, R; Eschenbach, P; Dütting, E D

    2015-06-01

    This study compared the efficacy of vildagliptin and sitagliptin in lowering fasting plasma glucose (FPG) as single-pill combinations (SPCs) with metformin. The randomized crossover, open-label, active-controlled study design assessed the FPG-lowering abilities of a vildagliptin/metformin (50/1000 mg twice daily) SPC compared with a sitagliptin/metformin (50/1000 mg twice daily) SPC after 2 weeks of treatment in 99 type 2 diabetes patients uncontrolled by stable metformin therapy (1000-2000 mg/day). The change in FPG from baseline to day 14 was significantly greater (P vildagliptin [-21.9 mg/dL (SD 27.0)] than with sitagliptin [-14.5 mg/dL (SD 23.0)]. After 14 days of treatment, the mean FPG was 137.8 mg/dL (SD 28.5) with vildagliptin and 140.1mg/dL (SD 26.5) with sitagliptin (P vildagliptin produced a significantly greater reduction in FPG vs baseline compared with sitagliptin, which may translate into clinical relevance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. A Fairness-Based Access Control Scheme to Optimize IPTV Fast Channel Changing

    Junyu Lai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IPTV services are typically featured with a longer channel changing delay compared to the conventional TV systems. The major contributor to this lies in the time spent on intraframe (I-frame acquisition during channel changing. Currently, most widely adopted fast channel changing (FCC methods rely on promptly transmitting to the client (conducting the channel changing a retained I-frame of the targeted channel as a separate unicasting stream. However, this I-frame acceleration mechanism has an inherent scalability problem due to the explosions of channel changing requests during commercial breaks. In this paper, we propose a fairness-based admission control (FAC scheme for the original I-frame acceleration mechanism to enhance its scalability by decreasing the bandwidth demands. Based on the channel changing history of every client, the FAC scheme can intelligently decide whether or not to conduct the I-frame acceleration for each channel change request. Comprehensive simulation experiments demonstrate the potential of our proposed FAC scheme to effectively optimize the scalability of the I-frame acceleration mechanism, particularly in commercial breaks. Meanwhile, the FAC scheme only slightly increases the average channel changing delay by temporarily disabling FCC (i.e., I-frame acceleration for the clients who are addicted to frequent channel zapping.

  11. Fast-responsive hydrogel as an injectable pump for rapid on-demand fluidic flow control.

    Luo, Rongcong; Dinh, Ngoc-Duy; Chen, Chia-Hung

    2017-05-01

    Chemically synthesized functional hydrogels have been recognized as optimized soft pumps for on-demand fluidic regulation in micro-systems. However, the challenges regarding the slow responses of hydrogels have very much limited their application in effective fluidic flow control. In this study, a heterobifunctional crosslinker (4-hydroxybutyl acrylate)-enabled two-step hydrothermal phase separation process for preparing a highly porous hydrogel with fast response dynamics was investigated for the fabrication of novel microfluidic functional units, such as injectable valves and pumps. The cylinder-shaped hydrogel, with a diameter of 9 cm and a height of 2.5 cm at 25 °C, achieved a size reduction of approximately 70% in less than 30 s after the hydrogels were heated at 40 °C. By incorporating polypyrrole nanoparticles as photothermal transducers, a photo-responsive composite hydrogel was approached and exhibited a remotely triggerable fluidic regulation and pumping ability to generate significant flows, showing on-demand water-in-oil droplet generation by laser switching, whereby the droplet size could be tuned by adjusting the laser intensity and irradiation period with programmable manipulation.

  12. Mechanism of enhancement of controllable secondary-electron emission from fast single electrons

    Lorikyan, M.P.; Kavalov, R.L.; Trofimchuk, N.N.; Arvanov, A.N.; Gavalyan, V.G.

    For porous KCl films (density approximately 2 percent, thickness 50-400 μm), the controllable secondary electron emission (CSEE) from fast single electrons with energies of 0.7-2 MeV was studied. An electric field E of approximately 10 4 -10 5 V/cm was set up inside the porous films and the emission curves anti sigma = f(E) and the energy spectra of the secondary electrons were measured. The mean emission coefficient anti sigma increases with increasing E, reaching a value of anti sigma approximately equal to 230. Internal enhancement of CSEE under the action of the E field is explained by a process similar to the Townsend semi-self-maintained discharge in gases. The mean free path L/sub e/ of the secondary electrons estimated on the basis of this mechanism of CSEE enhancement is in good agreement with the L/sub e/ value obtained independently from the energy spectra of the secondary electrons. The report examines the effect of the first critical potential U/sub il/ and of the electron affinity of the dielectric α on the formation of CSEE from a porous dielectric film. The possibility of using such films in particle detectors is discussed

  13. A new physics design of control safety rods for prototype fast breeder reactor

    Devan, K.; Riyas, A.; Alagan, M.; Mohanakrishnan, P.

    2008-01-01

    The absorber rods of 500 MWe prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR), which is under construction at Kalpakkam, have been designed to provide sufficient shutdown margin during normal and accidental conditions for ensuring the safe shut down. There are nine control and safety rods (CSR) and 3 diverse safety rods (DSR). Absorber material used is initially 65% enriched B 4 C. Based on the reported experiments in PHENIX reactor and design of absorber rods in SUPERPHENIX, the design of CSR is modified by introducing 20 cm length natural B 4 C at the top and bottom of absorber column and maintaining the remaining portion with 65% enriched B 4 C. This design ensures sufficient shutdown margin (SDM) during normal operation and also during the one stuck rod condition. For comparison of the above two designs, a CSR of 57% of enrichment was considered which gives the same worth as the revised CSR design with natural B 4 C sections in top and bottom. There is significant savings in the initial inventory of enriched B 4 C for CSR. The annual requirement of enriched boron also reduces. This new CSR can last for about 5 cycles, based on its clad life. But, it is planned to be replaced after every 3 cycles (1 cycle equals 180 efpd) of operation due to radiation damage effects in hexcan D9 steel. Use of ferritic steel for hexcan can extend the life of CSR to 5 cycles

  14. Gas cooled fast reactor control rod drive mechanism deceleration unit. Test program

    Wagner, T.H.

    1981-10-01

    This report presents the results of the airtesting portion of the proof-of-principle testing of a Control Rod Scram Deceleration Device developed for use in the Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). The device utilizes a grooved flywheel to decelerate the translating assembly (T/A). Two cam followers on the translating assembly travel in the flywheel grooves and transfer the energy of the T/A to the flywheel. The grooves in the flywheel are straight for most of the flywheel length. Near the bottom of the T/A stroke the grooves are spiraled in a decreasing slope helix so that the cam followers accelerate the flywheel as they transfer the energy of the falling T/A. To expedite proof-of-principle testing, some of the materials used in the fabrication of certain test article components were not prototypic. With these exceptions the concept appears to be acceptable. The initial test of 300 scrams was completed with only one failure and the failure was that of a non-prototypic cam follower outer sleeve material

  15. Optimal Coordinated Control of Power Extraction in LES of a Wind Farm with Entrance Effects

    Jay P. Goit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of optimal coordinated control techniques in large eddy simulations of wind farm boundary layer interaction with the aim of increasing the total energy extraction in wind farms. The individual wind turbines are considered as flow actuators, and their energy extraction is dynamically regulated in time, so as to optimally influence the flow field. We extend earlier work on wind farm optimal control in the fully-developed regime (Goit and Meyers 2015, J. Fluid Mech. 768, 5–50 to a ‘finite’ wind farm case, in which entrance effects play an important role. For the optimal control, a receding horizon framework is employed in which turbine thrust coefficients are optimized in time and per turbine. Optimization is performed with a conjugate gradient method, where gradients of the cost functional are obtained using adjoint large eddy simulations. Overall, the energy extraction is increased 7% by the optimal control. This increase in energy extraction is related to faster wake recovery throughout the farm. For the first row of turbines, the optimal control increases turbulence levels and Reynolds stresses in the wake, leading to better wake mixing and an inflow velocity for the second row that is significantly higher than in the uncontrolled case. For downstream rows, the optimal control mainly enhances the sideways mean transport of momentum. This is different from earlier observations by Goit and Meyers (2015 in the fully-developed regime, where mainly vertical transport was enhanced.

  16. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity and fast UHPLC-DAD-IT-TOF profiling of polyphenolic compounds extracted from green lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.; var. Maravilla de Verano).

    Pepe, Giacomo; Sommella, Eduardo; Manfra, Michele; De Nisco, Mauro; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Scopa, Antonio; Sofo, Adriano; Marzocco, Stefania; Adesso, Simona; Novellino, Tiziana; Campiglia, Pietro

    2015-01-15

    Fresh cut vegetables represent a widely consumed food worldwide. Among these, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most popular on the market. The growing interest for this "healthy" food is related to the content of bioactive compounds, especially polyphenols, that show many beneficial effects. In this study, we report the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of polyphenols extracted from lettuce (var. Maravilla de Verano), in J774A.1 macrophages stimulated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Lettuce extract significantly decreased reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide release, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cycloxygenase-2 expression. A detailed quali/quantitative profiling of the polyphenolic content was carried out, obtaining fast separation (10 min), good retention time and peak area repeatability, (RSD% 0.80 and 8.68, respectively) as well as linearity (R(2)⩾ 0.999) and mass accuracy (⩽ 5 ppm). Our results show the importance in the diet of this cheap and popular food for his healthy properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of rue extract and its potential for controlling rice blast

    Karinna Bannach Reis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this work was to purify and standardize the rue (Ruta graveolens extract and evaluate its effect on Magnaporthe oryzae as an alternative to the integrated management of rice blast. The drug was characterized, the liquid extract was obtained, and the methodology for quantifying the standard markers psoralen and bergapten was validated. Rue extract and the markers, solely or in combination, were assayed in vitro, as well as in greenhouse conditions, for their ability to suppress leaf blast, by the evaluation of mycelial growth, conidial germination, and appressorium formation. Rue extract inhibited M. oryzae mycelial growth (100%, conidial germination (LD50=0.237 mg, and the appressorium formation (LD50=0.121 mg; besides, the extract reduced leaf blast severity by 80.84%. Fluorescence microscopy showed that rue extract did not damage M. oryzae cell wall and plasma membrane, indicating another mode of action. Rue extract has a great potential for controlling rice leaf blast.

  18. Effectiveness of vegetable extracts for the control of Praticolella griseola (Pfeiffer (Gastropoda: Polygyridae

    Carmen Verónica Martín Vasallo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Molluscs have become a serious problem for vegetable crops, especially the species Praticolella griseola (Pfeiffer. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the percentage of mortality of the plant extracts on P. griseola in both laboratory and field conditions. An "in vitro" assay was performed with vegetable extracts of maguey (Furcraea hexapetala (Jacq. Family: Agavaceae, spiny güirito (Solanum globiferum L., Family: Solanaceae, chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L., Solanaceae, cardon (Euphorbia lactea Haw., Family: Euphorbiaceae. When evaluating three concentrations of the extract of each botanical species, a completely randomized design was used in "in vitro" conditions and random blocks on the field. The extraction of the chili pepper extract was carried out using the fruit baking method, the S. globiferum was obtained from the milling of the dried fruits and the F. hexapetala and E. lactea were obtained through the fragmentation of stalks. Extracts of F. hexapetala, S. globiferum, C. frutescens, E. lactea, are alternatives to be used by producers in the control of P. griseola. The highest percentages of mortality are reached with the extracts of C. frutescens and S. globiferum at 72 hours of application.

  19. Lantana Sp. leaf extracts for the control of Oulema Pectoralis Pest

    Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Nashriyah Mat; Salmah Moosa; Norimah Yusof; Zainab Harun; Maizatul Akmam Mohd Nasir; Misman Sumin; Rusli Zakaria

    2006-01-01

    This laboratory study was carried out to examine the effect of Lantana sp. leaf extracts on Oulema pectoralis mortality. Oulema pectoralis, the flower eating yellow beetle, is one of the most important pest of orchid. As this beetle feeds on orchid flower, the yield loss is 100 % due to zero tolerance to damage. Two different types of extraction were conducted, extraction with water and with organic solvent (ethanol). Five solutions of Lantana sp. extract were evaluated for their effectiveness against beetles. Water extract was prepared at concentrations of 5 % w/v, 10 % w/v and 20 % w/v; whilst organic solvent (ethanol) extract was prepared at concentrations of 5 % w/v and 10 % w/v. Ten replications were done for each treatment. Five adult O. pectoralis were placed on orchid flower painted with 1 mL test solution inside a glass beaker. Results showed that solution of Lantana sp. leaf extract was effective in controlling O. pectoralis beetle on orchid flower even at concentration as low as 10 % w/v (100 g of leaves blended with 1 litre of water or ethanol). (Author)

  20. Fast determination of seven synthetic pigments from wine and soft drinks using magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Chen, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Shen, Hao-Yu; Zhou, Li-Xin; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2014-06-13

    A novel, simple and sensitive method based on the use of magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction (M-dSPE) procedure combined with ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) was developed to determine seven synthetic pigments (tartrazine, amaranth, carmine, sunset yellow, allura red, brilliant blue and erythrosine) in wines and soft drinks. An amino-functionalized low degrees of cross-linking magnetic polymer (NH2-LDC-MP) was synthesized via suspension polymerization, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The NH2-LDC-MP was used as the M-dSPE sorbent to remove the matrix from the solution, and the main factors affecting the extraction were investigated in detail. The obtained results demonstrated the higher extraction capacity of NH2-LDC-MP with recoveries between 84.0 and 116.2%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for the seven synthetic pigments were between 1.51 and 5.0μg/L in wines and soft drinks. The developed M-dSPE UFLC-MS/MS method had been successfully applied to the real wines and soft drinks for food-safety risk monitoring in Zhejiang Province, China. The results showed that sunset yellow was in three out of thirty soft drink samples (2.95-42.6μg/L), and erythrosine in one out of fifteen dry red wine samples (3.22μg/L), respectively. It was confirmed that the NH2-LDC-MP was a kind of highly effective M-dSPE materials for the pigments analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fast pyrolysis of corn stover using ZnCl2: Effect of washing treatment on the furfural yield and solvent extraction of furfural

    Oh, Seung-Jin; Choi, Gyung-Goo; Kim, Joo-Sik

    2015-01-01

    To produce a bio-oil having a high concentration of furfural, corn stover was fast-pyrolyzed using ZnCl 2 in a fluidized bed reactor at 330–430 °C. The effects of various parameters such as reaction temperature, water- and acid-washing prior to pyrolysis, and ZnCl 2 content on the product and furfural yields were investigated. Moreover, solvent extraction was conducted using toluene at different mass ratios of bio-oil/toluene to recover furfural from the obtained bio-oil. The maximum yield of bio-oil was 59 wt%. The bio-oil mainly comprised acetic acid, α-hydroxyketones, and furfural. The maximum furfural yield was 11.5 wt% when the feed material was water-washed, impregnated with 18.5 wt% ZnCl 2 , and pyrolyzed. Although acid-washing removed alkali and alkaline earth metals much more efficiently than water-washing, water-washing was better than acid-washing for the furfural production. Toluene extraction was very effective to recover furfural from bio-oil. The maximum recovery rate (82%) was achieved at a bio-oil/toluene ratio of 1:4. - Highlights: • Corn stover pretreated and impregnated with ZnCl 2 was successfully pyrolyzed. • Furfural was recovered from bio-oil by extraction using toluene. • Water-washing was better than acid-washing for the furfural production. • The highest furfural yield was 11.5 wt% of the product. • The highest furfural recovery rate was 82%

  2. Core Power Control of the fast nuclear reactors with estimation of the delayed neutron precursor density using Sliding Mode method

    Ansarifar, G.R.; Nasrabadi, M.N.; Hassanvand, R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a S.M.C. system based on the S.M.O for control of a fast reactor power. • A S.M.O has been developed to estimate the density of delayed neutron precursor. • The stability analysis has been given by means Lyapunov approach. • The control system is guaranteed to be stable within a large range. • The comparison between S.M.C. and the conventional PID controller has been done. - Abstract: In this paper, a nonlinear controller using sliding mode method which is a robust nonlinear controller is designed to control a fast nuclear reactor. The reactor core is simulated based on the point kinetics equations and one delayed neutron group. Considering the limitations of the delayed neutron precursor density measurement, a sliding mode observer is designed to estimate it and finally a sliding mode control based on the sliding mode observer is presented. The stability analysis is given by means Lyapunov approach, thus the control system is guaranteed to be stable within a large range. Sliding Mode Control (SMC) is one of the robust and nonlinear methods which have several advantages such as robustness against matched external disturbances and parameter uncertainties. The employed method is easy to implement in practical applications and moreover, the sliding mode control exhibits the desired dynamic properties during the entire output-tracking process independent of perturbations. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller in terms of performance, robustness and stability.

  3. In vitro toxicity and control of Meloidogyne incognita in soybean by rosemary extract

    Mônica Anghinoni Müller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The control of nematodes in plants can be challenging, and there is a need for alternative, environmentally conscious methods for their management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis on the in vitro toxicity and control of Meloidogyne incognita in CD 206 and CD 215 soybean cultivars. Using an in vitro assay, 500 M. incognita eggs per plate were observed for 15 days after incubation with rosemary extract at concentrations of 1%, 5%, and 10%. Soybean plants were studied under greenhouse conditions, and starting at V3 stage, were sprayed weekly with the same concentration of rosemary extract for 64 days. Three days after the first treatment, each soybean plant was inoculated with 1800 eggs and 400 second-stage juveniles (J2. At the end of this essay, number of eggs and J2 in the roots and soil, number of galls, and the reproduction factor (RF were evaluated. Our results showed that in the in vitro assay, rosemary extract reduced the number of M. incognita eggs that hatched. Under greenhouse conditions, the CD 206 cultivar showed a 48% reduction in the number of galls, as well as fewer eggs in the soil and a lower RF. Similarly, in the CD 215 cultivar, the number of eggs was reduced and the RF was lower. These results indicate the potential for rosemary extract to control M. incognita in soybean crops.

  4. Grapefruit extract activity in the control of rose powdery mildew and black spot.

    Wojdyła, A T

    2001-01-01

    Efficacy of grapefruit extract (a.i. of Biosept 33 SL) in the control of Sphaerotheca pannosa var. rosae and Diplocarpon rosae on roses was investigated during 1998-1999. The extract was applied as plant spray in concentrations from 0.017 to 0.099%. First treatment of rose shrubs was done when visible disease symptoms occurred on leaves and spraying was repeated 3 (in plastic tunnel) or 10-times (in the field) at weekly intervals. In the second experiment roses with visible powdery mildew symptoms were sprayed once with grapefruit extract. Leaves were sampled one or 7 days after the extract application and germination of spores of S. pannosa var. rosae on potato dextrose agar was evaluated. In the next experiment roses grown under plastic tunnel were sprayed once with the tested preparation. After 24 hours leaves were collected and appearance of fungal hyphae and spores of S. pannosa var. rosae was studied in scanning electron microscope. In the control of S. pannosa var. rosae grapefruit extract at conc. 0.066% was as effective as triforine (standard) applied at 0.027%. Reduction of concentration resulted in the decreased efficacy of the tested preparation. Spores of S. pannosa var. rosae collected one day after grapefruit extract application germinated in about 5%. Analyses of spore vitality 6 days letter showed that only about 15% of conidia could germinated on PDA agar. In contrary, spores from untreated leaves germinated in about 95%. Scanning electrone microscope analysis of leaves taken from plants protected with grapefruit extract showed that most of hyphae were separated from leaf surface. Almost all hyphae and spores were degenerated. In the control of D. rosae the preparation in all tested concentrations gave satisfactory results but was less effective than triforine.

  5. A Comparative Study of Analog Voltage-mode Control Methods for Ultra-Fast Tracking Power Supplies

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and experimental comparison of the standard PWM/PID voltage-mode control method for single-phase buck converters with two highperformance self-oscillating (a.k.a. sliding mode) control methods. The application considered is ultra-fast tracking power supplies...... (UFTPSs) for RF power amplifiers, where the switching converter needs to track a varying reference voltage precisely and quickly while maintaining low output impedance. The small-signal analyses performed on the different controllers show that the hysteretic-type controller can achieve the highest loop...

  6. Intermittent fasting in Type 2 diabetes mellitus and the risk of hypoglycaemia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Corley, B T; Carroll, R W; Hall, R M; Weatherall, M; Parry-Strong, A; Krebs, J D

    2018-05-01

    To establish whether the risk of hypoglycaemia is greater with 2 consecutive days of very-low-calorie diet compared with 2 non-consecutive days of very-low-calorie diet in people with Type 2 diabetes. This was a non-blinded randomized parallel group interventional trial of intermittent fasting in adults. The participants had a BMI of 30-45 kg/m 2 , Type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and/or hypoglycaemic medications and an HbA 1c concentration of 50-86 mmol/mol (6.7-10%). The participants followed a 2092-2510-kJ diet on 2 days per week for 12 weeks. A total of 41 participants were randomized 1:1 to consecutive (n=19) or non-consecutive (n=22) day fasts, of whom 37 (n=18 and n=19, respectively) were included in the final analysis. The primary outcome was difference in the rate of hypoglycaemia between the two study arms. Secondary outcomes included change in diet, quality of life, weight, lipid, glucose and HbA 1c levels, and liver function. The mean hypoglycaemia rate was 1.4 events over 12 weeks. Fasting increased the rate of hypoglycaemia despite medication reduction (RR 2.05, 95% CI 1.17 to 3.52). There was no difference between fasting on consecutive days and fasting on non-consecutive days (RR 1.54, 95% CI 0.35 to 6.11). Improvements in weight, HbA 1c , fasting glucose and quality of life were experienced by participants in both arms. In individuals with Type 2 diabetes on hypoglycaemic medications, fasting of any type increased the rate of hypoglycaemia. With education and medication reduction, fewer than expected hypoglycaemic events occurred. Although it was not possible to determine whether fasting on consecutive days increased the risk of hypoglycaemia, an acceptable rate was observed in both arms. © 2018 Diabetes UK.

  7. Trade-off Analysis of Virtual Inertia and Fast Primary Frequency Control During Frequency Transients in a Converter Dominated Network

    Rezkalla, Michel M.N.; Marinelli, Mattia; Pertl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally the electricity generation is based on rotating synchronous machines which provide inertia to the power system.The increasing share of converter connected energy sources reduces the available rotational inertia in the power system leading to faster frequency dynamics, which may cause...... more critical frequency excursions. Both, virtual inertia and fast primary control could serve as a solution to improvefrequency stability, however, their respective impacts on the system have different consequences, so that the trade-off is not straightforward. This study presents a comparative...... analysis of virtual inertiaand a fast primary control algorithms with respect to rate of change of frequency (ROCOF), frequency nadir and steady state value considering the effect of the dead time which is carried out by a sensitivity analysis. The investigation shows that the virtual inertia controller...

  8. Reduction in degree of absorber-cladding mechanical interaction by shroud tube in control rods for the fast reactor

    Donomae, Takako; Katsuyama, Kozo; Tachi, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Koji; Yamamoto, Masaya; Soga, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    Research and development of a long-life control rod for fast reactors is being conducted at Joyo. One of the challenges in developing a long-life control rod is the restraint of absorber-cladding mechanical interaction (ACMI). First, a helium-bonding rod was selected as a control rod for the experimental fast reactor Joyo, which is the first liquid metal fast reactor in Japan. Its lifetime was limited by ACMI, which is induced by the swelling and relocation of B 4 C pellets. To restrain ACMI, a shroud tube was inserted into the gap between the B 4 C pellets and the cladding tube. However, once B 4 C pellets cracked and broke into small fragments, relocation occurred. After this, the narrow gap closed immediately as the degree of B 4 C pellet swelling increased. To solve this problem, the gap was widened during design, and sodium was selected as the bonding material instead of helium to restrain the increase in pellet temperature. Irradiation testing of the modified sodium-bonding control rod confirmed that ACMI would be restrained by the shroud tube regardless of the occurrence of B 4 C pellet relocation. As a result of these improvements, the estimated lifetime of the control rod at Joyo was doubled. In this paper, the results of postirradiation examination are reported. (author)

  9. Chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo biloba leaves, extracts, and phytopharmaceuticals

    Beek, van T.A.; Montoro, P.

    2009-01-01

    The chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo leaves, extracts, phytopharmaceuticals and some herbal supplements is comprehensively reviewed. The review is an update of a similar, earlier review in this journal [T.A. van Beek, J. Chromatogr. A 967 (2002) 21¿55]. Since 2001 over 3000 papers on

  10. powdery leaf extracts for control of root knot nematode in african ...

    journal

    Synthetic chemicals have been used to control plant pathogenic nematodes in the farmers fields. These chemicals, though valued for their effectiveness, are costly and may constitute health hazards to farm households and the environment. Reducing these situations in the farms through use of natural plant extracts is one of ...

  11. Control of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei by treatment with mycelial extracts from cultured fungi

    Haugaard, H.; Jørgensen, H.J.L.; Lyngkjær, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    , Trichoderma harzianum, Pythium ultimum and Rhizopus stolonifer). Three mycelial extracts from the taxonomically different fungi B. oryzae, A ultimum and R. stolonifer were selected for detailed study. In general the number of colonies formed was reduced by 70-98% compared with controls. Furthermore, the few...

  12. Fast Foods, Sweets and Beverage Consumption and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Jordan

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Takruri, Hamed; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Heath, Dennis D

    2018-01-27

    Background: The effects of consuming fast foods, sweets and beverages on the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) are unclear. The aim of this case-control study was to assess possible associations between the consumption of different fast foods, sweets and beverages and CRC risk in a Jordanian population. Methods: Two hundred and twenty diagnosed CRC cases and 281 controls were enrolled. Diet history was obtained using a validated quantitative questionnaire. Results: Consumption of some types of fast food, and particularly falafel, was associated with an increased risk of developing CRC. Elevated risk was found for potato and corn chips with an AOR of 4.36 (95%CI: 1.24-15.28) for daily consumption and 3.33 (95%CI: 1.00-11.11) for ≥5 servings/week. Consuming 1-2 or >5 servings per week of fried potatoes or 2-3 servings per week of chicken in sandwiches also increased the risk while exposure to fresh tomato juice and hot pepper sauce on a monthly basis appeared to exert a protective effect. Conclusions: Consumption of fried fast food items was significantly linked with an increased risk of developing CRC in Jordan. Creative Commons Attribution License

  13. Evaluation of grapefruit seed extract as natural fungicide to control apple scab in organic apple growing

    Trapman, Marc

    2004-01-01

    C-pro, an experimental fungicide based on grapefruit seed extract was compared to copper oxychloride for the control of apple scab in a field trial. Efficacy and possible phytotoxic effects where accessed. The C-pro formulation was analysed for possible chemical additives by HPTLC. C-pro proved tot be more effective in controlling apple scab then the standard rate of 300 gram copper oxychloride per ha, and gave a better leaf quality and less fruit skin russeting then the sta...

  14. Efficacy and safety of Panax ginseng berry extract on glycemic control: A 12-wk randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Han Seok Choi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study suggests that ginseng berry extract has the potential to improve glucose metabolism in human, especially in those with fasting glucose level of 110 mg/dL or higher. For a more meaningful benefit, further research in people with higher blood glucose levels is required.

  15. Automatic flow-through dynamic extraction: A fast tool to evaluate char-based remediation of multi-element contaminated mine soils.

    Rosende, María; Beesley, Luke; Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo; Miró, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    An automatic in-vitro bioaccessibility test based upon dynamic microcolumn extraction in a programmable flow setup is herein proposed as a screening tool to evaluate bio-char based remediation of mine soils contaminated with trace elements as a compelling alternative to conventional phyto-availability tests. The feasibility of the proposed system was evaluated by extracting the readily bioaccessible pools of As, Pb and Zn in two contaminated mine soils before and after the addition of two biochars (9% (w:w)) of diverse source origin (pine and olive). Bioaccessible fractions under worst-case scenarios were measured using 0.001 mol L(-1) CaCl2 as extractant for mimicking plant uptake, and analysis of the extracts by inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry. The t-test of comparison of means revealed an efficient metal (mostly Pb and Zn) immobilization by the action of olive pruning-based biochar against the bare (control) soil at the 0.05 significance level. In-vitro flow-through bioaccessibility tests are compared for the first time with in-vivo phyto-toxicity assays in a microcosm soil study. By assessing seed germination and shoot elongation of Lolium perenne in contaminated soils with and without biochar amendments the dynamic flow-based bioaccessibility data proved to be in good agreement with the phyto-availability tests. Experimental results indicate that the dynamic extraction method is a viable and economical in-vitro tool in risk assessment explorations to evaluate the feasibility of a given biochar amendment for revegetation and remediation of metal contaminated soils in a mere 10 min against 4 days in case of phyto-toxicity assays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors Controlling Redox Speciation of Plutonium and Neptunium in Extraction Separation Processes

    Paulenova, Alena [Principal Investigator; Vandegrift, III, George F. [Collaborator

    2013-09-24

    The objective of the project was to examine the factors controlling redox speciation of plutonium and neptunium in UREX+ extraction in terms of redox potentials, redox mechanism, kinetics and thermodynamics. Researchers employed redox-speciation extractions schemes in parallel to the spectroscopic experiments. The resulting distribution of redox species w studied uring spectroscopic, electrochemical, and spectro-electrochemical methods. This work reulted in collection of data on redox stability and distribution of redox couples in the nitric acid/nitrate electrolyte and the development of redox buffers to stabilize the desired oxidation state of separated radionuclides. The effects of temperature and concentrations on the redox behavior of neptunium were evaluated.

