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Sample records for fasciatus nardo teleostei

  1. Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea infecting the south European toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae from a hypersaline environment in Italy

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    Huyse Tine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, non-native species of Gambusia (Poeciliidae have been used to control larval stages of the Asian tiger mosquito, Stegomyia albopicta Reinert, Harbach et Kitching, 2004 throughout Italy. The potential utility of indigenous populations of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae as an appropriate alternative biological control is currently being explored. A sub-sample of ten fish collected from Cervia Saline, Italy (salinity 65 ppt; 30°C to assess their reproductive capability in captivity, harboured a moderate infection of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea. A subsequent morphological and molecular study identified this as being a new species. Results Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. is described from the skin, fins and gills of A. fasciatus. Light and scanning electron microscopical (SEM examination of the opisthaptoral armature and their comparison with all other recorded species suggested morphological similarities to Gyrodactylus rugiensoides Huyse et Volckaert, 2002 from Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas. Features of the ventral bar, however, permit its discrimination from G. rugiensoides. Sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene and a comparison with all species listed in GenBank confirmed they are unique and represent a new species (most similar to Gyrodactylus anguillae Ergens, 1960, 8.3% pair-wise distance based on 5.8S+ITS2. This represents the first species of Gyrodactylus to be described from Aphanius and, to date, has the longest ITS1 (774 bp sequenced from any Gyrodactylus. Additional sampling of Cervia Saline throughout the year, found G. salinae n. sp. to persist in conditions ranging from 35 ppt and 5°C in December to 65 ppt and 30°C in July, while in captivity a low level of infection was present, even in freshwater conditions (0 ppt. Conclusions The ability of G. salinae n. sp. to tolerate a wide

  2. Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) infecting the south European toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes) (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae) from a hypersaline environment in Italy.

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    Paladini, Giuseppe; Huyse, Tine; Shinn, Andrew P

    2011-06-09

    Historically, non-native species of Gambusia (Poeciliidae) have been used to control larval stages of the Asian tiger mosquito, Stegomyia albopicta Reinert, Harbach et Kitching, 2004 throughout Italy. The potential utility of indigenous populations of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes) (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) as an appropriate alternative biological control is currently being explored. A sub-sample of ten fish collected from Cervia Saline, Italy (salinity 65 ppt; 30°C) to assess their reproductive capability in captivity, harboured a moderate infection of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea). A subsequent morphological and molecular study identified this as being a new species. Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. is described from the skin, fins and gills of A. fasciatus. Light and scanning electron microscopical (SEM) examination of the opisthaptoral armature and their comparison with all other recorded species suggested morphological similarities to Gyrodactylus rugiensoides Huyse et Volckaert, 2002 from Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas). Features of the ventral bar, however, permit its discrimination from G. rugiensoides. Sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene and a comparison with all species listed in GenBank confirmed they are unique and represent a new species (most similar to Gyrodactylus anguillae Ergens, 1960, 8.3% pair-wise distance based on 5.8S+ITS2). This represents the first species of Gyrodactylus to be described from Aphanius and, to date, has the longest ITS1 (774 bp) sequenced from any Gyrodactylus. Additional sampling of Cervia Saline throughout the year, found G. salinae n. sp. to persist in conditions ranging from 35 ppt and 5°C in December to 65 ppt and 30°C in July, while in captivity a low level of infection was present, even in freshwater conditions (0 ppt). The ability of G. salinae n. sp. to tolerate a wide range of salinities and temperatures shows its

  3. Three sympatric karyomorphs in the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae) do not seem to hybridize in natural populations

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    Ferreira-Neto, Maressa; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Camacho, Juan Pedro Martínez; Bakkali, Mohammed; de Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ninety individuals of the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) were collected at Água da Madalena stream (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil) and analyzed for diploid chromosome number 2n and karyotype composition as well as for the chromosomal location of the 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Whereas no chromosome differences were associated with sex, three different karyomorphs with diploid chromosome numbers 2n=46, 2n=48 and 2n=50 were found. No intermediate 2n numbers were discovered. The 2n=50 karyomorph showed some differences in 18S rDNA location compared to the two other karyomorphs. Finally, all specimens with the 2n=46 karyomorph showed the presence of a partly heterochromatic macro supernumerary chromosome, which was absent in all individuals with the two other karyomorphs. All these results suggest that indviduals of the three different karyomorphs are not likely to hybridize in the examined populations. Our findings strongly suggest the presence of three separate species (sensu biological species concept) easily diagnosed on the basis of differences in the diploid chromosome numbers and other chromosomal markers. PMID:24260650

  4. Three sympatric karyomorphs in the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae do not seem to hybridize in natural populations

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    Maressa Ferreira-Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety individuals of the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819 were collected at Água da Madalena stream (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil and analyzed for diploid chromosome number 2n and karyotype composition as well as for the chromosomal location of the 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA. Whereas no chromosome differences were associated with sex, three different karyomorphs with diploid chromosome numbers 2n=46, 2n=48 and 2n=50 were found. No intermediate 2n numbers were discovered. The 2n=50 karyomorph showed some differences in 18S rDNA location compared to the two other karyomorphs. Finally, all specimens with the 2n=46 karyomorph showed the presence of a partly heterochromatic macro supernumerary chromosome, which was absent in all individuals with the two other karyomorphs. All these results suggest that indviduals of the three different karyomorphs are not likely to hybridize in the examined populations. Our findings strongly suggest the presence of three separate species (sensu biological species concept easily diagnosed on the basis of differences in the diploid chromosome numbers and other chromosomal markers.

  5. Dynamics and cytochemistry of oogenesis in Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae from Rio Sapucaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    José Antônio Dias Garcia

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oogenesis involves a set of transformations which are undergone by female germ cells These cells change into oogonias and then into mature oocytes. Sexually mature female fish were collected monthly, during one year, from the Sapucaí River, a tributary of the Rio Grande, which is part of the Furnas Reservoir in the state of Minas Gerais. During the several stages of maturation, we observed small round oogonias with a large nucleus, a single nucleolus, and weakly stained cytoplasm with eosinophilic granules. The primary oocytes showed a large basophilic nucleus, with a developed peripheral nucleolus and a reduced cytoplasm. The previtellogenic oocytes presented voluminous cytoplasm and nucleus with several small peripheral nucleoli. The oocytes underwent vitellogenesis with the development of the zona radiata and the follicle cells. Their cytochemical reactions indicated that the two layers of the zona radiata of A. fasciatus contained proteins and polysaccharides. The initially squamous follicle cells, became cuboidal. In mature oocytes, the nucleus moved toward the periphery, next to the micropyle, and the yolk granules formed by proteins, fulfilled the cytoplasm. The clear unstained vesicles are likely to be the cortical alveoli in the perivitelline region.

  6. A histological study of testis development and ultrastructural features of spermatogenesis in cultured Acrossocheilus fasciatus.

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    Fu, Su-Yan; Jiang, Jian-Hu; Yang, Wan-Xi; Zhu, Jun-Quan

    2016-02-01

    Testis development and ultrastructural features of spermatogenesis in Acrossocheilus fasciatus (Cypriniformes, Barbinae), a commercial stream fish, were studied using light and electron microscopy. The reproduction cycle in A. fasciatus testes is classified into six successive stages from Stage I to Stage VI. Based on an analysis of previous results, May to July can be confirmed as the best breeding season for A. fasciatus males. During this time, the A. fasciatus testes are in Stage V and the sperm in males is most abundant. In the first reproductive cycle, sexually mature male testes return to Stage III in October, subsequently overwintering at this stage. In the lobular-type testes of A. fasciatus, cystic type spermatogenesis occurs with restricted spermatogonia. All spermatogenic cells at different stages are distributed along the seminiferous lobules, which contain spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa. At the end of spermatogenesis, spermatogenic cysts open to release spermatozoa into the lobule lumen. Ultrastructural observation of A. fasciatus spermiogenesis reveals that electron-dense substances appear at the different stages of germ cells, from primary spermatogonia to secondary spermatocytes. We have termed these dense substances as "nuage" when free in the cytoplasm or adjacent to the nuclear envelope, while those close to the mitochondria are called inter-mitochondrial cement. The spermatozoa in A. fasciatus can be classified as type I due to the presence of nuclear rotation. Although the nuclear chromatin in the head of sperm was highly condensed, no acrosome was formed. The cytoplasmic canal, a common ultrastructural feature of Teleostei spermatozoa, was also present in the midpiece. In addition, numerous fused mitochondria were observed. The distal centriole and proximal centriole constituting the centriolar complex were oriented incompletely perpendicular to each other. The flagellum showed a typical 9+2 arrangement pattern

  7. Inter-population differences in otolith morphology are genetically encoded in the killifish Aphanius fasciatus (Cyprinodontiformes

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    Ali Annabi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Inter-population differences in otolith shape, morphology and chemistry have been used effectively as indicators for stock assessment or for recognizing environmental adaptation in fishes. However, the precise parameters that affect otolith morphology remain incompletely understood. Here we provide the first direct support for the hypothesis that inter-population differences in otolith morphology are genetically encoded. The study is based on otolith morphology and two mitochondrial markers (D-loop, 16S rRNA of three natural populations of Aphanius fasciatus (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae from Southeast Tunisia. Otolith and genetic data yielded congruent tree topologies. Divergence of populations likely results from isolation events in the course of the Pleistocene sea level drops. We propose that otolith morphology is a valuable tool for resolving genetic diversity also within other teleost species, which may be important for ecosystem management and conservation of genetic diversity. As reconstructions of ancient teleost fish faunas are often solely based on fossil otoliths, our discoveries may also lead to a new approach to research in palaeontology.

