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Sample records for fast correlation approach

  1. Interferometric Approach to Probing Fast Scrambling

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Norman Y; Swingle, Brian; Lukin, Mikhail D; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M; Moore, Joel E; Demler, Eugene A

    2016-01-01

    Out-of-time-order correlation functions provide a proxy for diagnosing chaos in quantum systems. We propose and analyze an interferometric scheme for their measurement, using only local quantum control and no reverse time evolution. Our approach utilizes a combination of Ramsey interferometry and the recently demonstrated ability to directly measure Renyi entropies. To implement our scheme, we present a pair of cold-atom-based experimental blueprints; moreover, we demonstrate that within these systems, one can naturally realize the transverse-field Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (TFSK) model, which exhibits certain similarities with fast scrambling black holes. We perform a detailed numerical study of scrambling in the TFSK model, observing an interesting interplay between the fast scrambling bound and the onset of spin-glass order.

  2. FAST CORRELATION ATTACKS ON BLUETOOTH COMBINER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Weiju; Feng Dengguo

    2006-01-01

    A simple fast correlation attack is used to analysis the security of Bluetooth combiner in this paper.This attack solves the tradeoff between the length of the keystream and the computing complexity needed to recover the secret key. We give the computing complexities of the attack algorithm according to different lengths of the known keystream. The result is less time-consuming than before. It is also shown that the security of the modified Bluetooth combiner by Hermelin and Nyberg is not significantly enhanced.

  3. Detecting correlation between allele frequencies and environmental variables as a signature of selection. A fast computational approach for genome-wide studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillot, Gilles; Vitalis, Renaud; Rouzic, Arnaud le;

    2014-01-01

    Genomic regions (or loci) displaying outstanding correlation with some environmental variables are likely to be under selection and this is the rationale of recent methods of identifying selected loci and retrieving functional information about them. To be efficient, such methods need to be able...... to disentangle the potential effect of environmental variables from the confounding effect of population history. For the routine analysis of genome-wide datasets, one also needs fast inference and model selection algorithms. We propose a method based on an explicit spatial model which is an instance of spatial...... generalized linear mixed model (SGLMM). For inference, we make use of the INLA–SPDE theoretical and computational framework developed by Rue et al. (2009) and Lindgren et al. (2011). The method we propose allows one to quantify the correlation between genotypes and environmental variables. It works...

  4. A fast digital image correlation method for deformation measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bing; Li, Kai

    2011-07-01

    Fast and high-accuracy deformation analysis using digital image correlation (DIC) has been increasingly important and highly demanded in recent years. In literature, the DIC method using the Newton-Rapshon (NR) algorithm has been considered as a gold standard for accurate sub-pixel displacement tracking, as it is insensitive to the relative deformation and rotation of the target subset and thus provides highest sub-pixel registration accuracy and widest applicability. A significant drawback of conventional NR-algorithm-based DIC method, however, is its extremely huge computational expense. In this paper, a fast DIC method is proposed deformation measurement by effectively eliminating the repeating redundant calculations involved in the conventional NR-algorithm-based DIC method. Specifically, a reliability-guided displacement scanning strategy is employed to avoid time-consuming integer-pixel displacement searching for each calculation point, and a pre-computed global interpolation coefficient look-up table is utilized to entirely eliminate repetitive interpolation calculation at sub-pixel locations. With these two approaches, the proposed fast DIC method substantially increases the calculation efficiency of the traditional NR-algorithm-based DIC method. The performance of proposed fast DIC method is carefully tested on real experimental images using various calculation parameters. Results reveal that the computational speed of the present fast DIC is about 120-200 times faster than that of the traditional method, without any loss of its measurement accuracy

  5. Correlating Fast Fluence to dpa in Atypical Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drury Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage to a nuclear reactor's materials by high-energy neutrons causes changes in the ductility and fracture toughness of the materials. The reactor vessel and its associated piping's ability to withstand stress without brittle fracture are paramount to safety. Theoretically, the material damage is directly related to the displacements per atom (dpa via the residual defects from induced displacements. However in practice, the material damage is based on a correlation to the high-energy (E > 1.0 MeV neutron fluence. While the correlated approach is applicable when the material in question has experienced the same neutron spectrum as test specimens which were the basis of the correlation, this approach is not generically acceptable. Using Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates transport codes, the energy dependent neutron flux is determined throughout the reactor structures and the reactor vessel. Results from the models provide the dpa response in addition to the high-energy neutron flux. Ratios of dpa to fast fluence are calculated throughout the models. The comparisons show a constant ratio in the areas of historical concern and thus the validity of the correlated approach to these areas. In regions above and below the fuel however, the flux spectrum has changed significantly. The correlated relationship of material damage to fluence is not valid in these regions without adjustment. An adjustment mechanism is proposed.

  6. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, Philip C.; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Boyer, Brian; Wallace, Rick L.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Kovacic, Don N.; Tolk, K.

    2007-12-15

    This third report in the series reviews possible safeguards approaches for new fast reactors in general, and the ABR in particular. Fast-neutron spectrum reactors have been used since the early 1960s on an experimental and developmental level, generally with fertile blanket fuels to “breed” nuclear fuel such as plutonium. Whether the reactor is designed to breed plutonium, or transmute and “burn” actinides depends mainly on the design of the reactor neutron reflector and the whether the blanket fuel is “fertile” or suitable for transmutation. However, the safeguards issues are very similar, since they pertain mainly to the receipt, shipment and storage of fresh and spent plutonium and actinide-bearing “TRU”-fuel. For these reasons, the design of existing fast reactors and details concerning how they have been safeguarded were studied in developing advanced safeguards approaches for the new fast reactors. In this regard, the design of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II “EBR-II” at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was of interest, because it was designed as a collocated fast reactor with a pyrometallurgical reprocessing and fuel fabrication line – a design option being considered for the ABR. Similarly, the design of the Fast Flux Facility (FFTF) on the Hanford Site was studied, because it was a successful prototype fast reactor that ran for two decades to evaluate fuels and the design for commercial-scale fast reactors.

  7. A Fast Approach to Creative Telescoping

    CERN Document Server

    Koutschan, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    In this note we reinvestigate the task of computing creative telescoping relations in differential-difference operator algebras. Our approach is based on an ansatz that explicitly includes the denominators of the delta parts. We contribute several ideas of how to make an implementation of this approach reasonably fast and provide such an implementation. A selection of examples shows that it can be superior to existing methods by a large factor.

  8. A custom correlation coefficient (CCC) approach for fast identification of multi-SNP association patterns in genome-wide SNPs data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climer, Sharlee; Yang, Wei; de las Fuentes, Lisa; Dávila-Román, Victor G; Gu, C Charles

    2014-11-01

    Complex diseases are often associated with sets of multiple interacting genetic factors and possibly with unique sets of the genetic factors in different groups of individuals (genetic heterogeneity). We introduce a novel concept of custom correlation coefficient (CCC) between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that address genetic heterogeneity by measuring subset correlations autonomously. It is used to develop a 3-step process to identify candidate multi-SNP patterns: (1) pairwise (SNP-SNP) correlations are computed using CCC; (2) clusters of so-correlated SNPs identified; and (3) frequencies of these clusters in disease cases and controls compared to identify disease-associated multi-SNP patterns. This method identified 42 candidate multi-SNP associations with hypertensive heart disease (HHD), among which one cluster of 22 SNPs (six genes) included 13 in SLC8A1 (aka NCX1, an essential component of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling) and another of 32 SNPs had 29 from a different segment of SLC8A1. While allele frequencies show little difference between cases and controls, the cluster of 22 associated alleles were found in 20% of controls but no cases and the other in 3% of controls but 20% of cases. These suggest that both protective and risk effects on HHD could be exerted by combinations of variants in different regions of SLC8A1, modified by variants from other genes. The results demonstrate that this new correlation metric identifies disease-associated multi-SNP patterns overlooked by commonly used correlation measures. Furthermore, computation time using CCC is a small fraction of that required by other methods, thereby enabling the analyses of large GWAS datasets.

  9. A novel approach to correlation reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, Luis, E-mail: meneses@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Cupido, Luis; Manso, Maria Emilia [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    The use of microwave synthesized sources improved significantly the performance of correlation reflectometry diagnostics for fusion plasmas providing broadband operation with high quality signals and fast frequency switching times. Recent new developments of those sources made at IPFN opened an all-new way to build correlation reflectometry diagnostics with improved performance and measuring capability. Some of the key features now attainable are independent probing and local oscillator signals generated by separated frequency synthesizers; very good frequency control and synchronization of both the local and the radio-frequency oscillators providing very high stability. The technological advances make it possible to further reduce the switching time between adjacent probing frequencies while keeping the ability to operate in a broad frequency range. Here we present a multichannel correlation system based on those novel technologies using several independent and self-contained fully synthesized broadband channels. With this type of system various type of measurements are possible: (i) fast stepwise radial scans to extract the radial profile of turbulence parameters (spectra, RMS, rotation from Doppler shift, etc.); (ii) radial scans of the plasma using two identical systems in parallel where one system operates in frequency steps and the other makes multiple small steps around each selected frequency of the first system. The proposed diagnostic is very powerful and versatile. With a system having n identical channels, all transmitting and receiving simultaneously, the number of simultaneous correlations measurements that can be performed is given by n x (n - 1)/2. The minimal configuration uses two channels thus providing one (time domain) correlation signal channels can be easily added at any time increasing the measuring capability of the diagnostic. Several examples are given that illustrate the wide range of measurements that can be made using the novel

  10. Fast directional correlation on the sphere with steerable filters

    CERN Document Server

    Wiaux, Y; Vandergheynst, P

    2005-01-01

    An exact fast algorithm is developed for the directional correlation of band-limited signals and steerable filters on the sphere. First, the directional correlation is expressed as an inverse Wigner D-functions transform on the rotation group SO(3). The separation of variables technique is recalled, which reduces the corresponding asymptotic complexity from O(L^5) to O(L^4), where 2L stands for the square-root of the number of sampling points on the sphere, also setting a band limit L for the signals considered. Second, the filter steerability gives explicitly the directional correlation in terms of standard correlations. The standard correlation is expressed as a sum of inverse spin-weighted spherical harmonics transforms on the sphere. The separation of variables reduces the corresponding asymptotic complexity of standard and directional correlations to O(L^3). For steerable filters with low azimuthal angular band limit, a simple O(L^2 x log^2(L)) algorithm is achieved, based on the Driscoll and Healy fast ...

  11. Correlation between macrosomia body indices and maternal fasting blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Zhang, S; Song, W

    2014-05-01

    To explore the significance of neonatal body indices in identifying pathological macrosomia, we implemented a retrospective study of 254 neonates, including: 100 macrosomia of diabetic pregnancies, 77 macrosomia of healthy pregnancies and 77 normal neonates of healthy pregnancies, using their birth weight, body length, head circumference and chest circumference, to calculate neonatal body indices, multiple regression analysis of the correlation between newborn body indices and maternal fasting blood glucose. The Quetelet Index and Kaup Index of diabetic macrosomia is higher than that of non-diabetic macrosomia; HC:CC (ratio between head circumference and chest circumference) is reversed (p macrosomia.

  12. Fast estimation of polarization power spectra using correlation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Chon, G; Prunet, S; Hivon, E; Szapudi, I; Chon, Gayoung; Challinor, Anthony; Prunet, Simon; Hivon, Eric; Szapudi, Istvan

    2003-01-01

    We present a fast method for estimating the cosmic microwave background polarization power spectra using unbiased estimates of heuristically-weighted correlation functions. This extends the O(N_pix^(3/2)) method of Szapudi et al. (2001) to polarized data. If the sky coverage allows the correlation functions to be estimated over the full range of angular separations, they can be inverted directly with integral transforms and clean separation of the electric (E) and magnetic (B) modes of polarization is obtained exactly in the mean. We assess the level of E-B mixing that arises from apodized integral transforms when the correlation function can only be estimated for a subset of angular scales, and show that it is significant for small-area observations. We introduce new estimators to deal with this case on the spherical sky that preserve E-B separation; their construction requires an additional integration of the correlation functions but the computational cost is negligible. We illustrate our methods with appl...

  13. Digital image correlation based on a fast convolution strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Zhan, Qin; Xiong, Chunyang; Huang, Jianyong

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, the efficiency of digital image correlation (DIC) methods has attracted increasing attention because of its increasing importance for many engineering applications. Based on the classical affine optical flow (AOF) algorithm and the well-established inverse compositional Gauss-Newton algorithm, which is essentially a natural extension of the AOF algorithm under a nonlinear iterative framework, this paper develops a set of fast convolution-based DIC algorithms for high-efficiency subpixel image registration. Using a well-developed fast convolution technique, the set of algorithms establishes a series of global data tables (GDTs) over the digital images, which allows the reduction of the computational complexity of DIC significantly. Using the pre-calculated GDTs, the subpixel registration calculations can be implemented efficiently in a look-up-table fashion. Both numerical simulation and experimental verification indicate that the set of algorithms significantly enhances the computational efficiency of DIC, especially in the case of a dense data sampling for the digital images. Because the GDTs need to be computed only once, the algorithms are also suitable for efficiently coping with image sequences that record the time-varying dynamics of specimen deformations.

  14. Fast methods for spatially correlated multilevel functional data

    KAUST Repository

    Staicu, A.-M.

    2010-01-19

    We propose a new methodological framework for the analysis of hierarchical functional data when the functions at the lowest level of the hierarchy are correlated. For small data sets, our methodology leads to a computational algorithm that is orders of magnitude more efficient than its closest competitor (seconds versus hours). For large data sets, our algorithm remains fast and has no current competitors. Thus, in contrast to published methods, we can now conduct routine simulations, leave-one-out analyses, and nonparametric bootstrap sampling. Our methods are inspired by and applied to data obtained from a state-of-the-art colon carcinogenesis scientific experiment. However, our models are general and will be relevant to many new data sets where the object of inference are functions or images that remain dependent even after conditioning on the subject on which they are measured. Supplementary materials are available at Biostatistics online.

  15. Not so fast: Fast speech correlates with lower lexical and structural information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Priva, Uriel

    2017-03-01

    Speakers dynamically adjust their speech rate throughout conversations. These adjustments have been linked to cognitive and communicative limitations: for example, speakers speak words that are contextually unexpected (and thus add more information) with slower speech rates. This raises the question whether limitations of this type vary wildly across speakers or are relatively constant. The latter predicts that across speakers (or conversations), speech rate and the amount of information content are inversely correlated: on average, speakers can either provide high information content or speak quickly, but not both. Using two corpus studies replicated across two corpora, I demonstrate that indeed, fast speech correlates with the use of less informative words and syntactic structures. Thus, while there are individual differences in overall information throughput, speakers are more similar in this aspect than differences in speech rate would suggest. The results suggest that information theoretic constraints on production operate at a higher level than was observed before and affect language throughout production, not only after words and structures are chosen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fast correlation attack on stream cipher ABC v3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HaiNa; LI Lin; WANG XiaoYun

    2008-01-01

    ABC v3 is a stream cipher submitted to the ECRYPT eStream project and has entered the second evaluation phase.Its key length is 128 bits.In this paper,we find large numbers of new weak keys of ABC family and introduce a method to search for them,and then apply a fast correlation attack to break ABC v3 with weak keys.We show that there are at least 2103.71 new weak keys in ABC v3.Recovering the internal state of a weak key requires 236.05 keystream words and 250.56 operations.The attack can be applied to ABC v1 and v2 with the same complexity as that of ABC v3.However,the number of weak keys of ABC v1 as well as ABC v2 decreases to 297+295.19.It reveals that ABC v3 incurs more weak keys than that of ABC v1 and v2.

  17. Cancellous bone fast and slow waves obtained with Bayesian probability theory correlate with porosity from computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Joseph J; Nelson, Amber M; Holland, Mark R; Miller, James G

    2012-09-01

    A Bayesian probability theory approach for separating overlapping ultrasonic fast and slow waves in cancellous bone has been previously introduced. The goals of this study were to investigate whether the fast and slow waves obtained from Bayesian separation of an apparently single mode signal individually correlate with porosity and to isolate the fast and slow waves from medial-lateral insonification of the calcaneus. The Bayesian technique was applied to trabecular bone data from eight human calcanei insonified in the medial-lateral direction. The phase velocity, slope of attenuation (nBUA), and amplitude were determined for both the fast and slow waves. The porosity was assessed by micro-computed tomography (microCT) and ranged from 78.7% to 94.1%. The method successfully separated the fast and slow waves from medial-lateral insonification of the calcaneus. The phase velocity for both the fast and slow wave modes showed an inverse correlation with porosity (R(2) = 0.73 and R(2) = 0.86, respectively). The slope of attenuation for both wave modes also had a negative correlation with porosity (fast wave: R(2) = 0.73, slow wave: R(2) = 0.53). The fast wave amplitude decreased with increasing porosity (R(2) = 0.66). Conversely, the slow wave amplitude modestly increased with increasing porosity (R(2) = 0.39).

  18. Correlated image set compression system based on new fast efficient algorithm of Karhunen-Loeve transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musatenko, Yurij S.; Kurashov, Vitalij N.

    1998-10-01

    The paper presents improved version of our new method for compression of correlated image sets Optimal Image Coding using Karhunen-Loeve transform (OICKL). It is known that Karhunen-Loeve (KL) transform is most optimal representation for such a purpose. The approach is based on fact that every KL basis function gives maximum possible average contribution in every image and this contribution decreases most quickly among all possible bases. So, we lossy compress every KL basis function by Embedded Zerotree Wavelet (EZW) coding with essentially different loss that depends on the functions' contribution in the images. The paper presents new fast low memory consuming algorithm of KL basis construction for compression of correlated image ensembles that enable our OICKL system to work on common hardware. We also present procedure for determining of optimal losses of KL basic functions caused by compression. It uses modified EZW coder which produce whole PSNR (bitrate) curve during the only compression pass.

  19. A fast block mode selection approach for H. Visual coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Wei-yao; Fang Xiang-zhong; HUANG Xiu-chao; LI Dian; LIU Xiao-feng

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,a new fast mode-selection approach is proposed.This algorithm combines the proposed approaches of mode pre-decision and precise large-small mode decision,by selecting the best mode efficiently.Experimental results show that the proposed approach can reduce the computational cost of full search and fast multi-block motion estimation by 8% and 45%,respectively,with similar visual quality and bit rate.The proposed algorithm also reduces by 75% the computational cost of the large-small mode isolation algorithm for low-motion sequence coding,and with 0.06 PSNR gain and 3.7% reduction in bit rate.

  20. Fast 2D Convolutions and Cross-Correlations Using Scalable Architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Cesar; Llamocca, Daniel; Pattichis, Marios

    2017-05-01

    The manuscript describes fast and scalable architectures and associated algorithms for computing convolutions and cross-correlations. The basic idea is to map 2D convolutions and cross-correlations to a collection of 1D convolutions and cross-correlations in the transform domain. This is accomplished through the use of the discrete periodic radon transform for general kernels and the use of singular value decomposition -LU decompositions for low-rank kernels. The approach uses scalable architectures that can be fitted into modern FPGA and Zynq-SOC devices. Based on different types of available resources, for P×P blocks, 2D convolutions and cross-correlations can be computed in just O(P) clock cycles up to O(P(2)) clock cycles. Thus, there is a trade-off between performance and required numbers and types of resources. We provide implementations of the proposed architectures using modern programmable devices (Virtex-7 and Zynq-SOC). Based on the amounts and types of required resources, we show that the proposed approaches significantly outperform current methods.

  1. Fast-Find: a novel computational approach to analyzing combinatorial motifs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamady, Micah; Peden, Erin; Knight, Rob; Singh, Ravinder

    2006-01-01

    .... Here we present a new approach, Fast-FIND (Fast-Fully Indexed Nucleotide Database), that uses a relational database to support rapid indexed searches for arbitrary combinations of patterns defined either by sequence or composition...

  2. Quantum Monte Carlo approaches for correlated systems

    CERN Document Server

    Becca, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Over the past several decades, computational approaches to studying strongly-interacting systems have become increasingly varied and sophisticated. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to state-of-the-art quantum Monte Carlo techniques relevant for applications in correlated systems. Providing a clear overview of variational wave functions, and featuring a detailed presentation of stochastic samplings including Markov chains and Langevin dynamics, which are developed into a discussion of Monte Carlo methods. The variational technique is described, from foundations to a detailed description of its algorithms. Further topics discussed include optimisation techniques, real-time dynamics and projection methods, including Green's function, reptation and auxiliary-field Monte Carlo, from basic definitions to advanced algorithms for efficient codes, and the book concludes with recent developments on the continuum space. Quantum Monte Carlo Approaches for Correlated Systems provides an extensive reference ...

  3. Optical correlators with fast updating speed using photorefractive semiconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheen, Gregory; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1988-01-01

    The performance of an updatable optical correlator which uses a photorefractive semiconductor to generate real-time matched filters is discussed. The application of compound semiconductors makes possible high-speed operation and low optical input intensities. The Bragg diffraction is considered, along with the speed and power characteristics of these materials. Experimental results on photorefractive GaAs are presented.

  4. A NEW APPROACH TO FAST MOSAIC UAV IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Liu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs have been widely used to acquire high quality terrain images of the areas of interest, particularly when such a task could potentially risk human life or even impossible as the areas cannot be accessed easily by surveyors. Once the images have been obtained, traditional photogrammetric processing process can be used to establish a relative orientation model and then, absolute orientation model with the procedures of space resection and intersection. In many such applications, the geo- referenced images which are stitched together to represent the geospatial relationships for the feature objects are sufficient. A fast or near real-time processing approach for UAV images using GPS/INS data has being investigated for years. One beneficial application of such approach is the capability of quick production of geo-referenced images for various engineering or business activities, such as urban and road planning, the site selection of factories and bridges, etc. In this paper, we have proposed a new fast processing approach for the UAV images collected with an integrated GPS/INS/Vision system. The approach features that the corresponding points between images have been determined, and then coordinate transformation is carried out to implement image stitching. The accuracy of corresponding points normally affects the quality of stitched images, but the results of our experiments revealed that the image stitching errors were obvious even the accuracy of corresponding points was high. The stitching errors could be caused by the changes of surface elevation.

  5. Simulation of the Clustering Phenomenon in a Fast Fluidized Bed: The Importance of Drag Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佑楚

    2004-01-01

    Drag force is a key parameter in the numerical modeling of gas-particle flow in circulating fluidized beds. The reliability of current drag force correlations over the regime of fast fluidization has, however, not been thoroughly investigated. In this article, a drag force correlation accounting for the clustering effects for Geldart A particles is used to simulate the behaviors typical of fast fluidization, including dynamic evolution of clusters as well as time- averaged axial and lateral voidage profiles. Diverse images of clusters are captured and the time-averaged profiles of voidage are shown to be in quantitative agreement with the present empirical correlation. The results based on different constitutive correlations of drag force show the importance of the choice of drag force in modeling fast-fluidized beds. This drag force correlation, based on a simple averaging assumption, could give some basic insights about the magnitude of the drag reduction.

  6. A fast and reliable overset unstructured grids approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Liang Kang; Chao Yan; Jian Yu; Yuan-Yuan Fang

    2013-01-01

    A cell-centred overset unstructured grids approach is developed.In this approach,the intergrid boundary is initially established based on the wall distance from the cell centre,and is then optimized.To accelerate the intergrid-boundary definition much more,a neighbor-to-neighbor donor search algorithm based on advancing-front method is modified with the help of minimum cuboid boxes.To simplify the communications between different grid cell types and to obtain second-order spatial accuracy,a new interpolation method is constructed based on linear reconstruction,which employs only one layer of fringe cells along the intergrid boundary.For unsteady flows with relative motion,the intergrid boundary can be redefined fast and automatically.Several numerical results show that the present dynamic overset unstructured grids approach is accurate and reliable.

  7. Fast spatiotemporal correlation spectroscopy to determine protein lateral diffusion laws in live cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rienzo, Carmine; Gratton, Enrico; Beltram, Fabio; Cardarelli, Francesco

    2013-07-23

    Spatial distribution and dynamics of plasma-membrane proteins are thought to be modulated by lipid composition and by the underlying cytoskeleton, which forms transient barriers to diffusion. So far this idea was probed by single-particle tracking of membrane components in which gold particles or antibodies were used to individually monitor the molecules of interest. Unfortunately, the relatively large particles needed for single-particle tracking can in principle alter the very dynamics under study. Here, we use a method that makes it possible to investigate plasma-membrane proteins by means of small molecular labels, specifically single GFP constructs. First, fast imaging of the region of interest on the membrane is performed. For each time delay in the resulting stack of images the average spatial correlation function is calculated. We show that by fitting the series of correlation functions, the actual protein "diffusion law" can be obtained directly from imaging, in the form of a mean-square displacement vs. time-delay plot, with no need for interpretative models. This approach is tested with several simulated 2D diffusion conditions and in live Chinese hamster ovary cells with a GFP-tagged transmembrane transferrin receptor, a well-known benchmark of membrane-skeleton-dependent transiently confined diffusion. This approach does not require extraction of the individual trajectories and can be used also with dim and dense molecules. We argue that it represents a powerful tool for the determination of kinetic and thermodynamic parameters over very wide spatial and temporal scales.

  8. An improved fast fractal image compression using spatial texture correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Wang Yuan-Xing; Yun Jiao-Jiao

    2011-01-01

    This paper utilizes a spatial texture correlation and the intelligent classification algorithm (ICA) search strategy to speed up the encoding process and improve the bit rate for fractal image compression.Texture features is one of the most important properties for the representation of an image.Entropy and maximum entry from co-occurrence matrices are used for representing texture features in an image.For a range block,concerned domain blocks of neighbouring range blocks with similar texture features can be searched.In addition,domain blocks with similar texture features are searched in the ICA search process.Experiments show that in comparison with some typical methods,the proposed algorithm significantly speeds up the encoding process and achieves a higher compression ratio,with a slight diminution in the quality of the reconstructed image; in comparison with a spatial correlation scheme,the proposed scheme spends much less encoding time while the compression ratio and the quality of the reconstructed image are almost the same.

  9. A FAST APPROACH FOR STITCHING OF AERIAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moussa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The last few years have witnessed an increasing volume of aerial image data because of the extensive improvements of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs. These newly developed UAVs have led to a wide variety of applications. A fast assessment of the achieved coverage and overlap of the acquired images of a UAV flight mission is of great help to save the time and cost of the further steps. A fast automatic stitching of the acquired images can help to visually assess the achieved coverage and overlap during the flight mission. This paper proposes an automatic image stitching approach that creates a single overview stitched image using the acquired images during a UAV flight mission along with a coverage image that represents the count of overlaps between the acquired images. The main challenge of such task is the huge number of images that are typically involved in such scenarios. A short flight mission with image acquisition frequency of one second can capture hundreds to thousands of images. The main focus of the proposed approach is to reduce the processing time of the image stitching procedure by exploiting the initial knowledge about the images positions provided by the navigation sensors. The proposed approach also avoids solving for all the transformation parameters of all the photos together to save the expected long computation time if all the parameters were considered simultaneously. After extracting the points of interest of all the involved images using Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT algorithm, the proposed approach uses the initial image’s coordinates to build an incremental constrained Delaunay triangulation that represents the neighborhood of each image. This triangulation helps to match only the neighbor images and therefore reduces the time-consuming features matching step. The estimated relative orientation between the matched images is used to find a candidate seed image for the stitching process. The pre

  10. a Fast Approach for Stitching of Aerial Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, A.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2016-06-01

    The last few years have witnessed an increasing volume of aerial image data because of the extensive improvements of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). These newly developed UAVs have led to a wide variety of applications. A fast assessment of the achieved coverage and overlap of the acquired images of a UAV flight mission is of great help to save the time and cost of the further steps. A fast automatic stitching of the acquired images can help to visually assess the achieved coverage and overlap during the flight mission. This paper proposes an automatic image stitching approach that creates a single overview stitched image using the acquired images during a UAV flight mission along with a coverage image that represents the count of overlaps between the acquired images. The main challenge of such task is the huge number of images that are typically involved in such scenarios. A short flight mission with image acquisition frequency of one second can capture hundreds to thousands of images. The main focus of the proposed approach is to reduce the processing time of the image stitching procedure by exploiting the initial knowledge about the images positions provided by the navigation sensors. The proposed approach also avoids solving for all the transformation parameters of all the photos together to save the expected long computation time if all the parameters were considered simultaneously. After extracting the points of interest of all the involved images using Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm, the proposed approach uses the initial image's coordinates to build an incremental constrained Delaunay triangulation that represents the neighborhood of each image. This triangulation helps to match only the neighbor images and therefore reduces the time-consuming features matching step. The estimated relative orientation between the matched images is used to find a candidate seed image for the stitching process. The pre-estimated transformation

  11. Fast Pairwise Conversion of Supernova Neutrinos: A Dispersion Relation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre, Ignacio; Raffelt, Georg; Tamborra, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Collective pair conversion νeν¯ e↔νxν¯ x by forward scattering, where x =μ or τ , may be generic for supernova neutrino transport. Depending on the local angular intensity of the electron lepton number carried by neutrinos, the conversion rate can be "fast," i.e., of the order of √{2 }GF(nνe-nν¯e)≫Δ matm2/2 E . We present a novel approach to understand these phenomena: a dispersion relation for the frequency and wave number (Ω ,K ) of disturbances in the mean field of νeνx flavor coherence. Runaway solutions occur in "dispersion gaps," i.e., in "forbidden" intervals of Ω and/or K where propagating plane waves do not exist. We stress that the actual solutions also depend on the initial and/or boundary conditions, which need to be further investigated.

  12. Pairing correlations in an explicitly particle-number conserving approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pillet, N; Libert, J

    2002-01-01

    A method to treat pairing correlations in an explicitly particle-number conserving approach is proposed and discussed. It appears to be both tractable and reliable while using state of the art effective interactions, e.g. of the Skyrme type, for the particle-hole matrix elements. It corresponds to a highly truncated shell-model calculation approach. Its fast convergence in the particle-hole basis is due to the use of single-particle states stemming from an Hartree-Fock-like mean field defined from a one-body density matrix including self-consistently the one-body effect of the correlations. Results obtained in an non-fully consistent fashion, in that the residual interaction is mocked up by a delta interaction, are presented. They mainly confirm most of the physical properties underlying the BCS-like solutions, in particular the paramount importance of pair transfers. However in weak pairing situations, e.g. near subshell- or shell-closures, they provide a microscopic description quite at variance with the us...

  13. Vectorized data acquisition and fast triple-correlation integrals for Fluorescence Triple Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgeway, William K; Millar, David P; Williamson, James R

    2013-04-01

    Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) is widely used to quantitate reaction rates and concentrations of molecules in vitro and in vivo. We recently reported Fluorescence Triple Correlation Spectroscopy (F3CS), which correlates three signals together instead of two. F3CS can analyze the stoichiometries of complex mixtures and detect irreversible processes by identifying time-reversal asymmetries. Here we report the computational developments that were required for the realization of F3CS and present the results as the Triple Correlation Toolbox suite of programs. Triple Correlation Toolbox is a complete data analysis pipeline capable of acquiring, correlating and fitting large data sets. Each segment of the pipeline handles error estimates for accurate error-weighted global fitting. Data acquisition was accelerated with a combination of off-the-shelf counter-timer chips and vectorized operations on 128-bit registers. This allows desktop computers with inexpensive data acquisition cards to acquire hours of multiple-channel data with sub-microsecond time resolution. Off-line correlation integrals were implemented as a two delay time multiple-tau scheme that scales efficiently with multiple processors and provides an unprecedented view of linked dynamics. Global fitting routines are provided to fit FCS and F3CS data to models containing up to ten species. Triple Correlation Toolbox is a complete package that enables F3CS to be performed on existing microscopes.

  14. Oxygen optodes as fast sensors for eddy correlation measurements in aquatic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chipman, Lindsay; Huettel, Markus; Berg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The aquatic eddy-correlation technique can be used to noninvasively determine the oxygen exchange across the sediment-water interface by analyzing the covariance of vertical flow velocity and oxygen concentration in a small measuring volume above the sea bed. The method requires fast sensors that...

  15. Vectorized data acquisition and fast triple-correlation integrals for Fluorescence Triple Correlation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgeway, William K.; Millar, David P.; Williamson, James R.

    2013-04-01

    Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) is widely used to quantify reaction rates and concentrations of molecules in vitro and in vivo. We recently reported Fluorescence Triple Correlation Spectroscopy (F3CS), which correlates three signals together instead of two. F3CS can analyze the stoichiometries of complex mixtures and detect irreversible processes by identifying time-reversal asymmetries. Here we report the computational developments that were required for the realization of F3CS and present the results as the Triple Correlation Toolbox suite of programs. Triple Correlation Toolbox is a complete data analysis pipeline capable of acquiring, correlating and fitting large data sets. Each segment of the pipeline handles error estimates for accurate error-weighted global fitting. Data acquisition was accelerated with a combination of off-the-shelf counter-timer chips and vectorized operations on 128-bit registers. This allows desktop computers with inexpensive data acquisition cards to acquire hours of multiple-channel data with sub-microsecond time resolution. Off-line correlation integrals were implemented as a two delay time multiple-tau scheme that scales efficiently with multiple processors and provides an unprecedented view of linked dynamics. Global fitting routines are provided to fit FCS and F3CS data to models containing up to ten species. Triple Correlation Toolbox is a complete package that enables F3CS to be performed on existing microscopes. Catalogue identifier: AEOP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 50189 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6135283 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C/Assembly. Computer: Any with GCC and

  16. A Fast Approach for Track Initiation and Termination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUHongyan; HANChongzhao; HANHong

    2004-01-01

    Track initiation and termination is an important function in Multi-target tracking (MTT), it is a decision part for establishing the records of the new targets and terminating the unwanted records of the inexistent targets when they leave the surveillance region. But in the heavy cluttered environment, there exists so called “incomplete data problem”, due to the unknown state of the target and the sequence of measurements which originate from the target. Because the EM algorithm is an efficient means to solve the “incomplete data problem”,a fast track initiation and termination approach applicable to engineering is presented, which combines the Sequential probabilistic ratio test (SPRT) with recursive Expectation maximization (EM). Here, track initiation and termination is modeled as a hypothesis testing problem. And aiming at the computational difficulty of the likelihood function due to the unknown target state and the sequence of measurements which originate from the target, the recursive EM-based formula of likelihood function is introduced. It gives an efficient solution to track initiation and termination by processing the measurement data sequentially, and its recursive form can meet the real-time demand. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method performs well for track initiation and termination, especially in heavily cluttered environment.

  17. Genetic Approach for the Fast Discovery of Phenazine Producing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes F. Imhoff

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A fast and efficient approach was established to identify bacteria possessing the potential to biosynthesize phenazines, which are of special interest regarding their antimicrobial activities. Sequences of phzE genes, which are part of the phenazine biosynthetic pathway, were used to design one universal primer system and to analyze the ability of bacteria to produce phenazine. Diverse bacteria from different marine habitats and belonging to six major phylogenetic lines were investigated. Bacteria exhibiting phzE gene fragments affiliated to Firmicutes, Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Thus, these are the first primers for amplifying gene fragments from Firmicutes and Alphaproteobacteria. The genetic potential for phenazine production was shown for four type strains belonging to the genera Streptomyces and Pseudomonas as well as for 13 environmental isolates from marine habitats. For the first time, the genetic ability of phenazine biosynthesis was verified by analyzing the metabolite pattern of all PCR-positive strains via HPLC-UV/MS. Phenazine production was demonstrated for the type strains known to produce endophenazines, 2-hydroxy-phenazine, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylic acid, and chlororaphin as well as for members of marine Actinobacteria. Interestingly, a number of unidentified phenazines possibly represent new phenazine structures.

  18. Fast Pairwise Conversion of Supernova Neutrinos: A Dispersion Relation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre, Ignacio; Raffelt, Georg; Tamborra, Irene

    2017-01-13

    Collective pair conversion ν_{e}ν[over ¯]_{e}↔ν_{x}ν[over ¯]_{x} by forward scattering, where x=μ or τ, may be generic for supernova neutrino transport. Depending on the local angular intensity of the electron lepton number carried by neutrinos, the conversion rate can be "fast," i.e., of the order of sqrt[2]G_{F}(n_{ν_{e}}-n_{ν[over ¯]_{e}})≫Δm_{atm}^{2}/2E. We present a novel approach to understand these phenomena: a dispersion relation for the frequency and wave number (Ω,K) of disturbances in the mean field of ν_{e}ν_{x} flavor coherence. Runaway solutions occur in "dispersion gaps," i.e., in "forbidden" intervals of Ω and/or K where propagating plane waves do not exist. We stress that the actual solutions also depend on the initial and/or boundary conditions, which need to be further investigated.

  19. INSCAN PRO: a fast ultraviolet spectrometer design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Brian Walker; Dias, João. Mendanha

    2013-11-01

    Spectroscopy diagnostic techniques have applications in such diverse areas as mechanical and aerospace engineering, physical chemistry, optics, food and pharmaceutical industries. However, the technological state-of-the-art spectrometers do not allow very fast processes to be evaluated or controlled. This ability is crucial in the optimization of industrial processes (welding, burning flames, spark ignition, pulsed radiolysis…) where more theoretical-experimental analysis should be performed. The INSCAN project aims to overcome this technological limitation, to satisfy needs in academia and industrial markets, by developing a compact spectrometer with focal lengths less than 200 mm, taking into account three important aspects: acquisition rate of approximately 10 kHz spectra, spectral resolution on the order of 0.1 nm and operating in the spectral range 200 nm to 700 nm. Initial work is described on the optical design of the device and several possible approaches to achieve the specifications are considered. To guide the first order design, we relate the optical linewidth, spectral bandwidth and imaging properties to component characteristics. The symmetrical Czerny-Turner optical mount was chosen for its flexibility and elaborated using ZEMAX. Predictions made based on the simulated system are compared with calibration and characterization measurements on an experimental test bench used to refine the model assumptions.

  20. A Fast Wavelet Multilevel Approach to Total Variation Image Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kossi Edoh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an adaptive multilevel total variational (TV method for image denoising which utilizes TV partial differential equation (PDE models and exploits the multiresolution properties of wavelets. The adaptive multilevel TV method provides fast adaptive wavelet-based solvers for the TV model. Our approach employs a wavelet collocation method applied to the TV model using two-dimensional anisotropic tensor product of Daubechies wavelets. The algorithm inherently combines the denoising property of wavelet compression algorithms with that of the TV model, and produces results superior to each method when implemented alone. It exploits the edge preservation property of the TVmodel to reduce the oscillations that may be generated around the edges in wavelet compression. In contrast with previous work combining TV denoising with wavelet compression, the method presented in this paper treats the numerical solution in a novel waywhich decreases the computational cost associated with the solution of the TV model. We present a detailed description of our method and results which indicate that a combination of wavelet based denoising techniques with the TV model produces superior results, for afraction of the computational cost.

  1. A fast multi-resolution approach to tomographic PIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Discetti, Stefano; Astarita, Tommaso [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Aerospace Engineering (DIAS), Naples (Italy)

    2012-03-15

    Tomographic particle image velocimetry (Tomo-PIV) is a recently developed three-component, three-dimensional anemometric non-intrusive measurement technique, based on an optical tomographic reconstruction applied to simultaneously recorded images of the distribution of light intensity scattered by seeding particles immersed into the flow. Nowadays, the reconstruction process is carried out mainly by iterative algebraic reconstruction techniques, well suited to handle the problem of limited number of views, but computationally intensive and memory demanding. The adoption of the multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) has become more and more accepted. In the present work, a novel multi-resolution approach is proposed, relying on the adoption of a coarser grid in the first step of the reconstruction to obtain a fast estimation of a reliable and accurate first guess. A performance assessment, carried out on three-dimensional computer-generated distributions of particles, shows a substantial acceleration of the reconstruction process for all the tested seeding densities with respect to the standard method based on 5 MART iterations; a relevant reduction in the memory storage is also achieved. Furthermore, a slight accuracy improvement is noticed. A modified version, improved by a multiplicative line of sight estimation of the first guess on the compressed configuration, is also tested, exhibiting a further remarkable decrease in both memory storage and computational effort, mostly at the lowest tested seeding densities, while retaining the same performances in terms of accuracy. (orig.)

  2. Indirectly detected chemical shift correlation NMR spectroscopy in solids under fast magic angle spinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Kanmi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The development of fast magic angle spinning (MAS) opened up an opportunity for the indirect detection of insensitive low-γ nuclei (e.g., 13C and 15N) via the sensitive high-{gamma} nuclei (e.g., 1H and 19F) in solid-state NMR, with advanced sensitivity and resolution. In this thesis, new methodology utilizing fast MAS is presented, including through-bond indirectly detected heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) spectroscopy, which is assisted by multiple RF pulse sequences for 1H-1H homonuclear decoupling. Also presented is a simple new strategy for optimization of 1H-1H homonuclear decoupling. As applications, various classes of materials, such as catalytic nanoscale materials, biomolecules, and organic complexes, are studied by combining indirect detection and other one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR techniques. Indirectly detected through-bond HETCOR spectroscopy utilizing refocused INEPT (INEPTR) mixing was developed under fast MAS (Chapter 2). The time performance of this approach in 1H detected 2D 1H{l_brace}13C{r_brace} spectra was significantly improved, by a factor of almost 10, compared to the traditional 13C detected experiments, as demonstrated by measuring naturally abundant organic-inorganic mesoporous hybrid materials. The through-bond scheme was demonstrated as a new analytical tool, which provides complementary structural information in solid-state systems in addition to through-space correlation. To further benefit the sensitivity of the INEPT transfer in rigid solids, the combined rotation and multiple-pulse spectroscopy (CRAMPS) was implemented for homonuclear 1H decoupling under fast MAS (Chapter 3). Several decoupling schemes (PMLG5m$\\bar{x}$, PMLG5mm$\\bar{x}$x and SAM3) were analyzed to maximize the performance of through-bond transfer based

  3. A high-speed readout scheme for fast optical correlation-based pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Gregor J.; Lewis, Meirion F.; Wilson, Rebecca

    2004-12-01

    We describe recent developments to a novel form of hybrid electronic/photonic correlator, which exploits component innovations in both electronics and photonics to provide fast, compact and rugged target recognition, applicable to a wide range of security applications. The system benefits from a low power, low volume, optical processing core which has the potential to realise man portable pattern recognition for a wide range of security based imagery and target databases. In the seminal Vander Lugt correlator the input image is Fourier transformed optically and multiplied optically with the conjugate Fourier transform of a reference pattern; the required correlation function is completed by taking the inverse Fourier transform of the product optically. The correlator described here is similar in principle, but performs the initial Fourier transforms and multiplication electronically, with only the final most computationally demanding output Fourier transform being performed optically. In this scheme the Fourier transforms of both the input scene and reference pattern are reduced to a binary phase-only format, where the multiplication process simplifies to a simple Boolean logic XOR function. The output of this XOR gate is displayed on a state-of-the-art Fast Bit Plane Spatial Light Modulator (FBPSLM). A novel readout scheme has been developed which overcomes the previous system output bottleneck and for the first time allows correlation frame readout rates capable of matching the inherently fast nature of the SLM. Readout rates of up to ~1 MHz are now possible, exceeding current SLM capabilities and meeting potential medium term SLM developments promised by SLMs based on novel materials and architectures.

  4. A new approach to study fast pyrolysis of pulverized coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Yao, J.; Lin, W. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Chemical Metallurgy Fast Reactions Laboratory, Beijing, BJ (China)

    2002-07-01

    An experimental study of the effects of varying bed temperature and coal particle size on the fast pyrolysis of pulverized coal in a downer reactor is described. A Datong bituminous coal (particle size 0.5 and 0.34 mm) was studied at temperatures ranging from 592{sup o} C to 720{sup o} C. The experiments were conducted in a batch apparatus. An on-line gas analyzer was used to measure carbon dioxide release curves. The experimental data were used to develop a pyrolysis model that quantifies the fast heating of fine coal particles. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. FAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections with aqu......ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections...... with aqueous food extracts may be effective but has proven to be accompanied by too many anaphylactic side-effects. FAST aims to develop a safe alternative by replacing food extracts with hypoallergenic recombinant major allergens as the active ingredients of SIT. Both severe fish and peach allergy are caused...... in depth serological and cellular immune analyses will be performed, allowing identification of novel biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy. FAST aims at improving the quality of life of food allergic patients by providing a safe and effective treatment that will significantly lower their threshold...

  6. Dominance of quantum over classical correlations: entropic and geometric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Walczak, Zbigniew; Wintrowicz, Iwona; Zakrzewska, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that there exist quantum states for which quantum correlations dominate over classical correlations. Inspired by this observation, we investigate the problem of quantum correlations dominance for two-qubit Bell diagonal states in the Ollivier--Zurek paradigm, using both entropic and geometric approach to quantification of classical and quantum correlations. In particular, we estimate numerically the amount of two-qubit Bell diagonal states for which quantum correla...

  7. Fusion ignition via a magnetically-assisted fast ignition approach

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, W -M; Sheng, Z -M; Li, Y T; Zhang, J

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress has been made towards laser-driven fusion ignition via different schemes, including direct and indirect central ignition, fast ignition, shock ignition, and impact ignition schemes. However, to reach ignition conditions, there are still various technical and physical challenges to be solved for all these schemes. Here, our multi-dimensional integrated simulation shows that the fast-ignition conditions could be achieved when two 2.8 petawatt heating laser pulses counter-propagate along a 3.5 kilotesla external magnetic field. Within a period of 5 picoseconds, the laser pulses heat a nuclear fuel to reach the ignition conditions. Furthermore, we present the parameter windows of lasers and magnetic fields required for ignition for experimental test.

  8. Two-point correlators revisited: Fast and slow scales in multifield models of Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ghersi, José T Gálvez

    2016-01-01

    We study the structure of two-point correlators of the inflationary field fluctuations in order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the existing spectral methods. We present a description motivated by the separation of the fast and slow evolving components of the spectrum. Our purpose is to rephrase all the relevant equations of motion in terms of slowly varying quantities. This is important in order to consider the contribution from high-frequency modes to the spectrum without affecting computational performance. The slow-roll approximation is not required to reproduce the main distinctive features in the power spectrum for each specific model of inflation.

  9. A Design of New Fast Image Permutation Approach for Food Intellectual-property Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The security of food image was important in food intellectual-property protection. Permutation could protect security of image which charged the correlation among adjacent pixels. Some chaotic maps were used in image permutation; act as baker map or some other maps. But the plain image must be square. At the same time the plain image always is stretched to a line firstly. Obviously, it wasted precious time. The study found the pixels location could arrange freely using some new maps without stretching and those also could encrypt rectangle images not only square image. The ideas of maps were: firstly the plain image was divided into two halves. Using two different scanning methods it could stretch the halves to two different lines. Then it inserted the pixels of a line into the adjacent pixels of another line in order. Lastly the new line could be fold to a new image. For different of scanning methods, it got some different map patterns. A permutation approach was developed which used those patterns. It used decimal numbers as the keys and could permute rectangle images easily. The permutation process was quite fast and enough safe. Deciphering process was an invertible process using the same keys. Some studies proved that high correlation among adjacent pixels was rapidly charged. The approach could satisfy the most security requirements in Internet.

  10. Mapping Liquid-liquid protein phase separation using ultra-fast-scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ming-Tzo; Elbaum-Garfinkle, Shana; Arnold, Craig B.; Priestley, Rodney D.; Brangwynne, Clifford P.

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are an understudied class of proteins that play important roles in a wide variety of biological processes in cells. We've previously shown that the C. elegans IDP LAF-1 phase separates into P granule-like droplets in vitro. However, the physics of the condensed phase remains poorly understood. Here, we use a novel technique, ultra-fast-scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, to study the nano-scale rheological properties of LAF-1 droplets. Ultra-fast-scanning FCS uses a tunable acoustic gradient index of refraction (TAG) lens with an oil immersion objective to control axial movement of the focal point over a length of several micrometers at frequencies of 70kHz. Using ultra-fast-scanning FCS allows for the accurate determination of molecular concentrations and their diffusion coefficient, when the particle is passing through an excitation volume. Our work reveals an asymmetric LAF-1 phase diagram, and demonstrates that LAF-1 droplets are purely viscous phases which are highly tunable by salt concentration.

  11. Fast motion vector estimation by using spatiotemporal correlation of motion field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungook; Chalidabhongse, Junavit; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    1995-04-01

    Motion vector (MV) estimation plays an important role in motion compensated video coding. In this research, we first examine a stochastic MV model which enables us to exploit the strong correlation of MVs in both spatial and temporal domains in a given image sequence. Then, a new fast stochastic block matching algorithm (SBMA) is proposed. The basic idea is to select a set of good MV candidates and choose from them the one which satisfies a certain spatio-temporal correlation rule. The proposed algorithm reduces matching operations to about 2% of that of the full block matching algorithm (FBMA) with only 2% increase of the sum of absolute difference (SAD) in motion compensated residuals. The excellent performance of the new algorithm is supported by extensive experimental results.

  12. A Novel Approach to Fast Image Filtering Algorithm of Infrared Images based on Intro Sort Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Kapil Kumar; Niranjan, Jitendra Kumar

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the fast image filtering algorithm based on Intro sort algorithm and fast noise reduction of infrared images. Main feature of the proposed approach is that no prior knowledge of noise required. It is developed based on Stefan- Boltzmann law and the Fourier law. We also investigate the fast noise reduction approach that has advantage of less computation load. In addition, it can retain edges, details, text information even if the size of the window increases. Intro sort algorithm begins with Quick sort and switches to heap sort when the recursion depth exceeds a level based on the number of elements being sorted. This approach has the advantage of fast noise reduction by reducing the comparison time. It also significantly speed up the noise reduction process and can apply to real-time image processing. This approach will extend the Infrared images applications for medicine and video conferencing.

  13. Correlation of anisotropy and directional conduction in β-Li3PS4 fast Li+ conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Cai, Lu; Liu, Zengcai; dela Cruz, Clarina R.; Liang, Chengdu; An, Ke

    2015-07-01

    This letter reports the correlation of anisotropy and directional conduction in the fast Li+ conductor β-Li3PS4, one of the low-symmetry crystalline electrolyte candidates. The material has both high conductivity and good stability that serves well for the large-scale energy storage applications of all-solid-state lithium ion batteries. The anisotropic physical properties, demonstrated here by the thermal expansion coefficients, are crucial for compatibility in the solid-state system and battery performance. Neutron and X-ray powder diffraction measurements were done to determine the crystal structure and thermal stability. The crystallographic b-axis was revealed as a fast expansion direction, while negligible thermal expansion was observed along the a-axis around the battery operating temperatures. The anisotropic behavior has its structural origin from the Li+ conduction channels with incomplete Li occupancy and a flexible connection of LiS4 and PS4 tetrahedra within the framework. This indicates a strong correlation in the direction of the ionic transport in the low-symmetry Li+ conductor.

  14. Real-Time Robust Tracking for Motion Blur and Fast Motion via Correlation Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingyun; Luo, Haibo; Hui, Bin; Chang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Visual tracking has extensive applications in intelligent monitoring and guidance systems. Among state-of-the-art tracking algorithms, Correlation Filter methods perform favorably in robustness, accuracy and speed. However, it also has shortcomings when dealing with pervasive target scale variation, motion blur and fast motion. In this paper we proposed a new real-time robust scheme based on Kernelized Correlation Filter (KCF) to significantly improve performance on motion blur and fast motion. By fusing KCF and STC trackers, our algorithm also solve the estimation of scale variation in many scenarios. We theoretically analyze the problem for CFs towards motions and utilize the point sharpness function of the target patch to evaluate the motion state of target. Then we set up an efficient scheme to handle the motion and scale variation without much time consuming. Our algorithm preserves the properties of KCF besides the ability to handle special scenarios. In the end extensive experimental results on benchmark of VOT datasets show our algorithm performs advantageously competed with the top-rank trackers. PMID:27618046

  15. Fast diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) for non-invasive measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzam, Parisa; Sutin, Jason; Wu, Kuan-Cheng; Zimmermann, Bernhard B.; Tamborini, Davide; Dubb, Jay; Boas, David A.; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2017-02-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has a key role in the management of neurosurgical and neurological injuries. Currently, the standard clinical monitoring of ICP requires an invasive transducer into the parenchymal tissue or the brain ventricle, with possibility of complications such as hemorrhage and infection. A non-invasive method for measuring ICP, would be highly preferable, as it would allow clinicians to promptly monitor ICP during transport and allow for monitoring in a larger number of patients. We have introduced diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) as a non-invasive ICP monitor by fast measurement of pulsatile cerebral blood flow (CBF). The method is similar to Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD), which derives ICP from the amplitude of the pulsatile cerebral blood flow velocity, with respect to the amplitude of the pulsatile arterial blood pressure. We believe DCS measurement is superior indicator of ICP than TCD estimation because DCS directly measures blood flow, not blood flow velocity, and the small cortical vessels measured by DCS are more susceptible to transmural pressure changes than the large vessels. For fast DCS measurements to recover pulsatile CBF we have developed a custom high-power long-coherent laser and a strategy for delivering it to the tissue within ANSI standards. We have also developed a custom FPGA-based correlator board, which facilitates DCS data acquisitions at 50-100 Hz. We have tested the feasibility of measuring pulsatile CBF and deriving ICP in two challenging scenarios: humans and rats. SNR is low in human adults due to large optode distances. It is similarly low in rats because the fast heart rate in this setting requires a high repetition rate.

  16. Quicksilver: Fast predictive image registration - A deep learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Kwitt, Roland; Styner, Martin; Niethammer, Marc

    2017-07-11

    This paper introduces Quicksilver, a fast deformable image registration method. Quicksilver registration for image-pairs works by patch-wise prediction of a deformation model based directly on image appearance. A deep encoder-decoder network is used as the prediction model. While the prediction strategy is general, we focus on predictions for the Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (LDDMM) model. Specifically, we predict the momentum-parameterization of LDDMM, which facilitates a patch-wise prediction strategy while maintaining the theoretical properties of LDDMM, such as guaranteed diffeomorphic mappings for sufficiently strong regularization. We also provide a probabilistic version of our prediction network which can be sampled during the testing time to calculate uncertainties in the predicted deformations. Finally, we introduce a new correction network which greatly increases the prediction accuracy of an already existing prediction network. We show experimental results for uni-modal atlas-to-image as well as uni-/multi-modal image-to-image registrations. These experiments demonstrate that our method accurately predicts registrations obtained by numerical optimization, is very fast, achieves state-of-the-art registration results on four standard validation datasets, and can jointly learn an image similarity measure. Quicksilver is freely available as an open-source software. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlation of CRP, fasting serum triglycerides and obesity as cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdous, Samar

    2014-05-01

    To determine the correlation of C-reactive protein (CRP) with fasting triglycerides (TG) among pre-obese and obese patients without established diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). A comparative cross-sectional study. Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from January to June 2010. Patients with BMI > 23 kg/m2 aged between 18 - 65 years were inducted and above variables were studied. Patients with signs of fluid retention, collagen vascular disease, CAD, patients on corticosteroids, immunomodulators or lipid lowering medications and febrile patients were not recruited. Body mass index was also determined. Independent sample t-test was applied to see the mean difference of age, CRP level and triglycerides level in relation to gender. Chi-square test was used to see the association between qualitative variables. ANOVA was applied to see CRP and fasting serum TG level in relation to BMI categories. Pearson correlation and simple linear regression was applied to see the dependency of CRP and triglycerides with BMI. P-value ² 0.05 was taken as significant. Raised CRP was major finding among all groups of BMI. Most of obese and pre-obese patients were young and middle aged and belonged to pre-obese group followed by class-1 and class-2 obesity. CRP level increased with body mass index. No such trend was observed for triglycerides. There was an intermediate positive correlation between CRP and BMI and triglycerides and BMI showed a weak negative correlation. If BMI increases by 1 unit on the average, CRP rises by 0.239 times and this unit rise was significant. Whereas 1 unit rise increase in triglycerides on the average cause CRP to decrease -0.006 times but this value was insignificant. Raised CRP and high fasting TG were major findings in all age groups especially among young and middle aged people. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and raised CRP are interrelated suggesting that obesity is not only linked to hypertriglyceridemia but vascular inflammation among pre-obese and obese

  18. Neural Correlates of Fast Pupil Dilation in Nonhuman Primates: Relation to Behavioral Performance and Cognitive Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, R.E.; Opris, Ioan; Deadwyler, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Pupil dilation in humans has been previously shown to correlate with cognitive workload, whereby increased frequency of dilation is associated with increased degree of difficulty of a task. It has been suggested that frontal oculomotor brain areas control cognitively-related pupil dilations, but this has not been confirmed due to lack of animal models of cognitive workload and task-related pupil dilation. This is the first report of a wavelet analysis applied to continuous measures of pupil size used to detect the onset of abrupt pupil dilations and the frequency of those dilations in nonhuman primates (NHPs) performing a trial-unique delayed match to sample (DMS) task. An additional unique finding shows that electrophysiological recordings in the same animals revealed correlated firing of neurons in frontal cortex with different components of pupil dilation during task performance. It is further demonstrated that the frequency of fast pupil dilations (but not rate of eye movements) correlated with cognitive workload during task performance. Such correlations suggest that frontal neuron encoding of pupil dilation provides critical feedback to other brain areas involved in the processing of complex visual information. PMID:20226215

  19. Fast 3D route-planning approach for air vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jilin; Ding, Mingyue; Zhou, Chengping; Ai, Haojun

    1997-06-01

    A fast 3-D route planning method for unmanned air vehicle is proposed which can generate physically realizable 3-D route within a reasonable time. Our method includes two steps: First, 2-D route planning generates a route which satisfies turning radius constraint(abbreviated as R-constrained below); second, 3-D route planning generates 3-D route in vertical profile of the 2-D route. To make 2-D route R-constrained, a method is proposed by supposing 2-D route of air vehicle is composed of a sequence of arc route segments and tangential points between neighboring arcs are searching nodes. 3 -D route planning is considered as optimal control problem, and its route can be determined by applying motion equations of air vehicle. The experiments show that our method can produce feasible 3-D routes within a reasonable time, and ensure the planned 3-D routes satisfy aerodynamics constraints of air vehicle.

  20. Identification of fast particle triggered modes by means of correlation electron cyclotron emission on Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goniche, M.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Turco, F.; Maget, P.; Segui, J.L.; Artaud, J.F.; Giruzzi, G.; Imbeaux, F.; Lotte, P.; Mazon, D.; Molina, D. [CEA Cadarache, Assoc EURATOM DRFC, SCCP, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance (France); Udintsev, V.S. [EPFL /SB/CRPP, Assoc EURATOM Confederat Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Low-frequency (5- to 20-kHz) and high-frequency (40- to 200-kHz) modes are studied during radio-frequency heating experiments on the Tore Supra tokamak by means of correlation electron cyclotron emission. High-frequency modes are detected when the plasma is heated by ion cyclotron range of frequency waves in the minority D(H) heating scheme in combination with lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) producing a flat or slightly reversed q-profile. They are identified as Alfven cascade modes. When this mode is triggered, fast ion losses ({<=} 20%) are detected from the neutron emission rate, and an additional heat load on plasma-facing components can be measured by an infrared camera when the fast ion energy is sufficiently large. Low-frequency modes are commonly triggered during LHCD experiments performed at low loop voltage. This mode can be observed with moderate lower hybrid power when the q-profile is monotonic or at higher power when the q-profile is flat in the core (r/a {<=} 0.2) or reversed. It is identified, in most cases, as an electron fishbone-like mode. These modes can be stabilized by a slight modification of the q-profile provided by an increase of lower hybrid power or by a small addition of electron cyclotron current device. (authors)

  1. ERRATUM: Correlations at Large Scales and the Onset of Turbulence in the Fast Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, R. T.; Roberts, D. A.; Mallet, A.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Horbury, T. S.; Chen, C. H. K.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the scaling of structure functions of magnetic and velocity fields in a mostly highly Alfvenic fast solar wind stream depends strongly on the joint distribution of the dimensionless measures of cross helicity and residual energy. Already at very low frequencies, fluctuations that are both more balanced (cross helicity approx. 0) and equipartitioned (residual energy approx.0) have steep structure functions reminiscent of "turbulent" scalings usually associated with the inertial range. Fluctuations that are magnetically dominated (residual energy approx. –1), and so have closely anti-aligned Elsasser-field vectors, or are imbalanced (cross helicity approx. 1), and so have closely aligned magnetic and velocity vectors, have wide "1/f" ranges typical of fast solar wind. We conclude that the strength of nonlinear interactions of individual fluctuations within a stream, diagnosed by the degree of correlation in direction and magnitude of magnetic and velocity fluctuations, determines the extent of the 1/f region observed, and thus the onset scale for the turbulent cascade.

  2. Reliability of Serum Metabolites over a Two-Year Period: A Targeted Metabolomic Approach in Fasting and Non-Fasting Samples from EPIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayol, Marion; Licaj, Idlir; Achaintre, David; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Vineis, Paolo; Key, Timothy J; Onland Moret, N Charlotte; Scalbert, Augustin; Rinaldi, Sabina; Ferrari, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Although metabolic profiles have been associated with chronic disease risk, lack of temporal stability of metabolite levels could limit their use in epidemiological investigations. The present study aims to evaluate the reliability over a two-year period of 158 metabolites and compare reliability over time in fasting and non-fasting serum samples. Metabolites were measured with the AbsolueIDQp180 kit (Biocrates, Innsbruck, Austria) by mass spectrometry and included acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, hexoses, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins. Measurements were performed on repeat serum samples collected two years apart in 27 fasting men from Turin, Italy, and 39 non-fasting women from Utrecht, The Netherlands, all participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Reproducibility was assessed by estimating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) in multivariable mixed models. In fasting samples, a median ICC of 0.70 was observed. ICC values were fasting samples, the median ICC was 0.54. ICC values were fasting as compared to fasting samples, with a statistically significant difference for 19-36% of acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins. A single measurement per individual may be sufficient for the study of 73% and 52% of the metabolites showing ICCs >0.50 in fasting and non-fasting samples, respectively. ICCs were higher in fasting samples that are preferable to non-fasting.

  3. A Fast Hybrid Approach to Air Shower Simulations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Drescher, H J; Bleicher, M; Reiter, M; Soff, S; Stöcker, H; Stoecker, Horst

    2003-01-01

    The SENECA model, a new hybrid approach to air shower simulations, is presented. It combines the use of efficient cascade equations in the energy range where a shower can be treated as one-dimensional, with a traditional Monte Carlo method which traces individual particles. This allows one to reproduce natural fluctuations of individual showers as well as the lateral spread of low energy particles. The model is quite efficient in computation time. As an application of the new approach, the influence of the low energy hadronic models on shower properties for AUGER energies is studied. We conclude that these models have a significant impact on the tails of lateral distribution functions, and deserve therefore more attention.

  4. Fast solutions for UC problems by a new metaheuristic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Ana; de Sousa, J. Pinho; Matos, Manuel A. [INESC Porto, Campus da FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias 378, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2008-08-15

    Due to its combinatorial nature, the Unit Commitment problem has for long been an important research challenge, with several optimization techniques, from exact to heuristic methods, having been proposed to deal with it. In line with one current trend of research, metaheuristic approaches have been studied and some interesting results have already been achieved and published. However, a successful utilization of these methodologies in practice, when embedded in Energy Management Systems, is still constrained by the reluctance of industrial partners in using techniques whose performance highly depends on a correct parameter tuning. Therefore, the application of metaheuristics to the Unit Commitment problem does still justify further research. In this paper we propose a new search strategy, for Local Search based metaheuristics, that tries to overcome this issue. The approach has been tested in a set of instances, leading to very good results in terms of solution cost, when compared either to the classical Lagrangian Relaxation or to other metaheuristics. It also drastically reduced the computation times. Furthermore, the approach proved to be robust, always leading to good results independently of the metaheuristic parameters used. (author)

  5. 3D fast adaptive correlation imaging for large-scale gravity data based on GPU computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Meng, X.; Guo, L.; Liu, G.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, large scale gravity data sets have been collected and employed to enhance gravity problem-solving abilities of tectonics studies in China. Aiming at the large scale data and the requirement of rapid interpretation, previous authors have carried out a lot of work, including the fast gradient module inversion and Euler deconvolution depth inversion ,3-D physical property inversion using stochastic subspaces and equivalent storage, fast inversion using wavelet transforms and a logarithmic barrier method. So it can be say that 3-D gravity inversion has been greatly improved in the last decade. Many authors added many different kinds of priori information and constraints to deal with nonuniqueness using models composed of a large number of contiguous cells of unknown property and obtained good results. However, due to long computation time, instability and other shortcomings, 3-D physical property inversion has not been widely applied to large-scale data yet. In order to achieve 3-D interpretation with high efficiency and precision for geological and ore bodies and obtain their subsurface distribution, there is an urgent need to find a fast and efficient inversion method for large scale gravity data. As an entirely new geophysical inversion method, 3D correlation has a rapid development thanks to the advantage of requiring no a priori information and demanding small amount of computer memory. This method was proposed to image the distribution of equivalent excess masses of anomalous geological bodies with high resolution both longitudinally and transversely. In order to tranform the equivalence excess masses into real density contrasts, we adopt the adaptive correlation imaging for gravity data. After each 3D correlation imaging, we change the equivalence into density contrasts according to the linear relationship, and then carry out forward gravity calculation for each rectangle cells. Next, we compare the forward gravity data with real data, and

  6. Fast heat transfer calculations in supercritical fluids versus hydrodynamic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolayev, Vadim; Garrabos, Y; Beysens, D

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the heat transfer in a simple pure fluid whose temperature is slightly above its critical temperature. We propose a efficient numerical method to predict the heat transfer in such fluids when the gravity can be neglected. The method, based on a simplified thermodynamic approach, is compared with direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations performed for CO2 and SF6. A realistic equation of state is used to describe both fluids. The proposed method agrees with the full hydrodynamic solution and provides a huge gain in computation time. The connection between the purely thermodynamic and hydrodynamic descriptions is also discussed.