  17. New Spill Control for the Slow Extraction in the Multi-Cycling SPS

    Kain, Verena; Effinger, Ewald

    2016-01-01

    The flux of particles slow extracted with the 1/3 integer resonance from the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN was previously controlled with a servo-spill feedback system which acted on the horizontal tune such as to keep the spill rate as constant as possible during the whole extraction time. The current in two servo-quadrupoles was modulated as a function of the difference between the measured and the desired spill rate. With servo quadrupoles at a single location in the SPS ring and the SPS in multi-cycling mode, the trajectory of the slow extracted beam was seen to change from cycle to cycle depending on the current applied by the servo feedback. Hence this system was replaced by a feed-forward tune correction using the main SPS quadrupoles. In this way the spill control can now be guaranteed without changing the trajectory of the extracted beam. This paper presents the algorithm and implementation in the control system and summarizes the advantages of the new approach. The obtained spill characteristics ...

  18. The Effectiveness of Green Tea or Green Tea Extract on Insulin Resistance and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis

    Jinyue Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Green tea or green tea extract (GT/GTE has been demonstrated to reduce insulin resistance and improve glycemic control. However, evidence for this health beneficial effect is inconsistent. This systematic review evaluated the effect of GT/GTE on insulin resistance and glycemic control in people with pre-diabetes/type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to April 2017 for randomised controlled trials of participants with pre-diabetes or T2DM, where the intervention was GT/GTE. Meta-analysis was performed to assess the standardised mean difference (SMD in biomarkers of insulin resistance and glycemic control between GT/GTE and placebo groups. Six studies (n=382 were pooled into random-effects meta-analysis. Overall, no differences were found between GT/GTE and the placebo for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c: SMD, −0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.86 to 0.23, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR: SMD, 0.10; 95% CI, −0.17 to 0.38, fasting insulin (SMD, −0.25; 95% CI, −0.64 to 0.15, and fasting glucose (SMD, −0.10; 95% CI, −0.50 to 0.30. No evidence support the consumption of GT/GTE could reduce the levels of HbA1c, HOMA-IR, fasting insulin, or fasting glucose in people with pre-diabetes/T2DM. However, the studies included were small and of varying quality.

  19. MODELING OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION KINETIC OF FLAXSEED OIL BY DIFFUSION CONTROL METHOD

    Emir Zafer HOŞGÜN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Flaxseed oil was extracted by Supercritical Carbondioxide Extraction, and extractionkinetics was modelled using diffusion controlled method.The effect of process parameters, such as pressure (20, 35, 55 MPa, temperature (323 and 343 K, and CO2 flow rate (1 and 3 L CO2 /min on the extraction yield and effective diffusivity (De was investigated. The effective diffusion coefficient varied between 2.4 x10-12 and 10.8 x10-12 m2s-1 for the entire range of experiments and increased with the pressure and flow rate. The model fitted well theexperimental data (ADD varied between 2.35 and 7.48%.

  20. [Alcoholic extract of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) on the control of Boophilus microplus in cattle].

    Heimerdinger, Arli; Olivo, Clair J; Molento, Marcelo B; Agnolin, Carlos A; Ziech, Magnos F; Scaravelli, Luciene Fernanda B; Skonieski, Fernando R; Both, José F; Charão, Pablo S

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) alcoholic extracts on the control of Boophilus microplus in naturally infested Holstein cows. Twelve animals were allocated in three groups of four animals. Group 1 was treated with amitraz at 0.025%, Group 2 was treated with lemongrass extracts at 1.36% and Group 3 with the same product at 2.72% of the plant. Engorged ticks were evaluated on animals with length superior to 4.0 mm, before (mean of days -3, -2, -1) and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 14 days after treatment. The mean efficacy of amitraz was 97.93%. Lemongrass extract at 2.72% reduced tick infestation by 40.3, 46.6 and 41.5% on day 3, 7 and 14 post-treatment, respectively.

  1. Determination of the neutron flux for a possible way of controlling a fast reactor through the reflector

    Souza, A.W.A. de.

    1979-08-01

    The determination of time dependent flux is made in a fast reactor with the core embraced by a perfect reflector. The fuel burnup is taken in account establishing a nonlinear diffusion problem. A stable numeric scheme is done and the integration of two limit cases is obtained. Finally, one possibility of reactor control through the variation between two cases is discussed. (E.G.) [pt

  2. Fast Response Three Phase Induction Motor Using Indirect Field Oriented Control (IFOC Based On Fuzzy-Backstepping

    Rizana Fauzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Induction Motor in Electrical drive system at a accelleration speed for example in electric cars have a hard speed setting is set on a wide range, causing an inconvenience for motorists and a fast response is required any change of speed. It is necessary for good system performance in control motor speed and torque at low speed or fast speed response, which is operated by Indirect Field Oriented Control (IFOC. Speed control on IFOC methods should be better to improving the performance of rapid response in the induction motor. In this paper presented a method of incorporation of Fuzzy Logic Controller and Backstepping (Fuzzy-Backstepping to improve the dynamically response speed and torque in Induction Motor on electric car, so we get smoothness at any speed change and braking as well as maximum torque of induction motor. Test results showed that Fuzzy-Backstepping can increase the response to changes speed in electric car. System testing is done with variations of the reference point setting speed control system, the simulation results of the research showed that the IFOC method is not perfect in terms of induction motor speed regulation if it’s not use speed control. Fuzzy-Backstepping control is needed which can improve the response of output, so that the induction motor has a good performance, small oscillations when start working up to speed reference. Keywords: Fuzzy-Backstepping, IFOC, induction motor

  3. A Fuzzy-PI control to extract an optimal power from wind turbine

    Aissaoui, Abdel Ghani; Tahour, Ahmed; Essounbouli, Najib; Nollet, Frédéric; Abid, Mohamed; Chergui, Moulay Idriss

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model the wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on the PMSG. ► We present the vector control of permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). ► A speed control strategy is developed to extract maximal wind power. ► A Fuzzy-PI speed controller is proposed to overcome the WECS nonlinearity problem. ► Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. - Abstract: In this article we develop the overall model of the wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) structure based on the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), and propose a study of the electrical parts (permanent magnet synchronous machine and static converter). Our study is developed on a wind conversion system in order to produce optimum power (to extract the maximal wind power). The speed control of all machine-turbine at optimal values can provide a valuable service and useful for the management and generation of power network to which the turbine is connected. The main drawback is that the WECS is highly nonlinear, and thus a nonlinear control strategy is required. An adaptive Fuzzy-PI speed controller is proposed to overcome this problem. Simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of this control strategy. Conclusions are summarized in the last section.

  4. RAPID-L Highly Automated Fast Reactor Concept Without Any Control Rods (1) Reactor concept and plant dynamics analyses

    Kambe, Mitsuru; Tsunoda, Hirokazu; Mishima, Kaichiro; Iwamura, Takamichi

    2002-01-01

    The 200 kWe uranium-nitride fueled lithium cooled fast reactor concept 'RAPID-L' to achieve highly automated reactor operation has been demonstrated. RAPID-L is designed for Lunar base power system. It is one of the variants of RAPID (Refueling by All Pins Integrated Design), fast reactor concept, which enable quick and simplified refueling. The essential feature of RAPID concept is that the reactor core consists of an integrated fuel assembly instead of conventional fuel subassemblies. In this small size reactor core, 2700 fuel pins are integrated altogether and encased in a fuel cartridge. Refueling is conducted by replacing a fuel cartridge. The reactor can be operated without refueling for up to 10 years. Unique challenges in reactivity control systems design have been attempted in RAPID-L concept. The reactor has no control rod, but involves the following innovative reactivity control systems: Lithium Expansion Modules (LEM) for inherent reactivity feedback, Lithium Injection Modules (LIM) for inherent ultimate shutdown, and Lithium Release Modules (LRM) for automated reactor startup. All these systems adopt lithium-6 as a liquid poison instead of B 4 C rods. In combination with LEMs, LIMs and LRMs, RAPID-L can be operated without operator. This is the first reactor concept ever established in the world. This reactor concept is also applicable to the terrestrial fast reactors. In this paper, RAPID-L reactor concept and its transient characteristics are presented. (authors)

  5. Efficiency enhancement of hybridized solar cells through co-sensitization and fast charge extraction by up-converted polyethylene glycol modified carbon quantum dots

    Zhu, Wanlu; Duan, Jialong; Duan, Yanyan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qunwei

    2017-11-01

    Photovoltaics are promising solutions to energy crisis and environmental pollution problems. The dye-sensitized solar cells with mesoscopic structures have attracted growing interests because of zero emissions, easy fabrication, scalable materials and techniques, etc. However, the state-of-the-art dye-sensitized solar cells have narrow spectral absorption for photoelectric conversion and high electron-hole recombination rate under sunlight illumination. Therefore, it is a persistent object to make wide-spectral absorption and fast charge extraction solar cells for energy harvest in both solar and dark-light conditions. To address this issue, we present here experimental realization of a category of solar cells converting visible and near-infrared light into electricity by co-sensitizing photoanode with N719 dye and polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified carbon quantum dots (PEG-m-CQDs), arising from up-conversion and hole-transporting behaviors of PEG-m-CQDs as well as photofluorescence of green-emitting long persistence phosphors. The optimized solar cell yields maximized photoelectric conversion efficiencies of 9.89% and 25.81% under simulated sunlight (air mass 1.5, 100 mW cm-2) illumination and dark conditions, respectively. This work is far from optimization, but the physical proof-of-concept hybridized solar cell may markedly increase electricity generation time and total power output of photovoltaic platforms.

  6. Application of micro-thin-layer chromatography as a simple fractionation tool for fast screening of raw extracts derived from complex biological, pharmaceutical and environmental samples

    Zarzycki, Pawel K., E-mail: pawel_k_z@hotmail.com [Section of Toxicology and Bioanalytics, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Sniadeckich 2, 75-453 Koszalin (Poland); Slaczka, Magdalena M.; Zarzycka, Magdalena B.; Wlodarczyk, Elzbieta; Baran, Michal J. [Section of Toxicology and Bioanalytics, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Sniadeckich 2, 75-453 Koszalin (Poland)

    2011-03-04

    The main goal of present paper is to demonstrate the separation and detection capability of micro-TLC technique involving simple one step liquid extraction protocols of complex materials without multi-steps sample pre-purification. In the present studies target components (cyanobacteria pigments, lipids and fullerenes) were isolated from heavy loading complex matrices including spirulina dried cells, birds' feathers and fatty oils as well as soot samples derived from biomass fuel and fossils-fired home heating systems. In each case isocratic separation protocol involving less that 1 mL of one component or binary mixture mobile phases can be completed within time of 5-8 min. Sensitive detection of components of interest was performed via fluorescence or staining techniques using iodine or phosphomolybdic acid. Described methodology can be applied for fast fractionation or screening of whole range of target substances as well as chemo-taxonomic studies and fingerprinting of complex mixtures, which are present in raw biological or environmental samples.

  7. Reprint of: Application of micro-thin-layer chromatography as a simple fractionation tool for fast screening of raw extracts derived from complex biological, pharmaceutical and environmental samples

    Zarzycki, Pawel K., E-mail: pawel_k_z@hotmail.com [Section of Toxicology and Bioanalytics, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Sniadeckich 2, 75-453 Koszalin (Poland); Slaczka, Magdalena M.; Zarzycka, Magdalena B.; Wlodarczyk, Elzbieta; Baran, Michal J. [Section of Toxicology and Bioanalytics, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Sniadeckich 2, 75-453 Koszalin (Poland)

    2012-02-24

    The main goal of present paper is to demonstrate the separation and detection capability of micro-TLC technique involving simple one step liquid extraction protocols of complex materials without multi-steps sample pre-purification. In the present studies target components (cyanobacteria pigments, lipids and fullerenes) were isolated from heavy loading complex matrices including spirulina dried cells, birds' feathers and fatty oils as well as soot samples derived from biomass fuel and fossils-fired home heating systems. In each case isocratic separation protocol involving less that 1 mL of one component or binary mixture mobile phases can be completed within time of 5-8 min. Sensitive detection of components of interest was performed via fluorescence or staining techniques using iodine or phosphomolybdic acid. Described methodology can be applied for fast fractionation or screening of whole range of target substances as well as chemo-taxonomic studies and fingerprinting of complex mixtures, which are present in raw biological or environmental samples.

  8. Application of dispersive solid-phase extraction and ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry in food additive residue analysis of red wine.

    Chen, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Shen, Hao-Yu; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2012-11-09

    A novel and effective dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) procedure with rapid magnetic separation using ethylenediamine-functionalized magnetic polymer as an adsorbent was developed. The new procedure had excellent clean-up ability for the selective removal of the matrix in red wine. An accurate, simple, and rapid analytical method using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives (i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, sodium cyclamate, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid, and neotame) in red wine was also used and validated. Recoveries ranging from 78.5% to 99.2% with relative standard deviations ranging from 0.46% to 6.3% were obtained using the new method. All target compounds showed good linearities in the tested range with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.9993. The limits of quantification for the nine food additives were between 0.10 μg/L and 50.0 μg/L. The proposed dSPE-UFLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied in the food-safety risk monitoring of real red wine in Zhejiang Province, China. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reprint of: Application of micro-thin-layer chromatography as a simple fractionation tool for fast screening of raw extracts derived from complex biological, pharmaceutical and environmental samples

    Zarzycki, Paweł K.; Ślączka, Magdalena M.; Zarzycka, Magdalena B.; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Baran, Michał J.

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of present paper is to demonstrate the separation and detection capability of micro-TLC technique involving simple one step liquid extraction protocols of complex materials without multi-steps sample pre-purification. In the present studies target components (cyanobacteria pigments, lipids and fullerenes) were isolated from heavy loading complex matrices including spirulina dried cells, birds’ feathers and fatty oils as well as soot samples derived from biomass fuel and fossils-fired home heating systems. In each case isocratic separation protocol involving less that 1 mL of one component or binary mixture mobile phases can be completed within time of 5–8 min. Sensitive detection of components of interest was performed via fluorescence or staining techniques using iodine or phosphomolybdic acid. Described methodology can be applied for fast fractionation or screening of whole range of target substances as well as chemo-taxonomic studies and fingerprinting of complex mixtures, which are present in raw biological or environmental samples.

  10. Application of micro-thin-layer chromatography as a simple fractionation tool for fast screening of raw extracts derived from complex biological, pharmaceutical and environmental samples

    Zarzycki, Pawel K.; Slaczka, Magdalena M.; Zarzycka, Magdalena B.; Wlodarczyk, Elzbieta; Baran, Michal J.

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of present paper is to demonstrate the separation and detection capability of micro-TLC technique involving simple one step liquid extraction protocols of complex materials without multi-steps sample pre-purification. In the present studies target components (cyanobacteria pigments, lipids and fullerenes) were isolated from heavy loading complex matrices including spirulina dried cells, birds' feathers and fatty oils as well as soot samples derived from biomass fuel and fossils-fired home heating systems. In each case isocratic separation protocol involving less that 1 mL of one component or binary mixture mobile phases can be completed within time of 5-8 min. Sensitive detection of components of interest was performed via fluorescence or staining techniques using iodine or phosphomolybdic acid. Described methodology can be applied for fast fractionation or screening of whole range of target substances as well as chemo-taxonomic studies and fingerprinting of complex mixtures, which are present in raw biological or environmental samples.

  11. Fast quantification of short chain fatty acids and ketone bodies by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after facile derivatization coupled with liquid-liquid extraction.

    Zeng, Mingfei; Cao, Huachuan

    2018-04-15

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and ketone bodies recently emerged as important physiological relevant metabolites because of their association with microbiota, immunology, obesity and other metabolic states. They were commonly analyzed by GC-MS with long run time and laborious sample preparation. In this study we developed a novel LC-MS/MS method using fast derivatization coupled with liquid-liquid extraction to detect SCFA and ketone bodies in plasma and feces. Several different derivatization reagents were evaluated to compare the efficiency, the sensitivity and chromatographic separation of structural isomers. O‑benzylhydroxylamine was selected for its superior overall performance in reaction time and isomeric separation that allowed the measurement of each SCFAs and ketone bodies free from interferences. The derivatization procedure is facile and reproducible in aqueous-organic medium, which abolished the evaporation procedure hampering the analysis of volatile short chain acids. Enhancement in sensitivity remarkably improved the detection limit of SCFA and ketone bodies to sub-fmol level. This novel method was applied to quantify these metabolites in fecal and plasma samples from lean and DIO mouse. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Low-Level Control System for the CERN PS Multi-Turn Extraction Kickers

    Schipper, J; Boucly, C; Carlier, E; Fowler, T; Gaudillet, H; Noulibos, R; Sermeus, L

    2010-01-01

    To reduce the beam losses when preparing high intensity proton beam for the CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso (CNGS) facility, a new Multi-Turn extraction (MTE) scheme has been implemented in the PS, to replace the present Continuous Transfer (CT) to the SPS. Industrial off-the-shelf components have been used for the low-level part of the MTE kicker control system. National Instruments PXI systems are used to control the high voltage pulse generators and a SIEMENS programmable logic controller (PLC) handles the centralised oil cooling and gas insulation sub-systems

  13. Mitigation of Fatigue Loads Using Individual Pitch Control of Wind Turbines Based on FAST

    Zhang, Yunqian; Chen, Zhe; Cheng, Ming

    2011-01-01

    moments and fatigue. The loading transfer from rotational coordinate system to the fixed coordinate system of the wind turbine is analyzed. In order to make the simulation results more reliable, the wind turbine code FAST is applied to doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based power system...

  14. Plant extracts, metaldehyde and saline solutions on the population control of Bradybaena similaris

    Junir Antonio Lutinski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to test the efficiency of plant extracts, metaldehyde and saline solutions, as alternatives to the population control of the snail Bradybaena similaris , and to investigate the effect of the plant extracts in reducing the damage of the snail on Brassica oleracea . The experiments were performed at the Entomology Laboratory of the Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó (Unochapecó, using a random experimental design with nine treatments in triplicate. Five adult individuals of B. similaris were subjected to each trial, totaling 135 snails. The following treatments were tested: cinnamon ( Melia azedarach , timbó ( Ateleia glazioveana , rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis , mate herb ( Ilex paraguariensis , two concentrations of metaldehyde (3% and 5%, two concentrations of salt solution (5% and 10 %, and a control treatment (distilled water. To evaluate the survival of B. similaris it was checked the treatments every 24 hours, over four consecutive days. The results revealed that the two concentrations of metaldehyde were fully efficient, that the saline solution (10% had and intermediate efficiency, and that all other treatments were not effective. The treatment with the M. azedarach extract induced a higher consumption of B. oleracea , while the saline solution at 10% and the extracts of R. officinalis and I. paraguariensis inhibited leaf consumption.

  15. Preliminary study of extraction of heavy metals in sediments under pH-controlled conditions

    Kao, M.

    2012-12-01

    The arsenic ingestion not only increases the risk of developing cancer of the skin, internal organs and lungs but also causes a peripheral vascular gangrene disease known as black-foot disease. It is crucial to determine the arsenic source for managing groundwater resources properly. The study area, Tsengwen Creek watershed, is in the middle of Chianan Plain, which has been identified with problems of high arsenic content in groundwater. According to the results of BCR extraction procedure conducting on core sediments, it is interesting that arsenic content extracted by deionized water is significantly higher than that extracted with the first step of BCR, which is 0.11 mol/L acetic acid. It is believed that deionized water can only extract metals adsorbing on mineral surface without strong chemical bonding and acetic acid can extract those in the forms both of adsorption and carbonate. Even though arsenic is scarcely associated with carbonates, the deionized water can obviously extract much more arsenic than acid solution. Therefore, desorption of arsenic is possible to be controlled by a strong pH-dependent reaction. For the preliminary analysis, a laboratory experiment was performed to evaluated desorption of metals with pH control in this study. The solutions with different values of pH are simply adjusted with sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Ten sediment samples were collected from aquifers in Tsengwen Creek watershed. To simulate an isolated system like groundwater in aquifer, these sediments were extracted with solutions of pH=7, 8, 9 and 10 in a container purged by nitrogen gas. The results demonstrate that arsenic does show significant enrichment in solution of pH=10 and vanadium shares the similar property with arsenic. On the contrary, the other selected metals of cadmium, copper, nickel and cobalt have no similar enrichment in high-pH extraction solution; especially, nickel and cobalt are highly enriched in deionized water. These are possibly caused by the

  16. A combined feedforward and feedback control scheme for low-ripple fast-response switchmode magnet power supplies

    Jin, H.; Dewan, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a new feedforward technique is introduced, and a combined feedforward/feedback control scheme is applied to switchmode magnet power supplies for low-ripple fast-response performance. The purposes of the feedforward technique are two-fold: to reduce the effect of source variations and low-order harmonics, and to improve the reference tracking ability of the system. The algorithm of the proposed control scheme is presented in the paper, and results of a two-quadrant system are provided to verify the concept

  17. Parametric control of structural vibrations and sound radiation by fast time-space variation of distributed stiffness parameters

    Krylov, V.I.; Sorokin, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of a Euler-Bernoulli beam with a time-and-space dependent bending stiffness is studied. The , problem is considered in connection with the application of noise control using smart structures. It is shown that a control for the vibrations of the beam can be achieved by varying the bending stiffness. The technique of direct separation of fast and slow motion coupled with a Green's function method is used to analyze the dynamics of the beam with high-frequency modulation of the stiffness

  18. Fast neutrons in the treatment of head and neck cancers: the results of a multi-centre randomly controlled trial

    Duncan, W.; Arnott, S.J.; Orr, J.A.; Kerr, G.R.; Schmitt, G.

    1984-01-01

    The results are presented of a multi-centre randomly controlled trial of fast neutron irradiation and mega-voltage X-rays in the treatment of patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region. No significant difference was observed in local tumour control rates. Salvage surgery was performed in a similar number of patients in the two groups. Late morbidity was also similar in the two treatment groups. Patients in a subgroup with cancer of the larynx treated by photons had a significantly better survival than those in the neutron treated group. (Auth.)

  19. Antifungal activity of plant extracts with potential to control plant pathogens in pineapple

    Maria Diana Cerqueira Sales

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The findings of the present study concluded that mother tinctures can effectively control phytopathogens. The mother tincture extract of Myroxylon balsamum showed antifungal activity and was used here for the first time for inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi. This study paves the way for the development of bioactive natural products with phytosanitary applications, with the added benefits of an environmentally safe and economically viable product.

  20. Dynamics and control of a heat pump assisted extractive dividing-wall column for bioethanol dehydration

    Patraşcu, Iulian; Bildea, Costin Sorin; Kiss, Anton A.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a novel heat-pump-assisted extractive distillation process taking place in a dividing-wall column was proposed for bioethanol dehydration. This integrated design combines three distillation columns into a single unit that allows over 40% energy savings and low specific energy requirements of 1.24 kWh/kg ethanol. However, these economic benefits are possible only if this highly integrated system is also controllable to ensure operational availability. This paper is the first to addre...

  1. Biological Control of Anthracnose Disease of Tomato Using Ethanolic Extracts of Azadirachta Indica and Nicotiana Tabacum

    Opeyemi, Bankole Samuel; Temidayo, Bankole Ruth; Babalola, Yetunde Oyinkansade; Emmanuel, Ilerioluwa Busayo; Ojubolamo, Motunrayo Temitope; Folake, Awotedu Bolakale

    2018-01-01

    Tomato is a commercially important vegetable throughout the whole world and its availability all the year is grossly affected by anthracnose disease, hence, the need for an effective bio-control that is affordable and user friendly. This study therefore investigated the inhibitory effect of ethanol extracts of Azadirachta indica and Tabacum nicotianaon the mycelium growth of fungi associated with anthracnose disease of tomato. Tomatoes that showed black circular lesions with concentric ring a...

  2. Effectiveness of preemptive lysine clonixinate in tooth extraction: A randomized controlled trial.

    Pedro Aravena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of prophylaxis with single-dose analgesic clonixinate lysine (CL 125mg in patients undergoing tooth extraction. Methods: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Were included in the study patients ASA I and II with dental extraction indication in the city of Valdivia, Chile in October 2012. Were randomly assigned in two groups: the treatment group received a doses of 125mg of CL fifteen minutes before the surgery, and a control group who received placebo. Both groups used a CL as a rescue analgesic. Using a survey, patients reported the degree of pain via a visual analog scale (VAS during the first day, at 24 and 48 hours after surgery. In addition, registered the number of CL capsules consumed as a ransom for 3 days after the surgery. We compared the analgesic effect observed in (VAS and the number of additional analgesic consumption between the two groups using t-test (p<0.05. Results: Fifty-four patients were operated and there was no statistically significant difference between the pain scores between the two groups. Premedication patients reported the use of equal number of rescue capsules comparing with the control group. Conclusion: CL analgesic prophylaxis proved no more effective in reducing pain after tooth extraction when comparing to the use of placebo in a postoperative doses.

  3. Ibuprofen versus Acetaminophen in Controlling Postoperative Impacted Third Molar Tooth Extraction Pain

    Khan, I.; Bukhari, S. G. A.; Ahmad, W.; Rubbab,; Junaid, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the efficacy of ibuprofen and acetaminophen in reducing postoperative third molar extraction pain in patients reporting to Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry. Study design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and duration of study: The study was carried out on patients who presented for surgical removal of impacted teeth at Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry Rawalpindi (AFID) from February 2008 to March 2--9 at the Department of Oral Surgery, Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry Rawalpindi. Patients and methods: One hundred and forty patients requiring surgical removal of mandibular impacted teeth were equally divided into two groups. Surgical extraction of third molar tooth was performed under local anesthesia. Patients in group A were given ibuprofen and in group B were given acetaminophen at 6 hourly intervals. First dose was given 3 hours postoperatively. Each patient rated pain on a visual analog scale at baseline and then at 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours postoperatively. Results: There was statistically significant difference (p=0.025) during first 12 hours with ibuprofen group showing better efficacy but afterwards there was no significant difference in the efficacy of both drugs. Conclusions: Ibuprofen is more effective in controlling severe third molar extraction pain as compared to acetaminophen but has similar efficacy in controlling moderate pain. (author)

  4. Antifungal (in vitro activity of plant extracts for the control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum

    Villacís-Aldaz Luis Alfredo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal effect of five plant extracts: nettle (Urtica dioica, chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile, frame (Artemisia vulgaris, lavender (Lavandula officinalis and chamico (Datura ferox were evaluated at laboratory level for control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum of the tree tomato (Solanum betaceum, using two methods of extraction (maceration and steam trapping, in the results obtained, statistical differences were observed in the percentage of inhibition of mycelial growth of the fungus, the treatment with lavender extract obtained by the steam trapping method presented the greatest efficiency for anthracnose control (66.23%. The other treatments tested also showed effectiveness against the anthracnose pathogen in the following order of inhibition: chamomile (52.78%, frame (21.63, chamico (24.14%, nettle (12.94, the ability of various species to inhibit certain fungal diseases, taking into account the different content of secondary metabolites that have each of the plant species, constituting new clean production alternatives that reduce the use of chemical pesticides for the control of fungal diseases.

  5. Evaluation of a Pomegranate Peel Extract as an Alternative Means to Control Olive Anthracnose.

    Pangallo, Sonia; Nicosia, Maria G Li Destri; Agosteo, Giovanni E; Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Romeo, Flora V; Cacciola, Santa O; Rapisarda, Paolo; Schena, Leonardo

    2017-12-01

    Olive anthracnose is caused by different species of Colletotrichum spp. and may be regarded as the most damaging disease of olive fruit worldwide, greatly affecting quality and quantity of the productions. A pomegranate peel extract (PGE) proved very effective in controlling the disease. The extract had a strong in vitro fungicidal activity against Colletotrichum acutatum sensu stricto, was very effective in both preventive and curative trials with artificially inoculated fruit, and induced resistance in treated olive tissues. In field trials, PGE was significantly more effective than copper, which is traditionally used to control the disease. The highest level of protection was achieved by applying the extract in the early ascending phase of the disease outbreaks because natural rots were completely inhibited with PGE at 12 g/liter and were reduced by 98.6 and by 93.0% on plants treated with PGE at 6 and 3 g/liter, respectively. Two treatments carried out 30 and 15 days before the expected epidemic outbreak reduced the incidence of the disease by 77.6, 57.0, and 51.8%, depending on the PGE concentration. The analysis of epiphytic populations showed a strong antimicrobial activity of PGE, which sharply reduced both fungal and bacterial populations. Because PGE was obtained from a natural matrix using safe chemicals and did not have any apparent phytotoxic effect on treated olive fruit, it may be regarded as a safe and effective natural antifungal preparation to control olive anthracnose and improve olive productions.

  6. Fast, high-fidelity, all-optical and dynamically-controlled polarization gate using room-temperature atomic vapor

    Li, Runbing [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Center for Cold Atom Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhu, Chengjie [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Deng, L.; Hagley, E. W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate a fast, all-optical polarization gate in a room-temperature atomic medium. Using a Polarization-Selective-Kerr-Phase-Shift (PSKPS) technique, we selectively write a π phase shift to one circularly-polarized component of a linearly-polarized input signal field. The output signal field maintains its original strength but acquires a 90° linear polarization rotation, demonstrating fast, high-fidelity, dynamically-controlled polarization gate operation. The intensity of the polarization-switching field used in this PKSPK-based polarization gate operation is only 2 mW/cm{sup 2}, which would be equivalent to 0.5 nW of light power (λ = 800 nm) confined in a typical commercial photonic hollow-core fiber. This development opens a realm of possibilities for potential future extremely low light level telecommunication and information processing systems.