  8. The occurence of black spot disease in Astyanax aff. fasciatus(characiformes: characidae in the Guaíba Lake basin, RS, Brazil

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    F Flores-Lopes

    Full Text Available Black spot disease is common in freshwater fish and is usually caused by the metacercaria stage of digenetic trematodes, normally from the Diplostomidae family. The present study evaluated the prevalence and intensity of this disease in Astyanax aff. fasciatus(Teleostei: Characiformes in the Guaíba Lake basin (RS, Brazil, including body parts assessment and the points of sampling with higher occurrence of black spots. Fish samples were taken seasonally from December 2002 until October 2004. The samples were collected with the use of a seine net at eleven points. The specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and stored in 70% ethanol. Black spot disease showed a low frequency in the Guaíba lake basin (2.07% and no specificity to the species Astyanax aff. fasciatus was observed. A high prevalence among the individuals and high intensity of infection levels was found in the ventral and dorsal regions in relation to other body parts (e.g., pectoral, pelvic and anal regions. Among the sampling points studied, we observed a higher prevalence on samples collected at points Gasômetro, Saco da Alemoa and Sinos, located in open areas with less occurrence of mollusks.

  9. The occurence of black spot disease in Astyanax aff. fasciatus (Characiformes: Characidae) in the Guaíba Lake basin, RS, Brazil.

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    Flores-Lopes, F

    2014-08-01

    Black spot disease is common in freshwater fish and is usually caused by the metacercaria stage of digenetic trematodes, normally from the Diplostomidae family. The present study evaluated the prevalence and intensity of this disease in Astyanax aff. fasciatus (Teleostei: Characiformes) in the Guaíba Lake basin (RS, Brazil), including body parts assessment and the points of sampling with higher occurrence of black spots. Fish samples were taken seasonally from December 2002 until October 2004. The samples were collected with the use of a seine net at eleven points. The specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and stored in 70% ethanol. Black spot disease showed a low frequency in the Guaíba lake basin (2.07%) and no specificity to the species Astyanax aff. fasciatus was observed. A high prevalence among the individuals and high intensity of infection levels was found in the ventral and dorsal regions in relation to other body parts (e.g., pectoral, pelvic and anal regions). Among the sampling points studied, we observed a higher prevalence on samples collected at points Gasômetro, Saco da Alemoa and Sinos, located in open areas with less occurrence of mollusks.

  10. Current Status of Marine Snakes from Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka with Description of Hitherto Unrecorded Hydrophis fasciatus fasciatus (Schneider, 1799

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    K. Sivashanthini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As only a few study reported on sea snakes of Sri Lanka, a study was undertaken from June 2003 to November 2004 in the coast of Jaffna Peninsula which lies in the Northern part of Sri Lanka. Out of the 121 specimens examined, 9 species under 5 genera in two families were documented in the coastal waters of both Valvettiturai to Point Pedro and the Jaffna lagoon waters. This includes Hydrophis fasciatus fasciatus which is no longer known in Sri Lanka increased the number of Hydrophis species to 8, thus the total number of sea snakes inhabiting the coastal waters of Sri Lanka become 14 in Hydrophiidae. Of the sea snakes collected, Lapemis curtus (33.88% and Praescutata viperina (23.97% were the commonly recorded species. Least recorded species were H. lapemoides, H. fasciatus fasciatus, Kerilia jerdonii jerdonii and Acrochordus granulatus (0.83, 0.83, 2.47 and 2.47%, respectively.

  11. Morfogénesis in vitro, identificación y control de hongos contaminantes y efecto de rayos gamma en nardo (Polianthes tuberosa L.)

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    Estrada Basaldua, Jorge Adán

    2012-01-01

    La planta endémica de México conocida como nardo (Polianthes tuberosa L.) es importante para la industria farmacéutica y del perfume y como flor de corte, por lo que se justifica el desarrollo de técnicas como el cultivo de tejidos vegetales y técnicas de inducción de mutaciones que induzcan la generación de variación genética y faciliten el mejoramiento genético de esta especie. Sin embargo, es necesaria la identificación de los hongos contaminantes que eventualmente aparecen ...

  12. Centronotus fasciatus Bl. & Schn. aan de Nederlandsche kust

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    Popta, C.M.L.

    1916-01-01

    In de collectie van het Leidsche Museum bevindt zich een Centronotus fasciatus Bl. & Sch., volgens de opgave op het etiket afkomstig van de Hollandsche kust. De kenmerken van dit individu, dat 230 mm. lang is, zijn: De hoogte van het langwerpige lichaam gaat 9 7/12 en de lengte van den, evenals het

  13. 松江鲈鱼(Trachidermus fasciatus)的研究进展%Studies Progress of Trachidermus fasciatus

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    王武; 刘利平; 毕永红

    2001-01-01

    @@ 松江鲈鱼Trachidermus fasciatus Heckel属鲉形目(Scorpaeniformes)、杜父鱼科(Cottidae)、松江鲈鱼属(Trachidermus),上海地区称之谓四鳃鲈,俗名花鼓鱼、花花娘子.该鱼以其味美而驰名中外.本文综合了国内外关于松江鲈鱼研究的文献,以期为研究松江鲈鱼并挽救这一名贵资源提供参考资料.

  14. Insilco Prediction and Characterization of microRNAs from Oncopeltus fasciatus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) Genome.

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    Ellango, R; Asokan, R; Ramamurthy, V V

    2016-08-01

    For studies on functional genomics, small RNAs, especially microRNAs (miRNAs), have emerged as a hot topic due to their importance in cellular and developmental processes. Identification of insect miRNAs largely depends on the availability of genomic sequences in the public domain. The large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) is a hemimetabolous insect which has become a model hemipteran system for various molecular studies. In this study, we identified 96 candidate mature miRNAs from O. fasciatus genome using a blast search with the previously reported animal miRNAs. The secondary structure of predicted miRNA sequences was determined online using "mfold" web server and verified by calculating the minimal free energy index (MFEI). Six miRNAs let-7e, miR-133c, miR-219b, mir-466d, mir-669f, and mir-669l are reported for the first time in Insecta. Comparison of O. fasciatus mir-2 and mir-71 family clusters to those of diverse insect species showed that they are highly conserved. The phylogenetic analysis of miRNAs revealed the evolutionary relationship of conserved miRNAs of O. fasciatus with other insect species. Using a classical rule-based algorithm method, we predicted the possible targets of the new miRNAs. Our study not only identified the list of miRNAs in O. fasciatus but also provides a basic platform for developing novel pest management strategies based on artificial miRNAs.

  15. Ontogeny of the immune system in rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus

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    Xiao, Zhizhong; He, Tao; Li, Jun; Gao, Tianxiang

    2013-09-01

    Histogenesis of the immune system and specific activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus from fertilization to 50 days after hatching (DAH). The pronephric tubule primordium developed in the embryo, 14 h 30 min post fertilization. The spleen anlage was observed between the swim bladder and the intestine at 5 DAH, and the thymus was formed as a paired structure under the pharyngeal epithelium above the gill arch at 10 DAH. The order of the immune organs becoming lymphoid was the pronephric kidney (10 DAH), thymus (15 DAH) and spleen (21 DAH). As the embryo developed, the specific activity of SOD gradually increased until hatching, but subsequently SOD activity continuously decreased to a minimum at 14 DAH. After the spleen became lymphoid, the specific activity of SOD was relatively stable. It is suggested that the immaturity of the lymphoid organs and low specific activity of SOD was the cause of the high mortality of fingerlings 12 to 16 DAH.