  7. Fasting Glucose Levels Correlate with Disease Severity of Guillain-Barre Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available A potential association between diabetes and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS has been indicated by a few case studies. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical features of a large cohort of GBS patients to explore the relationship between the level of fasting plasma glucose (FPG obtained in the acute phase at admission and the severity of GBS.Three hundred and four GBS patients were divided into two groups, one with normal FPG and the other with high FPG levels according to the international standards of FPG.The GBS disability scale score was positively, the Medical Research Council (MRC sum score was negatively correlated to the level of FPG, but not to blood HBA1c or CSF glucose concentrations. A relatively higher FPG level was observed in older and younger GBS patients, and more often in those with cranial nerve involvement, autonomic deficit, dyspnea and ventilator dependence than in patients without these clinical characteristics. Importantly, higher levels of FPG at admission were associated with poorer short-term prognosis measured by the MRC sum score and the GBS disability scale at discharge.Our data demonstrates that FPG in the acute phase of GBS correlates with the severity of GBS and may predict the short-term prognosis of GBS.

  8. F2DPR: a fast and robust cross-correlation technique for volumetric PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Thomas; Jeon, Young Jin; Lecordier, Bertrand; David, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    The current state-of-the-art in cross-correlation based time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques are the fluid trajectory correlation, FTC (Lynch and Scarano 2013) and the fluid trajectory evaluation based on an ensemble-averaged cross-correlation, FTEE (Jeon et al 2014a). These techniques compute the velocity vector as a polynomial trajectory Γ in space and time, enabling the extraction of beneficial quantities such as material acceleration whilst significantly increasing the accuracy of the particle displacement prediction achieved by standard two-frame PIV. In the context of time-resolved volumetric PIV, the drawback of trajectory computation is the computational expense of the three-dimensional (3D) cross-correlation, exacerbated by the requirement to perform N  -  1 cross-correlations, where N (for typically 5≤slant N≤slant 9 ) is the number of sequential particle volumes, for each velocity field. Therefore, the acceleration of this calculation is highly desirable. This paper re-examines the application of two-dimensional (2D) cross-correlation methods to three-dimensional (3D) datasets by Bilsky et al (2011) and the binning techniques of Discetti and Astarita (2012). A new and robust version of the 2D methods is proposed and described, called fast 2D projection—re-projection (f2dpr). Performance tests based on computational time and accuracy for both two-frame and multi-frame PIV are carried out on synthetically generated data. The cases presented herein include uniaxial uniform linear displacements and shear, and simulated turbulence data. The proposed algorithm is shown to be in the order of 10 times faster than a standard 3D FFT without loss of precision for a wide range of synthetic test cases, while combining with the binning technique can yield 50 times faster computation. The algorithm is also applied to reconstructed synthetic turbulent particle fields to investigate reconstruction noise on its performance and no

  9. Robust alignment of chromatograms by statistically analyzing the shifts matrix generated by moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingjing; Wen, Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Lu, Hongmei; Liang, Yizeng; Zhan, Dejian

    2015-03-01

    Retention time shift is one of the most challenging problems during the preprocessing of massive chromatographic datasets. Here, an improved version of the moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation algorithm is presented to perform nonlinear and robust alignment of chromatograms by analyzing the shifts matrix generated by moving window procedure. The shifts matrix in retention time can be estimated by fast Fourier transform cross-correlation with a moving window procedure. The refined shift of each scan point can be obtained by calculating the mode of corresponding column of the shifts matrix. This version is simple, but more effective and robust than the previously published moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation method. It can handle nonlinear retention time shift robustly if proper window size has been selected. The window size is the only one parameter needed to adjust and optimize. The properties of the proposed method are investigated by comparison with the previous moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation and recursive alignment by fast Fourier transform using chromatographic datasets. The pattern recognition results of a gas chromatography mass spectrometry dataset of metabolic syndrome can be improved significantly after preprocessing by this method. Furthermore, the proposed method is available as an open source package at https://github.com/zmzhang/MWFFT2.

  10. Intelligent fuzzy approach for fast fractal image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodehi, Ali; Sulong, Ghazali; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah; Rehman, Amjad; Saba, Tanzila

    2014-12-01

    Fractal image compression (FIC) is recognized as a NP-hard problem, and it suffers from a high number of mean square error (MSE) computations. In this paper, a two-phase algorithm was proposed to reduce the MSE computation of FIC. In the first phase, based on edge property, range and domains are arranged. In the second one, imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) is used according to the classified blocks. For maintaining the quality of the retrieved image and accelerating algorithm operation, we divided the solutions into two groups: developed countries and undeveloped countries. Simulations were carried out to evaluate the performance of the developed approach. Promising results thus achieved exhibit performance better than genetic algorithm (GA)-based and Full-search algorithms in terms of decreasing the number of MSE computations. The number of MSE computations was reduced by the proposed algorithm for 463 times faster compared to the Full-search algorithm, although the retrieved image quality did not have a considerable change.

  11. Lowered fasting chenodeoxycholic acid correlated with the decrease of fibroblast growth factor 19 in Chinese subjects with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Huating; Zhou, Hu; Fang, Li; Xu, Jingjing; Yan, Han; Chen, Shuqin; Song, Qianqian; Zhang, Yinan; Xu, Aimin; Fang, Qichen; Ye, Yang; Jia, Weiping

    2017-07-20

    The gut-derived hormone Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) could regulate glucose metabolism and is induced by bile acids (BAs) through activating Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR). FGF19 was found to decrease in subjects with isolated-impaired fasting glucose (I-IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the reason for the change of FGF19 in subjects with different glucometabolic status remained unclear. Here we measured six BAs including chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, their glycine conjugates and FGF19 levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normal glucose tolerance (NGT), isolated-impaired glucose tolerance, I-IFG, combined glucose intolerance (CGI) and T2DM subjects. After OGTT, serum FGF19 peaked at 120 min in all subjects. Glycine conjugated BAs peaked at 30 min, while free BAs did not elevated significantly. Consistent with the decrease trend in FGF19 levels, fasting serum CDCA levels in subjects with I-IFG, CGI and T2DM were significantly lower than NGT subjects (P decrease of FGF19 in subjects with I-IFG was at least partially due to their decrease of CDCA acting via FXR.

  12. Fast-Find: a novel computational approach to analyzing combinatorial motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamady, Micah; Peden, Erin; Knight, Rob; Singh, Ravinder

    2006-01-04

    Many vital biological processes, including transcription and splicing, require a combination of short, degenerate sequence patterns, or motifs, adjacent to defined sequence features. Although these motifs occur frequently by chance, they only have biological meaning within a specific context. Identifying transcripts that contain meaningful combinations of patterns is thus an important problem, which existing tools address poorly. Here we present a new approach, Fast-FIND (Fast-Fully Indexed Nucleotide Database), that uses a relational database to support rapid indexed searches for arbitrary combinations of patterns defined either by sequence or composition. Fast-FIND is easy to implement, takes less than a second to search the entire Drosophila genome sequence for arbitrary patterns adjacent to sites of alternative polyadenylation, and is sufficiently fast to allow sensitivity analysis on the patterns. We have applied this approach to identify transcripts that contain combinations of sequence motifs for RNA-binding proteins that may regulate alternative polyadenylation. Fast-FIND provides an efficient way to identify transcripts that are potentially regulated via alternative polyadenylation. We have used it to generate hypotheses about interactions between specific polyadenylation factors, which we will test experimentally.

  13. A fast Laplace solver approach to pore scale permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arns, Christoph; Adler, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    alpha=0.5. Third, the most important test was performed on two types of real media that were used for previous studies. A fracture network measured by FIB/SEM in a low permeability sandstone was used for that purpose; the two dimensionless permeabilities KS and KL are equal to 9.3d-3 and 8.5d-3. Similar calculations were performed on 256 samples of Fontainebleau sandstones and the agreement was in general excellent, except may be for very low permeabilities. To conclude, the Laplace solver is significantly more stable than the lattice Boltzmann approach, uses less memory, and is significantly faster. Permeabilities are in excellent agreement over a wide range of porosities.

  14. Prostate size correlates with fasting blood glucose in non-diabetic benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with normal testosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Tae; Yun, Seok Joong; Choi, Young Deuk; Kim, Gi-Young; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Isaac Yi; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated the correlations between BMI, fasting glucose, insulin, testosterone level, insulin resistance, and prostate size in non-diabetic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients with normal testosterone levels. Data from 212 non-diabetic BPH patients with normal testosterone levels, who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) due to medical treatment failure, were evaluated retrospectively. Patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels of ≥ 3 ng/mL underwent multicore transrectal prostate biopsy before TURP to rule out prostate cancer. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or serum testosterone levels of Prostate size correlated positively with age (r = 0.227, P 0.05). Testosterone level inversely correlated with BMI (r = -0.327, P prostate size, PSA, or fasting glucose level (each P > 0.05). Upon multiple adjusted linear regression analysis, prostate size correlated with elevated PSA (P prostate hyperplasia.

  15. Fast engineering optimization: A novel highly effective control parameterization approach for industrial dynamic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Li, Guodong; Liu, Xinggao

    2015-09-01

    Control vector parameterization (CVP) is an important approach of the engineering optimization for the industrial dynamic processes. However, its major defect, the low optimization efficiency caused by calculating the relevant differential equations in the generated nonlinear programming (NLP) problem repeatedly, limits its wide application in the engineering optimization for the industrial dynamic processes. A novel highly effective control parameterization approach, fast-CVP, is first proposed to improve the optimization efficiency for industrial dynamic processes, where the costate gradient formulae is employed and a fast approximate scheme is presented to solve the differential equations in dynamic process simulation. Three well-known engineering optimization benchmark problems of the industrial dynamic processes are demonstrated as illustration. The research results show that the proposed fast approach achieves a fine performance that at least 90% of the computation time can be saved in contrast to the traditional CVP method, which reveals the effectiveness of the proposed fast engineering optimization approach for the industrial dynamic processes. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. DREAM - A Novel Approach for Robust, Ultra-Fast, Multi-Slice B1 Mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nehrke, K.; Boernert, P.

    2012-01-01

    Fast and robust in vivo B1 mapping is an essential prerequisite forquantitative MRI or multi-element transmit applications like RF-shimming or accelerated multi-dimensional RF pulses. However, especially at higher field strength, the acquisition speed of current B1-mapping approaches is typicall

  17. Realtime Avoidance of Fast Moving Objects: A Dynamical System-based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Khansari-Zadeh, S. M.; Billard, Aude

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an extension to our previous approach (Khansari & Billard (2012), Autonomous Robots) to perform obstacle avoidance in the presence of multiple fast moving and rotating obstacles. Our approach leverage on the notion of DS to generate robot motions that are inherently robust to perturbations and can instantly adapt to changes in the target and obstacles' positions in a dynamically moving environments. We validate our method in the challenging experiment of dodging a fa...

  18. Improved cluster-in-molecule local correlation approach for electron correlation calculation of large systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Li, Wei; Li, Shuhua

    2014-10-02

    An improved cluster-in-molecule (CIM) local correlation approach is developed to allow electron correlation calculations of large systems more accurate and faster. We have proposed a refined strategy of constructing virtual LMOs of various clusters, which is suitable for basis sets of various types. To recover medium-range electron correlation, which is important for quantitative descriptions of large systems, we find that a larger distance threshold (ξ) is necessary for highly accurate results. Our illustrative calculations show that the present CIM-MP2 (second-order Møller-Plesser perturbation theory, MP2) or CIM-CCSD (coupled cluster singles and doubles, CCSD) scheme with a suitable ξ value is capable of recovering more than 99.8% correlation energies for a wide range of systems at different basis sets. Furthermore, the present CIM-MP2 scheme can provide reliable relative energy differences as the conventional MP2 method for secondary structures of polypeptides.

  19. The Asian crisis contagion: A dynamic correlation approach analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essaadi Essahbi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are testing for contagion caused by the Thai baht collapse of July 1997. In line with earlier work, shift-contagion is defined as a structural change within the international propagation mechanisms of financial shocks. We adopt Bai and Perron's (1998 structural break approach in order to detect the endogenous break points of the pair-wise time-varying correlations between Thailand and seven Asian stock market returns. Our approach enables us to solve the misspecification problem of the crisis window. Our results illustrate the existence of shift-contagion in the Asian crisis caused by the crisis in Thailand.

  20. Correlations in a generalized elastic model: fractional Langevin equation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taloni, Alessandro; Chechkin, Aleksei; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-12-01

    The generalized elastic model (GEM) provides the evolution equation which governs the stochastic motion of several many-body systems in nature, such as polymers, membranes, and growing interfaces. On the other hand a probe (tracer) particle in these systems performs a fractional Brownian motion due to the spatial interactions with the other system's components. The tracer's anomalous dynamics can be described by a fractional Langevin equation (FLE) with a space-time correlated noise. We demonstrate that the description given in terms of GEM coincides with that furnished by the relative FLE, by showing that the correlation functions of the stochastic field obtained within the FLE framework agree with the corresponding quantities calculated from the GEM. Furthermore we show that the Fox H -function formalism appears to be very convenient to describe the correlation properties within the FLE approach.

  1. A new deconvolution approach to perfusion imaging exploiting spatial correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orten, Burkay B.; Karl, W. Clem; Sahani, Dushyant V.; Pien, Homer

    2008-03-01

    The parts of the human body affected by a disease do not only undergo structural changes but also demonstrate significant physiological (functional) abnormalities. An important parameter that reveals the functional state of tissue is the flow of blood per unit tissue volume or perfusion, which can be obtained using dynamic imaging methods. One mathematical approach widely used for estimating perfusion from dynamic imaging data is based on a convolutional tissue-flow model. In these approaches, deconvolution of the observed data is necessary to obtain the important physiological parameters within a voxel. Although several alternatives have been proposed for deconvolution, all of them treat neighboring voxels independently and do not exploit the spatial correlation between voxels or the temporal correlation within a voxel over time. These simplistic approaches result in a noisy perfusion map with poorly defined region boundaries. In this paper, we propose a novel perfusion estimation method which incorporates spatial as well as temporal correlation into the deconvolution process. Performance of our method is compared to standard methods using independent voxel processing. Both simulated and real data experiments illustrate the potential of our method.

  2. Correspondence Principle Between Spherical and Euclidean Wavelets, and Fast Directional Correlation on the Sphere With Steerable Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiaux, Y.; Jacques, L.; Vandergheynst, P.

    2005-12-01

    Wavelets on the sphere are reintroduced and further developed on both the theoretical and the algorithmic grounds. A specific application to cosmology is also discussed. First, a new practical approach to the wavelet filtering of signals on the sphere is developed. Translations and rotations of the filters are naturally implemented through three-dimensional rotations of the group SO(3), and a unitary, radial, and conformal dilation operator is required. The resulting formalism is unique. A correspondence principle is also established, stating that the inverse stereographic projection of a wavelet on the plane (i.e., Euclidean wavelet) also uniquely leads to a wavelet on the sphere (i.e., spherical wavelet). It simplifies the construction of wavelets on the sphere and allows the transfer onto the sphere of properties of wavelets on the plane, such as directionality and steerability. Second, an exact fast algorithm is developed for the directional correlation on the sphere of band-limited signals of band limit L and steerable (wavelet) filters, on 2L×2L equi-angular grids in the coordinates (θ,φ). On the one hand, the algorithm is based on a technique of separation of variables in the Wigner D-functions, basis functions for the harmonic analysis on the rotation group SO(3). The asymptotic complexity of the algorithm is correspondingly reduced from O(L5) to O(L4). On the other hand, the filter steerability and the use of the Driscoll and Healy fast scalar spherical harmonics transform further reduce the algorithm complexity to a simple O(L2log22L). Finally, we consider the perspective of the wavelet analysis of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies on the sphere of the sky. The notions of directionality and steerability are important tools for the identification of local directional features in the wavelet coefficients of the signal, and for their interpretation in cosmology. In this context, computation times for the exact

  3. Obesity and fast food in urban markets: a new approach using geo-referenced micro data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Susan Elizabeth; Florax, Raymond J; Snyder, Samantha D

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a new method of assessing the relationship between features of the built environment and obesity, particularly in urban areas. Our empirical application combines georeferenced data on the location of fast-food restaurants with data about personal health, behavioral, and neighborhood characteristics. We define a 'local food environment' for every individual utilizing buffers around a person's home address. Individual food landscapes are potentially endogenous because of spatial sorting of the population and food outlets, and the body mass index (BMI) values for individuals living close to each other are likely to be spatially correlated because of observed and unobserved individual and neighborhood effects. The potential biases associated with endogeneity and spatial correlation are handled using spatial econometric estimation techniques. Our application provides quantitative estimates of the effect of proximity to fast-food restaurants on obesity in an urban food market. We also present estimates of a policy simulation that focuses on reducing the density of fast-food restaurants in urban areas. In the simulations, we account for spatial heterogeneity in both the policy instruments and individual neighborhoods and find a small effect for the hypothesized relationships between individual BMI values and the density of fast-food restaurants.

  4. A Fast Approach for Time Optimal and Smooth Trajectory Planning of Robot Manipulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Liu∗; Chao Yun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a fast approach to generate time optimal and smooth trajectory has been developed and tested. Minimum time is critical for the productivity in industrial applications. Meanwhile, smooth trajectories based on cubic splines are desirable for their ability to limit vibrations and ensure the continuity of position, velocity and acceleration during the robot movement. The main feature of the approach is a satisfactory solution that can be obtained by a local modification process among each interval between two consecutive via⁃points. An analytical formulation simplifies the approach to smooth trajectory and few iterations are enough to determine the correct values. The approach can be applied in many robot manipulators which require high performance on time and smooth. The simulation and application of the approach on a palletizer robot are performed, and the experimental results provide evidence that the approach can realize the robot manipulators more efficiency and high smooth performance.

  5. SIEX: a correlated code for the prediction of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel thermal performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutt, D.S.; Baker, R.B.

    1974-01-01

    The SIEX computer program is a steady state heat transfer code developed to provide thermal performance calculations for a mixed-oxide fuel element in a fast neutron environment. Fuel restructuring, fuel-cladding heat conduction and fission gas release are modeled to provide assessment of the temperatures. Modeling emphasis has been placed on correlations to measurable quantities from EBR-II irradiation tests and the inclusion of these correlations in a physically based computational scheme. SIEX is completely modular in construction allowing the user options for material properties and correlated models. Required code input is limited to geometric and environmental parameters, with a ``consistant`` set of material properties and correlated models provided by the code. The development of physically based correlations to model certain of the phenomana has resulted in a computer program which provides reliable estimates of thermal performance characteristics, yet requires a small amount of core storage and computer running time.

  6. Geo-neutrinos: A systematic approach to uncertainties and correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Fogli, G L; Palazzo, A; Rotunno, A M

    2006-01-01

    Geo-neutrinos emitted by heat-producing elements (U, Th and K) represent a unique probe of the Earth interior. The characterization of their fluxes is subject, however, to rather large and highly correlated uncertainties. The geochemical covariance of the U, Th and K abundances in various Earth reservoirs induces positive correlations among the associated geo-neutrino fluxes, and between these and the radiogenic heat. Mass-balance constraints in the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) tend instead to anti-correlate the radiogenic element abundances in complementary reservoirs. Experimental geo-neutrino observables may be further (anti)correlated by instrumental effects. In this context, we propose a systematic approach to covariance matrices, based on the fact that all the relevant geo-neutrino observables and constraints can be expressed as linear functions of the U, Th and K abundances in the Earth's reservoirs (with relatively well-known coefficients). We briefly discuss here the construction of a tentative "geo-neu...

  7. Combined zero-quantum and spin-diffusion mixing for efficient homonuclear correlation spectroscopy under fast MAS: broadband recoupling and detection of long-range correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xingyu; Guo, Changmiao; Hou, Guangjin; Polenova, Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Fast magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy is emerging as an essential analytical and structural biology technique. Large resolution and sensitivity enhancements observed under fast MAS conditions enable structural and dynamics analysis of challenging systems, such as large macromolecular assemblies and isotopically dilute samples, using only a fraction of material required for conventional experiments. Homonuclear dipolar-based correlation spectroscopy constitutes a centerpiece in the MAS NMR methodological toolbox, and is used essentially in every biological and organic system for deriving resonance assignments and distance restraints information necessary for structural analysis. Under fast MAS conditions (rotation frequencies above 35-40 kHz), dipolar-based techniques that yield multi-bond correlations and non-trivial distance information are ineffective and suffer from low polarization transfer efficiency. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a family of experiments, CORD-RFDR. These experiments exploit the advantages of both zero-quantum RFDR and spin-diffusion based CORD methods, and exhibit highly efficient and broadband dipolar recoupling across the entire spectrum, for both short-range and long-range correlations. We have verified the performance of the CORD-RFDR sequences experimentally on a U-(13)C,(15)N-MLF tripeptide and by numerical simulations. We demonstrate applications of 2D CORD-RFDR correlation spectroscopy in dynein light chain LC8 and HIV-1 CA tubular assemblies. In the CORD-RFDR spectra of LC8 acquired at the MAS frequency of 40 kHz, many new intra- and inter-residue correlations are detected, which were not observed with conventional dipolar recoupling sequences. At a moderate MAS frequency of 14 kHz, the CORD-RFDR experiment exhibits excellent performance as well, as demonstrated in the HIV-1 CA tubular assemblies. Taken together, the results indicate that CORD-RFDR experiment is beneficial in a broad range of conditions

  8. A unified Monte Carlo approach to fast neutron cross section data evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-03-03

    A unified Monte Carlo (UMC) approach to fast neutron cross section data evaluation that incorporates both model-calculated and experimental information is described. The method is based on applications of Bayes Theorem and the Principle of Maximum Entropy as well as on fundamental definitions from probability theory. This report describes the formalism, discusses various practical considerations, and examines a few numerical examples in some detail.

  9. A Fast Variational Approach for Learning Markov Random Field Language Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    our class of models. Learning undirected graphical models is challenging because of the global nor- malization constant, or partition function. We...503–528, 1989. Marcus, Mitchell P, Marcinkiewicz, Mary Ann, and San- torini, Beatrice. Building a large annotated corpus of english : The penn treebank...A Fast Variational Approach for Learning Markov Random Field Language Models Yacine Jernite JERNITE@CS.NYU.EDU CIMS, New York University, 251 Mercer

  10. Corporate social responsibility approaches and implementation in selected fast food restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma E. Montalbo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine Corporate Social Responsibility approaches and implementation in Fast Food Restaurants in Batangas City, Philippines. The researchers employed a descriptive design and quantitative method in the analysis of data with the questionnaire as the main instrument. Five (5 restaurant- participants were purposively chosen from the total population of 15. Results showed that CSR related mission/vision is clearly not embedded in the institutional websites of fast food restaurants while personal relation/social proximity approach is highly evident. Also, factors in the implementation of corporate social responsibility in relation to philanthropic behavior, shows a significant behavioral change from the statistical result such as moderately evident. CSR approaches and implementation are highly evident that clearly proves the responsible behavior of local fast food restaurants. Institutional integration of CSR in the company’s mission/vision statements, structure, decisions, activities, communication, practices stated appears to be beneficial in light of new corporate-state-market-society relationship.

  11. Transient coupled calculations of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor using the Transient Fission Matrix approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laureau, A., E-mail: laureau.axel@gmail.com; Heuer, D.; Merle-Lucotte, E.; Rubiolo, P.R.; Allibert, M.; Aufiero, M.

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Neutronic ‘Transient Fission Matrix’ approach coupled to the CFD OpenFOAM code. • Fission Matrix interpolation model for fast spectrum homogeneous reactors. • Application for coupled calculations of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor. • Load following, over-cooling and reactivity insertion transient studies. • Validation of the reactor intrinsic stability for normal and accidental transients. - Abstract: In this paper we present transient studies of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). This generation IV reactor is characterized by a liquid fuel circulating in the core cavity, requiring specific simulation tools. An innovative neutronic approach called “Transient Fission Matrix” is used to perform spatial kinetic calculations with a reduced computational cost through a pre-calculation of the Monte Carlo spatial and temporal response of the system. Coupled to this neutronic approach, the Computational Fluid Dynamics code OpenFOAM is used to model the complex flow pattern in the core. An accurate interpolation model developed to take into account the thermal hydraulics feedback on the neutronics including reactivity and neutron flux variation is presented. Finally different transient studies of the reactor in normal and accidental operating conditions are detailed such as reactivity insertion and load following capacities. The results of these studies illustrate the excellent behavior of the MSFR during such transients.

  12. Fast Watermarking of MPEG-1/2 Streams Using Compressed-Domain Perceptual Embedding and a Generalized Correlator Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briassouli Alexia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel technique is proposed for watermarking of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 compressed video streams. The proposed scheme is applied directly in the domain of MPEG-1 system streams and MPEG-2 program streams (multiplexed streams. Perceptual models are used during the embedding process in order to avoid degradation of the video quality. The watermark is detected without the use of the original video sequence. A modified correlation-based detector is introduced that applies nonlinear preprocessing before correlation. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed scheme is able to withstand several common attacks. The resulting watermarking system is very fast and therefore suitable for copyright protection of compressed video.

  13. Wave packet evolution approach to ionization of hydrogen molecular ion by fast electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Serov, V V; Joulakian, B B; Vinitsky, S I; Serov, Vladislav V.; Derbov, Vladimir L.; Joulakian, Boghos B.; Vinitsky, Sergue I.

    2000-01-01

    The multiply differential cross section of the ionization of hydrogen molecular ion by fast electron impact is calculated by a direct approach, which involves the reduction of the initial 6D Schr\\"{o}dinger equation to a 3D evolution problem followed by the modeling of the wave packet dynamics. This approach avoids the use of stationary Coulomb two-centre functions of the continuous spectrum of the ejected electron which demands cumbersome calculations. The results obtained, after verification of the procedure in the case atomic hydrogen, reveal interesting mechanisms in the case of small scattering angles.

  14. LDA+DMFT Approach to Materials with Strong Electronic Correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, K; Nekrasov, I A; Keller, G; Eyert, V; Blumer, N; McMahan, A K; Scalettar, R T; Pruschke, T; Anisimov, V I; Volhardt, D

    2001-12-02

    LDA+DMFT is a novel computational technique for ab initio investigations of real materials with strongly correlated electrons, such as transition metals and their oxides. It combines the strength of conventional band structure theory in the local density approximation (LDA) with a modern many-body approach, the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). In the last few years LDA+DMFT has proved to be a powerful tool for the realistic modeling of strongly correlated electronic systems. In this paper the basic ideas and the set-up of the LDA+DMFT(X) approach, where X is the method used to solve the DMFT equations, are discussed. Results obtained with X=QMC (quantum Monte Carlo) and X=NCA (non-crossing approximation) are presented and compared. By means of the model system La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} we show that the method X matters qualitatively and quantitatively. Furthermore, they discuss recent results on the Mott-Hubbard metal-insulator transition in the transition metal oxide V{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the {alpha}-{gamma} transition in the 4f-electron system Ce.

  15. Pharmacological approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes in fasting adults during Ramadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Sifri S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Saud Al SifriEndocrinology Department, Alhada Armed Forces Hospital, Taif, Saudi ArabiaI read with great interest the recent review article by AlMaatouq regarding the pharmacological approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes in fasting adults during Ramadan.1 This article stated that "A recent prospective study of more than 1000 patients with T2DMwho fasted during Ramadan found that the risk of hypoglycemia associated with a vildagliptin-based regimen (vildagliptin 100 mg once daily was lower than that of a sulfonylurea-based regimen (both with and without metformin."1 This statement needs to be corrected.Ramadan is the lunar month observed each year in which Muslim adults will fast. This fast includes abstinence from eating, drinking, and smoking from sunrise to sunset. Hypoglycemia during this period represents the greatest health risk for these patients. Recently introduced modulators of the incretin system are the dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors, which include sitagliptin, vildagliptin, alogliptin, saxagliptin, and linagliptin. These agents are not associated with hypoglycemia.View original paper by AlMaatouq

  16. A fast image registration approach of neural activities in light-sheet fluorescence microscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hui; Hui, Hui; Hu, Chaoen; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2017-03-01

    The ability of fast and single-neuron resolution imaging of neural activities enables light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) as a powerful imaging technique in functional neural connection applications. The state-of-art LSFM imaging system can record the neuronal activities of entire brain for small animal, such as zebrafish or C. elegans at single-neuron resolution. However, the stimulated and spontaneous movements in animal brain result in inconsistent neuron positions during recording process. It is time consuming to register the acquired large-scale images with conventional method. In this work, we address the problem of fast registration of neural positions in stacks of LSFM images. This is necessary to register brain structures and activities. To achieve fast registration of neural activities, we present a rigid registration architecture by implementation of Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). In this approach, the image stacks were preprocessed on GPU by mean stretching to reduce the computation effort. The present image was registered to the previous image stack that considered as reference. A fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm was used for calculating the shift of the image stack. The calculations for image registration were performed in different threads while the preparation functionality was refactored and called only once by the master thread. We implemented our registration algorithm on NVIDIA Quadro K4200 GPU under Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) programming environment. The experimental results showed that the registration computation can speed-up to 550ms for a full high-resolution brain image. Our approach also has potential to be used for other dynamic image registrations in biomedical applications.

  17. A Visual Analytics Approach for Correlation, Classification, and Regression Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steed, Chad A [ORNL; SwanII, J. Edward [Mississippi State University (MSU); Fitzpatrick, Patrick J. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Jankun-Kelly, T.J. [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2012-02-01

    New approaches that combine the strengths of humans and machines are necessary to equip analysts with the proper tools for exploring today's increasing complex, multivariate data sets. In this paper, a novel visual data mining framework, called the Multidimensional Data eXplorer (MDX), is described that addresses the challenges of today's data by combining automated statistical analytics with a highly interactive parallel coordinates based canvas. In addition to several intuitive interaction capabilities, this framework offers a rich set of graphical statistical indicators, interactive regression analysis, visual correlation mining, automated axis arrangements and filtering, and data classification techniques. The current work provides a detailed description of the system as well as a discussion of key design aspects and critical feedback from domain experts.

  18. A composite likelihood approach for spatially correlated survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Jane; Ying, Zhiliang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a composite likelihood approach to handle spatially correlated survival data using pairwise joint distributions. With e-commerce data, a recent question of interest in marketing research has been to describe spatially clustered purchasing behavior and to assess whether geographic distance is the appropriate metric to describe purchasing dependence. We present a model for the dependence structure of time-to-event data subject to spatial dependence to characterize purchasing behavior from the motivating example from e-commerce data. We assume the Farlie-Gumbel-Morgenstern (FGM) distribution and then model the dependence parameter as a function of geographic and demographic pairwise distances. For estimation of the dependence parameters, we present pairwise composite likelihood equations. We prove that the resulting estimators exhibit key properties of consistency and asymptotic normality under certain regularity conditions in the increasing-domain framework of spatial asymptotic theory.

  19. A composite likelihood approach for spatially correlated survival data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Jane; Ying, Zhiliang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a composite likelihood approach to handle spatially correlated survival data using pairwise joint distributions. With e-commerce data, a recent question of interest in marketing research has been to describe spatially clustered purchasing behavior and to assess whether geographic distance is the appropriate metric to describe purchasing dependence. We present a model for the dependence structure of time-to-event data subject to spatial dependence to characterize purchasing behavior from the motivating example from e-commerce data. We assume the Farlie-Gumbel-Morgenstern (FGM) distribution and then model the dependence parameter as a function of geographic and demographic pairwise distances. For estimation of the dependence parameters, we present pairwise composite likelihood equations. We prove that the resulting estimators exhibit key properties of consistency and asymptotic normality under certain regularity conditions in the increasing-domain framework of spatial asymptotic theory. PMID:24223450

  20. A neural network approach for fast, automated quantification of DIR performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neylon, John; Min, Yugang; Low, Daniel A; Santhanam, Anand

    2017-08-01

    A critical step in adaptive radiotherapy (ART) workflow is deformably registering the simulation CT with the daily or weekly volumetric imaging. Quantifying the deformable image registration accuracy under these circumstances is a complex task due to the lack of known ground-truth landmark correspondences between the source data and target data. Generating landmarks manually (using experts) is time-consuming, and limited by image quality and observer variability. While image similarity metrics (ISM) may be used as an alternative approach to quantify the registration error, there is a need to characterize the ISM values by developing a nonlinear cost function and translate them to physical distance measures in order to enable fast, quantitative comparison of registration performance. In this paper, we present a proof-of-concept methodology for automated quantification of DIR performance. A nonlinear cost function was developed as a combination of ISM values and governed by the following two expectations for an accurate registration: (a) the deformed data obtained from transforming the simulation CT data with the deformation vector field (DVF) should match the target image data with near perfect similarity, and (b) the similarity between the simulation CT and deformed data should match the similarity between the simulation CT and the target image data. A deep neural network (DNN) was developed that translated the cost function values to actual physical distance measure. To train the neural network, patient-specific biomechanical models of the head-and-neck anatomy were employed. The biomechanical model anatomy was systematically deformed to represent changes in patient posture and physiological regression. Volumetric source and target images with known ground-truth deformations vector fields were then generated, representing the daily or weekly imaging data. Annotated data was then fed through a supervised machine learning process, iteratively optimizing a nonlinear

  1. Identifying factors associated with fast food consumption among adolescents in Beijing China using a theory-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, R; Castellanos, D C; Bachman, J

    2016-07-01

    China is in the midst of the nutrition transition with increasing rates of obesity and dietary changes. One contributor is the increase in fast food chains within the country. The purpose of this study was to develop a theory-based instrument that explores influencing factors of fast food consumption in adolescents residing in Beijing, China. Cross-sectional study. Value expectancy and theory of planned behaviour were utilised to explore influencing factors of fast food consumption in the target population. There were 201 Chinese adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18. Cronbach's alpha correlation coefficients were used to examine internal reliability of the theory-based questionnaire. Bivariate correlations and a MANOVA were utilised to determine the relationship between theory-based constructs, body mass index (BMI)-for-age and fast food intake frequency as well as to determine differences in theory-based scores among fast food consumption frequency groupings. The theory-based questionnaire showed good reliability. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the theory-based subcategory scores between fast food frequency groups. A significant positive correlation was observed between times per week fast food was consumed and each theory-based subscale score. Using BMI-for-age of 176 participants, 81% were normal weight and 19% were considered overweight or obese. Results showed consumption of fast food to be on average 1.50 ± 1.33 per week. The relationship between BMI-for-age and times per week fast food was consumed was not significant. As the nutrition transition continues and fast food chains expand, it is important to explore factors effecting fast food consumption in China. Interventions targeting influencing factors can be developed to encourage healthy dietary choice in the midst of this transition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Hybrid Quantum-Classical Approach to Correlated Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Bela; Wecker, Dave; Millis, Andrew J.; Hastings, Matthew B.; Troyer, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Recent improvements in the control of quantum systems make it seem feasible to finally build a quantum computer within a decade. While it has been shown that such a quantum computer can in principle solve certain small electronic structure problems and idealized model Hamiltonians, the highly relevant problem of directly solving a complex correlated material appears to require a prohibitive amount of resources. Here, we show that by using a hybrid quantum-classical algorithm that incorporates the power of a small quantum computer into a framework of classical embedding algorithms, the electronic structure of complex correlated materials can be efficiently tackled using a quantum computer. In our approach, the quantum computer solves a small effective quantum impurity problem that is self-consistently determined via a feedback loop between the quantum and classical computation. Use of a quantum computer enables much larger and more accurate simulations than with any known classical algorithm, and will allow many open questions in quantum materials to be resolved once a small quantum computer with around 100 logical qubits becomes available.

  3. Fast temporal correlation between hard X-ray and ultraviolet continuum brightenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marcos E.; Mauas, Pablo J.

    1986-01-01

    Recent Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) observations have shown fast and simultaneous increases in hard X-rays (HXR, E25 keV) and ultraviolet continuum (UVC, lambda lambda approx. equals 1600 and 1388 A) radiation. A simple and natural explanation is given for this phenomenon to happen, which does not involve extreme conditions for energy transport processes, and confirms earlier results on the effect of XUV photoionization in the solar atmosphere.

  4. Neocortical very fast oscillations (ripples, 80-200 Hz) during seizures: intracellular correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, François; Timofeev, Igor; Steriade, Mircea

    2003-02-01

    Multi-site field potential and intracellular recordings from various neocortical areas were used to study very fast oscillations or ripples (80-200 Hz) during electrographic seizures in cats under ketamine-xylazine anesthesia. The animals displayed spontaneously occurring and electrically induced seizures comprising spike-wave complexes (2-3 Hz) and fast runs (10-20 Hz). Neocortical ripples had much higher amplitudes during seizures than during the slow oscillation preceding the onset of seizures. A series of experimental data from the present study supports the hypothesis that ripples are implicated in seizure initiation. Ripples were particularly strong at the onset of seizures and halothane, which antagonizes the occurrence of ripples, also blocked seizures. The firing of electrophysiologically defined cellular types was phase-locked with ripples in simultaneously recorded field potentials. This indicates that ripples during paroxysmal events are associated with a coordination of firing in a majority of neocortical neurons. This was confirmed with dual intracellular recordings. Based on the amplitude that neocortical ripples reach during paroxysmal events, we propose a mechanism by which neocortical ripples during normal network activity could actively participate in the initiation of seizures on reaching a certain threshold amplitude. This mechanism involves a vicious feedback loop in which very fast oscillations in field potentials are a reflection of synchronous action potentials, and in turn these oscillations help generate and synchronize action potentials in adjacent neurons through electrical interactions.

  5. An Efficient Approach for Fast and Accurate Voltage Stability Margin Computation in Large Power Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Yi Su

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an efficient approach for the computation of voltage stability margin (VSM in a large-scale power grid. The objective is to accurately and rapidly determine the load power margin which corresponds to voltage collapse phenomena. The proposed approach is based on the impedance match-based technique and the model-based technique. It combines the Thevenin equivalent (TE network method with cubic spline extrapolation technique and the continuation technique to achieve fast and accurate VSM computation for a bulk power grid. Moreover, the generator Q limits are taken into account for practical applications. Extensive case studies carried out on Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE benchmark systems and the Taiwan Power Company (Taipower, Taipei, Taiwan system are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  6. Improving concept design of divertor support system for FAST tokamak using TRIZ theory and AHP approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Gironimo, G., E-mail: giuseppe.digironimo@unina.it [Association Euratom/ENEA/CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Carfora, D.; Esposito, G.; Labate, C.; Mozzillo, R.; Renno, F.; Lanzotti, A. [Association Euratom/ENEA/CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Siuko, M. [VTT Systems Engineering, Tekniikankatu 1, 33720 Tampere (Finland)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Optimization of the RH system for the FAST divertor using TRIZ. • Participative design approach using virtual reality. • Comparison of product alternatives in an immersive virtual reality environment. • Prioritization of concept alternatives based on AHP. -- Abstract: The paper focuses on the application of the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) to divertor Remote Handling (RH) issues in Fusion Advanced Studies Torus (FAST), a satellite tokamak acting as a test bed for the study and the development of innovative technologies oriented to ITER and DEMO programs. The objective of this study consists in generating concepts or solutions able to overcome design and technical weak points in the current maintenance procedure. Two different concepts are designed with the help of a parametric CAD software, CATIA V5, using a top-down modeling approach; kinematic simulations of the remote handling system are performed using Digital Mock-Up (DMU) capabilities of the software. The evaluation of the concepts is carried out involving a group of experts in a participative design approach using virtual reality, classifying the concepts with the help of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)

  7. A Fast Track approach to deal with the temporal dimension of crop water footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuninetti, Marta; Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2017-07-01

    Population growth, socio-economic development and climate changes are placing increasing pressure on water resources. Crop water footprint is a key indicator in the quantification of such pressure. It is determined by crop evapotranspiration and crop yield, which can be highly variable in space and time. While the spatial variability of crop water footprint has been the objective of several investigations, the temporal variability remains poorly studied. In particular, some studies approached this issue by associating the time variability of crop water footprint only to yield changes, while considering evapotranspiration patterns as marginal. Validation of this Fast Track approach has yet to be provided. In this Letter we demonstrate its feasibility through a comprehensive validation, an assessment of its uncertainty, and an example of application. Our results show that the water footprint changes are mainly driven by yield trends, while evapotranspiration plays a minor role. The error due to considering constant evapotranspiration is three times smaller than the uncertainty of the model used to compute the crop water footprint. These results confirm the suitability of the Fast Track approach and enable a simple, yet appropriate, evaluation of time-varying crop water footprint.

  8. Secret-key agreement over spatially correlated fast-fading multiple-antenna channels with public discussion

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2015-06-14

    We consider secret-key agreement with public discussion over multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Rayleigh fast-fading channels under correlated environment. We assume that transmit, legitimate receiver and eavesdropper antennas are correlated. The legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper are assumed to have perfect channel knowledge while the transmitter has only knowledge of the correlation matrices. First, we derive the expression of the secret-key capacity under the considered setup. Then, we prove that the optimal transmit strategy achieving the secret-key capacity consists in transmitting independent Gaussian signals along the eingenvectors of the transmit correlation matrix. The powers allocated to each channel mode are determined as the solution to a numerical optimization problem that we derive. A necessary and sufficient condition for beamforming (i.e., transmitting along the strongest channel mode) to be capacity-achieving is derived. Finally, we analyze the impact of correlation matrices on the system performance and provide closed-form expressions of the gain/loss due to correlation in the high power regime.

  9. On a mean field game optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in human crowds

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2013-12-01

    The understanding of fast exit and evacuation situations in crowd motion research has received a lot of scientific interest in the last decades. Security issues in larger facilities, like shopping malls, sports centers, or festivals necessitate a better understanding of the major driving forces in crowd dynamics. In this paper we present an optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in pedestrian crowds. The model is formulated in the framework of mean field games and based on a parabolic optimal control problem. We consider the case of a large human crowd trying to exit a room as fast as possible. The motion of every pedestrian is determined by minimizing a cost functional, which depends on his/her position and velocity, the overall density of people, and the time to exit. This microscopic setup leads in a mean-field formulation to a nonlinear macroscopic optimal control problem, which raises challenging questions for the analysis and numerical simulations.We discuss different aspects of the mathematical modeling and illustrate them with various computational results. ©2013 IEEE.

  10. Fasting plasma chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid concentrations are inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laville Martine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating data suggest a novel role for bile acids (BAs in modulating metabolic homeostasis. BA treatment has been shown to improve glucose tolerance and to increase energy expenditure in mice. Here, we investigated the relationship between fasting plasma BAs concentrations and metabolic parameters in humans. Findings Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid profile were measured in 14 healthy volunteers, 20 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, and 22 non-diabetic abdominally obese subjects. Insulin sensitivity was also assessed by the determination of the glucose infusion rate (GIR during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in a subgroup of patients (9 healthy and 16 T2D subjects. Energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry. Plasma cholic acid (CA, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA and deoxycholic acid (DCA concentrations were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. In univariable analysis, a positive association was found between HOMA-IR and plasma CDCA (β = 0.09, p = 0.001, CA (β = 0.03, p = 0.09 and DCA concentrations (β = 0.07, p Conclusions Both plasma CDCA, CA and DCA concentrations were negatively associated with insulin sensitivity in a wide range of subjects.

  11. A fast approach to determine a fed batch feeding profile for recombinant Pichia pastoris strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herwig Christoph

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The microorganism Pichia pastoris is a commonly used microbial host for the expression of recombinant proteins in biotechnology and biopharmaceutical industry. To speed up process development, a fast methodology to determine strain characteristic parameters, which are needed to subsequently set up fed batch feeding profiles, is required. Results Here, we show the general applicability of a novel approach to quantify a certain minimal set of bioprocess-relevant parameters, i.e. the adaptation time of the culture to methanol, the specific substrate uptake rate during the adaptation phase and the maximum specific substrate uptake rate, based on fast and easy-to-do batch cultivations with repeated methanol pulses in a batch culture. A detailed analysis of the adaptation of different P. pastoris strains to methanol was conducted and revealed that each strain showed very different characteristics during adaptation, illustrating the need of individual screenings for an optimal parameter definition during this phase. Based on the results obtained in batch cultivations, dynamic feeding profiles based on the specific substrate uptake rate were employed for different P. pastoris strains. In these experiments the maximum specific substrate uptake rate, which had been defined in batch experiments, also represented the upper limit of methanol uptake, underlining the validity of the determined process-relevant parameters and the overall experimental strategy. Conclusion In this study, we show that a fast approach to determine a minimal set of strain characteristic parameters based on easy-to-do batch cultivations with methanol pulses is generally applicable for different P. pastoris strains and that dynamic fed batch strategies can be designed on the specific substrate uptake rate without running the risk of methanol accumulation.

  12. A fast approach to determine a fed batch feeding profile for recombinant Pichia pastoris strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzsch, Christian; Spadiut, Oliver; Herwig, Christoph

    2011-10-27

    The microorganism Pichia pastoris is a commonly used microbial host for the expression of recombinant proteins in biotechnology and biopharmaceutical industry. To speed up process development, a fast methodology to determine strain characteristic parameters, which are needed to subsequently set up fed batch feeding profiles, is required. Here, we show the general applicability of a novel approach to quantify a certain minimal set of bioprocess-relevant parameters, i.e. the adaptation time of the culture to methanol, the specific substrate uptake rate during the adaptation phase and the maximum specific substrate uptake rate, based on fast and easy-to-do batch cultivations with repeated methanol pulses in a batch culture. A detailed analysis of the adaptation of different P. pastoris strains to methanol was conducted and revealed that each strain showed very different characteristics during adaptation, illustrating the need of individual screenings for an optimal parameter definition during this phase. Based on the results obtained in batch cultivations, dynamic feeding profiles based on the specific substrate uptake rate were employed for different P. pastoris strains. In these experiments the maximum specific substrate uptake rate, which had been defined in batch experiments, also represented the upper limit of methanol uptake, underlining the validity of the determined process-relevant parameters and the overall experimental strategy. In this study, we show that a fast approach to determine a minimal set of strain characteristic parameters based on easy-to-do batch cultivations with methanol pulses is generally applicable for different P. pastoris strains and that dynamic fed batch strategies can be designed on the specific substrate uptake rate without running the risk of methanol accumulation.

  13. A Fast and High-Resolution Multi-Target Localization Approach in MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fast and high-resolution estimation approach using polarization information combined with angle information for multi-target localization in bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar. The propagator method (PM is extended to jointly estimate the direction of departure (DOD, the direction of arrival (DOA and the polarization parameters. The PM avoids the singular value decomposition (SVD of the covariance matrix of the received signals so that the computational complexity is reduced. In addition, the closely spaced targets can be well distinguished by polarization diversity. The Cramer-Rao bounds (CRBs of the estimated parameters are derived. The position of a target is calculated based on the estimated angles. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach can achieve better performance compared with conventional methods of target localization.

  14. Fast approach to infrared image restoration based on shrinkage functions calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengshuo; Shi, Zelin; Xu, Baoshu; Feng, Bin

    2016-05-01

    High-quality image restoration in real time is a challenge for infrared imaging systems. We present a fast approach to infrared image restoration based on shrinkage functions calibration. Rather than directly modeling the prior of sharp images to obtain the shrinkage functions, we calibrate them for restoration directly by using the acquirable sharp and blurred image pairs from the same infrared imaging system. The calibration method is employed to minimize the sum of squared errors between sharp images and restored images from the blurred images. Our restoration algorithm is noniterative and its shrinkage functions are stored in the look-up tables, so an architecture solution of pipeline structure can work in real time. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by testing its quantitative performance from simulation experiments and its qualitative performance from a developed wavefront coding infrared imaging system.

  15. Fast SAR Image Change Detection Using Bayesian Approach Based Difference Image and Modified Statistical Region Merging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel fast SAR image change detection method is presented in this paper. Based on a Bayesian approach, the prior information that speckles follow the Nakagami distribution is incorporated into the difference image (DI generation process. The new DI performs much better than the familiar log ratio (LR DI as well as the cumulant based Kullback-Leibler divergence (CKLD DI. The statistical region merging (SRM approach is first introduced to change detection context. A new clustering procedure with the region variance as the statistical inference variable is exhibited to tailor SAR image change detection purposes, with only two classes in the final map, the unchanged and changed classes. The most prominent advantages of the proposed modified SRM (MSRM method are the ability to cope with noise corruption and the quick implementation. Experimental results show that the proposed method is superior in both the change detection accuracy and the operation efficiency.

  16. General and efficient parallel approach of finite element-boundary integral-multilevel fast multipole algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Xiaomin; Sheng Xinqing

    2008-01-01

    A general and efficient parallel approach is proposed for the first time to parallelize the hybrid finite-element-boundary-integral-multi-level fast multipole algorithm (FE-BI-MLFMA). Among many algorithms of FE-BI-MLFMA, the decomposition algorithm (DA) is chosen as a basis for the parallelization of FE-BI-MLFMA because of its distinct numerical characteristics suitable for parallelization. On the basis of the DA, the parallelization of FE-BI-MLFMA is carried out by employing the parallelized multi-frontal method for the matrix from the finite-element method and the parallelized MLFMA for the matrix from the boundary integral method respectively. The programming and numerical experiments of the proposed parallel approach are carried out in the high perfor-mance computing platform CEMS-Liuhui. Numerical experiments demonstrate that FE-BI-MLFMA is efficiently parallelized and its computational capacity is greatly improved without losing accuracy, efficiency, and generality.

  17. On the relation between correlation dimension, approximate entropy and sample entropy parameters, and a fast algorithm for their calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Sebastian; Guzik, Przemyslaw; Pawlak, Sebastian; Kosmider, Marcin; Piskorski, Jaroslaw

    2012-12-01

    We explore the relation between correlation dimension, approximate entropy and sample entropy parameters, which are commonly used in nonlinear systems analysis. Using theoretical considerations we identify the points which are shared by all these complexity algorithms and show explicitly that the above parameters are intimately connected and mutually interdependent. A new geometrical interpretation of sample entropy and correlation dimension is provided and the consequences for the interpretation of sample entropy, its relative consistency and some of the algorithms for parameter selection for this quantity are discussed. To get an exact algorithmic relation between the three parameters we construct a very fast algorithm for simultaneous calculations of the above, which uses the full time series as the source of templates, rather than the usual 10%. This algorithm can be used in medical applications of complexity theory, as it can calculate all three parameters for a realistic recording of 104 points within minutes with the use of an average notebook computer.

  18. Fast electron generation by Coulomb scattering on spatially correlated ions in a strong laser field

    CERN Document Server

    Bauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Electrons colliding with spatially fixed ions in strong laser fields are investigated by solving the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation. Considering first simple one-dimensional model systems, the mechanisms and energy spectra of fast electrons are analyzed, starting from collisions on a single ion. By using these electrons as projectiles for a second and third collision, the maximum possible energy obtained can be significantly increased. We then generalize the analysis to 2D systems where additional angular degrees of freedom lead to a drastic loss of efficiency. This problem can be overcome by introducing external confinements, which allow to focus the electrons and increase the intensity of high-energy electrons.

  19. Lacto-Vegetarian Diet and Correlation of Fasting Blood Sugar with Lipids in Population Practicing Sedentary Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praharaj, Ardhendu Bhusan; Goenka, Ramesh Kumar; Dixit, Sujata; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Kar, Shantanu Kumar; Negi, Sapna

    2017-09-11

    Rising burden of diabetes in India requires quick intervention that integrates policies and programs for effective prevention and control of disease. This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to observe effect of diet in two Indian communities practicing sedentary lifestyle. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for blood sugar, glycated-hemoglobin (HbA1C), and lipid profile. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) measurements were recorded. Diabetes incidence was lower in lacto-vegetarian (1.7%) than in non-vegetarian group (5.3%) despite similar lipid profiles and BMI/WC between the groups. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) was positively correlated with LDL and VLDL levels and negatively correlated with HDL, only in lacto-vegetarian group. Study suggests: (1) Indian lacto-vegetarian diet has beneficial effects on diabetes incidence irrespective of high body weight and sedentary lifestyle; (2) intervention to reduce body lipids, such as lipid-lowering drugs and exercise, may have greater effect in reducing FBS levels in this lacto-vegetarian group.

  20. CORRELATION OF FASTING AND POST-PRANDIAL PLASMA GLUCOSE WITH GLYCATED HEMOGLOBIN IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETIC TYPE 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASAN SAFAEI

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Meaurment of glycated hamoglobin is the accepted indicator of long therm glycemic control. This study wase done to evaluate the relative value beetwen plasma glucose at different time point and glycated gemoglubin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a descriptive cross sectional study on type 2 diabetic patients who reffered to Isfahan endocrin and reaserch center. Each two week or month giycemic pofiles . le, plasma glucose at prebreakfast (8:00 AM 2 hour postprandial and Extended post Lunch (5:00PM times points plasma glucose were compared with measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C after 3 months. Result were analysed by multiple linear regression and pyerson correlation confidence. RESULTS: Mean plasma glucose for Fasting, 2 hpp, 5 PM and HbA1C was 147.3±57.08 1999.83 ± 52.99, 178.68 ±68.17 and 9.35 ±1.5 and corelation confidence between plasma glucose and HbA1C 0.316 , 0.460 and 0.548 Respectively. Multiple regression between plasmaglucose and glycated hemoglobin was 0.651 with p< 0.0001. Conclusions: in type 2 diaabetic patients extended postlumch (5:00 PM plasma glucose and 2 hour postprandial are beter correlation with HbA1C than fasting plasma glucose.

  1. Fast region-based object detection and tracking using correlation of features

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Senekal, F

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A new method for object detection using region based characteristics is proposed. The method uses correlation between features over a region as a descriptor for the region. It is shown that this region descriptor can be successfully applied...

  2. Fast pulling of ligand approach for the design of β-secretase 1 inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Duc Toan; Nguyen, Minh Tung; Vu, Van V.; Ngo, Son Tung

    2017-03-01

    The fast pulling of ligand (FPL) method, which evaluates the relative ligand-protein binding affinity with low CPU usage and high accuracy, was applied for the first time to determine the affinity of β-secretase 1 (BACE1) and its inhibitors using steered-molecular dynamics simulations. The total non-bonded interaction energy difference ΔEtotal is a highly appropriate criterion to predict the relative BACE1-inhibitor binding affinity with strong correlation to experimental data (R = 0.92) and small deviation (δEtotal = 7 %). The van der Waals interaction and electrostatic interaction contribute 56% and 44% to the total non-bonded interaction energy between BACE1 and its inhibitors.

  3. Modelling conditional correlations of asset returns: A smooth transition approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvennoinen, Annastiina; Teräsvirta, Timo

    In this paper we propose a new multivariate GARCH model with time-varying conditional correlation structure. The time-varying conditional correlations change smoothly between two extreme states of constant correlations according to a predetermined or exogenous transition variable. An LM......-test is derived to test the constancy of correlations and LM- and Wald tests to test the hypothesis of partially constant correlations. Analytical expressions for the test statistics and the required derivatives are provided to make computations feasible. An empirical example based on daily return series of ve...... frequently traded stocks in the S&P 500 stock index completes the paper....

  4. A correlation consistency based multivariate alarm thresholds optimization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huihui; Liu, Feifei; Zhu, Qunxiong

    2016-11-01

    Different alarm thresholds could generate different alarm data, resulting in different correlations. A new multivariate alarm thresholds optimization methodology based on the correlation consistency between process data and alarm data is proposed in this paper. The interpretative structural modeling is adopted to select the key variables. For the key variables, the correlation coefficients of process data are calculated by the Pearson correlation analysis, while the correlation coefficients of alarm data are calculated by kernel density estimation. To ensure the correlation consistency, the objective function is established as the sum of the absolute differences between these two types of correlations. The optimal thresholds are obtained using particle swarm optimization algorithm. Case study of Tennessee Eastman process is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed method.

  5. Cultivation of phagotrophic algae with waste activated sludge as a fast approach to reclaim waste organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Xiao, Suo; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-03-15

    Substantial energy is reserved in waste activated sludge (WAS) organics but much of it is difficult to recover because the solid organics require long time to solubilize. In this work we introduced the new approach of recovering WAS organics into the biomass of phagotrophic algae. Phagotrophic algae have the unique ability to grow by ingesting insoluble organic particles including microbial cells. This phagotrophic ability renders the solubilization of WAS organics unnecessary and makes this approach remarkably fast. The approach consists of two stages: a short anaerobic digestion treatment followed by the algal growth on treated WAS. The short anaerobic digestion was exploited to release discrete bacteria from WAS flocs. Phagotrophic algae could then grow rapidly with the released bacteria as well as the solubilized nutrients in the treated WAS. The results showed that WAS organics could be quickly consumed by phagotrophic algae. Among all studied conditions the highest WAS volatile solids (VS) reduction was achieved with 72 h anaerobic digestion and 24 h algal growth. In this optimal process, 28% of WAS VS was reduced, and 41% and 20% of the reduced VS were converted into algal biomass and lipids, respectively. In comparison, only 18% WAS VS were reduced after the same time of aerobic digestion without algae addition. Through this approach, the amount of WAS organics requiring further treatment for final disposal is significantly reduced. With the production of significant amounts of algal biomass and lipids, WAS treatment is expected to be more economical and sustainable in material recycling.

  6. Fast and Reliable Thermodynamic Approach for Determining the Protonation State of the Asp Dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinfeng; Sun, Bin; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Junjun

    2017-09-25

    The protonation state of the asp dyad is significantly important in revealing enzymatic mechanisms and developing drugs. However, it is hard to determine by calculating free energy changes between possible protonation states, because the free energy changes due to protein conformational flexibility are usually much larger than those originating from different locations of protons. Sophisticated and computationally expensive methods such as free energy perturbation, thermodynamic integration (TI), and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics are therefore usually used for this purpose. In the present study, we have developed a simple thermodynamic approach to effectively eliminating the free energy changes arising from protein conformational flexibility and estimating the free energy changes only originated from the locations of protons, which provides a fast and reliable method for determining the protonation state of asp dyads. The test of this approach on a total of 15 asp dyad systems, including BACE-1 and HIV-1 protease, shows that the predictions from this approach are all consistent with experiments or with the computationally expensive TI calculations. It is clear that our thermodynamic approach could be used to rapidly and reliably determine the protonation state of the asp dyad.

  7. Electron correlations in single-electron capture from helium by fast protons and α particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mančev, Ivan; Milojević, Nenad

    2010-02-01

    Single-electron capture from heliumlike atomic systems by bare projectiles is investigated by means of the four-body boundary-corrected first Born approximation (CB1-4B). The effect of the dynamic electron correlation is explicitly taken into account through the complete perturbation potential. The quantum-mechanical post and prior transition amplitudes for single charge exchange encompassing symmetric and/or asymmetric collisions are derived in terms of two-dimensional real integrals in the case of the prior form and five-dimensional quadratures for the post form. An illustrative computation is performed for single-electron capture from helium by protons and α particles at intermediate and high impact energies. The role of dynamic correlations is examined as a function of increased projectile energy. The validity and utility of the proposed CB1-4B method is critically assessed in comparison with the existing experimental data for total cross sections, and excellent agreement is obtained.

  8. Fast correlation technique for glacier flow monitoring by digital camera and space-borne SAR images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreau Luc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most of the image processing techniques have been first proposed and developed on small size images and progressively applied to larger and larger data sets resulting from new sensors and application requirements. In geosciences, digital cameras and remote sensing images can be used to monitor glaciers and to measure their surface velocity by different techniques. However, the image size and the number of acquisitions to be processed to analyze time series become a critical issue to derive displacement fields by the conventional correlation technique. In this paper, a mathematical optimization of the classical normalized cross-correlation and its implementation are described to overcome the computation time and window size limitations. The proposed implementation is performed with a specific memory management to avoid most of the temporary result re-computations. The performances of the software resulting from this optimization are assessed by computing the correlation between optical images of a serac fall, and between Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images of Alpine glaciers. The optical images are acquired by a digital camera installed near the Argentière glacier (Chamonix, France and the SAR images are acquired by the high resolution TerraSAR-X satellite over the Mont-Blanc area. The results illustrate the potential of this implementation to derive dense displacement fields with a computational time compatible with the camera images acquired every 2 h and with the size of the TerraSAR-X scenes covering 30 × 50 km2.

  9. XCO2 Retrieval Errors from a PCA-based Approach to Fast Radiative Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuti, Peter; Boesch, Hartmut; Natraj, Vijay; Kopparla, Pushkar

    2017-04-01

    Multiple-scattering radiative transfer (RT) calculations are an integral part of forward models used to infer greenhouse gas concentrations in the shortwave-infrared spectral range from satellite missions such as GOSAT or OCO-2. Such calculations are, however, computationally expensive and, combined with the recent growth in data volume, necessitate the use of acceleration methods in order to make retrievals feasible on an operational level. The principle component analysis (PCA)-based approach to fast radiative transfer introduced by Natraj et al. 2005 is a spectral binning method, in which the many line-by-line monochromatic calculations are replaced by a small set of representative ones. From the PCA performed on the optical layer properties for a scene-dependent atmosphere, the results of the representative calculations are mapped onto all spectral points in the given band. Since this RT scheme is an approximation, the computed top-of-atmosphere radiances exhibit errors compared to the "full" line-by-line calculation. These errors ultimately propagate into the final retrieved greenhouse gas concentrations, and their magnitude depends on scene-dependent parameters such as aerosol loadings or viewing geometry. An advantage of this method is the ability to choose the degree of accuracy by increasing or decreasing the number of empirical orthogonal functions used for the reconstruction of the radiances. We have performed a large set of global simulations based on real GOSAT scenes and assess the retrieval errors induced by the fast RT approximation through linear error analysis. We find that across a wide range of geophysical parameters, the errors are for the most part smaller than ± 0.2 ppm and ± 0.06 ppm (out of roughly 400 ppm) for ocean and land scenes respectively. A fast RT scheme that produces low errors is important, since regional biases in XCO2 even in the low sub-ppm range can cause significant changes in carbon fluxes obtained from inversions

  10. Fast maximum likelihood estimate of the Kriging correlation range in the frequency domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Baar, J.H.S.; Dwight, R.P.; Bijl, H.

    2011-01-01

    We apply Ordinary Kriging to predict 75,000 terrain survey data from a randomly sampled subset of < 2500 observations. Since such a Kriging prediction requires a considerable amount of CPU time, we aim to reduce its computational cost. In a conventional approach, the cost of the Kriging analysis wou

  11. Fast maximum likelihood estimate of the Kriging correlation range in the frequency domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Baar, J.H.S.; Dwight, R.P.; Bijl, H.

    2011-01-01

    We apply Ordinary Kriging to predict 75,000 terrain survey data from a randomly sampled subset of < 2500 observations. Since such a Kriging prediction requires a considerable amount of CPU time, we aim to reduce its computational cost. In a conventional approach, the cost of the Kriging analysis

  12. Deuterium–tritium catalytic reaction in fast ignition: Optimum parameters approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Khanbabaei; A Ghasemizad; S Khoshbinfar

    2014-09-01

    One of the main concerns about the currentworking on nuclear power reactors is the potential hazard of their radioactive waste. There is hope that this issue will be reduced in next generation nuclear fusion power reactors. Reactors will release nuclear energy through microexplosions that occur in a mixture of hydrogen isotopes of deuterium and tritium. However, there exist radiological hazards due to the accumulation of tritium in the blanket layer. A catalytic fusion reaction of DT mixture may stand between DD and an equimolar DT approach in which the fusion process continues with a small amount of tritium seed. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of DT reaction in the fast ignition (FI) scheme. The kinematic study of the main mechanism of the energy gain–loss term, which may disturb the ignition and burn process, was performed in FI and the optimum values of precompressed fuel and proton beam driver were derived. The recommended values of fuel parameters are: areal density $ρ R ≥ 5\\cdot$cm-2 and initial tritium fraction ≤ 0.025. For the proton beam, the corresponding optimum interval values are proton average energy $3≤ E_p ≤ 10$ MeV, pulse duration $5 ≤ t_p ≤ 15$ ps and power $5≤ W_p ≤ 12 × 10^{22}$ (keV$\\cdot$cm3$\\cdot$ps-1). It was proved that under the above conditions, a fast ignition DT reaction stays in the catalytic regime.

  13. A Fast Electro-Thermal Co-Simulation Modeling Approach for SiC Power MOSFETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceccarelli, Lorenzo; Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    The purpose of this work is to propose a novel electro-thermal co-simulation approach for the new generation of SiC MOSFETs, by development of a PSpice-based compact and physical SiC MOSFET model including temperature dependency of several parameters and a Simulink-based thermal network. The PSpice...... electrical model is capable to estimate the switching behavior and the energy losses of the device accurately under a wide range of operational conditions, including high temperature operations, within a relatively fast simulation time (few seconds). The the thermal network elements are extracted from...... the FEM simulation of the DUT’s structure, performed in ANSYS Icepack. A MATLAB script is used to process the simulation data and feed the needed settings and parameters back into the simulation. The parameters for a CREE 1.2 kV/30 A SiC MOSFET have been identified and the electro-thermal model has been...