  7. EFFECT OF PLANT EXTRACTS AND GROWTH SUBSTRATES ON CONTROLLING DAMPING-OFF IN PINUS TECUNUMANII SEEDLINGS

    Maria Alejandra Fajardo-Mejía

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Damping-off is considered one of the most limiting phytosanitary problems in conifer seedling production because it may cause massive damage or total plant death in short time periods. This pathology is caused by a complex of microorganisms, the most common of which are Fusarium spp. and Rhizoctonia spp. This study evaluated the effect of growth substrates and plant extracts at different concentrations on germination and incidence of disease in Pinus tecunumanii plants. The plants were inoculated with the damping-off pathogen Fusarium oxysporum and treatments were applied in a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of 4x2x3. This corresponded to four substrates (pine bark, rice hull, coconut husk and sandy soil (4:1; two plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla and Datura stramonium, andthree concentrations of each extract (Control concentration: 0%, Concentration 1: 50 % and Concentration 2: Undiluted. Each treatment had three repetitions, with 25 plants per repetition. The growth substrates affected germination; the most effective of these were sandy soil (4:1 and pine bark, with 90% and 92% germination at day 20, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the germination obtained with these substrates and that obtained with coconut husk after day 19. Meanwhile, all of the extracts had a significant effect on controlling the disease when they were combined with the substrates, with the exception of coconut husk. With this last substrate the incidence of disease was lower than 4% without the application of plant extracts; this indicates that coconut husk discourages the development of the disease on its own.

  8. Slow Versus Fast Robot-Assisted Locomotor Training After Severe Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Rodrigues, Thais Amanda; Goroso, Daniel Gustavo; Westgate, Philip M; Carrico, Cheryl; Batistella, Linamara R; Sawaki, Lumy

    2017-10-01

    Robot-assisted locomotor training on a bodyweight-supported treadmill is a rehabilitation intervention that compels repetitive practice of gait movements. Standard treadmill speed may elicit rhythmic movements generated primarily by spinal circuits. Slower-than-standard treadmill speed may elicit discrete movements, which are more complex than rhythmic movements and involve cortical areas. Compare effects of fast (i.e., rhythmic) versus slow (i.e., discrete) robot-assisted locomotor training on a bodyweight-supported treadmill in subjects with chronic, severe gait deficit after stroke. Subjects (N = 18) were randomized to receive 30 sessions (5 d/wk) of either fast or slow robot-assisted locomotor training on a bodyweight-supported treadmill in an inpatient setting. Functional ambulation category, time up and go, 6-min walk test, 10-m walk test, Berg Balance Scale, and Fugl-Meyer Assessment were administered at baseline and postintervention. The slow group had statistically significant improvement on functional ambulation category (first quartile-third quartile, P = 0.004), 6-min walk test (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8 to 49.0, P = 0.040), Berg Balance Scale (95% CI = 7.4 to 14.8, P locomotor training on a bodyweight-supported treadmill after severe stroke, slow training targeting discrete movement may yield greater benefit than fast training.

  9. The effect of energy and traffic light labelling on parent and child fast food selection: a randomised controlled trial.

    Dodds, Pennie; Wolfenden, Luke; Chapman, Kathy; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Wiggers, John

    2014-02-01

    Labelling of food from fast food restaurants at point-of-purchase has been suggested as one strategy to reduce population energy consumption and contribute to reductions in obesity prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of energy and single traffic light labelling systems on the energy content of child and adult intended food purchases. The study employed a randomised controlled trial design. English speaking parents of children aged between three and 12 years were recruited from an existing research cohort. Participants were mailed one of three hypothetical fast food menus. Menus differed in their labelling technique – either energy labels, single traffic light labels, or a no-label control. Participants then completed a telephone survey which assessed intended food purchases for both adult and child. The primary trial outcome was total energy of intended food purchase. A total of 329 participants completed the follow-up telephone interview. Eighty-two percent of the energy labelling group and 96% of the single traffic light labelling group reported noticing labelling information on their menu. There were no significant differences in total energy of intended purchases of parents, or intended purchases made by parents for children, between the menu labelling groups, or between menu labelling groups by socio-demographic subgroups. This study provided no evidence to suggest that energy labelling or single traffic light labelling alone were effective in reducing the energy of fast food items selected from hypothetical fast food menus for purchase. Additional complementary public health initiatives promoting the consumption of healthier foods identified by labelling, and which target other key drivers of menu item selection in this setting may be required.

  10. Development and characterization of the control assembly system for the large 2400 MWth Generation IV gas-cooled fast reactor

    Girardin, G.; Rimpault, G.; Morin, F.; Bosq, J.C.; Coddington, P.; Mikityuk, K.; Chawla, R.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper is related to the design and neutronic characterization of the principal control assembly system for the reference large (2400 MWth) Generation IV gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR), which makes use of ceramic-ceramic (CERCER) plate-type fuel-elements with (U-Pu) carbide fuel contained within a SiC inert matrix. For the neutronic calculations, the deterministic code system ERANOS-2.0 has been used, in association with a full core model including a European fast reactor (EFR)-type pattern for the control assemblies as a starting point. More specifically, the core contains a total of 33 control (control system device: CSD) and safety (diverse safety device: DSD) assemblies implemented in three banks. In the design of the new control assembly system, particular attention was given to the heat generation within the assemblies, so that both neutronic and thermal-hydraulic constraints could be appropriately accounted for. The thermal-hydraulic calculations have been performed with the code COPERNIC, significant coolant mass flow rates being found necessary to maintain acceptable cladding temperatures of the absorber pins. Complementary to the design study, neutronic investigations have been performed to assess the impact of the control assemblies in the GFR core in greater detail (rod interactions, shift of the flux, peaking factors, etc.). Thus, considerable shadowing effects have been observed between the first bank and the safety bank, as also between individual assemblies within the first bank. Large anti-shadowing effects also occur, the most prominent being that between the two CSD banks, where the total assembly worth is almost doubled in comparison to the sum of the individual values. Additional investigations have been performed and, in this context, it has been found that computation of the first-order eigenvalue and the eigenvalue separation is a robust tool to anticipate control assembly interactions in a large fast-spectrum core. One interesting

  11. High performance image acquisition and processing architecture for fast plant system controllers based on FPGA and GPU

    Nieto, J.; Sanz, D.; Guillén, P.; Esquembri, S.; Arcas, G. de; Ruiz, M.; Vega, J.; Castro, R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • To test an image acquisition and processing system for Camera Link devices based in a FPGA, compliant with ITER fast controllers. • To move data acquired from the set NI1483-NIPXIe7966R directly to a NVIDIA GPU using NVIDIA GPUDirect RDMA technology. • To obtain a methodology to include GPUs processing in ITER Fast Plant Controllers, using EPICS integration through Nominal Device Support (NDS). - Abstract: The two dominant technologies that are being used in real time image processing are Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Graphical Processor Unit (GPU) due to their algorithm parallelization capabilities. But not much work has been done to standardize how these technologies can be integrated in data acquisition systems, where control and supervisory requirements are in place, such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). This work proposes an architecture, and a development methodology, to develop image acquisition and processing systems based on FPGAs and GPUs compliant with ITER fast controller solutions. A use case based on a Camera Link device connected to an FPGA DAQ device (National Instruments FlexRIO technology), and a NVIDIA Tesla GPU series card has been developed and tested. The architecture proposed has been designed to optimize system performance by minimizing data transfer operations and CPU intervention thanks to the use of NVIDIA GPUDirect RDMA and DMA technologies. This allows moving the data directly between the different hardware elements (FPGA DAQ-GPU-CPU) avoiding CPU intervention and therefore the use of intermediate CPU memory buffers. A special effort has been put to provide a development methodology that, maintaining the highest possible abstraction from the low level implementation details, allows obtaining solutions that conform to CODAC Core System standards by providing EPICS and Nominal Device Support.

  12. High performance image acquisition and processing architecture for fast plant system controllers based on FPGA and GPU

    Nieto, J., E-mail: jnieto@sec.upm.es [Grupo de Investigación en Instrumentación y Acústica Aplicada, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 (Spain); Sanz, D.; Guillén, P.; Esquembri, S.; Arcas, G. de; Ruiz, M. [Grupo de Investigación en Instrumentación y Acústica Aplicada, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 (Spain); Vega, J.; Castro, R. [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • To test an image acquisition and processing system for Camera Link devices based in a FPGA, compliant with ITER fast controllers. • To move data acquired from the set NI1483-NIPXIe7966R directly to a NVIDIA GPU using NVIDIA GPUDirect RDMA technology. • To obtain a methodology to include GPUs processing in ITER Fast Plant Controllers, using EPICS integration through Nominal Device Support (NDS). - Abstract: The two dominant technologies that are being used in real time image processing are Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Graphical Processor Unit (GPU) due to their algorithm parallelization capabilities. But not much work has been done to standardize how these technologies can be integrated in data acquisition systems, where control and supervisory requirements are in place, such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). This work proposes an architecture, and a development methodology, to develop image acquisition and processing systems based on FPGAs and GPUs compliant with ITER fast controller solutions. A use case based on a Camera Link device connected to an FPGA DAQ device (National Instruments FlexRIO technology), and a NVIDIA Tesla GPU series card has been developed and tested. The architecture proposed has been designed to optimize system performance by minimizing data transfer operations and CPU intervention thanks to the use of NVIDIA GPUDirect RDMA and DMA technologies. This allows moving the data directly between the different hardware elements (FPGA DAQ-GPU-CPU) avoiding CPU intervention and therefore the use of intermediate CPU memory buffers. A special effort has been put to provide a development methodology that, maintaining the highest possible abstraction from the low level implementation details, allows obtaining solutions that conform to CODAC Core System standards by providing EPICS and Nominal Device Support.

  13. A fast surrogate model tailor-made for real time control

    Borup, Morten; Thrysøe, Cecilie; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    A surrogate model of a detailed hydraulic urban drainage model is created for supplying inflow forecasts to an MPC model for 31 separate locations. The original model is subdivided into 66 relationships extracted from the original model. The surrogate model is 9000 times faster than the original...... model, with just a minor deviation from the original model results....

  14. Calculational model based on influence function method for power distribution and control rod worth in fast reactors

    Toshio, S.; Kazuo, A.

    1983-01-01

    A model for calculating the power distribution and the control rod worth in fast reactors has been developed. This model is based on the influence function method. The characteristics of the model are as follows: 1. Influence functions for any changes in the control rod insertion ratio are expressed by using an influence function for an appropriate control rod insertion in order to reduce the computer memory size required for the method. 2. A control rod worth is calculated on the basis of a one-group approximation in which cross sections are generated by bilinear (flux-adjoint) weighting, not the usual flux weighting, in order to reduce the collapse error. 3. An effective neutron multiplication factor is calculated by adjoint weighting in order to reduce the effect of the error in the one-group flux distribution. The results obtained in numerical examinations of a prototype fast reactor indicate that this method is suitable for on-line core performance evaluation because of a short computing time and a small memory size

  15. Calculational model based on influence function method for power distribution and control rod worth in fast reactors

    Sanda, T.; Azekura, K.

    1983-01-01

    A model for calculating the power distribution and the control rod worth in fast reactors has been developed. This model is based on the influence function method. The characteristics of the model are as follows: Influence functions for any changes in the control rod insertion ratio are expressed by using an influence function for an appropriate control rod insertion in order to reduce the computer memory size required for the method. A control rod worth is calculated on the basis of a one-group approximation in which cross sections are generated by bilinear (flux-adjoint) weighting, not the usual flux weighting, in order to reduce the collapse error. An effective neutron multiplication factor is calculated by adjoint weighting in order to reduce the effect of the error in the one-group flux distribution. The results obtained in numerical examinations of a prototype fast reactor indicate that this method is suitable for on-line core performance evaluation because of a short computing time and a small memory size

  16. Development of Control System for Fast Frequency Tuners of Superconducting Resonant Cavities for FLASH and XFEL Experiments

    Przygoda, K

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation covers the recent research and development (R&D) activities of control systems for the fast frequency tuners of TESLA cavities and predicts the implications foreseen for large scale machines such as the FLASH and the planned XFEL. In particular, the framework of the presented activities is the effort toward the: 1. R&D of the driving circuit, 2. R&D of the control algorithm, 3. R&D of the control system. The main result of these activities is the permanent installation of the target piezo control system and its commissioning for 40 cavities divided into 5 accelerating modules at the DESY FLASH facility. The author’s contribution was the study of possible designs of high-voltage, high-current power amplifiers, used for driving the fast frequency tuners, shows that several parameters of such a device needs to be considered. The most important parameter is the input and output power estimation. This arises from the fact that the estimation is the most crucial issue for both po...

  17. The prediction of franchisees9 effectiveness in the fast-food sector with the use of locus of control the prediction of franchisees9 effectiveness in the fast-food sector with the use of locus of control

    B. Von H. Kasselmann

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether locus of control can be used as a predictive measure to differentiate between effective and less effective franchisees. The locus of control inventory of Schepers (1994; 1995 was used for measuring locus of control. Relevant measurements were obtained in respect of a sample of 160 restaurants of a fast-food franchise. Opsomming Die studiedoelwit was om te bepaal of lokus van beheer as maatstafaangewend kan word om tussen doeltreffende en minder doeltreffende konsessiehouers te onderskei. Die lokus van beheer-vraelys van Schepers (1994; 1995 is in die meting van lokus van beheer gebruik. Die tersaaklike metings is verkry ten opsigte van'n steekproefvan 160 restaurante van n konsessiemaatskappy in die kitsvoedselbedryf.

  18. Effects of allelopathic chemicals extracted from various plant leaves on weed control and wheat crop productivity

    Khan, E.A.; Khakwani, A.A.; Ghazanfarullah, A.

    2015-01-01

    A study on allelopathic effect of leaf water extracts of Eucalyptus, Acacia, Sorghum, Shishum, Sunflower, Poplar, Tobacco and Congress grass on weeds control and growth of wheat cv. Hashim-8 was conducted at Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan during 2012-2013. The findings of this study revealed that allelopathic chemicals in leaf water extracts of these plants significantly suppressed weeds growth by reducing weed density, fresh and dry weed biomass, and encouraged wheat yield and yield components such as days to 50% heading, plant height, tillers m-2, grain spike-1, 1000-gain weight, biological and grain yield. Even though minimum fresh and dry weed biomass and highest wheat grain yield and yield related components were observed in twice hand weeding treatment which is economically less feasible on large scale. However, our findings showed an alternative allelopathic technique to minimize weed infestation and boost wheat growth and yield using natural plant material. On the basis of present results, it is recommended that leaf water extracts of Sorghum, Sunflower and Congress grass can be applied twice (30 and 60 DAS) during the growing season to control weeds and to enhance wheat grain yield. (author)

  19. In nondiabetic, human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with lipodystrophy, hepatic insulin extraction and posthepatic insulin clearance rate are decreased in proportion to insulin resistance

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Hansen, Birgitte R

    2005-01-01

    In healthy, nondiabetic individuals with insulin resistance, fasting insulin is inversely correlated to the posthepatic insulin clearance rate (MCRi) and the hepatic insulin extraction (HEXi). We investigated whether similar early mechanisms to facilitate glucose homeostasis exist in nondiabetic...... endogenous insulin secretion, which was estimated by deconvolution of C-peptide concentrations. Hepatic extraction of insulin was calculated as 1 minus the ratio of fasting posthepatic insulin delivery rate to fasting endogenous insulin secretion rate. Compared with controls, LIPO displayed increased fasting...... insulin (130%, P Hepatic extraction of insulin was similar between groups (LIPO, 55%; controls, 57%; P > .8). In LIPO, HEXi and MCRi correlated inversely with fasting insulin (r = -0.56, P

  20. In-Patient Treatment of Fibromyalgia: A Controlled Nonrandomized Comparison of Conventional Medicine versus Integrative Medicine including Fasting Therapy

    Andreas Michalsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia poses a challenge for therapy. Recent guidelines suggest that fibromyalgia should be treated within a multidisciplinary therapy approach. No data are available that evaluated multimodal treatment strategies of Integrative Medicine (IM. We conducted a controlled, nonrandomized pilot study that compared two inpatient treatment strategies, an IM approach that included fasting therapy and a conventional rheumatology (CM approach. IM used fasting cure and Mind-Body-Medicine as specific methods. Of 48 included consecutive patients, 28 were treated with IM, 20 with CM. Primary outcome was change in the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ score after the 2-week hospital stay. Secondary outcomes included scores of pain, depression, anxiety, and well being. Assessments were repeated after 12 weeks. At 2 weeks, there were significant improvements in the FIQ (P<0.014 and for most of secondary outcomes for the IM group compared to the CM group. The beneficial effects for the IM approach were reduced after 12 weeks and no longer statistically significant with the exception of anxiety. Findings indicate that a multimodal IM treatment with fasting therapy might be superior to CM in the short term and not inferior in the mid term. Longer-term studies are warranted to assess the clinical impact of integrative multimodal treatment in fibromyalgia.

  1. Tritium control in fusion reactor materials: A model for Tritium Extracting System

    Zucchetti, Massimo [DENERG, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Utili, Marco, E-mail: marco.utili@enea.it [ENEA UTIS – C.R. Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone, Camugnano, BO (Italy); Nicolotti, Iuri [DENERG, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Ying, Alice [University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA (United States); Franza, Fabrizio [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Abdou, Mohamed [University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A modeling work has been performed to address these issues in view of its utilization for the TES (Tritium Extraction System), in the case of the HCPB TBM and for a Molecular sieve as adsorbent material. • A computational model has been setup and tested in this paper. • The results of experimental measurement of fundamental parameters such as mass transfer coefficients have been implemented in the model. • It turns out the capability to model the extraction process of gaseous tritium compounds and to estimate the breakthrough curves of the two main tritium gaseous species (H2 and HT). - Abstract: In fusion reactors, tritium is bred by lithium isotopes inside the blanket and then extracted. However, tritium can contaminate the reactor structures, and can be eventually released into the environment. Tritium in reactor components should therefore be kept under close control throughout the fusion reactor lifetime, bearing in mind the risk of accidents, the need for maintenance and the detritiation of dismantled reactor components before their re-use or disposal. A modeling work has been performed to address these issues in view of its utilization for the TES (Tritium Extraction System), in the case of the HCPB TBM and for a molecular sieve as adsorbent material. A computational model has been setup and tested. The results of experimental measurement of fundamental parameters such as mass transfer coefficients have been implemented in the model. It turns out the capability of the model to describe the extraction process of gaseous tritium compounds and to estimate the breakthrough curves of the two main tritium gaseous species (H2 and HT).

  2. Tritium control in fusion reactor materials: A model for Tritium Extracting System

    Zucchetti, Massimo; Utili, Marco; Nicolotti, Iuri; Ying, Alice; Franza, Fabrizio; Abdou, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A modeling work has been performed to address these issues in view of its utilization for the TES (Tritium Extraction System), in the case of the HCPB TBM and for a Molecular sieve as adsorbent material. • A computational model has been setup and tested in this paper. • The results of experimental measurement of fundamental parameters such as mass transfer coefficients have been implemented in the model. • It turns out the capability to model the extraction process of gaseous tritium compounds and to estimate the breakthrough curves of the two main tritium gaseous species (H2 and HT). - Abstract: In fusion reactors, tritium is bred by lithium isotopes inside the blanket and then extracted. However, tritium can contaminate the reactor structures, and can be eventually released into the environment. Tritium in reactor components should therefore be kept under close control throughout the fusion reactor lifetime, bearing in mind the risk of accidents, the need for maintenance and the detritiation of dismantled reactor components before their re-use or disposal. A modeling work has been performed to address these issues in view of its utilization for the TES (Tritium Extraction System), in the case of the HCPB TBM and for a molecular sieve as adsorbent material. A computational model has been setup and tested. The results of experimental measurement of fundamental parameters such as mass transfer coefficients have been implemented in the model. It turns out the capability of the model to describe the extraction process of gaseous tritium compounds and to estimate the breakthrough curves of the two main tritium gaseous species (H2 and HT).

  3. Temperature-controlled micro-TLC: a versatile green chemistry and fast analytical tool for separation and preliminary screening of steroids fraction from biological and environmental samples.

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Slączka, Magdalena M; Zarzycka, Magdalena B; Bartoszuk, Małgorzata A; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Baran, Michał J

    2011-11-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous research focusing on development of micro-TLC methodology under temperature-controlled conditions. The main goal of present paper is to demonstrate separation and detection capability of micro-TLC technique involving simple analytical protocols without multi-steps sample pre-purification. One of the advantages of planar chromatography over its column counterpart is that each TLC run can be performed using non-previously used stationary phase. Therefore, it is possible to fractionate or separate complex samples characterized by heavy biological matrix loading. In present studies components of interest, mainly steroids, were isolated from biological samples like fish bile using single pre-treatment steps involving direct organic liquid extraction and/or deproteinization by freeze-drying method. Low-molecular mass compounds with polarity ranging from estetrol to progesterone derived from the environmental samples (lake water, untreated and treated sewage waters) were concentrated using optimized solid-phase extraction (SPE). Specific bands patterns for samples derived from surface water of the Middle Pomerania in northern part of Poland can be easily observed on obtained micro-TLC chromatograms. This approach can be useful as simple and non-expensive complementary method for fast control and screening of treated sewage water discharged by the municipal wastewater treatment plants. Moreover, our experimental results show the potential of micro-TLC as an efficient tool for retention measurements of a wide range of steroids under reversed-phase (RP) chromatographic conditions. These data can be used for further optimalization of SPE or HPLC systems working under RP conditions. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that micro-TLC based analytical approach can be applied as an effective method for the internal standard (IS) substance search. Generally, described methodology can be applied for fast fractionation or screening of the

  4. Cinnamon Bark, Water Soluble Cinnamon Extract, and Metformin as Initial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    2016-12-14

    Cinnamon Extract, and Metformin as Initial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus : A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Paul Crawford, MD Clinical Investigation...Title: “Cinnamon Bark, Water-Soluble Cinnamon Extract, and Metformin as Initial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus : A Randomized, Controlled...as initial treatment for Type 2 diabetes mellitus : A randomized, controlled trial. IRB #: FWH20110004H Principal Investigator (PI) Rank / Civ

  5. The influence of intermittent fasting on the circadian pattern of melatonin while controlling for caloric intake, energy expenditure, light exposure, and sleep schedules: A preliminary report

    Aljohara S Almeneessier

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In this preliminary report, under controlled conditions of light exposure, meal composition, energy expenditure, and sleep-wake schedules, intermittent fasting has no significant influence on the circadian pattern of melatonin.

  6. Determination of homogenization factors in the simulation in the azymuthal flux unit distribution in the control ring of a experimental fast reactor

    Jachic, J.

    1987-01-01

    The azimuthal neutronic flux distribution in the control ring region for a low power fast reactor is simulated using a plate and rectangular smash models for one dimensional calculations under periodic boundary conditions in the frontier. (E.G.) [pt

  7. Novel high efficient speed sensorless controller for maximum power extraction from wind energy conversion systems

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel sensorless MPPT technique without drawbacks of other sensor/sensorless methods. • Tracking the actual MPP of WECSs, no tracking the MPP of their wind turbines. • Actually extracting the highest output power from WECSs. • Novel MPPT technique having the MPPT efficiency more than 98.5% for WECSs. • Novel MPPT technique having short convergence time for WECSs. - Abstract: In this study, a novel high accurate sensorless maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method is proposed. The technique tracks the actual maximum power point of a wind energy conversion system (WECS) at which maximum output power is extracted from the system, not the maximum power point of its wind turbine at which maximum mechanical power is obtained from the turbine, so it actually extracts the highest output power from the system. The technique only uses input voltage and current of the converter used in the system, and neither needs any speed sensors (anemometer and tachometer) nor has the drawbacks of other sensor/sensorless based MPPT methods. The technique has been implemented as a MPPT controller by constructing a WECS. Theoretical results, the technique performance, and its advantages are validated by presenting real experimental results. The real static-dynamic response of the MPPT controller is experimentally obtained that verifies the proposed MPPT technique high accurately extracts the highest instant power from wind energy conversion systems with the MPPT efficiency of more than 98.5% and a short convergence time that is only 25 s for the constructed system having a total inertia and friction coefficient of 3.93 kg m 2 and 0.014 N m s, respectively.

  8. Detection of {alpha} particles using semiconductors. Application to the control of plutonium extraction; Detection des particules {alpha} par semiconducteurs application au controle de l'extraction du plutonium

    Tanguy, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-03-01

    A study is made of a particles produced by thick sources, using either diffused junction or surface barrier semiconductor detectors for controlling continuously the plutonium extraction process. For this, a presenting apparatus is described in which the solutions to be analyzed flow in contact with the detector protected by a thin mica membrane. A method is described which gives a precise recording of the spectra and which thus allows the separation of two or more {alpha} emitters present in the same solution. This method has been applied to the measurement of {sup 239}Pu in the the presence of {sup 241}Am with an accuracy of {+-}5 per cent. In the second part of the report is considered the detection of plutonium in solutions of {beta} - {gamma} emitting fission products. Pile-up is reduced by using a fast amplification chain associated to totally depleted thin detectors. Under these conditions a few mg of {sup 239}Pu can be detected in solutions of fission products having an activity of 100 curies/liter. A method is given for discriminating {alpha} and {beta} particles, it is based on the difference in the collection times for the charges liberated by these particles in the detector. (author) [French] On etudie la detection de particules {alpha} issues de sources epaisses par detecteurs semiconducteurs a jonction diffusee ou a barriere de surface pour le controle continu du procede d'extraction du plutonium. A cet effet on decrit un appareil presentateur dans lequel les solutions a analyser circulent au contact du detecteur protege par une membrane mince de mica. On decrit une methode qui permet par le trace precis des spectres de separer deux ou plusieurs emetteurs {alpha} presents dans une meme solution. Cette methode a ete appliquee a la mesure du {sup 239}Pu en presence de {sup 241}Am avec une precision de {+-} 5 pour cent. Dans la deuxieme partie on traite de la detection du plutonium dans des solutions de produits de fission emetteurs {beta} and {gamma

  9. FQC Dashboard: integrates FastQC results into a web-based, interactive, and extensible FASTQ quality control tool.

    Brown, Joseph; Pirrung, Meg; McCue, Lee Ann

    2017-06-09

    FQC is software that facilitates quality control of FASTQ files by carrying out a QC protocol using FastQC, parsing results, and aggregating quality metrics into an interactive dashboard designed to richly summarize individual sequencing runs. The dashboard groups samples in dropdowns for navigation among the data sets, utilizes human-readable configuration files to manipulate the pages and tabs, and is extensible with CSV data. FQC is implemented in Python 3 and Javascript, and is maintained under an MIT license. Documentation and source code is available at: https://github.com/pnnl/fqc . joseph.brown@pnnl.gov. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Ramadan Fasting Effects on Postural Control in the Elderly: A Comparison Between Fallers and Non-fallers.

    Laatar, Rabeb; Baccouch, Rym; Borji, Rihab; Kachouri, Hiba; Rebai, Haithem; Sahli, Sonia

    2016-11-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effects of Ramadan fasting on postural control in elderly fallers and non-fallers. The protocol involved twenty-four healthy old volunteer males divided into two groups: fallers (mean age = 75.43 ± 5.26 years, weight = 67.25 ± 5.30 kg and height = 1.65 ± 0.02 m) and non-fallers (mean age = 72.3 ± 6.42 years, weight = 65.5 ± 6.15 kg and height = 1.64 ± 0.03 m). Participants performed a simple reaction time test (SRT) and a postural control protocol on four different occasions: one week before Ramadan (BR), during the second (SWR) and the fourth week (FWR) of Ramadan and three weeks after Ramadan (AR). Center of pressure (CoP) parameters [the CoP medial-lateral length (CoP X ), and the CoP antero-posterior length (CoP Y )] were assessed using a force platform under two surface conditions: Firm surface and Foam surface. The results showed that Ramadan fasting influences similarly fallers and non-fallers. In fact, for both groups, the CoP X and the CoP Y values increased significantly during the SWR and the FWR compared to BR. These CoP parameters decreased significantly in the Firm surface conditions in the FWR. Moreover, the CoP parameters were significantly higher during the FWR and AR in comparison with BR in the Foam surface conditions. However, the amplitude of increase of the CoP [X] % and the CoP [Y] % (ΔCoP [X] % and ΔCoP [Y] %) between BR and the SWR was significantly higher in the fallers than non-fallers. The SRT of elderly fallers and non-fallers was significantly higher in the SWR and in the FWR compared to BR. In conclusion, Ramadan fasting alters similarly postural control of elderly fallers and non-fallers, but the amplitude (ΔCoP [X] % and ΔCoP [Y] %) of this alteration seems to be more pronounced in fallers than non-fallers. A probable beginning of adaptation occurs at the FWR. However, three weeks seems to be insufficient to recover postural control alterations due to Ramadan

  11. Estimating neural background input with controlled and fast perturbations: A bandwidth comparison between inhibitory opsins and neural circuits

    David Eriksson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To test the importance of a certain cell type or brain area it is common to make a lack of function experiment in which the neuronal population of interest is inhibited. Here we review physiological and methodological constraints for making controlled perturbations using the corticothalamic circuit as an example. The brain with its many types of cells and rich interconnectivity offers many paths through which a perturbation can spread within a short time. To understand the side effects of the perturbation one should record from those paths. We find that ephaptic effects, gap-junctions, and fast chemical synapses are so fast that they can react to the perturbation during the few milliseconds it takes for an opsin to change the membrane potential. The slow chemical synapses, astrocytes, extracellular ions and vascular signals, will continue to give their physiological input for around 20 milliseconds before they also react to the perturbation. Although we show that some pathways can react within milliseconds the strength/speed reported in this review should be seen as an upper bound since we have omitted how polysynaptic signals are attenuated. Thus the number of additional recordings that has to be made to control for the perturbation side effects is expected to be fewer than proposed here. To summarize, the reviewed literature not only suggests that it is possible to make controlled lack of function experiments, but, it also suggests that such a lack of function experiment can be used to measure the context of local neural computations.

  12. A novel technique to extract events from access control system and locate persons

    Vincent, M.; Vaidyanathan, Mythili; Patidar, Suresh Chandra; Prabhakara Rao, G.