  16. Snake cathelicidin from Bungarus fasciatus is a potent peptide antibiotics.

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    Yipeng Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cathelicidins are a family of antimicrobial peptides acting as multifunctional effector molecules of innate immunity, which are firstly found in mammalians. Recently, several cathelicidins have also been found from chickens and fishes. No cathelicidins from other non-mammalian vertebrates have been reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work, a cathelicidin-like antimicrobial peptide named cathelicidin-BF has been purified from the snake venoms of Bungarus fasciatus and its cDNA sequence was cloned from the cDNA library, which confirm the presence of cathelicidin in reptiles. As other cathelicidins, the precursor of cathelicidin-BF has cathelin-like domain at the N terminus and carry the mature cathelicidin-BF at the C terminus, but it has an atypical acidic fragment insertion between the cathelin-like domain and the C-terminus. The acidic fragment is similar to acidic domains of amphibian antimicrobial precursors. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the snake cathelicidin had the nearest evolution relationship with platypus cathelicidin. The secondary structure of cathelicidin-BF investigated by CD and NMR spectroscopy in the presence of the helicogenic solvent TFE is an amphipathic alpha-helical conformation as many other cathelicidins. The antimicrobial activities of cathelicidin BF against forty strains of microorganisms were tested. Cathelicidin-BF efficiently killed bacteria and some fungal species including clinically isolated drug-resistance microorganisms. It was especially active against Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, it could exert antimicrobial activity against some saprophytic fungus. No hemolytic and cytotoxic activity was observed at the dose of up to 400 microg/ml. Cathelicidin-BF could exist stably in the mice plasma for at least 2.5 hours. CONCLUSION: Discovery of snake cathelicidin with atypical structural and functional characterization offers new insights on the evolution of cathelicidins. Potent, broad

  17. Breeding strategy of Acrossocheilus fasciatus in the Puxi Stream of the Huangshan Mountain

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    Yunzhi YAN; Lili GUO; Xiuying XIANG; Yilong XI; Yifeng CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Breeding strategies of Acrossocheilus fasciatus were studied from 592 specimens collected monthly during May 2007 and April 2008 in the Puxi Stream of the Huangshan Mountain.Sex ratio of the studied population was 0.90:1(♀:♂),not significantly different from 1 : 1. Both sexes reached their first sexual maturity at age 2 ( the second calendar year of their birth). Fifty percent of females and males reached maturity at a total length of 69.75 mm and 69.36 nun respectively, and the minimum total length was 61.54 mm and 58.96 mm, respectively. Based on the monthly changes in gonado-sematic index and egg-development process, the breeding season of the population was from May to August, with one obvious interval (in June) occurring in the breeding activity for the females. The nonsynchronous development of oocytes observed in mature ovaries indicated that A. fasciatus is a batch spawner. Absolute fecundity of A. fasciatus ranged from 308 to 2002 eggs with a mean of 857 eggs, increased significantly with total length, and was significantly different among three age groups. Relative fecundity ranged from 38.63 to 71.70 egg/g with a mean of 53.29 egg/g, and was not significantly different among the three age groups. It was suggested that these reproductive characteristics were adaptive strategies for A. fasciatus to acclimatize to lotic water where environmental factors were unstable but predictable [Current Zoology 55 (5) : 350 - 356, 2009].

  18. Distribution and activity of a Dippu DH31-like peptide in the large milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.

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    Te Brugge, V A; Orchard, I

    2008-02-01

    The milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, is a plant feeding hemipteran. While there has been much research done on the neurohormonal control of the post-feeding diuresis in the blood-feeding hemipteran, Rhodnius prolixus, little is known about the control of the post-feeding diuresis in O. fasciatus. One of the neurohormones that may play a role in this rapid diuresis belongs to the calcitonin-like diuretic hormone (DH31) family of insect peptides. In this study we demonstrate the presence of DH31-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system (CNS) and gut of O. fasciatus 5th instars. As well, DH31-like material was quantified and partially purified from the CNS of 5th instar O. fasciatus using reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and monitored with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). When tested on O. fasciatus 5th instar Malpighian tubules, DH31-like peptides significantly increased the rate of secretion over saline controls. The results suggest that there is a DH31-like peptide(s) present in the CNS of O. fasciatus and that this peptide may play a role in the control of Malpighian tubule secretion.

  19. The immune response of hemocytes of the insect Oncopeltus fasciatus against the flagellate Phytomonas serpens.

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    Alves e Silva, Thiago L; Vasconcellos, Luiz R C; Lopes, Angela H; Souto-Padrón, Thaïs

    2013-01-01

    The genus Phytomonas includes parasites that are etiological agents of important plant diseases, especially in Central and South America. These parasites are transmitted to plants via the bite of an infected phytophagous hemipteran. Despite the economic impact of these parasites, many basic questions regarding the genus Phytomonas remain unanswered, such as the mechanism by which the parasites cope with the immune response of the insect vector. In this report, using a model of systemic infection, we describe the function of Oncopeltus fasciatus hemocytes in the immune response towards the tomato parasite Phytomonas serpens. Hemocytes respond to infection by trapping parasites in nodular structures and phagocytizing the parasites. In electron microscopy of hemocytes, parasites were located inside vacuoles, which appear fused with lysosomes. The parasites reached the O. fasciatus salivary glands at least six hours post-infection. After 72 hours post-infection, many parasites were attached to the salivary gland outer surface. Thus, the cellular responses did not kill all the parasites.

  20. Transovum transmission of trypanosomatid cysts in the Milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus.

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    Felipe de Almeida Dias

    Full Text Available Leptomonas wallacei is a trypanosomatid that develops promastigotes and cystic forms in the gut of the hemipteran insect Oncopeltus fasciatus. Insect trypanosomatids are thought to be solely transmitted from one host to another through the ingestion of parasite-contaminated feces. However, here we show that L. wallacei cysts present on the eggshells of eggs laid by O. fasciatus can also act as infective forms that are transmitted to the insect offspring. Newly hatched O. faciatus nymphs are parasite-free, but some of them become contaminated with L. wallacei after feeding on eggshell remnants. The present study is the first report of transovum transmission of a trypanosomatid, a process that may have a relevant role in parasite's within-host population dynamics.

  1. Transovum transmission of trypanosomatid cysts in the Milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus.

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    Dias, Felipe de Almeida; Vasconcellos, Luiz Ricardo da Costa; Romeiro, Alexandre; Attias, Marcia; Souto-Padrón, Thais Cristina; Lopes, Angela Hampshire

    2014-01-01

    Leptomonas wallacei is a trypanosomatid that develops promastigotes and cystic forms in the gut of the hemipteran insect Oncopeltus fasciatus. Insect trypanosomatids are thought to be solely transmitted from one host to another through the ingestion of parasite-contaminated feces. However, here we show that L. wallacei cysts present on the eggshells of eggs laid by O. fasciatus can also act as infective forms that are transmitted to the insect offspring. Newly hatched O. faciatus nymphs are parasite-free, but some of them become contaminated with L. wallacei after feeding on eggshell remnants. The present study is the first report of transovum transmission of a trypanosomatid, a process that may have a relevant role in parasite's within-host population dynamics.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of the endangered roughskin sculpin Trachidermus fasciatus (Scorpaeniformes, Cottidae).

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    Zeng, Zhen; Liu, Zhi Zhi; Pan, Lian De; Tang, Shou Jie; Wang, Cong Tao; Tang, Wen Qiao; Yang, Jin Quan

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the endangered roughskin sculpin, Trachidermus fasciatus, was first determined. The mitogenome (16,536 bp) consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region. Except for the eight tRNA and ND6 genes, all other mitochondrial genes were encoded on the heavy strand. Mitochondrial DNA information can assist in species identification and conservation of the species' natural resources.