  14. Fast simulation of non-linear pulsed ultrasound fields using an angular spectrum approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2013-01-01

    . The accuracy of the nonlinear ASA is compared to the non-linear simulation program – Abersim, which is a numerical solution to the Burgers equation based on the OSM. Simulations are performed for a linear array transducer with 64 active elements, focus at 40 mm, and excitation by a 2-cycle sine wave......A fast non-linear pulsed ultrasound field simulation is presented. It is implemented based on an angular spectrum approach (ASA), which analytically solves the non-linear wave equation. The ASA solution to the Westervelt equation is derived in detail. The calculation speed is significantly...... increased compared to a numerical solution using an operator splitting method (OSM). The ASA has been modified and extended to pulsed non-linear ultrasound fields in combination with Field II, where any array transducer with arbitrary geometry, excitation, focusing and apodization can be simulated...

  15. A novel approach to Hough Transform for implementation in fast triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzobon, Nicola; Montecassiano, Fabio; Zotto, Pierluigi

    2016-10-01

    Telescopes of position sensitive detectors are common layouts in charged particles tracking, and programmable logic devices, such as FPGAs, represent a viable choice for the real-time reconstruction of track segments in such detector arrays. A compact implementation of the Hough Transform for fast triggers in High Energy Physics, exploiting a parameter reduction method, is proposed, targeting the reduction of the needed storage or computing resources in current, or next future, state-of-the-art FPGA devices, while retaining high resolution over a wide range of track parameters. The proposed approach is compared to a Standard Hough Transform with particular emphasis on their application to muon detectors. In both cases, an original readout implementation is modeled.

  16. Design of exchange-correlation functionals through the correlation factor approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlíková Přecechtělová, Jana, E-mail: j.precechtelova@gmail.com, E-mail: Matthias.Ernzerhof@UMontreal.ca [Département de Chimie, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succursale A, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Institut für Chemie, Theoretische Chemie / Quantenchemie, Sekr. C7, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Bahmann, Hilke; Kaupp, Martin [Institut für Chemie, Theoretische Chemie / Quantenchemie, Sekr. C7, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Ernzerhof, Matthias, E-mail: j.precechtelova@gmail.com, E-mail: Matthias.Ernzerhof@UMontreal.ca [Département de Chimie, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succursale A, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2015-10-14

    The correlation factor model is developed in which the spherically averaged exchange-correlation hole of Kohn-Sham theory is factorized into an exchange hole model and a correlation factor. The exchange hole model reproduces the exact exchange energy per particle. The correlation factor is constructed in such a manner that the exchange-correlation energy correctly reduces to exact exchange in the high density and rapidly varying limits. Four different correlation factor models are presented which satisfy varying sets of physical constraints. Three models are free from empirical adjustments to experimental data, while one correlation factor model draws on one empirical parameter. The correlation factor models are derived in detail and the resulting exchange-correlation holes are analyzed. Furthermore, the exchange-correlation energies obtained from the correlation factor models are employed to calculate total energies, atomization energies, and barrier heights. It is shown that accurate, non-empirical functionals can be constructed building on exact exchange. Avenues for further improvements are outlined as well.

  17. Estimating Correlations with Missing Data, A Bayesian Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alan L.; Torres-Quevedo, Rocio

    1995-01-01

    The posterior distribution of the bivariate correlation is analytically derived given a data set where "X" is completely observed, but "Y" is missing at random for a portion of the sample. Interval estimates of the correlation are constructed from the posterior distribution in terms of the highest density regions. (SLD)

  18. Estimating Correlations with Missing Data, A Bayesian Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alan L.; Torres-Quevedo, Rocio

    1995-01-01

    The posterior distribution of the bivariate correlation is analytically derived given a data set where "X" is completely observed, but "Y" is missing at random for a portion of the sample. Interval estimates of the correlation are constructed from the posterior distribution in terms of the highest density regions. (SLD)

  19. A Fast Motion Parameters Estimation Method Based on Cross-Correlation of Adjacent Echoes for Wideband LFM Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Xiong Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In wideband radar systems, the performance of motion parameters estimation can significantly affect the performance of object detection and the quality of inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR imaging. Although the traditional motion parameters estimation methods can reduce the range migration (RM and Doppler frequency migration (DFM effects in ISAR imaging, the computational complexity is high. In this paper, we propose a new fast non-parameter-searching method for motion parameters estimation based on the cross-correlation of adjacent echoes (CCAE for wideband LFM signals. A cross-correlation operation is carried out for two adjacent echo signals, then the motion parameters can be calculated by estimating the frequency of the correlation result. The proposed CCAE method can be applied directly to the stretching system, which is commonly adopted in wideband radar systems. Simulation results demonstrate that the new method can achieve better estimation performances, with much lower computational cost, compared with existing methods. The experimental results on real radar datasets are also evaluated to verify the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method compared to the state-of-the-art existing methods.

  20. Application of Cross-correlation Greens Function along with FDTD for Fast Computation of Envelope Correlation Coefficient over Wideband for MIMO Antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Debdeep

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the concept of cross-correlation Green's functions (CGF) is used in conjunction with the finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique for calculation of envelope correlation coefficient (ECC) of any arbitrary MIMO antenna system over wide frequency band. Both frequency-domain (FD) and time-domain (TD) post-processing techniques are proposed for possible application with this FDTD-CGF scheme. The FDTD-CGF time-domain (FDTD-CGF-TD) scheme utilizes time-domain signal processing methods and exhibits significant reduction in ECC computation time as compared to the FDTD-CGF frequency domain (FDTD-CGF-FD) scheme, for high frequency-resolution requirements. The proposed FDTD-CGF based schemes can be applied for accurate and fast prediction of wideband ECC response, instead of the conventional scattering parameter based techniques which have several limitations. Numerical examples of the proposed FDTD-CGF techniques are provided for two-element MIMO systems involving thin-wire half-wavelength dipoles ...

  1. Meson correlators in QCD vacuum is saturation the right approach?

    CERN Document Server

    Sheel, V; Parikh, J C; Sheel, Varun; Mishra, Hiranmaya; Parikh, Jitendra C

    1994-01-01

    Equal time, point to point correlation functions for spatially separated meson currents are calculated with respect to a variational construct for the ground state of QCD. With exact calculations, vector, axial vector and scalar channels show qualitative agreement with the phenomenological predictions, where as pseudoscalar channel does not. However, the pseudoscalar correlator, when approximated by saturating with intermediate one pion states agrees with results obtained from spectral density functions parametrised by pion decay constant and value obtained from chiral perturbation theory.

  2. Fast responders have blinders on: ERP correlates of response inhibition in competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Ellen R A; Miedl, Stephan F; Bekkering, Harold

    2008-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that individuals acting in a social context form shared representations, resulting in incorporating another person's action plan into their own. The present study investigated the extent to which shared representations are formed in a competitive task. Specifically, it was tested whether in competition the process of response inhibition is affected by explicit knowledge of another's task. Event-related potential (ERP) correlates of response inhibition were measured while pairs of participants competed with each other on a speeded go/no-go task. Participants were instructed to always try to respond faster than their direct competitor. No-go stimuli requiring an inhibitory response of the other person as well (compatible action) or no-go stimuli to which the other person should respond (incompatible action) were directly compared. Behavioral performance measures and response inhibition, as reflected in the no-go P3, were decreased on incompatible actions compared to compatible ones. Interestingly, both the behavioral and the ERP effects were caused by the slow responding and thus unsuccessful competitors. These findings indicate that shared representations are formed in competitive tasks, but differently for successful and unsuccessful competitors. Only the slow responders are impeded by incompatible actions. The present study therefore demonstrates that the formation of shared representations is not a fully automatic process. People can differ in the extent to which they incorporate the other's action plan into their own and this may be closely related to successful performance in competitive action.

  3. Older women with dementia can perform fast alternating forearm movements and performance is correlated with tests of lower extremity function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramell-Risberg E

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Eva Bramell-Risberg,1 Gun-Britt Jarnlo,2 Sölve Elmståhl11Division of Geriatric Medicine, 2Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, SwedenBackground: The purpose of this work was to study the performance and reliability of a test of fast alternating forearm movements and its relationship with measures of lower extremity function in older women with dementia.Methods: Fast alternating movements was studied in 26 female patients (mean age 81.7 ± 5.9 years with dementia and 34 controls (mean age 87.5 ± 4.7 years. Subgroup analyses for those aged 80–89 years were performed due to significant differences in the mean ages of the study groups. Test–retest reliability for alternating forearm movements was studied in 11 patients (mean age 80.3 ± 6.7 years and 10 controls (mean age 87.4 ± 1.6 years. Pulses generated were transformed to an analog signal shown on a modified electrocardiogram. Numbers of cycles at 10 and 15 seconds were calculated for the right and left hand. Walking 2 × 15 m and the Get-Up-and Go (GUG test were performed at self-selected and maximal speed. Associations between tests of upper and lower extremity function were sought in eight patients (mean age 85 ± 2.7 years and 16 controls (mean age 85.1 ± 2.8 years and also according to types of dementia in nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and 10 patients with other types of dementia.Results: Patients with dementia could perform the test and had significantly fewer cycles (P = 0.02–0.006 at both 10 and 15 seconds compared with controls after age adjustment. A higher number of cycles was associated with higher self-selected walking speeds in patients (r = -0.79. Test–retest reliability for alternating forearm movements was high for both patients (intraclass correlation 0.88–0.94 and controls (intraclass correlation 0.74–0.94.Conclusion: Alternating forearm movements at fast speed can be used as a reliable test in both

  4. Fast patient-specific Monte Carlo brachytherapy dose calculations via the correlated sampling variance reduction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, Andrew; Le Yi; Williamson, Jeffrey F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate potential of correlated sampling Monte Carlo (CMC) simulation to improve the calculation efficiency for permanent seed brachytherapy (PSB) implants without loss of accuracy. Methods: CMC was implemented within an in-house MC code family (PTRAN) and used to compute 3D dose distributions for two patient cases: a clinical PSB postimplant prostate CT imaging study and a simulated post lumpectomy breast PSB implant planned on a screening dedicated breast cone-beam CT patient exam. CMC tallies the dose difference, {Delta}D, between highly correlated histories in homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries. The heterogeneous geometry histories were derived from photon collisions sampled in a geometrically identical but purely homogeneous medium geometry, by altering their particle weights to correct for bias. The prostate case consisted of 78 Model-6711 {sup 125}I seeds. The breast case consisted of 87 Model-200 {sup 103}Pd seeds embedded around a simulated lumpectomy cavity. Systematic and random errors in CMC were unfolded using low-uncertainty uncorrelated MC (UMC) as the benchmark. CMC efficiency gains, relative to UMC, were computed for all voxels, and the mean was classified in regions that received minimum doses greater than 20%, 50%, and 90% of D{sub 90}, as well as for various anatomical regions. Results: Systematic errors in CMC relative to UMC were less than 0.6% for 99% of the voxels and 0.04% for 100% of the voxels for the prostate and breast cases, respectively. For a 1 x 1 x 1 mm{sup 3} dose grid, efficiency gains were realized in all structures with 38.1- and 59.8-fold average gains within the prostate and breast clinical target volumes (CTVs), respectively. Greater than 99% of the voxels within the prostate and breast CTVs experienced an efficiency gain. Additionally, it was shown that efficiency losses were confined to low dose regions while the largest gains were located where little difference exists between the homogeneous and

  5. A Fast, Portable, Fiber Optic Spectrofluorometer for Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement in the Aquatic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, I. H.; Senft-Grupp, S.; Hemond, H.

    2014-12-01

    The measurement of chemical fluxes between natural waters and their benthic sediments by most existing methods, such as benthic chambers and sediment core incubations, is slow, cumbersome, and often inaccurate. One promising new method for determining benthic fluxes is eddy correlation (EC), a minimally invasive, in situ technique based on high-speed velocity and concentration measurements. Widespread application of EC to a large range of chemicals of interest is currently limited, however, by the availability of rapid, high-resolution chemical sensors capable of precisely measuring concentrations at a point location and at sufficient speed (several Hz). A proof of concept spectrofluorometry instrument has been created that is capable of high-frequency concentration measurements of naturally fluorescent substances. Designed with the EC application in mind, the system utilizes optical fibers to transmit excitation and emission light, enabling in situ measurements at high spatial resolution. Emitted fluorescence light is passed through a tunable monochromator before reaching a photomultiplier tube; photons are quantified by a custom miniaturized, low-power photon counting circuit board. Preliminary results indicate that individual measurements made at 100 Hz of a 10 ppm humic acid solution were precise within 10%, thus yielding a precision of the order of +/- 1% in a second. Used in an EC system, this instrument will enable flux measurements of substances such as naturally occurring fluorescent dissolved organic material (FDOM). Measurement of fluxes of FDOM is significant in its own right, and also will allow the indirect measurement of the numerous other chemical fluxes that are associated with FDOM by using tracer techniques. The use of a tunable monochromator not only allows flexibility in detection wavelength, but also enables full wavelength scans of the emission spectrum, making the spectrofluorometer a dual-function device capable of both characterizing the

  6. Object-oriented approach to fast display of electrophysiological data under MS-windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion-Poll, F

    1995-12-01

    Microcomputers provide neuroscientists an alternative to a host of laboratory equipment to record and analyze electrophysiological data. Object-oriented programming tools bring an essential link between custom needs for data acquisition and analysis with general software packages. In this paper, we outline the layout of basic objects that display and manipulate electrophysiological data files. Visual inspection of the recordings is a basic requirement of any data analysis software. We present an approach that allows flexible and fast display of large data sets. This approach involves constructing an intermediate representation of the data in order to lower the number of actual points displayed while preserving the aspect of the data. The second group of objects is related to the management of lists of data files. Typical experiments designed to test the biological activity of pharmacological products include scores of files. Data manipulation and analysis are facilitated by creating multi-document objects that include the names of all experiment files. Implementation steps of both objects are described for an MS-Windows hosted application.

  7. An Analytical Approach for Fast Recovery of the LSI Properties in Magnetic Particle Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Jabbari Asl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Linearity and shift invariance (LSI characteristics of magnetic particle imaging (MPI are important properties for quantitative medical diagnosis applications. The MPI image equations have been theoretically shown to exhibit LSI; however, in practice, the necessary filtering action removes the first harmonic information, which destroys the LSI characteristics. This lost information can be constant in the x-space reconstruction method. Available recovery algorithms, which are based on signal matching of multiple partial field of views (pFOVs, require much processing time and a priori information at the start of imaging. In this paper, a fast analytical recovery algorithm is proposed to restore the LSI properties of the x-space MPI images, representable as an image of discrete concentrations of magnetic material. The method utilizes the one-dimensional (1D x-space imaging kernel and properties of the image and lost image equations. The approach does not require overlapping of pFOVs, and its complexity depends only on a small-sized system of linear equations; therefore, it can reduce the processing time. Moreover, the algorithm only needs a priori information which can be obtained at one imaging process. Considering different particle distributions, several simulations are conducted, and results of 1D and 2D imaging demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  8. Extended Evolutionary Fast Learn-to-Walk Approach for Four-Legged Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muh.Anshar; Mary-Anne Williams

    2007-01-01

    Robot locomotion is an active research area. In this paper we focus on the locomotion of quadruped robots. An effective walking gait of quadruped robots is mainly concerned with two key aspects, namely speed and stability. The large search space of potential parameter settings for leg joints means that hand tuning is not feasible in general. As a result walking parameters are typically determined using machine learning techniques. A major shortcoming of using machine learning techniques is the significant wear and tear of robots since many parameter combinations need to be evaluated before an optimal solution is found.This paper proposes a direct walking gait learning approach, which is specifically designed to reduce wear and tear of robot motors, joints and other hardware. In essence we provide an effective learning mechanism that leads to a solution in a faster convergence time than previous algorithms. The results demonstrate that the new learning algorithm obtains a faster convergence to the best solutions in a short run. This approach is significant in obtaining faster walking gaits which will be useful for a wide range of applications where speed and stability are important. Future work will extend our methods so that the faster convergence algorithm can be applied to a two legged humanoid and lead to less wear and tear whilst still developing a fast and stable gait.

  9. A Fast Approach to Arm Blind Grasping and Placing for Mobile Robot Transportation in Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fast approach to organizing arm grasping and placing manipulations for mobile robot transportation systems in life science laboratories. The approach builds a blind framework to realize the robot arm operations without integrating any other sensors or recognizing computation, but only adopting the robot’s existing on-board ultrasonic sensors originally installed for collision avoidance. To achieve high-precision indoor positioning performance for the proposed blind arm strategy, a hybrid method is proposed, including a StarGazer system for all laboratory environments and an ultrasonic sensor- based component for the local areas where the arm operations are expected. At the same time, two error- correcting algorithms are presented for the improvement of the high-precision localization and the selection of the robot arm operations. In addition, the architecture of all the robotic controlling centres and their key APIs are also explained. Finally, an experiment proves that the proposed blind strategy is effective and economically viable for the laboratory automation.

  10. Fast characterization of gold nanorods ensemble by correlating its structure with optical extinction spectral features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Hu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Owing to unique size- and shape- dependent localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs, the optical extinction spectroscopy method (OES has received much attention to characterize the geometry of metal NPs by fitting experimental UV-vis-NIR spectra. In this work, we aimed to develop a more convenient and accurate OES method to characterize the structural parameters and concentration of the gold nanorods (GNRs ensemble. The main difference between our approach and previous OES methods is that we solve this inverse spectra problem by establishing the LSPR relation equations of GNRs ensemble so that there is no need of UV-vis-NIR spectra fitting process. The aspect ratio (AR and AR distribution can be directly retrieved from two of UV-vis-NIR spectral parameters (peak position and full width at half maximum using the obtained relation equations. Furthermore, the relation equations are modified for applying to the more general GNRs samples by considering the plasmon shift due to the near distance dielectric sensitivity. Finally, instead of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS measurement, we provide a more facile measure of the mass-volume concentration which can be determined from the extinction value at 400 nm. By comparing with the experimental results, it shows that the retrieved results by the relation equations are reliable.

  11. Fast method of constructing image correlations to build a free network based on image multivocabulary trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Zongqian; Wang, Xin; Wei, Minglu

    2015-05-01

    In image-based three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction, one topic of growing importance is how to quickly obtain a 3-D model from a large number of images. The retrieval of the correct and relevant images for the model poses a considerable technological challenge. The "image vocabulary tree" has been proposed as a method to search for similar images. However, a significant drawback of this approach is identified in its low time efficiency and barely satisfactory classification result. The method proposed is inspired by, and improves upon, some recent methods. Specifically, vocabulary quality is considered and multivocabulary trees are designed to improve the classification result. A marked improvement was, indeed, observed in our evaluation of the proposed method. To improve time efficiency, graphics processing unit (GPU) computer unified device architecture parallel computation is applied in the multivocabulary trees. The results of the experiments showed that the GPU was three to four times more efficient than the enumeration matching and CPU methods when the number of images is large. This paper presents a reliable reference method for the rapid construction of a free network to be used for the computing of 3-D information.

  12. Fast spin-echo MR of the articular cartilage in the osteoarthrotic knee. Correlation of MR and arthroscopic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahara, Y. [Omura Municipal Establishment Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Uetani, M.; Hayashi, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine (Japan); Nakahara, N.; Futagawa, S.; Kinoshita, Y. [Isahaya Insurance General Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Doiguchi, Y.; Nishiguchi, M. [Isahaya Insurance General Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery

    1998-03-01

    Purpose: The objective was to assess the efficacy of fast spin-echo (FSE) imaging in the detection of articular cartilage abnormality in osteoarthrosis of the knee. Material and Methods: We studied 356 articular surfaces in 73 knees that had been examined by both MR imaging and arthroscopy. The MR images were obtained with FSE imaging (TR/TE 4200/100) on a 0.5 T unit. The surface abnormalities of the articular cartilage that were detected by MR imaging were compared with the arthroscopic findings. Results: The overall sensitivity and specificity of MR in detecting chondral abnormalities were 60.5% (158/261) and 93.7% (89/95) respectively. MR imaging was more sensitive to the higher grade lesions: 31.8% (34/107) in grade 1; 72.4% (71/98) in grade 2; 93.5% (43/46) in grade 3; and 100% (10/10) in grade 4. The MR and arthroscopic grades were the same in 46.9% (167/356), and differed by no more than 1 grade in 90.2% (321/356) and 2 grades in 99.2% (353/356). The correlation between arthroscopic and MR grading scores was highly significant with a correlation coefficient of 0.705 (p<0.0001). Conclusion: FSE sequence was less sensitive to mild cartilage abnormality but useful in detecting moderate to severe abnormality and in evaluating the degree of articular cartilage abnormality. (orig.).

  13. Kalman/Map Filtering-Aided Fast Normalized Cross Correlation-Based Wi-Fi Fingerprinting Location Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Sun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A Kalman/map filtering (KMF-aided fast normalized cross correlation (FNCC-based Wi-Fi fingerprinting location sensing system is proposed in this paper. Compared with conventional neighbor selection algorithms that calculate localization results with received signal strength (RSS mean samples, the proposed FNCC algorithm makes use of all the on-line RSS samples and reference point RSS variations to achieve higher fingerprinting accuracy. The FNCC computes efficiently while maintaining the same accuracy as the basic normalized cross correlation. Additionally, a KMF is also proposed to process fingerprinting localization results. It employs a new map matching algorithm to nonlinearize the linear location prediction process of Kalman filtering (KF that takes advantage of spatial proximities of consecutive localization results. With a calibration model integrated into an indoor map, the map matching algorithm corrects unreasonable prediction locations of the KF according to the building interior structure. Thus, more accurate prediction locations are obtained. Using these locations, the KMF considerably improves fingerprinting algorithm performance. Experimental results demonstrate that the FNCC algorithm with reduced computational complexity outperforms other neighbor selection algorithms and the KMF effectively improves location sensing accuracy by using indoor map information and spatial proximities of consecutive localization results.

  14. Raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) for measuring fast protein dynamics and concentrations with a commercial laser scanning confocal microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C M; Dalal, R B; Hebert, B; Digman, M A; Horwitz, A R; Gratton, E

    2008-01-01

    Raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) is a new and novel technique for measuring molecular dynamics and concentrations from fluorescence confocal images. The RICS technique extracts information about molecular dynamics and concentrations from images of living cells taken on commercial confocal systems. Here we develop guidelines for performing the RICS analysis on an analogue commercial laser scanning confocal microscope. Guidelines for typical instrument settings, image acquisition settings and analogue detector characterization are presented. Using appropriate instrument/acquisition parameters, diffusion coefficients and concentrations can be determined, even for highly dynamic dye molecules in solution. Standard curves presented herein demonstrate the ability to detect protein concentrations as low as approximately 2 nM. Additionally, cellular measurements give accurate values for the diffusion of paxillin-enhanced-green fluorescent protein (EGFP), an adhesion adaptor molecule, in the cytosol of the cell and also show slower paxillin dynamics near adhesions where paxillin interacts with immobile adhesion components. Methods are presented to account for bright immobile structures within the cell that dominate spatial correlation functions; allowing the extraction of fast protein dynamics within and near these structures. A running average algorithm is also presented to address slow cellular movement or movement of cellular features such as adhesions. Finally, methods to determine protein concentration in the presence of immobile structures within the cell are presented. A table is presented giving guidelines for instrument and imaging setting when performing RICS on the Olympus FV300 confocal and these guidelines are a starting point for performing the analysis on other commercial confocal systems.

  15. An Eavesdropping Detecting Approach Based on Mode-Mode Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Jin; ZENG Gui-Hua; ZHOU Nan-Run

    2005-01-01

    @@ We find that second-order coherence as well as a Hanbury-Brown-Twiss intensity interferometer may provide an optimal approach for eavesdropping detection in the quantum key distribution based on two-mode squeezed'vacuum states. With this approach, eavesdropping can be easily detected without sacrificing extra secret bits as the test key. In addition, the efficiency of the quantum key distribution protocol is enhanced greatly.

  16. Phenomenology and neurophysiological correlations: two approaches to perception research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillmann, Lothar

    2009-06-01

    This article argues that phenomenological description and neurophysiological correlation complement each other in perception research. Whilst phenomena constitute the material, neuronal mechanisms are indispensable for their explanation. Numerous examples of neurophysiological correlates show that the correlation of phenomenology and neurophysiology is fruitful. Phenomena for which neuronal mechanism have been found include: (in area V1) filling-in of real and artificial scotomata, contour integration, figure-ground segregation by orientation contrast, amodal completion, and motion transparency; (in V2) modal completion, border ownership, surface transparency, and cyclopean perception; (in V3) alignment in dotted contours, and filling-in with dynamic texture; (in V4) colour constancy; (in MT) shape by accretion/deletion, grouping by coherent motion, apparent motion in motion quartets, motion in apertures, and biological motion. Results suggest that in monkey visual cortex, occlusion cues, including stereo depth, are predominantly processed in lower areas, whereas mechanisms for grouping and motion are primarily represented in higher areas. More correlations are likely to emerge as neuroscientists strive for a better understanding of visual perception. The paper concludes with a review of major achievements in visual neuroscience pertinent to the study of the phenomena under consideration.

  17. Correlation Pattern among “Asian Paper Tigers” Currencies: A Dynamic Conditional Correlation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozaimah Zainudin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to investigate the Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC for eight currencies in the East Asia region, known as Asian Paper Tigers from the period of July 2002 to July 2012. The estimation results generated from DCC model verify that each tested exchange rate's volatility is determined by its own previous volatility shock, however failed to find any evidence with its own residual shock. While for correlation estimation results, we support the evidence that the conditional correlations for all tested pairs currencies are highly affected by their previous correlation. Most of the Asian Paper Tigers currencies recorded a low conditional correlation over the tested sampling period except for CNYJPY, MYRCNY, MYRIDR, MYRTHB, JPYTHB and PHPKRW. The findings further verify that mixing the currencies within different monetary regime plays a significant role in enhancing the currency portfolio diversification results. Although in unstable period, both JPYTHB and MYRJPY are the most promising combinations to be included in the optimal currency investment basket where both pairs have small and stable correlations either during the global recession period or European liquidity crisis period.

  18. Random matrix approach to cross correlations in financial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plerou, Vasiliki; Gopikrishnan, Parameswaran; Rosenow, Bernd; Amaral, Luís A.; Guhr, Thomas; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2002-06-01

    We analyze cross correlations between price fluctuations of different stocks using methods of random matrix theory (RMT). Using two large databases, we calculate cross-correlation matrices C of returns constructed from (i) 30-min returns of 1000 US stocks for the 2-yr period 1994-1995, (ii) 30-min returns of 881 US stocks for the 2-yr period 1996-1997, and (iii) 1-day returns of 422 US stocks for the 35-yr period 1962-1996. We test the statistics of the eigenvalues λi of C against a ``null hypothesis'' - a random correlation matrix constructed from mutually uncorrelated time series. We find that a majority of the eigenvalues of C fall within the RMT bounds [λ-,λ+] for the eigenvalues of random correlation matrices. We test the eigenvalues of C within the RMT bound for universal properties of random matrices and find good agreement with the results for the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble of random matrices-implying a large degree of randomness in the measured cross-correlation coefficients. Further, we find that the distribution of eigenvector components for the eigenvectors corresponding to the eigenvalues outside the RMT bound display systematic deviations from the RMT prediction. In addition, we find that these ``deviating eigenvectors'' are stable in time. We analyze the components of the deviating eigenvectors and find that the largest eigenvalue corresponds to an influence common to all stocks. Our analysis of the remaining deviating eigenvectors shows distinct groups, whose identities correspond to conventionally identified business sectors. Finally, we discuss applications to the construction of portfolios of stocks that have a stable ratio of risk to return.

  19. Development of a wide band radiative transfer model based on a fast correlated k-distributions generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croize, Laurence; Pierro, Jean; Huet, Thierry; Labarre, Luc

    2016-04-01

    MATISSE which acronym means Advanced Modeling of the Earth for Environment and Scenes Simulation is developed by ONERA since the mid 1990's. The code main functionality is to compute spectral or integrated natural background radiance images. Natural backgrounds include the atmosphere, low and high altitude clouds, sea and land. It can also provide specific radiative atmospheric terms as path transmission, path radiances, sky radiances or local illumination around a target point. Spectral bandwidth ranges from 700 to 25000 cm-1 wavenumber (i.e. from 0.4 to 14 μm). As far as molecular absorption is concerned, MATISSE v2.0 is based on a correlated K (CK) model and needs a pre-generation of the k-distributions. This method is very precise but is time consuming and is done as an offline calculation. In answer to the increasing need of rapid radiative transfer codes, the future version of the MATISSE v3.0 will include a fast radiative transfer model at low and at medium spectral resolution. This work aims to develop a fast wide band CK model for the acceleration of radiative transfer calculation. As a first step, a statistical k-distributions fast generator was developed. It allows generating k-distributions from 700 to 25000 cm-1 with a spectral resolution of 1 cm-1 in less than 30 ms(*) for one altitude (that means about three orders of magnitude faster than before). Such speed allows generating k-distributions online. To validate the model, we have compared the obtained transmission spectra with reference spectra using a mix of 6 molecules (H2O, CO2, O3, N2O, CO, CH4) in homogenous atmosphere corresponding to different altitudes from 0 to 105 km. Reference spectra were calculated as the convolution of a spectrum obtained with a line by line model and a gate function of 1 cm-1 wide. An average difference of 3×10-3 % and a standard deviation of 3.3% were typically obtained. As a second step, this method of rapid k-distributions generation is now being coupled with a

  20. Fast dissolving strips: A novel approach for the delivery of verapamil

    OpenAIRE

    Kunte, S.; P Tandale

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Fast dissolving drug delivery system offers a solution for those patients having difficulty in swallowing tablets/capsules etc. Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker used as an antianginal, antiarrhythmic, and antihypertensive agent with extensive first pass metabolism which results in less bioavailability. This work investigated the possibility of developing verapamil fast dissolving strips allowing fast, reproducible drug dissolution in the oral cavity; thus bypassing first pass...

  1. A Partitioned Correlation Function Interaction approach for describing electron correlation in atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Verdebout, S; Jönsson, P; Gaigalas, G; Fischer, C Froese; Godefroid, M

    2013-01-01

    Traditional multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) and configuration interaction (CI) methods are based on a single orthonormal orbital basis (OB). For atoms with complicated shell structures, a large OB is needed to saturate all the electron correlation effects. The large OB leads to massive configuration state function (CSF) expansions that are difficult to handle. We show that it is possible to relax the orthonormality restriction on the OB and break down the originally large calculations to a set of smaller ones that can be run in parallel. Each calculation determines a partitioned correlation function (PCF) that accounts for a specific correlation effect. The PCFs are built on optimally localized orbital sets and are added to a zero-order multireference (MR) function to form a total wave function. The mixing coefficients of the PCFs are fixed from a small generalized eigenvalue problem. The required matrices are computed using a biorthonormal transformation technique. The new method, called partitioned c...

  2. DYNAMIC RELOCATION OF PLANT/WAREHOUSE FACILITIES:A FAST COMPACT GENETIC ALGORITHM APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shugang; Wu Zhiming; Pang Xiaohong

    2004-01-01

    The problem of dynamic relocation and phase-out of combined manufacturing plant and warehousing facilities in the supply chain are concerned.A multiple time/multiple objective model is proposed to maximize total profit during the time horizon, minimize total access time from the plant/warehouse facilities to its suppliers and customers and maximize aggregated local incentives during the time horizon.The relocation problem keeps the feature of NP-hard and with the traditional method the optimal result cannot be got easily.So a compact genetic algorithm (CGA) is introduced to solve the problem.In order to accelerate the convergence speed of the CGA, the least square approach is introduced and a fast compact genetic algorithm (fCGA) is proposed.Finally, simulation results with the fCGA are compared with the CGA and classical integer programming (IP).The results show that the fCGA proposed is of high efficiency for Pareto optimality problem.

  3. A novel approach to correct the coded aperture misalignment for fast neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, F. N.; Hu, H. S., E-mail: huasi-hu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Wang, D. M.; Jia, J. [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhang, T. K. [Laser Fusion Research Center, CAEP, Mianyang, 621900 Sichuan (China); Jia, Q. G. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Aperture alignment is crucial for the diagnosis of neutron imaging because it has significant impact on the coding imaging and the understanding of the neutron source. In our previous studies on the neutron imaging system with coded aperture for large field of view, “residual watermark,” certain extra information that overlies reconstructed image and has nothing to do with the source is discovered if the peak normalization is employed in genetic algorithms (GA) to reconstruct the source image. Some studies on basic properties of residual watermark indicate that the residual watermark can characterize coded aperture and can thus be used to determine the location of coded aperture relative to the system axis. In this paper, we have further analyzed the essential conditions for the existence of residual watermark and the requirements of the reconstruction algorithm for the emergence of residual watermark. A gamma coded imaging experiment has been performed to verify the existence of residual watermark. Based on the residual watermark, a correction method for the aperture misalignment has been studied. A multiple linear regression model of the position of coded aperture axis, the position of residual watermark center, and the gray barycenter of neutron source with twenty training samples has been set up. Using the regression model and verification samples, we have found the position of the coded aperture axis relative to the system axis with an accuracy of approximately 20 μm. Conclusively, a novel approach has been established to correct the coded aperture misalignment for fast neutron coded imaging.

  4. Approaches towards Implementation of Multi-bit Digital Receiver using Fast Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit S. Kulkarni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares different digital receiver signal processing schemes as applied to current ESM/RWR systems. The schemes include fast fourier transform (FFT-based, FIR filter-based and mixed architectures. Use of polyphase FFT and IIR filters is also discussed. The specifications and signal processing requirements of a modern digital electronic warfare (EW receiver are discussed. The design procedures and architectures for all the schemes are brought out. The tradeoffs involved in selection of different parameters for these schemes are also discussed. The digital receiver schemes are modeled and analyzed for different metrics such as, Parameter measurement accuracies, Pulse handling capability, Frequency separation capability, Number of multipliers required for implementation etc. The analysis is done for a 500 MHz BW digital receiver and assumes 8 bit ADC in the front end. The results obtained for the comparison are discussed in the paper. Limited simulations show that overlapped FFT scheme is a better approach for digital receiver processing.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.198-203, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4264

  5. A dual molecular beacon approach for fast detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuan-Xing; Zhao, Zi-Yun; Lv, Jian-Xin; Zhu, Ling

    2013-02-01

    The main objectives of this study were to assess a dual molecular beacon approach for fast detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT). MT beacon (Tb-B) was designed to target the unique IS6110 (114 bp) and rpoB (215 bp) fragment of the MT (H37Ra) genome, and the two fragments were inserted into the PMD-19T vector after purification, by PCR and sequencing, to construct plasmids. Different dilutions of positive plasmid standards were used for dual molecular beacon RT-PCR of rpoB and IS6110, and standard curves were established.The results show that the dual molecular beacon of rpoB and IS6110 detecting MT was stable (CV is 1.91-2.68 %) with a high amplification efficiency (95.6 %). In addition, the strains of non MT did not generate fluorescence signals, while strains of MT did, indicating that the primers and molecular beacons were specific, and only MT complex was amplified. The linear range was wide (10(3)-10(11) copies/mL), and clinical specimens presenting different bacterial counts can be detected.

  6. Neural Correlates of Attentional Flexibility during Approach and Avoidance Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcott, Rebecca D.; Berkman, Elliot T.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic, momentary approach or avoidance motivational states have downstream effects on eventual goal success and overall well being, but there is still uncertainty about how those states affect the proximal neurocognitive processes (e.g., attention) that mediate the longer-term effects. Attentional flexibility, or the ability to switch between different attentional foci, is one such neurocognitive process that influences outcomes in the long run. The present study examined how approach and avoidance motivational states affect the neural processes involved in attentional flexibility using fMRI with the aim of determining whether flexibility operates via different neural mechanisms under these different states. Attentional flexibility was operationalized as subjects’ ability to switch between global and local stimulus features. In addition to subjects’ motivational state, the task context was manipulated by varying the ratio of global to local trials in a block in light of recent findings about the moderating role of context on motivation-related differences in attentional flexibility. The neural processes involved in attentional flexibility differ under approach versus avoidance states. First, differences in the preparatory activity in key brain regions suggested that subjects’ preparedness to switch was influenced by motivational state (anterior insula) and the interaction between motivation and context (superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule). Additionally, we observed motivation-related differences the anterior cingulate cortex during switching. These results provide initial evidence that motivation-induced behavioral changes may arise via different mechanisms in approach versus avoidance motivational states. PMID:26000735

  7. Neural Correlates of Attentional Flexibility during Approach and Avoidance Motivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca D Calcott

    Full Text Available Dynamic, momentary approach or avoidance motivational states have downstream effects on eventual goal success and overall well being, but there is still uncertainty about how those states affect the proximal neurocognitive processes (e.g., attention that mediate the longer-term effects. Attentional flexibility, or the ability to switch between different attentional foci, is one such neurocognitive process that influences outcomes in the long run. The present study examined how approach and avoidance motivational states affect the neural processes involved in attentional flexibility using fMRI with the aim of determining whether flexibility operates via different neural mechanisms under these different states. Attentional flexibility was operationalized as subjects' ability to switch between global and local stimulus features. In addition to subjects' motivational state, the task context was manipulated by varying the ratio of global to local trials in a block in light of recent findings about the moderating role of context on motivation-related differences in attentional flexibility. The neural processes involved in attentional flexibility differ under approach versus avoidance states. First, differences in the preparatory activity in key brain regions suggested that subjects' preparedness to switch was influenced by motivational state (anterior insula and the interaction between motivation and context (superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, we observed motivation-related differences the anterior cingulate cortex during switching. These results provide initial evidence that motivation-induced behavioral changes may arise via different mechanisms in approach versus avoidance motivational states.

  8. Neural Correlates of Attentional Flexibility during Approach and Avoidance Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcott, Rebecca D; Berkman, Elliot T

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic, momentary approach or avoidance motivational states have downstream effects on eventual goal success and overall well being, but there is still uncertainty about how those states affect the proximal neurocognitive processes (e.g., attention) that mediate the longer-term effects. Attentional flexibility, or the ability to switch between different attentional foci, is one such neurocognitive process that influences outcomes in the long run. The present study examined how approach and avoidance motivational states affect the neural processes involved in attentional flexibility using fMRI with the aim of determining whether flexibility operates via different neural mechanisms under these different states. Attentional flexibility was operationalized as subjects' ability to switch between global and local stimulus features. In addition to subjects' motivational state, the task context was manipulated by varying the ratio of global to local trials in a block in light of recent findings about the moderating role of context on motivation-related differences in attentional flexibility. The neural processes involved in attentional flexibility differ under approach versus avoidance states. First, differences in the preparatory activity in key brain regions suggested that subjects' preparedness to switch was influenced by motivational state (anterior insula) and the interaction between motivation and context (superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule). Additionally, we observed motivation-related differences the anterior cingulate cortex during switching. These results provide initial evidence that motivation-induced behavioral changes may arise via different mechanisms in approach versus avoidance motivational states.

  9. Spatially continuous approach to the description of incoherencies in fast reactor accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, L B

    1976-12-01

    A generalized cell-type approach is developed in which individual subassemblies are represented as a unit. By appropriate characterization of the results of separate detailed investigations, spatial variations within a cell are represented as a superposition. The advantage of this approach is that costly detailed cell-type information is generated only once or a very few times. Spatial information obtained by the cell treatment is properly condensed in order to drastically reduce the transient computation time. Approximate treatments of transient phenomena are developed based on the use of distributions of volume and reactivity worth with temperature and other reactor parameters. Incoherencies during transient are physically dependent on the detailed variations in the initial state. Therefore, stationary volumetric distributions which contain in condensed form the detailed initial incoherency information provides a proper basis for the transient treatment. Approximate transient volumetric distributions are generated by a suitable transformation of the stationary distribution to reflect the changes in the transient temperature field. Evaluation of transient changes is based on results of conventional uniform channel calculations and a superposition of lateral variations as they are derived from prior cell investigations. Specific formulations are developed for the treatment of reactivity feedback. Doppler and sodium expansion reactivity feedback is related to condensed temperature-worth distributions. Transient evaluation of the worth distribution is based on the relation between stationary and transient volumetric distributions, which contains the condensed temperature field information. Coolant voiding is similarly treated with proper distribution information. Results show that the treatments developed for the transient phase up to and including sodium boiling constitute a fast and effective simulation of inter- and intra-subassembly incoherence effects.

  10. A Novel Two-Wire Fast Readout Approach for Suppressing Cable Crosstalk in a Tactile Resistive Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Wang, Yu; Li, Jianqing; Song, Aiguo

    2016-05-18

    For suppressing the crosstalk problem due to wire resistances and contacted resistances of the long flexible cables in tactile sensing systems, we present a novel two-wire fast readout approach for the two-dimensional resistive sensor array in shared row-column fashion. In the approach, two wires are used for every driving electrode and every sampling electrode in the resistive sensor array. The approach with a high readout rate, though it requires a large number of wires and many sampling channels, solves the cable crosstalk problem. We also verified the approach's performance with Multisim simulations and actual experiments.

  11. An approach to studying the neural correlates of reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Yaakov

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to review my current understanding of the concepts of cognitive reserve (CR), brain reserve and brain maintenance, and to describe our group's approach to using imaging to study their neural basis. I present a working model for utilizing data regarding brain integrity, clinical status, cognitive activation and CR proxies to develop analyses that can explore the neural basis of cognitive reserve and brain maintenance. The basic model assumes that the effect of brain changes on cognition is mediated by task-related activation. We treat CR as a moderator to understand how task-related activation might vary as a function of CR, or how CR might operate independently of these differences in task-related activation. My hope is that this presentation will spark discussion across groups that study these concepts, allowing us to come to some common agreement on definitions, methodology and approaches.

  12. Fast Bayesian approach for modal identification using free vibration data, Part I - Most probable value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Liang; Ni, Yan-Chun; Au, Siu-Kui; Lam, Heung-Fai

    2016-03-01

    The identification of modal properties from field testing of civil engineering structures is becoming economically viable, thanks to the advent of modern sensor and data acquisition technology. Its demand is driven by innovative structural designs and increased performance requirements of dynamic-prone structures that call for a close cross-checking or monitoring of their dynamic properties and responses. Existing instrumentation capabilities and modal identification techniques allow structures to be tested under free vibration, forced vibration (known input) or ambient vibration (unknown broadband loading). These tests can be considered complementary rather than competing as they are based on different modeling assumptions in the identification model and have different implications on costs and benefits. Uncertainty arises naturally in the dynamic testing of structures due to measurement noise, sensor alignment error, modeling error, etc. This is especially relevant in field vibration tests because the test condition in the field environment can hardly be controlled. In this work, a Bayesian statistical approach is developed for modal identification using the free vibration response of structures. A frequency domain formulation is proposed that makes statistical inference based on the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the data in a selected frequency band. This significantly simplifies the identification model because only the modes dominating the frequency band need to be included. It also legitimately ignores the information in the excluded frequency bands that are either irrelevant or difficult to model, thereby significantly reducing modeling error risk. The posterior probability density function (PDF) of the modal parameters is derived rigorously from modeling assumptions and Bayesian probability logic. Computational difficulties associated with calculating the posterior statistics, including the most probable value (MPV) and the posterior covariance matrix

  13. Approximate Decoding Approaches for Network Coded Correlated Data

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Hyunggon; Frossard, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers a framework where data from correlated sources are transmitted with help of network coding in ad-hoc network topologies. The correlated data are encoded independently at sensors and network coding is employed in the intermediate nodes in order to improve the data delivery performance. In such settings, we focus on the problem of reconstructing the sources at decoder when perfect decoding is not possible due to losses or bandwidth bottlenecks. We first show that the source data similarity can be used at decoder to permit decoding based on a novel and simple approximate decoding scheme. We analyze the influence of the network coding parameters and in particular the size of finite coding fields on the decoding performance. We further determine the optimal field size that maximizes the expected decoding performance as a trade-off between information loss incurred by limiting the resolution of the source data and the error probability in the reconstructed data. Moreover, we show that the perfo...

  14. Dynamic Approaches for Facial Recognition Using Digital Image Speckle Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafailovich-Sokolov, Sara; Guan, E.; Afriat, Isablle; Rafailovich, Miriam; Sokolov, Jonathan; Clark, Richard

    2004-03-01

    Digital image analysis techniques have been extensively used in facial recognition. To date, most static facial characterization techniques, which are usually based on Fourier transform techniques, are sensitive to lighting, shadows, or modification of appearance by makeup, natural aging or surgery. In this study we have demonstrated that it is possible to uniquely identify faces by analyzing the natural motion of facial features with Digital Image Speckle Correlation (DISC). Human skin has a natural pattern produced by the texture of the skin pores, which is easily visible with conventional digital cameras of resolution greater than 4 mega pixels. Hence the application of the DISC method to the analysis of facial motion appears to be very straightforward. Here we demonstrate that the vector diagrams produced by this method for facial images are directly correlated to the underlying muscle structure which is unique for an individual and is not affected by lighting or make-up. Furthermore, we will show that this method can also be used for medical diagnosis in early detection of facial paralysis and other forms of skin disorders.

  15. A new measure-correlate-predict approach for resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensen, A.; Landberg, L. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark); Madsen, H. [The Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Mathematical Modelling, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    In order to find reasonable candidate site for wind farms, it is of great importance to be able to calculate the wind resource at potential sites. One way to solve this problem is to measure wind speed and direction at the site, and use these measurements to predict the resource. If the measurements at the potential site cover less than e.g. one year, which most likely will be the case, it is not possible to get a reliable estimate of the long-term resource, using this approach. If long-term measurements from e.g. some nearby meteorological station are available, however, then statistical methods can be used to find a relation between the measurements at the site and at the meteorological station. This relation can then be used to transform the long-term measurements to the potential site, and the resource can be calculated using the transformed measurements. Here, a varying-coefficient model, estimated using local regression, is applied in order to establish a relation between the measurements. The approach is evaluated using measurements from two sites, located approximately two kilometres apart, and the results show that the resource in this case can be predicted accurately, although this approach has serious shortcomings. (au)

  16. Fourier transform Raman approach to structural correlation in hemoglobin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, B; Ramasamy, S; Mylrajan, M; Asokan, R; Manoharan, P T; Rifkind, J M

    1999-07-01

    In order to obtain information on the structural aspects of hemoglobin (Hb), Fourier transform Raman (FT-R) measurements on various ferrous, ferric derivatives and nickel reconstituted Hb (NiHb) has been made. FT-R spectra for these derivatives were obtained by laser excitation in the near infrared region (NIR) (1064 nm) whereby the wave-number region (600-1700 cm-1) related to both porphyrin ring modes and some globin modes were monitored. Comparison of various modes was made based on previous resonance Raman (RR) results. The wave-number shifts with respect to changes in oxidation state and spin state are very similar to those observed by RR. Additional bands at 1654, 1459, and 1003 cm-1 for deoxyHb and at 1656, 1454, and 1004 cm-1 for oxy Hb can be correlated to globin modes. The shift in the position of these bands for the binding of oxygen can be related to changes in conformation during the transformation. The presence of two distinct sites in NiHb could be monitored by the use of FT-R technique.

  17. A Novel Two-Wire Fast Readout Approach for Suppressing Cable Crosstalk in a Tactile Resistive Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Wu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For suppressing the crosstalk problem due to wire resistances and contacted resistances of the long flexible cables in tactile sensing systems, we present a novel two-wire fast readout approach for the two-dimensional resistive sensor array in shared row-column fashion. In the approach, two wires are used for every driving electrode and every sampling electrode in the resistive sensor array. The approach with a high readout rate, though it requires a large number of wires and many sampling channels, solves the cable crosstalk problem. We also verified the approach’s performance with Multisim simulations and actual experiments.

  18. Micro-TLC Approach for Fast Screening of Environmental Samples Derived from Surface and Sewage Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Slączka, Magdalena M; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Baran, Michał J

    2013-01-01

    In this work we demonstrated analytical capability of micro-planar (micro-TLC) technique comprising one and two-dimensional (2D) separation modes to generate fingerprints of environmental samples originated from sewage and ecosystems waters. We showed that elaborated separation and detection protocols are complementary to previously invented HPLC method based on temperature-dependent inclusion chromatography and UV-DAD detection. Presented 1D and 2D micro-TLC chromatograms of SPE (solid-phase extraction) extracts were optimized for fast and low-cost screening of water samples collected from lakes and rivers located in the area of Middle Pomerania in northern part of Poland. Moreover, we studied highly organic compounds loaded in the treated and untreated sewage waters obtained from municipal wastewater treatment plant "Jamno" near Koszalin City (Poland). Analyzed environmental samples contained number of substances characterized by polarity range from estetrol to progesterone as well as chlorophyll-related dyes previously isolated and pre-purified by simple SPE protocol involving C18 cartridges. Optimization of micro-TLC separation and quantification protocols of such samples were discussed from the practical point of view using simple separation efficiency criteria including total peaks number, log(product ΔhRF), signal intensity and peak asymmetry. Outcomes of the presented analytical approach, especially using detection involving direct fluorescence (UV366/Vis) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) visualization are compared with UV-DAD HPLC-generated data reported previously. Chemometric investigation based on principal components analysis revealed that SPE extracts separated by micro-TLC and detected under fluorescence and PMA visualization modes can be used for robust sample fingerprinting even after long-term storage of the extracts (up to 4 years) at subambient temperature (-20 °C). Such approach allows characterization of wide range of sample components that

  19. The correlation between facial and eyelid demodicosis. Complex therapeutic approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Maychuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the correlation between eyelid and facial demodicosis and to develop an optimal anti-parasitic treatment schedule for posterior blepharitis associated with eyelid demodicosis. Materials and methods. 100 patients with posterior blepharitis associated with eyelid demodicosis were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided into 2 groups depending on Demodex count. Demodex count less than 4 mites was considered normal while Demodex count more than 4 mites was considered pathological. 60 patients with Demodex count more than 4 mites were subdivided into 2 groups. Study group patients (n = 30 received anti-parasitic therapy with preceding anti-inflammatory treatment, eyelid hygiene and massage. Control group patients (n = 30 received antiparasitic therapy only. Patients with verified facial demodicosis received dermatological treatment as well. In all patients, integral indices of subjective discomfort and objective signs of posterior blepharitis were measured, Schirmer’s and Norn’s tests were performed, functional state of meibomian glands was evaluated (compressive test. Results. Eyelid demodicosis was associated with facial demodicosis in 48% of patients. In 10%, Demodex count was less than 4 mites. In 38%, Demodex count was more than 4 mites. Skin lesions were revealed in 1% of patients with Demodex count less than 4 mites and in 20% of patients with Demodex count more than 4 mites. Anti-parasitic therapy with preceding anti-inflammatory treatment, eyelid hygiene and massage improved functional state of meibomian glands and objective signs of posterior meibomian blepharitis. In 1.5 months after the treatment, Demodex was absent in 80% of study group patients and 56.6% of controls. Conclusion. Stepwise treatment of posterior blepharitis associated with eyelid demodicosis (anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic therapy, eyelid hygiene is effective and provides prolonged remission. 

  20. The correlation between facial and eyelid demodicosis. Complex therapeutic approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Maychuk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the correlation between eyelid and facial demodicosis and to develop an optimal anti-parasitic treatment schedule for posterior blepharitis associated with eyelid demodicosis. Materials and methods. 100 patients with posterior blepharitis associated with eyelid demodicosis were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided into 2 groups depending on Demodex count. Demodex count less than 4 mites was considered normal while Demodex count more than 4 mites was considered pathological. 60 patients with Demodex count more than 4 mites were subdivided into 2 groups. Study group patients (n = 30 received anti-parasitic therapy with preceding anti-inflammatory treatment, eyelid hygiene and massage. Control group patients (n = 30 received antiparasitic therapy only. Patients with verified facial demodicosis received dermatological treatment as well. In all patients, integral indices of subjective discomfort and objective signs of posterior blepharitis were measured, Schirmer’s and Norn’s tests were performed, functional state of meibomian glands was evaluated (compressive test. Results. Eyelid demodicosis was associated with facial demodicosis in 48% of patients. In 10%, Demodex count was less than 4 mites. In 38%, Demodex count was more than 4 mites. Skin lesions were revealed in 1% of patients with Demodex count less than 4 mites and in 20% of patients with Demodex count more than 4 mites. Anti-parasitic therapy with preceding anti-inflammatory treatment, eyelid hygiene and massage improved functional state of meibomian glands and objective signs of posterior meibomian blepharitis. In 1.5 months after the treatment, Demodex was absent in 80% of study group patients and 56.6% of controls. Conclusion. Stepwise treatment of posterior blepharitis associated with eyelid demodicosis (anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic therapy, eyelid hygiene is effective and provides prolonged remission. 

  1. Central nervous system tumors: Radiologic pathologic correlation and diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Pant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to formulate location-wise radiologic diagnostic algorithms and assess their concordance with the final histopathological diagnosis so as to evaluate their utility in a rural setting where only basic facilities are available. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis to assess the concordance of radiology (primarily MRI with final histopathology report was done. Based on the most common incidence of tumor location and basic radiology findings, diagnostic algorithms were prepared. Results: For supratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location concordance was seen in all high-grade astrocytomas, low- and high-grade oligodendrogliomas, metastatic tumors, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, high-grade ependymomas, neuronal and mixed neuro-glial tumors and tumors of hematopoietic system. Lowest concordance was seen in low-grade astrocytomas. In the supratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, agreement was observed in choroid plexus tumors, ependymomas, low-grade astrocytomas and meningiomas; in the supratentorial extraaxial location, except for the lack of concordance in the only case of metastatic tumor, concordance was observed in meningeal tumors, tumors of the sellar region, tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves; the infratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location showed agreement in low- as well as high-grade astrocytomas, metastatic tumors, high-grade ependymoma, embryonal tumors and hematopoietic tumors; in the infratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, except for the lack of concordance in one case of low-grade astrocytoma and two cases of medulloblastomas, agreement was observed in low- and high-grade ependymoma; infratentorial extraaxial tumors showed complete agreement in all tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves, meningiomas, and hematopoietic tumors. Conclusion: A location-based approach to central nervous system (CNS tumors is helpful in establishing an appropriate differential diagnosis.

  2. AN ADVANCED COARSE-FINE SEARCH APPROACH FOR DIGITAL IMAGE CORRELATION APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samo Simončič

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a newly developed fine search algorithm used in the application of digital correlation. In order to evaluate its performance a special purpose application was developed using C# programming language. The algorithm was then tested on a pre-prepared set of the computer generated speckled images. It turned out to be much faster than the conventional fine search algorithm. Consequently, it is a major step forward in a never ending quest for a fast digital correlation execution with sub pixel accuracy.

  3. A Computationally Efficient Approach for Calculating Galaxy Two-Point Correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Demina, Regina; BenZvi, Segev; Hindrichs, Otto

    2016-01-01

    We develop a modification to the calculation of the two-point correlation function commonly used in the analysis of large scale structure in cosmology. An estimator of the two-point correlation function is constructed by contrasting the observed distribution of galaxies with that of a uniformly populated random catalog. Using the assumption that the distribution of random galaxies in redshift is independent of angular position allows us to replace pairwise combinatorics with fast integration over probability maps. The new method significantly reduces the computation time while simultaneously increasing the precision of the calculation.

  4. General Lack of Correlations between Age and Signs of the Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects with Non-diabetic Fasting Glucose Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Harry G; Mrvichin, Nate; Clouatre, Dallas; Bagchi, Debasis; Preuss, Jeffrey M; Perricone, Nicholas V; Swaroop, Anand; Kaats, Gilbert R

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance and advancing age are well-recognized risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Recent reports indicate that fasting glucose levels in non-diabetic patients correlate appropriately with the development of certain elements in metabolic syndrome, which suggest a cause-effect relationship with insulin resistance. The present investigation assessed whether a significant association exists between chronological age and various elements of metabolic syndrome in this same group of subjects possessing non-diabetic fasting glucose levels. Baseline data were taken from 288 subjects (age 17-87 years) with fasting glucose levels ≤ 125 mg/dl. Correlations between chronological age and different metabolic parameters were assessed to determine any statistically significant relationships and compare these with previously demonstrated metabolic parameters. With the exception of systolic blood pressure, the following correlations between age and components of metabolic syndrome were not significant or even significant in the opposite direction compared to those found in the same population using fasting glucose as the independent variable: body weight, body fat, diastolic blood pressure, white blood cell count (WBC)/neutrophil count, and circulating levels of insulin, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Although systolic blood pressure still increased, it was to a lesser extent than might be expected. In the present investigation, a cross-sectional analysis was carried out over a wide age range of subjects. It is noteworthy that fasting glucose levels and the other major elements of metabolic syndrome did not change significantly with advancing age. These results demonstrate that decreasing insulin resistance and fasting glucose levels may be an important way to overcome the adverse effects and perturbations of advancing age

  5. Electron correlations in single-electron capture into any state of fast projectiles from heliumlike atomic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mančev, Ivan; Milojević, Nenad; Belkić, Dževad

    2013-11-01

    State-selective and total single-electron capture cross sections in fast collisions of a bare projectile with a heliumlike target are examined in the four-body formalism. A special emphasis is given to a proper inclusion of dynamic electron-electron correlation effects. For this purpose, the post form of the four-body boundary-corrected first Born approximation (CB1-4B) is utilized. With regard to our related previous study, where the prior version has been considered, in the present work an extensive analytical study of the post-transition amplitude for electron capture into the arbitrary final states nflfmf of the projectile is carried out. The post-transition amplitude for single charge exchange encompassing symmetric and asymmetric collisions is derived in terms of five-dimensional integrals over real variables. The dielectronic interaction V12=1/r12≡1/|r⃗1-r⃗2| explicitly appears in the perturbation potential Vf of the post-transition probability amplitude Tif+, such that the CB1-4B method can provide information about the relative significance of the dynamic interelectron correlation in the collisions under study. An illustrative computation is performed involving state-selective and total single capture cross sections for the p-He collisions at intermediate and high impact energies. The so-called post-prior discrepancy, which plagues almost all the existing distorted wave approximations, is presently shown to be practically nonexistent in the CB1-4B method. The validity of our findings is critically assessed in comparisons with the available experimental data for both state-selective and total cross sections summed over all the discrete energy levels of the hydrogenlike atom formed with the projectile. Overall, excellent performance of the CB1-4B method is recorded, thus robustly establishing this formalism as the leading first-order description of high-energy single charge exchange, which is a collision of paramount theoretical and practical

  6. Correlations between fasting plasma C-peptide, glucagon-stimulated plasma C-peptide, and urinary C-peptide in insulin-treated diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjessing, H J; Matzen, L E; Frøland, A

    1987-01-01

    This study correlated fasting plasma C-peptide (CP), plasma CP 6 min after stimulation with 1 mg glucagon i.v., and the mean of three 24-h urinary excretions of C-peptide (UCP)/creatinine in 132 insulin-treated diabetics. Patients were divided into three groups: group 1, stimulated CP less than 0.......06 nM (n = 51); group 2, stimulated CP 0.06-0.60 nM (n = 48); and group 3, stimulated CP greater than 0.60 nM (n = 33). In all patients fasting CP was closely correlated to stimulated CP (r = .988, P less than .001), whereas the correlations between UCP and both fasting CP (r = .904, P less than .001......) and stimulated CP r = .902, P less than .001) were slightly less pronounced. The associations between UCP and both fasting CP (r = .716, P less than .001) and stimulated CP (r = .731, P less than .001) were modest in group 2, and even more so in group 3 (r = .557, P less than .001 and r = .641, P less than .001...

  7. Spectral editing at ultra-fast magic-angle-spinning in solid-state NMR: facilitating protein sequential signal assignment by HIGHLIGHT approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songlin; Matsuda, Isamu; Long, Fei; Ishii, Yoshitaka

    2016-02-01

    This study demonstrates a novel spectral editing technique for protein solid-state NMR (SSNMR) to simplify the spectrum drastically and to reduce the ambiguity for protein main-chain signal assignments in fast magic-angle-spinning (MAS) conditions at a wide frequency range of 40-80 kHz. The approach termed HIGHLIGHT (Wang et al., in Chem Comm 51:15055-15058, 2015) combines the reverse (13)C, (15)N-isotope labeling strategy and selective signal quenching using the frequency-selective REDOR pulse sequence under fast MAS. The scheme allows one to selectively observe the signals of "highlighted" labeled amino-acid residues that precede or follow unlabeled residues through selectively quenching (13)CO or (15)N signals for a pair of consecutively labeled residues by recoupling (13)CO-(15)N dipolar couplings. Our numerical simulation results showed that the scheme yielded only ~15% loss of signals for the highlighted residues while quenching as much as ~90% of signals for non-highlighted residues. For lysine-reverse-labeled micro-crystalline GB1 protein, the 2D (15)N/(13)Cα correlation and 2D (13)Cα/(13)CO correlation SSNMR spectra by the HIGHLIGHT approach yielded signals only for six residues following and preceding the unlabeled lysine residues, respectively. The experimental dephasing curves agreed reasonably well with the corresponding simulation results for highlighted and quenched residues at spinning speeds of 40 and 60 kHz. The compatibility of the HIGHLIGHT approach with fast MAS allows for sensitivity enhancement by paramagnetic assisted data collection (PACC) and (1)H detection. We also discuss how the HIGHLIGHT approach facilitates signal assignments using (13)C-detected 3D SSNMR by demonstrating full sequential assignments of lysine-reverse-labeled micro-crystalline GB1 protein (~300 nmol), for which data collection required only 11 h. The HIGHLIGHT approach offers valuable means of signal assignments especially for larger proteins through reducing the

  8. Spectral editing at ultra-fast magic-angle-spinning in solid-state NMR: facilitating protein sequential signal assignment by HIGHLIGHT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Songlin; Matsuda, Isamu; Long, Fei; Ishii, Yoshitaka, E-mail: yishii@uic.edu [University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2016-02-15

    This study demonstrates a novel spectral editing technique for protein solid-state NMR (SSNMR) to simplify the spectrum drastically and to reduce the ambiguity for protein main-chain signal assignments in fast magic-angle-spinning (MAS) conditions at a wide frequency range of 40–80 kHz. The approach termed HIGHLIGHT (Wang et al., in Chem Comm 51:15055–15058, 2015) combines the reverse {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N-isotope labeling strategy and selective signal quenching using the frequency-selective REDOR pulse sequence under fast MAS. The scheme allows one to selectively observe the signals of “highlighted” labeled amino-acid residues that precede or follow unlabeled residues through selectively quenching {sup 13}CO or {sup 15}N signals for a pair of consecutively labeled residues by recoupling {sup 13}CO–{sup 15}N dipolar couplings. Our numerical simulation results showed that the scheme yielded only ∼15 % loss of signals for the highlighted residues while quenching as much as ∼90 % of signals for non-highlighted residues. For lysine-reverse-labeled micro-crystalline GB1 protein, the 2D {sup 15}N/{sup 13}C{sub α} correlation and 2D {sup 13}C{sub α}/{sup 13}CO correlation SSNMR spectra by the HIGHLIGHT approach yielded signals only for six residues following and preceding the unlabeled lysine residues, respectively. The experimental dephasing curves agreed reasonably well with the corresponding simulation results for highlighted and quenched residues at spinning speeds of 40 and 60 kHz. The compatibility of the HIGHLIGHT approach with fast MAS allows for sensitivity enhancement by paramagnetic assisted data collection (PACC) and {sup 1}H detection. We also discuss how the HIGHLIGHT approach facilitates signal assignments using {sup 13}C-detected 3D SSNMR by demonstrating full sequential assignments of lysine-reverse-labeled micro-crystalline GB1 protein (∼300 nmol), for which data collection required only 11 h. The HIGHLIGHT approach offers valuable

  9. Perturbative approach in the frequency domain for the intensity correlation spectrum in electromagnetically induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, H. M.; González, C.; Martinelli, M.

    2016-07-01

    Correlation spectroscopy has been proposed as a spectroscopic technique for measuring the coherence between the ground states in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). While in the time domain the steep dispersion in the EIT condition accounts for the robustness of the correlation linewidth against power broadening, such physical insight was not directly established in the frequency domain. We propose a perturbative approach to describe the correlation spectroscopy of two noisy lasers coupled to a Λ transition in cold atoms, leading to EIT. Such approach leads to an analytical expression that maps the intensity correlation directly in terms of the absorption and dispersion of the light fields. Low and high perturbative regimes are investigated and demonstrate that, for coherent light sources, the first-order term in perturbation expansion represents a sufficient description for the correlation. Sideband resonances are also observed, showing the richness of the frequency domain approach.

  10. Perturbative approach in the frequency domain for the intensity correlation spectrum at electromagnetically induced transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Florez, H M; Martinelli, M

    2016-01-01

    Correlation spectroscopy has been proposed as a spectroscopic technique for measuring the coherence between the ground states in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). While in time domain the steep dispersion in EIT condition accounts for the robustness of the correlation linewidth against power broadening, such physical insight was not directly established in the frequency domain. We propose a perturbative approach to describe the correlation spectroscopy of two noisy lasers coupled to a $\\Lambda$-transition in cold atoms, leading to EIT. Such approach leads to an analytical expression that maps the intensity correlation directly in terms of the absorption and dispersion of the light fields. Low and high perturbative regimes are investigated and demonstrate that, for coherent light sources, the first oder term in perturbation expansion represents a sufficient description for the correlation. Sidebands resonances are also observed, showing the richness of the frequency domain approach.