    2011-01-01

    Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research houses many laboratories which handle radioactive materials and classified materials. Protection and accounting of men and material and critical facilities are important aspect of nuclear security. Access Control System (ACS) is used to enhance the protective measures against elevated threat environment. Access control system hardware consists of hand geometry readers, RFID readers, Controllers, Electromagnetic door locks, Turnstiles, fiber cable laying and termination etc. Access Control System controls and monitors the people accessing the secured facilities. Access Control System generates events on: 1. Showing of RFID card, 2. Rotation of turnstile, 3. Download of valid card numbers, 4. Generation of alarms etc. Access control system turnstiles are located in main entrance of a facility, entrance of inside laboratory and door locks are fixed on secured facilities. Events are stored in SQL server database. From the events stored in database a novel technique is developed to extract events and list the persons in a particular facility, list all entry/exit events on one day, list the first in and last out entries. This paper discusses the complex multi level group by queries and software developed to extract events from database, locate persons and generate reports. Software is developed as a web application in ASP.Net and query is written in SQL. User can select the doors, type of events and generate reports. Reports are generated using the master data stored about employees RFID cards and events data stored in tables. Four types of reports are generated 1. Plant Emergency Report, 2. Locate User Report, 3. Entry - Exit Report, 4. First in Last out Report. To generate plant emergency report for whole plant only events generated in outer gates have to be considered. To generate plant emergency report for inside laboratory, events generated in entrance gates have to be ignored. (author)

  13. Special power supply and control system for the gas-cooled fast reactor-core flow test loop

    Hudson, T.L.

    1981-09-01

    The test bundle in the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor-Core Flow Test Loop (GCFR-CFTL) requires a source of electrical power that can be controlled accurately and reliably over a wide range of steady-state and transient power levels and skewed power distributions to simulate GCFR operating conditions. Both ac and dc power systems were studied, and only those employing silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs) could meet the requirements. This report summarizes the studies, tests, evaluations, and development work leading to the selection. it also presents the design, procurement, testing, and evaluation of the first 500-kVa LMPL supply. The results show that the LMPL can control 60-Hz sine wave power from 200 W to 500 kVA

  14. Optimal control of fast and high-fidelity quantum state transfer in spin-1/2 chains

    Zhang, Xiong-Peng [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Shao, Bin, E-mail: sbin610@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Hu, Shuai; Zou, Jian [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wu, Lian-Ao [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, The Basque Country University (EHU/UPV), PO Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain)

    2016-12-15

    Spin chains are promising candidates for quantum communication and computation. Using quantum optimal control (OC) theory based on the Krotov method, we present a protocol to perform quantum state transfer with fast and high fidelity by only manipulating the boundary spins in a quantum spin-1/2 chain. The achieved speed is about one order of magnitude faster than that is possible in the Lyapunov control case for comparable fidelities. Additionally, it has a fundamental limit for OC beyond which optimization is not possible. The controls are exerted only on the couplings between the boundary spins and their neighbors, so that the scheme has good scalability. We also demonstrate that the resulting OC scheme is robust against disorder in the chain.

  15. Numerical Analysis on the Free Fall Motion of the Control Rod Assembly for the Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    Oh, Se-Hong; Choi, Choengryul; Son, Sung-Man [ELSOLTEC, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Yong; Yoon, Kyung-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    On receiving the scram signal, the control rod assemblies are released to fall into the reactor core by its weight. Thus drop time and falling velocity of the control rod assembly must be estimated for the safety evaluation. However, because of its complex shape, it is difficult to estimate the drop time by theoretical method. In this study, numerical analysis has been carried out in order to estimate drop time and falling velocity of the control rod assembly to provide the underlying data for the design optimization. Numerical analysis has been carried out to estimate the drop time and falling velocity of the control rod assembly for sodium-cooled fast reactor. Before performing the numerical analysis for the control rod assembly, sphere dropping experiment has been carried out for verification of the CFD methodology. The result of the numerical analysis for the method verification is almost same as the result of the experiment. Falling velocity and drag force increase rapidly in the beginning. And then it goes to the stable state. When the piston head of the control rod assembly is inserted into the damper, the drag force increases instantaneously and the falling velocity decreases quickly. The falling velocity is reduced about 14 % by damper. The total drop time of the control rod assembly is about 1.47s. In the next study, the experiment for the control rod assembly will be carried out, and its result is going to be compared with the CFD analysis result.

  16. Modeling the Daly Gap: The Influence of Latent Heat Production in Controlling Magma Extraction and Eruption

    Nelson, B. K.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Bachmann, O.; Dufek, J.

    2011-12-01

    A century-old issue in volcanology is the origin of the gap in chemical compositions observed in magmatic series on ocean islands and arcs - the "Daly Gap". If the gap forms during differentiation from a mafic parent, models that predict the dynamics of magma extraction as a function of chemical composition must simulate a process that results in volumetrically biased, bimodal compositions of erupted magmas. The probability of magma extraction is controlled by magma dynamical processes, which have a complex response to magmatic heat evolution. Heat loss from the magmatic system is far from a simple, monotonic function of time. It is modified by the crystallization sequence, chamber margin heat flux, and is buffered by latent heat production. We use chemical and thermal calculations of MELTS (Ghiorso & Sack, 1995) as input to the physical model of QUANTUM (Dufek & Bachmann, 2010) to predict crystallinity windows of most probable magma extraction. We modeled two case studies: volcanism on Tenerife, Canary Islands, and the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) of Campi Flegrei, Italy. Both preserve a basanitic to phonolitic lineage and have comparable total alkali concentrations; however, CI has high and Tenerife has low K2O/Na2O. Modeled thermal histories of differentiation for the two sequences contrast strongly. In Tenerife, the rate of latent heat production is almost always greater than sensible heat production, with spikes in the ratio of latent to sensible heats of up to 40 associated with the appearance of Fe-Ti oxides at near 50% crystallization. This punctuated heat production must cause magma temperature change to stall or slow in time. The extended time spent at ≈50% crystallinity, associated with dynamical processes that enhance melt extraction near 50% crystallinity, suggests the magma composition at this interval should be common. In Tenerife, the modeled composition coincides with that of the first peak in the bimodal frequency-composition distribution. In our

  17. Engineering of Fast and Robust Adaptive Control for Fixed-Wing Unmanned Aircraft

    2017-06-01

    evaluate the use of adaptive control on fixed-wing unmanned aircraft . The growing demand for unmanned systems will inherit the costs associated with...aerospace environment . 2.2 Classical Feedback vs Adaptive Control Control of a system can be categorized into two required elements; the requirement to...stabilize the system in the presence of: 1. disturbances that affect the controlled states and outputs (pitch rate perturbation caused by environmental

  18. Development of a control scheme of homodyne detection for extracting ponderomotive squeezing from a Michelson interferometer

    Sakata, Shihori; Kawamura, Seiji; Sato, Shuichi; Somiya, Kentaro; Arai, Koji; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Sugamoto, Akio

    2006-01-01

    We developed a control scheme of homodyne detection. To operate the homodyne detector as easy as possible, a simple Michelson interferometer is used. Here a motivation that the control scheme of the homodyne detection is developed is for our future experiment of extracting the ponderomotively squeezed vacuum fluctuations. To obtain the best signalto- noise ratio using the homodyne detection, the homodyne phase should be optimized. The optimization of the homodyne phase is performed by changing a phase of a local oscillator for the homodyne detection from a point at which a signal is maximized. In fact, in this experiment, using the developed control scheme, we locked the Michelson interferometer with the homodyne detector and changed the phase of the local oscillator for the homodyne detection. Then, we measured signals quantity changed by changing the phase of the local oscillator for the homodyne detection. Here we used the output from the homodyne detection as the signal

  19. Randomized controlled clinical trial on the three-dimensional accuracy of fast-set impression materials.

    Rudolph, Heike; Quaas, Sebastian; Haim, Manuela; Preißler, Jörg; Walter, Michael H; Koch, Rainer; Luthardt, Ralph G

    2013-06-01

    The use of fast-setting impression materials with different viscosities for the one-stage impression technique demands precise working times when mixing. We examined the effect of varying working time on impression precision in a randomized clinical trial. Focusing on tooth 46, three impressions were made from each of 96 volunteers, using either a polyether (PE: Impregum Penta H/L DuoSoft Quick, 3 M ESPE) or an addition-curing silicone (AS: Aquasil Ultra LV, Dentsply/DeTrey), one with the manufacturer's recommended working time (used as a reference) and two with altered working times. All stages of the impression-taking were subject to randomization. The three-dimensional precision of the non-standard working time impressions was digitally analyzed compared to the reference impression. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate models. The mean difference in the position of the lower right first molar (vs. the reference impression) ranged from ±12 μm for PE to +19 and -14 μm for AS. Significantly higher mean values (+62 to -40 μm) were found for AS compared to PE (+21 to -26 μm) in the area of the distal adjacent tooth. Fast-set impression materials offer high precision when used for single tooth restorations as part of a one-stage impression technique, even when the working time (mixing plus application of the light- and heavy-body components) diverges significantly from the manufacturer's recommended protocol. Best accuracy was achieved with machine-mixed heavy-body/light-body polyether. Both materials examined met the clinical requirements regarding precision when the teeth were completely syringed with light material.

  20. Drop performance test of conceptually designed control rod assembly for prototype generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor

    Lee, Young Kyu; Lee, Jae Han; Kim, Hoe Woong; KIm, Sung Kyun; Kim, Jong Bum [Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor NSSS Design Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The control rod assembly controls reactor power by adjusting its position during normal operation and shuts down chain reactions by its free drop under scram conditions. Therefore, the drop performance of the control rod assembly is important for the safety of a nuclear reactor. In this study, the drop performance of the conceptually designed control rod assembly for the prototype generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor that is being developed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute as a next-generation nuclear reactor was experimentally investigated. For the performance test, the test facility and test procedure were established first, and several free drop performance tests of the control rod assembly under different flow rate conditions were then carried out. Moreover, performance tests under several types and magnitudes of seismic loading conditions were also conducted to investigate the effects of seismic loading on the drop performance of the control rod assembly. The drop time of the conceptually designed control rod assembly for 0% of the tentatively designed flow rate was measured to be 1.527 seconds, and this agrees well with the analytically calculated drop time. It was also observed that the effect of seismic loading on the drop time was not significant.

  1. Design of automatic control system for the precipitation of bromelain from the extract of pineapple wastes

    Flavio Vasconcelos da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, bromelain was recovered from ground pineapple stem and rind by means of precipitation with alcohol at low temperature. Bromelain is the name of a group of powerful protein-digesting, or proteolytic, enzymes that are particularly useful for reducing muscle and tissue inflammation and as a digestive aid. Temperature control is crucial to avoid irreversible protein denaturation and consequently to improve the quality of the enzyme recovered. The process was carried out alternatively in two fed-batch pilot tanks: a glass tank and a stainless steel tank. Aliquots containing 100 mL of pineapple aqueous extract were fed into the tank. Inside the jacketed tank, the protein was exposed to unsteady operating conditions during the addition of the precipitating agent (ethanol 99.5% because the dilution ratio "aqueous extract to ethanol" and heat transfer area changed. The coolant flow rate was manipulated through a variable speed pump. Fine tuned conventional and adaptive PID controllers were on-line implemented using a fieldbus digital control system. The processing performance efficiency was enhanced and so was the quality (enzyme activity of the product.

  2. Local magnetic shear control in a tokamak via fast wave minority ion current drive: Theory and experiments in JET

    Bhatnagar, V.P.; Start, D.F.H.; Jacquinot, J.; Chaland, F.; Cherubini, A.; Porcelli, F.

    1994-01-01

    When an ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antenna array is phased (Δ Φ ≠ 0 or π), the excited asymmetric k parallel spectrum can drive non-inductive currents by interaction of fast waves both with electrons (transit time magnetic pumping (e-TTMP) and Landau damping (e-LD)) and with ions at minority (fundamental) or harmonic cyclotron resonances, depending upon the scenario. On the basis of earlier theories, a simplified description is presented that includes the minority ion and electron current drive effects simultaneously in a 3-D ray tracing calculation in the tokamak geometry. The experimental results of sawtooth stabilization or destabilization in JET using the minority ion current drive scheme are presented. This scheme allows a modification of the local current density gradient (or the magnetic shear) at the q = 1 surface resulting in a control of a sawteeth. The predictions of the above model of current drive and its effects on sawtooth period calculated in conjunction with a model of stability of internal resistive kink modes, that encompasses the effects of both the fast particle pressure and the local (q = 1) magnetic shear, are found to be qualitatively in good agreement with the experimental results. Further, the results are discussed of our model of fast wave current drive scenarios of magnetic shear reversal with a view to achieving long duration high confinement regimes in the forthcoming experimental campaign on JET. Finally, the results are presented of minority current drive for sawtooth control in next step devices such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). (author). 44 refs, 23 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Control of protein synthesis in cell-free extracts of sea urchin embryos

    Hansen, L.J.; Huang, W.I.; Jagus, R.

    1986-01-01

    Although the increase in protein synthesis that occurs after fertilization of sea urchin eggs results from increased utilization of stored maternal mRNA, the underlying mechanism is unknown. The authors have prepared cell-free extracts from S.purpuratus and A.puctulata unfertilized eggs and 2-cell embryos that retain the protein synthetic differences observed in vivo. The method is based on that of Dr. Alina Lopo. 35 S methionine incorporation is linear during a 30 min incubation and is 10-20 fold higher in extracts from 2-cell embryos than unfertilized eggs. Addition of purified mRNA does not stimulate these systems, suggesting a regulatory mechanism other than mRNA masking. Addition of rabbit reticulocyte ribosomal salt wash stimulated protein synthesis in extracts from eggs but not embryos, suggesting deficiencies in translational components in unfertilized eggs. Mixing of egg and embryo lysates indicated the presence of a weak protein synthesis inhibitor in eggs. Translational control in developing sea urchin embryos thus appears to be complex, involving both stimulatory and inhibitory factors

  4. Enhancing the photon-extraction efficiency of site-controlled quantum dots by deterministically fabricated microlenses

    Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Fischbach, Sarah; Strittmatter, André; Rodt, Sven; Heindel, Tobias; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    We report on the realization of scalable single-photon sources (SPSs) based on single site-controlled quantum dots (SCQDs) and deterministically fabricated microlenses. The fabrication process comprises the buried-stressor growth technique complemented with low-temperature in-situ electron-beam lithography for the integration of SCQDs into microlens structures with high yield and high alignment accuracy. The microlens-approach leads to a broadband enhancement of the photon-extraction efficiency of up to (21 ± 2)% and a high suppression of multi-photon events with g (2)(τ = 0) SPSs which, can be applied in photonic quantum circuits and advanced quantum computation schemes.

  5. Aerosol-Assisted Fast Formulating Uniform Pharmaceutical Polymer Microparticles with Variable Properties toward pH-Sensitive Controlled Drug Release

    Hong Lei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation is highly attractive for oral drug delivery. Microparticles are a common form of drug carrier for this purpose. There is still a high demand on efficient methods to fabricate microparticles with uniform sizes and well-controlled particle properties. In this paper, uniform hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP-based pharmaceutical microparticles loaded with either hydrophobic or hydrophilic model drugs have been directly formulated by using a unique aerosol technique, i.e., the microfluidic spray drying technology. A series of microparticles of controllable particle sizes, shapes, and structures are fabricated by tuning the solvent composition and drying temperature. It is found that a more volatile solvent and a higher drying temperature can result in fast evaporation rates to form microparticles of larger lateral size, more irregular shape, and denser matrix. The nature of the model drugs also plays an important role in determining particle properties. The drug release behaviors of the pharmaceutical microparticles are dependent on their structural properties and the nature of a specific drug, as well as sensitive to the pH value of the release medium. Most importantly, drugs in the microparticles obtained by using a more volatile solvent or a higher drying temperature can be well protected from degradation in harsh simulated gastric fluids due to the dense structures of the microparticles, while they can be fast-released in simulated intestinal fluids through particle dissolution. These pharmaceutical microparticles are potentially useful for site-specific (enteric delivery of orally-administered drugs.

  6. Fast and Reliable Primary Frequency Reserves From Refrigerators with Decentralized Stochastic Control

    Vrettos, Evangelos; Ziras, Charalampos; Andersson, Goran

    2016-01-01

    in the controller to account for thermostat resolution limitations, and finally, we modify the control design to account for refrigerator door openings. Extensive simulations with actual frequency signal data and with different aggregation sizes, load characteristics, and control parameters, demonstrate......Due to increasing shares of renewable energy sources, more frequency reserves are required to maintain power system stability. In this paper, we present a decentralized control scheme that allows a large aggregation of refrigerators to provide Primary Frequency Control (PFC) reserves to the grid...... based on local frequency measurements and without communication. The control is based on stochastic switching of refrigerators depending on the frequency deviation. We develop methods to account for typical lockout constraints of compressors and increased power consumption during the startup phase...

  7. Extending an Industrial Robot Controller-Implementation and Applications of a Fast Open Sensor Interface

    Blomdell, Anders; Bolmsjö, Gunnar; Brogårdh, Torgny; Cederberg, Per; Isaksson, Mats; Johansson, Rolf; Haage, Mathias; Nilsson, Klas; Olsson, Magnus; Olsson, Tomas; Robertsson, Anders; Wang, Jianjun

    2005-01-01

    Many promising robotics research results were obtained during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Some examples include Cartesian force control and advanced motion planning. Now, 20 years and many research projects later, many technologies still have not reached industrial usage. An important question to consider is how this situation can be improved for future deployment of necessary technologies. Today, modern robot control systems used in industry provide highly optimized motion control that w...

  8. Fast Fourier and discrete wavelet transforms applied to sensorless vector control induction motor for rotor bar faults diagnosis.

    Talhaoui, Hicham; Menacer, Arezki; Kessal, Abdelhalim; Kechida, Ridha

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents new techniques to evaluate faults in case of broken rotor bars of induction motors. Procedures are applied with closed-loop control. Electrical and mechanical variables are treated using fast Fourier transform (FFT), and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) at start-up and steady state. The wavelet transform has proven to be an excellent mathematical tool for the detection of the faults particularly broken rotor bars type. As a performance, DWT can provide a local representation of the non-stationary current signals for the healthy machine and with fault. For sensorless control, a Luenberger observer is applied; the estimation rotor speed is analyzed; the effect of the faults in the speed pulsation is compensated; a quadratic current appears and used for fault detection. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of frequency methods for optimization of tuning parameters of fast-response control systems

    Gruzdev, I.A.; Temirbulatov, R.A.; Ladvishchenko, B.G.; Zhenenko, G.N.

    1980-09-01

    The electric power system is considered as a system of matrices of transfer functions (frequency characteristics) describing non-controlled system and control devices of generator excitation and steam turbine torques. This mathematical model can be used for the study of static stability of complex electric power systems. 5 refs.

  10. A Fast Condensing Method for Solution of Linear-Quadratic Control Problems

    Frison, Gianluca; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2013-01-01

    consider a condensing (or state elimination) method to solve an extended version of the LQ control problem, and we show how to exploit the structure of this problem to both factorize the dense Hessian matrix and solve the system. Furthermore, we present two efficient implementations. The first......In both Active-Set (AS) and Interior-Point (IP) algorithms for Model Predictive Control (MPC), sub-problems in the form of linear-quadratic (LQ) control problems need to be solved at each iteration. The solution of these sub-problems is usually the main computational effort. In this paper we...... implementation is formally identical to the Riccati recursion based solver and has a computational complexity that is linear in the control horizon length and cubic in the number of states. The second implementation has a computational complexity that is quadratic in the control horizon length as well...

  11. Effects of A One-week Fasting Therapy in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus and Metabolic Syndrome - A Randomized Controlled Explorative Study.

    Li, Chenying; Sadraie, Badri; Steckhan, Nico; Kessler, Christian; Stange, Rainer; Jeitler, Michael; Michalsen, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    There is increasing experimental evidence for beneficial effects of calorie restriction and intermittent fasting in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In humans, prolonged fasting is established as a health-promoting complementary treatment in Europe and claimed to improve metabolism by a complex hormetic response. We aimed to investigate effects of a one-week fasting period compared to usual care in T2DM by means of a pilot trial. Patients with manifest T2DM medically treated with oral hypoglycemic agents and/or insulin were randomly assigned to a 7-day fasting program followed by dietary advice or to usual care and dietary advice only. Fasting was performed according to the method of Buchinger with a nutritional energy intake of 300kcal/day by liquids only and stepwise re-introduction of solid food thereafter. Outcomes were assessed baseline and after 4 months. Of 46 enrolled participants, 32 (n=16 each group) completed the trial and were included for final analyses. Fasting was well accepted, there were no serious adverse events. After 4 months mean weight decreased by 3.5 kg and 2.0 kg in the fasting vs. control group (p=0.03) paralleled by greater reduction of abdominal circumference (p=0.001). Fasting led to a significant decrease of systolic/diastolic blood pressure (p=0.01; p=0.003) and increased quality-of-life (p=0.04), while for HbA 1c , insulin and HOMA-index only non-significant improvements were observed. Results of this study suggest that prolonged fasting is feasible and might have beneficial clinical effects. The effectiveness of fasting should be proved in larger confirmatory trials that include intermittent fasting in follow-ups to enable more pronounced and long-term effects. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Enhancement of stereoscopic comfort by fast control of frequency content with wavelet transform

    Lemmer, Nicolas; Moreau, Guillaume; Fuchs, Philippe

    2003-05-01

    As the scope of virtual reality applications including stereoscopic imaging becomes wider, it is quite clear that not every designer of a VR application thinks of its constraints in order to make a correct use of stereo. Stereoscopic imagery though not required can be a useful tool for depth perception. It is possible to limit the depth of field as shown by Perrin who has also undertaken research on the link between the ability of fusing stereoscopic images (stereopsis) and local disparity and spatial frequency content. We will show how we can extend and enhance this work especially on the computational complexity point of view. The wavelet theory allows us to define a local spatial frequency and then a local measure of stereoscopic comfort. This measure is based on local spatial frequency and disparity as well as on the observations made by Woepking. Local comfort estimation allows us to propose several filtering methods to enhance this comfort. The idea to modify the images such as they check a "stereoscopic comfort condition" defined as a threshold for the stereoscopic comfort condition. More technically, we seek to limit high spatial frequency content when disparity is high thanks to the use of fast algorithms.

  13. Control of finger forces during fast, slow and moderate rotational hand movements.

    Kazemi, Hamed; Kearney, Robert E; Milner, Theodore E

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of speed on patterns of grip forces during twisting movement involving forearm supination against a torsional load (combined elastic and inertial load). For slow and moderate speed rotations, the grip force increased linearly with load torque. However, for fast rotations in which the contribution of the inertia to load torque was significantly greater than slower movements, the grip force-load torque relationship could be segmented into two phases: a linear ascending phase corresponding to the acceleration part of the movement followed by a plateau during deceleration. That is, during the acceleration phase, the grip force accurately tracked the combined elastic and inertial load. However, the coupling between grip force and load torque was not consistent during the deceleration phase of the movement. In addition, as speed increased, both the position and the force profiles became smoother. No differences in the baseline grip force, safety margin to secure the grasp during hold phase or the overall change in grip force were observed across different speeds.

  14. Transient Analysis of a Gas-cooled Fast Reactor for Single Control Assembly Withdrawal

    Choi, Hangbok

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Multiplier Module (EMZ) system response has been evaluated for control assembly withdrawal transients. Currently the EM2 core is equipped with six cylindrical drum-type control assemblies in the reflector zone for excess reactivity control and power maneuvering during the operating core life. This study investigates the system response to the control assembly withdrawal accident with various rotational speeds and reactivity worth to determine feasible control assembly design requirements from the physics viewpoint. The simulations have been conducted for single control assembly withdrawal transients without scram by a gas-cooled reactor plant simulator, which is based on a simplified plant nodal model, including the point reactor kinetics, single channel core thermal-fluid model, and a turbo-machinery performance model. Simulations were conducted for the middle-of- cycle core, when the excess reactivity of the core is the highest. Control assembly withdrawal times were varied from 1 (runaway) to 180 sec and reactivity worth was varied from 100 to 400 pcm. For a single control assembly withdrawal, the simulation has shown that the peak fuel temperature is expected to be ~1820°C when the assembly worth is 200 pcm and the runaway time is 1 sec per 180 degree rotation. The peak temperature could be reduced to ~1780°C if the assembly is rotated out in a moderate speed such as 1 degree/sec. These peak temperatures give a thermal margin of 22 to 24% to the melting point of uranium carbide fuel. The results also indicate that the current design with a single control assembly worth of 314 pcm may need adjustments in the future design. (author)

  15. Long-term impact of earthquake stress on fasting glucose control and diabetes prevalence among Chinese adults of Tangshan.

    An, Cuixia; Zhang, Yun; Yu, Lulu; Li, Na; Song, Mei; Wang, Lan; Zhao, Xiaochuan; Gao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xueyi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the long-term influence of stresses from the 1976 Tangshan earthquake on blood glucose control and the incidence of diabetes mellitus in Chinese people of Tangshan. 1,551 adults ≥ 37 years of age were recruited for this investigation in Tangshan city of China, where one of the deadliest earthquakes occurred in 1796. All subjects finished a questionnaire. 1,030 of them who experienced that earthquake were selected into the exposure group, while 521 were gathered as the control group who have not exposed to any earthquake. The numbers of subjects who were first identified with diabetes or had normal FBG but with diabetic history were added for the calculation of diabetes prevalence. Statistic-analysis was applied on the baseline data, and incidences of IFG as well as diabetes among all groups. Statistic comparisons indicate there is no significant difference on average fasting glucose levels between the control group and the exposure group. However, the prevalence of IFG and diabetes among the exposure group displays significant variance with the control group. The prevalence of diabetes among exposure groups is significantly higher than the control group. Women are more likely to have diabetes after experiencing earthquake stresses compared to men. The earthquake stress was linked to higher diabetes incidence as an independent factor. The earthquake stress has long-term impacts on diabetes incidence as an independent risk factor. Emerging and long-term managements regarding the care of IFG and diabetes in populations exposed to earthquake stress should be concerned.

  16. The use of Curcuma longa extract to control Edwardsiella tarda infection on Clarias sp.

    Dinamella Wahjuningrum

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT  Target production of catfish in aquaculture can be reached by suppressing the pathogenic bacterial infection. Previous works had shown that turmeric Curcuma longa has antibacterial activity. The objectives of this research were to determine the best method of extraction and to evaluate the efficacy of turmeric extract as feed additive to control Edwardsiella tarda disease in catfish culture. Briefly, the objective was achieved through in vitro assay based on inhibition ability of extraction method against E. tarda, while the following objective was obtained through in vivo assay based on their survival during challenge test either as preventive or curative measurement. A complete randomized design with three replications was used for each assay. Furthermore, challenge test was done by mean intraperitoneal injection at concentration 106 cfu/mL of E. tarda (LD50. The results showed that 15 minutes decoction method allowed the best inhibition with diameter 7.42 mm of clear zone and then curative measurement using turmeric extract could be the best application against E. tarda since it gave 86.67% of survival. Clinical signs such as swelling, hemoraghic, body ulcer, gastroentritis and gaseous captivity were observed on challenged fish. However, there were no significant different among treatments for specific growth, body weight, and absolute length parameters.  Keywords: Edwardsiella tarda, extraction, turmeric, catfish, inhibition zone  ABSTRAK Peningkatan produksi ikan lele dapat dicapai melalui pencegahan infeksi penyakit bakterial. Hasil beberapa penelitian membuktikan bahwa kunyit Curcuma longa terbukti memiliki zat aktif yang bersifat antibakteri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mencari metode ekstraksi terbaik dan mengevaluasi efektivitas penambahan ekstrak kunyit pada pakan untuk pengendalian patogen Edwardsiella tarda pada ikan lele. Metoda ekstraksi kunyit diuji secara in vitro dengan metoda zona hambat, sedangkan efikasi

  17. Big or fast: two strategies in the developmental control of body size

    Nijhout, H. Frederik

    2015-01-01

    Adult body size is controlled by the mechanisms that stop growth when a species-characteristic size has been reached. The mechanisms by which size is sensed and by which this information is transduced to the growth regulating system are beginning to be understood in a few species of insects. Two rather different strategies for control have been discovered; one favors large body size and the other favors rapid development.

  18. Distributed control for energy-efficient and fast consensus in wireless sensor networks

    Manfredi, Sabato; Tucci, Edmondo Di

    2017-05-01

    The paper proposes a distributed control of nodes transmission radii in energy-harvesting wireless sensor networks for simultaneously coping with energy consumption and consensus responsiveness requirement. The stability of the closed-loop network under the proposed control law is proved. Simulation validations show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in nominal scenario as well as in the presence of uncertain node power requirements and harvesting system supply.

  19. A simple approach for fast controller prototyping for a three phase interleaved DC-DC converter

    Gavriluta, Catalin; Citro, Costantino; Nisak, Khairul; Beltrán San Segundo, Héctor

    2012-01-01

    Initial control prototyping in power electronics is often a matter of trial and error because of the complicated mathematics involved in modeling systems based on their internal structure. Moreover, in practice, small changes as the introduction of a measurement filter or the change of the sensing system appear all the time. If the controller design method was based on the internal structure of the system, then these small changes would mean a re-iteration through all the cumbersome equati...

  20. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2011-03-15

    Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

  1. Effect of Short-Term Fasting on Systemic Cytochrome P450-Mediated Drug Metabolism in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Controlled, Crossover Study Using a Cocktail Approach.

    Lammers, Laureen A; Achterbergh, Roos; van Schaik, Ron H N; Romijn, Johannes A; Mathôt, Ron A A

    2017-10-01

    Short-term fasting can alter drug exposure but it is unknown whether this is an effect of altered oral bioavailability and/or systemic clearance. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the effect of short-term fasting on oral bioavailability and systemic clearance of different drugs. In a randomized, controlled, crossover trial, 12 healthy subjects received a single administration of a cytochrome P450 (CYP) probe cocktail, consisting of caffeine (CYP1A2), metoprolol (CYP2D6), midazolam (CYP3A4), omeprazole (CYP2C19) and warfarin (CYP2C9), on four occasions: an oral (1) and intravenous (2) administration after an overnight fast (control) and an oral (3) and intravenous (4) administration after 36 h of fasting. Pharmacokinetic parameters of the probe drugs were analyzed using the nonlinear mixed-effects modeling software NONMEM. Short-term fasting increased systemic caffeine clearance by 17% (p = 0.04) and metoprolol clearance by 13% (p < 0.01), whereas S-warfarin clearance decreased by 19% (p < 0.01). Fasting did not affect bioavailability. The study demonstrates that short-term fasting alters CYP-mediated drug metabolism in a non-uniform pattern without affecting oral bioavailability.