  3. An energetic analysis of host plant selection by the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus.

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    Chaplin, Stephen J

    1980-01-01

    The large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, is a specialized seed feeder that has been observed completing nymphal development in the field on only a small proportion of its potential host species within the genus Asclepias. In central Missouri only two of the six milkweed species studied, A. syriaca and A. verticillata, commonly supported nymphal O. fasciatus growth in the field. The seed of all six species, however, was equally suitable food for bugs reared in the laboratory. In laboratory preference tests, adult bugs chose to feed on the largest seeds, A. hirtella, but such a preference could not explain the observed field feeding patterns.One explanation to account for the observed host plant selection is based upon an energetic analysis. Only A. syriaca provided enough seed biomass for a clutch of O. fasciatus nymphs to develop on a single plant, and only A. verticillata grew in high enough density that a clutch could find sufficient food within the limited range of nymphal movement. These results illustrate a corollary of the resource concentration hypothesis: within a plant group whose members share similar secondary plant chemistries, the only species that will be viable hosts for a specialized herbivore are those that provide the minimal resource density necessary for the completion of nymphal development.In central Missouri, O. fasciatus has specialized on a critical resource density, not traits of individual Asclepias species. The appearance of host selection within the potential host plant spectrum is the result of a characteristic growth form, seed output, and dispersion pattern for each milkweed species that makes some species much more likely than others to produce sufficient seed resources.

  4. The effect of host plant phenology on reproduction of the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, in tropical Florida.

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    Miller, Elizabeth Ruth; Dingle, Hugh

    1982-01-01

    A field study of the relationship between host plant phenology and the reproductive pattern of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, was conducted in south Florida. Since O. fasciatus need seeds of either milkweed or Nerium oleander plants to reproduce, reproduction takes place on only those host plants that are producing seed pods.Two of four major host plants, Asclepias incarnata and Sarcostemma clausa fruit seasonally, producing pods in early autumn and early winter, respectively. The third milkweed host, Asclepias curassavica, produces almost no pods midsummer (although it flowers abundantly) and few pods midwinter. Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) produces some pods all year but is only used by O. fasciatus in the summer when milkweeds are not producing pods. Correspondingly, reproduction of O. fasciatus has been observed year round, but relatively few females reproduce in midwinter, coinciding with decreased pod production and low temperatures. This pattern is consistent with the hypothesis that a photoperiodic cue of short day lengths under conditions of cool temperatures may cause adult females to enter diapause and delay reproduction in the field.A comparison of plant phenologies and rainfall between 1976, a very dry year, and 1978, a year with normal rainfall, showed that extreme dryness disrupted the seasonal fruiting of the milkweeds and consequently the reproduction of O. fasciatus.

  5. Shallow-water Aplysina Nardo (Aplysinidae, Verongida, Demospongiae from the São Sebastião Channel and its environs (Tropical southwestern Atlantic, with the description of a new species and a literature review of other brazilian records of the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses dos Santos Pinheiro

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Aplysina Nardo, 1834 are described in this article, Aplysina caissara sp. n. and A. fulva (Pallas, 1766. Additionally, a possible third species was identified as A. aff. cauliformis. Collections were done in the São Sebastião Channel area as an ongoing effort to assess the poriferan biodiversity of the northern sector of the São Paulo State coastline. Specimens were collected by scuba diving, and descriptions of external morphology are based on the observation of populations alive, and on extensive underwater photography. A literature review of other brazilian records of Aplysina was undertaken, and an ammended species list is offered.

  6. Effects of dietary protein levels on growth performance and body composition of juvenile parrot fish, Oplegnathus fasciatus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Kang-Woong; Moniruzzaman, Mohammad; Kim, Kyoung-Duck; Han, Hyon Sob; Yun, Hyeonho; Lee, Seunghan; Bai, Sungchul C

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein levels on growth, biometrics, hematology and body composition in juvenile parrot fish Oplegnathus fasciatus. Fish averaging 7.1 ± 0.06 g (mean ± SD...

  7. Rediscovery of the Banded Krait Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider 1801 (Serpentes: Elapidae from Warangal District, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    C. Srinivasulu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the rediscovery of the Banded Krait Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider 1801 (Serpentes: Elapidae from Warangal District, Andhra Pradesh, India after a gap of about 100 years based on three specimens that were observed in Eturnagaram Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh.

  8. The immune response of hemocytes of the insect Oncopeltus fasciatus against the flagellate Phytomonas serpens.

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    Thiago L Alves e Silva

    Full Text Available The genus Phytomonas includes parasites that are etiological agents of important plant diseases, especially in Central and South America. These parasites are transmitted to plants via the bite of an infected phytophagous hemipteran. Despite the economic impact of these parasites, many basic questions regarding the genus Phytomonas remain unanswered, such as the mechanism by which the parasites cope with the immune response of the insect vector. In this report, using a model of systemic infection, we describe the function of Oncopeltus fasciatus hemocytes in the immune response towards the tomato parasite Phytomonas serpens. Hemocytes respond to infection by trapping parasites in nodular structures and phagocytizing the parasites. In electron microscopy of hemocytes, parasites were located inside vacuoles, which appear fused with lysosomes. The parasites reached the O. fasciatus salivary glands at least six hours post-infection. After 72 hours post-infection, many parasites were attached to the salivary gland outer surface. Thus, the cellular responses did not kill all the parasites.

  9. The feeding ecology of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes, 1821 in the lagoonal system of Messolongi (western Greece

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    Ioannis Leonardos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes, 1821 is a small-sized omnivorous estuarine fish. Its diet is dominated by juveniles of shrimps (Palaemon adspersus, Isopods, Branchiopoda, Bivalvia, eggs of invertebrates, mosquitoes (adults and larvae and diatoms. An ontogenetic diet shift with an increase in mean prey size with fish length was observed. Smaller fish feed on planktonic prey (e.g. copepods, ostracods, nauplii of Artemia, while larger fish prefer larger and more benthic preys (e.g. ampipods, Bivalvia. The diet of A. fasciatus shows a high degree of seasonal variation, with a reduction in the feeding activity during the periods of adverse environmental conditions (winter and autumn. It is a well-adapted estuarine fish, its feeding mode and preferences depending on the preys that are available. Its feeding strategy is characterised by specialisation in different resource types (aquatic invertebrates and mosquitoes and a high between-phenotype contribution (BPC to niche width, with specialised individuals showing little or no overlap in resource use.

  10. Rediscovery of the Banded Krait Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider 1801) (Serpentes: Elapidae) from Warangal District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    C. Srinivasulu; Venkateshwarlu, D.; M. Seetharamaraju

    2009-01-01

    We report the rediscovery of the Banded Krait Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider 1801) (Serpentes: Elapidae) from Warangal District, Andhra Pradesh, India after a gap of about 100 years based on three specimens that were observed in Eturnagaram Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh.

  11. An insight into the sialotranscriptome of the seed-feeding bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francischetti, Ivo M.B.; Lopes, Angela H.; Dias, Felipe A.; Pham, Van M.; Ribeiro, José M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The salivary transcriptome of the seed-feeding hemipteran, Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug), is described following assembly of 1,025 ESTs into 305 clusters of related sequences. Inspection of these sequences reveals abundance of low complexity, putative secreted products rich in the amino acids (aa) glycine, serine or threonine, which might function as silk or mucins and assist food canal lubrication and sealing of the feeding site around the mouthparts. Several protease inhibitors were found, including abundant expression of cystatin transcripts that may inhibit cysteine proteases common in seeds that might injure the insect or induce plant apoptosis. Serine proteases and lipases are described that might assist digestion and liquefaction of seed proteins and oils. Finally, several novel putative proteins are described with no known function that might affect plant physiology or act as antimicrobials. Supplemental files mentioned in the text can be obtained from http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome.html#non_blood_feeding PMID:17681229

  12. Quantitative ethogram of male reproductive behavior in the South European toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavraro, F; Torricelli, P; Malavasi, S

    2013-10-01

    This work provides an ethogram of male reproductive behavior in the most widespread Mediterranean killifish, the South European toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus. The ethogram was obtained by video-recording the behavior of breeding groups under aquarium conditions. The behavioral analysis revealed the existence of seven behavioral states, with the expression of different forms of male-male competition: single and multiple courtship, single and multiple spawning, aggression, homosexual courtship, and post-mating cannibalism. These behaviors were organized into sequences that followed a first-order Markov chain. Single courtship was the most prevalent behavior, but more than one male, from two to five, could participate simultaneously in courtship and spawning. Results suggested that the breeding system is based on mate monopolization, with high levels of sperm competition and parasitic spawning. Results are discussed in light of the current literature on alternative mating tactics and male-male competition in teleost fishes.

  13. Estimation of dynamic energy budget parameters for the Mediterranean toothcarp (Aphanius fasciatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, A.; Montalto, V.; Lika, K.; Sanfilippo, M.; Manganaro, A.; Sarà, G.