  11. Fast dissolving strips: A novel approach for the delivery of verapamil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kunte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fast dissolving drug delivery system offers a solution for those patients having difficulty in swallowing tablets/capsules etc. Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker used as an antianginal, antiarrhythmic, and antihypertensive agent with extensive first pass metabolism which results in less bioavailability. This work investigated the possibility of developing verapamil fast dissolving strips allowing fast, reproducible drug dissolution in the oral cavity; thus bypassing first pass metabolism. Materials and methods: The fast dissolving strips were prepared by solvent casting technique with the help of HPMC E6 and maltodextrin. The strips were evaluated for drug content uniformity, film thickness, folding endurance, in vitro disintegration time, in vitro dissolution studies, surface pH study, and palatability study. Results: Official criteria for evaluation parameters were fulfilled by all formulations. Disintegration time showed by formulations was found to be in range of 20.4-28.6 sec. Based on the evaluation parameters, the formulation containing 2% HPMC E6 and 3.5% maltodextrin showed optimum performance against other formulations. Conclusion: It was concluded that the fast dissolving strips of verapamil can be made by solvent casting technique with enhanced dissolution rate, taste masking, and hence better patient compliance and effective therapy

  12. Fast and Reliable Time Delay Estimation of Strong Lens Systems Using Method of Smoothing and Cross-Correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Aghamousa, Amir

    2014-01-01

    The observable time delays between the multiple images of strong lensing systems with time variable sources can provide us with some valuable information to probe the expansion history of the Universe. Estimation of these time delays can be very challenging due to complexities of the observed data where there are seasonal gaps, various noises and systematics such as unknown microlensing effects. In this paper we introduce a novel approach to estimate the time delays for strong lensing systems implementing various statistical methods of data analysis including the method of smoothing and cross-correlation. The method we introduce in this paper has been recently used in TDC0 and TDC1 Strong Lens Time Delay Challenges and has shown its power in reliable and precise estimation of time delays dealing with data with different complexities.

  13. Code-Aided Estimation and Detection on Time-Varying Correlated Mimo Channels: A Factor Graph Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoens Frederik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns channel tracking in a multiantenna context for correlated flat-fading channels obeying a Gauss-Markov model. It is known that data-aided tracking of fast-fading channels requires a lot of pilot symbols in order to achieve sufficient accuracy, and hence decreases the spectral efficiency. To overcome this problem, we design a code-aided estimation scheme which exploits information from both the pilot symbols and the unknown coded data symbols. The algorithm is derived based on a factor graph representation of the system and application of the sum-product algorithm. The sum-product algorithm reveals how soft information from the decoder should be exploited for the purpose of estimation and how the information bits can be detected. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  14. 3D topography measurements on correlation cells—a new approach to forensic ballistics identifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, John; Chu, Wei; Tong, Mingsi; Soons, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Based on three-dimensional (3D) topography measurements on correlation cells, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed the ‘NIST Ballistics Identification System (NBIS)’ aimed at accurate ballistics identifications and fast ballistics evidence searches. The 3D topographies are divided into arrays of correlation cells to identify ‘valid correlation areas’ and eliminate ‘invalid correlation areas’ from the matching and identification procedure. A ‘congruent matching cells’ (CMC)’ method using three types of identification parameters of the paired correlation cells (cross correlation function maximum CCFmax, spatial registration position in x-y and registration angle θ) is used for high accuracy ballistics identifications. ‘Synchronous processing’ is proposed for correlating multiple cell pairs at the same time to increase the correlation speed. The proposed NBIS can be used for correlations of both geometrical topographies and optical intensity images. All the correlation parameters and algorithms are in the public domain and subject to open tests. An error rate reporting procedure has been developed that can greatly add to the scientific support for the firearm and toolmark identification specialty, and give confidence to the trier of fact in court proceedings. The NBIS is engineered to employ transparent identification parameters and criteria, statistical models and correlation algorithms. In this way, interoperability between different ballistics identification systems can be more easily achieved. This interoperability will make the NBIS suitable for ballistics identifications and evidence searches with large national databases, such as the National Integrated Ballistic Information Network in the United States.

  15. Fast side chain replacement in proteins using a coarse-grained approach for evaluating the effects of mutation during evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahnen, Johan A; Kubelka, Jan; Liberles, David A

    2011-08-01

    For high-throughput structural genomic and evolutionary bioinformatics approaches, there is a clear need for fast methods to evaluate substitutions structurally. Coarse-grained methods are both powerful and fast, and a coarse-grained approach to position the substituted side chains is presented. Through the application of a coarse-grained method, a speed-up on the single- residue replacement, of at least sevenfold is achieved compared with modern all-atom approaches. At the same time, this approach maintains a small median RMSD from the leading all-atom approach (as measured in coarse-grained space), and predicts the conformation of point mutants with similar accuracy and generates biologically realistic side chain angles. This method is also substantially more predictable in its run time, making it useful for high-throughput studies of protein structural evolution. To demonstrate the utility of this method, it has been implemented in a forward simulation of sequences threaded through the SH2 domains, with selective pressures to fold and bind specifically. The relative substitution rates across the protein structure and at the binding interface are reflective of those observed in SH2 domain evolution. The algorithm has been implemented in C++, with the source code and binaries (currently supported for Linux systems) freely available as SARA at http://www.wyomingbioinformatics.org/LiberlesGroup/SARA .

  16. When fast is better: protein folding fundamentals and mechanisms from ultrafast approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Victor; Cerminara, Michele

    2016-09-01

    Protein folding research stalled for decades because conventional experiments indicated that proteins fold slowly and in single strokes, whereas theory predicted a complex interplay between dynamics and energetics resulting in myriad microscopic pathways. Ultrafast kinetic methods turned the field upside down by providing the means to probe fundamental aspects of folding, test theoretical predictions and benchmark simulations. Accordingly, experimentalists could measure the timescales for all relevant folding motions, determine the folding speed limit and confirm that folding barriers are entropic bottlenecks. Moreover, a catalogue of proteins that fold extremely fast (microseconds) could be identified. Such fast-folding proteins cross shallow free energy barriers or fold downhill, and thus unfold with minimal co-operativity (gradually). A new generation of thermodynamic methods has exploited this property to map folding landscapes, interaction networks and mechanisms at nearly atomic resolution. In parallel, modern molecular dynamics simulations have finally reached the timescales required to watch fast-folding proteins fold and unfold in silico All of these findings have buttressed the fundamentals of protein folding predicted by theory, and are now offering the first glimpses at the underlying mechanisms. Fast folding appears to also have functional implications as recent results connect downhill folding with intrinsically disordered proteins, their complex binding modes and ability to moonlight. These connections suggest that the coupling between downhill (un)folding and binding enables such protein domains to operate analogically as conformational rheostats.

  17. Pharmacological approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes in fasting adults during Ramadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlMaatouq MA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed A AlMaatouqEndocrine Unit, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: More than 50 million Muslims throughout the world with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM fast for one lunar month (Ramadan each year. Health care providers within and outside the Muslim world need to be aware of the nature of these partial days of fasting and their risks (and potential benefits to people with T2DM, and need to provide Ramadan-adjusted diabetes care. Hypoglycemia during the fasting days represents the greatest health risk for these patients; hence, diabetes-related pharmacotherapy needs to be tailored and adjusted with this risk in mind. With limited trial data available, this review proposes practical modifications to the usual pre-Ramadan antidiabetic regimens that are based on pathophysiological principles, clinical trial evidence (where available, expert opinion, and extended practical experience. Individualization of care is paramount in this regard to take into consideration the patient and societal, cultural, and economic variables.Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, Ramadan, fasting, hypoglycemia, oral antidiabetic agents, insulin

  18. Compound Cue Processing within the Fast and Frugal Heuristics Approach in Nonlinearly Separable Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Hoffrage, Ulrich; Dieckmann, Anja; Ramos, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether participants used Take The Best (TTB) Configural, a fast and frugal heuristic that processes configurations of cues when making inferences concerning which of two alternatives has a higher criterion value. Participants were presented with a compound cue that was nonlinearly separable from its elements. The…

  19. Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, George W.; Upadhye, Aniruddha A.; Ford, David M.; Bhatia, Surita R.; Badger, Phillip C.

    2012-10-19

    with model AFBO excluding guaiacol were also conducted. NF membranes showed retention factors of glucose greater than 80% and of acetic acid less than 15% when operated at transmembrane pressures near 60 bar. Task 3.0 Acid Removal by Catalytic Processing It was found that the TAN reduction in bio-oil was very difficult using low temperature hydrogenation in flow and batch reactors. Acetic acid is very resilient to hydrogenation and we could only achieve about 16% conversion for acetic acid. Although it was observed that acetic acid was not responsible for instability of aqueous fraction of bio-oil during ageing studies (described in task 5). The bimetallic catalyst PtRe/ceria-zirconia was found to be best catalyst because its ability to convert the acid functionality with low conversion to gas phase carbon. Hydrogenation of the whole bio-oil was carried out at 125°C, 1450 psi over Ru/C catalyst in a flow reactor. Again, negligible acetic acid conversion was obtained in low temperature hydrogenation. Hydrogenation experiments with whole bio-oil were difficult to perform because of difficulty to pumping the high viscosity oil and reactor clogging. Task 4.0 Acid Removal using Ion Exchange Resins DOWEX M43 resin was used to carry out the neutralization of bio-oil using a packed bed column. The pH of the bio-oil increased from 2.43 to 3.7. The GC analysis of the samples showed that acetic acid was removed from the bio-oil during the neutralization and recovered in the methanol washing. But it was concluded that process would not be economical at large scale as it is extremely difficult to regenerate the resin once the bio-oil is passed over it. Task 5.0 Characterization of Upgraded Bio-oils We investigated the viscosity, microstructure, and chemical composition of bio-oils prepared by a fast pyrolysis approach, upon aging these fuels at 90ºC for periods of several days. Our results suggest that the viscosity increase is not correlated with the acids or char present in the

  20. Fast Prediction of Blast Damage from Airbursts: An Empirical Monte Carlo approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter G.; Stokan, Ed

    2016-10-01

    The February 15, 2013 Chelyabinsk airburst was the first modern bolide whose associated shockwave caused blast damage at the ground (Popova et al., 2013). Near-Earth Object (NEO) impacts in the Chelyabinsk-size range (~20 m) are expected to occur every few decades (Boslough et al., 2015) and therefore we expect ground damage from meteoric airbursts to be the next planetary defense threat to be confronted. With pre-impact detections of small NEOs certain to become more common, decision makers will be faced with estimating blast damage from impactors with uncertain physical properties on short timescales.High fidelity numerical bolide entry models have been developed in recent years (eg. Boslough and Crawford, 2008; Shuvalov et al., 2013), but the wide range in a priori data about strength, fragmentation behavior, and other physical properties for a specific impactor make predictions of bolide behavior difficult. The long computational running times for hydrocode models make the exploration of a wide parameter space challenging in the days to hours before an actual impact.Our approach to this problem is to use an analytical bolide entry model, the triggered-progressive fragmentation model (TPFM) developed by ReVelle (2005) within a Monte Carlo formalism. In particular, we couple this model with empirical constraints on the statistical spread in strength for meter-scale impactors from Brown et al (2015) based on the observed height at maximum bolide brightness. We also use the correlation of peak bolide brightness with total energy as given by Brown (2016) as a proxy for fragmentation behaviour. Using these constraints, we are able to quickly generate a large set of realizations of probable bolide energy deposition curves and produce simple estimates of expected blast damage using existing analytical relations.We validate this code with the known parameters of the Chelyabinsk airburst and explore how changes to the entry conditions of the observed bolide may have

  1. Modelling asset correlations during the recent financial crisis: A semiparametric approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Casas, Isabel

    This article proposes alternatives to the Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC) model to study assets' correlations during the recent financial crisis. In particular, we adopt a semiparametric and nonparametric approach to estimate the conditional correlations for two interesting portfolios....... The first portfolio consists of equity sectors SPDRs and the S&P 500 composite, while the second one contains major currencies that are actively traded in the foreign exchange market. Methodologically, our contribution is two fold. First, we propose the Local Linear (LL) estimator for the correlations...

  2. Assessment of Multireference Approaches to Explicitly Correlated Full Configuration Interaction Quantum Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Kersten, Jennifer; Alavi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The Full Configuration Interaction Quantum Monte Carlo (FCIQMC) method has proved able to provide near-exact solutions to the electronic Schr\\"odinger equation within a finite orbital basis set, without relying on an expansion about a reference state. However, a drawback to the approach is that being based on an expansion of Slater determinants, the FCIQMC method suffers from a basis set incompleteness error that decays very slowly with the size of the employed single particle basis. The FCIQMC results obtained in a small basis set can be improved significantly with explicitly correlated techniques. Here, we present a study that assesses and compares two contrasting `universal' explicitly correlated approaches that fit into the FCIQMC framework; the $[2]_{R12}$ method of Valeev {\\em et al.}, and the explicitly correlated canonical transcorrelation approach of Yanai {\\em et al}. The former is an {\\em a posteriori} internally-contracted perturbative approach, while the latter transforms the Hamiltonian prior to...

  3. Comparing Single Molecule Tracking and correlative approaches: an application to the datasets recently presented in Nature Methods by Chenuard et al

    CERN Document Server

    di Rienzo, Carmine

    2016-01-01

    Recent efforts to survey the numerous softwares available to perform single molecule tracking (SMT) highlighted a significant dependence of the outcomes on the specific method used, and the limitation encountered by most techniques to capture fast movements in a crowded environment. Other approaches to identify the mode and rapidity of motion of fluorescently labeled biomolecules, that do not relay on the localization and linking of the images of isolated single molecules are, however, available.This direct comparison shows that correlative imaging analysis approaches complement effectively current SMT methods in circumstances when, due to either the density of the sample, the low signal to noise ratio or molecular blinking, trajectory linking does not allow to capture long-range or fast motion.

  4. Identification of factors required for meristem function in Arabidopsis using a novel next generation sequencing fast forward genetics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheres Ben

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenotype-driven forward genetic experiments are powerful approaches for linking phenotypes to genomic elements but they still involve a laborious positional cloning process. Although sequencing of complete genomes now becomes available, discriminating causal mutations from the enormous amounts of background variation remains a major challenge. Method To improve this, we developed a universal two-step approach, named 'fast forward genetics', which combines traditional bulk segregant techniques with targeted genomic enrichment and next-generation sequencing technology Results As a proof of principle we successfully applied this approach to two Arabidopsis mutants and identified a novel factor required for stem cell activity. Conclusion We demonstrated that the 'fast forward genetics' procedure efficiently identifies a small number of testable candidate mutations. As the approach is independent of genome size, it can be applied to any model system of interest. Furthermore, we show that experiments can be multiplexed and easily scaled for the identification of multiple individual mutants in a single sequencing run.

  5. Analysis of oxide inclusions in steel by fast laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy scanning: an approach to quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué-Bigne, F

    2007-03-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements were performed on a steel sample to investigate the feasibility of obtaining fast information on cleanness. A calibration approach was considered to enable the quantification of the elemental composition of non-metallic inclusions; the same data was also used to estimate the size of the inclusions. For the first time, the quantified chemical composition data obtained by LIBS for non-metallic inclusions was compared to the corresponding results obtained from scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis, the conventional method used for steel cleanness assessment, and proved successful. Due to the speed of analysis and the systematic recording of the signal from the scanned area, LIBS enables the analysis of larger areas of sample and in significantly shorter time than with automated SEM-EDX. This paper summarizes the hitherto obtained results for the fast analysis of inclusions in steel by LIBS.

  6. Robust stabilization of underactuated nonlinear systems: A fast terminal sliding mode approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Qudrat; Akmeliawati, Rini; Bhatti, Aamer Iqbal; Khan, Mahmood Ashraf

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a fast terminal sliding mode based control design strategy for a class of uncertain underactuated nonlinear systems. Strategically, this development encompasses those electro-mechanical underactuated systems which can be transformed into the so-called regular form. The novelty of the proposed technique lies in the hierarchical development of a fast terminal sliding attractor design for the considered class. Having established sliding mode along the designed manifold, the close loop dynamics become finite time stable which, consequently, result in high precision. In addition, the adverse effects of the chattering phenomenon are reduced via strong reachability condition and the robustness of the system against uncertainties is confirmed theoretically. A simulation as well as experimental study of an inverted pendulum is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed technique.

  7. Fast calculation of two-electron-repulsion integrals: a numerical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Pedro E M

    2016-01-01

    An alternative methodology to evaluate two-electron-repulsion integrals based on numerical approximation is proposed. Computational chemistry has branched into two major fields with methodologies based on quantum mechanics and classical force fields. However, there are significant shadowy areas not covered by any of the available methods. Many relevant systems are often too big for traditional quantum chemical methods while being chemically too complex for classical force fields. Examples include systems in nanomedicine, studies of metalloproteins, etc. There is an urgent need to develop fast quantum chemical methods able to study large and complex systems. This work is a proof-of-concept on the numerical techniques required to develop accurate and computationally efficient algorithms for the fast calculation of electron-repulsion integrals, one of the most significant bottlenecks in the extension of quantum chemistry to large systems. All concepts and calculations were developed for the three-center integral...

  8. A modified approach to transient stability enhancement with fast valving and braking resistor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Ramnarayan [Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttaranchal (India). Department of Electrical Engineering; Bhatti, T.S.; Kothari, D.P. [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2006-12-15

    Fast valving and braking resistor are two important members of the family of the discrete supplementary controllers (DISCOS). Both of these are very effective and economic means of transient stability enhancement under extreme contingencies. Being stationed at the similar end of a power system the two schemes carry a very good potential of an effective coordination. Such a coordinated control is helpful not only in obtaining an improved gain in stability, but also in overcoming the limitations and avoiding excessive duty on the part of an individual controller. In this work, a detailed study has been carried out to evaluate the scope and limitations of fast valving and dynamic braking resistor controls in enhancing the transient stability of power systems. Improvements have been suggested over the conventional schemes of control so as to improve their adaptability under different conditions of fault and loading or with different types of generating units. (author)

  9. Effect of Fast Moving Object on RSSI in WSN: An Experimental Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Syed Hassan; Mehmood, Amjad; Javaid, Nadeem; Iwao, Sasase

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we experimentally investigate the effect of fast moving object on the RSSI in the wireless sensor networks in presence of the ground effect and antenna orientation in elevation direction. In experimental setup, MICAz mote pair was placed on the ground, where one mote acts as a transmitter and the other as a receiver. The trans- mitter mote's antenna was oriented in elevation direction with respect to the receiver mote's antenna. The fast moving object i.e. car, was passed between the motes and the fluctuations in the RSSI are observed. The experimental results show some sequential pattern in RSSI fluctuations when car moves at some relatively slow speed. However, some irregu- larities were also observed when antenna was oriented at 45 and 90 in elevation direction.

  10. A Non Linear Loop Filter Approach for Fast Locking Digital PLLVHDL AMS Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Pramod Patel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The phase locked loop (PLL is primary requirement for the synchronous communication system, because the clock synchronization is must for proper data receptions. In such systems the synchronization is performed by PLL. This paper presents a new design for the fast locking digital PLL which reduced the locking time greatly. The paper also presents the simulated results of the proposed DPLL in mixed signal environment by using VHDL-AMS. The VHDL-AMS is used here because of simplicity

  11. An automated and fast approach to detect single-trial visual evoked potentials with application to brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yiheng; Hung, Yeung Sam; Hu, Li; Huang, Gan; Hu, Yong; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2014-12-01

    This study aims (1) to develop an automated and fast approach for detecting visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in single trials and (2) to apply the single-trial VEP detection approach in designing a real-time and high-performance brain-computer interface (BCI) system. The single-trial VEP detection approach uses common spatial pattern (CSP) as a spatial filter and wavelet filtering (WF) a temporal-spectral filter to jointly enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of single-trial VEPs. The performance of the joint spatial-temporal-spectral filtering approach was assessed in a four-command VEP-based BCI system. The offline classification accuracy of the BCI system was significantly improved from 67.6±12.5% (raw data) to 97.3±2.1% (data filtered by CSP and WF). The proposed approach was successfully implemented in an online BCI system, where subjects could make 20 decisions in one minute with classification accuracy of 90%. The proposed single-trial detection approach is able to obtain robust and reliable VEP waveform in an automatic and fast way and it is applicable in VEP based online BCI systems. This approach provides a real-time and automated solution for single-trial detection of evoked potentials or event-related potentials (EPs/ERPs) in various paradigms, which could benefit many applications such as BCI and intraoperative monitoring. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A practical approach to fast-light enhanced fiber sensing: experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Caleb A.; Zavriyev, Anton; Cummings, Malcolm; Beal, A. Craig; Lucas, Mark; Lagasse, Michael

    2014-06-01

    It has been proposed that fast-light optical phenomena can increase the sensitivity of an optical gyroscope of a given size by several orders of magnitude. MagiQ Technologies is developing a compact fiber-based fast light Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) using Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) in optical fibers with commercially mature technologies. We have demonstrated repeatable fast-light effects in the lab using off-the shelf optical components. Numerical analysis has revealed the requirements for stable, sensitive operation of gyroscopes, accelerometers or other sensors, as well as identified methods for optimizing efficiency, size, and reliability with known optical technologies. By using photonic integrated circuits and telecom-grade components along with specialty fibers, our design would be appropriate for mass production. We have eliminated all free-space optical elements or wavelength dependent elements such as atomic vapor cells in order to enable a compact, high sensitivity IMU stable against environmental disturbances. Results of this effort will have benefits in existing applications of IMUs (such as inertial navigation units, gyrocompasses, and stabilization techniques), and will allow wider use of RLGs in spacecraft, unmanned aerial vehicles or sensors, where the current size and weight of optical IMUs are prohibitive.

  13. Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, George W.; Upadhye, Aniruddha A.; Ford, David M.; Bhatia, Surita R.; Badger, Phillip C.

    2012-10-19

    with model AFBO excluding guaiacol were also conducted. NF membranes showed retention factors of glucose greater than 80% and of acetic acid less than 15% when operated at transmembrane pressures near 60 bar. Task 3.0 Acid Removal by Catalytic Processing It was found that the TAN reduction in bio-oil was very difficult using low temperature hydrogenation in flow and batch reactors. Acetic acid is very resilient to hydrogenation and we could only achieve about 16% conversion for acetic acid. Although it was observed that acetic acid was not responsible for instability of aqueous fraction of bio-oil during ageing studies (described in task 5). The bimetallic catalyst PtRe/ceria-zirconia was found to be best catalyst because its ability to convert the acid functionality with low conversion to gas phase carbon. Hydrogenation of the whole bio-oil was carried out at 125°C, 1450 psi over Ru/C catalyst in a flow reactor. Again, negligible acetic acid conversion was obtained in low temperature hydrogenation. Hydrogenation experiments with whole bio-oil were difficult to perform because of difficulty to pumping the high viscosity oil and reactor clogging. Task 4.0 Acid Removal using Ion Exchange Resins DOWEX M43 resin was used to carry out the neutralization of bio-oil using a packed bed column. The pH of the bio-oil increased from 2.43 to 3.7. The GC analysis of the samples showed that acetic acid was removed from the bio-oil during the neutralization and recovered in the methanol washing. But it was concluded that process would not be economical at large scale as it is extremely difficult to regenerate the resin once the bio-oil is passed over it. Task 5.0 Characterization of Upgraded Bio-oils We investigated the viscosity, microstructure, and chemical composition of bio-oils prepared by a fast pyrolysis approach, upon aging these fuels at 90ºC for periods of several days. Our results suggest that the viscosity increase is not correlated with the acids or char present in the

  14. Mercury correlations among blood, muscle, and hair of northern elephant seals during the breeding and molting fasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah; Ackerman, Josh; Costa, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) biomonitoring and toxicological risk assessments for marine mammals commonly sample different tissues, making comparisons to toxicity benchmarks and among species and regions difficult. Few studies have examined how life history events, such as fasting, influence the relationship between total Hg (THg) concentrations in different tissues. We evaluated the relationships between THg concentrations in blood, muscle, and hair of female and male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) at the start and end of the breeding and molting fasts. The relationships between tissues varied among tissue pairs and differed by sampling period and sex. Blood and muscle were generally related at all time periods; however, hair, an inert tissue, did not strongly represent the metabolically active tissues (blood and muscle) at all times of year. The strongest relationships between THg concentrations in hair and those in blood or muscle were observed during periods of active hair growth (end of the molting period) or during time periods when internal body conditions were similar to those when the hair was grown (end of the breeding fast). Our results indicate that THg concentrations in blood or muscle can be translated to the other tissue type using the equations we developed, but that THg concentrations in hair were generally a poor index of internal THg concentrations except during the end of fasting periods.

  15. Investigating the Correlation between Food Prices and University Students Awareness of the Effects of Fast Food Consumption on their Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Aklabi, Nouf; Al-Dowsari, Wejdan; Andrioti, Despena

    2016-01-01

    , was complemented with qualitative observational data using an observation checklist. The sample was 100 female students who eat at the University canteen. The study was conducted between October-December 2015. Data analysis was done using Excel to calculate frequencies of the respective variables. Results: Fast...

  16. Against all odds: Tales of survival and growth of the Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Karen Kina

    This study examines the dynamics of survival and growth of curricular and instructional innovations. It focuses on the Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST) project, a long-term survivor of reform in science education. Key questions guiding this study include: (1) How did the FAST project survive over the past 30 years? (2) What elements are essential for long-term survival and growth of an innovative science program? (3) Why did the project continue to survive amidst several waves of educational reform? The core of my conceptual framework is that the odds of survival and growth of curricular and instructional innovations are increased by the extent to which resources, theory-based curriculum development processes, and professional development strategies are not only incorporated into but also interdependent within a project. With this framework as a guide, the main methods of data collection were document analysis, interviews, and observations. FAST, developed by the University of Hawaii's Curriculum Research and Development Group (CRDG), consists of a sequential and interdisciplinary middle and high school science program for students in grades 6-10. According to the results of this study, the project was able to survive by receiving constant organizational support from CRDG and a steady source of State funding through the university since 1966; it also retained a relatively small but stable staff of highly qualified project personnel. Formulated on a discipline-based theory that values development of students' intellectual capacities as the platform for curriculum research, design, and development, the FAST project translated this vision of science education into key elements of an innovative program that survived and thrived: (1) an interdisciplinary program consisting of physical, biological, and earth sciences; inquiry as content and process; history and philosophy of science; and links between and among sciences, technology, and society; and (2

  17. On the practical convergence of coda-based correlations: a window optimization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, J.; Clerc, V.; Campillo, M.; Roux, P.; Knox, H.

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel optimization approach to improve the convergence of interstation coda correlation functions towards the medium's empirical Green's function. For two stations recording a series of impulsive events in a multiply scattering medium, we explore the impact of coda window selection through a Markov Chain Monte Carlo scheme, with the aim of generating a gather of correlation functions that is the most coherent and symmetric over events, thus recovering intuitive elements of the interstation Green's function without any nonlinear post-processing techniques. This approach is tested here for a 2-D acoustic finite difference model, where a much improved correlation function is obtained, as well as for a database of small impulsive icequakes recorded on Erebus Volcano, Antarctica, where similar robust results are shown. The average coda solutions, as deduced from the posterior probability distributions of the optimization, are further representative of the scattering strength of the medium, with stronger scattering resulting in a slightly delayed overall coda sampling. The recovery of singly scattered arrivals in the coda of correlation functions are also shown to be possible through this approach, and surface wave reflections from outer craters on Erebus volcano were mapped in this fashion. We also note that, due to the improvement of correlation functions over subsequent events, this approach can further be used to improve the resolution of passive temporal monitoring.

  18. 空腹血糖水平与体格指数相关关系的分析%Correlation between fasting plasma glucose and anthropometric measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇颖; 刘艳梅; 崔世维

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the rationale of lowering the cut-point of impaired fasting glucose by studying the correlation between different fasting plasma glucose levels and anthropometric measurements. Methods The investigation used a group control study. The correlation between fasting plasma glucose and anthropometric measurements were evaluated with analysis of variance, partial correlated analysis. Results The result showed that body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip rati-o, waist-to-height ratio, increased with the increasing of FPG, especially FPC was 5. 6mmol/L and above. The newly categorized impaired fasting glucose group showed increased levels of body mass index, weight circumference, waist/hip ratio, waist/heightratio, as compared to the normal fasting glucose group, there was a significant difference between the two groups ( P 0. 05 ). Impaired fasting glucose was correlated positively with BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, and the closest correlation was found for WHtR. Conclusion There has the agreement between the group of newly categorized impaired fasting glucose and the group of traditional impaired fasting glucose from anthropometric measurements. It is rational to revise the FPG criterion for diagnosing IFG.%目的 分析不同空腹血糖水平与体格指数之间的关系,探讨成人空腹血糖受损切点下调的合理性.方法 采用分组对照研究,用方差分析及偏相关分析来探讨空腹血糖水平与体格指数之间的关系.结果 体重指数、腰围、腰围身高比和腰臀比均随着空腹血糖值升高而升高,特别是血糖值在5.6mmol/L以上时升高更明显.新增空腹血糖受损组与空腹血糖正常组比较,体重指数、腰围、腰围身高比和腰臀比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);新增空腹血糖受损组与传统空腹血糖受损组比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).空腹血糖受损与BMI、WC、WHR、WHtR具有显著的正相关关系,腰围身高比

  19. A Halo Model Approach to the 21 cm and Lyα Cross-correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chang; Cooray, Asantha; Keating, Brian

    2017-09-01

    We present a halo-model-based approach to calculate the cross-correlation between 21 {cm} H i intensity fluctuations and {Ly}α emitters (LAE) during the epoch of reionization (EoR). Ionizing radiation around dark matter halos are modeled as bubbles with the size and growth determined based on the reionization photon production, among other physical parameters. The cross-correlation shows a clear negative-to-positive transition, associated with transition from ionized to neutral hydrogen in the intergalactic medium during EoR. The cross-correlation is subject to several foreground contaminants, including foreground radio point sources important for 21 {cm} experiments and low-z interloper emission lines, such as {{H}}α , O iii, and O ii, for {Ly}α experiments. Our calculations show that by masking out high fluxes in the {Ly}α measurement, the correlated foreground contamination on the 21 {cm}–{Ly}α cross-correlation can be dramatically reduced. We forecast the detectability of 21 {cm}–{Ly}α cross-correlation at different redshifts and adopt a Fisher matrix approach to estimate uncertainties on the key EoR parameters that have not been well constrained by other observations of reionization. This halo-model-based approach enables us to explore the EoR parameter space rapidly for different 21 {cm} and {Ly}α experiments.

  20. Theoretical gravity darkening as a function of optical depth. A first approach to fast rotating stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claret, A.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: Recent observations of very fast rotating stars show systematic deviations from the von Zeipel theorem and pose a challenge to the theory of gravity-darkening exponents (β1). In this paper, we present a new insight into the problem of temperature distribution over distorted stellar surfaces to try to reduce these discrepancies. Methods: We use a variant of the numerical method based on the triangles strategy, which we previously introduced, to evaluate the gravity-darkening exponents. The novelty of the present method is that the theoretical β1 is now computed as a function of the optical depth, that is, β1 ≡ β1(τ). The stellar evolutionary models, which are necessary to obtain the physical conditions of the stellar envelopes/atmospheres inherent to the numerical method, are computed via the code GRANADA. Results: When the resulting theoretical β1(τ) are compared with the best accurate data of very fast rotators, a good agreement for the six systems is simultaneously achieved. In addition, we derive an equation that relates the locus of constant convective efficiency in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram with gravity-darkening exponents.

  1. Big Data Challenges in High Energy Physics Experiments: The ATLAS (CERN) Fast TracKer Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We live in the era of “Big Data” problems. Massive amounts of data are produced and captured, data that require significant amounts of filtering to be processed in a realistically useful form. An excellent example of a “Big Data” problem is the data processing flow in High Energy Physics experiments, in our case the ATLAS detector in CERN. In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 40 million collisions of bunches of protons take place every second, which is about 15 trillion collisions per year. For the ATLAS detector alone 1 Mbyte of data is produced for every collision or 2000 Tbytes of data per year. Therefore what is needed is a very efficient real-time trigger system to filter the collisions (events) and identify the ones that contain “interesting” physics for processing. One of the upgrades of the ATLAS Trigger system is the Fast TracKer system. The Fast TracKer is a real-time pattern matching machine able to reconstruct the tracks of the particles in the inner silicon detector of the ATLAS experim...

  2. Metabolic response to exogenous ethanol in yeast: An in vivo statistical total correlation NMR spectroscopy approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maso Ricci; Marianna Aggravi; Claudia Bonechi; Silvia Martini; Anna Maria; Claudio Rossi

    2012-09-01

    In vivo NMR spectroscopy, together with selectively 13C-labelled substrates and ‘statistical total correlation spectroscopy’ analysis (STOCSY), are valuable tools to collect and interpret the metabolic responses of a living organism to external stimuli. In this study, we applied this approach to evaluate the effects of increasing concentration of exogenous ethanol on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentative metabolism. We show that the STOCSY analysis correctly identifies the different types of correlations among the enriched metabolites involved in the fermentation, and that these correlations are quite stable even in presence of a stressing factor such as the exogenous ethanol.

  3. Correlation analysis-based image segmentation approach for automatic agriculture vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    It is important to segment image correctly to extract guidance information for automatic agriculture vehicle. If we can make the computer know where the crops are, we can extract the guidance line easily. Images were divided into some rectangle small windows, then a pair of 1-D arrays was constructed in each small windows. The correlation coefficients of every small window constructed the features to segment images. The results showed that correlation analysis is a potential approach for processing complex farmland for guidance system, and more correlation analysis methods must be researched.

  4. Metabolic response to exogenous ethanol in yeast: an in vivo statistical total correlation NMR spectroscopy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Maso; Aggravi, Marianna; Bonechi, Claudia; Martini, Silvia; Aloisi, Anna Maria; Rossi, Claudio

    2012-09-01

    In vivo NMR spectroscopy, together with selectively 13C-labelled substrates and 'statistical total correlation spectroscopy' analysis (STOCSY), are valuable tools to collect and interpret the metabolic responses of a living organism to external stimuli. In this study, we applied this approach to evaluate the effects of increasing concentration of exogenous ethanol on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentative metabolism. We show that the STOCSY analysis correctly identifies the different types of correlations among the enriched metabolites involved in the fermentation, and that these correlations are quite stable even in presence of a stressing factor such as the exogenous ethanol.

  5. Pearson相关系数法快慢横波波场分离%Wave filed separation of fast-slow shear waves by Pearson correlation coefficient method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 冯晅; 刘财

    2012-01-01

    横波分裂是各向异性介质的重要特征,当横波或转换波穿过各向异性介质到达地面时,地面三分量检波器的x分量和y分量接收到的地震记录中都会同时存在快横波和慢横波.将快横波和慢横波进行分离,进而计算介质的各向异性参数是多分量数据处理中重要的一步.将数学中的Pearson相关系数引入到多分量地震勘探中,提出了Pearson相关系数法进行旋转角度识别,进而分离快、慢横波波场.相比于传统的互相关法,Pearson相关系数法从精度、抗噪性能和计算效率上都有提高.%Shear-wave splitting is an important characteristic of anisotropic media. Generally, when S or P-SV waves reach to the ground through anisotropic media, the seismic record received by x component and y component of three-component detector contains fast wave and slow wave simultaneously- Separating fast wave and slow wave and then calculating the anisotropic parameters of media are an important step in multi-component data processing. The authors introduce the Pearson correlation coefficients into multi-component seismic exploration and propose the Pearson correlation coefficients to detect the rotation angle and then separate the fast wave and slow wave. Compared with the traditional cross-correlation method, the Pearson correlation coefficient method is better in accuracy, noise immunity and computational efficiency.

  6. Investigating the Correlation between Food Prices and University Students Awareness of the Effects of Fast Food Consumption on their Health

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Aklabi, Nouf; Al-Dowsari, Wejdan; Andrioti, Despena

    2016-01-01

    Background: The price of a given food product is an indicative measure of its nutritious value. Forthis reason, people belonging to low-income groups are specifically vulnerable to malnutrition. Thisstudy aims to identify nutritional patterns among students at the Princess Nora University, Riyadh,Saudi Arabia, quantify students’ level of awareness of health risks associated with fast food consumption,examine how price affects their choice of food, and provide general guidelines for improving ...

  7. Obesity, metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose, and microvascular dysfunction: a principal component analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panazzolo Diogo G

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to evaluate the multivariate association between functional microvascular variables and clinical-laboratorial-anthropometrical measurements. Methods Data from 189 female subjects (34.0±15.5 years, 30.5±7.1 kg/m2, who were non-smokers, non-regular drug users, without a history of diabetes and/or hypertension, were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA. PCA is a classical multivariate exploratory tool because it highlights common variation between variables allowing inferences about possible biological meaning of associations between them, without pre-establishing cause-effect relationships. In total, 15 variables were used for PCA: body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, fasting plasma glucose, levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, triglycerides (TG, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP, and functional microvascular variables measured by nailfold videocapillaroscopy. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy was used for direct visualization of nutritive capillaries, assessing functional capillary density, red blood cell velocity (RBCV at rest and peak after 1 min of arterial occlusion (RBCVmax, and the time taken to reach RBCVmax (TRBCVmax. Results A total of 35% of subjects had metabolic syndrome, 77% were overweight/obese, and 9.5% had impaired fasting glucose. PCA was able to recognize that functional microvascular variables and clinical-laboratorial-anthropometrical measurements had a similar variation. The first five principal components explained most of the intrinsic variation of the data. For example, principal component 1 was associated with BMI, waist circumference, systolic BP, diastolic BP, insulin, TG, CRP, and TRBCVmax varying in the same way. Principal component 1 also showed a strong association among HDL-c, RBCV, and RBCVmax, but in the opposite way. Principal component 3 was

  8. A revaluation of helium/dpa ratios for fast reactor and thermal reactor data in fission-fusion correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, F.A.; Greenwood, L.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Oliver, B.M.

    1996-10-01

    For many years it has been accepted that significant differences exist in the helium/dpa ratios produced in fast reactors and various proposed fusion energy devices. In general, the differences arise from the much larger rate of (n,{alpha}) threshold reactions occurring in fusion devices, reactions which occur for energies {ge} 6 MeV. It now appears, however, that for nickel-containing alloys in fast reactors the difference may not have been as large as was originally anticipated. In stainless steels that have a very long incubation period for swelling, for instance, the average helium concentration over the duration of the transient regime have been demonstrated in an earlier paper to be much larger in the FFTF out-of-core regions than first calculated. The helium/dpa ratios in some experiments conducted near the core edge or just outside of the FFTF core actually increase strongly throughout the irradiation, as {sup 59}Ni slowly forms by transmutation of {sup 58}Ni. This highly exothermic {sup 59}Ni(n,{alpha}) reaction occurs in all fast reactors, but is stronger in the softer spectra of oxide-fueled cores such as FFTF and weaker in the harder spectra of metal-fueled cores such as EBR-II. The formation of {sup 59}Ni also increases strongly in out-of-core unfueled regions where the reactor spectra softens with distance from the core.

  9. Coded moderator approach for fast neutron source detection and localization at standoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Jennifer; Lukosi, Eric; Hayward, Jason; Milburn, Robert; Rowan, Allen

    2015-06-01

    Considering the need for directional sensing at standoff for some security applications and scenarios where a neutron source may be shielded by high Z material that nearly eliminates the source gamma flux, this work focuses on investigating the feasibility of using thermal neutron sensitive boron straw detectors for fast neutron source detection and localization. We utilized MCNPX simulations to demonstrate that, through surrounding the boron straw detectors by a HDPE coded moderator, a source-detector orientation-specific response enables potential 1D source localization in a high neutron detection efficiency design. An initial test algorithm has been developed in order to confirm the viability of this detector system's localization capabilities which resulted in identification of a 1 MeV neutron source with a strength equivalent to 8 kg WGPu at 50 m standoff within ±11°.

  10. A fast approach for overcomplete sparse decomposition based on smoothed L0 norm

    CERN Document Server

    Mohimani, Hossein; Jutten, Christian

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a fast algorithm for overcomplete sparse decomposition, called SL0, is proposed. The algorithm is essentially a method for obtaining sparse solutions of underdetermined systems of linear equations, and its applications include underdetermined Sparse Component Analysis (SCA), atomic decomposition on overcomplete dictionaries, compressed sensing, and decoding real field codes. Contrary to previous methods, which usually solve this problem by minimizing the L1 norm using Linear Programming (LP) techniques, our algorithm tries to directly minimize the L0 norm. It is experimentally shown that the proposed algorithm is about two to three orders of magnitude faster than the state-of-the-art interior-point LP solvers, while providing the same (or better) accuracy.

  11. Advantages and limitations of the use of optogenetic approach in studying fast-scale spike encoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Malyshev

    Full Text Available Understanding single-neuron computations and encoding performed by spike-generation mechanisms of cortical neurons is one of the central challenges for cell electrophysiology and computational neuroscience. An established paradigm to study spike encoding in controlled conditions in vitro uses intracellular injection of a mixture of signals with fluctuating currents that mimic in vivo-like background activity. However this technique has two serious limitations: it uses current injection, while synaptic activation leads to changes of conductance, and current injection is technically most feasible in the soma, while the vast majority of synaptic inputs are located on the dendrites. Recent progress in optogenetics provides an opportunity to circumvent these limitations. Transgenic expression of light-activated ionic channels, such as Channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2, allows induction of controlled conductance changes even in thin distant dendrites. Here we show that photostimulation provides a useful extension of the tools to study neuronal encoding, but it has its own limitations. Optically induced fluctuating currents have a low cutoff (~70 Hz, thus limiting the dynamic range of frequency response of cortical neurons. This leads to severe underestimation of the ability of neurons to phase-lock their firing to high frequency components of the input. This limitation could be worked around by using short (2 ms light stimuli which produce membrane potential responses resembling EPSPs by their fast onset and prolonged decay kinetics. We show that combining application of short light stimuli to different parts of dendritic tree for mimicking distant EPSCs with somatic injection of fluctuating current that mimics fluctuations of membrane potential in vivo, allowed us to study fast encoding of artificial EPSPs photoinduced at different distances from the soma. We conclude that dendritic photostimulation of ChR2 with short light pulses provides a powerful tool to

  12. Chapter 4 Electron transfer in respiratory complexes resolved by an ultra-fast freeze-quench approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belevich, Nikolai P; Verkhovskaya, Marina L; Verkhovsky, Michael I

    2009-01-01

    The investigation of the molecular mechanism of the respiratory chain complexes requires determination of the time-dependent evolution of the catalytic cycle intermediates. The ultra-fast freeze-quench approach makes possible trapping such intermediates with consequent analysis of their chemical structure by means of different physical spectroscopic methods (e.g., EPR, optic, and Mössbauer spectroscopies). This chapter presents the description of a setup that allows stopping the enzymatic reaction in the time range from 100 microsec to tens of msec. The construction and production technology of the mixer head, ultra-fast freezing device, and accessories required for collecting a sample are described. Ways of solving a number of problems emerging on freezing of the reaction mixture and preparing the samples for EPR spectroscopy are proposed. The kinetics of electron transfer reaction in the first enzyme of the respiratory chain, Complex I (NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase), is presented as an illustration of the freeze-quench approach. Time-resolved EPR spectra indicating the redox state of FeS clusters of the wild-type and mutant (R274A in subunit NuoCD) Complex I from Escherichia coli are shown.

  13. A fast and accurate method for the simulation of the diffusing temporal light correlation in multi-layered turbid media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Bin; LI Jun; HE Sai-ling

    2005-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation of the diffusing temporal light correlation in a multi-layered turbid medium is considered.A straightforward formula is introduced to calculate accurately and efficiently the autocorrelation function at any detector position.The simulation results are in an excellent agreement with an analytical solution of the correlation diffusion equation.

  14. A fast and reliable empirical approach for estimating solubility of crystalline drugs in polymers for hot melt extrusion formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyeremateng, Samuel O; Pudlas, Marieke; Woehrle, Gerd H

    2014-09-01

    A novel empirical analytical approach for estimating solubility of crystalline drugs in polymers has been developed. The approach utilizes a combination of differential scanning calorimetry measurements and a reliable mathematical algorithm to construct complete solubility curve of a drug in polymer. Compared with existing methods, this novel approach reduces the required experimentation time and amount of material by approximately 80%. The predictive power and relevance of such solubility curves in development of amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulations are shown by applications to a number of hot-melt extrudate formulations of ibuprofen and naproxen in Soluplus. On the basis of the temperature-drug load diagrams using the solubility curves and the glass transition temperatures, physical stability of the extrudate formulations was predicted and checked by placing the formulations on real-time stability studies. An analysis of the stability samples with microscopy, thermal, and imaging techniques confirmed the predicted physical stability of the formulations. In conclusion, this study presents a fast and reliable approach for estimating solubility of crystalline drugs in polymer matrixes. This powerful approach can be applied by formulation scientists as an early and convenient tool in designing ASD formulations for maximum drug load and physical stability.

  15. Value of Indian Diabetes Risk Score among Medical Students and Its Correlation with Fasting Plasma Glucose, Blood Pressure and Lipid Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardhan, Anand; Prabha M R, Adhikari; Shashidhar M, Kotian; Shankar, Nithya; Gupta, Sandhya; Tripathy, Amruta

    2012-11-01

    The Indian Diabetes Risk Score is a tool which was devised by the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation to screen people for the risk of developing Diabetes mellitus; it comprises of the family history, the abdominal circumference, age and the physical activity. This study was aimed at finding out whether the Indian Diabetes Risk Score (MDRF) correlated with the blood sugar levels, the lipid profile and the blood pressure readings of medical students. Seventy five female and 75 male students who signed the informed consent were selected for the study. Their IDRS was calculated by using a validated questionnaire which involved the family history, the abdominal circumference, age and the details of the physical activity. All of them had their blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and lipid profiles measured. There were 101 students with an IDRS of students with a moderate IDRS (30-50) and 7 who had a high IDRS of ≥60. The fasting plasma glucose was significantly correlated with the IDRS (P=0.001, r = 0.472), with a mean FPG of 84 ± 3.63mg/dl in the low risk groups, of 88 ± 4.93mg/dl in the moderate risk groups and of 94 ± 6.50mg/dl in the high risk groups. The total cholesterol value was r = 0.420 (P= 0.001), the total triglycerides value was r = 0.373 (P=0.001), the LDL cholesterol value was r = 0.578 (P=0.001) and the VLDL value was r = 0.566 (P=0.001), which positively correlated with the risk score and the HDL value r = -0.480 (P=0.001) correlated negatively with the risk score. There was no correlation between the IDRS and the blood pressure. Our study showed that nearly 40% of the medical students had a moderate to a high IDRS. The IDRS significantly correlated with the fasting plasma glucose and with all the components of the lipid profile. The IDRS did not correlate with the blood pressure readings.

  16. The correlation study of parallel feature extractor and noise reduction approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewi, Deshinta Arrova; Sundararajan, Elankovan; Prabuwono, Anton Satria [Industrial Computing Research Group, Centre for Artificial Intelligence Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents literature reviews that show variety of techniques to develop parallel feature extractor and finding its correlation with noise reduction approaches for low light intensity images. Low light intensity images are normally displayed as darker images and low contrast. Without proper handling techniques, those images regularly become evidences of misperception of objects and textures, the incapability to section them. The visual illusions regularly clues to disorientation, user fatigue, poor detection and classification performance of humans and computer algorithms. Noise reduction approaches (NR) therefore is an essential step for other image processing steps such as edge detection, image segmentation, image compression, etc. Parallel Feature Extractor (PFE) meant to capture visual contents of images involves partitioning images into segments, detecting image overlaps if any, and controlling distributed and redistributed segments to extract the features. Working on low light intensity images make the PFE face challenges and closely depend on the quality of its pre-processing steps. Some papers have suggested many well established NR as well as PFE strategies however only few resources have suggested or mentioned the correlation between them. This paper reviews best approaches of the NR and the PFE with detailed explanation on the suggested correlation. This finding may suggest relevant strategies of the PFE development. With the help of knowledge based reasoning, computational approaches and algorithms, we present the correlation study between the NR and the PFE that can be useful for the development and enhancement of other existing PFE.

  17. Stability of metabolic correlations under changing environmental conditions in Escherichia coli--a systems approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedrzej Szymanski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biological systems adapt to changing environments by reorganizing their cellular and physiological program with metabolites representing one important response level. Different stresses lead to both conserved and specific responses on the metabolite level which should be reflected in the underlying metabolic network. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Starting from experimental data obtained by a GC-MS based high-throughput metabolic profiling technology we here develop an approach that: (1 extracts network representations from metabolic condition-dependent data by using pairwise correlations, (2 determines the sets of stable and condition-dependent correlations based on a combination of statistical significance and homogeneity tests, and (3 can identify metabolites related to the stress response, which goes beyond simple observations about the changes of metabolic concentrations. The approach was tested with Escherichia coli as a model organism observed under four different environmental stress conditions (cold stress, heat stress, oxidative stress, lactose diauxie and control unperturbed conditions. By constructing the stable network component, which displays a scale free topology and small-world characteristics, we demonstrated that: (1 metabolite hubs in this reconstructed correlation networks are significantly enriched for those contained in biochemical networks such as EcoCyc, (2 particular components of the stable network are enriched for functionally related biochemical pathways, and (3 independently of the response scale, based on their importance in the reorganization of the correlation network a set of metabolites can be identified which represent hypothetical candidates for adjusting to a stress-specific response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Network-based tools allowed the identification of stress-dependent and general metabolic correlation networks. This correlation-network-based approach does not rely on major changes in

  18. Non-acid-fastness in Mycobacterium tuberculosis ΔkasB mutant correlates with the cell envelope electron density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Bhatt, Apoorva; Danev, Radostin; Fujiwara, Nagatoshi; Maeda, Shinji; Mitarai, Satoshi; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Aono, Akio; Nitta, Koji; Jacobs, William R; Nagayama, Kuniaki

    2012-07-01

    The acid-fastness is the most important and the most specific characteristics in mycobacteria, the mechanism of which is not clear but may be attributed to the lipid rich cell wall of this bacterium. While the exact component(s) responsible for this staining method remained unidentified, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutant, attenuated strain that produced shorter mycolic acids with defects in trans-cyclopropanation was shown to be acid fast negative. In this study, we examined the ultrastructure of the cell envelope (CE) of the mutant strain ΔkasB (missing a beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase involved in mycolic acid biosynthesis), the parental CDC1551 (wild type strain) and kasB complemented strain, and compared ultrastructural differences among them with conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (CEM). Conventional TEM revealed that there were no detectable differences in the thickness of the cell envelope among three strains (wild-type: 43.35 ± 6.13 nm; ΔkasB: 45.98 ± 11.32 nm; complement: 40.71 ± 6.3 nm). However, CEM data demonstrated that the region between the inner and outer membranes of the mutant strain, which is composed mainly of cell wall anchored mycolic acids (MA), showed a significant decrease in electron density as compared to the wild type and kasB complement strain (567.1 ± 372.7 vs. 301.4 ± 262.1, or vs. 235.2 ± 174.9, p tuberculosis cell envelope, resulting in a reduced electron density of this layer as seen by CEM and loss of acid-fastness in light microscopical observation, and we propose a novel model of the cell envelope structure in tubercle bacilli.

  19. Fast diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) with Inherent COrrelation-based Normalization (ICON) enhances automatic segmentation of heterogeneous diffusion MRI lesion in acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Iris Yuwen; Guo, Yingkun; Igarashi, Takahiro; Wang, Yu; Mandeville, Emiri; Chan, Suk-Tak; Wen, Lingyi; Vangel, Mark; Lo, Eng H; Ji, Xunming; Sun, Phillip Zhe

    2016-12-01

    Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) has been shown to augment diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for the definition of irreversible ischemic injury. However, the complexity of cerebral structure/composition makes the kurtosis map heterogeneous, limiting the specificity of kurtosis hyperintensity to acute ischemia. We propose an Inherent COrrelation-based Normalization (ICON) analysis to suppress the intrinsic kurtosis heterogeneity for improved characterization of heterogeneous ischemic tissue injury. Fast DKI and relaxation measurements were performed on normal (n = 10) and stroke rats following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) (n = 20). We evaluated the correlations between mean kurtosis (MK), mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) derived from the fast DKI sequence and relaxation rates R1 and R2 , and found a highly significant correlation between MK and R1 (p segmentation in an animal stroke model. We found significantly different kurtosis and diffusivity lesion volumes: 147 ± 59 and 180 ± 66 mm(3) , respectively (p = 0.003, paired t-test). The ratio of kurtosis to diffusivity lesion volume was 84% ± 19% (p < 0.001, one-sample t-test). We found that relaxation-normalized MK (RNMK), but not MD, values were significantly different between kurtosis and diffusivity lesions (p < 0.001, analysis of variance). Our study showed that fast DKI with ICON analysis provides a promising means of demarcation of heterogeneous DWI stroke lesions.

  20. Measurement of inelasticities for charge correlated multiple ionization of Ne by fast C/sup 6 +/ ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuch, R.; Datz, S.; Dittner, P.F.; Krause, H.F.; Miller, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    A description of measurements of inelasticities for multiple ionization in fast-single collisions is given for the example of 10 MeV C/sup 6 +/ ions with Ne atoms. The degree of multiple ionization was determined by time-of-flight of the recoil ions, extracted by an electric field in coincidence with the projectiles. Their energy loss for a given degree of multiple ionization was measured with a position-sensitive silicon detector in the focal plane of an Elbek magnetic spectrograph with an energy resolution of about 10/sup -4/.

  1. Development of a Scanning Microscale Fast Neutron Irradiation Platform for Examining the Correlation Between Local Neutron Damage and Graphite Microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinhero, Patrick [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Windes, William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-10

    The fast particle radiation damage effect of graphite, a main material in current and future nuclear reactors, has significant influence on the utilization of this material in fission and fusion plants. Atoms on graphite crystals can be easily replaced or dislocated by fast protons and result in interstitials and vacancies. The currently accepted model indicates that after most of the interstitials recombine with vacancies, surviving interstitials form clusters and furthermore gather to create loops with each other between layers. Meanwhile, surviving vacancies and interstitials form dislocation loops on the layers. The growth of these inserted layers cause the dimensional increase, i.e. swelling, of graphite. Interstitial and vacancy dislocation loops have been reported and they can easily been observed by electron microscope. However, observation of the intermediate atom clusters becomes is paramount in helping prove this model. We utilize fast protons generated from the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) cyclotron to irradiate highly- oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) as target for this research. Post-irradiation examination (PIE) of dosed targets with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has permit observation and analysis of clusters and dislocation loops to support the proposed theory. Another part of the research is to validate M.I. Heggie’s Ruck and Tuck model, which introduced graphite layers may fold under fast particle irradiation. Again, we employed microscopy to image irradiated specimens to determine how the extent of Ruck and Tuck by calculating the number of folds as a function of dose. Our most significant accomplishment is the invention of a novel class of high-intensity pure beta-emitters for long-term lightweight batteries. We have filed four invention disclosure records based on the research conducted in this project. These batteries are lightweight because they consist of carbon and tritium and can be

  2. A Comparison of Two Approaches to Correction of Restriction of Range in Correlation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Wiberg

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A common problem in predictive validity studies in the educational and psychological fields, e.g. in educational and employment selection, is restriction in range of the predictor variables. There are several methods for correcting correlations for restriction of range. The aim of this paper was to examine the usefulness of two approaches to correcting for range restriction; Thorndike's case 2 correction and ML estimates obtained from the EM algorithm, by comparing the corrected correlations with the correlation from an unrestricted sample. The unrestricted sample consisted of examinees who took the practical Swedish driving-license test regardless of their result on the theory test. Examinees that passed the theory test and took the practical test were regarded as a restricted sample. The result provided empirical support for the appropriateness of Thorndike's case 2 correction method. Although using the EM algorithm yielded a good estimate of the correlation in the unrestricted sample, further studies are needed on this topic

  3. Correlation functions in resonance fluorescence with spectral resolution: Signal-processing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatokhin, Vyacheslav N.; Kilin, Sergei Ya.

    2016-09-01

    In the framework of the signal processing approach to single-atom resonance fluorescence with spectral resolution, we diagrammatically derive an analytical formula for arbitrary-order spectral correlation functions of the scattered fields that pass through Fabry-Perot interferometers. Our general expression is then applied to study correlation signals in the limit of well separated spectral lines of the resonance fluorescence spectrum. In particular, we study the normalized second-order temporal intensity correlation functions in the case of the interferometers tuned to the components of the spectrum and obtain interferential corrections to the approximate results derived in the secular limit. In addition, we explore purely spectral correlations and show that they can fully be understood in terms of the two-photon cascades down the dressed state ladder.

  4. Quantum non-equilibrium approach for fast electron transport in open systems: photosynthetic reaction centers

    CERN Document Server

    Pudlak, M; Nazmitdinov, R G; Pincak, R

    2011-01-01

    Creation of electron or exciton by external fields in a system with initially statistically independent unrelaxed vibrational modes leads to an initial condition term. The contribution of this term in the time convolution generalized master equation approach is studied in second order of the perturbation theory for electron-phonon coupling in the parth integral formalism. The developed approach, applied for analysis of dynamics in the photosynthetic reaction center, exhibits the key role of the initial condition term at the primary stage of electron transfer.

  5. Furosine as a pasta quality marker: evaluation by an innovative and fast chromatographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetti, Vanessa; Mariani, Maurizio Boccacci; Mannino, Paola

    2013-07-01

    A fast and simple high-performance liquid chromatography method suitable for determining furosine level in heat-treated food samples was developed. The analysis of furosine was performed by a novel mixed-mode column that provides multiple and simultaneous retention mechanisms including cation-exchange, anion-exchange, reversed-phase, or hydrophilic interaction. Each retention mechanism could be independently controlled by setting chromatographic conditions. Adequate retention and selectivity of polar charged furosine were achieved by adjusting mobile phase pH, buffer concentration, organic content, and ionic strength. The optimized method was successfully applied to determinate furosine in durum wheat semolina pasta samples. Furosine level in pasta may be used as a reliable marker of health and nutritional damage occurring during pasta manufacture. Indeed, a low content of furosine is generally related to high nutritional quality of food and application of mild heat treatments. A wide range of dry pasta samples, collected from both supermarkets (large-scale retail trade) and shops selling local products, were analyzed. Variable amounts of furosine, ranging from 107 to 506 mg/100 g of protein, were found in pasta samples. The proposed method allows to discriminate products submitted to different time-temperature conditions during the drying process. At the same time, it may be used to highlight potential label fraud.

  6. Adulteration screening of botanical materials by a sensitive and model-free approach using infrared spectroscopic imaging and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-bo; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin

    2016-11-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is often used as a simple, fast, and green method for the adulteration screening of botanical materials for foods and herbs. However, the overlapping of absorption signals of various substances significantly decrease the sensitivity and specificity of IR spectroscopy in the detection of adulterated samples. In this research, a model-free approach is proposed for the sensitive and non-targeted screening of botanical materials adulterated by adding other plant materials. First, the spectra of the entities in the test sample are collected by near-infrared spectroscopic imaging and clustered by unsupervised pattern recognition methods. The sample may be adulterated if there are two or more clusters of the entities. Next, the entities of different clusters are characterized by mid-infrared spectroscopy to interpret the chemical compositions to determine the clustering is caused whether by adulteration or other reasons. Second derivative spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy are often needed to resolve the overlapped bands mathematically or experimentally to find the characteristic signals to identify the authentic and adulterant entities. The feasibility of this approach was proved by the simulated adulterated sample of saffron. In conclusion, botanical materials adulterated by adding other plant materials can be detected by a simple, fast, sensitive, and green screening approach using IR spectroscopic imaging, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, and necessary chemometrics techniques.

  7. The Development of a 3D LADAR Simulator Based on a Fast Target Impulse Response Generation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Temeemy, Ali Adnan

    2017-09-01

    A new laser detection and ranging (LADAR) simulator has been developed, using MATLAB and its graphical user interface, to simulate direct detection time of flight LADAR systems, and to produce 3D simulated scanning images under a wide variety of conditions. This simulator models each stage from the laser source to data generation and can be considered as an efficient simulation tool to use when developing LADAR systems and their data processing algorithms. The novel approach proposed for this simulator is to generate the actual target impulse response. This approach is fast and able to deal with high scanning requirements without losing the fidelity that accompanies increments in speed. This leads to a more efficient LADAR simulator and opens up the possibility for simulating LADAR beam propagation more accurately by using a large number of laser footprint samples. The approach is to select only the parts of the target that lie in the laser beam angular field by mathematically deriving the required equations and calculating the target angular ranges. The performance of the new simulator has been evaluated under different scanning conditions, the results showing significant increments in processing speeds in comparison to conventional approaches, which are also used in this study as a point of comparison for the results. The results also show the simulator's ability to simulate phenomena related to the scanning process, for example, type of noise, scanning resolution and laser beam width.

  8. A Fast Approach for System-Level Power Modeling and Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAJun; ZOUXuecheng

    2004-01-01

    Power is one of the main constraints in SOC (System-on-a-chip) design. System-level power modeling and simulation help to reduce the power dissipation in early stage. But by reason of the variability of system architecture, the amount of simulation is vast which result in the simulation time is unacceptable. On the basis of previous work, a modified hybrid approach for core-based system-level power modeling is proposed in this paper, which enables SOC designers to estimate system power consumption under different core parameters and just simulates the system only once. Thereafter designers can make a trade-off rapidly between performance characters (such as power, area, speed and test, etc) and make a decision about which architecture is the best solution to implement system functionality. The key of our approach is to help the core designers to provide a power metric function to the core users and the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach hinge on whether the IP provider could provide an accurate power model of each core. A linear model is chosen to describe the relationship between power consumption and parameters and least-square-error is selected as the optimization criterion to mitigate error. Although the power is given as an example, our approach can be applied to speed and area performance trade-off also because speed and area performance modeling is simpler relatively.

  9. A fast new approach to pharmacophore mapping and its application to dopaminergic and benzodiazepine agonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Yvonne C.; Bures, Mark G.; Danaher, Elizabeth A.; DeLazzer, Jerry; Lico, Isabella; Pavlik, Patricia A.

    1993-02-01

    In the absence of a 3D structure of the target biomolecule, to propose the 3D requirements for a small molecule to exhibit a particular bioactivity, one must supply both a bioactive conformation and a superposition rule for every active compound. Our strategy identifies both simultaneously. We first generate and optimize all low-energy conformations by any suitable method. For each conformation we then use ALAD-DIN to calculate the location of points to be considered as part of the superposition. These points include atoms in the molecule and projections from the molecule to hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors or charged groups in the binding site. These positions and the relative energy of each conformation are the input to our new program DISCO. It uses a clique-detection method to find superpositions that contain a least one conformation of each molecule and user-specified numbers of point types and chirality. DISCO is fast; for example, it takes about 1 min CPU to propose pharmacophores from 21 conformations of seven molecules. We typically run DISCO several times to compare alternative pharmacophore maps. For D2 dopamine agonists DISCO shows that the newer 2-aminothiazoles fit the traditional pharmacophore. Using site points correctly identifies the bioactive enantiomers of indoles to compare with catechols whereas using only ligand points leads to selecting the inactive enantiomer for the pharmacophore map. In addition, DISCO reproduces pharmacophore maps of benzodiazepines in the literature and proposes subtle improvements. Our experience suggests that clique-detection methods will find many applications in computational chemistry and computer-assisted molecular design.

  10. Oil price and exchange rate co-movements in Asian countries: Detrended cross-correlation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muntazir; Zebende, Gilney Figueira; Bashir, Usman; Donghong, Ding

    2017-01-01

    Most empirical literature investigates the relation between oil prices and exchange rate through different models. These models measure this relationship on two time scales (long and short terms), and often fail to observe the co-movement of these variables at different time scales. We apply a detrended cross-correlation approach (DCCA) to investigate the co-movements of the oil price and exchange rate in 12 Asian countries. This model determines the co-movements of oil price and exchange rate at different time scale. The exchange rate and oil price time series indicate unit root problem. Their correlation and cross-correlation are very difficult to measure. The result becomes spurious when periodic trend or unit root problem occurs in these time series. This approach measures the possible cross-correlation at different time scale and controlling the unit root problem. Our empirical results support the co-movements of oil prices and exchange rate. Our results support a weak negative cross-correlation between oil price and exchange rate for most Asian countries included in our sample. The results have important monetary, fiscal, inflationary, and trade policy implications for these countries.