  2. Implementation of a model reference adaptive control system using neural network to control a fast breeder reactor evaporator

    Ugolini, D.; Yoshikawa, S.; Endou, A.

    1994-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is foreseen as the base for new control systems aimed to replace traditional controllers and to assist and eventually advise plant operators. This paper discusses the development of an indirect model reference adaptive control (MRAC) system, using the artificial neural network (ANN) technique, and its implementation to control the outlet steam temperature of a sodium to water evaporator. The ANN technique is applied in the identification and in the control process of the indirect MRAC system. The emphasis is placed on demonstrating the efficacy of the indirect MRAC system in controlling the outlet steam temperature of the evaporator, and on showing the important function covered by the ANN technique. An important characteristic of this control system is that it relays only on some selected input variables and output variables of the evaporator model. These are the variables that can be actually measured or calculated in a real environment. The results obtained applying the indirect MRAC system to control the evaporator model are quite remarkable. The outlet temperature of the steam is almost perfectly kept close to its desired set point, when the evaporator is forced to depart from steady state conditions, either due to the variation of some input variables or due to the alteration of some of its internal parameters. The results also show the importance of the role played by the ANN technique in the overall control action. The connecting weights of the ANN nodes self adjust to follow the modifications which may occur in the characteristic of the evaporator model during a transient. The efficiency and the accuracy of the control action highly depends on the on-line identification process of the ANN, which is responsible for upgrading the connecting weights of the ANN nodes. (J.P.N.)

  3. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Melissa officinalis Extract which Contained Rosmarinic Acid in Healthy Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single dose of Melissa officinalis extract which contained rosmarinic acid, including food-effects in healthy individuals. A total of eleven healthy individuals were randomly assigned to treatment arms in the two studies [Study 1 (fasted state and Study 2 (fed state]. Rosmarinic acid in serum was measured by a coulometric detection method using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography electrochemical detector. The serum concentration of total rosmarinic acid peaked at 1 hour after administration of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500mg rosmarinic acid in fasted state, with a maximum serum concentration 162.20 nmol/ L. The area under the curve for intact rosmarinic acid was calculated from the serum concentration-time profile to be 832.13 nmol • hour/ L. Food intake increases area under the curve and delayed time at which the maximum serum concentration. Rosmarinic acid supplementation did not affect liver, kidney, or blood cell function parameters. No adverse event was reported by any of the participants due to the study treatment. Single dose of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500 mg rosmarinic acid appears to be safe and tolerable in healthy individuals. Food intake increased the exposure of rosmarinic acid and delayed absorption of rosmarinic acid in healthy individuals.

  4. Comparison of dual-time-constant and fast-acting automatic gain control (AGC) systems in cochlear implants.

    Boyle, Patrick J; Büchner, Andreas; Stone, Michael A; Lenarz, Thomas; Moore, Brian C J

    2009-04-01

    Cochlear implants usually employ an automatic gain control (AGC) system as a first stage of processing. AGC1 was a fast-acting (syllabic) compressor. AGC2 was a dual-time-constant system; it usually performed as a slow-acting compressor, but incorporated an additional fast-acting system to provide protection from sudden increases in sound level. Six experienced cochlear-implant users were tested in a counterbalanced order, receiving one-month of experience with a given AGC type before switching to the other type. Performance was evaluated shortly after provision of a given AGC type and after one-month of experience with that AGC type. Questionnaires, mainly relating to listening in quiet situations, did not reveal significant differences between the two AGC types. However, fixed-level and roving-level tests of sentence identification in noise both revealed significantly better performance for AGC2. It is suggested that the poorer performance for AGC1 occurred because AGC1 introduced cross-modulation between the target speech and background noise, which made perceptual separation of the target and background more difficult.

  5. Model Predictive Control of Power Converters for Robust and Fast Operation of AC Microgrids

    Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2018-01-01

    the load power at the same time. Those functionalities are conventionally achieved by hierarchical linear control loops. However, they have limited transient response and high sensitivity to parameter variations. This paper aims to mitigate these problems by firstly introducing an improvement of the FCS......This paper proposes the application of a finite control set model predictive control (FCS-MPC) strategy in standalone ac microgrids (MGs). AC MGs are usually built from two or more voltage source converters (VSCs) which can regulate the voltage at the point of common coupling, while sharing......-MPC strategy for a single VSC based on tracking of derivative of the voltage reference trajectory. Using only a single step prediction horizon, the proposed strategy exhibits low computational expense but provides steady state performance comparable to PWM, while its transient response and robustness...

  6. Integrity Evaluation of Control Rod Assembly for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor due to Drop Impact

    Lee, Hyun Seung; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Cheon, Jin Sik; Lee, Chan Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The CA (Control Assembly) of an SFR has a CRA(Control Rod Assembly) with an inner duct and control rod. During an emergency situation, the CRA falls into the duct of the CA for a rapid shut-down. The drop time and impact velocity of the CRA are important parameters with respect to the reactivity insertion time and the structural integrity of the CRA. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic behavior and integrity of the CRA owing to a drop impact. The impact analysis of the CRA under normal/abnormal drop conditions was carried out using the commercial FEM code LS-DYNA. Results of the drop impact analysis demonstrated that the CRA maintained structural integrity, and could be safely inserted into the flow hole of the damper under abnormal conditions.

  7. Integrity Evaluation of Control Rod Assembly for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor due to Drop Impact

    Lee, Hyun Seung; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Cheon, Jin Sik; Lee, Chan Bock

    2017-01-01

    The CA (Control Assembly) of an SFR has a CRA(Control Rod Assembly) with an inner duct and control rod. During an emergency situation, the CRA falls into the duct of the CA for a rapid shut-down. The drop time and impact velocity of the CRA are important parameters with respect to the reactivity insertion time and the structural integrity of the CRA. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic behavior and integrity of the CRA owing to a drop impact. The impact analysis of the CRA under normal/abnormal drop conditions was carried out using the commercial FEM code LS-DYNA. Results of the drop impact analysis demonstrated that the CRA maintained structural integrity, and could be safely inserted into the flow hole of the damper under abnormal conditions.

  8. Optimal Control for Fast and Robust Generation of Entangled States in Anisotropic Heisenberg Chains

    Zhang, Xiong-Peng; Shao, Bin; Zou, Jian

    2017-05-01

    Motivated by some recent results of the optimal control (OC) theory, we study anisotropic XXZ Heisenberg spin-1/2 chains with control fields acting on a single spin, with the aim of exploring how maximally entangled state can be prepared. To achieve the goal, we use a numerical optimization algorithm (e.g., the Krotov algorithm, which was shown to be capable of reaching the quantum speed limit) to search an optimal set of control parameters, and then obtain OC pulses corresponding to the target fidelity. We find that the minimum time for implementing our target state depending on the anisotropy parameter Δ of the model. Finally, we analyze the robustness of the obtained results for the optimal fidelities and the effectiveness of the Krotov method under some realistic conditions.

  9. Optimal control of energy extraction in LES of large wind farms

    Meyers, Johan; Goit, Jay; Munters, Wim

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the use of optimal control combined with Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of wind-farm boundary layer interaction for the increase of total energy extraction in very large ``infinite'' wind farms and in finite farms. We consider the individual wind turbines as flow actuators, whose energy extraction can be dynamically regulated in time so as to optimally influence the turbulent flow field, maximizing the wind farm power. For the simulation of wind-farm boundary layers we use large-eddy simulations in combination with an actuator-disk representation of wind turbines. Simulations are performed in our in-house pseudo-spectral code SP-Wind. For the optimal control study, we consider the dynamic control of turbine-thrust coefficients in the actuator-disk model. They represent the effect of turbine blades that can actively pitch in time, changing the lift- and drag coefficients of the turbine blades. In a first infinite wind-farm case, we find that farm power is increases by approximately 16% over one hour of operation. This comes at the cost of a deceleration of the outer layer of the boundary layer. A detailed analysis of energy balances is presented, and a comparison is made between infinite and finite farm cases, for which boundary layer entrainment plays an import role. The authors acknowledge support from the European Research Council (FP7-Ideas, Grant No. 306471). Simulations were performed on the computing infrastructure of the VSC Flemish Supercomputer Center, funded by the Hercules Foundation and the Flemish Govern.

  10. The metabolites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed greater differences between patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and healthy controls than those in plasma.

    Kim, Minjoo; Kim, Minkyung; Han, Ji Yun; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jee, Sun Ha; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-03-01

    To determine differences between peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the plasma metabolites in patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and healthy controls. In all, 65 nononobese patients (aged 30-70 years) with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and 65 nonobese sex-matched healthy controls were included, and fasting peripheral blood mononuclear cell and plasma metabolomes were profiled. The diabetic or impaired fasting glucose patients showed higher circulating and peripheral blood mononuclear cell lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 activities, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor-α than controls. Compared with controls, impaired fasting glucose or diabetic subjects showed increases in 11 peripheral blood mononuclear cell metabolites: six amino acids (valine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan), l-pyroglutamic acid, two fatty acid amides containing palmitic amide and oleamide and two lysophosphatidylcholines. In impaired fasting glucose or diabetic patients, peripheral blood mononuclear cell lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 positively associated with peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysophosphatidylcholines and circulating inflammatory markers, including tumour necrosis factor-α, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 activities. In plasma metabolites between patients and healthy controls, we observed significant increases in only three amino acids (proline, valine and leucine) and decreases in only five lysophosphatidylcholines. This study demonstrates significant differences in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell metabolome in patients with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes compared with healthy controls. These differences were greater than those observed in the plasma metabolome. These data suggest peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a useful tool to better understand the inflammatory pathophysiology of diabetes.

  11. Comparing the effects of chlorhexidine and persica on alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction in rats, a randomised controlled trial.

    Dorri, Mojtaba; Shahrabi, Shokufeh; Navabazam, Alireza

    2012-02-01

    Chlorhexidine is broadly prescribed by clinicians for treating extraction socket wounds; however, studies have reported adverse effects for chlorhexidine. Persica, a herbal antibacterial agent, could be an alternative for chlorhexidine. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the effects of persica and chlorhexidine on alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction in rats. Eighteen Wistar rats were randomly allocated to three study groups: 0.2% chlorhexidine, 10% persica and controls (tap water). The rats were mouth-rinsed for 14 days. On day 8, the mandibular right first molars of all the rats were extracted. On day 21, the rats were euthanized and histological slides of their extraction sockets were prepared. The amount of new bone formation and the number of inflammatory cells in the extraction socket for each rat were recorded. Data were analysed using linear regression and Mann-Whitney tests. There was no significant difference between the control group and the intervention groups in terms of new bone formation and inflammatory cell count. The mean new bone formation was significantly higher in the persica group than in the chlorhexidine group. There was a significant association between new bone formation and inflammatory cell count in the entire sample. In conclusion, there were no significant differences between rinsing with tap water and rinsing with 0.2% chlorhexidine and 10% persica in enhancing extraction socket wound healing in rats. Extraction socket wound healing in rats was better enhanced with 10% persica than 0.2% chlorhexidine.

  12. Extraction of essential oils from Algerian myrtle leaves using instant controlled pressure drop technology.

    Berka-Zougali, Baya; Hassani, Aicha; Besombes, Colette; Allaf, Karim

    2010-10-01

    In the present work, the new extraction process of Détente Instantanée Contrôlée DIC (French, for instant controlled pressure drop) was studied, developed, quantitatively and qualitatively compared to the conventional hydrodistillation method for the extraction of essential oils from Algerian myrtle leaves. DIC was used as a thermomechanical treatment, DIC subjecting the product to a high-pressure saturated steam. The DIC cycle ends with an abrupt pressure drop towards vacuum, and this instantly leads to an autovaporization of myrtle volatile compounds. An immediate condensation in the vacuum tank produced a micro-emulsion of water and essential oils. Thus, an ultra-rapid cooling of residual leaves occurred, precluding any thermal degradation. An experimental protocol was designed with 3 independent variables: saturated steam pressure between 0.1 and 0.6 MPa, resulting in a temperature between 100 and 160°C, a total thermal processing time between 19 and 221 s, and between 2 and 6 DIC cycles. The essential oils yield was defined as the main dependent variable. This direct extraction gave high yields and high quality essential oil, as revealed by composition and antioxidant activity (results not shown). After this treatment, the myrtle leaves were recovered and hydrodistilled in order to quantify the essential oil content in residual DIC-treated samples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed some modification of the structure with a slight destruction of cell walls after DIC treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Plant Extract Synthesized PLA Nanoparticles for Controlled and Sustained Release of Quercetin: A Green Approach

    Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background Green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has been extensively carried out by using plant extracts (PEs) which have property of stabilizers/ emulsifiers. To our knowledge, there is no comprehensive study on applying a green approach using PEs for fabrication of biodegradable PLA NPs. Conventional methods rely on molecules like polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, D-alpha-tocopheryl poly(ethylene glycol 1000) succinate as stabilizers/emulsifiers for the synthesis of such biodegradable NPs which are known to be toxic. So, there is urgent need to look for stabilizers which are biogenic and non-toxic. The present study investigated use of PEs as stabilizers/emulsifiers for the fabrication of stable PLA NPs. Synthesized PLA NPs through this green process were explored for controlled release of the well known antioxidant molecule quercetin. Methodology/Principal Findings Stable PLA NPs were synthesized using leaf extracts of medicinally important plants like Syzygium cumini (1), Bauhinia variegata (2), Cedrus deodara (3), Lonicera japonica (4) and Eleaocarpus sphaericus (5). Small and uniformly distributed NPs in the size range 70±30 nm to 143±36 nm were formed with these PEs. To explore such NPs for drugs/ small molecules delivery, we have successfully encapsulated quercetin a lipophilic molecule on a most uniformly distributed PLA-4 NPs synthesized using Lonicera japonica leaf extract. Quercetin loaded PLA-4 NPs were observed for slow and sustained release of quercetin molecule. Conclusions This green approach based on PEs mediated synthesis of stable PLA NPs pave the way for encapsulating drug/small molecules, nutraceuticals and other bioactive ingredients for safer cellular uptake, biodistribution and targeted delivery. Hence, such PEs synthesized PLA NPs would be useful to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of encapsulated small molecules/drugs. Furthermore, different types of plants can be explored for the synthesis of PLA as well as other

  14. Chaos Suppression of an Electrically Actuated Microresonator Based on Fractional-Order Nonsingular Fast Terminal Sliding Mode Control

    Jianxin Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on chaos suppression strategy of a microresonator actuated by two symmetrical electrodes. Dynamic behavior of this system under the case where the origin is the only stable equilibrium is investigated first. Numerical simulations reveal that system may exhibit chaotic motion under certain excitation conditions. Then, bifurcation diagrams versus amplitude or frequency of AC excitation are drawn to grasp system dynamics nearby its natural frequency. Results show that the vibration is complex and may exhibit period-doubling bifurcation, chaotic motion, or dynamic pull-in instability. For the suppression of chaos, a novel control algorithm, based on an integer-order nonsingular fast terminal sliding mode and a fractional-order switching law, is proposed. Fractional Lyapunov Stability Theorem is used to guarantee the asymptotic stability of the system. Finally, numerical results with both fractional-order and integer-order control laws show that our proposed control law is effective in controlling chaos with system uncertainties and external disturbances.

  15. Corrosion control of carbon steel using inhibitor of banana peel extract in acid diluted solutions

    Komalasari; Utami, S. P.; Fermi, M. I.; Aziz, Y.; Irianti, R. S.

    2018-04-01

    Issues of corrosion happened in pipes, it was used as fluid transportation in the chemical industry. Corrosion cannot be preventing, however it could be controlled or blocked. Inhibitor addition is one of the method to control the corrosion inside the pipe. Corrosion inhibitors consisted of inorganic and organic compound inhibitors. Organic inhibitor is composed from synthetic and natural material. This study focused to evaluate the inhibition’s efficiency from banana peel to carbon steel in different concentration of inhibitor and immersing time in acid solution variation. The research employed inhibitor concentration of 0 gram/liter, 2 gram/liter, 4 gram/liter and 6 gram/liter, immersed time of carbon steel for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 hours. It was immersed in chloride acid solution of 0.5 M and 1.5 M. Carbon Steel AISI 4041 was used as specimen steel. Results were analyzed using corrosion rate evaluation for each specimens and inhibitor efficiencies determination. It was found that the specimen without inhibitor yielded fast corrosion rate in long immersing time and high concentration of HCl. However, the specimens with inhibitor gave lowest corrosion rate which was 78.59% for 6 gram/litre and 10 hours in 0.5 M HCl.

  16. Very fast feedback control of coil-current in JT-60 tokamak

    Aoyagi, T.; Terakado, T.; Takahashi, M.; Nobusaka, H.; Yagyu, J.; Matsuzaki, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A direct digital control (DDC) system is adopted for controlling thyristor converters of power supplies in the JT-60 tokamak built in 1984. Microcomputers of the DDC were 5 MHz i8086 microprocessor and programs were written by assembler language and the processing time was under 1ms. They were, however, too old in hardware and too complicated in software. New DDC system has been made in the JT-60 Upgrade (JT-60U) to control the power supplies more quickly under 0.25 and 0.5 ms of the processing time and also to write the programs used by high-level language. The new system consists of a host computer and five microcomputers with microprocessor on VME bus system. The host computer AS3260 performs on-line processing such as setting the DDC under the discharge conditions and so on. Functions of the microcomputers with a 32-bit, 20 MHz microprocessor MC68030, whose OS are VxWorks and programs are written by C language, are real-time processing such as taking in instructions from a ZENKEI computer and in feedback control of currents and voltages of coils every 0.25 and 0.5 ms. The system is now operating very smoothly. (author)

  17. Multispectral UV imaging for fast and non-destructive quality control of chemical and physical tablet attributes

    Klukkert, Marten; Wu, Jian X; Rantanen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of tablet quality attributes in direct vicinity of the production process requires analytical techniques that allow fast, non-destructive, and accurate tablet characterization. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of multispectral UV imaging...... as a reliable, rapid technique for estimation of the tablet API content and tablet hardness, as well as determination of tablet intactness and the tablet surface density profile. One of the aims was to establish an image analysis approach based on multivariate image analysis and pattern recognition to evaluate...... the potential of UV imaging for automatized quality control of tablets with respect to their intactness and surface density profile. Various tablets of different composition and different quality regarding their API content, radial tensile strength, intactness, and surface density profile were prepared using...

  18. Approach to high stability beta limit and its control by fast wave current drive in reversed field pinch plasma

    Kusano, K.; Kondoh, Y.; Gesso, H.; Osanai, Y.; Saito, K.N.; Ukai, R.; Nanba, T.; Nagamine, Y.; Shiina, S.

    2001-01-01

    Before the generation of steady state, dynamo-free RFP configuration by rf current driving scheme, it is necessary to find an optimum configuration into high stability beta limit against m=1 resonant resistive MHD modes and reducing nonlinearly turbulent level with less rf power. As first step to the optimization study, we are interested in partially relaxed state model (PRSM) RFP configuration, which is considered to be closer to a relaxed state at finite beta since it has force-free fields for poloidal direction with a relatively shorter characteristic length of relaxation and a relatively higher stability beta limit to m=1 resonant ideal MHD modes. The stability beta limit to m=1 resonant resistive MHD modes can be predicted to be relatively high among other RFP models and to be enhanced by the current density profile control using fast magnetosonic waves (FMW), which are accessible to high density region with strong absorption rate. (author)

  19. Universal real-time control framework and Internet of Things for fast-paced research and development based production environments

    Chaoui, Hicham

    2017-05-13

    This paper introduces a universal real-time control platform for complex research and development (R&D) based products design. The inherent complexity in R&D projects makes products development a difficult task to undertake. The use of state of the art development tools for modeling, simulation, and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) validation contributes to a complexity reduction. However, R&D projects still require significant development time since many design iterations are usually necessary before final solution, which increases the cost. In most R&D processes, these tools are not used beyond rapid prototyping since development for mass production is usually performed in another environment, using different tools. This paper presents a fast and cost effective way of R&D-based products development, speeding-up time to market.

  20. Microwave phase shifter with controllable power response based on slow- and fast-light effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    Xue, Weiqi; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, José; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-04-01

    We suggest and experimentally demonstrate a method for increasing the tunable rf phase shift of semiconductor waveguides while at the same time enabling control of the rf power. This method is based on the use of slow- and fast-light effects in a cascade of semiconductor optical amplifiers combined with the use of spectral filtering to enhance the role of refractive index dynamics. A continuously tunable phase shift of approximately 240 degrees at a microwave frequency of 19 GHz is demonstrated in a cascade of two semiconductor optical amplifiers, while maintaining an rf power change of less than 1.6 dB. The technique is scalable to more amplifiers and should allow realization of an rf phase shift of 360 degrees.

  1. Universal real-time control framework and Internet of Things for fast-paced research and development based production environments

    Chaoui, Hicham; Aljarboua, Abdullah Abdulaziz; Miah, Suruz

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a universal real-time control platform for complex research and development (R&D) based products design. The inherent complexity in R&D projects makes products development a difficult task to undertake. The use of state of the art development tools for modeling, simulation, and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) validation contributes to a complexity reduction. However, R&D projects still require significant development time since many design iterations are usually necessary before final solution, which increases the cost. In most R&D processes, these tools are not used beyond rapid prototyping since development for mass production is usually performed in another environment, using different tools. This paper presents a fast and cost effective way of R&D-based products development, speeding-up time to market.

  2. The improvement of control rod in experimental fast reactor JOYO. The development of a sodium bonded type control rod

    Soga, T.; Miyakawa, S.; Mitsugi, T. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai Engineering Center, Irradiation Center, Irradiation and Administration Section, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Currently, the lifetime of control rods in JOYO is limited by Absorber-Cladding Mechanical Interaction (ACMI) due to swelling of B{sub 4}C(boron carbide) pellets accelerated by relocation of pellet fragments. A sodium bonded type control rod was developed which improves the thermal conductivity by means of charging sodium into the gap between B{sub 4}C and cladding and by utilizing a shroud which wraps the pellet fragments in a thin tube. This new design will be able to enlarge the gap between B{sub 4}C and cladding, without heating B{sub 4}C or fragment relocation, thus extending the life of the control rod. The sodium bonded type will be fabricated as the ninth reload control rods in JOYO. (1) The specification of a sodium bonded type control rod was determined with the wide gap between B{sub 4}C and cladding. In the design simulation, main component temperature were below the maximum limit. And the local heating by helium bubble generated from B{sub 4}C in the sodium gap, was not a serious problem in the analysis which was considered. (2) A structural design for the sodium entrance into the pin was determined. A formula was developed which the limit for sodium charging given physical dimension of the structure and sodium property. Result from sodium out-pile experiments validated the theoretical formula. (3) The analysis of ACMI indicated a lifetime extension of the sodium bonded type by 4.6% in comparison with lifetime of the helium bonded type of 1.6%. This is due to the boron10 burn-up rate being three times higher in the sodium bonded type than in the helium bonded type. To achieve a target burn-up 10% in the future, it will be necessary to modify design based on irradiation data which will be obtained by practical use of the sodium bonded control rods in JOYO. (4) The effects due to Absorber-Cladding Chemical Interaction (ACCI) were reduced by controlling the cladding temperature and chromium coating to the cladding's inner surface. It was confirmed

  3. Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study.

    Schellenberg, R

    2001-01-20

    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of agnus castus fruit (Vitex agnus castus L extract Ze 440) with placebo for women with the premenstrual syndrome. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group comparison over three menstrual cycles. General medicine community clinics. 178 women were screened and 170 were evaluated (active 86; placebo 84). Mean age was 36 years, mean cycle length was 28 days, mean duration of menses was 4.5 days. Agnus castus (dry extract tablets) one tablet daily or matching placebo, given for three consecutive cycles. Main efficacy variable: change from baseline to end point (end of third cycle) in women's self assessment of irritability, mood alteration, anger, headache, breast fullness, and other menstrual symptoms including bloating. Secondary efficacy variables: changes in clinical global impression (severity of condition, global improvement, and risk or benefit) and responder rate (50% reduction in symptoms). Improvement in the main variable was greater in the active group compared with placebo group (Pagnus castus fruit is an effective and well tolerated treatment for the relief of symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome.

  4. USE OF METHYL EUGENOL SOLUTION AND RED GUAVA EXTRACT FOR FRUIT FLY CONTROL

    Sulistiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the constraints increase fruit production in Indonesia is the fruit fly pests. The introduction of fruit fly pest attack prevention using attractant methyl eugenol is considered expensive and troublesome. Therefore, researchers are interested in doing this experiment. Objective: (1 determine the volume of a solution of methyl eugenol most appropriate in the fruit fly trap to get optimum results. (2 determine the most appropriate time of application. Conducted experiments using attractant methyl eugenol is mixed into the guava fruit extract. Research conducted in the guava orchard belonging to farmers in the village Sumberagung, Jetis, Bantul begins July through September 2015. The research used randomized block design factorial design with two treatment factors. The first factor is the concentration of the solution Petrogenol which consists of three levels, repeated five times. Data were analyzed by F test, if they depict real effect, continued treatment mean comparison test using HSD test at five percent level. Conclusions (1 The solution Methyl eugenol is a fruit fly attractant potential in the control of fruit flies in the crop guava. (2 The concentration of Methyl eugenol 0.60 ml per 100 ml guava fruit extract with the application time of 10 days is more effective to trap fruit flies in guava crop

  5. Controlling fusarium wilt disease in melon(cucumis melo L.) using tilllered onion bulb extract

    Yushu, Z.; Guo, Q.; Xuezheng, W.; Yanan, Z.; Yuting, Li.

    2017-01-01

    Melon wilt disease is a soil-borne disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. This disease incur of the heavy economic loss in melon crops. To decrease damage to melons, many control methods have been developed. However, many of the current control methods have limitations and disadvantages. For example, fungicides may cause health concerns for both humans and the environment due to high toxin content and the presence of residues. Therefore, biological control methods that reduce or eliminate the risk of environmental contamination and threats to human health are urgently needed to solve these issues and to protect melon crops from wilt disease.In this research, we assessed the efficacy of tillered onion bulb extract (TOE) for biocontrol of melon wilt disease in melon. Different concentrations of the TOE have been shown to have inhibitory effects on Fusariumspore germination and growth, pathogenic bacterial biomass, and fungal sporulation, with increased inhibitory effects at higher TOE concentrations. In melon wilt disease, concentrations of TOE greater than 250 mg/mL produced the highest protective effects in both susceptible and resistant melon cultivars. The disease index in resistant varieties was 18%, and the disease control effect was 63.51%, while the disease index in susceptible varieties was 21.41%, and the disease control effect reached 65.96%. These values indicate stronger control effects than those achieved using 40% Ning WP melon blight. High concentrations (over 500 mg/mL) of TOE had strong inhibitory effects on melon seed germination and the activity of protective enzymes in melon cultivars. (author)

  6. Conductive polymer nanotube patch for fast and controlled ex vivo transdermal drug delivery.

    Nguyen, Thao M; Lee, Sebin; Lee, Sang Bok

    2014-10-01

    To uptake and release hydrophilic model drugs and insulin in a novel conductive polymer (CP) nanotube transdermal patch. The externally controlled transdermal delivery of model drugs and insulin were tested ex vivo and results were compared with CP films. The unique intrinsic properties of CPs provide electrostatic interaction between the model drugs and polymer backbone. When a pulsed potential was applied, the drug delivery release profile mimics that of injection delivery. With a constant potential applied, the release rate constants of the patch system were up to three-times faster than the control (0 V) and released approximately 80% more drug molecules over 24 h. The CP nanotube transdermal patch represents a new and promising drug method, specifically for hydrophilic molecules, which have been a large obstacle for conventional transdermal drug delivery systems.

  7. LHCb: Fast Readout Control for the upgraded readout architecture of the LHCb experiment at CERN

    Alessio, F

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at CERN has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity with an upgraded LHCb detector. As a consequence, the various LHCb sub-systems in the readout architecture will be upgraded to cope with higher sub-detector occupancies, higher rate, and higher readout load. The new architecture, new functionalities, and the first hardware implementation of a new LHCb Readout Control system (commonly referred to as S-TFC) for the upgraded LHCb experiment is here presented. Our attention is focused in describing solutions for the distribution of clock and timing information to control the entire upgraded readout architecture by profiting of a bidirectional optical network and powerful FPGAs, including a real-time mechanism to synchronize the entire system. Solutions and implementations are presented, together with first results on the simulation and the validation of the system.