    2014-11-01

    Organisms adopt different sets of physiological, behavioural and morphological trade-offs in order to cope with natural environmental fluctuations. This has consequential rebounds on ecological processes and population dynamics. Such aspects become crucial for sex-dimorphic species, where sex-specific growth variation could mirror different tactics both in energy acquisition and investment between maximum female and male body size with cascading effects on population demography. To date, different approaches have been used in order to understand the causes of individual growth rate changes in ectotherm indeterminate growers, most of which failed. Here, we propose the use of a mechanistic model based on the Dynamic Energy Budget theory (DEB; Koojiman, 2010) to investigate potential differences in energy allocation strategies adopted by individuals of different genders with the Mediterranean toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes, 1821) as the model species. We collected literature and field data in order to study differences in energy allocation strategies between females and males of the same species by generating projections of possible growth performances: (1) throughout their entire life span and (2) under a context of varying functional responses. Generally, the present exercise of simulations returned different patterns of growth performance among females and males of A. fasciatus, with the former being able to better optimize energetic trade-offs under optimal environmental conditions. The present DEB parameterization exercise represents an essential step towards developing a mechanistic approach to depict metabolic strategies, which are at the base of observed sexual differences, and how such differences may impair ultimate fitness at individual and, therefore, population levels.

  14. A new species of the Genus Microbrotula (Teleostei: Bythitidae) from Cenderawasih Bay, New Guinea, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzhans, Werner; Nielsen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Following the recent revision of Microbrotula (Schwarzhans Nielsen, 2011), an additional nine specimens of the viviparous genus Microbrotula (Teleostei: Bythitidae), all caught in the Cenderawasih Bay, Irian Jaya, New Guinea, Indonesia, were made available to us. These specimens represent a new...

  15. Evaluation of environmental impact on natural populations of the mediterranean killifish aphanius fasciatus by quantitative RNA biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Kessabi, Kaouthar; Navarro, Anna; Casado, Marta; Saïd, Khaled; Messaoudi, Imed; Piña, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Mediterranean killifish, Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes, 1821) represents an excellent sentinel species for analysis of environmental impact in coastal areas. Quantitative changes on liver mRNA levels of five stress-related genes - metallothionein (metal exposure), vitellogenin, (estrogenic effects), cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A, dioxin-like compounds), superoxide dismutase (oxidative stress) and HSP70 (general stress)- were tested as markers of exposure to pollutants bo...

  16. Small HSPs molecular weights as new indication to the hypothesis of segregated status of thermophilic relict Gmelinoides fasciatus among baikal and palearctic amphipods

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    Timofeyev M.A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the great diverse of Baikal fauna of amphipods (more than 350 species and subspecies Gmelinoides fasciatus (Stebbing 1899 takes the special place. It is characterized by a high morphological variability and wide thermal-adaptive possibilities. By common opinion G. fasciatus is a thermophilic relict segregated from other Baikal temperature sensitive amphipods' fauna. In present study we tested hypothesis of segregated status of G. fasciatus among some Baikal and some Palearctic amphipods using of heat-shock proteins’ (HSP molecular weight as comparative biomarkers. We used heat-shock proteins (HSP from two families: HSP70 and small HSP (sHSP immunochemically related to α-crystalline. 15 species of Baikal amphipods from different genera and families and 2 Palearctic species from genus Gammarus were tested. It was shown, that molecular weights of HSP70 were the same in all investigated species and corresponds close to 70 kD. In the contrast, the molecular weights of sHSP in G. fasciatus was 37 kD and differed from all other species, in which molecular weights of sHSP were 35 kD. In sum, this study showed that sHSPs molecular weights may relate to evolutional differences between the close related species. Additionally, obtained data can be taken as new indication of segregated status of thermophilic relict G. fasciatus which linked with its phylogenetic history in Lake Baikal.

  17. The distribution and function of serotonin in the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus. a comparative study with the blood-feeding bug, Rhodnius prolixus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miggiani, L; Orchard, I; TeBrugge, V

    1999-11-01

    The blood-feeding hemipteran, Rhodnius prolixus, ingests a large blood meal at the end of each larval stage. To accommodate and process this meal, its cuticle undergoes plasticisation, and its gut and Malpighian tubules respectively absorb and secrete a large volume of water and salts for rapid diuresis. Serotonin has been found to be integral to the feeding process in this animal, along with a diuretic peptide(s). The large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, tends to feed in a more continuous and abstemious manner, and therefore may have different physiological requirements than the blood feeder. Unlike R. prolixus, O. fasciatus is lacking serotonin-like immunoreactive dorsal unpaired median neurons in the mesothoracic ganglionic mass, and lacks serotonin-like immunoreactive neurohaemal areas and processes on the abdominal nerves, integument, salivary glands, and anterior junction of the foregut and crop. The salivary glands and crop do, however, respond to serotonin with increased levels of cAMP, while the integument and Malpighian tubules do not. In addition, O. fasciatus Malpighian tubules respond to both O. fasciatus and R. prolixus partially purified CNS extracts, which are likely to contain any native diuretic peptides. Thus, while serotonin and diuretic peptides may be involved in tubule control in R. prolixus, the latter may be of greater importance in O. fasciatus.

  18. The maternal and early embryonic transcriptome of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus

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    Roth Siegfried

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most evolutionary developmental biology ("evo-devo" studies of emerging model organisms focus on small numbers of candidate genes cloned individually using degenerate PCR. However, newly available sequencing technologies such as 454 pyrosequencing have recently begun to allow for massive gene discovery in animals without sequenced genomes. Within insects, although large volumes of sequence data are available for holometabolous insects, developmental studies of basally branching hemimetabolous insects typically suffer from low rates of gene discovery. Results We used 454 pyrosequencing to sequence over 500 million bases of cDNA from the ovaries and embryos of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, which lacks a sequenced genome. This indirectly developing insect occupies an important phylogenetic position, branching basal to Diptera (including fruit flies and Hymenoptera (including honeybees, and is an experimentally tractable model for short-germ development. 2,087,410 reads from both normalized and non-normalized cDNA assembled into 21,097 sequences (isotigs and 112,531 singletons. The assembled sequences fell into 16,617 unique gene models, and included predictions of splicing isoforms, which we examined experimentally. Discovery of new genes plateaued after assembly of ~1.5 million reads, suggesting that we have sequenced nearly all transcripts present in the cDNA sampled. Many transcripts have been assembled at close to full length, and there is a net gain of sequence data for over half of the pre-existing O. fasciatus accessions for developmental genes in GenBank. We identified 10,775 unique genes, including members of all major conserved metazoan signaling pathways and genes involved in several major categories of early developmental processes. We also specifically address the effects of cDNA normalization on gene discovery in de novo transcriptome analyses. Conclusions Our sequencing, assembly and annotation framework

  19. The maternal and early embryonic transcriptome of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen-Campen, Ben; Shaner, Nathan; Panfilio, Kristen A; Suzuki, Yuichiro; Roth, Siegfried; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2011-01-25

    Most evolutionary developmental biology ("evo-devo") studies of emerging model organisms focus on small numbers of candidate genes cloned individually using degenerate PCR. However, newly available sequencing technologies such as 454 pyrosequencing have recently begun to allow for massive gene discovery in animals without sequenced genomes. Within insects, although large volumes of sequence data are available for holometabolous insects, developmental studies of basally branching hemimetabolous insects typically suffer from low rates of gene discovery. We used 454 pyrosequencing to sequence over 500 million bases of cDNA from the ovaries and embryos of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, which lacks a sequenced genome. This indirectly developing insect occupies an important phylogenetic position, branching basal to Diptera (including fruit flies) and Hymenoptera (including honeybees), and is an experimentally tractable model for short-germ development. 2,087,410 reads from both normalized and non-normalized cDNA assembled into 21,097 sequences (isotigs) and 112,531 singletons. The assembled sequences fell into 16,617 unique gene models, and included predictions of splicing isoforms, which we examined experimentally. Discovery of new genes plateaued after assembly of ~1.5 million reads, suggesting that we have sequenced nearly all transcripts present in the cDNA sampled. Many transcripts have been assembled at close to full length, and there is a net gain of sequence data for over half of the pre-existing O. fasciatus accessions for developmental genes in GenBank. We identified 10,775 unique genes, including members of all major conserved metazoan signaling pathways and genes involved in several major categories of early developmental processes. We also specifically address the effects of cDNA normalization on gene discovery in de novo transcriptome analyses. Our sequencing, assembly and annotation framework provide a simple and effective way to achieve high