  11. Diffusion-relaxation correlation spectroscopic imaging: A multidimensional approach for probing microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daeun; Doyle, Eamon K; Wisnowski, Jessica L; Kim, Joong Hee; Haldar, Justin P

    2017-03-19

    To propose and evaluate a novel multidimensional approach for imaging subvoxel tissue compartments called Diffusion-Relaxation Correlation Spectroscopic Imaging. Multiexponential modeling of MR diffusion or relaxation data is commonly used to infer the many different microscopic tissue compartments that contribute signal to macroscopic MR imaging voxels. However, multiexponential estimation is known to be difficult and ill-posed. Observing that this ill-posedness is theoretically reduced in higher dimensions, diffusion-relaxation correlation spectroscopic imaging uses a novel multidimensional imaging experiment that jointly encodes diffusion and relaxation information, and then uses a novel constrained reconstruction technique to generate a multidimensional diffusion-relaxation correlation spectrum for every voxel. The peaks of the multidimensional spectrum are expected to correspond to the distinct tissue microenvironments that are present within each macroscopic imaging voxel. Using numerical simulations, experiment data from a custom-built phantom, and experiment data from a mouse model of traumatic spinal cord injury, diffusion-relaxation correlation spectroscopic imaging is demonstrated to provide substantially better multicompartment resolving power compared to conventional diffusion- and relaxation-based methods. The diffusion-relaxation correlation spectroscopic imaging approach provides powerful new capabilities for resolving the different components of multicompartment tissue models, and can be leveraged to significantly expand the insights provided by MRI in studies of tissue microstructure. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. A genome-wide approach accounting for body mass index identifies genetic variants influencing fasting glycemic traits and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Alisa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Scott, Robert A; Grimsby, Jonna L; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Chen, Han; Rybin, Denis; Liu, Ching-Ti; Bielak, Lawrence F; Prokopenko, Inga; Amin, Najaf; Barnes, Daniel; Cadby, Gemma; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ingelsson, Erik; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ladenvall, Claes; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lahti, Jari; Lecoeur, Cecile; Liu, Yongmei; Martinez-Larrad, Maria Teresa; Montasser, May E; Navarro, Pau; Perry, John R B; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Salo, Perttu; Sattar, Naveed; Shungin, Dmitry; Strawbridge, Rona J; Tanaka, Toshiko; van Duijn, Cornelia M; An, Ping; de Andrade, Mariza; Andrews, Jeanette S; Aspelund, Thor; Atalay, Mustafa; Aulchenko, Yurii; Balkau, Beverley; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Jacques S; Beilby, John P; Bellis, Claire; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Boban, Mladen; Boehnke, Michael; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bouchard, Claude; Brunner, Eric; Budimir, Danijela; Campbell, Harry; Carlson, Olga; Chines, Peter S; Clarke, Robert; Collins, Francis S; Corbatón-Anchuelo, Arturo; Couper, David; de Faire, Ulf; Dedoussis, George V; Deloukas, Panos; Dimitriou, Maria; Egan, Josephine M; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Erdos, Michael R; Eriksson, Johan G; Eury, Elodie; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Fox, Caroline S; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Franks, Paul W; Frayling, Timothy M; Froguel, Philippe; Galan, Pilar; de Geus, Eco; Gigante, Bruna; Glazer, Nicole L; Goel, Anuj; Groop, Leif; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hallmans, Göran; Hamsten, Anders; Hansson, Ola; Harris, Tamara B; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Simon; Hercberg, Serge; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon; Hofman, Albert; Hui, Jennie; Hung, Joseph; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jhun, Min A; Johnson, Paul C D; Jukema, J Wouter; Jula, Antti; Kao, W H; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kolcic, Ivana; Kovacs, Peter; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo; Lannfelt, Lars; Lathrop, G Mark; Launer, Lenore J; Leander, Karin; Li, Guo; Lind, Lars; Lindstrom, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loos, Ruth J F; Luan, Jian'an; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Mägi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Marmot, Michael; Meneton, Pierre; Mohlke, Karen L; Mooser, Vincent; Morken, Mario A; Miljkovic, Iva; Narisu, Narisu; O'Connell, Jeff; Ong, Ken K; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Lyle J; Palotie, Aarno; Pankow, James S; Peden, John F; Pedersen, Nancy L; Pehlic, Marina; Peltonen, Leena; Penninx, Brenda; Pericic, Marijana; Perola, Markus; Perusse, Louis; Peyser, Patricia A; Polasek, Ozren; Pramstaller, Peter P; Province, Michael A; Räikkönen, Katri; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rehnberg, Emil; Rice, Ken; Rotter, Jerome I; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Saaristo, Timo; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Salomaa, Veikko; Savage, David B; Saxena, Richa; Schwarz, Peter; Seedorf, Udo; Sennblad, Bengt; Serrano-Rios, Manuel; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Siscovick, David S; Smit, Johannes H; Small, Kerrin S; Smith, Nicholas L; Smith, Albert Vernon; Stančáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stumvoll, Michael; Sun, Yan V; Swift, Amy J; Tönjes, Anke; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Trompet, Stella; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Uusitupa, Matti; Vikström, Max; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Voight, Benjamin F; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Waterworth, Dawn M; Watkins, Hugh; Wheeler, Eleanor; Widen, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H; Willems, Sara M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Wright, Alan F; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Zelenika, Diana; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; Wareham, Nicholas J; McCarthy, Mark I; Barroso, Ines; Watanabe, Richard M; Florez, Jose C; Dupuis, Josée; Meigs, James B; Langenberg, Claudia

    2012-05-13

    Recent genome-wide association studies have described many loci implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathophysiology and β-cell dysfunction but have contributed little to the understanding of the genetic basis of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that genes implicated in insulin resistance pathways might be uncovered by accounting for differences in body mass index (BMI) and potential interactions between BMI and genetic variants. We applied a joint meta-analysis approach to test associations with fasting insulin and glucose on a genome-wide scale. We present six previously unknown loci associated with fasting insulin at P < 5 × 10(-8) in combined discovery and follow-up analyses of 52 studies comprising up to 96,496 non-diabetic individuals. Risk variants were associated with higher triglyceride and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, suggesting a role for these loci in insulin resistance pathways. The discovery of these loci will aid further characterization of the role of insulin resistance in T2D pathophysiology.

  13. Untargeted metabolomics approach for unraveling robust biomarkers of nutritional status in fasted gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Gil-Solsona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A metabolomic study has been performed to identify sensitive and robust biomarkers of malnutrition in farmed fish, using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata as a model. The metabolomic fingerprinting of serum from fasted fish was assessed by means of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. More than 15,000 different m/z ions were detected and Partial Least Squares–Discriminant analysis allowed a clear differentiation between the two experimental groups (fed and 10-day fasted fish with more than 90% of total variance explained by the two first components. The most significant metabolites (up to 45 were elucidated on the basis of their tandem mass spectra with a broad representation of amino acids, oligopeptides, urea cycle metabolites, L-carnitine-related metabolites, glutathione-related metabolites, fatty acids, lysophosphatidic acids, phosphatidylcholines as well as biotin- and noradrenaline-related metabolites. This untargeted approach highlighted important adaptive responses in energy and oxidative metabolism, contributing to identify robust and nutritionally-regulated biomarkers of health and metabolic condition that will serve to assess the welfare status of farmed fish.

  14. A search for concentric rings with unusual variance in the 7-year WMAP temperature maps using a fast convolution approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bielewicz, P; Banday, A J

    2012-01-01

    We present a method for the computation of the variance of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature maps on azimuthally symmetric patches using a fast convolution approach. As an example of the application of the method, we show results for the search for concentric rings with unusual variance in the 7-year WMAP data. We re-analyse claims concerning the unusual variance profile of rings centred at two locations on the sky that have recently drawn special attention in the context of the conformal cyclic cosmology scenario proposed by Penrose (2009). We extend this analysis to rings with larger radii and centred on other points of the sky. Using the fast convolution technique enables us to perform this search with higher resolution and a wider range of radii than in previous studies. We show that for one of the two special points rings with radii larger than 10 degrees have systematically lower variance in comparison to the concordance LambdaCDM model predictions. However, we show that this deviation is ca...

  15. Fast simulation approaches for power fluctuation model of wind farm based on frequency domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Jin; Gao, Wen-zhong; Sun, Yuan-zhang

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses one model developed by Riso, DTU, which is capable of simulating the power fluctuation of large wind farms in frequency domain. In the original design, the “frequency-time” transformations are time-consuming and might limit the computation speed for a wind farm of large size....... is more than 300 times if all these approaches are adopted, in any low, medium and high wind speed test scenarios....

  16. Genetic polymorphisms of the AMPD1 gene and their correlations with IMP contents in Fast Partridge and Lingshan chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jin; Yu, Ping; Ding, Xiaoling; Xu, Minglong; Guo, Baoping; Xu, Yinxue

    2015-12-15

    The object of this study was to evaluate associations between the adenosine monophosphate deaminase 1 (AMPD1) gene polymorphisms and inosine monophosphate acid (IMP) contents of chicken to provide a molecular marker for breeding. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), g.4064G/A, g.5573A/G and g.6805G/A were detected in exons IV, VI, and VIII of the AMPD1 gene in Fast Partridge and Lingshan chickens, respectively. All were purine conversion and caused no alteration in amino acid sequence. Statistical analysis revealed that Lingshan chicken with the homozygous genotype AA at position 4064 and 6805 had a significantly greater IMP content than those with the GG genotype (Pchicken with the genotype GG at position 6805 had a significantly greater IMP content compared with those with the AA genotype (Pchickens. The results in our study suggest that SNP 6805A/G can be used as a possible candidate marker of IMP content of chicken.

  17. Correlative imaging across microscopy platforms using the fast and accurate relocation of microscopic experimental regions (FARMER) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Toan; Daddysman, Matthew K.; Bao, Ying; Selewa, Alan; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Philipson, Louis H.; Scherer, Norbert F.

    2017-05-01

    Imaging specific regions of interest (ROIs) of nanomaterials or biological samples with different imaging modalities (e.g., light and electron microscopy) or at subsequent time points (e.g., before and after off-microscope procedures) requires relocating the ROIs. Unfortunately, relocation is typically difficult and very time consuming to achieve. Previously developed techniques involve the fabrication of arrays of features, the procedures for which are complex, and the added features can interfere with imaging the ROIs. We report the Fast and Accurate Relocation of Microscopic Experimental Regions (FARMER) method, which only requires determining the coordinates of 3 (or more) conspicuous reference points (REFs) and employs an algorithm based on geometric operators to relocate ROIs in subsequent imaging sessions. The 3 REFs can be quickly added to various regions of a sample using simple tools (e.g., permanent markers or conductive pens) and do not interfere with the ROIs. The coordinates of the REFs and the ROIs are obtained in the first imaging session (on a particular microscope platform) using an accurate and precise encoded motorized stage. In subsequent imaging sessions, the FARMER algorithm finds the new coordinates of the ROIs (on the same or different platforms), using the coordinates of the manually located REFs and the previously recorded coordinates. FARMER is convenient, fast (3-15 min/session, at least 10-fold faster than manual searches), accurate (4.4 μm average error on a microscope with a 100x objective), and precise (almost all errors are diverse set of samples and imaging methods: live mammalian cells at different time points; fixed bacterial cells on two microscopes with different imaging modalities; and nanostructures on optical and electron microscopes. FARMER can be readily adapted to any imaging system with an encoded motorized stage and can facilitate multi-session and multi-platform imaging experiments in biology, materials science

  18. Validation of analytical methods in GMP: the disposable Fast Read 102® device, an alternative practical approach for cell counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunetti Monica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality and safety of advanced therapy products must be maintained throughout their production and quality control cycle to ensure their final use in patients. We validated the cell count method according to the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use and European Pharmacopoeia, considering the tests’ accuracy, precision, repeatability, linearity and range. Methods As the cell count is a potency test, we checked accuracy, precision, and linearity, according to ICH Q2. Briefly our experimental approach was first to evaluate the accuracy of Fast Read 102® compared to the Bürker chamber. Once the accuracy of the alternative method was demonstrated, we checked the precision and linearity test only using Fast Read 102®. The data were statistically analyzed by average, standard deviation and coefficient of variation percentages inter and intra operator. Results All the tests performed met the established acceptance criteria of a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent. For the cell count, the precision reached by each operator had a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent (total cells and under five percent (viable cells. The best range of dilution, to obtain a slope line value very similar to 1, was between 1:8 and 1:128. Conclusions Our data demonstrated that the Fast Read 102® count method is accurate, precise and ensures the linearity of the results obtained in a range of cell dilution. Under our standard method procedures, this assay may thus be considered a good quality control method for the cell count as a batch release quality control test. Moreover, the Fast Read 102® chamber is a plastic, disposable device that allows a number of samples to be counted in the same chamber. Last but not least, it overcomes the problem of chamber washing after use and so allows a cell count in a clean environment such as that in a

  19. Direct digital method fast-acting analysis of the correlation-interferometric radio direction-finding with reconstructing of spatial analytical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Tsyporenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays radio control of radio electronic devices must be carried out in the conditions of sticky electromagnetic wicket, large prior uncertainty in relation to the parameters of radiations, and also in the conditions of the real time realization. The use and researches of direct digital methods of correlation-interferometric direction-finding is perspective direction in radio control realization for the indicated terms. Fundamentals of researches. In this paper, the direct digital method fast-acting analysis of the correlation-interferometric radio direction-finding with reconstructing of spatial analytical signal is executed. The estimation of time charges, fast-acting and relative time efficiency of method is executed. Conclusions. It is certain that analyzed direct method of direction-finding provides a spatial selection and simultaneous direction-finding of radiations which get in the pass frequencies band of simultaneous analysis with a width to one hundred ten megahertz real-time with the use of only one signal processor.

  20. Fast-slow life history is correlated with individual differences in movements and prey selection in an aquatic predator in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Shinnosuke; Rapp, Tobias; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Fast and slow life histories are proposed to covary with consistent individual differences in behaviour, but little is known whether it holds in the wild, where individuals experience natural fluctuations of the environment. We investigated whether individual differences in behaviour, such as movement traits and prey selection, are linked to variation in life-history traits in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) in the wild. Using high-resolution acoustic telemetry, we collected the positional data of fish in a whole natural lake and estimated individual movement traits by fitting a two-state correlated random walk model. Prey selection was inferred from stable isotope analysis using scale samples. Life-history traits were estimated by fitting a biphasic growth model to an individual growth trajectory back-calculated from scale samples. Life-history traits were correlated with behavioural traits such as movements and prey selection. Individuals with higher reproductive effort were found to switch more frequently between active and inactive modes and show greater reliance on prey from pelagic pathways (indicated by lower δ(13) C). Further, individuals with faster juvenile growth were found to stay active for a longer time during the adult stage. Our results demonstrate the link between individual behavioural differences and fast-slow life-history traits under ecologically relevant conditions.

  1. Fractal approach towards power-law coherency to measure cross-correlations between time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2017-09-01

    We focus on power-law coherency as an alternative approach towards studying power-law cross-correlations between simultaneously recorded time series. To be able to study empirical data, we introduce three estimators of the power-law coherency parameter Hρ based on popular techniques usually utilized for studying power-law cross-correlations - detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA), detrending moving-average cross-correlation analysis (DMCA) and height cross-correlation analysis (HXA). In the finite sample properties study, we focus on the bias, variance and mean squared error of the estimators. We find that the DMCA-based method is the safest choice among the three. The HXA method is reasonable for long time series with at least 104 observations, which can be easily attainable in some disciplines but problematic in others. The DCCA-based method does not provide favorable properties which even deteriorate with an increasing time series length. The paper opens a new venue towards studying cross-correlations between time series.

  2. Correlation and volatility in an Indian stock market: A random matrix approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Varsha; Deo, Nivedita

    2007-11-01

    We examine the volatility of an Indian stock market in terms of correlation of stocks and quantify the volatility using the random matrix approach. First we discuss trends observed in the pattern of stock prices in the Bombay Stock Exchange for the three-year period 2000 2002. Random matrix analysis is then applied to study the relationship between the coupling of stocks and volatility. The study uses daily returns of 70 stocks for successive time windows of length 85 days for the year 2001. We compare the properties of matrix C of correlations between price fluctuations in time regimes characterized by different volatilities. Our analyses reveal that (i) the largest (deviating) eigenvalue of C correlates highly with the volatility of the index, (ii) there is a shift in the distribution of the components of the eigenvector corresponding to the largest eigenvalue across regimes of different volatilities, (iii) the inverse participation ratio for this eigenvector anti-correlates significantly with the market fluctuations and finally, (iv) this eigenvector of C can be used to set up a Correlation Index, CI whose temporal evolution is significantly correlated with the volatility of the overall market index.

  3. Fast and accurate earthquake location within complex medium using a hybrid global-local inversion approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoying Bai; Rui Zhao; Stewart Greenhalgh

    2009-01-01

    A novel hybrid approach for earthquake location is proposed which uses a combined coarse global search and fine local inversion with a minimum search routine, plus an examination of the root mean squares (RMS) error distribution. The method exploits the advantages of network ray tracing and robust formulation of the Frechet derivatives to simultaneously update all possible initial source parameters around most local minima (including the global minimum) in the solution space, and finally to determine the likely global solution. Several synthetic examples involving a 3-D complex velocity model and a challenging source-receiver layout are used to demonstrate the capability of the newly-developed method. This new global-local hybrid solution technique not only incorporates the significant benefits of our recently published hypocenter determination procedure for multiple earthquake parameters, but also offers the attractive features of global optimal searching in the RMS travel time error distribution. Unlike the traditional global search method, for example, the Monte Carlo approach, where millions of tests have to be done to find the final global solution, the new method only conducts a matrix inversion type local search but does it multiple times simultaneously throughout the model volume to seek a global solution. The search is aided by inspection of the RMS error distribution. Benchmark tests against two popular approaches, the direct grid search method and the oct-tree important sampling method, indicate that the hybrid global-local inversion yields comparable location accuracy and is not sensitive to modest level of noise data, but more importantly it offers two-order of magnitude speed-up in computational effort. Such an improvement, combined with high accuracy, make it a promising hypocenter determination scheme in earthquake early warning, tsunami early warning, rapid hazard assessment and emergency response after strong earthquake occurrence.

  4. A novel fast and accurate pseudo-analytical simulation approach for MOAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, É.; Charara, A.; Abdelfattah, A.; Gratadour, D.; Keyes, D.; Ltaief, H.; Morel, C.; Vidal, F.; Sevin, A.; Rousset, G.

    2014-08-01

    Multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) is a novel adaptive optics (AO) technique for wide-field multi-object spectrographs (MOS). MOAO aims at applying dedicated wavefront corrections to numerous separated tiny patches spread over a large field of view (FOV), limited only by that of the telescope. The control of each deformable mirror (DM) is done individually using a tomographic reconstruction of the phase based on measurements from a number of wavefront sensors (WFS) pointing at natural and artificial guide stars in the field. We have developed a novel hybrid, pseudo-analytical simulation scheme, somewhere in between the end-to- end and purely analytical approaches, that allows us to simulate in detail the tomographic problem as well as noise and aliasing with a high fidelity, and including fitting and bandwidth errors thanks to a Fourier-based code. Our tomographic approach is based on the computation of the minimum mean square error (MMSE) reconstructor, from which we derive numerically the covariance matrix of the tomographic error, including aliasing and propagated noise. We are then able to simulate the point-spread function (PSF) associated to this covariance matrix of the residuals, like in PSF reconstruction algorithms. The advantage of our approach is that we compute the same tomographic reconstructor that would be computed when operating the real instrument, so that our developments open the way for a future on-sky implementation of the tomographic control, plus the joint PSF and performance estimation. The main challenge resides in the computation of the tomographic reconstructor which involves the inversion of a large matrix (typically 40 000 × 40 000 elements). To perform this computation efficiently, we chose an optimized approach based on the use of GPUs as accelerators and using an optimized linear algebra library: MORSE providing a significant speedup against standard CPU oriented libraries such as Intel MKL. Because the covariance matrix is

  5. Angular spectrum approach for fast simulation of pulsed non-linear ultrasound fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang; Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an Angular Spectrum Approach (ASA) for simulating pulsed non-linear ultrasound fields. The source of the ASA is generated by Field II, which can simulate array transducers of any arbitrary geometry and focusing. The non-linear ultrasound simulation program - Abersim, is used...... the fundamental and keep the second harmonic field, since Abersim simulates non-linear fields with all harmonic components. ASA and Abersim are compared for the pulsed fundamental and second harmonic fields in the time domain at depths of 30 mm, 40 mm (focal depth) and 60 mm. Full widths at -6 dB (FWHM) are f0...

  6. A novel fast and accurate pseudo-analytical simulation approach for MOAO

    KAUST Repository

    Gendron, É.

    2014-08-04

    Multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) is a novel adaptive optics (AO) technique for wide-field multi-object spectrographs (MOS). MOAO aims at applying dedicated wavefront corrections to numerous separated tiny patches spread over a large field of view (FOV), limited only by that of the telescope. The control of each deformable mirror (DM) is done individually using a tomographic reconstruction of the phase based on measurements from a number of wavefront sensors (WFS) pointing at natural and artificial guide stars in the field. We have developed a novel hybrid, pseudo-analytical simulation scheme, somewhere in between the end-to- end and purely analytical approaches, that allows us to simulate in detail the tomographic problem as well as noise and aliasing with a high fidelity, and including fitting and bandwidth errors thanks to a Fourier-based code. Our tomographic approach is based on the computation of the minimum mean square error (MMSE) reconstructor, from which we derive numerically the covariance matrix of the tomographic error, including aliasing and propagated noise. We are then able to simulate the point-spread function (PSF) associated to this covariance matrix of the residuals, like in PSF reconstruction algorithms. The advantage of our approach is that we compute the same tomographic reconstructor that would be computed when operating the real instrument, so that our developments open the way for a future on-sky implementation of the tomographic control, plus the joint PSF and performance estimation. The main challenge resides in the computation of the tomographic reconstructor which involves the inversion of a large matrix (typically 40 000 × 40 000 elements). To perform this computation efficiently, we chose an optimized approach based on the use of GPUs as accelerators and using an optimized linear algebra library: MORSE providing a significant speedup against standard CPU oriented libraries such as Intel MKL. Because the covariance matrix is

  7. A novel integrated renewable energy system modelling approach, allowing fast FPGA controller prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Ruiz, Alberto Parera; Cirstea, Marcian

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes a new holistic approach to the modeling of integrated renewable energy systems. The method is using the DK5 modeling/design environment from Celoxica and is based on the new Handel-C programming language. The goal of the work carried out was to achieve a combined model...... of a photovoltaic energy system and a wind power system, which would allow an optimized holistic digital control system design, followed by rapid prototyping of the controller into a single Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Initially, the system was simulated using Matlab / Simulink, to create a reference...

  8. Electronic structure of a striped nickelate studied by the exact exchange for correlated electrons (EECE) approach

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2009-12-01

    Motivated by a RIXS study of Wakimoto, et al.(Phys. Rev. Lett., 102 (2009) 157001) we use density functional theory to analyze the magnetic order in the nickelate La5/3Sr1/3NiO4 and the details of its crystal and electronic structure. We compare the generalized gradient approximation to the hybrid functional approach of exact exchange for correlated electrons (EECE). In contrast to the former, the latter reproduces the insulating state of the compound and the midgap states. The EECE approach, in general, appears to be appropriate for describing stripe phases in systems with orbital degrees of freedom. Copyright © EPLA, 2009.

  9. Stochastic switching in slow-fast systems: a large-fluctuation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Christoffer R; Schwartz, Ira B

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we develop a perturbation method to predict the rate of occurrence of rare events for singularly perturbed stochastic systems using a probability density function approach. In contrast to a stochastic normal form approach, we model rare event occurrences due to large fluctuations probabilistically and employ a WKB ansatz to approximate their rate of occurrence. This results in the generation of a two-point boundary value problem that models the interaction of the state variables and the most likely noise force required to induce a rare event. The resulting equations of motion of describing the phenomenon are shown to be singularly perturbed. Vastly different time scales among the variables are leveraged to reduce the dimension and predict the dynamics on the slow manifold in a deterministic setting. The resulting constrained equations of motion may be used to directly compute an exponent that determines the probability of rare events. To verify the theory, a stochastic damped Duffing oscillator with three equilibrium points (two sinks separated by a saddle) is analyzed. The predicted switching time between states is computed using the optimal path that resides in an expanded phase space. We show that the exponential scaling of the switching rate as a function of system parameters agrees well with numerical simulations. Moreover, the dynamics of the original system and the reduced system via center manifolds are shown to agree in an exponentially scaling sense.

  10. Variational B-spline level-set: a linear filtering approach for fast deformable model evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Olivier; Friboulet, Denis; Thévenaz, Philippe; Unser, Michael

    2009-06-01

    In the field of image segmentation, most level-set-based active-contour approaches take advantage of a discrete representation of the associated implicit function. We present in this paper a different formulation where the implicit function is modeled as a continuous parametric function expressed on a B-spline basis. Starting from the active-contour energy functional, we show that this formulation allows us to compute the solution as a restriction of the variational problem on the space spanned by the B-splines. As a consequence, the minimization of the functional is directly obtained in terms of the B-spline coefficients. We also show that each step of this minimization may be expressed through a convolution operation. Because the B-spline functions are separable, this convolution may in turn be performed as a sequence of simple 1-D convolutions, which yields an efficient algorithm. As a further consequence, each step of the level-set evolution may be interpreted as a filtering operation with a B-spline kernel. Such filtering induces an intrinsic smoothing in the algorithm, which can be controlled explicitly via the degree and the scale of the chosen B-spline kernel. We illustrate the behavior of this approach on simulated as well as experimental images from various fields.

  11. [Emotion regulation and pain : Behavioral and neuronal correlates: a transdiagnostic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konietzny, K; Suchan, B; Kreddig, N; Hasenbring, M I; Chehadi, O

    2016-10-01

    Emotions and emotion regulation are of special importance in the perception and modulation of pain but the mechanisms underlying this reciprocal relationship remain unclear. The transdiagnostic model provides an approach to explain the link between pain and emotion regarding cognitive and neuronal mechanisms and aims to identify mutual processes, which are relevant for both. Structural and functional imaging studies of pain indicate the involvement of specific cortical and subcortical structures, which also play an important role in emotion regulation. While numerous studies have investigated emotion regulation and their correlates in the central nervous system in pathological states, the research on emotion regulation in pain is still young. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of experimental and clinical studies of neuronal and behavioral correlates of pain-related emotion regulation. The current transdiagnostic approach may be able to enhance pain relief in the future.

  12. Time-varying correlations in global real estate markets: A multivariate GARCH with spatial effects approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Huaying; Liu, Zhixue; Weng, Yingliang

    2017-04-01

    The present study applies the multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (MGARCH) with spatial effects approach for the analysis of the time-varying conditional correlations and contagion effects among global real estate markets. A distinguishing feature of the proposed model is that it can simultaneously capture the spatial interactions and the dynamic conditional correlations compared with the traditional MGARCH models. Results reveal that the estimated dynamic conditional correlations have exhibited significant increases during the global financial crisis from 2007 to 2009, thereby suggesting contagion effects among global real estate markets. The analysis further indicates that the returns of the regional real estate markets that are in close geographic and economic proximities exhibit strong co-movement. In addition, evidence of significantly positive leverage effects in global real estate markets is also determined. The findings have significant implications on global portfolio diversification opportunities and risk management practices.

  13. CGC/saturation approach for soft interactions at high energy: long range rapidity correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotsman, E.; Maor, U. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Levin, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria and Centro Cientifico- Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Departemento de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper we continue our program to construct a model for high energy soft interactions that is based on the CGC/saturation approach. The main result of this paper is that we have discovered a mechanism that leads to large long range rapidity correlations and results in large values of the correlation function R(y{sub 1}, y{sub 2}) ≥ 1, which is independent of y{sub 1} and y{sub 2}. Such a behavior of the correlation function provides strong support for the idea that at high energies the system of partons that is produced is not only dense but also has strong attractive forces acting between the partons. (orig.)

  14. Measurement of spin correlation in tt production using a matrix element approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Aoki, M; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bazterra, V; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Bu, X B; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calpas, B; Camacho-Pérez, E; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chen, G; Chevalier-Théry, S; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Croc, A; Cutts, D; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De la Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Deterre, C; DeVaughan, K; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geng, W; Gerbaudo, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Guo, F; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De la Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jamin, D; Jayasinghe, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Joshi, J; Jung, A W; Juste, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kirby, M H; Kohli, J M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kulikov, S; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lellouch, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lopes de Sa, R; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madar, R; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martínez-Ortega, J; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Miconi, F; Mondal, N K; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Orduna, J; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otero y Garzón, G J; Padilla, M; Pal, A; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petridis, K; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Prokopenko, N; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Renkel, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rominsky, M; Ross, A; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Salcido, P; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Santos, A S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, K J; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Soustruznik, K; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Suter, L; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tsai, Y-T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vilanova, D; Vokac, P; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L

    2011-07-15

    We determine the fraction of tt events with spin correlation, assuming that the spin of the top quark is either correlated with the spin of the top antiquark as predicted by the standard model or is uncorrelated. For the first time we use a matrix-element-based approach to study tt spin correlation. We use tt → W+ b W- b → ℓ+ νbℓ- ν b final states produced in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy sqrt(s)=1.96  TeV, where ℓ denotes an electron or a muon. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 5.4  fb(-1) and were collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The result agrees with the standard model prediction. We exclude the hypothesis that the spins of the tt are uncorrelated at the 97.7% C.L.

  15. Multiplet relative location approach and waveform correlation correction and their application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玲; 张天中; 张宏智

    2003-01-01

    The theory and method of relative location technique were described in the paper. The travel-time difference equa-tions for five phases (Pg, Sg, P11, S11 and Ph) were given. By using the multiplet relative location approach andwave correlation correction, the aftershock cluster of the Shunyi earthquake occurred on December 16, 1996 wasrelocated. The depth calculation was constrained by using multiple seismic phases. The relocation results werecompared with that from traditional absolute location techniques.

  16. Reconstruction of the environmental correlation function from single emitter photon statistics: a non-Markovian approach

    CERN Document Server

    Shikerman, Faina; Pe'er, Avi

    2012-01-01

    We consider the two-level system approximation of a single emitter driven by a continuous laser pump and simultaneously coupled to the electromagnetic vacuum and to a thermal reservoir beyond the Markovian approximation. We discuss the connection between a rigorous microscopic theory and the phenomenological spectral diffusion approach, used to model the interaction of the emitter with the thermal bath, and obtained analytic expressions relating the thermal correlation function to the single emitter photon statistics.

  17. SENSE shimming (SSH): A fast approach for determining B(0) field inhomogeneities using sensitivity coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitthoff, D N; Zaitsev, M

    2009-11-01

    The pursuit of ever higher field strengths and faster data acquisitions has led to the construction of coil arrays with high numbers of elements. With the sensitivity encoding (SENSE) technique, it has been shown that the sensitivity of those elements can be used for spatial image encoding. Here, a proof-of-principle is presented of a method that can be considered an extreme case of the SENSE approach, completely abstaining from using encoding gradients. The resulting sensitivity encoded free-induction decay (FID) data are then not used for imaging, but for determining B(0) field inhomogeneity distribution. The method has therefore been termed "SENSE shimming" (SSH). In phantom experiments the method's ability to detect inhomogeneities of up to the second order is demonstrated.

  18. A fast approach to regional earthquake hazard evaluation based on population statistical data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Fu-quan; CAI Zong-wen; JIAO Shuang-jian; WEI Wei; HUANG Hong-sheng; FU Zai-yang; HUANG Tian-zhou; CHEN Lin

    2008-01-01

    In the prediction process of large-scale earthquake damage occurred in urban and rural regions, new models and approaches, which are different from traditional ones, should be adopted to rapidly predict earthquake damage. This article utilizes sampled population and buildings data that is easily available from the statistical database to conduct vulnerability analysis of buildings on the basis of earthquake damage of existing urban buildings in an analogical way, so as to provide a relation model between population data and disaster losses. In virtue of this model, the average vulnerability matrix of buildings of different structures in Fujian Province is established, the matrix adjustment coefficient of different decades is developed in accordance with the economic conditions, and the rapid evaluation system is set up as well. The result shows: this evaluation model, based on the population statistical data has merits as small investment, automatic data prediction, regular updates, as well as the advantage of easy accessibility.

  19. A Unified Simulation Approach for the Fast Outage Capacity Evaluation over Generalized Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir Ben

    2016-01-06

    The outage capacity (OC) is among the most important performance metrics of communication systems over fading channels. The evaluation of the OC, when equal gain combining (EGC) or maximum ratio combining (MRC) diversity techniques are employed, boils down to computing the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the sum of channel envelopes (equivalently amplitudes) for EGC or channel gains (equivalently squared enveloped/ amplitudes) for MRC. Closed-form expressions of the CDF of the sum of many generalized fading variates are generally unknown and constitute open problems. We develop a unified hazard rate twisting Importance Sampling (IS) based approach to efficiently estimate the CDF of the sum of independent arbitrary variates. The proposed IS estimator is shown to achieve an asymptotic optimality criterion, which clearly guarantees its efficiency. Some selected simulation results are also shown to illustrate the substantial computational gain achieved by the proposed IS scheme over crude Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. A unified simulation approach for the fast outage capacity evaluation over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2015-06-14

    The outage capacity (OC) is among the most important performance metrics of communication systems over fading channels. The evaluation of the OC, when Equal Gain Combining (EGC) or Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) diversity techniques are employed, boils down to computing the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) of the sum of channel envelopes (equivalently amplitudes) for EGC or channel gain (equivalently squared enveloped/amplitudes) for MRC. Closed-form expressions of the CDF of the sum of many generalized fading variates are generally unknown and constitute open problems. In this paper, we develop a unified hazard rate twisting Importance Sampling (IS) based approach to efficiently estimate the CDF of the sum of independent arbitrary variates. The proposed IS estimator is shown to achieve an asymptotic optimality criterion, which clearly guarantees its efficiency. Some selected simulation results are also shown to illustrate the substantial computational gain achieved by the proposed IS scheme over crude Monte-Carlo simulations.

  1. On the equivalence of the RTI and SVM approaches to time correlated analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, S.; Favalli, A.; Henzlova, D.; Santi, P. A.

    2015-02-01

    Recently two papers on how to perform passive neutron auto-correlation analysis on time gated histograms formed from pulse train data, generically called time correlation analysis (TCA), have appeared in this journal Dubi et al. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment (673) (2012) 111; Croft et al. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment (691) (2012) 152. For those of us working in international nuclear safeguards these treatments are of particular interest because passive neutron multiplicity counting is a widely deployed technique for the quantification of plutonium. The purpose of this letter is to show that the skewness-variance-mean (SVM) approach developed in Dubi et al. (Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment (673) (2012) 111) is equivalent in terms of assay capability to the random trigger interval (RTI) analysis laid out in Croft et al. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment (691) (2012) 152. Mathematically we could also use other numerical ways to extract the time correlated information from the histogram data including, for example, what we might call the mean, mean square, and mean cube approach. The important feature however, from the perspective of real world applications, is that the correlated information extracted is the same, and subsequently gets interpreted in the same way based on the same underlying physics model.

  2. On the equivalence of the RTI and SVM approaches to time correlated analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, S., E-mail: crofts@ornl.gov [Safeguards and Security Technology (SST), Global Nuclear Security Technology Division, PO Box 2008, Bldg 5700, MS-6166, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6166 (United States); Favalli, A.; Henzlova, D.; Santi, P.A. [Safeguards Science and Technology Group (NEN-1), Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, MS-E540, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-02-11

    Recently two papers on how to perform passive neutron auto-correlation analysis on time gated histograms formed from pulse train data, generically called time correlation analysis (TCA), have appeared in this journal Dubi et al. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment (673) (2012) 111; Croft et al. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment (691) (2012) 152. For those of us working in international nuclear safeguards these treatments are of particular interest because passive neutron multiplicity counting is a widely deployed technique for the quantification of plutonium. The purpose of this letter is to show that the skewness-variance-mean (SVM) approach developed in Dubi et al. (Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment (673) (2012) 111) is equivalent in terms of assay capability to the random trigger interval (RTI) analysis laid out in Croft et al. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment (691) (2012) 152. Mathematically we could also use other numerical ways to extract the time correlated information from the histogram data including, for example, what we might call the mean, mean square, and mean cube approach. The important feature however, from the perspective of real world applications, is that the correlated information extracted is the same, and subsequently gets interpreted in the same way based on the same underlying physics model.

  3. A Novel Approach for Nonstationary Time Series Analysis with Time-Invariant Correlation Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengrui Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We will concentrate on the modeling and analysis of a class of nonstationary time series, called correlation coefficient stationary series, which commonly exists in practical engineering. First, the concept and scope of correlation coefficient stationary series are discussed to get a better understanding. Second, a theorem is proposed to determine standard deviation function for correlation coefficient stationary series. Third, we propose a moving multiple-point average method to determine the function forms for mean and standard deviation, which can help to improve the analysis precision, especially in the context of limited sample size. Fourth, the conditional likelihood approach is utilized to estimate the model parameters. In addition, we discuss the correlation coefficient stationarity test method, which can contribute to the verification of modeling validity. Monte Carlo simulation study illustrates the authentication of the theorem and the validity of the established method. Empirical study shows that the approach can satisfactorily explain the nonstationary behavior of many practical data sets, including stock returns, maximum power load, China money supply, and foreign currency exchange rate. The effectiveness of these processes is addressed by forecasting performance.

  4. A wave field synthesis approach to reproduction of spatially correlated sound fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Alain; Dia, Rokhiya; Robin, Olivier

    2012-02-01

    This article discusses an open-loop wave field synthesis (WFS) approach for the reproduction of spatially correlated sound fields. The main application concerns laboratory reproduction of turbulent boundary layer wall pressure on aircraft fuselages and measurement of their sound transmission loss. The problem configuration involves reconstruction of random sound pressure distributions on a planar reproduction surface using a planar array of reproduction monopoles parallel to the reproduction plane. In this paper, the WFS formulation is extended to sound fields with imposed time and spatial correlation properties (or equivalently imposed cross-spectral density in the frequency and wave number domains). Numerical examples are presented for the reproduction of a propagating plane wave, diffuse acoustic field and wall pressure in subsonic or supersonic turbulent boundary layers. The reproduction accuracy is examined in terms of the size of the source plane and reproduction plane, their separation, and the number of reproduction sources required per acoustic wavelength. While the reproduction approach cannot reconstruct sub-wavelength correlation scales of subsonic turbulent boundary layers, it effectively reconstructs correlation scales larger than the acoustic wavelength, making it appropriate for diffuse acoustic field and supersonic turbulent layers.

  5. An integrated approach to fast and informative morphological vouchering of nematodes for applications in molecular barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ley, Paul; De Ley, Irma Tandingan; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe, Eyualem; Mundo-Ocampo, Manuel; Yoder, Melissa; Heras, Joseph; Waumann, Dora; Rocha-Olivares, Axayácatl; Jay Burr, A H; Baldwin, James G; Thomas, W Kelley

    2005-10-29

    Molecular surveys of meiofaunal diversity face some interesting methodological challenges when it comes to interstitial nematodes from soils and sediments. Morphology-based surveys are greatly limited in processing speed, while barcoding approaches for nematodes are hampered by difficulties of matching sequence data with traditional taxonomy. Intermediate technology is needed to bridge the gap between both approaches. An example of such technology is video capture and editing microscopy, which consists of the recording of taxonomically informative multifocal series of microscopy images as digital video clips. The integration of multifocal imaging with sequence analysis of the D2D3 region of large subunit (LSU) rDNA is illustrated here in the context of a combined morphological and barcode sequencing survey of marine nematodes from Baja California and California. The resulting video clips and sequence data are made available online in the database NemATOL (http://nematol.unh.edu/). Analyses of 37 barcoded nematodes suggest that these represent at least 32 species, none of which matches available D2D3 sequences in public databases. The recorded multifocal vouchers allowed us to identify most specimens to genus, and will be used to match specimens with subsequent species identifications and descriptions of preserved specimens. Like molecular barcodes, multifocal voucher archives are part of a wider effort at structuring and changing the process of biodiversity discovery. We argue that data-rich surveys and phylogenetic tools for analysis of barcode sequences are an essential component of the exploration of phyla with a high fraction of undiscovered species. Our methods are also directly applicable to other meiofauna such as for example gastrotrichs and tardigrades.

  6. Microfluidic approach for fast labeling optimization and dose-on-demand implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascali, Giancarlo, E-mail: pascali@ifc.cnr.i [Radiopharmacy Department, Institute of Clinical Physiology, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Mazzone, Grazia [Radiopharmacy Department, Institute of Clinical Physiology, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); IUSS, Piazza Ghislieri, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Saccomanni, Giuseppe; Manera, Clementina [Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Universita di Pisa, Via Bonanno 6, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Salvadori, Piero A. [Radiopharmacy Department, Institute of Clinical Physiology, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    Introduction: The diffusion of PET as a pivotal molecular imaging modality has emphasized the need for new positron-emitting radiotracers to be used in diagnostic applications and research. Microfluidic represents an innovative approach, owing to its potential to increase radiochemical productivity in terms of yields, time reduction, precursor consumption and flexible experimental planning. Methods: We focused on fluorine-18 labeling and used a microfluidic platform to perform sequential reactions, by using the same batch of {sup 18}F-labeling solution on one or more substrates, during the same experimental session. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) workup procedure was also implemented in the system to provide a repeatable purification step. Results: We were able to quickly optimize the conditions for labeling of ethyl and propyl ditosylate and of a new cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor agonist, CB41. In all substrates, we obtained good incorporation yields (60% to 85%) in short (<90 s) reaction times. Single dosages of the CB2 ligand were sequentially prepared, upon request, in satisfactory quantities and purity for small animal PET scanning. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the usefulness of a microfluidic-based system for a rapid optimization of temperature, flow rate of reactants and their relative ratio in the labeling of different precursors by using the same {sup 18}F-fluoride batch. This approach was used to obtain in sequence several injectable doses of a novel CB2 ligand, thus providing the proof of principle that microfluidic systems permit a dose-on-demand production of new radiotracers.

  7. An endophenotype approach to the genetics of alcohol dependence: a genome wide association study of fast beta EEG in families of African ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, J L; Zhang, J; Wang, J C; Su, J; Kuo, S I; Kapoor, M; Wetherill, L; Bertelsen, S; Lai, D; Salvatore, J E; Kamarajan, C; Chorlian, D; Agrawal, A; Almasy, L; Bauer, L; Bucholz, K K; Chan, G; Hesselbrock, V; Koganti, L; Kramer, J; Kuperman, S; Manz, N; Pandey, A; Seay, M; Scott, D; Taylor, R E; Dick, D M; Edenberg, H J; Goate, A; Foroud, T; Porjesz, B

    2017-01-10

    Fast beta (20-28 Hz) electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillatory activity may be a useful endophenotype for studying the genetics of disorders characterized by neural hyperexcitability, including substance use disorders (SUDs). However, the genetic underpinnings of fast beta EEG have not previously been studied in a population of African-American ancestry (AA). In a sample of 2382 AA individuals from 482 families drawn from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA), we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on resting-state fast beta EEG power. To further characterize our genetic findings, we examined the functional and clinical/behavioral significance of GWAS variants. Ten correlated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (r(2)>0.9) located in an intergenic region on chromosome 3q26 were associated with fast beta EEG power at PMolecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 10 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.239.

  8. Competing Anisotropy-Tunneling Correlation of the CoFeB/MgO Perpendicular Magnetic Tunnel Junction: An Electronic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Yao; Chang, Shu-Jui; Lee, Min-Han; Shen, Kuei-Hung; Yang, Shan-Yi; Lin, Horng-Ji; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh

    2015-11-24

    We intensively investigate the physical principles regulating the tunneling magneto-resistance (TMR) and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of the CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) by means of angle-resolved x-ray magnetic spectroscopy. The angle-resolved capability was easily achieved, and it provided greater sensitivity to symmetry-related d-band occupation compared to traditional x-ray spectroscopy. This added degree of freedom successfully solved the unclear mechanism of this MTJ system renowned for controllable PMA and excellent TMR. As a surprising discovery, these two physical characteristics interact in a competing manner because of opposite band-filling preference in space-correlated symmetry of the 3d-orbital. An overlooked but harmful superparamagnetic phase resulting from magnetic inhomogeneity was also observed. This important finding reveals that simultaneously achieving fast switching and a high tunneling efficiency at an ultimate level is improbable for this MTJ system owing to its fundamental limit in physics. We suggest that the development of independent TMR and PMA mechanisms is critical towards a complementary relationship between the two physical characteristics, as well as the realization of superior performance, of this perpendicular MTJ. Furthermore, this study provides an easy approach to evaluate the futurity of any emerging spintronic candidates by electronically examining the relationship between their magnetic anisotropy and transport.

  9. A viscoplastic approach to the behaviour of fluidized geomaterials with application to fast landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, M.; Martin Stickle, M.; Dutto, P.; Mira, P.; Fernández Merodo, J. A.; Blanc, T.; Sancho, S.; Benítez, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with modelling of landslide propagation. Its purpose is to present a methodology of analysis based on mathematical, constitutive and numerical modelling, which includes both well-established theories together with some improvements which are proposed herein. Concerning the mathematical model, it is based on Biot-Zienkiewicz equations, from where a depth-integrated model is developed. The main contribution here is to combine a depth-integrated description of the soil-pore fluid mixture together with a set of 1D models dealing with pore pressure evolution within the soil mass. In this way, pore pressure changes caused by vertical consolidation, changes of total stresses resulting from height variations and changes of basal surface permeability can be taken into account with more precision. Most of rheological models used in depth-integrated models are derived either heuristically (the case of Voellmy model, for instance), or from general 3D rheological models. Here, we will propose an alternative way, based on Perzyna's viscoplasticity. The approach followed for numerical modelling is the SPH method, which we have enriched adding a 1D finite difference grid to each SPH node, in order to improve the description of pore water profiles in the avalanching soil. This paper intends to be a homage to Professor Felix Darve, who has very much contributed to the field of modern geomechanics.

  10. Fast corrective responses are evoked by perturbations approaching the natural variability of posture and movement tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevecoeur, F; Kurtzer, I; Scott, S H

    2012-05-01

    A wealth of studies highlight the importance of rapid corrective responses during voluntary motor tasks. These studies used relatively large perturbations to evoke robust muscle activity. Thus it remains unknown whether these corrective responses (latency 20-100 ms) are evoked at perturbation levels approaching the inherent variability of voluntary control. To fill this gap, we examined responses for large to small perturbations applied while participants either performed postural or reaching tasks. To address multijoint corrective responses, we induced various amounts of single-joint elbow motion with scaled amounts of combined elbow and shoulder torques. Indeed, such perturbations are known to elicit a response at the unstretched shoulder muscle, which reflects an internal model of arm intersegmental dynamics. Significant muscle responses were observed during both postural control and reaching, even when perturbation-related joint angle, velocity, and acceleration overlapped in distribution with deviations encountered in unperturbed trials. The response onsets were consistent across the explored range of perturbation loads, with short-latency onset for the muscles spanning the elbow joints (20-40 ms), and long-latency for shoulder muscles (onset > 45 ms). In addition, the evoked activity was strongly modulated by perturbation magnitude. These results suggest that multijoint responses are not specifically engaged to counter motor errors that exceed a certain threshold. Instead, we suggest that these corrective processes operate continuously during voluntary motor control.

  11. Solving Large-Scale TSP Using a Fast Wedging Insertion Partitioning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuoyong Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new partitioning method, called Wedging Insertion, is proposed for solving large-scale symmetric Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP. The idea of our proposed algorithm is to cut a TSP tour into four segments by nodes’ coordinate (not by rectangle, such as Strip, FRP, and Karp. Each node is located in one of their segments, which excludes four particular nodes, and each segment does not twist with other segments. After the partitioning process, this algorithm utilizes traditional construction method, that is, the insertion method, for each segment to improve the quality of tour, and then connects the starting node and the ending node of each segment to obtain the complete tour. In order to test the performance of our proposed algorithm, we conduct the experiments on various TSPLIB instances. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm in this paper is more efficient for solving large-scale TSPs. Specifically, our approach is able to obviously reduce the time complexity for running the algorithm; meanwhile, it will lose only about 10% of the algorithm’s performance.

  12. A Fast Alignment-Free Approach for De Novo Detection of Protein Conserved Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnousi, Armen; Broschat, Shira L.; Kalyanaraman, Ananth

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying conserved regions in protein sequences is a fundamental operation, occurring in numerous sequence-driven analysis pipelines. It is used as a way to decode domain-rich regions within proteins, to compute protein clusters, to annotate sequence function, and to compute evolutionary relationships among protein sequences. A number of approaches exist for identifying and characterizing protein families based on their domains, and because domains represent conserved portions of a protein sequence, the primary computation involved in protein family characterization is identification of such conserved regions. However, identifying conserved regions from large collections (millions) of protein sequences presents significant challenges. Methods In this paper we present a new, alignment-free method for detecting conserved regions in protein sequences called NADDA (No-Alignment Domain Detection Algorithm). Our method exploits the abundance of exact matching short subsequences (k-mers) to quickly detect conserved regions, and the power of machine learning is used to improve the prediction accuracy of detection. We present a parallel implementation of NADDA using the MapReduce framework and show that our method is highly scalable. Results We have compared NADDA with Pfam and InterPro databases. For known domains annotated by Pfam, accuracy is 83%, sensitivity 96%, and specificity 44%. For sequences with new domains not present in the training set an average accuracy of 63% is achieved when compared to Pfam. A boost in results in comparison with InterPro demonstrates the ability of NADDA to capture conserved regions beyond those present in Pfam. We have also compared NADDA with ADDA and MKDOM2, assuming Pfam as ground-truth. On average NADDA shows comparable accuracy, more balanced sensitivity and specificity, and being alignment-free, is significantly faster. Excluding the one-time cost of training, runtimes on a single processor were 49s, 10,566s, and 456s

  13. Volcanic plumes fast detection: a methodological proposal for an integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeo, R. Alberto; Tositti, Laura; Brattich, Erika

    2017-04-01

    , running and control of the territory in which public safety is or may be at risk, and with reference to all those subjects that require a continuous cyclical process of observation, evaluation and interpretation. At the same time, a better knowledge of the chemical properties of volcanic emissions is a must for the future expansion foreseen in the next coming years in air transportation, for the health hazards that a volcanic ash cloud poses around the world and for a better understanding of the reduction already observed in GPS/GNSS satellite signals anytime a volcanic cloud covers the sky (thus obscuring the signal used by the navigation systems of modern aircraft), with associated safety risks. In this paper we propose a multitasking experimental approach based on the integrated use of remote sensing, aerosol sampling and chemical speciation together with the use of drones/tethered balloons equipped with aerosol sensors aimed at providing all the information which have been collected partially so far. The study will also collect information about the 3D distribution of all the aerosol properties described before with the aim of determining and helping the vertical resolution of data from remote sensing.

  14. Sensitivity enhanced (14)N/(14)N correlations to probe inter-beta-sheet interactions using fast magic angle spinning solid-state NMR in biological solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Asakura, Tetsuo; Nishiyama, Yusuke

    2016-08-10

    (14)N/(14)N correlations are vital for structural studies of solid samples, especially those in which (15)N isotopic enrichment is challenging, time-consuming and expensive. Although (14)N nuclei have high isotopic abundance (99.6%), there are inherent difficulties in observing (14)N/(14)N correlations due to limited resolution and sensitivity related to: (i) low (14)N gyromagnetic ratio (γ), (ii) large (14)N quadrupolar couplings, (iii) integer (14)N spin quantum number (I = 1), and (iv) very weak (14)N-(14)N dipolar couplings. Previously, we demonstrated a proton-detected 3D (14)N/(14)N/(1)H correlation experiment at fast magic angle spinning (MAS) on l-histidine·HCl·H2O utilizing a through-bond (J) and residual dipolar-splitting (RDS) based heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation (J-HMQC) sequence mediated through (1)H/(1)H radio-frequency driven recoupling (RFDR). As an extension of our previous work, in this study we show the utility of dipolar-based HMQC (D-HMQC) in combination with (1)H/(1)H RFDR mixing to obtain sensitivity enhanced (14)N/(14)N correlations in more complex biological solids such as a glycyl-l-alanine (Gly-l-Ala) dipeptide, and parallel (P) and antiparallel (AP) β-strand alanine tripeptides (P-(Ala)3 and AP-(Ala)3, respectively). These systems highlight the mandatory necessity of 3D (14)N/(14)N/(1)H measurements to get (14)N/(14)N correlations when the amide proton resonances are overlapped. Moreover, the application of long selective (14)N pulses, instead of short hard ones, is shown to improve the sensitivity. Globally, we demonstrate that replacing J-scalar with dipolar interaction and hard- with selective-(14)N pulses allows gaining a factor of ca. 360 in experimental time. On the basis of intermolecular NH/NH distances and (14)N quadrupolar tensor orientations, (14)N/(14)N correlations are effectively utilized to make a clear distinction between the parallel and antiparallel arrangements of the β-strands in (Ala)3 through the

  15. Design and implementation in VHDL code of the two-dimensional fast Fourier transform for frequency filtering, convolution and correlation operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilardy, Juan M; Giacometto, F; Torres, C O; Mattos, L, E-mail: vilardy.juan@unicesar.edu.co [Laboratorio de Optica e Informatica, Universidad Popular del Cesar, Sede balneario Hurtado, Valledupar, Cesar (Colombia)

    2011-01-01

    The two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT 2D) is an essential tool in the two-dimensional discrete signals analysis and processing, which allows developing a large number of applications. This article shows the description and synthesis in VHDL code of the FFT 2D with fixed point binary representation using the programming tool Simulink HDL Coder of Matlab; showing a quick and easy way to handle overflow, underflow and the creation registers, adders and multipliers of complex data in VHDL and as well as the generation of test bench for verification of the codes generated in the ModelSim tool. The main objective of development of the hardware architecture of the FFT 2D focuses on the subsequent completion of the following operations applied to images: frequency filtering, convolution and correlation. The description and synthesis of the hardware architecture uses the XC3S1200E family Spartan 3E FPGA from Xilinx Manufacturer.

  16. Identifying prognostic features by bottom-up approach and correlating to drug repositioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available Traditionally top-down method was used to identify prognostic features in cancer research. That is to say, differentially expressed genes usually in cancer versus normal were identified to see if they possess survival prediction power. The problem is that prognostic features identified from one set of patient samples can rarely be transferred to other datasets. We apply bottom-up approach in this study: survival correlated or clinical stage correlated genes were selected first and prioritized by their network topology additionally, then a small set of features can be used as a prognostic signature.Gene expression profiles of a cohort of 221 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients were used as a training set, 'bottom-up' approach was applied to discover gene-expression signatures associated with survival in both tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues, and compared with 'top-down' approach. The results were validated in a second cohort of 82 patients which was used as a testing set.Two sets of gene signatures separately identified in tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues by bottom-up approach were developed in the training cohort. These two signatures were associated with overall survival times of HCC patients and the robustness of each was validated in the testing set, and each predictive performance was better than gene expression signatures reported previously. Moreover, genes in these two prognosis signature gave some indications for drug-repositioning on HCC. Some approved drugs targeting these markers have the alternative indications on hepatocellular carcinoma.Using the bottom-up approach, we have developed two prognostic gene signatures with a limited number of genes that associated with overall survival times of patients with HCC. Furthermore, prognostic markers in these two signatures have the potential to be therapeutic targets.

  17. Visualizing microbial dechlorination processes in underground ecosystem by statistical correlation and network analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazawa, Akira; Date, Yasuhiro; Ito, Keijiro; Kikuchi, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Microbial ecosystems are typified by diverse microbial interactions and competition. Consequently, the microbial networks and metabolic dynamics of bioprocesses catalyzed by these ecosystems are highly complex, and their visualization is regarded as essential to bioengineering technology and innovation. Here we describe a means of visualizing the variants in a microbial community and their metabolic profiles. The approach enables previously unidentified bacterial functions in the ecosystems to be elucidated. We investigated the anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated ethene in a soil column experiment as a case study. Microbial community and dechlorination profiles in the ecosystem were evaluated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting and gas chromatography, respectively. Dechlorination profiles were obtained from changes in dechlorination by microbial community (evaluated by data mining methods). Individual microbes were then associated with their dechlorination profiles by heterogenous correlation analysis. Our correlation-based visualization approach enables deduction of the roles and functions of bacteria in the dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes. Because it estimates functions and relationships between unidentified microbes and metabolites in microbial ecosystems, this approach is proposed as a control-logic tool by which to understand complex microbial processes.

  18. Novel approach to improve molecular imaging research: Correlation between macroscopic and molecular pathological findings in patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Ingrid, E-mail: i.boehm@uni-bonn.de [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, ZARF Project, Center for Molecular Imaging Research MBMB, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Currently, clinical research approaches are sparse in molecular imaging studies. Moreover, possible links between imaging features and pathological laboratory parameters are unknown, so far. Therefore, the goal was to find a possible relationship between imaging features and peripheral blood cell apoptosis, and thereby to present a novel way to complement molecular imaging research. Materials and methods: The investigation has been done in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototype of an autoimmune disease characterized by multiorgan involvement, autoantibody production, and disturbed apoptosis. Retrospectively, radiological findings have been compared to both autoantibody findings and percentage apoptotic blood cells. Results: Two SLE groups could be identified: patients with normal (annexin V binding < 20%), and with increased apoptosis (annexin V binding > 20%) of peripheral blood cells. The frequency of radiological examinations in SLE patients significantly correlated with an increased percentage of apoptotic cells (p < 0.005). In patients with characteristic imaging findings (e.g. lymph node swelling, pleural effusion) an elevated percentage of apoptotic cells was present. In contrast SLE-patients with normal imaging findings or uncharacteristic results of minimal severity had normal percentages of apoptotic blood cells. Conclusion: This correlation between radiographic findings and percentage of apoptotic blood cells provides (1) further insight into pathological mechanisms of SLE, (2) will offer the possibility to introduce apoptotic biomarkers as molecular probes for clinical molecular imaging approaches in future to early diagnose organ complaints in patients with SLE, and (3) is a plea to complement molecular imaging research by this clinical approach.

  19. New approach to energy transfer and quantum correlations in a molecular dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, M.; Bagheri Harouni, M.; Roknizadeh, R.; Latifi, H.

    2016-09-01

    The dynamics of single-excitation energy transfer in a molecular dimer interacting with a phonon bath is studied. Although there are exact numerical solutions for this system, we propose an approach that provides exact analytical results with few electronic degrees of freedom. This approach is based on considering the phonon subsystem in the coherent state representation. Applying this approach, the long-lived coherence time is evaluated in the weak and strong coupling regimes. Moreover, by calculating the quantum entanglement and global quantum discord, the time evolution of quantum correlations is examined. The effects of two parameters, electronic coupling strength and bath temperature, on the energy transfer and quantum correlations are studied. It is shown, in agreement with previous results, that the long-lived coherence time in the weak coupling regime is longer than in the strong coupling regime. Also, the increasing bath temperature gives rise to faster delocalization of energy transfer. Furthermore, it is illustrated that the bath temperature has a significant effect on the quantum entanglement with respect to the global quantum discord.

  20. A Robust and Multi-Weighted Approach to Estimating Topographically Correlated Tropospheric Delays in Radar Interferograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangyan Zhu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variations in the vertical stratification of the troposphere introduce significant propagation delays in interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR observations. Observations of small amplitude surface deformations and regional subsidence rates are plagued by tropospheric delays, and strongly correlated with topographic height variations. Phase-based tropospheric correction techniques assuming a linear relationship between interferometric phase and topography have been exploited and developed, with mixed success. Producing robust estimates of tropospheric phase delay however plays a critical role in increasing the accuracy of InSAR measurements. Meanwhile, few phase-based correction methods account for the spatially variable tropospheric delay over lager study regions. Here, we present a robust and multi-weighted approach to estimate the correlation between phase and topography that is relatively insensitive to confounding processes such as regional subsidence over larger regions as well as under varying tropospheric conditions. An expanded form of robust least squares is introduced to estimate the spatially variable correlation between phase and topography by splitting the interferograms into multiple blocks. Within each block, correlation is robustly estimated from the band-filtered phase and topography. Phase-elevation ratios are multiply- weighted and extrapolated to each persistent scatter (PS pixel. We applied the proposed method to Envisat ASAR images over the Southern California area, USA, and found that our method mitigated the atmospheric noise better than the conventional phase-based method. The corrected ground surface deformation agreed better with those measured from GPS.

  1. Infinite-order diagrammatic summation approach to explicitly correlated congruent transformed Hamiltonian

    CERN Document Server

    Bayne, Mike; Chakraborty, Arindam

    2013-01-01

    A resolution of identity approach to explicitly correlated congruent transformed Hamiltonian (CTH) is presented. One of the principle challenges associated with the congruent transformation of the many-electron Hamiltonian is the generation of three, four, five, and six particle operators. Successful application of the congruent transformation requires efficient implementation of the many-particle operators. In this work, we present the resolution of identity congruent transformed Hamiltonian (RI-CTH) method to handle many-particle operators. The resolution of identity was used to project the explicitly correlated operator in a N-particle finite basis to avoid explicit computation of the many-particle operators. Single-particle states were obtained by performing Hartee-Fock calculations, which were then used for construction of many-particle states. The limitation of the finite nature of the resolution of identity was addressed by developing partial infinite order (PIOS) diagrammatic summation technique. In t...

  2. Correlation study among water quality parameters an approach to water quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, D K; Rastogi, G K; Kumar, R; Kumar, N

    2009-04-01

    To find out an approach to water quality management through correlation studies between various water quality parameters, the statistical regression analysis for six data points of underground drinking water of different hand pumps at J. P. Nagar was carried out. The comparison of estimated values with W.H.O drinking water standards revealed that water of the study area is polluted with reference to a number of physico-chemical parameters studied. Regression analysis suggests that conductivity of underground water is found to be significantly correlated with eight out of twelve water quality parameters studied. It may be suggested that the underground drinking water quality at J. P. Nagar can be checked very effectively by controlling the conductivity of water. The present study may be treated one step forward towards the water quality management.

  3. Analysis of Inter-Domain Traffic Correlations: Random Matrix Theory Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rojkova, Viktoria

    2007-01-01

    The traffic behavior of University of Louisville network with the interconnected backbone routers and the number of Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) subnets is investigated using the Random Matrix Theory (RMT) approach. We employ the system of equal interval time series of traffic counts at all router to router and router to subnet connections as a representation of the inter-VLAN traffic. The cross-correlation matrix C of the traffic rate changes between different traffic time series is calculated and tested against null-hypothesis of random interactions. The majority of the eigenvalues \\lambda_{i} of matrix C fall within the bounds predicted by the RMT for the eigenvalues of random correlation matrices. The distribution of eigenvalues and eigenvectors outside of the RMT bounds displays prominent and systematic deviations from the RMT predictions. Moreover, these deviations are stable in time. The method we use provides a unique possibility to accomplish three concurrent tasks of traffic analysis. The metho...

  4. A multivariate partial least squares approach to joint association analysis for multiple correlated traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many complex traits are highly correlated rather than independent. By taking the correlation structure of multiple traits into account, joint association analyses can achieve both higher statistical power and more accurate estimation. To develop a statistical approach to joint association analysis that includes allele detection and genetic effect estimation, we combined multivariate partial least squares regression with variable selection strategies and selected the optimal model using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC. We then performed extensive simulations under varying heritabilities and sample sizes to compare the performance achieved using our method with those obtained by single-trait multilocus methods. Joint association analysis has measurable advantages over single-trait methods, as it exhibits superior gene detection power, especially for pleiotropic genes. Sample size, heritability, polymorphic information content (PIC, and magnitude of gene effects influence the statistical power, accuracy and precision of effect estimation by the joint association analysis.

  5. A multivariate partial least squares approach to joint association analysis for multiple correlated traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xu; Wenming Hu; Zefeng Yang; Chenwu Xu

    2016-01-01

    Many complex traits are highly correlated rather than independent. By taking the correlation structure of multiple traits into account, joint association analyses can achieve both higher statistical power and more accurate estimation. To develop a statistical approach to joint association analysis that includes allele detection and genetic effect estimation, we combined multivariate partial least squares regression with variable selection strategies and selected the optimal model using the Bayesian Information Criterion(BIC). We then performed extensive simulations under varying heritabilities and sample sizes to compare the performance achieved using our method with those obtained by single-trait multilocus methods. Joint association analysis has measurable advantages over single-trait methods, as it exhibits superior gene detection power, especially for pleiotropic genes. Sample size, heritability,polymorphic information content(PIC), and magnitude of gene effects influence the statistical power, accuracy and precision of effect estimation by the joint association analysis.

  6. A multivariate partial least squares approach to joint association analysis for multiple correlated traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xu; Wenming Hu; Zefeng Yang; Chenwu Xu

    2016-01-01

    Many complex traits are highly correlated rather than independent. By taking the correlation structure of multiple traits into account, joint association analyses can achieve both higher statistical power and more accurate estimation. To develop a statistical approach to joint association analysis that includes allele detection and genetic effect estimation, we combined multivariate partial least squares regression with variable selection strategies and selected the optimal model using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). We then performed extensive simulations under varying heritabilities and sample sizes to compare the performance achieved using our method with those obtained by single-trait multilocus methods. Joint association analysis has measurable advantages over single-trait methods, as it exhibits superior gene detection power, especially for pleiotropic genes. Sample size, heritability, polymorphic information content (PIC), and magnitude of gene effects influence the statistical power, accuracy and precision of effect estimation by the joint association analysis.

  7. Predicting the Failure Behavior of Textile Composite Laminates by Using a Multi-Scale Correlating Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Chen, Xiuhua; Wang, Hai

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the elastic and failure behavior of textile composite laminates by using an analytical multi-scale correlating approach. The analyses are performed under the four scale levels, i.e. the laminate scale, representative unit cell (RUC) scale, tow architecture scale and fiber/matrix scale levels. The correlation between different scales is derived based on the continuum mechanics and homogenization method from which the stress and strain fields in multiple scales can be obtained concurrently. Effective modulus and ultimate failure strengths of different textile composite (plain weave, twill weave and satin weave) laminates are predicted solely from the corresponding constituent properties, braid geometrical parameters and lay-up. The damage and failure mechanisms at the constituent level are also determined by the micromechanical failure criteria. All the predicted results compare favorably with available experimental data. Parametric studies are also performed to examine the effect of various mechanical and geometrical parameters on the resulting mechanical properties.

  8. An explicitly correlated approach to basis set incompleteness in Full Configuration Interaction Quantum Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, George H; Alavi, Ali; Tew, David P

    2012-01-01

    By performing a stochastic dynamic in a space of Slater determinants, the Full Configuration Interaction Quantum Monte Carlo (FCIQMC) method has been able to obtain energies which are essentially free from systematic error to the basis set correlation energy, within small and systematically improvable errorbars. However, the weakly exponential scaling with basis size makes converging the energy with respect to basis set costly and in larger systems, impossible. To ameliorate these basis set issues, here we use perturbation theory to couple the FCIQMC wave function to an explicitly correlated strongly orthogonal basis of geminals, following the [2]_{\\textrm{R12}} approach of Valeev {\\em et al.}. The required one- and two-particle density matrices are computed on-the-fly during the FCIQMC dynamic, using a sampling procedure which incurs relatively little additional computation expense. The F12 energy corrections are shown to converge rapidly as a function of sampling, both in imaginary time, and number of walke...