  8. A Usages of Herb Extracts by Stream Integrated with Micro-organism to Control Insect Pests and Phytophagus Mites by Biological Control

    Uraisakul, Kanok [Rajamangala University of Technology Suvarnabhumi Phranakhonsiayathaya, Hantra Campus, Phranakhonsiayathaya (Thailand); Piadang, Nattaya [Office of Atoms for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2006-09-15

    A usages of herb extracts by stream integrated rith micro-organism to control insect pests and phytophagus mites by biological control was compared with insecticide to investigate the responses of chili tree and kieffer lime tree. Moreover, herb extracts were tested in controlling insect pests. Herb extracts were selected from many effective kinds such as: Azadirachta indica, Hyptis suaveolens, Citronella grass, Eucalyptus, Stemona, Galangal, Zingiber, cassumunar Roxb. Chronmolaena oderatum, Derris elyptica, Ginger, Annona seed, Malueraca sp., Andrographis paniculata, Veronia aquarrosa, Garlic, Thevetia peruviana, and Tobacco. The experiment was set at Herb Laboratory Ayutthaya Campus, Rajamangala University of Technology, Suvarnabhumi during August 2004 to June 2006. From testing herb extracts at 100 ppm. On Chili germination, the result was that the Chromolaena extracts made highest germination of 69.50%, Citronella grass at 500 ppm., made highest germination of chili seed at 86.00% within 12 days. Garlic extracts could kill 75.90% of aphids in 24 hrs., maximized in this experiments. Malueraca extracts at 500 ppm. Could kill 92.65% of chili aphids similar to the activity of insecticides action in 24 hrs. However at 5,000 ppm. It found that chemical treatment gave difference results from herbal treatments. Annona extracts could kill 64.58% of chili aphids better that others treatments. There are 18 treatment of time at 6 hrs. , 15 hrs., and 24 hrs., respectively. The results found that at 6 hrs., Kelthane could kill 93.75% of red spider mite. At 15 hrs. Stemona could kill 95.50% of red spider mite. At 24 hrs. Stemona or Chromolaena could kill 100% of red spider mite equally, Chrolaena could kill more than 83% of chili thrips at 24 hrs. Annona extracts could harvest the maximum of fruit fresh weight and numbers of fruits. After cutting leaves for producing new leaves, spraying herbal extracts was not different in statistic; however, Eucalyptus extracts, Neem plus

  9. A Usages of Herb Extracts by Stream Integrated with Micro-organism to Control Insect Pests and Phytophagus Mites by Biological Control

    Uraisakul, Kanok; Piadang, Nattaya

    2006-09-01

    A usages of herb extracts by stream integrated rith micro-organism to control insect pests and phytophagus mites by biological control was compared with insecticide to investigate the responses of chili tree and kieffer lime tree. Moreover, herb extracts were tested in controlling insect pests. Herb extracts were selected from many effective kinds such as: Azadirachta indica, Hyptis suaveolens, Citronella grass, Eucalyptus, Stemona, Galangal, Zingiber, cassumunar Roxb. Chronmolaena oderatum, Derris elyptica, Ginger, Annona seed, Malueraca sp., Andrographis paniculata, Veronia aquarrosa, Garlic, Thevetia peruviana, and Tobacco. The experiment was set at Herb Laboratory Ayutthaya Campus, Rajamangala University of Technology, Suvarnabhumi during August 2004 to June 2006. From testing herb extracts at 100 ppm. On Chili germination, the result was that the Chromolaena extracts made highest germination of 69.50%, Citronella grass at 500 ppm., made highest germination of chili seed at 86.00% within 12 days. Garlic extracts could kill 75.90% of aphids in 24 hrs., maximized in this experiments. Malueraca extracts at 500 ppm. Could kill 92.65% of chili aphids similar to the activity of insecticides action in 24 hrs. However at 5,000 ppm. It found that chemical treatment gave difference results from herbal treatments. Annona extracts could kill 64.58% of chili aphids better that others treatments. There are 18 treatment of time at 6 hrs. , 15 hrs., and 24 hrs., respectively. The results found that at 6 hrs., Kelthane could kill 93.75% of red spider mite. At 15 hrs. Stemona could kill 95.50% of red spider mite. At 24 hrs. Stemona or Chromolaena could kill 100% of red spider mite equally, Chrolaena could kill more than 83% of chili thrips at 24 hrs. Annona extracts could harvest the maximum of fruit fresh weight and numbers of fruits. After cutting leaves for producing new leaves, spraying herbal extracts was not different in statistic; however, Eucalyptus extracts, Neem plus

  10. Dark chocolate or tomato extract for prehypertension: a randomised controlled trial

    Frank Oliver R

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flavanol-rich chocolate and lycopene-rich tomato extract have attracted interest as potential alternative treatment options for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Treatment of prehypertension (SBP 120–139/DBP 80–89 mmHg may forestall progression to hypertension. However, there has been only limited research into non-pharmacological treatment options for prehypertension. We investigated the effect of dark chocolate or tomato extract on blood pressure, and their acceptability as an ongoing treatment option in a prehypertensive population. Methods Our trial consisted of two phases: a randomised controlled three-group-parallel trial over 12 weeks (phase 1 followed by a crossover of the two active treatment arms over an additional 12-week period (phase 2. Group 1 received a 50 g daily dose of dark chocolate with 70% cocoa containing 750 mg polyphenols, group 2 were allocated one tomato extract capsule containing 15 mg lycopene per day, and group 3 received one placebo capsule daily over 8 weeks followed by a 4-week washout period. In phase 2 the active treatment groups were crossed over to receive the alternative treatment. Median blood pressure, weight, and abdominal circumference were measured 4-weekly, and other characteristics including physical activity, general health, energy, mood, and acceptability of treatment were assessed by questionnaire at 0, 8 and 20 weeks. We analysed changes over time using a linear mixed model, and one time point differences using Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher's-Exact, or t-tests. Results Thirty-six prehypertensive healthy adult volunteers completed the 6-month trial. Blood pressure changes over time within groups and between groups were not significant and independent of treatment. Weight and other characteristics did not change significantly during the trial. However, a marked difference in acceptability between the two treatment forms (chocolate or

  11. Dark chocolate or tomato extract for prehypertension: a randomised controlled trial.

    Ried, Karin; Frank, Oliver R; Stocks, Nigel P

    2009-07-08

    Flavanol-rich chocolate and lycopene-rich tomato extract have attracted interest as potential alternative treatment options for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Treatment of prehypertension (SBP 120-139/DBP 80-89 mmHg) may forestall progression to hypertension. However, there has been only limited research into non-pharmacological treatment options for prehypertension. We investigated the effect of dark chocolate or tomato extract on blood pressure, and their acceptability as an ongoing treatment option in a prehypertensive population. Our trial consisted of two phases: a randomised controlled three-group-parallel trial over 12 weeks (phase 1) followed by a crossover of the two active treatment arms over an additional 12-week period (phase 2). Group 1 received a 50 g daily dose of dark chocolate with 70% cocoa containing 750 mg polyphenols, group 2 were allocated one tomato extract capsule containing 15 mg lycopene per day, and group 3 received one placebo capsule daily over 8 weeks followed by a 4-week washout period. In phase 2 the active treatment groups were crossed over to receive the alternative treatment. Median blood pressure, weight, and abdominal circumference were measured 4-weekly, and other characteristics including physical activity, general health, energy, mood, and acceptability of treatment were assessed by questionnaire at 0, 8 and 20 weeks. We analysed changes over time using a linear mixed model, and one time point differences using Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher's-Exact, or t-tests. Thirty-six prehypertensive healthy adult volunteers completed the 6-month trial. Blood pressure changes over time within groups and between groups were not significant and independent of treatment. Weight and other characteristics did not change significantly during the trial. However, a marked difference in acceptability between the two treatment forms (chocolate or capsule) was revealed (p chocolate treatment found it hard to

  12. Oxygen-to-metal ratio control during fabrication of mixed oxide fast breeder reactor fuel pellets

    Rasmussen, D.E.; Benecke, M.W.; Jentzen, W.R.; McCord, R.B.

    1979-05-01

    Oxygen-to-metal ratio (O/M) of mixed oxide fuel pellets can be controlled during fabrication by proper selection of binder (type and content) and sintering conditions. Sintering condition adjustments involved the passing of Ar--8% H 2 sintering gas across a cryostat ice bath controlled to temperatures ranging from -5 to -60 0 C to control as-sintered pellet O/M ratio. As-sintered fuel pellet O/M decreased with increasing Sterotex binder and PuO 2 concentrations, increasing sintering temperature, and decreasing sintering gas dew point. Approximate relationships between Sterotex binder level and O/M were established for PuO 2 --UO 2 and PuO 2 --ThO 2 fuels. O/M was relatively insensitive to Carbowax binder concentration. Several methods of increasing O/M using post-sintering pellet heat treatments were demonstrated, with the most reliable being a two-step process of first raising the O/M to 2.00 (stoichiometric) at 650 0 C in Ar--8% H 2 bubbled through H 2 O, followed by hydrogen reduction to specification O/M in oxygen-gettered Ar-8% H 2 at temperatures ranging from 1200 to 1690 0 C

  13. Fast attainment of computer cursor control with noninvasively acquired brain signals

    Bradberry, Trent J.; Gentili, Rodolphe J.; Contreras-Vidal, José L.

    2011-06-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are allowing humans and non-human primates to drive prosthetic devices such as computer cursors and artificial arms with just their thoughts. Invasive BCI systems acquire neural signals with intracranial or subdural electrodes, while noninvasive BCI systems typically acquire neural signals with scalp electroencephalography (EEG). Some drawbacks of invasive BCI systems are the inherent risks of surgery and gradual degradation of signal integrity. A limitation of noninvasive BCI systems for two-dimensional control of a cursor, in particular those based on sensorimotor rhythms, is the lengthy training time required by users to achieve satisfactory performance. Here we describe a novel approach to continuously decoding imagined movements from EEG signals in a BCI experiment with reduced training time. We demonstrate that, using our noninvasive BCI system and observational learning, subjects were able to accomplish two-dimensional control of a cursor with performance levels comparable to those of invasive BCI systems. Compared to other studies of noninvasive BCI systems, training time was substantially reduced, requiring only a single session of decoder calibration (~20 min) and subject practice (~20 min). In addition, we used standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography to reveal that the neural sources that encoded observed cursor movement may implicate a human mirror neuron system. These findings offer the potential to continuously control complex devices such as robotic arms with one's mind without lengthy training or surgery.

  14. Operator care and eco-concerned development of a fast, facile and economical assay for basic nitrogenous drugs based on simplified ion-pair mini-scale extraction using safer solvent combined with drop-based spectrophotometry.

    Plianwong, Samarwadee; Sripattanaporn, Areerut; Waewsa-nga, Kwanrutai; Buacheen, Parin; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak

    2012-08-30

    A fast, facile, and economical assay for basic nitrogenous drugs has been developed based on the mini-scale extraction of the drug-dye ion pair complex combined with the use of safe-for-analyst and eco-friendlier organic extractant and drop-based micro-spectrophotometry. Instead of using large volume devices, the extraction was simply carried out in typical 1.5 mL microcentrifuge tubes along with the use of micropipettes for accurate transfer of liquids, vortex mixer for efficient partitioning of solutes and benchtop centrifuge for rapid phase separation. In the last step, back-extraction was performed by using the microvolume of acidic solution in order to concentrate the colored species into a confined aqueous microdrop and to keep the analyst away from unwanted contact and inhalation of organic solvents during the quantitation step which was achieved by using cuvetteless UV-vis micro-spectrophotometry without any prior dilutions. Using chlorpheniramine maleate as a representative analyte and n-butyl acetate as a less toxic and non-ozone depleting extractant, the miniaturized method was less laborious and much faster. It was accurate, precise and insensitive to the interferences from common excipients. Notably, it gave the assay results of drug in tablets and oral solution comparable to the large-scale pharmacopeial method while the consumption of organic solvents and the release of wastes were lowered by 200-400 folds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance Improvement for Two-Stage Single-Phase Grid-Connected Converters Using a Fast DC Bus Control Scheme and a Novel Synchronous Frame Current Controller

    Bingzhang Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Two-stage single-phase grid-connected converters are widely used in renewable energy applications. Due to the presence of a second harmonic ripple across the DC bus voltage, it is very challenging to design the DC bus voltage control scheme in single-phase grid-connected inverters. The DC bus voltage controller must filter the ripple and balance a tradeoff between low harmonic distortion and high bandwidth. This paper presents a fast DC bus voltage controller, which uses a second order digital finite impulse response (FIR notch filter in conjunction with input power feedforward scheme to ensure the steady-state and dynamic performance. To gain the input power without extra hardware, a Kalman filter is incorporated to estimate the DC bus input current. At the same time, a modulation compensation strategy is implemented to eliminate the nonlinearity of the grid current control loop, which is caused by the DC bus voltage ripple. Moreover, a novel synchronous frame current controller for single-phase systems is also introduced, and its equivalent model in stationary frame has been derived. Simulation and experimental results are provided to verify the effective of the proposed control scheme.

  16. Application of Fungicides and Microalgal Phenolic Extracts for the Direct Control of Fumonisin Contamination in Maize.

    Scaglioni, Priscila Tessmer; Blandino, Massimo; Scarpino, Valentina; Giordano, Debora; Testa, Giulio; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2018-05-16

    Fungicides and, for the first time, microalgal phenolic extracts (MPE) from Spirulina sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. were applied on maize culture media under field conditions to evaluate their ability to minimize Fusarium species development and fumonisin production. An in vitro assay against F. verticillioides was carried out using maize grains as the culture medium. An open-field experiment was carried out in Northwest Italy under natural infection conditions. The compared treatments were factorial combinations of two insecticide treatments (an untreated control and pyrethroid, used against European Corn Borer), four antifungal treatments (an untreated control, MPE from Spirulina sp., MPE from Nannochloropsis sp., and a synthetic fungicide), and two timings of the application of the antifungal compounds (at maize flowering and at the milk stage). The MPE compounds were capable of inhibiting fumonisin production in vitro more efficiently than tebuconazole. Insecticide application reduced the infection by Fusarium species and subsequent fumonisin contamination. However, fumonisins in maize fields were not significantly controlled by either fungicide or MPE application.

  17. Control of sleep-to-wake transitions via fast amino acid and slow neuropeptide transmission

    Mosqueiro, Thiago; Lecea, Luis de; Huerta, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC) modulates cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, brainstem and spinal cord circuits and it expresses receptors for neuromodulators that operate on a time scale of several seconds. Evidence from anatomical, electrophysiological and optogenetic experiments has shown that LC neurons receive input from a group of neurons called hypocretin neurons that release a neuropeptide called hypocretin. It is less well known how these two groups of neurons can be coregulated using GABAergic (GABA standing for gamma aminobutyric acid) neurons. As the time scale for GABA A inhibition is several orders of magnitude faster than that for the hypocretin neuropeptide effect, we investigate the limits of circuit activity regulation using a realistic model of neurons. Our investigation shows that GABA A inhibition is insufficient to control the activity levels of the LCs. Although slower forms of GABA A can in principle work, there is not much plausibility due to the low probability of the presence of slow GABA A and lack of robust stability at the maximum firing frequencies. The best possible control mechanism predicted by our modeling analysis is the presence of inhibitory neuropeptides, which exert effects on a similar time scale to the hypocretin/orexin. Although the nature of these inhibitory neuropeptides has not been identified yet, it provides the most efficient mechanism in the modeling analysis. Finally, we present a reduced mean-field model that perfectly captures the dynamics and the phenomena generated by this circuit. This investigation shows that brain communication involving multiple time scales can be better controlled by employing orthogonal mechanisms of neural transmission to decrease interference between cognitive processes and hypothalamic functions. (paper)

  18. Numerical solution of the state-delayed optimal control problems by a fast and accurate finite difference θ-method

    Hajipour, Mojtaba; Jajarmi, Amin

    2018-02-01

    Using the Pontryagin's maximum principle for a time-delayed optimal control problem results in a system of coupled two-point boundary-value problems (BVPs) involving both time-advance and time-delay arguments. The analytical solution of this advance-delay two-point BVP is extremely difficult, if not impossible. This paper provides a discrete general form of the numerical solution for the derived advance-delay system by applying a finite difference θ-method. This method is also implemented for the infinite-time horizon time-delayed optimal control problems by using a piecewise version of the θ-method. A matrix formulation and the error analysis of the suggested technique are provided. The new scheme is accurate, fast and very effective for the optimal control of linear and nonlinear time-delay systems. Various types of finite- and infinite-time horizon problems are included to demonstrate the accuracy, validity and applicability of the new technique.

  19. Adenosine A2A Receptors Control Glutamatergic Synaptic Plasticity in Fast Spiking Interneurons of the Prefrontal Cortex

    Amber Kerkhofs

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR are activated upon increased synaptic activity to assist in the implementation of long-term plastic changes at synapses. While it is reported that A2AR are involved in the control of prefrontal cortex (PFC-dependent behavior such as working memory, reversal learning and effort-based decision making, it is not known whether A2AR control glutamatergic synapse plasticity within the medial PFC (mPFC. To elucidate that, we tested whether A2AR blockade affects long-term plasticity (LTP of excitatory post-synaptic potentials in pyramidal neurons and fast spiking (FS interneurons in layer 5 of the mPFC and of population spikes. Our results show that A2AR are enriched at mPFC synapses, where their blockade reversed the direction of plasticity at excitatory synapses onto layer 5 FS interneurons from LTP to long-term depression, while their blockade had no effect on the induction of LTP at excitatory synapses onto layer 5 pyramidal neurons. At the network level, extracellularly induced LTP of population spikes was reduced by A2AR blockade. The interneuron-specificity of A2AR in controlling glutamatergic synapse LTP may ensure that during periods of high synaptic activity, a proper excitation/inhibition balance is maintained within the mPFC.

  20. Effectivity of Musa paradisiaca extract to control Saprolegnia sp. infection on giant gourami larvae

    Sri Nuryati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Larval stage of giant gourami is a critical period due to fungal infection, such as Saprolegnia sp. infection. There are some plants which have antiseptic compound like banana Musa paradisiaca. This research was aimed to examine the effectiveness of the banana stem extract M. paradisiaca to control Saprolegnia sp. infection on giant gurami larvae through immersion. Eight-day old gorami larvae (at the initial of 0.5±0.03 cm was reared in an aquarium sized 25×25×25 cm3 at the density of 8 fry/L. Culture media were added banana stem extract at the dose of 0; 0.08; 0.12; and 0.16 g/L during 21 days of rearing period. Challenge test was performed for 14 days by giving Saprolegnia sp. spores at the density of 104 cells/mL and banana stem extract. The treatment dose of 0.16 g/L has showen survival 100% than positive control  after the challenge test. Keywords: giant gourami, Musa paradisiaca, Saprolegnia sp., fry  ABSTRAK Fase larva ikan gurami merupakan masa kritis terhadap infeksi cendawan, seperti jenis Saprolegnia sp. Beberapa tanaman memiliki daya antiseptik seperti tanaman pisang ambon Musa paradisiaca. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efektivitas ekstrak batang pisang ambon M. paradisiaca dalam mengurangi infeksi Saprolegnia sp. pada larva ikan gurami melalui media pemeliharaan. Larva gurami umur delapan hari (panjang larva 0,5+0,03 cm dipelihara pada akuarium berukuran 25×25×25 cm3 dengan padat tebar 8 ekor/L. Media pemeliharaan diberi ekstrak batang pisang ambon dosis 0; 0,08; 0,12; dan 0,16 g/L selama 21 hari. Uji tantang dilakukan selama 14 hari dengan pemberian spora Saprolegnia sp. kepadatan 104 sel/mL dan ekstrak batang pisang ambon. Perlakuan dosis 0,16 g/L memberikan kelangsungan hidup sebesar 100% yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan perlakuan kontrol positif setelah uji tantang. Kata kunci: giant gourami, Musa paradisiaca, Saprolegnia sp., larva

  1. Radiological safety in extraction of rare earths in India: regulatory control

    Sinha, S.; Bhattacharya, R.

    2011-01-01

    The term 'rare earths' refers to a group of f-block elements in the periodic table including those with atomic numbers 57 (Lanthanum) to 71 (Lutetium), as well as the transition metals Yttrium (39) and Scandium (21). Economically extractable concentrations of rare earths are found in minerals such as monazite, bastnaesite, cerites, xenotime etc. Of these, monazite forms the main source for rare earths in India, which along with other heavy minerals is found abundantly in the coastal beach sands. However, in addition to rare earths, monazite also contains 0.35% U 3 O 8 and 8-9% ThO 2 . Hence, extraction of rare earths involves chemical separation of the rare earths from thorium and uranium which are radioactive. The processing and extraction of rare earths from monazite therefore invariably results in occupational radiation exposure to the workers involved in these operations. In addition, in the process of removal of radioactivity from rare earths, radioactive solid waste gets generated which has 2 2 8Ra concentration in the range 2000-5000 Bq/g. Unregulated disposal of such high active waste would not only result in contamination of the soil but the radionuclides would eventually enter the food chain and lead to internal exposure of the general public. Therefore such facilities involved in recovery of rare earths from monazite attract the provisions of radiological safety regulations. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board of India has been enforcing the provisions of The Atomic Energy (Radiation Protection) Rules, 2004 and The Atomic Energy (Safe Disposal of Radioactive Waste) Rules, 1987 in these facilities. This paper shall discuss the associated radiological hazard involved in recovery of rare earths from monazite. It shall also highlight the regulatory requirements for controlling the occupational exposure of workers during design stage such as requirements on lay out of the building, ventilation, containment of radioactivity, etc and also the during operational

  2. Conductive polymer nanotube patch for fast and controlled in vivo transdermal drug delivery

    Nguyen, Thao M.

    Transdermal drug delivery has created new applications for existing therapies and offered an alternative to the traditional oral route where drugs can prematurely metabolize in the liver causing adverse side effects. Opening the transdermal delivery route to large hydrophilic drugs is one of the greatest challenges due to the hydrophobicity of the skin. However, the ability to deliver hydrophilic drugs using a transdermal patch would provide a solution to problems of other delivery methods for hydrophilic drugs. The switching of conductive polymers (CP) between redox states cause simultaneous changes in the polymer charge, conductivity, and volume—properties that can all be exploited in the biomedical field of controlled drug delivery. Using the template synthesis method, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) nanotubes were synthesized electrochemically and a transdermal drug delivery patch was successfully designed and developed. In vitro and in vivo uptake and release of hydrophilic drugs were investigated. The relationship between the strength of the applied potential and rate of drug release were also investigated. Results revealed that the strength of the applied potential is proportional to the rate of drug release; therefore one can control the rate of drug release by controlling the applied potential. The in vitro studies focused on the kinetics of the drug delivery system. It was determined that the drug released mainly followed zero-order kinetics. In addition, it was determined that applying a releasing potential to the transdermal drug delivery system lead to a higher release rate constant (up to 7 times greater) over an extended period of time (˜24h). In addition, over 24 hours, an average of 80% more model drug molecules were released with an applied potential than without. The in vivo study showed that the drug delivery system was capable of delivering model hydrophilic drugs molecules through the dermis layer of the skin within 30 minutes

  3. A fast transient response low dropout regulator with current control methodology

    Ma Zhuo; Guo Yang; Duan Zhikui; Xie Lunguo; Chen Jihua; Yu Jinshan, E-mail: guoyang@nudt.edu.cn [School of Computer, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2011-08-15

    A transient performance optimized CCL-LDO regulator is proposed. In the CCL-LDO, the control method of the charge pump phase-locked loop is adopted. A current control loop has the feedback signal and reference current to be compared, and then a loop filter generates the gate voltage of the power MOSFET by integrating the error current. The CCL-LDO has the optimized damping coefficient and natural resonant frequency, while its output voltage can be sub-1-V and is not restricted by the reference voltage. With a 1 {mu}F decoupling capacitor, the experimental results based on a 0.13 {mu}m CMOS process show that the output voltage is 1.0 V; when the workload changes from 100 {mu}A to 100 mA transiently, the stable dropout is 4.25 mV, the settling time is 8.2 {mu}s and the undershoot is 5.11 mV; when the workload changes from 100 mA to 100 {mu}A transiently, the stable dropout is 4.25 mV, the settling time is 23.3 {mu}s and the overshoot is 6.21 mV. The PSRR value is more than -95 dB. Most of the attributes of the CCL-LDO are improved rapidly with a FOM value of 0.0097.

  4. A fast transient response low dropout regulator with current control methodology

    Ma Zhuo; Guo Yang; Duan Zhikui; Xie Lunguo; Chen Jihua; Yu Jinshan

    2011-01-01

    A transient performance optimized CCL-LDO regulator is proposed. In the CCL-LDO, the control method of the charge pump phase-locked loop is adopted. A current control loop has the feedback signal and reference current to be compared, and then a loop filter generates the gate voltage of the power MOSFET by integrating the error current. The CCL-LDO has the optimized damping coefficient and natural resonant frequency, while its output voltage can be sub-1-V and is not restricted by the reference voltage. With a 1 μF decoupling capacitor, the experimental results based on a 0.13 μm CMOS process show that the output voltage is 1.0 V; when the workload changes from 100 μA to 100 mA transiently, the stable dropout is 4.25 mV, the settling time is 8.2 μs and the undershoot is 5.11 mV; when the workload changes from 100 mA to 100 μA transiently, the stable dropout is 4.25 mV, the settling time is 23.3 μs and the overshoot is 6.21 mV. The PSRR value is more than -95 dB. Most of the attributes of the CCL-LDO are improved rapidly with a FOM value of 0.0097.

  5. Remote control air sampling and fast chemical analysis of the composition

    Kukuczka, A; Golisz, T

    1981-01-01

    In 1979 the Central mine rescue station in Bytom (Poland) developed and introduced into use a new method of remote control air and gas (from fires) sampling and swift chemical analysis of the samples' composition. The device in this method includes: a probe (situated beyond the fire detector directly in the control zone), thick-walled elastic hose, direr, piston pump, rotameter, chromatograph and minicomputer. The basic technical data included in the set: the capacity of the pump 8 1/min, 2.5 kg mass. run on 12 V current (built at the Main Mining Affairs Inst. in Poland); the chromatograph is VARIAN 1420-10 (USA produced),the working gas is helium (balloon volume 40 1), feed--alternating 220V, capacity--1.5 kW, time for measuring gas from fires-- 15 to 20 min (as apposed to the 1.5h spent before when the SRC device was being used) at an accuracy of /sup + -/ 0.05% (volume); the chromatograph works with a mini-computer (model CDS-111C) with a 20 kg mass.and a size of 16 x 46 x 56 cm. As tests in Moszczenica coal mines, where a fire in 504/2 occurred, showed (the chromatograph was located 750m from the probe for burning gases), the method proved to be a good one although the VARIAN 1420-10 was insufficiently reliable and the VARIAN-1400-AEROGRAF proved to be better.

  6. Easy, fast and environmental friendly method for the simultaneous extraction of the 16 EPA PAHs using magnetic molecular imprinted polymers (mag-MIPs).

    Villar-Navarro, Mercedes; Martín-Valero, María Jesús; Fernández-Torres, Rut Maria; Callejón-Mochón, Manuel; Bello-López, Miguel Ángel

    2017-02-15

    An easy and environmental friendly method, based on the use of magnetic molecular imprinted polymers (mag-MIPs) is proposed for the simultaneous extraction of the 16 U.S. EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) priority pollutants. The mag-MIPs based extraction protocol is simple, more sensitive and low organic solvent consuming compared to official methods and also adequate for those PAHs more retained in the particulate matter. The new proposed extraction method followed by HPLC determination has been validated and applied to different types of water samples: tap water, river water, lake water and mineral water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Extracts of Caesalpinia ferrea and Trichoderma sp. on the control of Colletotrichum sp. transmission in Sideroxylon obtusifolium seeds

    P.A.F.R. MELO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recent research reports the importance of preserving plants in Brazilian semiarid regions, in this context, the scientific literature has reported different pharmacological studies from plant extracts with an antifungal potential, coming from forest species that can contribute as a control and management strategy in the transmission of phytopathogens. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of biotech treatments in controlling the transmission of Colletotrichum sp. in seeds of S. obtusifolium. In this study, 100 seeds were subjected to the following preventive treatments: fungicide Captan®, extract of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. Ex. Tul., and biological control with Trichoderma spp. The biological control with Trichoderma spp. and the alternative control using C. ferrea extract provided a greater protection to seeds and seedlings of S. obtusifolium facing the transmissibility of Colletotrichum sp.The treatment based on plant extract is more efficient for this purpose only in large seeds and does not interfere on the germination percentage and speed. Therefore it is necessary to perform other studies with Trichoderma spp. and C. ferrea extract to test different doses of these products.

  8. Fast and controlled fabrication of porous graphene oxide: application of AFM tapping for mechano-chemistry

    Chu, Liangyong; Korobko, Alexander V.; Bus, Marcel; Boshuizen, Bart; Sudhölter, Ernst J. R.; Besseling, Nicolaas A. M.

    2018-05-01

    This paper describes a novel method to fabricate porous graphene oxide (PGO) from GO by exposure to oxygen plasma. Compared to other methods to fabricate PGO described so far, e.g. the thermal and steam etching methods, oxygen plasma etching method is much faster. We studied the development of the porosity with exposure time using atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that the development of PGO upon oxygen-plasma exposure can be controlled by tapping mode AFM scanning using a Si tip. AFM tapping stalls the growth of pores upon further plasma exposure at a level that coincides with the fraction of sp2 carbons in the GO starting material. We suggest that AFM tapping procedure changes the bond structure of the intermediate PGO structure, and these stabilized PGO structures cannot be further etched by oxygen plasma. This constitutes the first report of tapping AFM as a tool for local mechano-chemistry.

  9. Fast electric control of the droplet size in a microfluidic T-junction droplet generator

    Shojaeian, Mostafa; Hardt, Steffen

    2018-05-01

    The effect of DC electric fields on the generation of droplets of water and xanthan gum solutions in sunflower oil at a microfluidic T-junction is experimentally studied. The electric field leads to a significant reduction of the droplet diameter, by about a factor of 2 in the case of water droplets. The droplet size can be tuned by varying the electric field strength, an effect that can be employed to produce a stream of droplets with a tailor-made size sequence. Compared to the case of purely hydrodynamic droplet production without electric fields, the electric control has about the same effect on the droplet size if the electric stress at the liquid/liquid interface is the same as the hydrodynamic stress.

  10. Pulse forming networks for fast pumping of high power electron-beam-controlled CO2 lasers

    Riepe, K.B.