  20. Evidence against a germ plasm in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a hemimetabolous insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen-Campen, Ben; Jones, Tamsin E. M.; Extavour, Cassandra G.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Primordial germ cell (PGC) formation in holometabolous insects like Drosophila melanogaster relies on maternally synthesised germ cell determinants that are asymmetrically localised to the oocyte posterior cortex. Embryonic nuclei that inherit this “germ plasm” acquire PGC fate. In contrast, historical studies of basally branching insects (Hemimetabola) suggest that a maternal requirement for germ line genes in PGC specification may be a derived character confined principally to Holometabola. However, there have been remarkably few investigations of germ line gene expression and function in hemimetabolous insects. Here we characterise PGC formation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a member of the sister group to Holometabola, thus providing an important evolutionary comparison to members of this clade. We examine the transcript distribution of orthologues of 19 Drosophila germ cell and/or germ plasm marker genes, and show that none of them localise asymmetrically within Oncopeltus oocytes or early embryos. Using multiple molecular and cytological criteria, we provide evidence that PGCs form after cellularisation at the site of gastrulation. Functional studies of vasa and tudor reveal that these genes are not required for germ cell formation, but that vasa is required in adult males for spermatogenesis. Taken together, our results provide evidence that Oncopeltus germ cells may form in the absence of germ plasm, consistent with the hypothesis that germ plasm is a derived strategy of germ cell specification in insects. PMID:23789106

  1. Development of PCR method for detecting Kudoa iwatai (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) from rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Chan-Hyeok; Do, Jeung-Wan; Nam, U-Hwa; Kim, Wi-Sik; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2017-02-01

    We developed a PCR assay targeting the 28S rDNA of Kudoa iwatai (Multivalvulida: Myxozoa) and investigated the prevalence of infection in rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus, which is commercially an important aquaculture species in Korea, with this assay. Detection limit of the PCR assay was 2.5 fg/μl with plasmid DNA and 8.6 × 10(3) spores/ml with purified spores, respectively. This PCR assay did not amplify DNA of other Kudoa species (Kudoa septempunctata, Kudoa lateolabracis, Kudoa thyrsites) tested. Sliced muscles of whole body from 318 rock bream (wild and cultured) were examined by this PCR assay and also with the naked eyes. All of the wild fish did not produce amplicons nor did harbor visible Kudoa cysts (0/70). Three of the cultured fish were PCR-positive and also harbored visible Kudoa cysts (3/248, 1.2%). The sequences of amplicons (574 bp) were 100% identical with those of the K. iwatai already registered in Genbank. When the visceral organs of these three fish were examined, visible cysts were not found, but one stomach sample was found to be PCR-positive. There was no difference in the prevalence of infection estimated by PCR assay and the presence of visible Kudoa cysts in our samples. This is thought to be because the development of K. iwatai is already completed and only mature Kudoa cysts existed in our samples.

  2. Evidence against a germ plasm in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a hemimetabolous insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ewen-Campen

    2013-04-01

    Primordial germ cell (PGC formation in holometabolous insects like Drosophila melanogaster relies on maternally synthesised germ cell determinants that are asymmetrically localised to the oocyte posterior cortex. Embryonic nuclei that inherit this “germ plasm” acquire PGC fate. In contrast, historical studies of basally branching insects (Hemimetabola suggest that a maternal requirement for germ line genes in PGC specification may be a derived character confined principally to Holometabola. However, there have been remarkably few investigations of germ line gene expression and function in hemimetabolous insects. Here we characterise PGC formation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a member of the sister group to Holometabola, thus providing an important evolutionary comparison to members of this clade. We examine the transcript distribution of orthologues of 19 Drosophila germ cell and/or germ plasm marker genes, and show that none of them localise asymmetrically within Oncopeltus oocytes or early embryos. Using multiple molecular and cytological criteria, we provide evidence that PGCs form after cellularisation at the site of gastrulation. Functional studies of vasa and tudor reveal that these genes are not required for germ cell formation, but that vasa is required in adult males for spermatogenesis. Taken together, our results provide evidence that Oncopeltus germ cells may form in the absence of germ plasm, consistent with the hypothesis that germ plasm is a derived strategy of germ cell specification in insects.

  3. Dynamics of growth zone patterning in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auman, Tzach; Vreede, Barbara M I; Weiss, Aryeh; Hester, Susan D; Williams, Terri A; Nagy, Lisa M; Chipman, Ariel D

    2017-05-15

    We describe the dynamic process of abdominal segment generation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus We present detailed morphological measurements of the growing germband throughout segmentation. Our data are complemented by cell division profiles and expression patterns of key genes, including invected and even-skipped as markers for different stages of segment formation. We describe morphological and mechanistic changes in the growth zone and in nascent segments during the generation of individual segments and throughout segmentation, and examine the relative contribution of newly formed versus existing tissue to segment formation. Although abdominal segment addition is primarily generated through the rearrangement of a pool of undifferentiated cells, there is nonetheless proliferation in the posterior. By correlating proliferation with gene expression in the growth zone, we propose a model for growth zone dynamics during segmentation in which the growth zone is functionally subdivided into two distinct regions: a posterior region devoted to a slow rate of growth among undifferentiated cells, and an anterior region in which segmental differentiation is initiated and proliferation inhibited. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Late extraembryonic morphogenesis and its zen(RNAi)-induced failure in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfilio, Kristen A

    2009-09-15

    Many insects undergo katatrepsis, essential reorganization by the extraembryonic membranes that repositions the embryo. Knockdown of the zen gene by RNA interference (RNAi) prevents katatrepsis in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. However, the precise morphogenetic defect has been uncertain, and katatrepsis itself has not been characterized in detail. The dynamics of wild type and zen(RNAi) eggs were analyzed from time-lapse movies, supplemented by analysis of fixed specimens. These investigations identify three zen(RNAi) defects. First, a reduced degree of tissue contraction implies a role for zen in baseline compression prior to katatrepsis. Subsequently, a characteristic 'bouncing' activity commences, leading to the initiation of katatrepsis in wild type eggs. The second zen(RNAi) defect is a delay in this activity, suggesting that a temporal window of opportunity is missed after zen knockdown. Ultimately, the extraembryonic membranes fail to rupture in zen(RNAi) eggs: the third defect. Nevertheless, the outer serosal membrane manages to contract, albeit in an aberrant fashion with additional phenotypic consequences for the embryo. These data identify a novel epithelial morphogenetic event - rupture of the 'serosal window' structure - as the ultimate site of defect. Overall, Oncopeltus zen seems to have a role in coordinating a number of pre-katatreptic events during mid embryogenesis.

  5. Evidence against a germ plasm in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a hemimetabolous insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen-Campen, Ben; Jones, Tamsin E M; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2013-06-15

    Primordial germ cell (PGC) formation in holometabolous insects like Drosophila melanogaster relies on maternally synthesised germ cell determinants that are asymmetrically localised to the oocyte posterior cortex. Embryonic nuclei that inherit this "germ plasm" acquire PGC fate. In contrast, historical studies of basally branching insects (Hemimetabola) suggest that a maternal requirement for germ line genes in PGC specification may be a derived character confined principally to Holometabola. However, there have been remarkably few investigations of germ line gene expression and function in hemimetabolous insects. Here we characterise PGC formation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a member of the sister group to Holometabola, thus providing an important evolutionary comparison to members of this clade. We examine the transcript distribution of orthologues of 19 Drosophila germ cell and/or germ plasm marker genes, and show that none of them localise asymmetrically within Oncopeltus oocytes or early embryos. Using multiple molecular and cytological criteria, we provide evidence that PGCs form after cellularisation at the site of gastrulation. Functional studies of vasa and tudor reveal that these genes are not required for germ cell formation, but that vasa is required in adult males for spermatogenesis. Taken together, our results provide evidence that Oncopeltus germ cells may form in the absence of germ plasm, consistent with the hypothesis that germ plasm is a derived strategy of germ cell specification in insects.