  9. A generating functional approach to the sd-model with strong correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.A.Izyumov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A Kadanoff-Baym-type generating functional approach, earlier developed by the authors to strongly correlated systems, is applied to the sd-model with strong sd-coupling. Formalism of the Hubbard X-operators was used, and equation for electron Green's function was derived with functional derivatives over external fluctuating fields. Iterations in this equation generate a perturbation theory near the atomic limit. Hartree-Fock type approximation is developed within the framework of this theory, and the problem of a metal-insulator phase transition in sd-model is discussed.

  10. An information theory approach to minimise correlated systematic uncertainty in modelling resonance parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna Kumar, P.T. [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-Okayama, Meguro-Ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)], E-mail: gstptk@yahoo.co.in; Sekimoto, Hiroshi [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-Okayama, Meguro-Ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)], E-mail: hsekimot@nr.titech.ac.jp

    2009-02-15

    Covariance matrix elements depict the statistical and systematic uncertainties in reactor parameter measurements. All the efforts have so far been devoted only to minimise the statistical uncertainty by repeated measurements but the dominant systematic uncertainty has either been neglected or randomized. In recent years efforts has been devoted to simulate the resonance parameter uncertainty information through covariance matrices in code SAMMY. But, the code does not have any provision to check the reliability of the simulated covariance data. We propose a new approach called entropy based information theory to reduce the systematic uncertainty in the correlation matrix element so that resonance parameters with minimum systematic uncertainty can be modelled. We apply our information theory approach in generating the resonance parameters of {sup 156}Gd with reduced systematic uncertainty and demonstrate the superiority of our technique over the principal component analysis method.

  11. Methodological study of computational approaches to address the problem of strong correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juho

    The main focus of this thesis is the detailed investigation of computational methods to tackle strongly correlated materials in which a rich variety of exotic phenomena are found. A many-body problem with sizable electronic correlations can no longer be explained by independent-particle approximations such as density functional theory (DFT) or tight-binding approaches. The influence of an electron to the others is too strong for each electron to be treated as an independent quasiparticle and consequently those standard band-structure methods fail even at a qualitative level. One of the most powerful approaches for strong correlations is the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), which has enlightened the understanding of the Mott transition based on the Hubbard model. For realistic applications, the dynamical mean-field theory is combined with various independent-particles approaches. The most widely used one is the DMFT combined with the DFT in the local density approximation (LDA), so-called LDA+DMFT. In this approach, the electrons in the weakly correlated orbitals are calculated by LDA while others in the strongly correlated orbitals are treated by DMFT. Recently, the method combining DMFT with Hedin's GW approximation was also developed, in which the momentum-dependent self-energy is also added. In this thesis, we discuss the application of those methodologies based on DMFT. First, we apply the dynamical mean-field theory to solve the 3-dimensional Hubbard model in Chap. 3. In this application, we model the interface between the thermodynamically coexisting metal and Mott insulator. We show how to model the required slab geometry and extract the electronic spectra. We construct an effective Landau free energy and compute the variation of its parameters across the phase diagram. Finally, using a linear mixture of the density and double-occupancy, we identify a natural Ising order parameter which unifies the treatment of the bandwidth and filling controlled Mott

  12. Combining a Complex Network Approach and a SEIR Compartmental Model to link Fast Spreading of Infectious Diseases with Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, F.; Hoffmann, P.; Marwan, N.

    2016-12-01

    Infectious diseases are a major threat to human health. The spreading of airborne diseases has become fast and hard to predict. Global air travelling created a network which allows a pathogen to migrate worldwide in only a few days. Pandemics of SARS (2002/03) and H1N1 (2009) have impressively shown the epidemiological danger in a strongly connected world. In this study we simulate the outbreak of an airborne infectious disease that is directly transmitted from human to human. We use a regular Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model and a modified Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered (SEIR) compartmental approach with the basis of a complex network built by global air traffic data (from openflights.org). Local Disease propagation is modeled with a global population dataset (from SEDAC and MaxMind) and parameterizations of human behavior regarding mobility, contacts and awareness. As a final component we combine the worldwide outbreak simulation with daily averaged climate data from WATCH-Forcing-Data-ERA-Interim (WFDEI) and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Here we focus on Influenza-like illnesses (ILI), whose transmission rate has a dependency on relative humidity and temperature. Even small changes in relative humidity are sufficient to trigger significant differences in the global outbreak behavior. Apart from the direct effect of climate change on the transmission of airborne diseases, there are indirect ramifications that alter spreading patterns. For example seasonal changing human mobility is influenced by climate settings.

  13. A genome-wide approach accounting for body mass index identifies genetic variants influencing fasting glycemic traits and insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Alisa K.; Hivert, Marie-France; Scott, Robert A.; Grimsby, Jonna L.; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Chen, Han; Rybin, Denis; Liu, Ching-Ti; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Prokopenko, Inga; Amin, Najaf; Barnes, Daniel; Cadby, Gemma; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ingelsson, Erik; Jackson, Anne U.; Johnson, Toby; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ladenvall, Claes; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lahti, Jari; Lecoeur, Cecile; Liu, Yongmei; Martinez-Larrad, Maria Teresa; Montasser, May E.; Navarro, Pau; Perry, John R. B.; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Salo, Perttu; Sattar, Naveed; Shungin, Dmitry; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Tanaka, Toshiko; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; An, Ping; de Andrade, Mariza; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Aspelund, Thor; Atalay, Mustafa; Aulchenko, Yurii; Balkau, Beverley; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Beilby, John P.; Bellis, Claire; Bergman, Richard N.; Blangero, John; Boban, Mladen; Boehnke, Michael; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bouchard, Claude; Brunner, Eric; Budimir, Danijela; Campbell, Harry; Carlson, Olga; Chines, Peter S.; Clarke, Robert; Collins, Francis S.; Corbatón-Anchuelo, Arturo; Couper, David; de Faire, Ulf; Dedoussis, George V; Deloukas, Panos; Dimitriou, Maria; Egan, Josephine M; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Erdos, Michael R.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Eury, Elodie; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G.; Fox, Caroline S; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Franks, Paul W; Frayling, Timothy M; Froguel, Philippe; Galan, Pilar; de Geus, Eco; Gigante, Bruna; Glazer, Nicole L.; Goel, Anuj; Groop, Leif; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hallmans, Göran; Hamsten, Anders; Hansson, Ola; Harris, Tamara B.; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Simon; Hercberg, Serge; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hofman, Albert; Hui, Jennie; Hung, Joseph; Jarvelin, Marjo Riitta; Jhun, Min A.; Johnson, Paul C.D.; Jukema, J Wouter; Jula, Antti; Kao, W.H.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kolcic, Ivana; Kovacs, Peter; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo; Lannfelt, Lars; Lathrop, G Mark; Launer, Lenore J.; Leander, Karin; Li, Guo; Lind, Lars; Lindstrom, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Luan, Jian’an; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Mägi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Marmot, Michael; Meneton, Pierre; Mohlke, Karen L.; Mooser, Vincent; Morken, Mario A.; Miljkovic, Iva; Narisu, Narisu; O’Connell, Jeff; Ong, Ken K.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Palotie, Aarno; Pankow, James S.; Peden, John F.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Pehlic, Marina; Peltonen, Leena; Penninx, Brenda; Pericic, Marijana; Perola, Markus; Perusse, Louis; Peyser, Patricia A; Polasek, Ozren; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Province, Michael A.; Räikkönen, Katri; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rehnberg, Emil; Rice, Ken; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Saaristo, Timo; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Salomaa, Veikko; Savage, David B.; Saxena, Richa; Schwarz, Peter; Seedorf, Udo; Sennblad, Bengt; Serrano-Rios, Manuel; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sijbrands, Eric J.G.; Siscovick, David S.; Smit, Johannes H.; Small, Kerrin S.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Stančáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stumvoll, Michael; Sun, Yan V.; Swift, Amy J.; Tönjes, Anke; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Trompet, Stella; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Uusitupa, Matti; Vikström, Max; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Voight, Benjamin F.; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Waterworth, Dawn M; Watkins, Hugh; Wheeler, Eleanor; Widen, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H.; Willems, Sara M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Wright, Alan F.; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Zelenika, Diana; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; Wareham, Nicholas J.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Barroso, Ines; Watanabe, Richard M.; Florez, Jose C.; Dupuis, Josée; Meigs, James B.; Langenberg, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have described many loci implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathophysiology and beta-cell dysfunction, but contributed little to our understanding of the genetic basis of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that genes implicated in insulin resistance pathways may be uncovered by accounting for differences in body mass index (BMI) and potential interaction between BMI and genetic variants. We applied a novel joint meta-analytical approach to test associations with fasting insulin (FI) and glucose (FG) on a genome-wide scale. We present six previously unknown FI loci at Pdiscovery and follow-up analyses of 52 studies comprising up to 96,496non-diabetic individuals. Risk variants were associated with higher triglyceride and lower HDL cholesterol levels, suggestive of a role for these FI loci in insulin resistance pathways. The localization of these additional loci will aid further characterization of the role of insulin resistance in T2D pathophysiology. PMID:22581228

  14. Comparison of Two Approaches for Nuclear Data Uncertainty Propagation in MCNPX for Selected Fast Spectrum Critical Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, T.; Rochman, D.; Vasiliev, A.; Ferroukhi, H.; Wieselquist, W.; Pautz, A.

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear data uncertainty propagation based on stochastic sampling (SS) is becoming more attractive while leveraging modern computer power. Two variants of the SS approach are compared in this paper. The Total Monte Carlo (TMC) method by the Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG) generates perturbed ENDF-6-formatted nuclear data by varying nuclear reaction model parameters. At Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) the Nuclear data Uncertainty Stochastic Sampling (NUSS) system generates perturbed ACE-formatted nuclear data files by applying multigroup nuclear data covariances onto pointwise ACE-formatted nuclear data. Uncertainties of 239Pu and 235U from ENDF/B-VII.1, ZZ-SCALE6/COVA-44G and TENDL covariance libraries are considered in NUSS and propagated in MCNPX calculations for well-studied Jezebel and Godiva fast spectrum critical benchmarks. The corresponding uncertainty results obtained by TMC are compared with NUSS results and the deterministic Sensitivity/Uncertainty method of TSUNAMI-3D from SCALE6 package is also applied to serve as a separate verification. The discrepancies in the propagated 239Pu and 235U uncertainties due to method and covariance differences are discussed.

  15. Three-dimensional pre-stack depth migration of receiver functions with the fast marching method: a Kirchhoff approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheng; Bodin, Thomas; Allen, Richard M.

    2016-05-01

    We present a novel 3-D pre-stack Kirchhoff depth migration (PKDM) method for teleseismic receiver functions. The proposed algorithm considers the effects of diffraction, scattering and traveltime alteration caused by 3-D volumetric heterogeneities. It is therefore particularly useful for imaging complex 3-D structures such as dipping discontinuities, which is hard to accomplish with traditional methods. The scheme is based on the acoustic wave migration principle, where at each time step of the receiver function, the energy is migrated back to the ensemble of potential conversion points in the image, given a smooth 3-D reference model. Traveltimes for P and S waves are computed with an efficient eikonal solver, the fast marching method. We also consider elastic scattering patterns, where the amplitude of converted S waves depends on the angle between the incident P wave and the scattered S wave. Synthetic experiments demonstrate the validity of the method for a variety of dipping angle discontinuities. Comparison with the widely used common conversion point (CCP) stacking method reveals that our migration shows considerable improvement. For example, the effect of multiple reflections that usually produce apparent discontinuities is avoided. The proposed approach is practical, computationally efficient, and is therefore a potentially powerful alternative to standard CCP methods for imaging large-scale continental structure under dense networks.

  16. Correlated helium, neon, and melt production on the super-fast spreading East Pacific Rise near 17°S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Mark D.; Moreira, Manuel; Curtice, Joshua; Lott, Dempsey E.; Mahoney, John J.; Sinton, John M.

    2005-03-01

    We report new helium and neon isotopic compositions in dredged basalt glasses from the superfast spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) between 13° and 23°S. The 3He/ 4He ratios vary from 8.0 to 11.0 times the atmospheric value (Ra) [ 4He/ 3He between 65,700 and 90,300], with the least radiogenic values in samples from near 16.75°S. Atmospheric contamination corrections on neon isotopes are made using step heating and extrapolated 21Ne/ 22Ne ratios (to a solar 20Ne/ 22Ne value of 13.8). The lowest corrected 21Ne/ 22Ne ratios are found near 16.75°S, and are consistent with the helium isotopes in suggesting a less degassed mantle source. The EPR at 17°S is unusual in displaying such isotopic anomalies in the absence of any known hotspot. The minima in 4He/ 3He and 21Ne/ 22Ne correspond to extremes in Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios, but the length scale of the helium and neon anomalies are shorter along-axis than the peaks for the other isotopic ratios. The minimum in 4He/ 3He is observed from 16° to 18°S (a distance of ˜220 km), whereas the elevated Sr and Pb values, and lower 143Nd/ 144Nd, are observed between 16° and 20.7°S (a distance of ˜500 km); neon isotope anomalies are observed on an intermediate length scale along-axis. Unradiogenic helium and neon values correlate with low mantle Bouguer anomalies, and maxima in the axial cross-sectional area, all of which are attributed to higher melt production near 17°S. A conceptual model that fits the observations includes melting of an entrained heterogeneity beneath the EPR at 17 °S. The relationship between helium and neon isotopes and along-axis geophysical characteristics (and by inference melt distribution) is probably related to the extreme incompatibility of helium and neon. High concentrations of 3He and 21Ne (extrap) are found in the glasses near 17°S, which is consistent with higher noble gas concentrations in the anomalous mantle.

  17. A Fast linking approach for CMYK to CMYK conversion preserving black separation in ICC color management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao

    2003-12-01

    building high quality maps does not fit to the smart CMM workflow. A new approach is described in this paper to solve these problems. Instead of using a BtoAn tag from the destination profile for color transformation, a new tag is created to map colors in PCS (L*a*b* or XYZ) with different K values to different CMY values. A set of 3-D LUTs for different K values are created for the conversion from PCS to CMY, and 1-D LUTs are created for the conversion from luminance to K and to guide a CMM to perform the interpolation from KPCS (K plus PCS) to CMYK. The gamut mapping is performed in the step to create the profile, thus avoiding realtime gamut mapping in a CMM. With this approach, the black channel is preserved; the "Profile - PCS - Profile" approach is still valid; and the gamut mapping is not performed during linking in a CMM. Therefore, gamut mapping can be manually adjusted for high quality color mapping, the linking is almost as easy and fast as the standard linking, and the black channel is preserved.

  18. A hydrodynamic approach to the centrality dependence of di-hadron correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Castilho, Wagner M; Gardim, Fernando G; Hama, Yogiro; Kodama, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of di-hadron azimuthal correlations at different centralities for Au+Au collisions at 200 A$\\,$GeV were reported by the PHENIX Collaboration. The data were presented for different ranges of transverse momentum. In particular, it was observed that the away-side correlation evolves from double- to single-peak structure when the centrality decreases. In this work, we show, in terms of the peripheral tube model, that the observed features naturally appear due to an interplay between the flow due to the peripheral tube and the background elliptic flow. A key feature in our approach lies in the event-by-event fluctuating initial conditions, which is represented by the randomly distributed peripheral tubes in our model. To compare with the PHENIX data, we carry out numerical simulations by using the hydrodynamical code NeXSPheRIO, and calculate the correlations by both cumulant and the ZYAM method employed by PHENIX Collaboration. It is shown that our results are in reasonable agreement with the data. A...

  19. CORRELATION INVESTIGATION BETWEEN CONTACT APPROACH SPEED OF HANDHELD METAL ROD AND DISCHARGE PARAMETERS FROM CHARGED HUMAN BODY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruan Fangming; Fujiwara Osamu; Gao Yougang

    2008-01-01

    Characteristic measurement of contact discharge currents are made through a hand-held metal rod from charged human body. Correlation coefficients are obtained, through Statistic Package for Social Science (SPSS), for various charge voltages, which is based on the effect test of electrode contact approach speeds on discharge current parameters of current peaks, maximum rising slope and spark lengths. Discharge parameters at charge voltage 300V are independent on approach speed. For charge voltages equal to and higher than 500V, the contact approach speed has strong positive correlation with discharge parameters of the peak current and the maximum rising slope, whereas has strong negative correlation with the spark length.

  20. A new approach to post-seismic decay with temporal correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, A.; Bos, M. S.; Fernandes, R.; Bogusz, J.

    2016-12-01

    An accurate estimation of the linear velocity at Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations is highly desirable. This station velocity is used in geodynamic analyses and for the realization of reference frames. To obtain the best results, it should be estimated simultaneously with all disturbances that are present in time series. In this research we use the HECTOR software package to study on post-seismic deformation and model it in a form of logarithmic and exponential functions. This approach avoids the need that the time of post-seismic relaxation has to be removed prior to analysis of the GNSS data. We describe a standard linear trajectory model starting with Constant Velocity Model (CVM), continuing with CVM with jumps and oscillation and ending with Extended Trajectory Model (ETM). In this new method the parameters of post-seismic deformation are being estimated simultaneously with the data model (velocity, seasonal signals and noise) using a Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) approach that takes the temporal correlations of the noise into account. This produces the most probable values for the vertical and horizontal velocities and associated parameters such as offsets, amplitude of the exponential/logarithmic decay and seasonal signal as well realistic uncertainties. In this research, we show the advantages of novel approach we propose on GNSS position time series affected by Tohoku undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan, with a magnitude of Mw 9.0 which took place on 11 March 2011.

  1. Hematological indices and their correlation with fasting blood glucose level and anthropometric measurements in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biadgo B

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Belete Biadgo,1 Mulugeta Melku,2 Solomon Mekonnen Abebe,3 Molla Abebe1 1School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, Department of Clinical Chemistry, 2School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, Department of Hematology and Immunohematology, 3Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: Diabetes mellitus is (DM a global public health problem and a complex disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia that leads to long-term macrovascular and microvascular complications. Recent studies have reported the role of hematological indices in contributing to the vascular injury in diabetic patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine hematological indices and their correlation with fasting blood glucose level and anthropometric measurement in type 2 DM patients in comparison with healthy controls. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at the chronic illness clinic of Gondar University Hospital from February to April 2015. A total of 296 participants (148 cases and 148 healthy controls were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. Fasting blood glucose levels and hematological indices were determined by using Bio Systems A25 and Sysmex-KX 21N analyzers, respectively. Independent sample t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and correlation statistics were used. A P-value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result: There was significant difference in red blood cell distribution width (47.3±2.6 fL vs 45.2±3 fL between diabetic patients and controls. Total white blood cells in 103/µL (6.59±1.42 vs 5.56±1.38, absolute lymphocyte count in 103/µL (2.60±0.70 vs 2.04±0.63, and absolute neutrophil count in 103/µL (3.57±1.46 vs 3.11±1.04 increased significantly in diabetic patients compared with controls, respectively. Among platelet indices, mean platelet volume

  2. On Statistical Approaches for Demonstrating Analytical Similarity in the Presence of Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Harry; Novick, Steven; Burdick, Richard K

    Analytical similarity is the foundation for demonstration of biosimilarity between a proposed product and a reference product. For this assessment, currently the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends a tiered system in which quality attributes are categorized into three tiers commensurate with their risk and approaches of varying statistical rigor are subsequently used for the three-tier quality attributes. Key to the analyses of Tiers 1 and 2 quality attributes is the establishment of equivalence acceptance criterion and quality range. For particular licensure applications, the FDA has provided advice on statistical methods for demonstration of analytical similarity. For example, for Tier 1 assessment, an equivalence test can be used based on an equivalence margin of 1.5 σR, where σR is the reference product variability estimated by the sample standard deviation SR from a sample of reference lots. The quality range for demonstrating Tier 2 analytical similarity is of the form X̄R ± K × σR where the constant K is appropriately justified. To demonstrate Tier 2 analytical similarity, a large percentage (e.g., 90%) of test product must fall in the quality range. In this paper, through both theoretical derivations and simulations, we show that when the reference drug product lots are correlated, the sample standard deviation SR underestimates the true reference product variability σR As a result, substituting SR for σR in the Tier 1 equivalence acceptance criterion and the Tier 2 quality range inappropriately reduces the statistical power and the ability to declare analytical similarity. Also explored is the impact of correlation among drug product lots on Type I error rate and power. Three methods based on generalized pivotal quantities are introduced, and their performance is compared against a two-one-sided tests (TOST) approach. Finally, strategies to mitigate risk of correlation among the reference products lots are discussed. A biosimilar is

  3. A fast and cost-effective approach to develop and map EST-SSR markers: oak as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherubini Marcello

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs are a source of simple sequence repeats (SSRs that can be used to develop molecular markers for genetic studies. The availability of ESTs for Quercus robur and Quercus petraea provided a unique opportunity to develop microsatellite markers to accelerate research aimed at studying adaptation of these long-lived species to their environment. As a first step toward the construction of a SSR-based linkage map of oak for quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping, we describe the mining and survey of EST-SSRs as well as a fast and cost-effective approach (bin mapping to assign these markers to an approximate map position. We also compared the level of polymorphism between genomic and EST-derived SSRs and address the transferability of EST-SSRs in Castanea sativa (chestnut. Results A catalogue of 103,000 Sanger ESTs was assembled into 28,024 unigenes from which 18.6% presented one or more SSR motifs. More than 42% of these SSRs corresponded to trinucleotides. Primer pairs were designed for 748 putative unigenes. Overall 37.7% (283 were found to amplify a single polymorphic locus in a reference full-sib pedigree of Quercus robur. The usefulness of these loci for establishing a genetic map was assessed using a bin mapping approach. Bin maps were constructed for the male and female parental tree for which framework linkage maps based on AFLP markers were available. The bin set consisting of 14 highly informative offspring selected based on the number and position of crossover sites. The female and male maps comprised 44 and 37 bins, with an average bin length of 16.5 cM and 20.99 cM, respectively. A total of 256 EST-SSRs were assigned to bins and their map position was further validated by linkage mapping. EST-SSRs were found to be less polymorphic than genomic SSRs, but their transferability rate to chestnut, a phylogenetically related species to oak, was higher. Conclusion We have generated a bin map for oak

  4. Scattering approach to fidelity decay in closed systems and parametric level correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, T; López Vázquez, P C

    2013-07-01

    Based on an exact analytical approach to describe scattering fidelity experiments [Köber et al., Phys. Rev. E 82, 036207 (2010)], we obtain an expression for the fidelity amplitude decay of quantum chaotic or diffusive systems under arbitrary Hermitian perturbations. This allows us to rederive previous separately obtained results in a simpler and unified manner, as is shown explicitly for the case of a global perturbation. The general expression is also used to derive a so far unpublished exact analytical formula for the case of a moving S-wave scatterer. In the second part of the paper, we extend a relation between fidelity decay and parametric level correlations from the universal case of global perturbations to an arbitrary combination of global and local perturbations. Thereby, the relation becomes a versatile tool for the analysis of unknown perturbations.

  5. Towards a cross-correlation approach to strong-field dynamics in Black Hole spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Jaramillo, J L; Moesta, P; Rezzolla, L

    2012-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative understanding of near-horizon gravitational dynamics in the strong-field regime represents a challenge both at a fundamental level and in astrophysical applications. Recent advances in numerical relativity and in the geometric characterization of black hole horizons open new conceptual and technical avenues into the problem. We discuss here a research methodology in which spacetime dynamics is probed through the cross-correlation of geometric quantities constructed on the black hole horizon and on null infinity. These two hypersurfaces respond to evolving gravitational fields in the bulk, providing canonical "test screens" in a "scattering"-like perspective onto spacetime dynamics. More specifically, we adopt a 3+1 Initial Value Problem approach to the construction of generic spacetimes and discuss the role and properties of dynamical trapping horizons as canonical inner "screens" in this context. We apply these ideas and techniques to the study of the recoil dynamics in post-...

  6. Realization of User Level Fault Tolerant Policy Management through a Holistic Approach for Fault Correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung H [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL; Agarwal, Pratul K [ORNL; Bernholdt, David E [ORNL; Geist, Al [ORNL; Tippens, Jennifer L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Many modern scientific applications, which are designed to utilize high performance parallel com- puters, occupy hundreds of thousands of computational cores running for days or even weeks. Since many scien- tists compete for resources, most supercomputing centers practice strict scheduling policies and perform meticulous accounting on their usage. Thus computing resources and time assigned to a user is considered invaluable. However, most applications are not well prepared for un- foreseeable faults, still relying on primitive fault tolerance techniques. Considering that ever-plunging mean time to interrupt (MTTI) is making scientific applications more vulnerable to faults, it is increasingly important to provide users not only an improved fault tolerant environment, but also a framework to support their own fault tolerance policies so that their allocation times can be best utilized. This paper addresses a user level fault tolerance policy management based on a holistic approach to digest and correlate fault related information. It introduces simple semantics with which users express their policies on faults, and illustrates how event correlation techniques can be applied to manage and determine the most preferable user policies. The paper also discusses an implementation of the framework using open source software, and demonstrates, as an example, how a molecular dynamics simulation application running on the institutional cluster at Oak Ridge National Laboratory benefits from it.

  7. A generalized exchange-correlation functional: the Neural-Networks approach

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, X; Wang, X J; Chen, G H; Zheng, Xiao; Hu, LiHong; Wang, XiuJun; Chen, GuanHua

    2003-01-01

    A Neural-Networks-based approach is proposed to construct a new type of exchange-correlation functional for density functional theory. It is applied to improve B3LYP functional by taking into account of high-order contributions to the exchange-correlation functional. The improved B3LYP functional is based on a neural network whose structure and synaptic weights are determined from 116 known experimental atomization energies, ionization potentials, proton affinities or total atomic energies which were used by Becke in his pioneer work on the hybrid functionals [J. Chem. Phys. ${\\bf 98}$, 5648 (1993)]. It leads to better agreement between the first-principles calculation results and these 116 experimental data. The new B3LYP functional is further tested by applying it to calculate the ionization potentials of 24 molecules of the G2 test set. The 6-311+G(3{\\it df},2{\\it p}) basis set is employed in the calculation, and the resulting root-mean-square error is reduced to 2.2 kcal$\\cdot$mol$^{-1}$ in comparison to ...

  8. Differences in surrogate threshold effect estimates between original and simplified correlation-based validation approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürmann, Christoph; Sieben, Wiebke

    2016-03-30

    Surrogate endpoint validation has been well established by the meta-analytical correlation-based approach as outlined in the seminal work of Buyse et al. (Biostatistics, 2000). Surrogacy can be assumed if strong associations on individual and study levels can be demonstrated. Alternatively, if an effect on a true endpoint is to be predicted from a surrogate endpoint in a new study, the surrogate threshold effect (STE, Burzykowski and Buyse, Pharmaceutical Statistics, 2006) can be used. In practice, as individual patient data (IPD) are hard to obtain, some authors use only aggregate data and perform simplified regression analyses. We are interested in to what extent such simplified analyses are biased compared with the ones from a full model with IPD. To this end, we conduct a simulation study with IPD and compute STEs from full and simplified analyses for varying data situations in terms of number of studies, correlations, variances and so on. In the scenarios considered, we show that, for normally distributed patient data, STEs derived from ordinary (weighted) linear regression generally underestimate STEs derived from the original model, whereas meta-regression often results in overestimation. Therefore, if individual data cannot be obtained, STEs from meta-regression may be used as conservative alternatives, but ordinary (weighted) linear regression should not be used for surrogate endpoint validation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Modeling and mapping potential distribution of Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) using correlative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Kürşad; Şentürk, Özdemir; Mert, Ahmet; Negiz, Mehmet Güvenç

    2015-01-01

    Modeling and mapping potential distribution of living organisms has become an important component of conservation planning and ecosystem management in recent years. Various correlative and mechanistic methods can be applied to build predictive distributions of living organisms in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Correlative methods used to predict species' potential distribution have been described as either group discrimination techniques or profile techniques. We attempted to determine whether group discrimination techniques could perform as well as profile techniques for predicting species potential distributions, using elevation (ELVN), parent material (ROCK), slope (SLOP), radiation index (RI) and topographic position index (TPI)) as explanatory variables. We compared potential distribution predictions made for Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) in the Yukan Gokdere forest district of the Mediterranean region, Turkey, applying four group discrimination techniques (discriminate analysis (DA), logistic regression analysis (LR), generalized addictive model (GAM) and classification tree technique (CT)) and two profile techniques (a maximum entropy approach to species distribution modeling (MAXENT), the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction (GARP)). Visual assessments of the potential distribution probability of the applied models for Crimean juniper were performed by using geographical information systems (GIS). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to objectively assess model performance. The results suggested that group discrimination techniques are better than profile techniques and, among the group discrimination techniques, GAM indicated the best performance.

  10. 基于FAST法的可控滑沙板概念设计%Conceptual design of steerable sand slideboard based on FAST approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋云

    2013-01-01

    After the description to the Function Analysis System Technique (FAST),how to find the creative points during the product design by applying the FAST approach is discussed.Combining the FAST approach with bionic design,the study on modeling and formal meanings of the sand slidboard is performed,then the modeling design scheme is conducted.The study proves that the FAST not only integrates the product functions but also facilitates the creative design by taking its sulbfunctions as design elements.%对产品设计中FAST法——功能分析系统技术法进行了阐述,对该方法在产品设计过程中如何寻找创新要点进行了探讨;应用FAST法,结合仿生设计等理念,对滑沙板的造型、形态语义进行了研究,给出了造型设计方案,证明运用FAST法不仅可对产品功能进行整合,也可通过其列表将其子功能作为设计要素进行设计创新

  11. 基于时域相关性的HEVC快速帧内预测算法%Fast Intra Prediction Algorithm for HEVC Based on Temporal Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元; 何小海; 钟国韵; 卿粼波

    2013-01-01

    A fast intra prediction mode decision algorithm for HEVC based on temporal correlation is proposed,according to the feature of strong temporal correlation in video sequences in this paper.The optimal inter matching block in the conference frame is obtained through the motion searching in the inter prediction.The optimal intra prediction mode in the conference frame,which is obtained when intra prediction is searched,is looked as the optimal intra prediction mode of current block to reduce the number of intra prediction mode and cut down the computational complexity.Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves a 33.79% time saving in average in intra prediction running time without obviously PSNR degradation and Bitrate increment,compared with the HEVC conference software HM7.0.%根据视频序列时域相关性强的特性,提出了一种基于时域的HEVC快速帧内预测算法.在帧间预测中,通过在参考帧中运动搜索找到当前预测单元(PU)的帧间最佳匹配块,当搜索当前PU的帧内预测模式时,把帧间最匹配参考块遍历帧内模式时的最佳帧内模式,当作当前PU进行帧内预测时的最佳帧内模式,以达到减少帧内预测模式数量,降低计算复杂度的目的.实验结果表明,在码率和图像质量基本不变的情况下,提出的算法将HEVC帧内预测时间平均减少了33.79%.

  12. A simplified BBGKY hierarchy for correlated fermionic systems from a Stochastic Mean-Field approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lacroix, Denis; Ayik, Sakir; Yilmaz, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    The stochastic mean-field (SMF) approach allows to treat correlations beyond mean-field using a set of independent mean-field trajectories with appropriate choice of fluctuating initial conditions. We show here, that this approach is equivalent to a simplified version of the Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy between one-, two-, ..., N-body degrees of freedom. In this simplified version, one-body degrees of freedom are coupled to fluctuations to all orders while retaining only specific terms of the general BBGKY hierarchy. The use of the simplified BBGKY is illustrated with the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model. We show that a truncated version of this hierarchy can be useful, as an alternative to the SMF, especially in the weak coupling regime to get physical insight in the effect beyond mean-field. In particular, it leads to approximate analytical expressions for the quantum fluctuations both in the weak and strong coupling regime. In the strong coupling regime, it can only be used for sho...

  13. A 1-step Bayesian predictive approach for evaluating in vitro in vivo correlation (IVIVC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, A Lawrence; Agrawal, Nancy G B; Goel, Thanh V; Fitzpatrick, Shaun

    2009-10-01

    IVIVC (in vitro in vivo correlation) methods may support approving a change in formulation of a drug using only in vitro dissolution data without additional bioequivalence trials in human subjects. Most current IVIVC methods express the in vivo plasma concentration of a drug formulation as a function of the cumulative in vivo absorption. The absorption is not directly observable, so is estimated by the cumulative dissolution of the drug formulation in in vitro dissolution trials. The calculations conventionally entail the complex and potentially unstable mathematical operations of convolution and deconvolution, or approximations aimed at omitting their need. This paper describes, and illustrates with data on a controlled-release formulation, a Bayesian approach to evaluating IVIVC that does not require convolution, deconvolution or approximation. This approach incorporates between- and within-subject (or replicate) variability without assuming asymptotic normality. The plasma concentration curve is expressed in terms of the in vitro dissolution percentage instead of time, recognizing that this correspondence may be noisy because of the various sources of error. All conventional functions of the concentration curve such as AUC, C(max) and T(max) can be expressed in terms of dissolution percentage, with uncertainties arising from variability in measuring absorption and dissolution accounted for explicitly.

  14. A simplified BBGKY hierarchy for correlated fermions from a stochastic mean-field approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, Denis; Tanimura, Yusuke [Universite Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Orsay (France); Ayik, Sakir [Tennessee Technological University, Physics Department, Cookeville, TN (United States); Yilmaz, Bulent [Ankara University, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara (Turkey)

    2016-04-15

    The stochastic mean-field (SMF) approach allows to treat correlations beyond mean-field using a set of independent mean-field trajectories with appropriate choice of fluctuating initial conditions. We show here that this approach is equivalent to a simplified version of the Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy between one-, two-,.., N -body degrees of freedom. In this simplified version, one-body degrees of freedom are coupled to fluctuations to all orders while retaining only specific terms of the general BBGKY hierarchy. The use of the simplified BBGKY is illustrated with the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model. We show that a truncated version of this hierarchy can be useful, as an alternative to the SMF, especially in the weak coupling regime to get physical insight in the effect beyond mean-field. In particular, it leads to approximate analytical expressions for the quantum fluctuations both in the weak and strong coupling regime. In the strong coupling regime, it can only be used for short time evolution. In that case, it gives information on the evolution time-scale close to a saddle point associated to a quantum phase-transition. For long time evolution and strong coupling, we observed that the simplified BBGKY hierarchy cannot be truncated and only the full SMF with initial sampling leads to reasonable results. (orig.)

  15. Retrieving the Green’s function in an open system by cross correlation: A comparison of approaches (L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Fokkema, J.; Snieder, R.

    2005-01-01

    We compare two approaches for deriving the fact that the Green’s function in an arbitrary inhomogeneous open system can be obtained by cross correlating recordings of the wave field at two positions. One approach is based on physical arguments, exploiting the principle of time-reversal invariance of

  16. Supply chain design approaches for supply chain resilience: A qualitative study of South African fast-moving consumer goods grocery manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Assilah Agigi; Wesley Niemann; Theuns Kotzé

    2016-01-01

    Orientation: In today’s globalised and complex business environment, firms are ever more vulnerable to supply chain disruptions, originating both internally and externally from the supply chain. Supply chain resilience minimises the impact of a disruption through design approaches, which allows the supply chain to respond appropriately to disruptive events.Research purpose: This article investigated the supply chain risks faced by grocery manufacturers in the South African fast-moving consume...

  17. Perioperative role development: evaluating a fast-track approach to advanced scrub and/or dual role practitioner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpany, Michaela D; McAleavy, Janet

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the service evaluation of a newly developed fast-track advanced scrub practitioner (ASP)/dual role training programme. The evaluation examines whether the introduction of new policies and training based on risk assessment have strengthened quality assurance measures and controls which aim to ensure that staff work safely within their scope of practice. A further aim is to establish if the fast-track route is adequately meeting the training and development needs of staff within the organisation and supporting service requirements.

  18. The density matrix functional approach to electron correlation: Dynamic and nondynamic correlation along the full dissociation coordinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentel, Ł. M.; Meer, R. van; Gritsenko, O. V. [Section Theoretical Chemistry, VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Baerends, E. J. [Section Theoretical Chemistry, VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-06-07

    For chemistry an accurate description of bond weakening and breaking is vital. The great advantage of density matrix functionals, as opposed to density functionals, is their ability to describe such processes since they naturally cover both nondynamical and dynamical correlation. This is obvious in the Löwdin-Shull functional, the exact natural orbital functional for two-electron systems. We present in this paper extensions of this functional for the breaking of a single electron pair bond in N-electron molecules, using LiH, BeH{sup +}, and Li{sub 2} molecules as prototypes. Attention is given to the proper formulation of the functional in terms of not just J and K integrals but also the two-electron L integrals (K integrals with a different distribution of the complex conjugation of the orbitals), which is crucial for the calculation of response functions. Accurate energy curves are obtained with extended Löwdin-Shull functionals along the complete dissociation coordinate using full CI calculations as benchmark.

  19. Relationship between organisational commitment and burnout syndrome: a canonical correlation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enginyurt, Ozgur; Cankaya, Soner; Aksay, Kadir; Tunc, Taner; Koc, Bozkurt; Bas, Orhan; Ozer, Erdal

    2016-04-01

    Objective Burnout syndrome can significantly reduce the performance of health workers. Although many factors have been identified as antecedents of burnout, few studies have investigated the role of organisational commitment in its development. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between subdimensions of burnout syndrome (emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment) and subdimensions of organisational commitment (affective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment). Methods The present study was a cross-sectional survey of physicians and other healthcare employees working in the Ministry of Health Ordu University Education and Research Hospital. The sample consisted of 486 healthcare workers. Data were collected using the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Organisation Commitment Scale, and were analysed using the canonical correlation approach. Results The first of three canonical correlation coefficients between pairs of canonical variables (Ui , burnout syndrome and Vi, organisational commitment) was found to be statistically significant. Emotional exhaustion was found to contribute most towards the explanatory capacity of canonical variables estimated from the subdimensions of burnout syndrome, whereas affective commitment provided the largest contribution towards the explanatory capacity of canonical variables estimated from the subdimensions of organisational commitment. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that affective commitment is the primary determinant of burnout syndrome in healthcare professionals. What is known about the topic? Organisational commitment and burnout syndrome are the most important criteria in predicting health workforce performance. An increasing number of studies in recent years have clearly indicated the field's continued relevance and importance. Conversely, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a technique for describing the relationship

  20. Fluctuations and correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions within transport approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konchakovski, Volodymyr P.

    2009-10-01

    The current thesis is devoted to a systematic study of fluctuations and correlations in heavy-ion collisions, which might be considered as probes for the phase transition and the critical point in the phase diagram, within the Hadron-String- Dynamics (HSD) microscopic transport approach. This is a powerful tool to study nucleus-nucleus collisions and allows to completely simulate experimental collisions on an event-by-event basis. Thus, the transport model has been used to study fluctuations and correlations including the influence of experimental acceptance as well as centrality, system size and collision energy. The comparison to experimental data can separate the effects induced by a phase transition since there is no phase transition in the HSD version used here. Firstly the centrality dependence of multiplicity fluctuations has been studied. Different centrality selections have been performed in the analysis in correspondence to the experimental situation. For the fixed target experiment NA49 events with fixed numbers of the projectile participants have been studied while in the collider experiment PHENIX centrality classes of events have been defined by the multiplicity in certain phase space region. A decrease of participant number fluctuations (and thus volume fluctuations) in more central collisions for both experiments has been obtained. Another area of this work addresses to transport model calculations of multiplicity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions as a function of colliding energy and system size. This study is in full correspondence to the experimental program of the NA61 Collaboration at the SPS. Central C+C, S+S, In+In, and Pb+Pb nuclear collisions at Elab = 10, 20, 30, 40, 80, 158 AGeV have been investigated. The expected enhanced fluctuations - attributed to the critical point and phase transition - can be observed experimentally on top of a monotonic and smooth 'hadronic background'. These findings should be helpful for the

  1. Optical properties of correlated materials: Generalized Peierls approach and its application to VO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Jan M.; Biermann, Silke

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a versatile scheme for the computation of optical properties of solids, with particular emphasis on realistic many-body calculations for correlated materials. Geared at the use with localized basis sets, we extend the commonly known lattice “Peierls substitution” approach to the case of multiatomic unit cells. We show in how far this generalization can be deployed as an approximation to the full Fermi-velocity matrix elements that enter the continuum description of the response of a solid to incident light. We further devise an upfolding scheme to incorporate optical transitions that involve high-energy orbitals that had been downfolded in the underlying many-body calculation of the electronic structure. As an application of the scheme, we present results on a material of longstanding interest, vanadium dioxide, VO2 . Using dynamical mean-field data of both, the metallic and the insulating phase, we calculate the corresponding optical conductivities, elucidate optical transitions and find good agreement with experimental results.

  2. Environment degradation, economic growth and energy consumption nexus: A wavelet-windowed cross correlation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammazi, Rania; Aloui, Chaker

    2015-10-01

    This paper analyzes the interactive linkages between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, energy consumption (EC) and economic growth (EG) using a novel approach namely wavelet windowed cross correlation (WWCC) for six oil-exporting countries from the GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) region over the period 1980-2012. Our empirical results show that there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between EC and EG. However, the results support the occurrence of unidirectional causality from EC to CO2 emissions without any feedback effects, and there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between EG and CO2 emissions for the region as a whole. The study suggests that environmental and energy policies should recognize the differences in the nexus between EC and EG in order to maintain sustainable EG in the GCC region. Our findings will be useful for GCC countries to better evaluate its situation in the future climate negotiations. The overall findings will help GCC countries assess its position better in future climate change negotiations.

  3. Semiclassical approach to mesoscopic systems. Classical trajectory correlations and wave interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltner, Daniel [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik

    2012-07-01

    This volume describes mesoscopic systems with classically chaotic dynamics using semiclassical methods which combine elements of classical dynamics and quantum interference effects. Experiments and numerical studies show that Random Matrix Theory (RMT) explains physical properties of these systems well. This was conjectured more than 25 years ago by Bohigas, Giannoni and Schmit for the spectral properties. Since then, it has been a challenge to understand this connection analytically. The author offers his readers a clearly-written and up-to-date treatment of the topics covered. He extends previous semiclassical approaches that treated spectral and conductance properties. He shows that RMT results can in general only be obtained semiclassically when taking into account classical configurations not considered previously, for example those containing multiply traversed periodic orbits. Furthermore, semiclassics is capable of describing effects beyond RMT. In this context he studies the effect of a non-zero Ehrenfest time, which is the minimal time needed for an initially spatially localized wave packet to show interference. He derives its signature on several quantities characterizing mesoscopic systems, e. g. dc and ac conductance, dc conductance variance, n-pair correlation functions of scattering matrices and the gap in the density of states of Andreev billiards. (orig.)

  4. A theoretical and experimental approach for correlating nanoparticle structure and electrocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel M; Yancey, David F; Zhang, Liang; Chill, Samuel T; Henkelman, Graeme; Crooks, Richard M

    2015-05-19

    The objective of the research described in this Account is the development of high-throughput computational-based screening methods for discovery of catalyst candidates and subsequent experimental validation using appropriate catalytic nanoparticles. Dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs), which are well-defined 1-2 nm diameter metal nanoparticles, fulfill the role of model electrocatalysts. Effective comparison of theory and experiment requires that the theoretical and experimental models map onto one another perfectly. We use novel synthetic methods, advanced characterization techniques, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations to approach this ideal. For example, well-defined core@shell DENs can be synthesized by electrochemical underpotential deposition (UPD), and the observed deposition potentials can be compared to those calculated by DFT. Theory is also used to learn more about structure than can be determined by analytical characterization alone. For example, density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) was used to show that the core@shell configuration of Au@Pt DENs undergoes a surface reconstruction that dramatically affects its electrocatalytic properties. A separate Pd@Pt DENs study also revealed reorganization, in this case a core-shell inversion to a Pt@Pd structure. Understanding these types of structural changes is critical to building correlations between structure and catalytic function. Indeed, the second principal focus of the work described here is correlating structure and catalytic function through the combined use of theory and experiment. For example, the Au@Pt DENs system described earlier is used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as well as for the electro-oxidation of formic acid. The surface reorganization predicted by theory enhances our understanding of the catalytic measurements. In the case of formic acid oxidation, the deformed nanoparticle structure leads to reduced CO binding energy and therefore

  5. Cellular Approach to Long-Range $p_t$ and Multiplicity Correlations in the String Fusion Model

    CERN Document Server

    Vechernin, V V

    2003-01-01

    The long-range $p_t$ and multiplicity($n$) correlations in high-energy nuclear collisions are studied in the framework of a simple cellular analog of the string fusion model. Two cases with local and global string fusion is considered. The $p_t$--$n$ and $n$--$n$ correlation functions and correlation coefficients are calculated analytically in some asymptotic cases using suggested Gauss approximation. It's shown that at large string density the $p_t$--$n$ and $n$--$n$ correlation coefficients are connected and the scaling takes place. The behavior of the correlations at small string density is also studied. The asymptotic results are compared with results of the numerical calculations in the framework of proposed cellular approach.

  6. Applying System Dynamics Approach to the Fast Fashion Supply Chain: Case Study of an SME in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mariany W Lidia; Takeshi Arai; Aya Ishigaki; Gatot Yudoko

    2012-01-01

    The fashion industry is the biggest contributor among the 14 creative industries in Indonesia. Nowadays many apparel companies are shifting toward the vertical integration. Since speed is everything to be successful in the apparel industry, fast fashion retailers must quickly respond to the market demand. This papers aims to develop a model of the supply chain of a small and medium scale enterprise (SME) of an apparel company in Indonesia and to propose a decision support system using System ...

  7. Fast Legendre moment computation for template matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing C.

    2017-05-01

    Normalized cross correlation (NCC) based template matching is insensitive to intensity changes and it has many applications in image processing, object detection, video tracking and pattern recognition. However, normalized cross correlation implementation is computationally expensive since it involves both correlation computation and normalization implementation. In this paper, we propose Legendre moment approach for fast normalized cross correlation implementation and show that the computational cost of this proposed approach is independent of template mask sizes which is significantly faster than traditional mask size dependent approaches, especially for large mask templates. Legendre polynomials have been widely used in solving Laplace equation in electrodynamics in spherical coordinate systems, and solving Schrodinger equation in quantum mechanics. In this paper, we extend Legendre polynomials from physics to computer vision and pattern recognition fields, and demonstrate that Legendre polynomials can help to reduce the computational cost of NCC based template matching significantly.

  8. Applying System Dynamics Approach to the Fast Fashion Supply Chain: Case Study of an SME in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariany W Lidia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The fashion industry is the biggest contributor among the 14 creative industries in Indonesia. Nowadays many apparel companies are shifting toward the vertical integration. Since speed is everything to be successful in the apparel industry, fast fashion retailers must quickly respond to the market demand. This papers aims to develop a model of the supply chain of a small and medium scale enterprise (SME of an apparel company in Indonesia and to propose a decision support system using System Dynamics (SD and helps the management to identify the best business strategy. Simulated scenarios can help the management to identify the most appropriate policy to be applied in the future. Case study method was used in this research where data were collected from a typical fast fashion firm in Indonesia that produces its own wares ranging from raw materials to be ready-to-wear clothes, has three stores, a warehouse and is running online sales system. We analyses the result of many simulations in a fashion company from an operational point of view and from them we derive suggestions about the future business strategy in a small and medium fashion company in Indonesia. Keywords: system dynamics, fast fashion, supply chain management, SME, Indonesia

  9. Pilot study on a fast postoperative programming approach to subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : T0 o evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of a fast post-operative screening method using deep brain stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN in patients with Parkinson′s disease. Materials and Methods : T0 wenty-four patients implanted with electrodes for STN-DBS were divided into two groups : G0 roup I received traditional programming and Group II was treated with the fast method. The time required for programming in each group and the treatment effects were analyzed. Results : S0 ignificant postoperative improvement of the Unified Parkinson′s Disease Rating Scale III was achieved in the "off medication" and "on stimulation" condition in both the groups (Group I: 51.2% vs. Group II: 54.0%, P<0.05. The average time needed for programming, however, was significantly shorter in Group II as compared to Group I (P<0.05. Conclusions : T0 he new fast method can significantly reduce the time required to find a preliminary effective STN-DBS protocol in the early postoperative phase without sacrificing clinical efficacy.

  10. A computational approach to measuring the correlation between expertise and social media influence for celebrities on microblogs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Wayne Xin; Liu, Jing; He, Yulan; Lin, Chin Yew; Wen, Ji-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Social media influence analysis, sometimes also called authority detection, aims to rank users based on their influence scores in social media. Existing approaches of social influence analysis usually focus on how to develop effective algorithms to quantize users’ influence scores. They rarely consider a person’s expertise levels which are arguably important to influence measures. In this paper, we propose a computational approach to measuring the correlation between expertise and social medi...

  11. Systems biology approach reveals genome to phenome correlation in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Priyanka; Vig, Saurabh; Datta, Malabika; Jindel, Dinesh; Mathur, Ashok Kumar; Mathur, Sandeep Kumar; Sharma, Abhay

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have discovered association of several loci with Type 2 diabetes (T2D), a common complex disease characterized by impaired insulin secretion by pancreatic β cells and insulin signaling in target tissues. However, effect of genetic risk variants on continuous glycemic measures in nondiabetic subjects mainly elucidates perturbation of insulin secretion. Also, the disease associated genes do not clearly converge on functional categories consistent with the known aspects of T2D pathophysiology. We used a systems biology approach to unravel genome to phenome correlation in T2D. We first examined enrichment of pathways in genes identified in T2D GWASs at genome-wide or lower levels of significance. Genes at lower significance threshold showed enrichment of insulin secretion related pathway. Notably, physical and genetic interaction network of these genes showed robust enrichment of insulin signaling and other T2D pathophysiology related pathways including insulin secretion. The network also overrepresented genes reported to interact with insulin secretion and insulin action targeting antidiabetic drugs. The drug interacting genes themselves showed overrepresentation of insulin signaling and other T2D relevant pathways. Next, we generated genome-wide expression profiles of multiple insulin responsive tissues from nondiabetic and diabetic patients. Remarkably, the differentially expressed genes showed significant overlap with the network genes, with the intersection showing enrichment of insulin signaling and other pathways consistent with T2D pathophysiology. Literature search led our genomic, interactomic, transcriptomic and toxicogenomic evidence to converge on TGF-beta signaling, a pathway known to play a crucial role in pancreatic islets development and function, and insulin signaling. Cumulatively, we find that GWAS genes relate directly to insulin secretion and indirectly, through collaborating with other genes, to insulin

  12. Systems biology approach reveals genome to phenome correlation in type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Jain

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWASs have discovered association of several loci with Type 2 diabetes (T2D, a common complex disease characterized by impaired insulin secretion by pancreatic β cells and insulin signaling in target tissues. However, effect of genetic risk variants on continuous glycemic measures in nondiabetic subjects mainly elucidates perturbation of insulin secretion. Also, the disease associated genes do not clearly converge on functional categories consistent with the known aspects of T2D pathophysiology. We used a systems biology approach to unravel genome to phenome correlation in T2D. We first examined enrichment of pathways in genes identified in T2D GWASs at genome-wide or lower levels of significance. Genes at lower significance threshold showed enrichment of insulin secretion related pathway. Notably, physical and genetic interaction network of these genes showed robust enrichment of insulin signaling and other T2D pathophysiology related pathways including insulin secretion. The network also overrepresented genes reported to interact with insulin secretion and insulin action targeting antidiabetic drugs. The drug interacting genes themselves showed overrepresentation of insulin signaling and other T2D relevant pathways. Next, we generated genome-wide expression profiles of multiple insulin responsive tissues from nondiabetic and diabetic patients. Remarkably, the differentially expressed genes showed significant overlap with the network genes, with the intersection showing enrichment of insulin signaling and other pathways consistent with T2D pathophysiology. Literature search led our genomic, interactomic, transcriptomic and toxicogenomic evidence to converge on TGF-beta signaling, a pathway known to play a crucial role in pancreatic islets development and function, and insulin signaling. Cumulatively, we find that GWAS genes relate directly to insulin secretion and indirectly, through collaborating with other

  13. Correlation functions of the spin chains. Algebraic Bethe Ansatz approach; Fonctions de correlation des chaines de spin. Approche de l'ansatz de Bethe algebrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitanine, N

    2007-09-15

    Spin chains are the basic elements of integrable quantum models. These models have direct applications in condense matter theory, in statistical physics, in quantum optics, in field theory and even in string theory but they are also important because they enable us to solve, in an exact manner, non-perturbative phenomena that otherwise would stay unresolved. The method described in this work is based on the algebraic Bethe Ansatz. It is shown how this method can be used for the computation of null temperature correlation functions of the Heisenberg 1/2 spin chain. The important point of this approach is the solution of the inverse quantum problem given by the XXZ spin chain. This solution as well as a simple formulae for the scalar product of the Bethe states, have enabled us to get the most basic correlation functions under the form of multiple integrals. The formalism of multiple integrals open the way for asymptotic analysis for a few physical quantities like the probability of vacuum formation. It is worth noticing that this formalism can give exact results for two-point functions that are the most important correlation functions for applications. A relationship has been discovered between these multiple integrals and the sum of the form factors. The results have been extended to dynamical correlation functions. (A.C.)

  14. Thermal form factor approach to the ground-state correlation functions of the XXZ chain in the antiferromagnetic massive regime

    CERN Document Server

    Dugave, Maxime; Kozlowski, Karol K; Suzuki, Junji

    2016-01-01

    We use the form factors of the quantum transfer matrix in the zero-temperature limit in order to study the two-point ground-state correlation functions of the XXZ chain in the antiferromagnetic massive regime. We obtain novel form factor series representations of the correlation functions which differ from those derived either from the q-vertex-operator approach or from the algebraic Bethe Ansatz approach to the usual transfer matrix. We advocate that our novel representations are numerically more efficient and allow for a straightforward calculation of the large-distance asymptotic behaviour of the two-point functions. Keeping control over the temperature corrections to the two-point functions we see that these are of order $T^\\infty$ in the whole antiferromagnetic massive regime. The isotropic limit of our result yields a novel form factor series representation for the two-point correlation functions of the XXX chain at zero magnetic field.

  15. Do foreign exchange and equity markets co-move in Latin American region? Detrended cross-correlation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Usman; Yu, Yugang; Hussain, Muntazir; Zebende, Gilney F.

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of the relationship between foreign exchange markets and stock markets through time varying co-movements. In this sense, we analyzed the time series monthly of Latin American countries for the period from 1991 to 2015. Furthermore, we apply Granger causality to verify the direction of causality between foreign exchange and stock market and detrended cross-correlation approach (ρDCCA) for any co-movements at different time scales. Our empirical results suggest a positive cross correlation between exchange rate and stock price for all Latin American countries. The findings reveal two clear patterns of correlation. First, Brazil and Argentina have positive correlation in both short and long time frames. Second, the remaining countries are negatively correlated in shorter time scale, gradually moving to positive. This paper contributes to the field in three ways. First, we verified the co-movements of exchange rate and stock prices that were rarely discussed in previous empirical studies. Second, ρDCCA coefficient is a robust and powerful methodology to measure the cross correlation when dealing with non stationarity of time series. Third, most of the studies employed one or two time scales using co-integration and vector autoregressive approaches. Not much is known about the co-movements at varying time scales between foreign exchange and stock markets. ρDCCA coefficient facilitates the understanding of its explanatory depth.

  16. Correlation Attenuation Due to Measurement Error: A New Approach Using the Bootstrap Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Veprinsky, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Issues with correlation attenuation due to measurement error are well documented. More than a century ago, Spearman proposed a correction for attenuation. However, this correction has seen very little use since it can potentially inflate the true correlation beyond one. In addition, very little confidence interval (CI) research has been done for…

  17. Fast atmospheric correction algorithm based on the darkest pixel approach for retrieving the aerosol optical thickness: comparison with in-situ AOT measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Alexakis, Dimitrios

    2011-11-01

    Darkest pixel atmospheric correction is the simplest and fully image-based correction method. This paper presents an overview of a proposed 'fast atmospheric correction algorithm' developed at MATLAB based on the RT equation basics and the darkest pixel approach. The task is to retrieve the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the application of this atmospheric correction. The effectiveness of this algorithm is performed by comparing the AOT values from the algorithm with those measured in-situ both from MICROTOPS II hand-held sunphotometer and the CIMEL sunphotometer (AERONET).

  18. What Is Required to End the AIDS Epidemic as a Public Health Threat by 2030? The Cost and Impact of the Fast-Track Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stover

    Full Text Available In 2011 a new Investment Framework was proposed that described how the scale-up of key HIV interventions could dramatically reduce new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths in low and middle income countries by 2015. This framework included ambitious coverage goals for prevention and treatment services for 2015, resulting in a reduction of new HIV infections by more than half, in line with the goals of the declaration of the UN High Level Meeting in June 2011. However, the approach suggested a leveling in the number of new infections at about 1 million annually-far from the UNAIDS goal of ending AIDS by 2030. In response, UNAIDS has developed the Fast-Track approach that is intended to provide a roadmap to the actions required to achieve this goal. The Fast-Track approach is predicated on a rapid scale-up of focused, effective prevention and treatment services over the next 5 years and then maintaining a high level of programme implementation until 2030. Fast-Track aims to reduce new infections and AIDS-related deaths by 90% from 2010 to 2030 and proposes a set of biomedical, behavioral and enabling intervention targets for 2020 and 2030 to achieve that goal, including the rapid scale-up initiative for antiretroviral treatment known as 90-90-90. Compared to a counterfactual scenario of constant coverage for all services at early-2015 levels, the Fast-Track approach would avert 18 million HIV infections and 11 million deaths from 2016 to 2030 globally. This paper describes the analysis that produced these targets and the estimated resources needed to achieve them in low- and middle-income countries. It indicates that it is possible to achieve these goals with a significant push to achieve rapid scale-up of key interventions between now and 2020. The annual resources required from all sources would rise to US$7.4Bn in low-income countries, US$8.2Bn in lower middle-income countries and US$10.5Bn in upper-middle-income-countries by 2020 before

  19. Urban Latino school children's physical activity correlates and daily physical activity participation: a social cognitive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan

    2012-01-01

    Guided by Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1986), this study investigated the relationships between urban Latino children's physical activity (PA) correlates and their daily PA levels. The participants were 120 Latino children recruited from an urban elementary school. They completed questionnaires assessing their PA correlates (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, social support, and physical and social environmental factor) and their one-week PA levels were measured by accelerometers. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the relationships between children's PA correlates and daily PA levels. Correlation analyses indicated that children's self-efficacy, social support, and physical and social environmental factor were positively related to their PA levels. Regression analyses further yielded that children's self-efficacy and social support emerged as significant contributors of their daily PA levels. However, outcome expectancy and physical and social environmental factor failed to predict PA levels. The findings were discussed in regard to the implications for practice and areas for future research.

  20. Correlations between multiplicities and average transverse momentum in the percolating colour strings approach

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, M A; Pajares, C; Vechernin, V V

    2004-01-01

    Long range correlations multiplicity-multiplicity, $p_T^2$-multiplicity and $p^2 - p^2_T$ are studied in the percolating colour string picture under different assumptions of the dynamics of string interaction. It is found that the strength of these correlations is rather insensitive to these assumptions nor to the geometry of formed fused string clusters. Both multiplicity-multiplicity and $p_T^2$-multiplicity correlations are found to scale and depend only on the string density. The $p_T^2$-multiplicity correlations, which are absent in the independent string picture, are found to be of the order of 10% for central heavy ion collisions and can serve as a clear signature of string fusion. In contrast the $p^2_T - p^2_T$ correlations turned out to be inversely proportional to the number of strings and so very small for relaistic collisions.

  1. One- and two-particle correlation functions in the dynamical quantum cluster approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochkeppel, Stephan

    2008-07-25

    This thesis is dedicated to a theoretical study of the 1-band Hubbard model in the strong coupling limit. The investigation is based on the Dynamical Cluster Approximation (DCA) which systematically restores non-local corrections to the Dynamical Mean Field approximation (DMFA). The DCA is formulated in momentum space and is characterised by a patching of the Brillouin zone where momentum conservation is only recovered between two patches. The approximation works well if k-space correlation functions show a weak momentum dependence. In order to study the temperature and doping dependence of the spin- and charge excitation spectra, we explicitly extend the Dynamical Cluster Approximation to two-particle response functions. The full irreducible two-particle vertex with three momenta and frequencies is approximated by an effective vertex dependent on the momentum and frequency of the spin and/or charge excitations. The effective vertex is calculated by using the Quantum Monte Carlo method on the finite cluster whereas the analytical continuation of dynamical quantities is performed by a stochastic version of the maximum entropy method. A comparison with high temperature auxiliary field quantum Monte Carlo data serves as a benchmark for our approach to two-particle correlation functions. Our method can reproduce basic characteristics of the spin- and charge excitation spectrum. Near and beyond optimal doping, our results provide a consistent overall picture of the interplay between charge, spin and single-particle excitations: a collective spin mode emerges at optimal doping and sufficiently low temperatures in the spin response spectrum and exhibits the energy scale of the magnetic exchange interaction J. Simultaneously, the low energy single-particle excitations are characterised by a coherent quasiparticle with bandwidth J. The origin of the quasiparticle can be quite well understood in a picture of a more or less antiferromagnetic ordered background in which holes

  2. Fast in situ phase and stress analysis during laser surface treatment: a synchrotron x-ray diffraction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, V; Gibmeier, J; Wilde, F; Staron, P; Rössler, R; Wanner, A

    2012-11-01

    An in situ stress analysis by means of synchrotron x-ray diffraction was carried out during laser surface hardening of steel. A single exposure set-up that based on a special arrangement of two fast silicon strip line detectors was established, allowing for fast stress analysis according to the sin(2)ψ x-ray analysis method. For the in situ experiments a process chamber was designed and manufactured, which is described in detail. First measurements were carried out at the HZG undulator imaging beamline (IBL, beamline P05) at the synchrotron storage ring PETRA III, DESY, Hamburg (Germany). The laser processing was carried out using a 6 kW high power diode laser system. Two different laser optics were compared, a Gaussian optic with a focus spot of ø 3 mm and a homogenizing optic with a rectangular spot dimension of 8 × 8 mm(2). The laser processing was carried out using spot hardening at a heating-/cooling rate of 1000 K/s and was controlled via pyrometric temperature measurement using a control temperature of 1150 °C. The set-up being established during the measuring campaign allowed for this first realization data collection rates of 10Hz. The data evaluation procedure applied enables the separation of thermal from elastic strains and gains unprecedented insight into the laser hardening process.

  3. Correlation Function Approach for Estimating Thermal Conductivity in Highly Porous Fibrous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Garcia, Jorge; Braginsky, Leonid; Shklover, Valery; Lawson, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Heat transport in highly porous fiber networks is analyzed via two-point correlation functions. Fibers are assumed to be long and thin to allow a large number of crossing points per fiber. The network is characterized by three parameters: the fiber aspect ratio, the porosity and the anisotropy of the structure. We show that the effective thermal conductivity of the system can be estimated from knowledge of the porosity and the correlation lengths of the correlation functions obtained from a fiber structure image. As an application, the effects of the fiber aspect ratio and the network anisotropy on the thermal conductivity is studied.

  4. Bose-Einstein Correlations in a Space-Time Approach to $e^{+} e^{-}$ Annihilation into Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kinder-Geiger, Klaus; Heinz, Ulrich W; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2000-01-01

    A new treatment of Bose-Einstein correlations is incorporated in a space-time parton-shower model for e+ e- annihilation into hadrons. Two alternative afterburners are discussed, and we use a simple calculable model to demonstrate that they reproduce successfully the size of the hadron emission region. One of the afterburners is used to calculate two-pion correlations in e+ e- -> Z^0 -> hadrons and e+ e- -> W+ W- -> hadrons. Results are shown with and without resonance decays, for correlations along and transverse to the thrust jet axis in these two classes of events.

  5. Electron-electron correlations in square-well quantum dots: direct energy minimization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hidekazu; Hirose, Kikuji

    2011-04-01

    Electron-electron correlations in two-dimensional square-well quantum dots are investigated using the direct energy minimization scheme. Searches for groundstate charges and spin configurations are performed with varying the sizes of dots and the number of electrons. For a two-electron system, a standout difference between the configurations with and without counting correlation energy is demonstrated. The emergence and melting of Wigner-molecule-like structures arising from the interplay between the kinetic energy and Coulombic interaction energy are described. Electron-electron correlation energies and addition energy spectra are calculated, and special electron numbers related to peculiar effects of the square well are extracted.