    1975-01-01

    The transverse electric discharge is a widely used technique for pumping CO 2 lasers at high pressures for the generation, simply and efficiently, of very high power laser pulses. The development of the electron-beam-controlled discharge has allowed the application of the transverse discharge to large aperture, very high energy systems. LASL is now in the process of assembly and checkout of a CO 2 laser which is designed to generate a one nanosecond pulse containing 10 kilojoules, for use in laser fusion experiments. The front end of this laser consists of a set of preamplifiers and a mode locked oscillator with electro-optic single pulse switchout. The final amplifier stage consists of four parallel modules, each one consisting of a two-sided electron gun, and two 35 x 35 x 200 cm gas pumping regions operating at a pressure of 1800 torr with a 3/ 1 / 4 /1 (He/N 2 /CO 2 ) laser mix. (auth)

  11. Experimental state control by fast non-Abelian holonomic gates with a superconducting qutrit

    Danilin, S.; Vepsäläinen, A.; Paraoanu, G. S.

    2018-05-01

    Quantum state manipulation with gates based on geometric phases acquired during cyclic operations promises inherent fault-tolerance and resilience to local fluctuations in the control parameters. Here we create a general non-Abelian and non-adiabatic holonomic gate acting in the (| 0> ,| 2> ) subspace of a three-level (qutrit) transmon device fabricated in a fully coplanar design. Experimentally, this is realized by simultaneously coupling the first two transitions by microwave pulses with amplitudes and phases defined such that the condition of parallel transport is fulfilled. We demonstrate the creation of arbitrary superpositions in this subspace by changing the amplitudes of the pulses and the relative phase between them. We use two-photon pulses acting in the holonomic subspace to reveal the coherence of the state created by the geometric gate pulses and to prepare different superposition states. We also test the action of holonomic NOT and Hadamard gates on superpositions in the (| 0> ,| 2> ) subspace.

  12. Precise control of lycopene production to enable a fast-responding, minimal-equipment biosensor.

    McNerney, Monica P; Styczynski, Mark P

    2017-09-01

    Pigmented metabolites have great potential for use in biosensors that target low-resource areas, since sensor output can be interpreted without any equipment. However, full repression of pigment production when undesired is challenging, as even small amounts of enzyme can catalyze the production of large, visible amounts of pigment. The red pigment lycopene could be particularly useful because of its position in the multi-pigment carotenoid pathway, but commonly used inducible promoter systems cannot repress lycopene production. In this paper, we designed a system that could fully repress lycopene production in the absence of an inducer and produce visible lycopene within two hours of induction. We engineered Lac, Ara, and T7 systems to be up to 10 times more repressible, but these improved systems could still not fully repress lycopene. Translational modifications proved much more effective in controlling lycopene. By decreasing the strength of the ribosomal binding sites on the crtEBI genes, we enabled full repression of lycopene and production of visible lycopene in 3-4h of induction. Finally, we added the mevalonate pathway enzymes to increase the rate of lycopene production upon induction and demonstrated that supplementation of metabolic precursors could decrease the time to coloration to about 1.5h. In total, this represents over an order of magnitude reduction in response time compared to the previously reported strategy. The approaches used here demonstrate the disconnect between fluorescent and metabolite reporters, help enable the use of lycopene as a reporter, and are likely generalizable to other systems that require precise control of metabolite production. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of extracts of plants with insecticidal activity on the control of Microtheca ochroloma Stal (Col: Chrysomelidae in the laboratory

    Cíntia Grendene Lima

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of plants with insecticidal activity were tested on the control of Microtheca ochroloma (Col.: Chrysomelidae, an important insect-pest of Brassicaceae, in the larval and adult phases. Two 3-day-old larvae, kept under laboratory conditions (25ºC temperature, 70% relative humidity and 14 hours of photophase, were placed in a glass tube with a leaf of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis previously treated with aqueous extracts (10% p/v of chinaberry leaf (Melia azedarach, chinaberry branch, and tobacco powder (Nicotiana tabacum. The same procedure was repeated in two assays with adult insects. In the first assay, all the previously-mentioned extracts were used, in addition to DalNeem (commercial product of Azadirachta indica. In the second, the insects were exposed to extracts of tabasco pepper fruits (Capsicum frutescens, Surinam cherry (Eugenia unifl ora, jambolan (Syzygium cuminii and eucalyptus leaves (Eucalyptus sp.. All the tests consisted of 10 insects per treatment, with five repetitions in the first test using adult insects and six repetitions in the others. Observations were made daily up to the fifth day, aiming to evaluate the mortality of the insects. All the tested extracts resulted in an effective control of the larvae of M. ochroloma. In relation to the adult insects, only the extracts of tobacco powder and DalNeem showed effective control.

  14. Recycling phosphorus by fast pyrolysis of pig manure: concentration and extraction of phosphorus combined with formation of value-added pyrolysis products

    Azuara, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Kootstra, A.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to recycle phosphorus from the livestock chain back to the land, fast pyrolysis of concentrated pig manure at different temperatures (400 °C, 500 °C, 600 °C), was undertaken to concentrate the phosphorus in the char fraction for recovery. Results show that 92%–97% of the phosphorus present

  15. Design of Neural Networks for Fast Convergence and Accuracy: Dynamics and Control

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Sparks, Dean W., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    A procedure for the design and training of artificial neural networks, used for rapid and efficient controls and dynamics design and analysis for flexible space systems, has been developed. Artificial neural networks are employed, such that once properly trained, they provide a means of evaluating the impact of design changes rapidly. Specifically, two-layer feedforward neural networks are designed to approximate the functional relationship between the component/spacecraft design changes and measures of its performance or nonlinear dynamics of the system/components. A training algorithm, based on statistical sampling theory, is presented, which guarantees that the trained networks provide a designer-specified degree of accuracy in mapping the functional relationship. Within each iteration of this statistical-based algorithm, a sequential design algorithm is used for the design and training of the feedforward network to provide rapid convergence to the network goals. Here, at each sequence a new network is trained to minimize the error of previous network. The proposed method should work for applications wherein an arbitrary large source of training data can be generated. Two numerical examples are performed on a spacecraft application in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  16. Simultaneous gates in frequency-crowded multilevel systems using fast, robust, analytic control shapes

    Theis, L. S.; Motzoi, F.; Wilhelm, F. K.

    2016-01-01

    We present a few-parameter ansatz for pulses to implement a broad set of simultaneous single-qubit rotations in frequency-crowded multilevel systems. Specifically, we consider a system of two qutrits whose working and leakage transitions suffer from spectral crowding (detuned by δ ). In order to achieve precise controllability, we make use of two driving fields (each having two quadratures) at two different tones to simultaneously apply arbitrary combinations of rotations about axes in the X -Y plane to both qubits. Expanding the waveforms in terms of Hanning windows, we show how analytic pulses containing smooth and composite-pulse features can easily achieve gate errors less than 10-4 and considerably outperform known adiabatic techniques. Moreover, we find a generalization of the WAHWAH (Weak AnHarmonicity With Average Hamiltonian) method by Schutjens et al. [R. Schutjens, F. A. Dagga, D. J. Egger, and F. K. Wilhelm, Phys. Rev. A 88, 052330 (2013)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.052330 that allows precise separate single-qubit rotations for all gate times beyond a quantum speed limit. We find in all cases a quantum speed limit slightly below 2 π /δ for the gate time and show that our pulses are robust against variations in system parameters and filtering due to transfer functions, making them suitable for experimental implementations.

  17. Control technologies for soil vapor extraction at petroleum hydrocarbon impacted sites -- Regulatory challenges to system operations

    Cacossa, K.F.; Campbell, G.E.; Devine, K.

    1995-01-01

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is frequently used to remediate soils impacted by petroleum hydrocarbons. Four technologies have proven to be viable methods to control the off-gas emissions from SVE systems, namely, internal combustion, thermal oxidation, catalytic oxidation, and granular activated carbon adsorption. The optimal range of influent vapor concentrations for system operation differs for each of the technologies. Over the past several years the authors have worked proactively with the state regulatory community to develop general, all inclusive air pollution control permits which allow for the potential use of all four technologies over the life of the permit. Private industry has similarly worked with the state regulators to develop a less labor intensive sampling/monitoring procedure. Actual system performances, which were monitored using summa canisters and field equipment, provided the basis for the new procedure. System performance data indicated that field sampling with portable hydrocarbon analyzers, such as flame ionization detectors (FID), was preferable over the use of summa canister sampling. In addition, to reduce the costs associated with the analysis of samples, the new SVE monitoring protocol also reduced the number of system monitoring visits. These reductions equated into a cost effective, yet environmentally sound SVE system monitoring programs. Finally, the authors have worked with the regulatory community to establish permit limitations which allow operational flexibility

  18. [Monitoring method of extraction process for Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus based on near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical process control].

    Xu, Min; Zhang, Lei; Yue, Hong-Shui; Pang, Hong-Wei; Ye, Zheng-Liang; Ding, Li

    2017-10-01

    To establish an on-line monitoring method for extraction process of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus, the formula medicinal material of Yiqi Fumai lyophilized injection by combining near infrared spectroscopy with multi-variable data analysis technology. The multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) model was established based on 5 normal batches in production and 2 test batches were monitored by PC scores, DModX and Hotelling T2 control charts. The results showed that MSPC model had a good monitoring ability for the extraction process. The application of the MSPC model to actual production process could effectively achieve on-line monitoring for extraction process of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus, and can reflect the change of material properties in the production process in real time. This established process monitoring method could provide reference for the application of process analysis technology in the process quality control of traditional Chinese medicine injections. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. Ludwigia octovalvis extract improves glycemic control and memory performance in diabetic mice.

    Lin, Wei-Sheng; Lo, Jung-Hsin; Yang, Jo-Hsuan; Wang, Hao-Wei; Fan, Shou-Zen; Yen, Jui-Hung; Wang, Pei-Yu

    2017-07-31

    Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) P.H. Raven (Onagraceae) extracts have historically been consumed as a healthful drink for treating various conditions, including edema, nephritis, hypotension and diabetes. We have previously shown that Ludwigia octovalvis extract (LOE) can significantly extend lifespan and improve age-related memory deficits in Drosophila melanogaster through activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Since AMPK has become a critical target for treating diabetes, we herein investigate the anti-hyperglycemic potential of LOE. Differentiated C2C12 muscle cells, HepG2 hepatocellular cells, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice and high fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice were used to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic potential of LOE. The open field test and novel object recognition test were used to evaluate spontaneous motor activity and memory performance of HFD-induced diabetic mice. In differentiated C2C12 muscle cells and HepG2 hepatocellular cells, treatments with LOE and its active component (β-sitosterol) induced significant AMPK phosphorylation. LOE also enhanced uptake of a fluorescent glucose derivative (2-NBDG) and inhibited glucose production in these cells. The beneficial effects of LOE were completely abolished when an AMPK inhibitor, dorsomorphin, was added to the culture system, suggesting that LOE requires AMPK activation for its action in vitro. In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, we found that both LOE and β-sitosterol induced an anti-hyperglycemic effect comparable to that of metformin, a drug that is commonly prescribed to treat diabetes. Moreover, LOE also improved glycemic control and memory performance of mice fed a HFD. These results indicate that LOE is a potent anti-diabetic intervention that may have potential for future clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Buck-Boost DC-DC Converter Control by Using the Extracted Model from Signal Flow Graph Method

    Mohammadian, Leila; Babaei, Ebrahim; Bannae Sharifian, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the signal flow graph technique and Mason gain formula are applied for extracting the model and transfer functions from control to output and from input to output of a buck-boost converter. In order to investigate a controller necessity for the converter of assumed parameters, the frequency and time domain analysis are done and the open loop system characteristics are verified and the needed closed loop controlled system specifications are determined. Finally designing a contro...

  1. Efficacy of a Kalanchoe gastonis-bonnieri extract to control bacterial biofilms and dental calculus in dogs

    Samira L. Abdalla

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: An aqueous leaf extract of the medicinal species Kalanchoe gastonis-bonnieri (here denominated KGB has been found to be effective as an antimicrobial agent against canine oral cavity bacteria in in vitro assays. In this study, we investigated the effect of topic oral administration of KGB on the development of dental biofilm in Beagle dogs. The experiments were performed with an experimental group (0.2% of KGB extract, a negative control group (0.9% of saline solution and a positive control group (0.12% chlorhexidine. Each treatment was sprayed into the oral cavity daily for 28 days. Thirty Beagle dogs with similar characteristics and kept under the same management and diet were used. The measurement of dental plaque and calculus was performed using a computerized analytical method. The phenolic profile of KGB extract was analyzed by HPLC-DAD. KGB extract at 0.2% showed efficacy in controlling the formation of plaque compared to the negative control group, and dental calculus in relation to the negative and positive control groups. A significant difference was observed among these three groups. Peaks attributed to flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified in the HPLC-DAD chromatogram of the KGB extract. The presence of these substances could be related to the activity observed. Our findings demonstrate that treatment with KGB is effective in controlling periodontal disease in dogs, providing new insights into the medicinal properties of this plant. KGB extract has a potential use as a supplemental agent in pharmaceutical products for the prevention of periodontal disease.

  2. Solid-phase extraction with the metal-organic framework MIL-101(Cr) combined with direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry for the fast analysis of triazine herbicides.

    Li, Xianjiang; Xing, Jiawei; Chang, Cuilan; Wang, Xin; Bai, Yu; Yan, Xiuping; Liu, Huwei

    2014-06-01

    MIL-101(Cr) is an excellent metal-organic framework with high surface area and nanoscale cavities, making it promising in solid-phase extraction. Herein, we used MIL-101(Cr) as a solid-phase extraction packing material combined with fast detection of direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for the analysis of triazine herbicides. After systematic optimization of the operation parameters, including the gas temperature of DART, the moving speed of the 1D platform, solvent for desorption, amount of MIL-101(Cr) extraction time, eluent volume and salt concentration, this method can realize the simultaneous detection of five kinds of triazine herbicides. The limits of detection were 0.1∼0.2 ng/mL and the linear ranges covered more than two orders of magnitude with the quantitation limits of 0.5∼1 ng/mL. Moreover, the developed method has been applied for the analysis of lake water samples and the recoveries for spiked analytes were in the range of 85∼110%. These results showed that solid-phase extraction with metal-organic frameworks is an efficient sample preparation approach for DART-MS analysis and could find more applications in environmental analysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Efficacy of local neem extracts for sustainable malaria vector control in an African village

    Duchemin Jean-Bernard

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Larval control of malaria vectors has been historically successful in reducing malaria transmission, but largely fell out of favour with the introduction of synthetic insecticides and bed nets. However, an integrated approach to malaria control, including larval control methods, continues to be the best chance for success, in view of insecticide resistance, the behavioural adaptation of the vectors to changing environments and the difficulties of reaching the poorest populations most at risk,. Laboratory studies investigating the effects of neem seed (Azadirachta indica extracts on Anopheles larvae have shown high rates of larval mortality and reductions in adult longevity, as well as low potential for resistance development. Methods This paper describes a method whereby seeds of the neem tree can be used to reduce adult Anopheles gambiae s.l. abundance in a way that is low cost and can be implemented by residents of rural villages in western Niger. The study was conducted in Banizoumbou village, western Niger. Neem seeds were collected from around the village. Dried seeds were ground into a coarse powder, which was then sprinkled onto known Anopheles larvae breeding habitats twice weekly during the rainy season 2007. Adult mosquitoes were captured on a weekly basis in the village and captures compared to those from 2005 and 2006 over the same period. Adult mosquitoes were also captured in a nearby village, Zindarou, as a control data set and compared to those from Banizoumbou. Results It was found that twice-weekly applications of the powder to known breeding habitats of Anopheles larvae in 2007 resulted in 49% fewer adult female Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes in Banizoumbou, compared with previous captures under similar environmental conditions and with similar habitat characteristics in 2005 and 2006. The productivity of the system in 2007 was found to be suppressed compared to the mean behaviour of 2005 and 2006 in

  4. Use of Cassia alata aqueous extract as a bath treatment to control Pseudomonas anguilliseptica infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Phumkhachorn Parichat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extracts of six plants, Andrographis paniculata, Cassia alata, Centella asiatica, Garcinia mangostana, Punica granatum and Psidium guajava, were investigated for their antimicrobial activity and mode of action against Pseudomonas anguilliseptica, an important fish pathogenic bacterium, which is responsible for economic losses in aquaculture worldwide. Among the tested plant extracts, the C. alata aqueous extract had the strongest inhibitory effect and exhibited a bactericidal mode of action against the pathogenic bacterium. When an infection of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus with P. anguilliseptica was induced by intraperitoneal, the median lethal dose (LD50 was determined to be 1.59 x 105 CFU/ml. For the in vivo trial, four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of C. alata aqueous extract were used as bath treatment to remedy the infection. The effect of the extract on the infection was dose-dependent and an extract with the concentration of 100 ppm eliminated mortality of the infected fish without producing any adverse effects on the animals. This study suggests that C. alata aqueous extract has the potential to control fish disease caused by P. anguilliseptica.

  5. A placebo-controlled trial of Korean red ginseng extract for preventing Influenza-like illness in healthy adults

    Ha Ki-Chan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Background Standardized Korean red ginseng extract has become the best-selling influenza-like illness (ILI remedy in Korea, yet much controversy regarding the efficacy of the Korean red ginseng (KRG in reducing ILI incidence remains. The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of the KRG extract on the ILI incidence in healthy adults. Methods/Design We will conduct a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study at the onset of the influenza seasons. A total of 100 subjects 30-70 years of age will be recruited from the general populations. The subjects will be instructed to take 9 capsules per day of either the KRG extract or a placebo for a period of 3 months. The primary outcome measure is to assess the frequency of ILI onset in participated subjects. Secondary variable measures will be included severity and duration of ILI symptoms. The ILI symptoms will be scored by subjects using a 4-point scale. Discussion This study is a randomized placebo controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of the KRG extract compared to placebo and will be provided valuable new information about the clinical and physiological effects of the KRG extract on reduction of ILI incidence including flu and upper respiratory tract infections. The study has been pragmatically designed to ensure that the study findings can be implemented into clinical practice if KRG extract can be shown to be an effective reduction strategy in ILI incidence. Trial Registration NCT01478009.

  6. Topical microemulsion containing Punica granatum extract: its control over skin erythema and melanin in healthy Asian subjects.

    Parveen, Rashida; Akhtar, Naveed; Mahmood, Tariq

    2014-12-01

    Punica granatum is apotent source of polyphenolic compounds with strong free radicals scavenging activity. The skin lightening effects of Punica granatum are assumed due to ellagic acid which acts by chelating copper at the active site of tyrosinase. To explore a topical microemulsion (O/W) of pomegranate (Punica granatum) extract for its control on skin erythema and melanin. Microemulsions were formulated using a polysorbate surfactant (Tween 80(®)) along with cosurfactant (propylene glycol) and were characterized regarding their stability. The placebo microemulsion (without extract) and the active microemulsion (containing Punica extract) were applied in a split face fashion by the volunteers (n = 11) for a period of 12 weeks. Skin erythema and melanin were measured at baseline and after every 15 days to determine any effect produced by these formulations. Active formulation showed a significant impact on skin erythema and melanin (p Punica granatum extract for conditions where elevated skin melanin and erythema have significantly prone skin physiology.

  7. Nanostructured conducting molecularly imprinted polymer for selective extraction of salicylate from urine and serum samples by electrochemically controlled solid-phase micro-extraction

    Ameli, Akram; Alizadeh, Naader

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Overoxidized polypyrrole templated with salicylate has been utilized as conducting molecular imprinted polymer for EC-SPME. ► This first study reported on conducting molecular imprinted polymer was used to EC-SPME of salicylate. ► Proposed method, is particularly effective in sample clean-up and selective monitoring of salicylate in physiological samples. - Abstract: Overoxidized polypyrrole (OPPy) films templated with salicylate (SA) have been utilized as conducting molecular imprinted polymers (CMIPs) for potential-induced selective solid-phase micro-extraction processes. Various important fabrication factors for controlling the performance of the OPPy films have been investigated using fluorescence spectrometry. Several key parameters such as applied potential for uptake, release, pH of uptake and release solution were varied to achieve the optimum micro-extraction procedure. The film template with SA exhibited excellent selectivity over some interference. The calibration graphs were linear in the ranges of 5 × 10 −8 to 5 × 10 −4 and 1.2 × 10 −6 to 5 × 10 −4 mol mL −1 and the detection limit was 4 × 10 −8 mol L −1 . The OPPy film as the solid-phase micro-extraction absorbent has been applied for the selective clean-up and quantification of trace amounts of SA from physiological samples. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have confirmed the nano-structure morphologies of the films.

  8. Fast track multi-discipline treatment (FTMDT trial versus conventional treatment in colorectal cancer--the design of a prospective randomized controlled study

    Zhou Jiao-Jiao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laparoscopy-assisted surgery, fast-track perioperative treatment are both increasingly used in colorectal cancer treatment, for their short-time benefits of enhanced recovery and short hospital stays. However, the benefits of the integration of the Laparoscopy-assisted surgery, fast-track perioperative treatment, and even with the Xelox chemotherapy, are still unknown. In this study, the three treatments integration is defined as "Fast Track Multi-Discipline Treatment Model" for colorectal cancer and this model extends the benefits to the whole treatment process of colorectal cancer. The main purpose of the study is to explore the feasibility of "Fast Track Multi-Discipline Treatment" model in treatment of colorectal cancer. Methods The trial is a prospective randomized controlled study with 2 × 2 balanced factorial design. Patients eligible for the study will be randomized to 4 groups: (I Laparoscopic surgery with fast track perioperative treatment and Xelox chemotherapy; (II Open surgery with fast track perioperative treatment and Xelox chemotherapy; (III Laparoscopic surgery with conventional perioperative treatment and mFolfox6 chemotherapy; (IV Open surgery with conventional perioperative treatment and mFolfox6 chemotherapy. The primary endpoint of this study is the hospital stays. The secondary endpoints are the quality of life, chemotherapy related adverse events, surgical complications and hospitalization costs. Totally, 340 patients will be enrolled with 85 patients in each group. Conclusions The study initiates a new treatment model "Fast Track Multi-Discipline Treatment" for colorectal cancer, and will provide feasibility evidence on the new model "Fast Track Multi-Discipline Treatment" for patients with colorectal cancer. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01080547

  9. Equilibrium point control of a monkey arm simulator by a fast learning tree structured artificial neural network.

    Dornay, M; Sanger, T D

    1993-01-01

    A planar 17 muscle model of the monkey's arm based on realistic biomechanical measurements was simulated on a Symbolics Lisp Machine. The simulator implements the equilibrium point hypothesis for the control of arm movements. Given initial and final desired positions, it generates a minimum-jerk desired trajectory of the hand and uses the backdriving algorithm to determine an appropriate sequence of motor commands to the muscles (Flash 1987; Mussa-Ivaldi et al. 1991; Dornay 1991b). These motor commands specify a temporal sequence of stable (attractive) equilibrium positions which lead to the desired hand movement. A strong disadvantage of the simulator is that it has no memory of previous computations. Determining the desired trajectory using the minimum-jerk model is instantaneous, but the laborious backdriving algorithm is slow, and can take up to one hour for some trajectories. The complexity of the required computations makes it a poor model for biological motor control. We propose a computationally simpler and more biologically plausible method for control which achieves the benefits of the backdriving algorithm. A fast learning, tree-structured network (Sanger 1991c) was trained to remember the knowledge obtained by the backdriving algorithm. The neural network learned the nonlinear mapping from a 2-dimensional cartesian planar hand position (x,y) to a 17-dimensional motor command space (u1, . . ., u17). Learning 20 training trajectories, each composed of 26 sample points [[x,y], [u1, . . ., u17] took only 20 min on a Sun-4 Sparc workstation. After the learning stage, new, untrained test trajectories as well as the original trajectories of the hand were given to the neural network as input. The network calculated the required motor commands for these movements. The resulting movements were close to the desired ones for both the training and test cases.

  10. A novel strategy with standardized reference extract qualification and single compound quantitative evaluation for quality control of Panax notoginseng used as a functional food.

    Li, S P; Qiao, C F; Chen, Y W; Zhao, J; Cui, X M; Zhang, Q W; Liu, X M; Hu, D J

    2013-10-25

    Root of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen (Sanqi in Chinese) is one of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) based functional food. Saponins are the major bioactive components. The shortage of reference compounds or chemical standards is one of the main bottlenecks for quality control of TCMs. A novel strategy, i.e. standardized reference extract based qualification and single calibrated components directly quantitative estimation of multiple analytes, was proposed to easily and effectively control the quality of natural functional foods such as Sanqi. The feasibility and credibility of this methodology were also assessed with a developed fast HPLC method. Five saponins, including ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rd and notoginsenoside R1 were rapidly separated using a conventional HPLC in 20 min. The quantification method was also compared with individual calibration curve method. The strategy is feasible and credible, which is easily and effectively adapted for improving the quality control of natural functional foods such as Sanqi. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Extracts and Bacteria from Korean Fermented Foods on the Control of Sesame Seed-Borne Fungal Diseases

    Yong-Ki Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to control seed-borne diseases, we obtained extracts from commercial fermented food products of Kimchi, Gochujang, Doenjang, Ganjang and Makgeolli and their suppressive effects against seed-borne diseases were studied. In addition, the suppressive effects of bacterial strains isolated from the fermented foods were screened in vitro and in vivo. Among fifty food extracts, twenty food-extracts suppressed more than 92% incidence of seedling rots in vitro and seven food extracts increased 58.3-66.8% of healthy seedling in the greenhouse. Among 218 isolates from the fermented foods, 29 isolates showing high antifungal activity against seven seed-borne fungal pathogens were selected. Among 29 isolates, 13 isolates significantly reduced seedling rot and increased healthy seedlings. Sixteen isolates with high antifungal activity and suppressive effect against sesame seedling rots were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Fourteen of sixteen isolates were identified as Bacillus spp. and the other two isolates from Makgeolli were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was confirmed that B. amyloliquifaciens was majority in the effective bacterial population of Korean fermented foods. In addition, when the bioformulations of the two selected effective microorganisms, B. amyloliquifacien Gcj2-1 and B. amyloliquifacien Gcj3-1, were prepared in powder forms using bentonite, kaolin, talc and zeolite, talc- and kaolin-bioformulation showed high control efficacy against sesame seed-borne disease, followed by zeolite-bioformulation. Meanwhile control efficacy of each bentonite-bioformulation of B. amyloliquifacien Gcj2-1 and B. amyloliquifacien Gcj3-1 was lower than that of bacterial suspension of them. It was found that the selected effective microorganisms from Korean fermented foods were effective for controlling seed-borne diseases of sesame in vitro and in the greenhouse. We think that Korean fermented food extracts and useful microorganisms

  12. Chemical Compounds and Bioactivity of Aqueous Extracts of Alibertia spp. in the Control of Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Peres, Lucas L S; Sobreiro, Ana I; Couto, Irys F S; Silva, Rosicléia M; Pereira, Fabricio F; Heredia-Vieira, Silvia C; Cardoso, Claudia A L; Mauad, Munir; Scalon, Silvana P Q; Verza, Sandra S; Mussury, Rosilda M

    2017-11-22

    Successive applications of insecticides to control Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) have resulted in the emergence of resistant populations of this insect. A novel control measure for this target insect could be the use of botanical insecticides derived from plant tissues. Hence, we experimentally tested aqueous extracts of Alibertia edulis (Rich.), Alibertia intermedia (Mart.), and Alibertia sessilis (Vell.) K. Schum. found in the Brazilian savannah in order to investigate their potential to disrupt the life cycle of P. xylostella . Aqueous extracts of the leaves of A. intermedia and A. sessilis negatively affected the development of P. xylostella in all stages of the life cycle, prolonging the larval stage and causing mortality in the larval or pupal stages. Treatments with A. intermedia and A. sessilis extracts caused the lowest fecundity and the number of hatched larvae. The harmful effects of these aqueous extracts on the life cycle of P. xylostella may be attributable to the flavonoids and other phenolic compounds present in A. intermedia and A. sessilis . These aqueous botanical extracts are low in toxicity when compared to non-aqueous pesticides, and may emerge as an effective approach for control of populations of P. xylostella .

  13. Chemical Compounds and Bioactivity of Aqueous Extracts of Alibertia spp. in the Control of Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Lucas L. S. Peres

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Successive applications of insecticides to control Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae have resulted in the emergence of resistant populations of this insect. A novel control measure for this target insect could be the use of botanical insecticides derived from plant tissues. Hence, we experimentally tested aqueous extracts of Alibertia edulis (Rich., Alibertia intermedia (Mart., and Alibertia sessilis (Vell. K. Schum. found in the Brazilian savannah in order to investigate their potential to disrupt the life cycle of P. xylostella. Aqueous extracts of the leaves of A. intermedia and A. sessilis negatively affected the development of P. xylostella in all stages of the life cycle, prolonging the larval stage and causing mortality in the larval or pupal stages. Treatments with A. intermedia and A. sessilis extracts caused the lowest fecundity and the number of hatched larvae. The harmful effects of these aqueous extracts on the life cycle of P. xylostella may be attributable to the flavonoids and other phenolic compounds present in A. intermedia and A. sessilis. These aqueous botanical extracts are low in toxicity when compared to non-aqueous pesticides, and may emerge as an effective approach for control of populations of P. xylostella.

  14. The influence of intermittent fasting on the circadian pattern of melatonin while controlling for caloric intake, energy expenditure, light exposure, and sleep schedules: A preliminary report.