  6. Early patterning and blastodermal fate map of the head in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkan, Michael; Schaeper, Nina D; Chipman, Ariel D

    2011-01-01

    The process of head development in insects utilizes a set of widely conserved genes, but this process and its evolution are not well understood. Recent data from Tribolium castaneum have provided a baseline for an understanding of insect head development. However, work on a wider range of insect species, including members of the hemimetabolous orders, is needed in order to draw general conclusions about the evolution of head differentiation and regionalization. We have cloned and studied the expression and function of a number of candidate genes for head development in the hemipteran Oncopeltus fasciatus. These include orthodenticle, empty spiracles, collier, cap 'n' collar, and crocodile. The expression patterns of these genes show a broad conservation relative to Tribolium, as well as differences from Drosophila indicating that Tribolium + Oncopeltus represent a more ancestral pattern. In addition, our data provide a blastodermal fate map for different head regions in later developmental stages and supply us with a "roadmap" for future studies on head development in this species. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Assessment of the effects of orally administered ferrous sulfate on Oncopeltus fasciatus (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Amparo; Torreblanca, Amparo; Garcerá, María Dolores

    2017-03-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient needed for multiple biological processes, but it is also an effective pro-oxidant in its reduced form. Environmental sources of iron toxic species include reduced soils from rice plantations, polluted natural areas from metal industry waste, or iron oxides used in soil bioremediation. Few studies have been conducted to assess the toxicity of iron species in insects. The present work aims to assess the oxidative stress effects of ferrous sulfate administered in drinking water after acute exposure (96 h) to adults of the insect model Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas). Mortality was higher in exposed groups and significantly associated with iron treatment (OR [95% CI]; 11.8 [6.1-22.7]). Higher levels of body iron content were found in insects exposed to ferrous sulfate, with an increase of 5-6 times with respect to controls. Catalase activity and lipid peroxidation (TBARS content), but not glutathione S-transferase activity, were significantly higher in exposed insects and significantly correlated with body iron content (Pearson coefficient of 0.68 and 0.74, respectively) and between them (0.78). The present work demonstrates that, despite the disruption in water and food intake caused by iron administration, this metal is accumulated by insect causing lipid peroxidation and eliciting an antioxidant response mediated by catalase.

  8. Surface swimming behavior of the curculionid Ochetina uniformis Pascoe (Erirhininae, Stenopelmini and Ludovix fasciatus (Gyllenhal (Curculioninae, Erodiscini Comportamento de nado superficial exibido pelos Curculionidae Ochetina uniformis Pascoe (Erirhininae, Stenopelmini e Ludovix fasciatus (Gyllenhal (Curculioninae, Erodiscini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Oliveira de Sousa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The swimming behavior exhibited by specimens of L. fasciatus and O. uniformis was analyzed frame-by-frame with video observation recorded with a digital camera, attached to a stereomicroscope. Adults of O. uniformis, an aquatic insect, swim with all three pairs of legs. During the process of swimming the majority of the abdomen and rostrum remain submerged, part of the fore and hind tibiae remain above the surface, while the mid tibiae remain submerged. The mesothoracic legs, during the power-stroke stage, provide the greatest thrust while the metathoracic legs provide the least forward propulsion. The prothoracic legs, extended forward, help to direct the swimming. The semi-aquatic specie L. fasciatus shows the same swimming style as O. uniformis, that is, with movement of all the three pairs of legs; the mesothoracic legs are responsible for the main propulsion. The insect body remains on the water surface during the process of swimming, while the legs remain submerged. Both species complete a swimming cycle in 0.33 and 0.32 seconds, respectively, with an average speed of 1.38 cm/s and a maximum and minimum swimming duration time of 11.15 and 5.05 minutes, respectively, for L. fasciatus. The swimming behavior exhibited by O. uniformis and L. fasciatus corresponds to the style known as a breast strokelike maneuver. This is the first record of this kind of swimming for both species here observed and increases to seven the number of genera of Curculionidae exhibiting this behavior.O comportamento de nado exibido por indivíduos de L. fasciatus e O. uniformis foi analisado quadro a quadro através de imagens obtidas com o auxílio de uma câmera fotográfica digital com opção de vídeo, acoplada a um estereomicroscópio. Foi demonstrado que O. uniformis, espécie aquática, nada com o auxílio dos três pares de pernas. Durante este processo a maior parte do abdome e rostro localizam-se abaixo da superfície da água, parte das t

  9. Hox gene function and interaction in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus (Hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, David R; Liu, Paul Z; Hughes, Cynthia L; Kaufman, Thomas C

    2005-11-15

    Studies in genetic model organisms such as Drosophila have demonstrated that the homeotic complex (Hox) genes impart segmental identity during embryogenesis. Comparative studies in a wide range of other insect taxa have shown that the Hox genes are expressed in largely conserved domains along the anterior-posterior body axis, but whether they are performing the same functions in different insects is an open question. Most of the Hox genes have been studied functionally in only a few holometabolous insects that undergo metamorphosis. Thus, it is unclear how the Hox genes are functioning in the majority of direct-developing insects and other arthropods. To address this question, we used a combination of RNAi and in situ hybridization to reveal the expression, functions, and regulatory interactions of the Hox genes in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. Our results reveal many similarities and some interesting differences compared to Drosophila. We find that the gene Antennapedia is required for the identity of all three thoracic segments, while Ultrabithorax, abdominal-A and Abdominal-B cooperate to pattern the abdomen. The three abdominal genes exhibit posterior prevalence like in Drosophila, but apparently via some post-transcriptional mechanism. The functions of the head genes proboscipedia, Deformed, and Sex combs reduced were shown previously, and here we find that the complex temporal expression of pb in the labium is like that of other insects, but its regulatory relationship with Scr is unique. Overall, our data reveal that the evolution of insect Hox genes has included many small changes within general conservation of expression and function, and that the milkweed bug provides a useful model for understanding the roles of Hox genes in a direct-developing insect.

  10. Effect of captivity on genetic variance for five traits in the large milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Clark, K M

    2004-07-01

    Understanding the changes in genetic variance which may occur as populations move from nature into captivity has been considered important when populations in captivity are used as models of wild ones. However, the inherent significance of these changes has not previously been appreciated in a conservation context: are the methods aimed at founding captive populations with gene diversity representative of natural populations likely also to capture representative quantitative genetic variation? Here, I investigate changes in heritability and a less traditional measure, evolvability, between nature and captivity for the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, to address this question. Founders were collected from a 100-km transect across the north-eastern US, and five traits (wing colour, pronotum colour, wing length, early fecundity and later fecundity) were recorded for founders and for their offspring during two generations in captivity. Analyses reveal significant heritable variation for some life history and morphological traits in both environments, with comparable absolute levels of evolvability across all traits (0-30%). Randomization tests show that while changes in heritability and total phenotypic variance were highly variable, additive genetic variance and evolvability remained stable across the environmental transition in the three morphological traits (changing 1-2% or less), while they declined significantly in the two life-history traits (5-8%). Although it is unclear whether the declines were due to selection or gene-by-environment interactions (or both), such declines do not appear inevitable: captive populations with small numbers of founders may contain substantial amounts of the evolvability found in nature, at least for some traits.

  11. Evolution of the insect terminal patterning system--insights from the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrod, Anat; Cohen, Mira; Chipman, Ariel D

    2013-08-01

    The anterior and posterior ends of the insect embryo are patterned through the terminal patterning system, which is best known from the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. In Drosophila, the RTK receptor Torso and its presumed co-activator Torso-like initiate a signaling cascade, which activates two terminal gap genes, tailless and huckebein. These in turn interact with various patterning genes to define terminal structures. Work on other insect species has shown that this system is poorly conserved, and not all of its components have been found in all cases studied. We place the variability of the system within a broader phylogenetic framework. We describe the expression and knock-down phenotypes of the homologues of terminal patterning genes in the hemimetabolous Oncopeltus fasciatus. We have examined the interactions among these genes and between them and other patterning genes. We demonstrate that all of these genes have different roles in Oncopeltus relative to Drosophila; torso-like is expressed in follicle cells during oogenesis and is involved in the invagination of the blastoderm to form the germ band, and possibly also in defining the growth zone; tailless is regulated by orthodenticle and has a role only in anterior determination; huckebein is expressed only in the middle of the blastoderm; finally, torso was not found in Oncopeltus and its role in terminal patterning seems novel within holometabolous insects. We then use our data, together with published data on other insects, to reconstruct the evolution of the terminal patterning gene network in insects. We suggest that the Drosophila terminal patterning network evolved recently in the lineage leading to the Diptera, and represents an example of evolutionary "tinkering", where pre-existing pathways are co-opted for a new function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chapitre IV. L'absence de la « puce indienne » en Europe : l'intérêt pour Nosopsyllus fasciatus et les autres puces

    OpenAIRE

    Audoin-Rouzeau, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    La puce du rat d'Europe à l'étude : Nosopsyllus fasciatus Nosopsyllus fasciatus, puce vectrice L'identification et la différenciation de Xenopsylla cheopis, de Nosopsyllus fasciatus, de Pulex irritans (la puce de l'homme) et de Leptopsylla segnis (la puce de la souris), s'était faite dès le début des recherches en Inde, à commencer par la séparation de Xenopsylla cheopis et de Pulex irritans opérée par C. Rotschild en 1903. En 1904, W. G. Liston exposait à son tour que la puce commune infesta...