  6. Consistent LDA' + DMFT approach to the electronic structure of transition metal oxides: Charge transfer insulators and correlated metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekrasov, I. A., E-mail: nekrasov@iep.uran.ru; Pavlov, N. S.; Sadovskii, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Electrophysics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)

    2013-04-15

    We discuss the recently proposed LDA' + DMFT approach providing a consistent parameter-free treatment of the so-called double counting problem arising within the LDA + DMFT hybrid computational method for realistic strongly correlated materials. In this approach, the local exchange-correlation portion of the electron-electron interaction is excluded from self-consistent LDA calculations for strongly correlated electronic shells, e.g., d-states of transition metal compounds. Then, the corresponding double-counting term in the LDA' + DMFT Hamiltonian is consistently set in the local Hartree (fully localized limit, FLL) form of the Hubbard model interaction term. We present the results of extensive LDA' + DMFT calculations of densities of states, spectral densities, and optical conductivity for most typical representatives of two wide classes of strongly correlated systems in the paramagnetic phase: charge transfer insulators (MnO, CoO, and NiO) and strongly correlated metals (SrVO{sub 3} and Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}). It is shown that for NiO and CoO systems, the LDA' + DMFT approach qualitatively improves the conventional LDA + DMFT results with the FLL type of double counting, where CoO and NiO were obtained to be metals. Our calculations also include transition-metal 4s-states located near the Fermi level, missed in previous LDA + DMFT studies of these monoxides. General agreement with optical and the X-ray experiments is obtained. For strongly correlated metals, the LDA' + DMFT results agree well with the earlier LDA + DMFT calculations and existing experiments. However, in general, LDA' + DMFT results give better quantitative agreement with experimental data for band gap sizes and oxygen-state positions compared to the conventional LDA + DMFT method.

  7. Consistent LDA' + DMFT approach to the electronic structure of transition metal oxides: Charge transfer insulators and correlated metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasov, I. A.; Pavlov, N. S.; Sadovskii, M. V.

    2013-04-01

    We discuss the recently proposed LDA' + DMFT approach providing a consistent parameter-free treatment of the so-called double counting problem arising within the LDA + DMFT hybrid computational method for realistic strongly correlated materials. In this approach, the local exchange-correlation portion of the electron-electron interaction is excluded from self-consistent LDA calculations for strongly correlated electronic shells, e.g., d-states of transition metal compounds. Then, the corresponding double-counting term in the LDA' + DMFT Hamiltonian is consistently set in the local Hartree (fully localized limit, FLL) form of the Hubbard model interaction term. We present the results of extensive LDA' + DMFT calculations of densities of states, spectral densities, and optical conductivity for most typical representatives of two wide classes of strongly correlated systems in the paramagnetic phase: charge transfer insulators (MnO, CoO, and NiO) and strongly correlated metals (SrVO3 and Sr2RuO4). It is shown that for NiO and CoO systems, the LDA' + DMFT approach qualitatively improves the conventional LDA + DMFT results with the FLL type of double counting, where CoO and NiO were obtained to be metals. Our calculations also include transition-metal 4 s-states located near the Fermi level, missed in previous LDA + DMFT studies of these monoxides. General agreement with optical and the X-ray experiments is obtained. For strongly correlated metals, the LDA' + DMFT results agree well with the earlier LDA + DMFT calculations and existing experiments. However, in general, LDA' + DMFT results give better quantitative agreement with experimental data for band gap sizes and oxygen-state positions compared to the conventional LDA + DMFT method.

  8. A Generic Simulation Approach for the Fast and Accurate Estimation of the Outage Probability of Single Hop and Multihop FSO Links Subject to Generalized Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki

    2017-07-28

    When assessing the performance of the free space optical (FSO) communication systems, the outage probability encountered is generally very small, and thereby the use of nave Monte Carlo simulations becomes prohibitively expensive. To estimate these rare event probabilities, we propose in this work an importance sampling approach which is based on the exponential twisting technique to offer fast and accurate results. In fact, we consider a variety of turbulence regimes, and we investigate the outage probability of FSO communication systems, under a generalized pointing error model based on the Beckmann distribution, for both single and multihop scenarios. Selected numerical simulations are presented to show the accuracy and the efficiency of our approach compared to naive Monte Carlo.

  9. An O(N) and parallel approach to integral problems by a kernel-independent fast multipole method: Application to polarization and magnetization of interacting particles

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Xikai; Zhao, Xujun; Qin, Jian; Karpeev, Dmitry; Hernandez-Ortiz, Juan; de Pablo, Juan; Heinonen, Olle

    2016-01-01

    Large classes of materials systems in physics and engineering are governed by magnetic and electrostatic interactions. Continuum or mesoscale descriptions of such systems can be cast in terms of integral equations, whose direct computational evaluation requires O(N^2) operations, where N is the number of unknowns. Such a scaling, which arises from the many-body nature of the relevant Green's function, has precluded wide-spread adoption of integral methods for solution of large-scale scientific and engineering problems. In this work, a parallel computational approach is presented that relies on using scalable open source libraries and utilizes a kernel-independent Fast Multipole Method to evaluate the integrals in O(N) operations, with O(N) memory cost, thereby substantially improving the scalability and efficiency of computational integral methods. We demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency, and scalability of our approach in the contest of two examples. In the first, we solve a boundary value problem for a ferr...

  10. Approach to the Correlation Discovery of Chinese Linguistic Parameters Based on Bayesian Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei(王玮); CAI LianHong(蔡莲红)

    2003-01-01

    Bayesian approach is an important method in statistics. The Bayesian belief network is a powerful knowledge representation and reasoning tool under the conditions of uncertainty.It is a graphics model that encodes probabilistic relationships among variables of interest. In this paper, an approach to Bayesian network construction is given for discovering the Chinese linguistic parameter relationship in the corpus.

  11. Collaborative Detection of Fast Flux Phishing Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenfeng Vincent Zhou

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Phishing is a significant security threat to users of Internet services. Nowadays, phishing has become more resilient to detection and trace-back with the invention of Fast Flux (FF service networks. We propose two approaches to correlate evidence from multiple DNS servers and multiple suspect FF domains. Real-world experiments show that our correlation approaches speed-up FF domain detection, based on an analytical model that we propose to quantify the number of DNS queries needed to confirm a FF domain. We also show how our correlation scheme can be implemented on a large scale by using a decentralized publish-subscribe correlation model called LarSID, which is more scalable than a fully centralized architecture.

  12. Explicitly correlated Gaussian basis set expansion approach for few-body systems with spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qingze; Blume, Doerte

    2016-05-01

    The explicit correlated Gaussian (ECG) basis set expansion approach is a variational approach that has been used in various areas, including molecular, nuclear, atomic, and chemical physics. In the world of cold atoms, e.g., the ECG approach has been used to calculate the eigenenergies and eigenstates of few-body systems governed by Efimov physics. Since the first experimental realization of synthesized gauge fields, few-body systems with spin-orbit coupling have attracted a great deal of attention. Here, the ECG approach is customized to few-body systems with both short-range interactions and spin-orbit couplings. Benchmark tests and a performance analysis will be presented. Support by the NSF is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach for Vehicle Positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Hang; Li, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Long, Teng

    2015-08-28

    For vehicle positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) in urban areas, open-loop tracking shows better performance because of its high sensitivity and superior robustness against multipath. However, no previous study has focused on the effects of the code search grid size on the code phase measurement accuracy of open-loop tracking. Traditional open-loop tracking methods are performed by the batch correlators with fixed correlation space. The code search grid size, which is the correlation space, is a constant empirical value and the code phase measuring accuracy will be largely degraded due to the improper grid size, especially when the signal carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N₀) varies. In this study, the Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach (ACSA-OLTA) is proposed to improve the code phase measurement dependent pseudo range accuracy. In ACSA-OLTA, the correlation space is adjusted according to the signal C/N₀. The novel Equivalent Weighted Pseudo Range Error (EWPRE) is raised to obtain the optimal code search grid sizes for different C/N₀. The code phase measuring errors of different measurement calculation methods are analyzed for the first time. The measurement calculation strategy of ACSA-OLTA is derived from the analysis to further improve the accuracy but reduce the correlator consumption. Performance simulation and real tests confirm that the pseudo range and positioning accuracy of ASCA-OLTA are better than the traditional open-loop tracking methods in the usual scenarios of urban area.

  14. Stochastic wave function approach to the calculation of multitime correlation functions of open quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Breuer, H P; Petruccione, F; Breuer, Heinz-Peter; Kappler, Bernd; Petruccione, Francesco

    1997-01-01

    Within the framework of probability distributions on projective Hilbert space a scheme for the calculation of multitime correlation functions is developed. The starting point is the Markovian stochastic wave function description of an open quantum system coupled to an environment consisting of an ensemble of harmonic oscillators in arbitrary pure or mixed states. It is shown that matrix elements of reduced Heisenberg picture operators and general time-ordered correlation functions can be expressed by time-symmetric expectation values of extended operators in a doubled Hilbert space. This representation allows the construction of a stochastic process in the doubled Hilbert space which enables the determination of arbitrary matrix elements and correlation functions. The numerical efficiency of the resulting stochastic simulation algorithm is investigated and compared with an alternative Monte Carlo wave function method proposed first by Dalibard et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 68}, 580 (1992)]. By means of a stan...

  15. Firing statistics and correlations in spiking neurons: a level-crossing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badel, Laurent

    2011-10-01

    We present a time-dependent level-crossing theory for linear dynamical systems perturbed by colored Gaussian noise. We apply these results to approximate the firing statistics of conductance-based integrate-and-fire neurons receiving excitatory and inhibitory Poissonian inputs. Analytical expressions are obtained for three key quantities characterizing the neuronal response to time-varying inputs: the mean firing rate, the linear response to sinusoidally modulated inputs, and the pairwise spike correlation for neurons receiving correlated inputs. The theory yields tractable results that are shown to accurately match numerical simulations and provides useful tools for the analysis of interconnected neuronal populations.

  16. A Parallel Approach in Computing Correlation Immunity up to Six Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-24

    andersm2@union.edu Eric Bach Computer Sciences Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, U.S.A.; bach @cs.wisc.edu Jon T. Butler ECE...INSTRUCTION FILE CorImm 2 C. Etherington, M. A. Anderson, E. Bach , J. T. Butler, P. Stănică 1. Introduction The correlation immunity of a Boolean function...Etherington, M. A. Anderson, E. Bach , J. T. Butler, P. Stănică (resiliency) k but not k + 1, we will describe such a function as exact correlation

  17. Benchmarking of the construct of dimensionless correlations regarding batch bubble columns with suspended solids: Performance of the Pressure Transform Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Hristov, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Benchmark of dimensionless data correlations pertinent to batch bubble columns (BC) with suspended solids has been performed by the pressure transform approach (PTA). The main efforts have addressed the correct definition of dimensionless groups referring to the fact that solids dynamics and the bubble dynamics have different velocity and length scales. The correct definition of the initial set of variable in the classical dimensional analysis depends mainly on the experience of the investigator while the pressure transform approach (PTA) avoids errors at this initial stage. PTA addresses the physics of the phenomena occurring in complex systems involving many phases and allows straightforward definitions of dimensionless numbers.

  18. Testing the significance of a correlation with nonnormal data: comparison of Pearson, Spearman, transformation, and resampling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishara, Anthony J; Hittner, James B

    2012-09-01

    It is well known that when data are nonnormally distributed, a test of the significance of Pearson's r may inflate Type I error rates and reduce power. Statistics textbooks and the simulation literature provide several alternatives to Pearson's correlation. However, the relative performance of these alternatives has been unclear. Two simulation studies were conducted to compare 12 methods, including Pearson, Spearman's rank-order, transformation, and resampling approaches. With most sample sizes (n ≥ 20), Type I and Type II error rates were minimized by transforming the data to a normal shape prior to assessing the Pearson correlation. Among transformation approaches, a general purpose rank-based inverse normal transformation (i.e., transformation to rankit scores) was most beneficial. However, when samples were both small (n ≤ 10) and extremely nonnormal, the permutation test often outperformed other alternatives, including various bootstrap tests.

  19. A new approach to the correlation of boundary layer mass transfer rates with thermal diffusion and/or variable properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, R.; Rosner, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    A rational approach to the correlation of boundary layer mass transport rates, applicable to many commonly encountered laminar flow conditions with thermal diffusion and/or variable properties, is outlined. The correlation scheme builds upon already available constant property blowing/suction solutions by introducing appropriate correction factors to account for the additional ('pseudo' blowing and source) effects identified with variable properties and thermal diffusion. Applications of the scheme to the particular laminar boundary layer mass transfer problems considered herein (alkali and transition metal compound vapor transport) indicates satisfactory accuracy up to effective blowing factors equivalent to about one third of the 'blow off' value. As a useful by-product of the variable property correlation, we extend the heat-mass transfer analogy, for a wide range of Lewis numbers, to include variable property effects.

  20. Spin-triplet paired state induced by Hund's rule coupling and correlations: a fully statistically consistent Gutzwiller approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spałek, J; Zegrodnik, M

    2013-10-30

    The intrasite and intersite spin-triplet pairing gaps induced by interband Hund's rule coupling and their correlations are analyzed in the doubly degenerate Hubbard Hamiltonian. To include the effect of correlations, the statistically consistent Gutzwiller approximation is used. In this approach the consistency means that the averages calculated from the self-consistent equations and those determined variationally coincide with each other. Emphasis is put on the solution for which the average particle number is conserved when carrying out the Gutzwiller projection. This method leads to a stable equal-spin paired state in the so-called repulsive interactions limit (U > 3J) in the regime of moderate correlations. The interband hybridization introduces an inequivalence of the bands which, above a critical magnitude, suppresses the paired state due to both the Fermi-wavevector mismatch for the Cooper pair and the interband hopping allowed by the Pauli principle.

  1. Time correlation function and finite field approaches to the calculation of the fifth order Raman response in liquid xenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVane, Russell; Space, Brian; Jansen, Thomas L C; Keyes, T

    2006-12-21

    The fifth order, two-dimensional Raman response in liquid xenon is calculated via a time correlation function (TCF) theory and the numerically exact finite field method. Both employ classical molecular dynamics simulations. The results are shown to be in excellent agreement, suggesting the efficacy of the TCF approach, in which the response function is written approximately in terms of a single classical multitime TCF.

  2. Condensed-matter ab initio approach for strongly correlated electrons: Application to a quantum spin liquid candidate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaji, Youhei [Quantum-Phase Electronics Center, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    Recently, condensed-matter ab initio approaches to strongly correlated electrons confined in crystalline solids have been developed and applied to transition-metal oxides and molecular conductors. In this paper, an ab initio scheme based on constrained random phase approximations and localized Wannier orbitals is applied to a spin liquid candidate Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3} and is shown to reproduce experimentally observed specific heat.

  3. Theoretical approach and impact of correlations on the critical packet generation rate in traffic dynamics on complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Fronczak, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Using the formalism of the biased random walk in random uncorrelated networks with arbitrary degree distributions, we develop theoretical approach to the critical packet generation rate in traffic based on routing strategy with local information. We explain microscopic origins of the transition from the flow to the jammed phase and discuss how the node neighbourhood topology affects the transport capacity in uncorrelated and correlated networks.

  4. A Simple Superresolution Approach of Multipath Delay Profiles Measured by PN Correlation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Time resolution of multipath delay profiles measured by using autocorrelation of pseudonoise (PN) code sequence is generally limitec by the chip rate of the PN code sequence. In this paper, we propose a simple method to improve the time resolution of delay profiles measured by the PN correlation method. Effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by indoor wireless propagation experiments.

  5. Spectral density of the correlation matrix of factor models: a random matrix theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, F; Mantegna, R N

    2005-07-01

    We studied the eigenvalue spectral density of the correlation matrix of factor models of multivariate time series. By making use of the random matrix theory, we analytically quantified the effect of statistical uncertainty on the spectral density due to the finiteness of the sample. We considered a broad range of models, ranging from one-factor models to hierarchical multifactor models.

  6. LDA+DMFT approach to ordering phenomena and the structural stability of correlated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuneš, J.; Leonov, I.; Augustinský, P.; Křápek, V.; Kollar, M.; Vollhardt, D.

    2017-07-01

    Materials with correlated electrons often respond very strongly to external or internal influences, leading to instabilities and states of matter with broken symmetry. This behavior can be studied theoretically either by evaluating the linear response characteristics, or by simulating the ordered phases of the materials under investigation. We developed the necessary tools within the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) to search for electronic instabilities in materials close to spin-state crossovers and to analyze the properties of the corresponding ordered states. This investigation, motivated by the physics of LaCoO3, led to a discovery of condensation of spinful excitons in the two-orbital Hubbard model with a surprisingly rich phase diagram. The results are reviewed in the first part of the article. Electronic correlations can also be the driving force behind structural transformations of materials. To be able to investigate correlation-induced phase instabilities we developed and implemented a formalism for the computation of total energies and forces within a fully charge self-consistent combination of density functional theory and DMFT. Applications of this scheme to the study of structural instabilities of selected correlated electron materials such as Fe and FeSe are reviewed in the second part of the paper.

  7. Stability analysis of the Korean prototype generation-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor using linear frequency domain approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Ji; Ha, Pham Nhu Viet; Lim, Jae Yong; Hahn, Do Hee; Kang, Chang Mu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Fast Reactor Development Div.

    2016-03-15

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing the 150 MWe Prototype Generation-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR). The design concept is highly based on passive safety mechanisms, minimizing the need for engineered safety systems. Presently, it is of primary importance to assure the reactor dynamics and stability against small reactivity disturbances under power operating conditions. KAERI has therefore developed the NuSTAB code for stability analysis of the PGSFR. In NuSTAB, the neutron-kinetic and thermal-hydraulic coupling equations are linearized to form the characteristic equation, which is solved as a generalized eigenvalue problem for determining the decay ratio, an indicator of the system stability. In this paper, the stability of the PGSFR was analyzed by applying the point kinetic and spatial kinetic options in the NuSTAB code. System responses to temperature feedbacks including the Doppler effect, thermal expansion, coolant density change, and overall feedback were studied. The results indicate that the initial U and final TRU cores of the PGSFR are both inherently stable thanks to the temperature feedbacks.

  8. Approach to modeling of the fast energy discharge in cryogenic systems in the form of an electric arc

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting magnets are supplied with a few kA of electric current and can store a large amount of energy. Therefore, cryogenic systems which are comprised of such magnets are subject to the risk of fast energy discharge from the magnets themselves in the form of an electric arc. The arcing can be a result of failure in the insulation of an electric circuit or in the connection between the magnet and its current lead. During the discharge, energy can be partially dissipated into the cryogen and partially into the cryogenic system metallic structure. The part of the energy that is transferred to the metallic structure will strongly heat up the metal surface, which can lead to material burning. In this case, the cryogen will flow through the perforation to the insulation vacuum space, which can trigger a rapid increase in pressure in the vacuum enclosure. However, the discharged energy that has been stored in the cryogen also causes a rapid increase in cryogenic pressure. Hence, the proper estimation of the...

  9. Fasting plasma triglyceride concentration: A possible approach to identify increased risk of statin-induced type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ki-Chul; Reaven, Gerald

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis that measurement of fasting plasma triglyceride concentration identifies individuals at enhanced risk of statin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus. A retrospective analysis of data collected from routine health examinations in non-diabetic, East Asian individuals (n = 5790) with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations of ⩾3.4 mmol/L. Subjects were stratified into those with or without a triglyceride concentration of ⩾1.7 mmol/L, and comparisons made of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Approximately 40% of men and 20% of women with elevations of both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were more insulin resistant (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance), associated with higher plasma concentrations of HbA1c, glucose and insulin. Apparently, healthy, non-diabetic East Asian men and women with combined elevations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations are glucose intolerant and insulin resistant, and thereby at enhanced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Measurement of plasma triglyceride concentration can identify within a hypercholesterolemic population a subset of individuals at enhanced risk of statin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Combined fragment molecular orbital cluster in molecule approach to massively parallel electron correlation calculations for large systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlater, Alexander D; Zahariev, Federico; Gordon, Mark S

    2015-04-16

    The local correlation "cluster-in-molecule" (CIM) method is combined with the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method, providing a flexible, massively parallel, and near-linear scaling approach to the calculation of electron correlation energies for large molecular systems. Although the computational scaling of the CIM algorithm is already formally linear, previous knowledge of the Hartree-Fock (HF) reference wave function and subsequent localized orbitals is required; therefore, extending the CIM method to arbitrarily large systems requires the aid of low-scaling/linear-scaling approaches to HF and orbital localization. Through fragmentation, the combined FMO-CIM method linearizes the scaling, with respect to system size, of the HF reference and orbital localization calculations, achieving near-linear scaling at both the reference and electron correlation levels. For the 20-residue alanine α helix, the preliminary implementation of the FMO-CIM method captures 99.6% of the MP2 correlation energy, requiring 21% of the MP2 wall time. The new method is also applied to solvated adamantine to illustrate the multilevel capability of the FMO-CIM method.

  11. Feature analysis for correlation studies of simultaneous EEG-fMRI data: A proof of concept for neurofeedback approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Simões; Lima, João; Direito, Bruno; Castelhano, João; Ferreira, Carlos; Carvalho, Paulo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The identification and interpretation of facial expressions is an important feature of social cognition. This characteristic is often impaired in various neurodevelopmental disorders. Recent therapeutic approaches to intervene in social communication impairments include neurofeedback (NF). In this study, we present a NF real-time functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rt-fMRI), combined with electroencephalography (EEG) to train social communication skills. In this sense, we defined the right Superior Temporal Sulcus as our target region-of-interest. To analyze the correlation between the fMRI regions of interest and the EEG data, we transposed the sources located at the nearest cortical location to the target region. We extracted a set of 75 features from EEG segments and performed a correlation analysis with the brain activations extracted from rt-fMRI in the right pSTS region. The finding of significant correlations of simultaneously measured signals in distinct modalities (EEG and fMRI) is promising. Future studies should address whether the observed correlation levels between local brain activity and scalp measures are sufficient to implement NF approaches.

  12. Nuclear-electronic orbital reduced explicitly correlated Hartree-Fock approach: Restricted basis sets and open-shell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorsen, Kurt R.; Sirjoosingh, Andrew; Pak, Michael V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2015-06-01

    The nuclear electronic orbital (NEO) reduced explicitly correlated Hartree-Fock (RXCHF) approach couples select electronic orbitals to the nuclear orbital via Gaussian-type geminal functions. This approach is extended to enable the use of a restricted basis set for the explicitly correlated electronic orbitals and an open-shell treatment for the other electronic orbitals. The working equations are derived and the implementation is discussed for both extensions. The RXCHF method with a restricted basis set is applied to HCN and FHF- and is shown to agree quantitatively with results from RXCHF calculations with a full basis set. The number of many-particle integrals that must be calculated for these two molecules is reduced by over an order of magnitude with essentially no loss in accuracy, and the reduction factor will increase substantially for larger systems. Typically, the computational cost of RXCHF calculations with restricted basis sets will scale in terms of the number of basis functions centered on the quantum nucleus and the covalently bonded neighbor(s). In addition, the RXCHF method with an odd number of electrons that are not explicitly correlated to the nuclear orbital is implemented using a restricted open-shell formalism for these electrons. This method is applied to HCN+, and the nuclear densities are in qualitative agreement with grid-based calculations. Future work will focus on the significance of nonadiabatic effects in molecular systems and the further enhancement of the NEO-RXCHF approach to accurately describe such effects.

  13. A New Approach to Measuring the Neutron Decay Correlations with Cold Neutrons at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilburn, W.S.; Bowman, J.D.; Greene, G.L.; Jones, G.L.; Kapustinsky, J.S.; Penttila, S.I.

    1999-06-08

    Precision measurements of the neutron beta-decay correlations A, B, a, and b provide important tests of the standard model of electroweak interactions: a test of the unitarity of the first row of the CKM matrix, a search for new weak interactions, a test of the theory of nuclear beta decays, and a test of the conserved-vector-current hypothesis. The authors are designing an experiment at the LANSCE short-pulse spallation source to measure all four correlations to an order of magnitude better accuracy than the existing measurements. The accuracy of the previous measurements was limited by systematics. The design of the proposed experiment makes use of the pulsed nature of the LANSCE source to reduce systematic errors associated with the measurement of the neutron polarization as well as other systematic errors. In addition, the authors are developing silicon strip detectors for detecting both the proton and electron from the neutron decay.

  14. Defining herbivore assemblages in the Kruger National Park: a correlative coherence approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, J V; Ryan, S J; Getz, W M

    2006-01-01

    Spatial associations of seven herbivore species in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, are analyzed using a new technique, Correlative Coherence Analysis (CoCA). CoCA is a generalization of the concept of correlation to more than two sequences of numbers. Prior information on the feeding ecology and metabolic requirements of these species is used to contrast spatial scales at which hypothesized guild aggregation or competition occurs. These hypotheses are tested using 13 years of aerial census data collected during the dry season. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that distributions of large and small species of the same feeding type (i.e., grazers and browsers) overlap in potentially resource-rich areas, but have lower similarity values across all areas because the higher tolerance of large species for low quality foods results in a more even spatial distribution of large species compared to small species.

  15. Extracting the sovereigns’ CDS market hierarchy: A correlation-filtering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Carlos; Leiton, Karen; Pérez, Jhonatan

    2014-12-01

    This paper employs correlation-into-distance mapping techniques and a minimal spanning tree-based correlation-filtering methodology on 36 sovereign CDS spread time-series in order to identify the sovereigns’ informational hierarchy. The resulting hierarchy (i) concurs with sovereigns’ eigenvector centrality; (ii) confirms the importance of geographical and credit rating clustering; (iii) identifies Russia, Turkey and Brazil as regional benchmarks; (iv) reveals the idiosyncratic nature of Japan and United States; (v) confirms that a small set of common factors affects the system; (vi) suggests that lower-medium grade rated sovereigns are the most influential, but also the most prone to contagion; and (vii) suggests the existence of a “Latin American common factor”.

  16. Probabilistic Approach to System Reliability of Mechanism with Correlated Failure Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianzhen Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, based on the kinematic accuracy theory and matrix-based system reliability analysis method, a practical method for system reliability analysis of the kinematic performance of planar linkages with correlated failure modes is proposed. The Taylor series expansion is utilized to derive a general expression of the kinematic performance errors caused by random variables. A proper limit state function (performance function for reliability analysis of the kinematic performance of planar linkages is established. Through the reliability theory and the linear programming method the upper and lower bounds of the system reliability of planar linkages are provided. In the course of system reliability analysis, the correlation of different failure modes is considered. Finally, the practicality, efficiency, and accuracy of the proposed method are shown by a numerical example.

  17. First-Principles Correlated Approach to the Normal State of Strontium Ruthenate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S.; Laad, M. S.; Dey, Dibyendu; Maitra, T.; Taraphder, A.

    2017-01-01

    The interplay between multiple bands, sizable multi-band electronic correlations and strong spin-orbit coupling may conspire in selecting a rather unusual unconventional pairing symmetry in layered Sr2RuO4. This mandates a detailed revisit of the normal state and, in particular, the T-dependent incoherence-coherence crossover. Using a modern first-principles correlated view, we study this issue in the actual structure of Sr2RuO4 and present a unified and quantitative description of a range of unusual physical responses in the normal state. Armed with these, we propose that a new and important element, that of dominant multi-orbital charge fluctuations in a Hund’s metal, may be a primary pair glue for unconventional superconductivity. Thereby we establish a connection between the normal state responses and superconductivity in this system. PMID:28220879

  18. A time-correlation function approach to nuclear dynamical effects in X-ray spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Karsten, Sven; Aziz, Saadullah G; Ivanov, Sergei D; Kühn, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Modern X-ray spectroscopy has proven itself as a robust tool for probing the electronic structure of atoms in complex environments. Despite working on energy scales that are much larger than those corresponding to nuclear motions, taking nuclear dynamics and the associated nuclear correlations into account may be of importance for X-ray spectroscopy. Recently, we have developed an efficient protocol to account for nuclear dynamics in X-ray absorption and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectra [Karsten \\textit{et al.} arXiv:1608.03436], based on ground state molecular dynamics accompanied with state-of-the-art calculations of electronic excitation energies and transition dipoles. Here, we present an alternative derivation of the formalism and elaborate on the developed simulation protocol on the examples of gas phase and bulk water. The specific spectroscopic features stemming from the nuclear motions are analyzed and traced down to the dynamics of electronic energy gaps and transition dipole correlation ...

  19. First-Principles Correlated Approach to the Normal State of Strontium Ruthenate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S.; Laad, M. S.; Dey, Dibyendu; Maitra, T.; Taraphder, A.

    2017-02-01

    The interplay between multiple bands, sizable multi-band electronic correlations and strong spin-orbit coupling may conspire in selecting a rather unusual unconventional pairing symmetry in layered Sr2RuO4. This mandates a detailed revisit of the normal state and, in particular, the T-dependent incoherence-coherence crossover. Using a modern first-principles correlated view, we study this issue in the actual structure of Sr2RuO4 and present a unified and quantitative description of a range of unusual physical responses in the normal state. Armed with these, we propose that a new and important element, that of dominant multi-orbital charge fluctuations in a Hund’s metal, may be a primary pair glue for unconventional superconductivity. Thereby we establish a connection between the normal state responses and superconductivity in this system.

  20. A Novel Approach for Discovering Condition-Specific Correlations of Gene Expressions within Biological Pathways by Using Cloud Computing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hao Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microarrays are widely used to assess gene expressions. Most microarray studies focus primarily on identifying differential gene expressions between conditions (e.g., cancer versus normal cells, for discovering the major factors that cause diseases. Because previous studies have not identified the correlations of differential gene expression between conditions, crucial but abnormal regulations that cause diseases might have been disregarded. This paper proposes an approach for discovering the condition-specific correlations of gene expressions within biological pathways. Because analyzing gene expression correlations is time consuming, an Apache Hadoop cloud computing platform was implemented. Three microarray data sets of breast cancer were collected from the Gene Expression Omnibus, and pathway information from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes was applied for discovering meaningful biological correlations. The results showed that adopting the Hadoop platform considerably decreased the computation time. Several correlations of differential gene expressions were discovered between the relapse and nonrelapse breast cancer samples, and most of them were involved in cancer regulation and cancer-related pathways. The results showed that breast cancer recurrence might be highly associated with the abnormal regulations of these gene pairs, rather than with their individual expression levels. The proposed method was computationally efficient and reliable, and stable results were obtained when different data sets were used. The proposed method is effective in identifying meaningful biological regulation patterns between conditions.

  1. A novel approach for discovering condition-specific correlations of gene expressions within biological pathways by using cloud computing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tzu-Hao; Wu, Shih-Lin; Wang, Wei-Jen; Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Chang, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Microarrays are widely used to assess gene expressions. Most microarray studies focus primarily on identifying differential gene expressions between conditions (e.g., cancer versus normal cells), for discovering the major factors that cause diseases. Because previous studies have not identified the correlations of differential gene expression between conditions, crucial but abnormal regulations that cause diseases might have been disregarded. This paper proposes an approach for discovering the condition-specific correlations of gene expressions within biological pathways. Because analyzing gene expression correlations is time consuming, an Apache Hadoop cloud computing platform was implemented. Three microarray data sets of breast cancer were collected from the Gene Expression Omnibus, and pathway information from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes was applied for discovering meaningful biological correlations. The results showed that adopting the Hadoop platform considerably decreased the computation time. Several correlations of differential gene expressions were discovered between the relapse and nonrelapse breast cancer samples, and most of them were involved in cancer regulation and cancer-related pathways. The results showed that breast cancer recurrence might be highly associated with the abnormal regulations of these gene pairs, rather than with their individual expression levels. The proposed method was computationally efficient and reliable, and stable results were obtained when different data sets were used. The proposed method is effective in identifying meaningful biological regulation patterns between conditions.

  2. Van Hove correlation functions in an interacting electron gas: Equation-of-motion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinner, Andreas; Bachlechner, Martina E.

    1992-10-01

    An extension of the classical van Hove correlation functions to a three-dimensional system of identical fermions is investigated, taking into account interaction effects. This is done within the framework of a Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjölander-like static local-field approximation, combined with second-order effects of plasmon damping. As a main result the relaxation of the Fermi hole around an instantaneously removed electron is presented.

  3. Structured and Sparse Canonical Correlation Analysis as a Brain-Wide Multi-Modal Data Fusion Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi-Nejad, Ali-Reza; Hossein-Zadeh, Gholam-Ali; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2017-07-01

    Multi-modal data fusion has recently emerged as a comprehensive neuroimaging analysis approach, which usually uses canonical correlation analysis (CCA). However, the current CCA-based fusion approaches face problems like high-dimensionality, multi-collinearity, unimodal feature selection, asymmetry, and loss of spatial information in reshaping the imaging data into vectors. This paper proposes a structured and sparse CCA (ssCCA) technique as a novel CCA method to overcome the above problems. To investigate the performance of the proposed algorithm, we have compared three data fusion techniques: standard CCA, regularized CCA, and ssCCA, and evaluated their ability to detect multi-modal data associations. We have used simulations to compare the performance of these approaches and probe the effects of non-negativity constraint, the dimensionality of features, sample size, and noise power. The results demonstrate that ssCCA outperforms the existing standard and regularized CCA-based fusion approaches. We have also applied the methods to real functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and structural MRI data of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (n = 34) and healthy control (HC) subjects (n = 42) from the ADNI database. The results illustrate that the proposed unsupervised technique differentiates the transition pattern between the subject-course of AD patients and HC subjects with a p-value of less than 1×10(-6) . Furthermore, we have depicted the brain mapping of functional areas that are most correlated with the anatomical changes in AD patients relative to HC subjects.

  4. A correlative optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach to locating nanoparticles in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempen, Paul J; Kircher, Moritz F; de la Zerda, Adam; Zavaleta, Cristina L; Jokerst, Jesse V; Mellinghoff, Ingo K; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Sinclair, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of nanoparticles in biomedical applications, including cancer diagnosis and treatment, demands the capability to exactly locate them within complex biological systems. In this work a correlative optical and scanning electron microscopy technique was developed to locate and observe multi-modal gold core nanoparticle accumulation in brain tumor models. Entire brain sections from mice containing orthotopic brain tumors injected intravenously with nanoparticles were imaged using both optical microscopy to identify the brain tumor, and scanning electron microscopy to identify the individual nanoparticles. Gold-based nanoparticles were readily identified in the scanning electron microscope using backscattered electron imaging as bright spots against a darker background. This information was then correlated to determine the exact location of the nanoparticles within the brain tissue. The nanoparticles were located only in areas that contained tumor cells, and not in the surrounding healthy brain tissue. This correlative technique provides a powerful method to relate the macro- and micro-scale features visible in light microscopy with the nanoscale features resolvable in scanning electron microscopy.

  5. A novel approach for correlating capacitance data with performance during thin-film device stress studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rebekah L.; Clark, Laura A.; Albin, David S.

    2011-09-01

    A new data mining algorithm was developed to identify the strongest correlations between capacitance data (measured between -1.5 V and +0.49 V) and first- and second-level performance metrics (efficiency [η%], open-circuit voltage [VOC], short-circuit current density [JSC], and fill-factor [FF]) during the stress testing of voltage-stabilized CdS/CdTe devices. When considering only correlations between first- and second-level metrics, 96.5% of the observed variation in η% was attributed to FF. The overall decrease in VOC after 1,000 hours of open-circuit, light-soak stress at 60°C was about -1.5%. As determined by our algorithm, the most consistent correlation existing between FF and third-level metric capacitance data at all stages during stress testing was between FF and the apparent CdTe acceptor density (Na) calculated at a voltage of +0.49 V during forward voltage scans. Since the contribution of back-contact capacitance to total capacitance increases with increasing positive voltage, this result suggests that FF degradation is associated with decreases in Na near the CdTe/back contact interface. Also of interest, it appears that capacitance data at these higher voltages appears to more accurately fit the one-sided abrupt junction model.

  6. Novel Approach for Correlating Capacitance Data with Performance During Thin-Film Device Stress Studies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R. L.; Albin, D. S.; Clark, L. A.

    2011-08-01

    A new data mining algorithm was developed to identify the strongest correlations between capacitance data (measured between -1.5 V and +0.49 V) and 1st and 2nd level performance metrics (efficiency, open-circuit voltage (VOC), short-circuit current density (JSC), and fill-factor (FF)) during the stress testing of voltage-stabilized CdS/CdTe devices. When considering only correlations between 1st and 2nd level metrics, 96.5% of the observed variation in efficiency was attributed to FF. The overall decrease in VOC after 1000 hours of open-circuit, light-soak stress at 60 degrees C was about 1.5%. As determined by our algorithm, the most consistent correlation existing between FF and 3rd level metric capacitance data at all stages during stress testing was between FF and the apparent CdTe acceptor density (Na) calculated at a voltage of +0.49 V during forward voltage scans. Since the contribution of back contact capacitance to total capacitance increases with increasing positive voltage, this result suggests that FF degradation is associated with decreases in Na near the CdTe/back contact interface. Also of interest, it appears that capacitance data at these higher voltages appears to more accurately fit the one-sided abrupt junction model.

  7. A genome-wide approach accounting for body mass index identifies genetic variants influencing fasting glycemic traits and insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Alisa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Scott, Robert A.; Grimsby, Jonna L; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Chen, Han; Rybin, Denis; Liu, Ching-Ti; Bielak, Lawrence F; Prokopenko, Inga; Amin, Najaf; Barnes, Daniel; Cadby, Gemma; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ingelsson, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have described many loci implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathophysiology and beta-cell dysfunction but have contributed little to the understanding of the genetic basis of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that genes implicated in insulin resistance pathways might be uncovered by accounting for differences in body mass index (BMI) and potential interactions between BMI and genetic variants. We applied a joint meta-analysis approach to test associat...

  8. Validation of Vehicle Panel/Equipment Response from Diffuse Acoustic Field Excitation Using Spatially Correlated Transfer Function Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Fulcher, Clay; Hunt, Ron

    2012-01-01

    An approach for predicting the vibration, strain, and force responses of a flight-like vehicle panel assembly to acoustic pressures is presented. Important validation for the approach is provided by comparison to ground test measurements in a reverberant chamber. The test article and the corresponding analytical model were assembled in several configurations to demonstrate the suitability of the approach for response predictions when the vehicle panel is integrated with equipment. Critical choices in the analysis necessary for convergence of the predicted and measured responses are illustrated through sensitivity studies. The methodology includes representation of spatial correlation of the pressure field over the panel surface. Therefore, it is possible to demonstrate the effects of hydrodynamic coincidence in the response. The sensitivity to pressure patch density clearly illustrates the onset of coincidence effects on the panel response predictions.

  9. The Correlation of Critical Thinking Disposition and Approaches to Learning among Baccalaureate Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeel, Abeer Refaat; Eisa, Sahar Abd El-Mohsen Mosa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Part of the 21st century skills is critical thinking and learning approaches of students. A part of that resurgence can be attributable to several studies on critical thinking, logic, and thinking skills. Health care professionals are challenged by the complexities of the health care environment. The practice of nursing requires…

  10. A refined cluster-in-molecule local correlation approach for predicting the relative energies of large systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Guo, Yang; Li, Shuhua

    2012-06-07

    A refined cluster-in-molecule (CIM) method for local correlation calculations of large molecules is presented. In the present work, two new strategies are introduced to further improve the CIM approach: (1) Some medium-range electron correlation energies, which are neglected in the previous CIM approach, are taken into account. (2) A much simpler procedure using only a distance threshold is used to construct various clusters. To cover the medium-range correlation effect as much as possible, some two-atom-centered clusters are built, in addition to one-atom-centered clusters. Our test calculations at the second order perturbation theory (MP2) level show that the refined CIM method can recover about 99.9% of the conventional MP2 correlation energy using an appropriate distance threshold. The accuracy of the present CIM method is capable of providing reliable relative energies of medium-sized systems such as polyalanines with 10 residues, and water molecules with 50 water molecules. For polyalanines with up to 30 residues, we have demonstrated that the computational cost of the CIM-MP2 calculation increases linearly with the molecular size, but the required memory and disc-space do not need to increase for large systems. The improved CIM method has been used to compute the relative energy of ice-like (H(2)O)(96) clusters (with 2400 basis functions) and to predict the dimerization energy of a double-helical foldamer (with 2330 basis functions). The present CIM method is expected to be a practical local correlation method for describing the relative energies of large systems.

  11. The double ionization of H{sub 2} by fast electron impact: Influence of the final state electron-electron correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuluunbaatar, O., E-mail: chuka@jinr.ru; Gusev, A. A., E-mail: gooseff@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Joulakian, B. B., E-mail: boghos.joulakian@univ-lorraine.fr [Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions, Institut Jean Barriol (France)

    2013-02-15

    We have determined fully differential cross sections of the (e, 3e) double ionization of H{sub 2} by employing correlated initial- and final-state wave functions. We have constructed for the description of the two slow ejected electrons a symmetrized product of a correlation function and two-center continuum wave functions, which fulfill the correct boundary conditions asymptotically up to the order O((kr){sup -2}). We have shown that the introduction of the correlated part of the final-state wave function improves the results on the (e, 3-1e) of H{sub 2}.

  12. Simulation of dose deposition in stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy: a fast approach combining Monte Carlo and deterministic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smekens, F; Freud, N; Letang, J M; Babot, D [CNDRI (Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations) Laboratory, INSA-Lyon, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Adam, J-F; Elleaume, H; Esteve, F [INSERM U-836, Equipe 6 ' Rayonnement Synchrotron et Recherche Medicale' , Institut des Neurosciences de Grenoble (France); Ferrero, C; Bravin, A [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)], E-mail: francois.smekens@insa-lyon.fr

    2009-08-07

    A hybrid approach, combining deterministic and Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, is proposed to compute the distribution of dose deposited during stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy treatment. The proposed approach divides the computation into two parts: (i) the dose deposited by primary radiation (coming directly from the incident x-ray beam) is calculated in a deterministic way using ray casting techniques and energy-absorption coefficient tables and (ii) the dose deposited by secondary radiation (Rayleigh and Compton scattering, fluorescence) is computed using a hybrid algorithm combining MC and deterministic calculations. In the MC part, a small number of particle histories are simulated. Every time a scattering or fluorescence event takes place, a splitting mechanism is applied, so that multiple secondary photons are generated with a reduced weight. The secondary events are further processed in a deterministic way, using ray casting techniques. The whole simulation, carried out within the framework of the Monte Carlo code Geant4, is shown to converge towards the same results as the full MC simulation. The speed of convergence is found to depend notably on the splitting multiplicity, which can easily be optimized. To assess the performance of the proposed algorithm, we compare it to state-of-the-art MC simulations, accelerated by the track length estimator technique (TLE), considering a clinically realistic test case. It is found that the hybrid approach is significantly faster than the MC/TLE method. The gain in speed in a test case was about 25 for a constant precision. Therefore, this method appears to be suitable for treatment planning applications.

  13. Analysis of cross-correlations in electroencephalogram signals as an approach to proactive diagnosis of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timashev, Serge F.; Panischev, Oleg Yu.; Polyakov, Yuriy S.; Demin, Sergey A.; Kaplan, Alexander Ya.

    2012-02-01

    We apply flicker-noise spectroscopy (FNS), a time series analysis method operating on structure functions and power spectrum estimates, to study the clinical electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded in children/adolescents (11 to 14 years of age) with diagnosed schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms at the National Center for Psychiatric Health (NCPH) of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The EEG signals for these subjects were compared with the signals for a control sample of chronically depressed children/adolescents. The purpose of the study is to look for diagnostic signs of subjects' susceptibility to schizophrenia in the FNS parameters for specific electrodes and cross-correlations between the signals simultaneously measured at different points on the scalp. Our analysis of EEG signals from scalp-mounted electrodes at locations F3 and F4, which are symmetrically positioned in the left and right frontal areas of cerebral cortex, respectively, demonstrates an essential role of frequency-phase synchronization, a phenomenon representing specific correlations between the characteristic frequencies and phases of excitations in the brain. We introduce quantitative measures of frequency-phase synchronization and systematize the values of FNS parameters for the EEG data. The comparison of our results with the medical diagnoses for 84 subjects performed at NCPH makes it possible to group the EEG signals into 4 categories corresponding to different risk levels of subjects' susceptibility to schizophrenia. We suggest that the introduced quantitative characteristics and classification of cross-correlations may be used for the diagnosis of schizophrenia at the early stages of its development.

  14. Numerical solution of time-dependent diffusion equations with nonlocal boundary conditions via a fast matrix approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emran Tohidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes a matrix approach by using Taylor approximation to obtain the numerical solution of one-dimensional time-dependent parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs subject to nonlocal boundary integral conditions. We first impose the initial and boundary conditions to the main problems and then reach to the associated integro-PDEs. By using operational matrices and also the completeness of the monomials basis, the obtained integro-PDEs will be reduced to the generalized Sylvester equations. For solving these algebraic systems, we apply a famous technique in Krylov subspace iterative methods. A numerical example is considered to show the efficiency of the proposed idea.

  15. Exact relation with two-point correlation functions and phenomenological approach for compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Supratik; Galtier, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Compressible isothermal magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is analyzed under the assumption of statistical homogeneity and in the asymptotic limit of large kinetic and magnetic Reynolds numbers. Following Kolmogorov we derive an exact relation for some two-point correlation functions which generalizes the expression recently found for hydrodynamics. We show that the magnetic field brings new source and flux terms into the dynamics which may act on the inertial range similarly as a source or a sink for the mean energy transfer rate. The introduction of a uniform magnetic field simplifies significantly the exact relation for which a simple phenomenology may be given. A prediction for axisymmetric energy spectra is eventually proposed.

  16. An O(N) and parallel approach to integral problems by a kernel-independent fast multipole method: Application to polarization and magnetization of interacting particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xikai; Li, Jiyuan; Zhao, Xujun; Qin, Jian; Karpeev, Dmitry; Hernandez-Ortiz, Juan; de Pablo, Juan J.; Heinonen, Olle

    2016-08-01

    Large classes of materials systems in physics and engineering are governed by magnetic and electrostatic interactions. Continuum or mesoscale descriptions of such systems can be cast in terms of integral equations, whose direct computational evaluation requires O(N2) operations, where N is the number of unknowns. Such a scaling, which arises from the many-body nature of the relevant Green's function, has precluded wide-spread adoption of integral methods for solution of large-scale scientific and engineering problems. In this work, a parallel computational approach is presented that relies on using scalable open source libraries and utilizes a kernel-independent Fast Multipole Method (FMM) to evaluate the integrals in O(N) operations, with O(N) memory cost, thereby substantially improving the scalability and efficiency of computational integral methods. We demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency, and scalability of our approach in the context of two examples. In the first, we solve a boundary value problem for a ferroelectric/ferromagnetic volume in free space. In the second, we solve an electrostatic problem involving polarizable dielectric bodies in an unbounded dielectric medium. The results from these test cases show that our proposed parallel approach, which is built on a kernel-independent FMM, can enable highly efficient and accurate simulations and allow for considerable flexibility in a broad range of applications.

  17. A set cover approach to fast beam orientation optimization in intensity modulated radiation therapy for total marrow irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chieh-Hsiu Jason; Aleman, Dionne M [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, ON M5S 3G8 (Canada); Sharpe, Michael B, E-mail: chjlee@mie.utoronto.ca, E-mail: aleman@mie.utoronto.ca, E-mail: michael.sharpe@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Princess Margaret Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2011-09-07

    The beam orientation optimization (BOO) problem in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning is a nonlinear problem, and existing methods to obtain solutions to the BOO problem are time consuming due to the complex nature of the objective function and size of the solution space. These issues become even more difficult in total marrow irradiation (TMI), where many more beams must be used to cover a vastly larger treatment area than typical site-specific treatments (e.g., head-and-neck, prostate, etc). These complications result in excessively long computation times to develop IMRT treatment plans for TMI, so we attempt to develop methods that drastically reduce treatment planning time. We transform the BOO problem into the classical set cover problem (SCP) and use existing methods to solve SCP to obtain beam solutions. Although SCP is NP-Hard, our methods obtain beam solutions that result in quality treatments in minutes. We compare our approach to an integer programming solver for the SCP to illustrate the speed advantage of our approach.

  18. Thermal form factor approach to the ground-state correlation functions of the XXZ chain in the antiferromagnetic massive regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugave, Maxime; Göhmann, Frank; Kozlowski, Karol K.; Suzuki, Junji

    2016-09-01

    We use the form factors of the quantum transfer matrix in the zero-temperature limit in order to study the two-point ground-state correlation functions of the XXZ chain in the antiferromagnetic massive regime. We obtain novel form factor series representations of the correlation functions which differ from those derived either from the q-vertex-operator approach or from the algebraic Bethe Ansatz approach to the usual transfer matrix. We advocate that our novel representations are numerically more efficient and allow for a straightforward calculation of the large-distance asymptotic behaviour of the two-point functions. Keeping control over the temperature corrections to the two-point functions we see that these are of order {T}∞ in the whole antiferromagnetic massive regime. The isotropic limit of our result yields a novel form factor series representation for the two-point correlation functions of the XXX chain at zero magnetic field. Dedicated to the memory of Petr Petrovich Kulish.

  19. Social inequality, lifestyles and health - a non-linear canonical correlation analysis based on the approach of Pierre Bourdieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse Frie, Kirstin; Janssen, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Based on the theoretical and empirical approach of Pierre Bourdieu, a multivariate non-linear method is introduced as an alternative way to analyse the complex relationships between social determinants and health. The analysis is based on face-to-face interviews with 695 randomly selected respondents aged 30 to 59. Variables regarding socio-economic status, life circumstances, lifestyles, health-related behaviour and health were chosen for the analysis. In order to determine whether the respondents can be differentiated and described based on these variables, a non-linear canonical correlation analysis (OVERALS) was performed. The results can be described on three dimensions; Eigenvalues add up to the fit of 1.444, which can be interpreted as approximately 50 % of explained variance. The three-dimensional space illustrates correspondences between variables and provides a framework for interpretation based on latent dimensions, which can be described by age, education, income and gender. Using non-linear canonical correlation analysis, health characteristics can be analysed in conjunction with socio-economic conditions and lifestyles. Based on Bourdieus theoretical approach, the complex correlations between these variables can be more substantially interpreted and presented.

  20. Coordination Devices in the Refurbishment Design Process: A Partial-Correlation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlan Shah Ali

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Building refurbishment is an important sector in the Malaysian construction industry. The increase the number of building renovations, alterations, extensions and extensive repair works contributed to the high demand for refurbishment projects. However, refurbishment projects are more difficult to manage compared to new-built, due to uncertainty factors inherent in the projects. Therefore, this paper identifies factors that contributed to uncertainty and shows how it affects design performance of refurbishment projects. This paper was also extended to the used of coordination devices to improve design performance from the effect of uncertainty in the projects. Partial-correlation technique was used in data analysis to check any significant moderate effects of coordination devices to control the negative effect of uncertainty on design performance of refurbishment projects. Four (4 coordination devices involved in the partial-correlation tests. The results concluded that the use of lateral relations and architect’s characteristics are most likely reducing the uncertainty of client attributes towards design completeness before work started on site.

  1. Ensemble DFT Approach to Excited States of Strongly Correlated Molecular Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Ensemble density functional theory (DFT) is a novel time-independent formalism for obtaining excitation energies of many-body fermionic systems. A considerable advantage of ensemble DFT over the more common Kohn-Sham (KS) DFT and time-dependent DFT formalisms is that it enables one to account for strong non-dynamic electron correlation in the ground and excited states of molecular systems in a transparent and accurate fashion. Despite its positive aspects, ensemble DFT has not so far found its way into the repertoire of methods of modern computational chemistry, probably because of the perceived lack of practically affordable implementations of the theory. The spin-restricted ensemble-referenced KS (REKS) method is perhaps the first computationally feasible implementation of the ideas behind ensemble DFT which enables one to describe accurately electronic transitions in a wide class of molecular systems, including strongly correlated molecules (biradicals, molecules undergoing bond breaking/formation), extended π-conjugated systems, donor-acceptor charge transfer adducts, etc.

  2. Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach for Vehicle Positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Ruan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available For vehicle positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS in urban areas, open-loop tracking shows better performance because of its high sensitivity and superior robustness against multipath. However, no previous study has focused on the effects of the code search grid size on the code phase measurement accuracy of open-loop tracking. Traditional open-loop tracking methods are performed by the batch correlators with fixed correlation space. The code search grid size, which is the correlation space, is a constant empirical value and the code phase measuring accuracy will be largely degraded due to the improper grid size, especially when the signal carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N0 varies. In this study, the Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach (ACSA-OLTA is proposed to improve the code phase measurement dependent pseudo range accuracy. In ACSA-OLTA, the correlation space is adjusted according to the signal C/N0. The novel Equivalent Weighted Pseudo Range Error (EWPRE is raised to obtain the optimal code search grid sizes for different C/N0. The code phase measuring errors of different measurement calculation methods are analyzed for the first time. The measurement calculation strategy of ACSA-OLTA is derived from the analysis to further improve the accuracy but reduce the correlator consumption. Performance simulation and real tests confirm that the pseudo range and positioning accuracy of ASCA-OLTA are better than the traditional open-loop tracking methods in the usual scenarios of urban area.

  3. Fast 3d Hybrid Seismic Modeling: Ray-fd Approach For Elastic Models With Locally Complex Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprsal, I.; Brokesova, J.; Faeh, D.; Giardini, D.

    Hybrid approaches may find broad applications wherever full source, path,and site effects modeling methods are too expensive. A new efficient hybrid method allowing to compute seismic wavefield in large 3D elastic models containing a complex local structure embedded in a large, but considerably simpler, structure is designed. This hybrid method combines the ray approach in the large simple structure with the finite difference (FD) approach in the local complex structure. The hybrid method is based on two successive steps. In the 1st one, the source and path information is carried by wavefield propagating in the large simple structure. This wavefield, calculated by the ray method, is incident at the points along a two-fold formal boundary (excitation box, EB) surrounding that part of the model which is to be replaced by the complex medium in the 2nd step. 3D rays are necessary due to ar- bitrary source-EB configuration, even in case the 1st step structure is less dimensional (2D, 1D, homogeneous). Along EB, the ray endpoints may be distributed sparsely thanks to relative simplicity of the structure. This reduces computer time requirements and also the size of the excitation file saved on the disk. The ray wavefield along EB provides (after interpolation in space and time) the input for the second step consisting in calculating the complete wavefield by the 3D FD method on irregular grids. The FD computational domain contains the EB and its close vicinity. The 2nd step model differs from the 1st step model only inside the EB where the local complex structure is inserted. To verify the consistency between the 1st and the 2nd step binding, the 2nd step computation can be performed on (unchanged) 1st step model ('replication test'). This should give the same wavefield as the 1st step inside, and zero wavefield outside the EB. The EB remains fully permeable for all waves propagating within the FD domain. Provided the 1st step structure does not contain too many layers

  4. Evaluation of Phase Locking and Cross Correlation Methods for Estimating the Time Lag between Brain Sites: A Simulation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Daliri, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Direction and latency of electrical connectivity between different sites of brain explains brain neural functionality. We compared efficiency of cross correlation and phase locking methods in time lag estimation which are based on local field potential (LFP) and LFP-spike signals, respectively. Signals recorded from MT area of a macaque's brain was used in a simulation approach. The first signal was real brain activity and the second was identical to the first one, but with two kinds of delayed and not delayed forms. Time lag between two signals was estimated by cross correlation and phase locking methods. Both methods estimated the time lags with no errors. Phase locking was not as time efficient as correlation. In addition, phase locking suffered from temporal self bias. Correlation was a more efficient method. Phase locking was not considered as a proper method to estimate the time lags between brain sites due to time inefficiency and self bias, the problems which are reported for the first time about this method.

  5. Role of fast ignitor in fast-shock ignition concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ghasemi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the role of fast ignitor in fast-shock ignition (FSI concept. The semi-analytical model indicates that the FSI target gain is a function of fast ignitor laser wavelength. If the energy of fast ignitor driver is and the laser wavelength is less than 0.53 micron, then with a fuel mass about 2 mg the FSI has a considerable advantage over pure shock ignition and the figure of merit is better than 1.2. When the wavelength of fast ignitor becomes shorter, the approaches , and for wavelengths shorter than 0.25 micron no additional is advantage is obtained.

  6. Metabolic Effects of Intermittent Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ruth E; Sears, Dorothy D

    2017-08-21

    The objective of this review is to provide an overview of intermittent fasting regimens, summarize the evidence on the health benefits of intermittent fasting, and discuss physiological mechanisms by which intermittent fasting might lead to improved health outcomes. A MEDLINE search was performed using PubMed and the terms "intermittent fasting," "fasting," "time-restricted feeding," and "food timing." Modified fasting regimens appear to promote weight loss and may improve metabolic health. Several lines of evidence also support the hypothesis that eating patterns that reduce or eliminate nighttime eating and prolong nightly fasting intervals may result in sustained improvements in human health. Intermittent fasting regimens are hypothesized to influence metabolic regulation via effects on (a) circadian biology, (b) the gut microbiome, and (c) modifiable lifestyle behaviors, such as sleep. If proven to be efficacious, these eating regimens offer promising nonpharmacological approaches to improving health at the population level, with multiple public health benefits.

  7. Correlations for the estimation of monthly mean hourly diffuse solar radiation: a time dependent approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Katiyar, Akhilesh Kumar, C. K. Pandey, V. K. Katiyar, S. H. Abdi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The time dependent monthly mean hourly diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface has been estimated for Lucknow (latitude26.75 degree, longitude 80.50 degree using least squares regression analysis. The monthly and annually regression constants are obtained. The present results are compared with the estimation of Orgill-Holands (Sol. Energy, 19 (4, 357 (1977, Erbs et. al (Sol. Energy 28 (4, 293-304(1982 and Spencer (Sol. Energy 29 (1, 19-32(1982 as well as with experimental value. The proposed constant provides better estimation for the entire year over others. Spencer, who correlate hourly diffuse fraction with clearness index, estimates lowest value except in summers when insolation in this region is very high. The accuracy of the regression constants are also checked with statistical tests of root mean square error (RMSE, mean bias error (MBE and t –statistic tests.

  8. Analysis of cross-correlations in electroencephalogram signals as an approach to proactive diagnosis of schizophrenia

    CERN Document Server

    Timashev, Serge F; Polyakov, Yuriy S; Demin, Sergey A; Kaplan, Alexander Ya

    2011-01-01

    We apply flicker-noise spectroscopy (FNS), a time series analysis method operating on structure functions and power spectrum estimates, to study the clinical electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded in children/adolescents (11 to 14 years of age) with diagnosed schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms at the National Center for Psychiatric Health (NCPH) of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The EEG signals for these subjects were compared with the signals for a control sample of chronically depressed children/adolescents. The purpose of the study is to look for diagnostic signs of subjects' susceptibility to schizophrenia in the FNS parameters for specific electrodes and cross-correlations between the signals simultaneously measured at different points on the scalp. Our analysis of EEG signals from scalp-mounted electrodes at locations F3 and F4, which are symmetrically positioned in the left and right frontal areas of cerebral cortex, respectively, demonstrates an essential role of frequency-phase synchroniz...

  9. One-step approach to ARPES from strongly correlated solids: A Mott-Hubbard system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzian, R. O.; Krasovskii, E. E.

    2016-09-01

    An expression is derived for angle-resolved photocurrent from a semi-infinite correlated system. Within the sudden approximation, the photocurrent is proportional to the spectral function of a one-particle two-time retarded Green's function G of an operator that creates an electron in a special quantum state χ localized at the surface. For a system described by a many-body single-band model, we present an analytical expression that relates the Green's function G with the Green's function of an infinite crystal Gb ,k(ω ) in Wannier representation. The role of final states and of the crystal surface is analyzed for a model Green's function of the infinite crystal with a three-peak spectral function typical of a Mott-Hubbard metal. The momentum dependences of both the quasiparticle pole position and the spectral weight of the incoherent band manifest themselves in the shape of the photocurrent energy distribution curve.

  10. Random matrix approach to group correlations in development country financial market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qohar, Ulin Nuha Abdul; Lim, Kyuseong; Kim, Soo Yong; Liong, The Houw; Purqon, Acep

    2015-12-01

    Financial market is a borderless economic activity, everyone in this world has the right to participate in stock transactions. The movement of stocks is interesting to be discussed in various sciences, ranging from economists to mathe-maticians try to explain and predict the stock movement. Econophysics, as a discipline that studies the economic behavior using one of the methods in particle physics to explain stock movement. Stocks tend to be unpredictable probabilistic regarded as a probabilistic particle. Random Matrix Theory is one method used to analyze probabilistic particle is used to analyze the characteristics of the movement in the stock collection of developing country stock market shares of the correlation matrix. To obtain the characteristics of the developing country stock market and use characteristics of stock markets of developed countries as a parameter for comparison. The result shows market wide effect is not happened in Philipine market and weak in Indonesia market. Contrary, developed country (US) has strong market wide effect.

  11. Exploring individual differences in children's mathematical skills: a correlational and dimensional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsson, H; Polman, R C J; Lorås, H

    2013-08-01

    Individual differences in mathematical skills are typically explained by an innate capability to solve mathematical tasks. At the behavioural level this implies a consistent level of mathematical achievement that can be captured by strong relationships between tasks, as well as by a single statistical dimension that underlies performance on all mathematical tasks. To investigate this general assumption, the present study explored interrelations and dimensions of mathematical skills. For this purpose, 68 ten-year-old children from two schools were tested using nine mathematics tasks from the Basic Knowledge in Mathematics Test. Relatively low-to-moderate correlations between the mathematics tasks indicated most tasks shared less than 25% of their variance. There were four principal components, accounting for 70% of the variance in mathematical skill across tasks and participants. The high specificity in mathematical skills was discussed in relation to the principle of task specificity of learning.

  12. Probing cytoskeletal structures by coupling optical superresolution and AFM techniques for a correlative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Jenu Varghese; Zanacchi, Francesca Cella; Diaspro, Alberto

    2013-11-01

    In this article, we describe and show the application of some of the most advanced fluorescence superresolution techniques, STED AFM and STORM AFM microscopy towards imaging of cytoskeletal structures, such as microtubule filaments. Mechanical and structural properties can play a relevant role in the investigation of cytoskeletal structures of interest, such as microtubules, that provide support to the cell structure. In fact, the mechanical properties, such as the local stiffness and the elasticity, can be investigated by AFM force spectroscopy with tens of nanometers resolution. Force curves can be analyzed in order to obtain the local elasticity (and the Young's modulus calculation by fitting the force curves from every pixel of interest), and the combination with STED/STORM microscopy integrates the measurement with high specificity and yields superresolution structural information. This hybrid modality of superresolution-AFM working is a clear example of correlative multimodal microscopy.

  13. Gold-FISH: A correlative approach to microscopic imaging of single microbial cells in environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hannes; Seki, David; Woebken, Dagmar; Eickhorst, Thilo

    2017-04-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is routinely used for the phylogenetic identification, detection, and quantification of single microbial cells environmental microbiology. Oligonucleotide probes that match the 16S rRNA sequence of target organisms are generally applied and the resulting signals are visualized via fluorescence microscopy. Consequently, the detection of the microbial cells of interest is limited by the resolution and the sensitivity of light microscopy where objects smaller than 0.2 µm can hardly be represented. Visualizing microbial cells at magnifications beyond light microscopy, however, can provide information on the composition and potential complexity of microbial habitats - the actual sites of nutrient cycling in soil and sediments. We present a recently developed technique that combines (1) the phylogenetic identification and detection of individual microorganisms by epifluorescence microscopy, with (2) the in situ localization of gold-labelled target cells on an ultrastructural level by SEM. Based on 16S rRNA targeted in situ hybridization combined with catalyzed reporter deposition, a streptavidin conjugate labeled with a fluorescent dye and nanogold particles is introduced into whole microbial cells. A two-step visualization process including an autometallographic enhancement of nanogold particles then allows for either fluorescence or electron microscopy, or a correlative application thereof. We will present applications of the Gold-FISH protocol to samples of marine sediments, agricultural soils, and plant roots. The detection and enumeration of bacterial cells in soil and sediment samples was comparable to CARD-FISH applications via fluorescence microscopy. Examples of microbe-surface interaction analysis will be presented on the basis of bacteria colonizing the rhizoplane of rice roots. In principle, Gold-FISH can be performed on any material to give a snapshot of microbe-surface interactions and provides a promising tool for

  14. Spatio-temporal interaction between absorbing aerosols and temperature: Correlation and causality based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, P.; Bhushan, M.; Venkataraman, C.

    2016-12-01

    Indian subcontinent, in particular, the Indo-gangetic plain (IGP) has witnessed large temperature anomalies (Ratnam et al., 2016) along with high emission of absorbing aerosols (AA) (Gazala, et al., 2005). The anomalous high temperature observed over this region may bear a relationship with high AA emissions. Different studies have been conducted to understand AA and temperature relationships (Turco et al., 1983; Hansen et al., 1997, 2005; Seinfeld 2008; Ramanathan et al. 2010b; Ban-Weiss et al., 2012). It was found that when the AA was injected in the lower- mid troposphere the surface air temperature increases while injection of AA at higher troposphere-lower stratosphere surface temperature decreases. These studies used simulation based results to establish link between AA and temperature (Hansen et al., 1997, 2005; Ban-Weiss et al., 2012). The current work focuses on identifying the causal influence of AA on temperature using observational and re-analysis data over Indian subcontinent using cross correlation (CCs) and Granger causality (GC) (Granger, 1969). Aerosol index (AI) from TOMS-OMI was used as index for AA while ERA-interim reanalysis data was used for temperature at varying altitude. Period of study was March-April-May-June (MAMJ) for years 1979-2015. CCs were calculated for all the atmospheric layers. In each layer nearby and distant pixels (>500 kms) with high CCs were identified using clustering technique. It was found that that AI and Temperature shows statistically significant cross-correlations for co-located and distant pixels and more prominently over IGP. The CCs fades away with higher altitudes. CCs analysis was followed by GC analysis to identify the lag over which AI can influence the Temperature. GC also supported the findings of CCs analysis. It is an early attempt to link persisting large temperature anomalies with absorbing aerosols and may help in identifying the role of absorbing aerosol in causing heat waves.