    Almeneessier, Aljohara S; Bahammam, Ahmed S; Sharif, Munir M; Bahammam, Salman A; Nashwan, Samar Z; Pandi Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Cardinali, Daniel P; Alzoghaibi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that if we control for food composition, caloric intake, light exposure, sleep schedule, and exercise, intermittent fasting would not influence the circadian pattern of melatonin. Therefore, we designed this study to assess the effect of intermittent fasting on the circadian pattern of melatonin. Eight healthy volunteers with a mean age of 26.6 ± 4.9 years and body mass index of 23.7 ± 3.5 kg/m 2 reported to the Sleep Disorders Center (the laboratory) on four occasions: (1) adaptation, (2) 4 weeks before Ramadan while performing Islamic intermittent fasting for 1 week (fasting outside Ramadan [FOR]), (3) 1 week before Ramadan (nonfasting baseline [BL]), and (4) during the 2 nd week of Ramadan while fasting ( Ramadan ). The plasma levels of melatonin were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays at 22:00, 02:00, 04:00, 06:00, and 11:00 h. The light exposure, meal composition, energy expenditure, and sleep schedules remained the same while the participants stayed at the laboratory. The melatonin levels followed the same circadian pattern during the three monitoring periods (BL, FOR, and Ramadan ). The peak melatonin level was at 02:00 h and the trough level was at 11:00 h in all studied periods. Lower melatonin levels at 22:00 h were found during fasting compared to BL. Cosinor analysis revealed no significant changes in the acrophase of melatonin levels. In this preliminary report, under controlled conditions of light exposure, meal composition, energy expenditure, and sleep-wake schedules, intermittent fasting has no significant influence on the circadian pattern of melatonin.

  15. Evaluation of seed extracts from plants found in the Caatinga biome for the control of Aedes aegypti.

    Barbosa, Patrícia Batista Barra Medeiros; de Oliveira, Julliete Medeiros; Chagas, Juliana Macêdo; Rabelo, Luciana Maria Araujo; de Medeiros, Guilherme Fulgêncio; Giodani, Raquel Brant; da Silva, Elizeu Antunes; Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; de Fátima de Freire Melo Ximenes, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Dengue fever, currently the most important arbovirus, is transmitted by the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Given the absence of a prophylactic vaccine, the disease can only be controlled by combating the vector insect. However, increasing reports of resistance and environmental damage caused by insecticides have led to the urgent search for new safer alternatives. In this regard, plants stand out as a source of easy-to-obtain biodegradable insecticide molecules. Twenty (20) plant seed extracts from the Caatinga, an exclusively Brazilian biome, were prepared. Sodium phosphate (50 mM, pH 8.0) was used as extractor. The extracts were used in bioassays and submitted to partial characterisation. A Probit analysis of insecticides was carried out, and intergroup differences were verified by the Student's t test and ANOVA. All the extracts exhibited larvicidal and ovipositional deterrence activity. The extracts of Amburana cearenses, Piptadenia viridiflora, Erythrina velutina, Myracrodruon urundeuva and Schinopsis brasiliensis were also pupicides, while the extracts of P. viridiflora, E. velutina, A. cearenses, Anadenanthera colubrina, Diocleia grandiflora, Bauhinia cheilantha, Senna spectabilis, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Mimosa regnelli and Genipa americana displayed adulticidal activity. Egg laying was compromised when females were fed extracts of Ricinus communis, Croton sonderianus and S. brasiliensis. At least two proteins with insecticidal activity were found in all the extracts. Phenol compounds were identified in all the extracts and flavonoids, triterpenes or alkaloids in 14 of them. The results show the potential of plant seed extracts from the Caatinga as a source of active molecules against A. aegypti mosquitos.

  16. A randomized control trial comparing the visual and verbal communication methods for reducing fear and anxiety during tooth extraction.

    Gazal, Giath; Tola, Ahmed W; Fareed, Wamiq M; Alnazzawi, Ahmad A; Zafar, Muhammad S

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the value of using the visual information for reducing the level of dental fear and anxiety in patients undergoing teeth extraction under LA. A total of 64 patients were indiscriminately allotted to solitary of the study groups following reading the information sheet and signing the formal consent. If patient was in the control group, only verbal information and routine warnings were provided. If patient was in the study group, tooth extraction video was showed. The level of dental fear and anxiety was detailed by the patients on customary 100 mm visual analog scales (VAS), with "no dental fear and anxiety" (0 mm) and "severe dental distress and unease" (100 mm). Evaluation of dental apprehension and fretfulness was made pre-operatively, following visual/verbal information and post-extraction. There was a substantial variance among the mean dental fear and anxiety scores for both groups post-extraction (p-value < 0.05). Patients in tooth extraction video group were more comfortable after dental extraction than verbal information and routine warning group. For tooth extraction video group there were major decreases in dental distress and anxiety scores between the pre-operative and either post video information scores or postoperative scores (p-values < 0.05). Younger patients recorded higher dental fear and anxiety scores than older ones (P < 0.05). Dental fear and anxiety associated with dental extractions under local anesthesia can be reduced by showing a tooth extraction video to the patients preoperatively.

  17. Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on mindful eating, sweets consumption, and fasting glucose levels in obese adults: data from the SHINE randomized controlled trial.

    Mason, Ashley E; Epel, Elissa S; Kristeller, Jean; Moran, Patricia J; Dallman, Mary; Lustig, Robert H; Acree, Michael; Bacchetti, Peter; Laraia, Barbara A; Hecht, Frederick M; Daubenmier, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated changes in mindful eating as a potential mechanism underlying the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention for weight loss on eating of sweet foods and fasting glucose levels. We randomized 194 obese individuals (M age = 47.0 ± 12.7 years; BMI = 35.5 ± 3.6; 78% women) to a 5.5-month diet-exercise program with or without mindfulness training. The mindfulness group, relative to the active control group, evidenced increases in mindful eating and maintenance of fasting glucose from baseline to 12-month assessment. Increases in mindful eating were associated with decreased eating of sweets and fasting glucose levels among mindfulness group participants, but this association was not statistically significant among active control group participants. Twelve-month increases in mindful eating partially mediated the effect of intervention arm on changes in fasting glucose levels from baseline to 12-month assessment. Increases in mindful eating may contribute to the effects of mindfulness-based weight loss interventions on eating of sweets and fasting glucose levels.

  18. Islamic Fasting and Diabetes

    Fereidoun Azizi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to review health-related aspects of Ramadan fasting in normal individuals and diabetics. During fasting days of Ramadan, glucose homeostasis is maintained by meal taken bepore dawn and by liver glycogen stores. Changes in serum lipids are variable and defend on the quality and quantity of food consumption and changes in weight. Compliant, well controlled type 2 diabetics may observe Ramadan fasting; but fasting is not recommended for type 1, non complaint, poorly controlled and pregnant diabetics. Although Ramadan fasting is safe for all healthy individuals and well controlled diabetics, those with uncontrolled diabetics and diabetics with complications should consult physicians and follow scientific recommendations.

  19. Controllable biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles from a Eucommia ulmoides bark aqueous extract

    Guo, Mingxia; Li, Wei; Yang, Feng; Liu, Huihong

    2015-05-01

    The present work reports the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by water extract of Eucommia ulmoides (E. ulmoides) bark. The effects of various parameters such as the concentration of reactants, pH of the reaction mixture, temperature and the time of incubation were explored to the controlled formation of gold nanoparticles. The characterization through high resolution-transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) infer that the as-synthesized AuNPs were spherical in shape with a face cubic crystal (FCC) structure. The results from zeta potential and dynamic light scattering (DLS) suggest the good stability and narrow size distribution of the AuNPs. This method for synthesis of AuNPs is simple, economic, nontoxic and efficient. The as-synthesized AuNPs show excellent catalytic activity for the catalytic reducing decoloration of model compounds of azo-dye: reactive yellow 179 and Congo red.

  20. Control of the extraction, transport and quality of coal in sections in actual time intervals

    Prochazka, P; Sladek, J

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a system for the automatic, semiautomatic and manual control of the extraction, transport and quality of the coal in two sections of the Severo-Cheshsk brown coal basin using computers. The coal in these sections is transported along a joint transport main line which consists of three conveyor lines to two grinding works and from there to 3 thermoelectric power plants. Based on information about the coal quality in the mining sections of individual excavators, about their productivity and about the throughput of the conveyor lines, the computer determines in a quite short time the maximally possible throughput of the conveyor lines for ensuring the required coal quality. Programs are written in the ALGOL language. The information in the SM-3 computer from the excavators will be transmitted using a Tesla Radom wireless communications apparatus through a JPR-12 computer. A terminal will be mounted on each excavator which will report to the computer the number of ledges subject to mining, the type of coal in them, the distance of the excavator from the coal loading point and the size of required and actual productivity of the excavator.

  1. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on cognitive effects of Bacopa monnieri extract.

    Kongkeaw, Chuenjid; Dilokthornsakul, Piyameth; Thanarangsarit, Phurit; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip; Norman Scholfield, C

    2014-01-01

    Bacopa monnieri has a long history in Ayurvedic medicine for neurological and behavioral defects. To assess its efficacy in improving cognitive function. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Cochrane Central of clinical trial, WHO registry, Thai Medical Index, Index Medicus Siriraj library and www.clinicaltrial.gov were searched from the inception date of each database to June 2013 using scientific and common synonyms of Bacopa monnieri, cognitive performance or memory. The reference lists of retrieved articles were also reviewed. Randomized, placebo controlled human intervention trials on chronic ≥ 12 weeks dosing of standardized extracts of Bacopa monnieri without any co-medication were included in this study. The methodological quality of studies was assessed using Cochrane's risk of bias assessment and Jadad's quality scales. The weighted mean difference and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were performed using the random-effects model of the Dersimonian-Laird method. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria using 518 subjects. Overall quality of all included trials was low risk of bias and quality of reported information was high. Meta-analysis of 437 eligible subjects showed improved cognition by shortened Trail B test (-17.9 ms; 95% CI -24.6 to -11.2; pBacopa monnieri has the potential to improve cognition, particularly speed of attention but only a large well designed 'head-to-head' trial against an existing medication will provide definitive data on its efficacy on healthy or dementia patients using a standardized preparation. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Validation of the AlamarBlue® assay as a fast screening method to determine the antimicrobial activity of botanical extracts

    Tyc, O.; Tomás-Menor, L.; Garbeva, P.V.; Barrajón-Catalán, E.; Micol, V.

    2016-01-01

    Plant compounds are a potential source of new antimicrobial molecules against a variety of infections. Plant extracts suppose complex phytochemical libraries that may be used for the first stages of the screening process for antimicrobials. However, their large variability and complexity require

  3. Interaction of fast and slow dynamics in endocrine control systems with an application to β-cell dynamics.

    Wang, Yi-Fang; Khan, Michael; van den Berg, Hugo A

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine dynamics spans a wide range of time scales, from rapid responses to physiological challenges to with slow responses that adapt the system to the demands placed on it. We outline a non-linear averaging procedure to extract the slower dynamics in a way that accounts properly for the non-linear dynamics of the faster time scale and is applicable to a hierarchy of more than two time scales, although we restrict our discussion to two scales for the sake of clarity. The procedure is exact if the slow time scale is infinitely slow (the dimensionless ε-quantity is the period of the fast time scale fluctuation times an upper bound to the slow time scale rate of change). However, even for an imperfect separation of time scales we find that this construction provides an excellent approximation for the slow-time dynamics at considerably reduced computational cost. Besides the computation advantage, the averaged equation provided a qualitative insight into the interaction of the time scales. We demonstrate the procedure and its advantages by applying the theory to the model described by Tolić et al. [I.M. Tolić, E. Mosekilde, J. Sturis, Modeling the insulin-glucose feedback system: the significance of pulsatile insulin secretion, J. Theor. Biol. 207 (2000) 361-375.] for ultradian dynamics of the glucose-insulin homeostasis feedback system, extended to include β-cell dynamics. We find that the dynamics of the β-cell mass are dependent not only on the glycemic load (amount of glucose administered to the system), but also on the way this load is applied (i.e. three meals daily versus constant infusion), effects that are lost in the inappropriate methods used by the earlier authors. Furthermore, we find that the loss of the protection against apoptosis conferred by insulin that occurs at elevated levels of insulin has a functional role in keeping the β-cell mass in check without compromising regulatory function. We also find that replenishment of β-cells from a

  4. Development and Evaluation of Poly Herbal Molluscicidal Extracts for Control of Apple Snail (Pomacea maculata

    Guruswamy Prabhakaran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Golden Apple Snail (GAS is the most destructive invasive rice pest in Southeast Asia. The cost of synthetic molluscicides, their toxicity to non-target organisms, and their persistence in the environment have propelled the research of plant-derived molluscicides. Most research efforts have focused on individual plant extracts for their molluscicidal potency against GAS and have not been proven to be entirely effective in rice field conditions. Selective combination of synergistically acting molluscicidal compounds from various plant extracts might be an effective alternative. In this direction, ethanolic extracts from six different plants (Neem, Tobacco, Nerium, Pongamia, Zinger, and Piper were evaluated against Pomacea maculata Perry. Of the various combinations studied, a binary extract (1:1 of nerium and tobacco (LC90 177.71 mg/L, 48 h, and two tri-herbal extract formulations (1:1:1 of (nerium + tobacco + piper and (nerium + tobacco + neem were found to be most effective, with LC90 values of 180.35 mg/L and 191.52 mg/L, respectively, in laboratory conditions. The synergistic effect of combined herbal extracts resulted in significant reduction in LC90 values of the individual extracts. The findings of this study demonstrate that the selective combinations of potent molluscicidal herbal extracts are effective for management of P. maculata under laboratory conditions.

  5. Specification of an Expert system for the control of extraction units in reprocessing plants

    Jorda, A.; Charon, E.; Coppens, P.; Romet, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Industrial operation of extraction units in reprocessing plants is very complex because the great number of chemical and hydraulic parameters to take into account. This complexity associated to the impossibility to see inside the active enclosures make difficult the operation processes, diagnosis and corrections. Management of parameters by an expert system will increase productivity and safety of solvent extraction in pulsed columns [fr

  6. Y2 receptor signalling in NPY neurons controls bone formation and fasting induced feeding but not spontaneous feeding.

    Qi, Yue; Fu, Melissa; Herzog, Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Y2 receptors have been implicated in the development of obesity and are a potential target for obesity treatment due to their known role of inhibiting neuropeptide Y (NPY) induced feeding responses. However, the precise neuronal population on which Y2 receptors act to fulfil this role is less clear. Here we utilise a novel inducible, postnatal onset NPY neurons specific deletion model to investigate the functional consequences of loss of Y2 signalling in this population of neurons on feeding and energy homeostasis regulation. While the consequences of lack of Y2 signalling in NPY neurons are confirmed in terms of the uncoupling of suppression/increasing of NPY and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression in the arcuate nuclei (Arc), respectively, this lack of Y2 signalling surprisingly does not have any significant effect on spontaneous food intake. Fasting induced food intake, however, is strongly increased but only in the first 1h after re-feeding. Consequently no significant changes in body weight are being observed although body weight gain is increased in male mice after postnatal onset Y2 deletion. Importantly, another known function of central Y2 receptor signalling, the suppression of bone formation is conserved in this conditional model with whole body bone mineral content being decreased. Taken together this model confirms the critical role of Y2 signalling to control NPY and associated POMC expression in the Arc, but also highlights the possibility that others, non-NPY neuronal Y2 receptors, are also involved in controlling feeding and energy homeostasis regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A fast position estimation method for a control rod guide tube inspection robot with a single camera

    Lee, Jae C.; Seop, Jun H.; Choi, Yu R.; Kim, Jae H.

    2004-01-01

    One of the problems in the inspection of control rod guide tubes using a mobile robot is accurate estimation of the robot's position. The problem is usually explained by the question 'Where am I?'. We can solve this question by a method called dead reckoning using odometers. But it has some inherent drawbacks such that the position error grows without bound unless an independent reference is used periodically to reduce the errors. In this paper, we presented one method to overcome this drawback by using a vision sensor. Our method is based on the classical Lucas Kanade algorithm for on image tracking. In this algorithm, an optical flow must be calculated at every image frame, thus it has intensive computing load. In order to handle large motions, it is preferable to use a large integration window. But a small integration window is more preferable to keep the details contained in the images. We used the robot's movement information obtained from the dead reckoning as an input parameter for the feature tracking algorithm in order to restrict the position of an integration window. By means of this method, we could reduce the size of an integration window without any loss of its ability to handle large motions and could avoid the trade off in the accuracy. And we could estimate the position of our robot relatively fast without on intensive computing time and the inherent drawbacks mentioned above. We studied this algorithm for applying it to the control rod guide tubes inspection robot and tried an inspection without on operator's intervention

  8. Non-destructive fast charging algorithm of lithium-ion batteries based on the control-oriented electrochemical model

    Chu, Zhengyu; Feng, Xuning; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Han, Xuebing; Ouyang, Minggao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A novel non-destructive fast charging algorithm of lithium-ion batteries is proposed. •A close-loop observer of lithium deposition status is constructed based on the SP2D model. •The charging current is modified online using the feedback of the lithium deposition status. •The algorithm can shorten the charging time and can be used for charging from different initial SOCs. •The post-mortem observation and degradation tests show that no lithium deposition occurs during fast charging. -- Abstract: Fast charging is critical for the application of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Conventional fast charging algorithms may shorten the cycle life of lithium-ion batteries and induce safety problems, such as internal short circuit caused by lithium deposition at the negative electrode. In this paper, a novel, non-destructive model-based fast charging algorithm is proposed. The fast charging algorithm is composed of two closed loops. The first loop includes an anode over-potential observer that can observe the status of lithium deposition online, whereas the second loop includes a feedback structure that can modify the current based on the observed status of lithium deposition. The charging algorithm enhances the charging current to maintain the observed anode over-potential near the preset threshold potential. Therefore, the fast charging algorithm can decrease the charging time while protecting the health of the battery. The fast charging algorithm is validated on a commercial large-format nickel cobalt manganese/graphite cell. The results showed that 96.8% of the battery capacity can be charged within 52 min. The post-mortem observation of the surface of the negative electrode and degradation tests revealed that the fast charging algorithm proposed here protected the battery from lithium deposition.

  9. The Effectiveness of a New Hemostatic Agent (Ankaferd Blood Stopper for the Control of Bleeding following Tooth Extraction in Hemophilia: A Controlled Clinical Trial

    Hakkı Oğuz Kazancıoğlu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the hemostatic efficacy of a new local hemostatic agent, Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS, for the control of bleeding following tooth extraction in hemophiliacs. Materials and Methods: Simple tooth extractions were performed in 27 hemophilia A patients. In the treatment group (n=17 local hemostasis was achieved via application of ABS to the extraction sockets, whereas in the control group (n=10 local hemostasis was achieved via direct packing with gauze. Results: In all, 57 (21 primary and 36 permanent teeth extractions were performed in 27 hemophilia A patients. There were no significant differences in age or factor VIII level distribution between the 2 groups (p>0.05. The most significant clinical difference between the groups was associated with the use of ABS; those in the treatment group had significantly shorter duration of bleeding (p=0.002. Conclusion: This is the first study to evaluate the efficacy of ABS for the control of bleeding following tooth extraction in hemophiliacs. ABS can be considered an alternative local hemostatic agent for reducing clotting factor concentrates in hemophilia patients.

  10. The composing technique of fast and large scale nuclear data acquisition and control system with single chip microcomputers and PC computers

    Xu Zurun; Wu Shiying; Liu Haitao; Yao Yangsen; Wang Yingguan; Yang Chaowen

    1998-01-01

    The technique of employing single-chip microcomputers and PC computers to compose a fast and large scale nuclear data acquisition and control system was discussed in detail. The optimum composition mode of this kind of system, the acquisition and control circuit unit based on single-chip microcomputers, the real-time communication methods and the software composition under the Windows 3.2 were also described. One, two and three dimensional spectra measured by this system were demonstrated

  11. The composing technique of fast and large scale nuclear data acquisition and control system with single chip microcomputers and PC computers

    Xu Zurun; Wu Shiying; Liu Haitao; Yao Yangsen; Wang Yingguan; Yang Chaowen

    1997-01-01

    The technique of employing single-chip microcomputers and PC computers to compose a fast and large scale nuclear data acquisition and control system was discussed in detail. The optimum composition mode of this kind of system, the acquisition and control circuit unit based on single-chip microcomputers, the real-time communication methods and the software composition under the Windows 3.2 were also described. One, two and three dimensional spectra measured by this system were demonstrated

  12. Efficacy of dry extract of ivy leaves in children with bronchial asthma--a review of randomized controlled trials.

    Hofmann, D; Hecker, M; Völp, A

    2003-03-01

    To investigate if extracts from dried ivy leaves (Hedera helix L.) are effective in the treatment of chronic airway obstruction in children suffering from bronchial asthma. Systematic review of trials documented in the literature with re-analysis of original data. 5 randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy of ivy leaf extract preparations in chronic bronchitis, 3 of which were conducted in children and met our selection criteria. One compared ivy leaf extract cough drops to placebo, one compared suppositories to drops and one tested syrup against drops. Body-plethysmographic and spirometric measures. Drops were significantly superior to placebo in reducing airway resistance (primary outcome measure; p = 0.04 two-sided) and descriptively superior in all other 'objective' measures. For syrup and suppositories, at least 54%, resp. 35% of the effect against placebo were preserved. The trials included in this review indicate that ivy leaf extract preparations have effects with respect to an improvement of respiratory functions of children with chronic bronchial asthma, but more far-reaching conclusions can hardly be drawn because of a meagre database, including the fact that only one primary trial included a placebo control. Further research, particularly into the long-term efficacy of the herbal extract, is needed.

  13. A new concept for the control of a slow-extracted beam in a line with rotational optics: Part II

    Benedikt, Michael; Pullia, M

    1999-01-01

    The current trend in hadrontherapy is towards high-precision, conformal scanning of tumours with a 'pencil' beam of light ions or protons, delivered by a synchrotron using slow extraction. The particular shape of the slow-extracted beam segment in phase space and the need to vary the beam size in a lattice with rotating optical elements create a special problem for the design of the extraction transfer line and gantry. The design concept presented in this report is based on telescope modules with integer-pi phase advances in both transverse planes. The beam size in the plane of the extraction is controlled by altering the phase advance and hence the rotation of the extracted beam segment in phase space. The vertical beam size is controlled by stepping the vertical betatron amplitude function over a range of values and passing the changed beam size from 'hand-to-hand' through the telescope modules to the various treatment rooms. In the example given, a combined phase shifter and 'stepper', at a point close to ...

  14. A new concept for the control of a slow-extracted beam in a line with rotational optics, 2

    Benedikt, Michael; Pullia, M

    1999-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.430, p.512-22, 1999. The current trend in hadron therapy is towards high-precision, conformal scanning of tumours with a `pencil' beam of light ions or protons, delivered by a synchrotron using slow extraction. The particular shape of the slow- extracted beam segment in phase space and the need to vary the beam size in a lattice with rotating optical elements create a special problem for the design of the extraction transfer line and gantry. The design concept presented in this report is based on telescope modules with integer- pi phase advances in both transverse planes. The beam size in the plane of the extraction is controlled by altering the phase advance and hence the rotation of the extracted beam segment in phase space. The vertical beam size is controlled by stepping the vertical betatron amplitude function over a range of values and passing the changed beam size from `hand-to-hand' through the telescope modules to the various treatment rooms. In the example given, a combined p...

  15. A New Concept for the Control of a Slow-Extracted Beam in a Line with Rotational Optics, 2

    Benedikt, Michael; Pullia, M

    1999-01-01

    The current trend in hadrontherapy is towards high-precision, conformal scanning of tumours with a 'pencil' beam of light ions, or protons, delivered by a synchrotron using slow-extraction. The particular shape of the slow-extracted beam segment in phase space and the need to vary the beam size in a lattice with rotating optical elements create a special problem for the design of the extraction transfer line and gantry. The design concept presented in this report is based on telescope modules with integer-p phase advances in both transverse planes. The beam size in the plane of the extraction is controlled by altering the phase advance and hence the rotation of the extracted beam segment in phase space. The vertical beam size is controlled by stepping the vertical betatron amplitude function over a range of values and passing the changed beam size from 'hand-to-hand' through the telescope modules to the various treatment rooms. In the example given, a combined phase-shifter and 'stepper', at a point close to ...

  16. Synthesis of calcium carbonate using extract components of croaker gill as morphology and polymorph adjust control agent

    Chen, Hao; Qing, Chengsong; Zheng, Jiaoling; Liu, Yuxi; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate with various polymorphs, sizes and morphologies by using organic substrates has become an interesting topic for the last years. Calcium carbonate has been synthesized by the reaction of Na 2 CO 3 and CaCl 2 in the presence of extract components of croaker gill. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, and particle morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that at lower concentration yellow croaker gill extract has no effect on calcium carbonate crystal polymorph. Calcite was obtained only. But the morphologies of calcite particle change with the increase of the concentration. The corners of the particle change from angular to curved. However, with the further increase of the concentration of yellow croaker gill extract, the calcium carbonate obtained is a mixture of calcite and vaterite. The vaterite component in the mixture rises with increasing concentration of extract solution, indicating that the proteins from the yellow croaker gill during growth play a crucial role in stabilizing and directing the crystal growth. - Graphical abstract: Calcium carbonate has been synthesized by using extract components of croaker gill as adjust control agent. The results indicate that yellow croaker gill extract has no effect on calcium carbonate crystal polymorph when its concentration is low. But the morphologies of calcite particle change with the increase of the concentration. With the further increase of the concentration of yellow croaker gill extract, the calcium carbonate obtained is a mixture of calcite and vaterite. The vaterite component in the mixture rises with increasing concentration of extract solution, indicating that the proteins from the yellow croaker gill during growth play a crucial role in stabilizing and directing the crystal growth. - Highlights: • Biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate

  17. Hydrogen-bonding-mediated synthesis of atomically thin TiO2 films with exposed (001) facets and applications in fast lithium insertion/extraction.

    Zhang, Hongye; Yang, Zhenzhen; Gan, Wei; Zhao, Yanfei; Yu, Bo; Xu, Huanjun; Ma, Zhishuang; Hao, Leiduan; Chen, Dechao; Miao, Shiding; Liu, Zhimin

    2015-10-05

    Ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) crystalline materials show high specific surface area (SA) of high energy (HE) facets, imparting a significant improvement in their performances. Herein we report a novel route to synthesize TiO2 nanofilms (NFs) with atomic thickness (lithium insertion/extraction, demonstrating foreseeable applications in the energy storage. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Fast, simple and efficient salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction of naringenin from fruit juice samples prior to their enantioselective determination by liquid chromatography.

    Magiera, Sylwia; Kwietniowska, Ewelina

    2016-11-15

    In this study, an easy, simple and efficient method for the determination of naringenin enantiomers in fruit juices after salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detection (DAD) was developed. The sample treatment is based on the use of water-miscible acetonitrile as the extractant and acetonitrile phase separation under high-salt conditions. After extraction, juice samples were incubated with hydrochloric acid in order to achieve hydrolysis of naringin to naringenin. The hydrolysis parameters were optimized by using a half-fraction factorial central composite design (CCD). After sample preparation, chromatographic separation was obtained on a Chiralcel® OJ-RH column using the mobile phase consisting of 10mM aqueous ammonium acetate:methanol:acetonitrile (50:30:20; v/v/v) with detection at 288nm. The average recovery of the analyzed compounds ranged from 85.6 to 97.1%. The proposed method was satisfactorily used for the determination of naringenin enantiomers in various fruit juices samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Larvicidal Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Extracts of Ambrosia arborescens (Asteraceae to Control Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Bianca Morejón

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito species Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika infections worldwide. Since effective vaccines or drugs are not available for the prevention and/or treatment of these pathologies, vector control has been adopted as the main approach to reduce their transmission. To control Aedes populations, the most commonly used tool is the application of chemical insecticides and, despite their effectiveness, indiscriminate use of these chemicals has led to high operational costs, appearance of resistant populations, and adverse nontarget effects. Plant-derived insecticides may be an eco-friendly, cost-effective, and safe biocontrol alternative. The present study was carried out to evaluate the larvicidal activity of leaf extracts of Ambrosia arborescens and green-synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using aqueous extracts obtained from this plant against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti. To test this, larvae were exposed for 24 h to the aqueous plant extract at 1500, 3000, 4500, and 6000 ppm and the plant-synthesized AgNPs at 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 ppm. In laboratory assays, AgNPs were more toxic (LC50 = 0.28 ppm; LC90 = 0.43 ppm than the plant extract (LC50 = 1844.61 ppm; LC90 = 6043.95 ppm. These results suggest that A. arborescens aqueous extract and green-synthesized silver nanoparticles produced from those extracts have the potential to be developed into suitable alternative tools useful for the control of Ae. aegypti populations.

  20. A nonrandomized controlled clinical pilot trial on 8 wk of intermittent fasting (24 h/wk).

    Kessler, Christian S; Stange, Rainer; Schlenkermann, Maike; Jeitler, Michael; Michalsen, Andreas; Selle, Antonia; Raucci, Franca; Steckhan, Nico

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether intermittent fasting (IF) is an effective preventive measure, and whether it is feasible for healthy volunteers under every day conditions. A nonrandomized controlled clinical trial on IF was performed with healthy volunteers over a period of 8 wk, and a subsequent 4-mo follow-up. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, after 8 wk, and after 6 mo. Volunteers who were not interested in fasting served as a control group. Participants in the fasting group were asked to continue their regular nutritional habits on the nonfasting days, whereas the control group maintained their habitual nutrition throughout the whole period. Outcomes included changes of metabolic parameters (insulin, glucose, insulin resistance, insulin-like growth factor-1, brain-derived neurotropic factor, lipids, liver enzymes, hemoglobin A1c) and coagulation markers; bioelectrical impedance analysis; body mass index; abdominal girth; blood pressure; general quality of life (five-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index [WHO-5] questionnaire), as well as mood and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS], Profile of Mood States, Flourishing-Scale, visual analog scale, Likert scales). The intervention consisted of a fasting day, which was repeated every week for 8 wk, with abstinence from solid food between 00:00 and 23:59 at minimum and a maximum caloric intake of 300 kcal on each fasting day. A per-protocol analysis was performed. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Thirty-six volunteers were included; 22 allocated themselves to the fasting group, and 14 to the control group. Thirty-three data sets were included in the final analysis. Although significant in-group changes were observed in both groups for a number of outcomes after 8 wk and 6 mo, no significant between-group differences were observed for any outcome other than overall body fat mass after 8 wk as well as for the HADS total score and the WHO-5 total score after 6