  15. Semiautomated tremor detection using a combined cross-correlation and neural network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Tobias; Harrington, Rebecca M.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite observations of tectonic tremor in many locations around the globe, the emergent phase arrivals, low‒amplitude waveforms, and variable event durations make automatic detection a nontrivial task. In this study, we employ a new method to identify tremor in large data sets using a semiautomated technique. The method first reduces the data volume with an envelope cross‒correlation technique, followed by a Self‒Organizing Map (SOM) algorithm to identify and classify event types. The method detects tremor in an automated fashion after calibrating for a specific data set, hence we refer to it as being “semiautomated”. We apply the semiautomated detection algorithm to a newly acquired data set of waveforms from a temporary deployment of 13 seismometers near Cholame, California, from May 2010 to July 2011. We manually identify tremor events in a 3 week long test data set and compare to the SOM output and find a detection accuracy of 79.5%. Detection accuracy improves with increasing signal‒to‒noise ratios and number of available stations. We find detection completeness of 96% for tremor events with signal‒to‒noise ratios above 3 and optimal results when data from at least 10 stations are available. We compare the SOM algorithm to the envelope correlation method of Wech and Creager and find the SOM performs significantly better, at least for the data set examined here. Using the SOM algorithm, we detect 2606 tremor events with a cumulative signal duration of nearly 55 h during the 13 month deployment. Overall, the SOM algorithm is shown to be a flexible new method that utilizes characteristics of the waveforms to identify tremor from noise or other seismic signals.

  16. [Headache in children and adolescents. Epidemiology, biopsychosocial correlates, and psychological treatment approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner-Herwig, B

    2014-08-01

    An abundance of studies have consistently shown that headache is the most prevalent pain in children and adolescents. Weekly headache is experienced by more than 10 % and is distinctly more frequent in girls. The number of headache-affected youths with high disability is lower than expected (~ 4 %). Headache is associated with pain in other body sites, thus multiple pain is experienced more often than isolated headache. Various somatic symptoms and even chronic diseases are also correlated with headache. Headache in parents carries a high risk of also occurring in their children. Various other psychosocial factors such as dysfunctional psychological traits are closely linked with headache, the most prominent being internalizing symptoms. However, externalizing symptoms also correlate with headache. Pain catastrophizing, as well as somatosensory amplification and anxiety sensitivity, have been shown to characterize individuals with headache. Features of the social environment, such as life events, school, as well as family stressors and socioeconomic parameters, are among the risk factors. Psychological interventions such as biofeedback, relaxation, and cognitive-behavioral training have proved their efficacy in headache treatment according to several meta-analyses. The latter has also been conducted in group settings and more recently in self-management focused trainings using electronic media. They mainly aim at the prevention of further headache episodes. The goal of this training is the strengthening of self-efficacy beliefs and active coping strategies. It is proposed that these competencies could contribute to the successful long-term prevention of an adverse course of headache into adulthood.

  17. A comparison of ensemble post-processing approaches that preserve correlation structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schefzik, Roman; Van Schaeybroeck, Bert; Vannitsem, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    Despite the fact that ensemble forecasts address the major sources of uncertainty, they exhibit biases and dispersion errors and therefore are known to improve by calibration or statistical post-processing. For instance the ensemble model output statistics (EMOS) method, also known as non-homogeneous regression approach (Gneiting et al., 2005) is known to strongly improve forecast skill. EMOS is based on fitting and adjusting a parametric probability density function (PDF). However, EMOS and other common post-processing approaches apply to a single weather quantity at a single location for a single look-ahead time. They are therefore unable of taking into account spatial, inter-variable and temporal dependence structures. Recently many research efforts have been invested in designing post-processing methods that resolve this drawback but also in verification methods that enable the detection of dependence structures. New verification methods are applied on two classes of post-processing methods, both generating physically coherent ensembles. A first class uses the ensemble copula coupling (ECC) that starts from EMOS but adjusts the rank structure (Schefzik et al., 2013). The second class is a member-by-member post-processing (MBM) approach that maps each raw ensemble member to a corrected one (Van Schaeybroeck and Vannitsem, 2015). We compare variants of the EMOS-ECC and MBM classes and highlight a specific theoretical connection between them. All post-processing variants are applied in the context of the ensemble system of the European Centre of Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and compared using multivariate verification tools including the energy score, the variogram score (Scheuerer and Hamill, 2015) and the band depth rank histogram (Thorarinsdottir et al., 2015). Gneiting, Raftery, Westveld, and Goldman, 2005: Calibrated probabilistic forecasting using ensemble model output statistics and minimum CRPS estimation. Mon. Wea. Rev., {133}, 1098-1118. Scheuerer and

  18. VADASE: a new approach for real-time fast displacement detection - First application to Taiwan High-Rate GNSS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Huang-Kai; Rau, Ruey-Juin; Colosimo, Gabriele; Benedetti, Elisa; Branzanti, Mara; Crespi, Mattia; Mazzoni, Augusto

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to show new possibilities for GNSS Permanent Network data processing offered by VADASE (Variometric Approach for Displacements Analysis Standalone Engine) to retrieve waveforms and coseismic displacements in real-time when an earthquake occurs. The main advantage of using GNSS receiver, in a complementary way with traditional seismic network, is that it can work without being affected by saturation, which commonly influence seismometers and accelerometers close to strong earthquake epicenters. VADASE was originally proposed in 2010 ([4],[5]) as the third way in GPS Seismology (in addition to Precise Point Positioning and Instantaneous Differential Positioning). The approach is based on time single differences of carrier phase observations continuously collected at high rate (1 Hz or higher) using a standalone GPS receiver and standard GPS broadcast products (orbits and clocks) that are available in real-time. Hence, one receiver works in standalone mode and the epoch-by-epoch displacements (equivalent to velocities) are estimated. Then, they are summed over the time interval when the earthquake occurred to retrieve coseismic displacements and waveforms. Considering time intervals limited to few minutes, the receiver displacements can be ascertained at a few centimeters accuracy level in real-time. The effectiveness of this approach was recognized by DLR (German Aerospace Agency), and VADASE was awarded the DLR Special Topic Prize and the Audience Award at the European Satellite Navigation Competition 2010. Moreover, VADASE potential was proven in the dramatic occasion of the Japanese earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011 ([3]-[6]); in fact VADASE was able to provide the first estimates of the displacements suffered at the IGS sites of MIZU and USUD [7], as soon as the data of these stations were available. The results were then confirmed by several other solutions based on the renown (DP, PPP) approaches. More recently, VADASE was applied

  19. 2D EPID dose calibration for pretreatment quality control of conformal and IMRT fields: A simple and fast convolution approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Jérémy; Mazurier, Jocelyne; Franck, Denis; Dudouet, Philippe; Latorzeff, Igor; Franceries, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an original algorithm that converts the signal of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) into absorbed dose in water at the depth of maximum. The model includes a first image pre-processing step that accounts for the non-uniformity of the detector response but also for the perturbation of the signal due to backscatter radiation. Secondly, the image is converted into absorbed dose to water through a linear conversion function associated with a dose redistribution kernel. These two computation parameters were modelled by correlating the on-axis EPID signal with absorbed dose measurements obtained on square fields by using an ionization chamber placed in water at the depth of maximum dose. The accuracy of the algorithm was assessed by comparing the dose determined from the EPID signal with the dose derived by the treatment planning system (TPS) using the ϒ-index. These comparisons were performed on 8 conformal radiotherapy treatment fields (3DCRT) and 18 modulated fields (IMRT). For a dose difference and a distance-to-agreement set to 3% of the maximum dose and 2 mm respectively, the mean percentage of points with a ϒ-value less than or equal to 1 was 99.8% ± 0.1% for 3DCRT fields and 96.8% ± 2.7% for IMRT fields. Moreover, the mean gamma values were always less than 0.5 whatever the treatment technique. These results confirm that our algorithm is an accurate and suitable tool for clinical use in a context of IMRT quality assurance programmes. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An ecological approach to children's rights and participation: interrelationships and correlates of rights in different ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arieh, Asher; Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet

    2013-01-01

    Current knowledge emphasizes either a developmental or a cultural/contextual theoretical framework for understanding children's approaches to the concepts of rights and participation. This study, carried out among 1,753 Israeli adolescents (ages 15-17), uses a socioecological perspective instead to understand children's rights and participation. It examines adolescents' approaches to their rights and participation at 4 ecological levels-family, school, community, and the larger sociopolitical system-as well as a number of possible child, family, and societal correlates. It also looks at the interactions between some of these correlates. The findings show that different correlates have different links with various ecological circles. For example, girls reported higher levels of participation in the family and at school, but no significant differences were found between boys and girls in their participation in the community and at civic-political levels. Israeli Palestinians reported higher levels of participation in their schools and at the civic-political level but lower levels of participation in the family and the community compared with their Jewish counterparts. The significant interaction effect between nation and gender showed that, among Arab students, there were larger gaps between boys and girls in the different participation domains than there were among Jewish students. Furthermore, higher rates of participation in the family and lower rates of civic participation were found among students from single-parent families. This study shows that employing an ecological framework to the efforts to understand children's approaches to rights and participation is a first step in the right direction for fostering children's rights and participation. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  1. Effects of a phase transition on HBT correlations in an integrated Boltzmann+Hydrodynamics approach

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Qingfeng; Petersen, Hannah; Bleicher, Marcus; Stoecker, Horst

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study of HBT radii of pions, produced in heavy ion collisions in the intermediate energy regime (SPS), from an integrated (3+1)d Boltzmann+hydrodynamics approach is presented. The calculations in this hybrid approach, incorporating an hydrodynamic stage into the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) transport model, allow for a comparison of different equations of state (EoS) retaining the same initial conditions and final freeze-out. The results are also compared to the pure cascade transport model calculations in the context of the available data. Furthermore, the effect of different treatments of the hydrodynamic freeze-out procedure on the HBT radii are investigated. It is found that the HBT radii are essentially insensitive to the details of the freeze-out prescription as long as the final state interactions in the cascade are taken into account. The HBT radii $R_L$ and $R_O$ and the $R_O/R_S$ ratio are sensitive to the EoS that is employed during the hydrodynamic evolution. ...

  2. Effects of a phase transition on HBT correlations in an integrated Boltzmann + hydrodynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingfeng; Steinheimer, Jan; Petersen, Hannah; Bleicher, Marcus; Stöcker, Horst

    2009-04-01

    A systematic study of HBT radii of pions, produced in heavy ion collisions in the intermediate energy regime (SPS), from an integrated (3 + 1)d Boltzmann + hydrodynamics approach is presented. The calculations in this hybrid approach, incorporating an hydrodynamic stage into the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics transport model, allow for a comparison of different equations of state retaining the same initial conditions and final freeze-out. The results are also compared to the pure cascade transport model calculations in the context of the available data. Furthermore, the effect of different treatments of the hydrodynamic freeze-out procedure on the HBT radii are investigated. It is found that the HBT radii are essentially insensitive to the details of the freeze-out prescription as long as the final hadronic interactions in the cascade are taken into account. The HBT radii RL and RO and the RO /RS ratio are sensitive to the EoS that is employed during the hydrodynamic evolution. We conclude that the increased lifetime in case of a phase transition to a QGP (via a Bag Model equation of state) is not supported by the available data.

  3. Effects of a phase transition on HBT correlations in an integrated Boltzmann + hydrodynamics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Qingfeng [School of Science, Huzhou Teachers College, Huzhou 313000 (China); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: liqf@fias.uni-frankfurt.de; Steinheimer, Jan [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: steinheimer@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de; Petersen, Hannah [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: petersen@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de; Bleicher, Marcus [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: bleicher@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de; Stoecker, Horst [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)], E-mail: h.stoecker@gsi.de

    2009-04-13

    A systematic study of HBT radii of pions, produced in heavy ion collisions in the intermediate energy regime (SPS), from an integrated (3+1)d Boltzmann + hydrodynamics approach is presented. The calculations in this hybrid approach, incorporating an hydrodynamic stage into the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics transport model, allow for a comparison of different equations of state retaining the same initial conditions and final freeze-out. The results are also compared to the pure cascade transport model calculations in the context of the available data. Furthermore, the effect of different treatments of the hydrodynamic freeze-out procedure on the HBT radii are investigated. It is found that the HBT radii are essentially insensitive to the details of the freeze-out prescription as long as the final hadronic interactions in the cascade are taken into account. The HBT radii R{sub L} and R{sub O} and the R{sub O}/R{sub S} ratio are sensitive to the EoS that is employed during the hydrodynamic evolution. We conclude that the increased lifetime in case of a phase transition to a QGP (via a Bag Model equation of state) is not supported by the available data.

  4. A Fast Hybrid Algorithm Approach for the Exact String Matching Problem Via Berry Ravindran and Alpha Skip Search Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Almazroi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: String matching algorithm had been an essential means for searching biological sequence database. With the constant expansion in scientific data such as DNA and Protein; the development of enhanced algorithms have even become more critical as the major concern had always been how to raise the performances of these search algorithms to meet challenges of scientific information. Approach: Therefore a new hybrid algorithm comprising Berry Ravindran (BR and Alpha Skip Search (ASS is presented. The concept is based on BR shift function and combines with ASS to ensure improved performance. Results: The results obtained in percentages from the proposed hybrid algorithm displayed superior results in terms of number of attempts and number of character comparisons than the original algorithms when various types of data namely DNA, Protein and English text are applied to appraise the hybrid performances. The enhancement of the proposed hybrid algorithm performs better at 71%, 60% and 63% when compared to Berry-Ravindran in DNA, Protein and English text correspondingly. Moreover the rate of enhancement over Alpha Skip Search algorithm in DNA, Protein and English text are 48%, 28% and 36% respectively. Conclusion: The new proposed hybrid algorithm is relevant for searching biological science sequence database and also other string search systems.

  5. A fast and practical approach to genotype phasing and imputation on a pedigree with erroneous and incomplete information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirola, Yuri; Della Vedova, Gianluca; Biffani, Stefano; Stella, Alessandra; Bonizzoni, Paola

    2012-01-01

    The MINIMUM-RECOMBINANT HAPLOTYPE CONFIGURATION problem (MRHC) has been highly successful in providing a sound combinatorial formulation for the important problem of genotype phasing on pedigrees. Despite several algorithmic advances that have improved the efficiency, its applicability to real data sets has been limited since it does not take into account some important phenomena such as mutations, genotyping errors, and missing data. In this work, we propose the MINIMUM-RECOMBINANT HAPLOTYPE CONFIGURATION WITH BOUNDED ERRORS problem (MRHCE), which extends the original MRHC formulation by incorporating the two most common characteristics of real data: errors and missing genotypes (including untyped individuals). We describe a practical algorithm for MRHCE that is based on a reduction to the well-known Satisfiability problem (SAT) and exploits recent advances in the constraint programming literature. An experimental analysis demonstrates the biological soundness of the phasing model and the effectiveness (on both accuracy and performance) of the algorithm under several scenarios. The analysis on real data and the comparison with state-of-the-art programs reveals that our approach couples better scalability to large and complex pedigrees with the explicit inclusion of genotyping errors into the model.

  6. C-shaped Incision for Far-Lateral Suboccipital Approach: Anatomical Study and Clinical Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Tsz; Reintjes, Stephen; Olivera, Raul; van Loveren, Harry R; Agazzi, Siviero

    2015-03-01

    Background The standard incision for far-lateral suboccipital approaches has been the classic "reverse hockey stick." Although that incision provides ample exposure, concern has been raised that excessive muscle dissection and skin elevation might lead to accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) under the flap with increased risk of CSF leak. We hypothesize that the C-shaped incision can minimize the amount of muscle dissection and provide optimal exposure and surgical outcomes. Objective To describe the anatomical dissection for the C-shaped incision and clinical application of the C-shaped incision for the far-lateral approach. Methods A retrospective analysis of all the patients operated on at our center using this approach for the treatment of aneurysm of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) from 2005 to 2011. Results of clinical and operative outcome are evaluated. Surgical techniques are described in detail. Cadaveric dissections using the C-shaped incision were performed to assess the exposure of the far-lateral suboccipital area. Results Eleven consecutive patients who had undergone this procedure were selected. All patients underwent clipping of PICA aneurysms. Nine patients (82%) presented with ruptured aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage. All of them underwent suboccipital craniectomy and C1 laminectomy. The dura mater was closed in a watertight fashion in 10 patients (91%). No CSF leak or pseudomeningocele were reported. In nine SAH patients, two (22%) had postoperative dysphagia and required long-term percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement. One patient (11%) had chronic respiratory failure and required a tracheostomy. Three patients (33%) developed hydrocephalus and required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Conclusions The C-shaped incision is a valid alternative to the classic reverse hockey-stick incision to gain exposure for far-lateral craniotomies. Knowing the anatomy and dissection techniques can provide an easy

  7. Broadband finite-pulse radio-frequency-driven recoupling (fp-RFDR) with (XY8)4(1) super-cycling for homo-nuclear correlations in very high magnetic fields at fast and ultra-fast MAS frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ming; Hu, Bingwen; Lafon, Oliver; Trébosc, Julien; Chen, Qun; Amoureux, Jean-Paul

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate that inter-residue (13)C-(13)C proximities (of about 380 pm) in uniformly (13)C-labeled proteins can be probed by applying robust first-order recoupling during several milliseconds in single-quantum single-quantum dipolar homo-nuclear correlation (SQ-SQ D-HOMCOR) 2D experiments. We show that the intensity of medium-range homo-nuclear correlations in these experiments is enhanced using broadband first-order finite-pulse radio-frequency-driven recoupling (fp-RFDR) NMR sequence with a nested (XY8)4(1) super-cycling. The robustness and the efficiency of the fp-RFDR-(XY8)4(1) method is demonstrated at high magnetic field (21.1T) and high Magic-Angle Spinning (MAS) speeds (up to 60 kHz). The introduced super-cycling, formed by combining phase inversion and a global four-quantum phase cycle, improves the robustness of fp-RFDR to (i) chemical shift anisotropy (CSA), (ii) spread in isotropic chemical shifts, (iii) rf-inhomogeneity and (iv) hetero-nuclear dipolar couplings for long recoupling times. We show that fp-RFDR-(XY8)4(1) is efficient sans (1)H decoupling, which is beneficial for temperature-sensitive biomolecules. The efficiency and the robustness of fp-RFDR-(XY8)4(1) is investigated by spin dynamics numerical simulations as well as solid-state NMR experiments on [U-(13)C]-L-histidine·HCl, a tetra-peptide (Fmoc-[U-(13)C,(15)N]-Val-[U-(13)C,(15)N]-Ala-[U-(13)C,(15)N]-Phe-Gly-t-Boc) and Al(PO(3))(3).

  8. Low-power broadband homonuclear dipolar recoupling without decoupling: Double-quantum 13C NMR correlations at very fast magic-angle spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymoori, Gholamhasan; Pahari, Bholanath; Stevensson, Baltzar; Edén, Mattias

    2012-09-01

    We report novel symmetry-based radio-frequency (rf) pulse sequences for efficient excitation of double-quantum (2Q) coherences under very fast (>60 kHz) magic-angle spinning (MAS) conditions. The recursively generated pulse-scheme series, R22p1R22p-1(p=1,2,3,…), offers broadband 13C-13C recoupling in organic solids at a very low rf power. No proton decoupling is required. A high-order average Hamiltonian theory analysis reveals a progressively enhanced resonance-offset compensation for increasing p, as verified both by numerical simulations and 2Q filtration NMR experiments on 13C2-glycine, [2,3-13C2]alanine, and [U-13C]tyrosine at 14.1 T and 66 kHz MAS, where the pulse schemes with p⩾3 compare favorably to current state-of-the-art recoupling options.

  9. Semiclassical approach to mesoscopic systems classical trajectory correlations and wave interference

    CERN Document Server

    Waltner, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This volume describes mesoscopic systems with classically chaotic dynamics using semiclassical methods which combine elements of classical dynamics and quantum interference effects. Experiments and numerical studies show that Random Matrix Theory (RMT) explains physical properties of these systems well. This was conjectured more than 25 years ago by Bohigas, Giannoni and Schmit for the spectral properties. Since then, it has been a challenge to understand this connection analytically.  The author offers his readers a clearly-written and up-to-date treatment of the topics covered. He extends previous semiclassical approaches that treated spectral and conductance properties. He shows that RMT results can in general only be obtained semiclassically when taking into account classical configurations not considered previously, for example those containing multiply traversed periodic orbits. Furthermore, semiclassics is capable of describing effects beyond RMT. In this context he studies the effect of a non-zero Eh...

  10. Correlation between facial types and muscle TMD in women: an anthropometric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Pacheco de ARAUJO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular disorders (TMD affecting the articular disc and/or the facial muscles are common among the population, recording a higher incidence in women age 20-40 years. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between facial types and muscle TMD in women. This study comprised 56 women age 18 to 49 years, seeking treatment for TMD at the School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo. All of the study individuals were diagnosed with muscle TMD, based on the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC. Facial type was determined using the Facial Brugsch Index and classified as euryprosopic (short and/or broad, mesoprosopic (average width and leptoprosopic (long and/or narrow. The data were submitted to the Chi-square test and ANOVA-Tukey’s test to conduct the statistical analysis. The faces of 27 individuals were classified as euryprosopic (48%, 18 as mesoprosopic (32%, and 11 as leptoprosopic (20%. A statistically significant difference (Chi-square, p = 0.032 was found among the facial types, in that leptoprosopic facial types showed the lowest values for muscle TMD. A greater number (p = 0.0007 of cases of muscle TMD were observed in the 20 to 39 year-old subjects than in the subjects of other age segments. In conclusion, women with euryprosopic facial types could be more susceptible to muscle TMD. Further studies are needed to investigate this hypothesis.

  11. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Multimodality Imaging Approach with Clinical-Pathologic Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revzin, Margarita V; Mathur, Mahan; Dave, Haatal B; Macer, Matthew L; Spektor, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a common medical problem, with almost 1 million cases diagnosed annually. Historically, PID has been a clinical diagnosis supplemented with the findings from ultrasonography (US) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. However, the diagnosis of PID can be challenging because the clinical manifestations may mimic those of other pelvic and abdominal processes. Given the nonspecific clinical manifestations, computed tomography (CT) is commonly the first imaging examination performed. General CT findings of early- and late-stage PID include thickening of the uterosacral ligaments, pelvic fat stranding with obscuration of fascial planes, reactive lymphadenopathy, and pelvic free fluid. Recognition of these findings, as well as those seen with cervicitis, endometritis, acute salpingitis, oophoritis, pyosalpinx, hydrosalpinx, tubo-ovarian abscess, and pyometra, is crucial in allowing prompt and accurate diagnosis. Late complications of PID include tubal damage resulting in infertility and ectopic pregnancy, peritonitis caused by uterine and/or tubo-ovarian abscess rupture, development of peritoneal adhesions resulting in bowel obstruction and/or hydroureteronephrosis, right upper abdominal inflammation (Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome), and septic thrombophlebitis. Recognition of these late manifestations at CT can also aid in proper patient management. At CT, careful assessment of common PID mimics, such as endometriosis, adnexal torsion, ruptured hemorrhagic ovarian cyst, adnexal neoplasms, appendicitis, and diverticulitis, is important to avoid misinterpretation, delay in management, and unnecessary surgery. Correlation with the findings from complementary imaging examinations, such as US and MR imaging, is useful for establishing a definitive diagnosis. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  12. A meta-analytic approach to examining the correlation between religion/spirituality and mental health in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsman, John M; Pustejovsky, James E; Jim, Heather S L; Munoz, Alexis R; Merluzzi, Thomas V; George, Login; Park, Crystal L; Danhauer, Suzanne C; Sherman, Allen C; Snyder, Mallory A; Fitchett, George

    2015-11-01

    Religion and spirituality (R/S) are patient-centered factors and often are resources for managing the emotional sequelae of the cancer experience. Studies investigating the correlation between R/S (eg, beliefs, experiences, coping) and mental health (eg, depression, anxiety, well being) in cancer have used very heterogeneous measures and have produced correspondingly inconsistent results. A meaningful synthesis of these findings has been lacking; thus, the objective of this review was to conduct a meta-analysis of the research on R/S and mental health. Four electronic databases were systematically reviewed, and 2073 abstracts met initial selection criteria. Reviewer pairs applied standardized coding schemes to extract indices of the correlation between R/S and mental health. In total, 617 effect sizes from 148 eligible studies were synthesized using meta-analytic generalized estimating equations, and subgroup analyses were performed to examine moderators of effects. The estimated mean correlation (Fisher z) was 0.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16-0.23), which varied as a function of R/S dimensions: affective R/S (z = 0.38; 95% CI, 0.33-0.43), behavioral R/S (z = 0.03; 95% CI, -0.02-0.08), cognitive R/S (z = 0.10; 95% CI, 0.06-0.14), and 'other' R/S (z = 0.08; 95% CI, 0.03-0.13). Aggregate, study-level demographic and clinical factors were not predictive of the relation between R/S and mental health. There was little indication of publication or reporting biases. The correlation between R/S and mental health generally was positive. The strength of that correlation was modest and varied as a function of the R/S dimensions and mental health domains assessed. The identification of optimal R/S measures and more sophisticated methodological approaches are needed to advance research.

  13. Validation approach for a fast and simple targeted screening method for 75 antibiotics in meat and aquaculture products using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreil, Estelle; Gautier, Sophie; Fourmond, Marie-Pierre; Bessiral, Mélaine; Gaugain, Murielle; Verdon, Eric; Pessel, Dominique

    2017-04-01

    An approach is described to validate a fast and simple targeted screening method for antibiotic analysis in meat and aquaculture products by LC-MS/MS. The strategy of validation was applied for a panel of 75 antibiotics belonging to different families, i.e., penicillins, cephalosporins, sulfonamides, macrolides, quinolones and phenicols. The samples were extracted once with acetonitrile, concentrated by evaporation and injected into the LC-MS/MS system. The approach chosen for the validation was based on the Community Reference Laboratory (CRL) guidelines for the validation of screening qualitative methods. The aim of the validation was to prove sufficient sensitivity of the method to detect all the targeted antibiotics at the level of interest, generally the maximum residue limit (MRL). A robustness study was also performed to test the influence of different factors. The validation showed that the method is valid to detect and identify 73 antibiotics of the 75 antibiotics studied in meat and aquaculture products at the validation levels.

  14. Fast analytical approach of application specific dose efficient spectrum selection for diagnostic CT imaging and PET attenuation correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xue; Jin, Yannan; FitzGerald, Paul F.; Wu, Mingye; Alessio, Adam M.; Kinahan, Paul E.; De Man, Bruno

    2016-11-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has been used for a variety of applications, two of which include diagnostic imaging and attenuation correction for PET or SPECT imaging. Ideally, the x-ray tube spectrum should be optimized for the specific application to minimize the patient radiation dose while still providing the necessary information. In this study, we proposed a projection-based analytic approach for the analysis of contrast, noise, and bias. Dose normalized contrast to noise ratio (CNRD), inverse noise normalized by dose (IND) and bias are used as evaluation metrics to determine the optimal x-ray spectrum. Our simulation investigated the dose efficiency of the x-ray spectrum ranging from 40 kVp to 200 kVp. Water cylinders with diameters of 15 cm, 24 cm, and 35 cm were used in the simulation to cover a variety of patient sizes. The effects of electronic noise and pre-patient copper filtration were also evaluated. A customized 24 cm CTDI-like phantom with 13 mm diameter inserts filled with iodine (10 mg ml-1), tantalum (10 mg ml-1), water, and PMMA was measured with both standard (1.5 mGy) and ultra-low (0.2 mGy) dose to verify the simulation results at tube voltages of 80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp. For contrast-enhanced diagnostic imaging, the simulation results indicated that for high dose without filtration, the optimal kVp for water contrast is approximately 100 kVp for a 15 cm water cylinder. However, the 60 kVp spectrum produces the highest CNRD for bone and iodine. The optimal kVp for tantalum has two selections: approximately 50 and 100 kVp. The kVp that maximizes CNRD increases when the object size increases. The trend in the CTDI phantom measurements agrees with the simulation results, which also agrees with previous studies. Copper filtration improved the dose efficiency for water and tantalum, but reduced the iodine and bone dose efficiency in a clinically-relevant range (70-140 kVp). Our study also shows that for CT-based attenuation

  15. Neural correlates of visualizations of concrete and abstract words in preschool children: A developmental embodied approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo eD'angiulli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The neural correlates of visualization underlying word comprehension were examined in preschool children. On each trial, a concrete or abstract word was delivered binaurally (part 1: post-auditory visualization, followed by a four-picture array (a target plus three distractors (part 2: matching visualization. Children were to select the picture matching the word they heard in part 1. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs locked to each stimulus presentation and task interval were averaged over sets of trials of increasing word abstractness. ERP time-course during both parts of the task showed that early activity (i.e. < 300 ms was predominant in response to concrete words, while activity in response to abstract words became evident only at intermediate (i.e. 300-699 ms and late (i.e. 700-1000 ms ERP intervals. Specifically, ERP topography showed that while early activity during post-auditory visualization was linked to left temporo-parietal areas for concrete words, early activity during matching visualization occurred mostly in occipito-parietal areas for concrete words, but more anteriorly in centro-parietal areas for abstract words. In intermediate ERPs, post-auditory visualization coincided with parieto-occipital and parieto-frontal activity in response to both concrete and abstract words, while in matching visualization a parieto-central activity was common to both types of words. In the late ERPs for both types of words, the post-auditory visualization involved right-hemispheric activity following a post-anterior pathway sequence: occipital, parietal and temporal areas; conversely, matching visualization involved left-hemispheric activity following an ant-posterior pathway sequence: frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital areas. These results suggest that, similarly for concrete and abstract words, meaning in young children depends on variably complex visualization processes integrating visuo-auditory experiences and supramodal embodying

  16. Neural correlates of visualizations of concrete and abstract words in preschool children: a developmental embodied approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Griffiths, Gordon; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The neural correlates of visualization underlying word comprehension were examined in preschool children. On each trial, a concrete or abstract word was delivered binaurally (part 1: post-auditory visualization), followed by a four-picture array (a target plus three distractors; part 2: matching visualization). Children were to select the picture matching the word they heard in part 1. Event-related potentials (ERPs) locked to each stimulus presentation and task interval were averaged over sets of trials of increasing word abstractness. ERP time-course during both parts of the task showed that early activity (i.e., words, while activity in response to abstract words became evident only at intermediate (i.e., 300-699 ms) and late (i.e., 700-1000 ms) ERP intervals. Specifically, ERP topography showed that while early activity during post-auditory visualization was linked to left temporo-parietal areas for concrete words, early activity during matching visualization occurred mostly in occipito-parietal areas for concrete words, but more anteriorly in centro-parietal areas for abstract words. In intermediate ERPs, post-auditory visualization coincided with parieto-occipital and parieto-frontal activity in response to both concrete and abstract words, while in matching visualization a parieto-central activity was common to both types of words. In the late ERPs for both types of words, the post-auditory visualization involved right-hemispheric activity following a "post-anterior" pathway sequence: occipital, parietal, and temporal areas; conversely, matching visualization involved left-hemispheric activity following an "ant-posterior" pathway sequence: frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas. These results suggest that, similarly, for concrete and abstract words, meaning in young children depends on variably complex visualization processes integrating visuo-auditory experiences and supramodal embodying representations.

  17. Developing students' clinical reasoning skills: correlates of perceived relevance of two teaching and learning approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, T C; White, J G

    2017-02-01

    'Relevance' is a key concept in adult learning. Hence, this study sought to examine students' perceptions of relevance of the teaching and learning in relation to different instructional designs employed in a Comprehensive Patient Care (CPC) course that aims to develop integrated clinical reasoning skills. Third to fifth year students (2009-2011) were asked to anonymously rate the relevance of the instructional design (RELID) they participated in by means of visual analogue scales at the School of Dentistry, University of Pretoria. They were also asked to rate their perceptions of the alignment between teaching and learning and outcomes (ATLO), assessments' contribution to learning (ACL), course organisation (CO) and teacher competence (TC). RELID served as the outcome measure in stepwise linear regression analyses. ATLO, ACL, CO, TC and the instructional design (case-based learning (CBL = 1) and the combination of discipline-based and lecture-based teaching in CPC (DB-LBT = 0)) served as the co-variables for each of the years of study. The analyses showed positive correlations between RELID and ATLO and between RELID and ACL for all the years of study. RELID was associated with TC in year three and four and CO was associated with RELID in year four and five. CBL outperformed DB-LBT in terms of perceived relevance of the teaching and learning. The results suggest that students' perceptions of the relevance of the instructional design may be enhanced when outcomes, teaching, learning and assessment are constructively aligned during the development of clinical reasoning skills. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A stochastic chemical dynamic approach to correlate autoimmunity and optimal vitamin-D range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Roy

    Full Text Available Motivated by several recent experimental observations that vitamin-D could interact with antigen presenting cells (APCs and T-lymphocyte cells (T-cells to promote and to regulate different stages of immune response, we developed a coarse grained but general kinetic model in an attempt to capture the role of vitamin-D in immunomodulatory responses. Our kinetic model, developed using the ideas of chemical network theory, leads to a system of nine coupled equations that we solve both by direct and by stochastic (Gillespie methods. Both the analyses consistently provide detail information on the dependence of immune response to the variation of critical rate parameters. We find that although vitamin-D plays a negligible role in the initial immune response, it exerts a profound influence in the long term, especially in helping the system to achieve a new, stable steady state. The study explores the role of vitamin-D in preserving an observed bistability in the phase diagram (spanned by system parameters of immune regulation, thus allowing the response to tolerate a wide range of pathogenic stimulation which could help in resisting autoimmune diseases. We also study how vitamin-D affects the time dependent population of dendritic cells that connect between innate and adaptive immune responses. Variations in dose dependent response of anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory T-cell populations to vitamin-D correlate well with recent experimental results. Our kinetic model allows for an estimation of the range of optimum level of vitamin-D required for smooth functioning of the immune system and for control of both hyper-regulation and inflammation. Most importantly, the present study reveals that an overdose or toxic level of vitamin-D or any steroid analogue could give rise to too large a tolerant response, leading to an inefficacy in adaptive immune function.

  19. Correlation of normal and superconducting properties and unified approach to the description of high Tc oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresin, V. Z.; Wolf, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    We present a unified approach based on the Fermi liquid picture which allows us to describe the normal as well as the superconducting properties of the doped cuprates. The theory that is presented is for the doped compounds which are metallic. One can distinguish two interrelated, but nevertheless, different directions in the physics of high T(sub c): one involving the problem of carrier doping and the transition to the metallic state, and the second being the description of the metallic state. It is important that this metallic phase undergoes the transition into the superconducting state; as a result, our analysis is directly related to the origin of high T(sub c). We are using a quasi-2D Fermi liquid model to estimate the fundamental parameters of these very interesting materials. We find that this description is able to describe these materials and also that phonons and plasmons play a major role in the mechanism of high T(sub c).

  20. Event-related frontal alpha asymmetries: electrophysiological correlates of approach motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöne, Benjamin; Schomberg, Jessica; Gruber, Thomas; Quirin, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Over the last decades, frontal alpha asymmetries observed during resting state periods of several minutes have been used as a marker of affective-motivational states. To date, there is no evidence that alpha asymmetries can be observed in response to brief affective-motivational stimuli, as typically presented in event-related designs. As we argue, frontal alpha asymmetry might indeed be elicited by brief events if they are salient enough. In an event-related design, we used erotic pictures, i.e., highly salient incentives to elicit approach motivation, and contrasted them with pictures of dressed attractive women. As expected, we found significant alpha asymmetries for erotic pictures as compared to control pictures. Our findings suggest that the highly reactive reward system can lead to immediate, phasic changes in frontal alpha asymmetries. We discuss the findings with respect to the notion that high salience of erotic pictures derives from their potential of satisfying an individuals' need by mere visual inspection, which is not the case for pictures showing other types of motivational stimuli such as food.

  1. Correlation between ovarian steroidogenesis and beta-endorphin in the Lizard Uromastyx acanthinura: Immunohistochemical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Marie Exbrayat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Mammals, opioid peptides are involved in various physiological processes including the reproductive function. The knowledge of the distribution of beta-endorphin, one of opioid peptides in Reptiles ovaries is very limited. Therefore, the present study used the lizard ovarian follicles to further elucidate the role of this peptide in steroidogenesis. In Uromastyx acanthinura, the localization of both this peptide and sex steroid hormone was investigated by the immunohistochemical approach. This technique was used to evaluate the distribution of these substances and their relationship. The beta-endorphin is strongly distributed in the granulosa cells and oocyte cytoplasm of the previtellogenic follicles in sexually quiescent lizards (winter when steroidogenesis was interrupted. In spring, the signal became weak, or even absent, in the vitellogenic and previtellogenic follicles. The granulosa cells of the previtellogenic follicles showed an important synthesis of 17beta-estradiol. Females that did not undergo in vitellogenesis in spring showed the same profile than quiescent females of winter. These findings represent the first evidence of the presence of beta-endorphin in the ovary of this lizard. The seasonal variations observed in the reproductive cycle suggest that this opioid peptide is involved in the modulation of seasonal steroidogenesis.

  2. Cumulative approaches to track formation under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation: Phenomenological correlation with formation energies of Frenkel pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespillo, M.L., E-mail: mcrespil@utk.edu [Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, CMAM-UAM, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Agulló-López, F., E-mail: fal@uam.es [Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, CMAM-UAM, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Zucchiatti, A. [Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, CMAM-UAM, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • Extensive survey formation energies Frenkel pairs and electronic stopping thresholds. • Correlation: track formation thresholds and the energies for Frenkel pair formation. • Formation energies Frenkel pairs discussed in relation to the cumulative mechanisms. • Amorphous track formation mechanisms: defect accumulation models versus melting. • Advantages cumulative models to deal with new hot topics: nuclear-electronic synergy. - Abstract: An extensive survey for the formation energies of Frenkel pairs, as representative candidates for radiation-induced point defects, is presented and discussed in relation to the cumulative mechanisms (CM) of track formation in dielectric materials under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. These mechanisms rely on the generation and accumulation of point defects during irradiation followed by collapse of the lattice once a threshold defect concentration is reached. The physical basis of those approaches has been discussed by Fecht as a defect-assisted transition to an amorphous phase. Although a first quantitative analysis of the CM model was previously performed for LiNbO{sub 3} crystals, we have, here, adopted a broader phenomenological approach. It explores the correlation between track formation thresholds and the energies for Frenkel pair formation for a broad range of materials. It is concluded that the threshold stopping powers can be roughly scaled with the energies required to generate a critical Frenkel pair concentration in the order of a few percent of the total atomic content. Finally, a comparison with the predictions of the thermal spike model is discussed within the analytical Szenes approximation.

  3. Correlation between 2D and 3D flow curve modelling of DP steels using a microstructure-based RVE approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramazani, A., E-mail: ali.ramazani@iehk.rwth-aachen.de [Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen University, Intzestr.1, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Mukherjee, K.; Quade, H.; Prahl, U.; Bleck, W. [Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen University, Intzestr.1, D-52072 Aachen (Germany)

    2013-01-10

    A microstructure-based approach by means of representative volume elements (RVEs) is employed to evaluate the flow curve of DP steels using virtual tensile tests. Microstructures with different martensite fractions and morphologies are studied in two- and three-dimensional approaches. Micro sections of DP microstructures with various amounts of martensite have been converted to 2D RVEs, while 3D RVEs were constructed statistically with randomly distributed phases. A dislocation-based model is used to describe the flow curve of each ferrite and martensite phase separately as a function of carbon partitioning and microstructural features. Numerical tensile tests of RVE were carried out using the ABAQUS/Standard code to predict the flow behaviour of DP steels. It is observed that 2D plane strain modelling gives an underpredicted flow curve for DP steels, while the 3D modelling gives a quantitatively reasonable description of flow curve in comparison to the experimental data. In this work, a von Mises stress correlation factor {sigma}{sub 3D}/{sigma}{sub 2D} has been identified to compare the predicted flow curves of these two dimensionalities showing a third order polynomial relation with respect to martensite fraction and a second order polynomial relation with respect to equivalent plastic strain, respectively. The quantification of this polynomial correlation factor is performed based on laboratory-annealed DP600 chemistry with varying martensite content and it is validated for industrially produced DP qualities with various chemistry, strength level and martensite fraction.

  4. vysmaw: Fast visibility stream muncher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Martin; Law, Casey J.

    2017-10-01

    The vysmaw client library facilitates the development of code for processes to tap into the fast visibility stream on the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Large Array correlator back-end InfiniBand network.

  5. Integrating affective and cognitive correlates of heart rate variability: A structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Sarah L; Selby, Edward A; Bates, Marsha E; Contrada, Richard J

    2015-10-01

    High frequency heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of neurocardiac communication thought to reflect predominantly parasympathetic cardiac regulation. Low HRV has been associated empirically with clinical and subclinical levels of anxiety and depression and, more recently, high levels of HRV have been associated with better performance on some measures of executive functioning (EF). These findings have offered support for theories proposing HRV as an index measure of a broad, self-regulatory capacity underlying aspects of emotion regulation and executive control. This study sought to test that proposition by using a structural equation modeling approach to examine the relationships of HRV to negative affect (NA) and EF in a large sample of U.S. adults ages 30s-80s. HRV was modeled as a predictor of an NA factor (self-reported trait anxiety and depression symptoms) and an EF factor (performance on three neuropsychological tests tapping facets of executive abilities). Alternative models also were tested to determine the utility of HRV for predicting NA and EF, with and without statistical control of demographic and health-related covariates. In the initial structural model, HRV showed a significant positive relationship to EF and a nonsignificant relationship to NA. In a covariate-adjusted model, HRV's associations with both constructs were nonsignificant. Age emerged as the only significant predictor of NA and EF in the final model, showing inverse relationships to both. Findings may reflect population and methodological differences from prior research; they also suggest refinements to the interpretations of earlier findings and theoretical claims regarding HRV.

  6. Photoemission in strongly correlated crystalline f-electron systems: A need for a new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arko, A.J.; Joyce, J.J.; Sarrao, J. [and others

    1998-12-01

    The unusual properties of heavy fermion (or heavy electron) materials have sparked an avalanche of research over the last two decades in order to understand the basic phenomena responsible for these properties. Photoelectron spectroscopy (often referred to as PES in the following sections), the most direct measurement of the electronic structure of a material, should in principle be able to shed considerable light on this matter. In general the distinction between a localized and a band-like state is trivially observed in band dispersion. Much of the past work was performed on poly-crystalline samples, scraped in-situ to expose a clean surface for PES. There have since been considerable advances both in the quality of specimens as well as experimental resolution, which raise questions regarding these conclusions. Much of the past work on poly-crystalline samples has been reported in several review articles, most notably Allen et al., and it is not necessary here to review those efforts again, with the exception of subsequent work performed at high resolution. The primary focus of the present review will be on new measurements obtained on single crystals, cleaved or prepared in situ and measured at high resolution, which seem to suggest that agreement with the GS and NCA approximations is less than perfect, and that perhaps the starting models need to be modified, or that even an entirely new approach is called for. Of the promising new models the Periodic Anderson Model is most closely related to the SIM. Indeed, at high temperatures it reverts to the SIM. However, the charge polaron model of Liu (1997) as well as the two-electron band model of Sheng and Cooper (1995) cannot yet be ruled out. Inasmuch as the bulk of the single crystal work was performed by the Los Alamos group, this review will draw heavily on those results. Moreover, since the GS and NCA approximations represent the most comprehensive and widely accepted treatment of heavy fermion PES, it is only

  7. Partial synchronous output of a neuronal population under weak common noise: Analytical approaches to the correlation statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruscha, Alexandra; Lindner, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    We consider a homogeneous population of stochastic neurons that are driven by weak common noise (stimulus). To capture and analyze the joint firing events within the population, we introduce the partial synchronous output of the population. This is a time series defined by the events that at least a fixed fraction γ ∈[0 ,1 ] of the population fires simultaneously within a small time interval. For this partial synchronous output we develop two analytical approaches to the correlation statistics. In the Gaussian approach we represent the synchronous output as a nonlinear transformation of the summed population activity and approximate the latter by a Gaussian process. In the combinatorial approach the synchronous output is represented by products of box-filtered spike trains of the single neurons. In both approaches we use linear-response theory to derive approximations for statistical measures that hold true for weak common noise. In particular, we calculate the mean value and power spectrum of the synchronous output and the cross-spectrum between synchronous output and common noise. We apply our results to the leaky integrate-and-fire neuron model and compare them to numerical simulations. The combinatorial approach is shown to provide a more accurate description of the statistics for small populations, whereas the Gaussian approximation yields compact formulas that work well for a sufficiently large population size. In particular, in the Gaussian approximation all statistical measures reveal a symmetry in the synchrony threshold γ around the mean value of the population activity. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of the role of coincidence detection in neural signal processing.

  8. Supply chain design approaches for supply chain resilience: A qualitative study of South African fast-moving consumer goods grocery manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assilah Agigi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: In today’s globalised and complex business environment, firms are ever more vulnerable to supply chain disruptions, originating both internally and externally from the supply chain. Supply chain resilience minimises the impact of a disruption through design approaches, which allows the supply chain to respond appropriately to disruptive events.Research purpose: This article investigated the supply chain risks faced by grocery manufacturers in the South African fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG industry and explored supply chain design approaches that enable supply chain resilience.Motivation for the study: South African grocery manufacturers are faced with distinct risks. Whilst supply chain risk management studies have provided firms with certain guidelines to mitigate risk, supply chains are still vulnerable to unanticipated risks. Literature on supply chain resilience in the South African context is scant. The concept of supply chain resilience provides firms with strategies that are built into the supply chain that allow firms to react and recover swiftly from disruptions. Furthermore, supply chain resilience strategies assist firms in becoming less vulnerable to possible disruptions.Research design approach and method: This study was conducted by using a descriptive qualitative research design. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with senior supply chain practitioners specifically within the South African FMCG grocery manufacturing industry.Main findings: The study found that labour unrest is the most common risk faced by the industry. Furthermore, strategic stock and supply chain mapping are of the most useful design approaches to enhance supply chain resilience.Practical/managerial implications: The study provides managers with new insights in guiding supply chain design decisions for resilient supply chains. Through the identification of risks and appropriate solutions linked to the various risks, the

  9. Climatic suitability of Aedes albopictus in Europe referring to climate change projections: comparison of mechanistic and correlative niche modelling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D; Thomas, S M; Neteler, M; Tjaden, N B; Beierkuhnlein, C

    2014-02-13

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is capable of transmitting a broad range of viruses to humans. Since its introduction at the end of the 20th century, it has become well established in large parts of southern Europe. As future expansion as a result of climate change can be expected, determining the current and projected future climatic suitability of this invasive mosquito in Europe is of interest. Several studies have tried to detect the potential habitats for this species, but differing data sources and modelling approaches must be considered when interpreting the findings. Here, various modelling methodologies are compared with special emphasis on model set-up and study design. Basic approaches and model algorithms for the projection of spatio-temporal trends within the 21st century differ substantially. Applied methods range from mechanistic models (e.g. overlay of climatic constraints based on geographic information systems or rather process-based approaches) to correlative niche models. We conclude that spatial characteristics such as introduction gateways and dispersal pathways need to be considered. Laboratory experiments addressing the climatic constraints of the mosquito are required for improved modelling results. However, the main source of uncertainty remains the insufficient knowledge about the species' ability to adapt to novel environments.

  10. Submillisecond X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy from a pixel array detector with fast dual gating and no readout dead-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingteng; Dufresne, Eric M; Grybos, Pawel; Kmon, Piotr; Maj, Piotr; Narayanan, Suresh; Deptuch, Grzegorz W; Szczygiel, Robert; Sandy, Alec

    2016-05-01

    Small-angle scattering X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) studies were performed using a novel photon-counting pixel array detector with dual counters for each pixel. Each counter can be read out independently from the other to ensure there is no readout dead-time between the neighboring frames. A maximum frame rate of 11.8 kHz was achieved. Results on test samples show good agreement with simple diffusion. The potential of extending the time resolution of XPCS beyond the limit set by the detector frame rate using dual counters is also discussed.

  11. Submillisecond X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy from a pixel array detector with fast dual gating and no readout dead-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qingteng; Dufresne, Eric M.; Grybos, Pawel; Kmon, Piotr; Maj, Piotr; Narayanan, Suresh; Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Szczygiel, Robert; Sandy, Alec

    2016-04-19

    Small-angle scattering X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) studies were performed using a novel photon-counting pixel array detector with dual counters for each pixel. Each counter can be read out independently from the other to ensure there is no readout dead-time between the neighboring frames. A maximum frame rate of 11.8 kHz was achieved. Results on test samples show good agreement with simple diffusion. The potential of extending the time resolution of XPCS beyond the limit set by the detector frame rate using dual counters is also discussed.

  12. Fast large scale structure perturbation theory using one-dimensional fast Fourier transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittfull, Marcel; Vlah, Zvonimir; McDonald, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    The usual fluid equations describing the large-scale evolution of mass density in the universe can be written as local in the density, velocity divergence, and velocity potential fields. As a result, the perturbative expansion in small density fluctuations, usually written in terms of convolutions in Fourier space, can be written as a series of products of these fields evaluated at the same location in configuration space. Based on this, we establish a new method to numerically evaluate the 1-loop power spectrum (i.e., Fourier transform of the 2-point correlation function) with one-dimensional fast Fourier transforms. This is exact and a few orders of magnitude faster than previously used numerical approaches. Numerical results of the new method are in excellent agreement with the standard quadrature integration method. This fast model evaluation can in principle be extended to higher loop order where existing codes become painfully slow. Our approach follows by writing higher order corrections to the 2-point correlation function as, e.g., the correlation between two second-order fields or the correlation between a linear and a third-order field. These are then decomposed into products of correlations of linear fields and derivatives of linear fields. The method can also be viewed as evaluating three-dimensional Fourier space convolutions using products in configuration space, which may also be useful in other contexts where similar integrals appear.

  13. Methods of Fast Exponentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Maitah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Modular exponentiation constitutes the basis of many well-known and widely used public key cryptosystems. Approach: A fast portable modular exponentiation algorithm considerably enhanced the speed and applicability of these systems, also an efficient implementation of this algorithm was the key to high performance of such system. Results: In this study, two main approaches for solving this problem were proposed. The proposed approaches involved calculations without usage of extra operational memory for saving constants and calculations with usage of preliminary calculated constants. Conclusion/Recommendations: The estimation of complexity of the speedup and effectiveness of proposed approaches for the data were presented.

  14. Fast neutron dosimetry. Progress report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attix, F.H.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in: the development and testing of new gas mixtures more suitable for fast neutron dosimetry using the common A150-type Tissue-equivalent plastic ion chambers; comparison of photon doses determined with a graphite-walled proportional counter and with paired dosimeters irradiated by 14.8-MeV neutrons; a detector for the direct measurement of LET distributions from irradiation with fast neutrons; LET distributions from fast neutron irradiation of TE-plastic and graphite measured in a cylindrically symmetric geometry; progress in development of a tandem fast neutron and /sup 60/Co gamma ray source irradiation facility; an approach to the correlation of cellular response with lineal energy; calculated and measured HTO atmospheric dispersion rates within meters of a release site; application of cavity theory to fast neutrons; and fast neutron dosimetry by thermally stimulated currents in Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. (GHT)

  15. First order reversal curves and intrinsic parameter determination for magnetic materials; limitations of hysteron-based approaches in correlated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, Sergiu; Hovorka, Ondrej; Huang, Pin-Wei; Wang, Kangkang; Ju, Ganping; Chantrell, Roy

    2017-03-01

    The generic problem of extracting information on intrinsic particle properties from the whole class of interacting magnetic fine particle systems is a long standing and difficult inverse problem. As an example, the Switching Field Distribution (SFD) is an important quantity in the characterization of magnetic systems, and its determination in many technological applications, such as recording media, is especially challenging. Techniques such as the first order reversal curve (FORC) methods, were developed to extract the SFD from macroscopic measurements. However, all methods rely on separating the contributions to the measurements of the intrinsic SFD and the extrinsic effects of magnetostatic and exchange interactions. We investigate the underlying physics of the FORC method by applying it to the output predictions of a kinetic Monte-Carlo model with known input parameters. We show that the FORC method is valid only in cases of weak spatial correlation of the magnetisation and suggest a more general approach.

  16. An automated Pearson's correlation change classification (APC3) approach for GC/MS metabonomic data using total ion chromatograms (TICs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Bhaskaran David; Esuvaranathan, Kesavan; Ho, Paul C; Pasikanti, Kishore Kumar; Chan, Eric Chun Yong; Yap, Chun Wei

    2013-05-21

    A fully automated and computationally efficient Pearson's correlation change classification (APC3) approach is proposed and shown to have overall comparable performance with both an average accuracy and an average AUC of 0.89 ± 0.08 but is 3.9 to 7 times faster, easier to use and have low outlier susceptibility in contrast to other dimensional reduction and classification combinations using only the total ion chromatogram (TIC) intensities of GC/MS data. The use of only the TIC permits the possible application of APC3 to other metabonomic data such as LC/MS TICs or NMR spectra. A RapidMiner implementation is available for download at http://padel.nus.edu.sg/software/padelapc3.

  17. First order reversal curves and intrinsic parameter determination for magnetic materials; limitations of hysteron-based approaches in correlated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, Sergiu; Hovorka, Ondrej; Huang, Pin-Wei; Wang, Kangkang; Ju, Ganping; Chantrell, Roy

    2017-01-01

    The generic problem of extracting information on intrinsic particle properties from the whole class of interacting magnetic fine particle systems is a long standing and difficult inverse problem. As an example, the Switching Field Distribution (SFD) is an important quantity in the characterization of magnetic systems, and its determination in many technological applications, such as recording media, is especially challenging. Techniques such as the first order reversal curve (FORC) methods, were developed to extract the SFD from macroscopic measurements. However, all methods rely on separating the contributions to the measurements of the intrinsic SFD and the extrinsic effects of magnetostatic and exchange interactions. We investigate the underlying physics of the FORC method by applying it to the output predictions of a kinetic Monte-Carlo model with known input parameters. We show that the FORC method is valid only in cases of weak spatial correlation of the magnetisation and suggest a more general approach. PMID:28338056

  18. Using a Data Mining Approach to Discover Behavior Correlates of Chronic Disease: A Case Study of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOON, Sunmoo; TAHA, Basirah; BAKKEN, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this methodological paper are: 1) to describe data mining methods for building a classification model for a chronic disease using a U.S. behavior risk factor data set, and 2) to illustrate application of the methods using a case study of depressive disorder. Methods described include: 1) six steps of data mining to build a disease model using classification techniques, 2) an innovative approach to analyzing high-dimensionality data, and 3) a visualization strategy to communicate with clinicians who are unfamiliar with advanced statistics. Our application of data mining strategies identified childhood experience living with mentally ill and sexual abuse, and limited usual activity as the strongest correlates of depression among hundreds variables. The methods that we applied may be useful to others wishing to build a classification model from complex, large volume datasets for other health conditions. PMID:24943527

  19. Changes in winter depression phenotype correlate with white blood cell gene expression profiles: a combined metagene and gene ontology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosker, Fokko J; Terpstra, Peter; Gladkevich, Anatoliy V; Janneke Dijck-Brouwer, D A; te Meerman, Gerard; Nolen, Willem A; Schoevers, Robert A; Meesters, Ybe

    2015-04-03

    In the present study we evaluate the feasibility of gene expression in white blood cells as a peripheral marker for winter depression. Sixteen patients with winter type seasonal affective disorder were included in the study. Blood was taken by venous puncture at three time points; in winter prior and following bright light therapy and in summer. RNA was isolated, converted into cRNA, amplified and hybridized on Illumina® gene expression arrays. The raw optical array data were quantile normalized and thereafter analyzed using a metagene approach, based on previously published Affymetrix gene array data. The raw data were also subjected to a secondary analysis focusing on circadian genes and genes involved in serotonergic neurotransmission. Differences between the conditions were analyzed, using analysis of variance on the principal components of the metagene score matrix. After correction for multiple testing no statistically significant differences were found. Another approach uses the correlation between metagene factor weights and the actual expression values, averaged over conditions. When comparing the correlations of winter vs. summer and bright light therapy vs. summer significant changes for several metagenes were found. Subsequent gene ontology analyses (DAVID and GeneTrail) of 5 major metagenes suggest an interaction between brain and white blood cells. The hypothesis driven analysis with a smaller group of genes failed to demonstrate any significant effects. The results from the combined metagene and gene ontology analyses support the idea of communication between brain and white blood cells. Future studies will need a much larger sample size to obtain information at the level of single genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Deciphering ascorbic acid regulatory pathways in ripening tomato fruit using a weighted gene correlation network analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chao; Ju, Zheng; Li, Shan; Zuo, Jinhua; Fu, Daqi; Tian, Huiqin; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Benzhong

    2013-11-01

    Genotype is generally determined by the co-expression of diverse genes and multiple regulatory pathways in plants. Gene co-expression analysis combining with physiological trait data provides very important information about the gene function and regulatory mechanism. L-Ascorbic acid (AsA), which is an essential nutrient component for human health and plant metabolism, plays key roles in diverse biological processes such as cell cycle, cell expansion, stress resistance, hormone synthesis, and signaling. Here, we applied a weighted gene correlation network analysis approach based on gene expression values and AsA content data in ripening tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit with different AsA content levels, which leads to identification of AsA relevant modules and vital genes in AsA regulatory pathways. Twenty-four modules were compartmentalized according to gene expression profiling. Among these modules, one negatively related module containing genes involved in redox processes and one positively related module enriched with genes involved in AsA biosynthetic and recycling pathways were further analyzed. The present work herein indicates that redox pathways as well as hormone-signal pathways are closely correlated with AsA accumulation in ripening tomato fruit, and allowed us to prioritize candidate genes for follow-up studies to dissect this interplay at the biochemical and molecular level.

  1. Deciphering Ascorbic Acid Regulatory Pathways in Ripening Tomato Fruit Using a Weighted Gene Correlation Network Analysis Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Gao; Zheng Ju; Shan Li; Jinhua Zuo; Daqi Fu; Huiqin Tian; Yunbo Luo; Benzhong Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Genotype is generally determined by the co-expression of diverse genes and multiple regulatory pathways in plants. Gene co-expression analysis combining with physiological trait data provides very important information about the gene function and regulatory mechanism. L-Ascorbic acid (AsA), which is an essential nutrient component for human health and plant metabolism, plays key roles in diverse biological processes such as cell cycle, cell expansion, stress resistance, hormone synthesis, and signaling. Here, we applied a weighted gene correlation network analysis approach based on gene expression values and AsA content data in ripening tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit with different AsA content levels, which leads to identification of AsA relevant modules and vital genes in AsA regulatory pathways. Twenty-four modules were compartmentalized according to gene expression profiling. Among these modules, one negatively related module containing genes involved in redox processes and one positively related module enriched with genes involved in AsA biosynthetic and recycling pathways were further analyzed. The present work herein indicates that redox pathways as well as hormone-signal pathways are closely correlated with AsA accumulation in ripening tomato fruit, and allowed us to prioritize candidate genes for follow-up studies to dissect this interplay at the biochemical and molecular level.

  2. The Multi-Frequency Correlation Between Eua and sCER Futures Prices: Evidence from the Emd Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Huang, Yi-Song

    2015-05-01

    Currently European Union Allowances (EUA) and secondary Certified Emission Reduction (sCER) have become two dominant carbon trading assets for investors and their linkage attracts much attention from academia and practitioners in recent years. Under this circumstance, we use the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) approach to decompose the two carbon futures contract prices and discuss their correlation from the multi-frequency perspective. The empirical results indicate that, first, the EUA and sCER futures price movements can be divided into those triggered by the long-term, medium-term and short-term market impacts. Second, the price movements in the EUA and sCER futures markets are primarily caused by the long-term impact, while the short-term impact can only explain a small fraction. Finally, the long-term (short-term) effect on EUA prices is statistically uncorrelated with the short-term (long-term) effect of sCER prices, and there is a medium or strong lead-and-lag correlation between the EUA and sCER price components with the same time scales. These results may provide some important insights of price forecast and arbitraging activities for carbon futures market investors, analysts and regulators.

  3. A multivariate approach to correlate bacterial surface properties to biofilm formation by lipopolysaccharide mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhal, Rohit; Antti, Henrik; Rzhepishevska, Olena; Boulanger, Nicolas; Barbero, David R; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Ramstedt, Madeleine

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial biofilms are involved in various medical infections and for this reason it is of great importance to better understand the process of biofilm formation in order to eradicate or mitigate it. It is a very complex process and a large range of variables have been suggested to influence biofilm formation. However, their internal importance is still not well understood. In the present study, a range of surface properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide mutants were studied in relation to biofilm formation measured in different kinds of multi-well plates and growth conditions in order to better understand the complexity of biofilm formation. Multivariate analysis was used to simultaneously evaluate the role of a range of physiochemical parameters under different conditions. Our results suggest the presence of serum inhibited biofilm formation due to changes in twitching motility. From the multivariate analysis it was observed that the most important parameters, positively correlated to biofilm formation on two types of plates, were high hydrophobicity, near neutral zeta potential and motility. Negative correlation was observed with cell aggregation, as well as formation of outer membrane vesicles and exopolysaccharides. This work shows that the complexity of biofilm formation can be better understood using a multivariate approach that can interpret and rank the importance of different factors being present simultaneously under several different environmental conditions, enabling a better understanding of this complex process.

  4. A minimalistic approach to static and dynamic electron correlations: Amending generalized valence bond method with extended random phase approximation correlation correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Koushik; Pastorczak, Ewa; Jawulski, Konrad; Pernal, Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    A perfect-pairing generalized valence bond (GVB) approximation is known to be one of the simplest approximations, which allows one to capture the essence of static correlation in molecular systems. In spite of its attractive feature of being relatively computationally efficient, this approximation misses a large portion of dynamic correlation and does not offer sufficient accuracy to be generally useful for studying electronic structure of molecules. We propose to correct the GVB model and alleviate some of its deficiencies by amending it with the correlation energy correction derived from the recently formulated extended random phase approximation (ERPA). On the examples of systems of diverse electronic structures, we show that the resulting ERPA-GVB method greatly improves upon the GVB model. ERPA-GVB recovers most of the electron correlation and it yields energy barrier heights of excellent accuracy. Thanks to a balanced treatment of static and dynamic correlation, ERPA-GVB stays reliable when one moves from systems dominated by dynamic electron correlation to those for which the static correlation comes into play.

  5. A correlative microscopy approach relates microtubule behaviour, local organ geometry, and cell growth at the Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burian, Agata; Ludynia, Michal; Uyttewaal, Magalie; Traas, Jan; Boudaoud, Arezki; Hamant, Olivier; Kwiatkowska, Dorota

    2013-12-01

    Cortical microtubules (CMTs) are often aligned in a particular direction in individual cells or even in groups of cells and play a central role in the definition of growth anisotropy. How the CMTs themselves are aligned is not well known, but two hypotheses have been proposed. According to the first hypothesis, CMTs align perpendicular to the maximal growth direction, and, according to the second, CMTs align parallel to the maximal stress direction. Since both hypotheses were formulated on the basis of mainly qualitative assessments, the link between CMT organization, organ geometry, and cell growth is revisited using a quantitative approach. For this purpose, CMT orientation, local curvature, and growth parameters for each cell were measured in the growing shoot apical meristem (SAM) of Arabidopsis thaliana. Using this approach, it has been shown that stable CMTs tend to be perpendicular to the direction of maximal growth in cells at the SAM periphery, but parallel in the cells at the boundary domain. When examining the local curvature of the SAM surface, no strict correlation between curvature and CMT arrangement was found, which implies that SAM geometry, and presumed geometry-derived stress distribution, is not sufficient to prescribe the CMT orientation. However, a better match between stress and CMTs was found when mechanical stress derived from differential growth was also considered.

  6. Investigation and correlation of drug polymer miscibility and molecular interactions by various approaches for the preparation of amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan; Trivino, Anne; Prasad, Dev; Chauhan, Harsh

    2015-04-25

    Curcumin (CUR) was used as a poorly soluble drug whereas polyvinyl pyrrolidone K90 (PVP), Eudragit EPO (EPO), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose E5 (HPMC) and polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG) were used as hydrophilic polymers. CUR polymer miscibility was evaluated by solubility parameter, melting point depression and glass transition temperature (Tg) measurements. Molecular interactions between CUR and polymers were determined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman. Amorphous solid dispersions were prepared with CUR-polymer ratio of 70:30 (w/w) by solvent evaporation technique and were evaluated for dissolution enhancement using USP II method. Physical states of solid dispersions were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) whereas thermal behaviors were investigated using modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). CUR-EPO system showed good miscibility through all the approaches, whereas immiscibility was found in other CUR-polymer systems. CUR-EPO and CUR-HPMC systems showed significant molecular interactions whereas CUR-PVP and CUR-PEG showed no molecular interactions. All solid dispersions showed significant dissolution enhancement with CUR-EPO showing highest dissolution rate during first 1h whereas CUR-HPMC was effective in maintaining high CUR concentrations for 6h. The study highlights the importance of investigating and correlating drug polymer miscibility and molecular interactions by various approaches for successful formulation of amorphous solid dispersions.

  7. Rain gauge network evaluation and optimal design using spatial correlation approach in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaripour, Hamid; Mansouri Daneshvar, Mohammad Reza

    2016-06-01

    The present study is aimed at evaluation of a rain gauge network in order to optimize a network design. In this regard, point rainfall estimations were assessed using a spati