  13. In-vitro Neurotoxicity of Two Malaysian Krait Species (Bungarus candidus and Bungarus fasciatus Venoms: Neutralization by Monovalent and Polyvalent Antivenoms from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Rusdi Ahmad Rusmili

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bungarus candidus and Bungarus fasciatus are two species of krait found in Southeast Asia. Envenoming by these snakes is often characterized by neurotoxicity and, without treatment, causes considerable morbidity and mortality. In this study, the in vitro neurotoxicity of each species, and the effectiveness of two monovalent antivenoms and a polyvalent antivenom, against the neurotoxic effects of the venoms, were examined in a skeletal muscle preparation. Both venoms caused concentration-dependent inhibition of indirect twitches, and attenuated responses to exogenous nicotinic receptor agonists, in the chick biventer preparation, with B. candidus venom being more potent than B. fasciatus venom. SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis indicated different profiles between the venoms. Despite these differences, most proteins bands were recognized by all three antivenoms. Antivenom, added prior to the venoms, attenuated the neurotoxic effect of the venoms. Interestingly, the respective monovalent antivenoms did not neutralize the effects of the venom from the other Bungarus species indicating a relative absence of cross-neutralization. Addition of a high concentration of polyvalent antivenom, at the t90 time point after addition of venom, partially reversed the neurotoxicity of B. fasciatus venom but not B. candidus venom. The monovalent antivenoms had no significant effect when added at the t90 time point. This study showed that B. candidus and B. fasciatus venoms display marked in vitro neurotoxicity in the chick biventer preparation and administration of antivenoms at high dose is necessary to prevent or reverse neurotoxicity.

  14. Laboratory evaluation of the effects of essential oil of Myrciaria floribunda leaves on the development of Dysdercus peruvianus and Oncopeltus fasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A.C. Tietbohl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Myrciaria floribunda (H. West ex Willd. O. Berg, Myrtaceae, is popularly known as "camboim-amarelo" and was collected at Restinga de Jurubatiba (RJ, Brazil. Leaves from this species were submitted to hydrodistillation to extract its essential oil. Monoterpenes were the main compounds found (53.9%, and 1,8-cineole was the major constituent (38.4%. Studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of this essential oil on the development of two species of agricultural pests (Oncopeltus fasciatus and Dysdercus peruvianus. The essential oil was considered effective against D. peruvianus and O. fasciatus, causing mortality in both insects. The LD50 values (µg/insect observed were 112.44 µg/insect (O. fasciatus and 309.64 µg/insect (D. peruvianus after one day of treatment, and 72.18 µg/insect (O. fasciatus and 94.42 µg/insect (D. peruvianus after 22 days of treatment. The present study reports for the first time the bioinsecticidal activity of essential oil of Myrciaria floribunda leaves, and provides important data regarding the use of essential oils in complementary programs for pest control.

  15. Systematics of treefrogs of the Hypsiboas calcaratus and Hypsiboas fasciatus species complex (Anura, Hylidae with the description of four new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Caminer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the systematics of the Hypsiboas calcaratus species complex, a group of widely distributed Amazonian hylid frogs. A comprehensive analysis of genetic, morphological, and bioacoustic datasets uncovered the existence of eleven candidate species, six of which are confirmed. Two of them correspond to Hypsiboas fasciatus and Hypsiboas calcaratus and the remaining four are new species that we describe here. Hypsiboas fasciatus sensu stricto has a geographic range restricted to the eastern Andean foothills of southern Ecuador while Hypsiboas calcaratus sensu stricto has a wide distribution in the Amazon basin. Hypsiboas almendarizae sp. n. occurs at elevations between 500 and 1950 m in central and northern Ecuador; the other new species (H. maculateralis sp. n., H. alfaroi sp. n., and H. tetete sp. n. occur at elevations below 500 m in Amazonian Ecuador and Peru. The new species differ from H. calcaratus and H. fasciatus in morphology, advertisement calls, and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Five candidate species from the Guianan region, Peru, and Bolivia are left as unconfirmed. Examination of the type material of Hyla steinbachi, from Bolivia, shows that it is not conspecific with H. fasciatus and thus is removed from its synonymy.

  16. In-vitro neurotoxicity of two Malaysian krait species (Bungarus candidus and Bungarus fasciatus) venoms: neutralization by monovalent and polyvalent antivenoms from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusmili, Muhamad Rusdi Ahmad; Yee, Tee Ting; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Othman, Iekhsan; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2014-03-12

    Bungarus candidus and Bungarus fasciatus are two species of krait found in Southeast Asia. Envenoming by these snakes is often characterized by neurotoxicity and, without treatment, causes considerable morbidity and mortality. In this study, the in vitro neurotoxicity of each species, and the effectiveness of two monovalent antivenoms and a polyvalent antivenom, against the neurotoxic effects of the venoms, were examined in a skeletal muscle preparation. Both venoms caused concentration-dependent inhibition of indirect twitches, and attenuated responses to exogenous nicotinic receptor agonists, in the chick biventer preparation, with B. candidus venom being more potent than B. fasciatus venom. SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis indicated different profiles between the venoms. Despite these differences, most proteins bands were recognized by all three antivenoms. Antivenom, added prior to the venoms, attenuated the neurotoxic effect of the venoms. Interestingly, the respective monovalent antivenoms did not neutralize the effects of the venom from the other Bungarus species indicating a relative absence of cross-neutralization. Addition of a high concentration of polyvalent antivenom, at the t90 time point after addition of venom, partially reversed the neurotoxicity of B. fasciatus venom but not B. candidus venom. The monovalent antivenoms had no significant effect when added at the t90 time point. This study showed that B. candidus and B. fasciatus venoms display marked in vitro neurotoxicity in the chick biventer preparation and administration of antivenoms at high dose is necessary to prevent or reverse neurotoxicity.

  17. Impact of acadja fisheries on the population dynamics of Sarotherodon melanotheron and Hemichromis fasciatus in a Lake Nokoué (Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyonkuru C.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In Lake Nokoué fishermen have developed the acadjas system which operates as an extensive aquaculture practice. Little is known about the population dynamics of fish fauna which colonizes those acadjas. Therefore, population parameters of two cichlids of Lake Nokoué, Sarotherodon melanotheron and Hemichromis fasciatus, sampled in areas within and without acadjas were investigated using length-frequency data collected between June 2003 and December 2004. For the two species, asymptotic length, L∞ was higher within than without acadjas (26.8 cm and 24.1 cm respectively for S. melanotheron; 18.5 cm and 16.5 cm respectively for H. faciatus. K and Φ′ values recorded outside acadjas were higher than inside acadjas for H. fasciatus whereas the same values were very slightly different without and within acadjas for S. melanotheron. H. fasciatus is a fish predator and branches or woody debris of acadjas are not favourable for its hunting activities.The total and natural mortality rates for the two species were higher outside than inside acadjas showing so the role of protection insured by acadjas systems. Acadjas have more impact on H. fasciatus than on S. melanotheron. A possibility of management is to reorganize the distribution of acadjas over Lake Nokoué in order to keep some areas in which no acadjas would be allowed for fish species that growth is better without acadjas.

  18. Nematodes of Astyanax fasciatus (Actinopterygii: Characidae and their parasitic indices in the São Francisco river, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Guerra Vieira-Menezes

    Full Text Available Abstract The endoparasite fauna of Astyanax fasciatus from the upper São Francisco river was investigated and ecological parameters and morphological and morphometric data on the parasites are presented. A total of 74 specimens of banded astyanax were collected downstream from the Três Marias dam, municipality of Três Marias, Minas Gerais (18°12’32”S, 45°15’41”W in January 2011 and January 2012. Eleven taxa of Nematoda were found: Contracaecum sp.; Hysterothylacium sp.; Goezia sp.; Brevimulticaecum sp.; Procamallanus sp.; Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus saofranciscencis; Cystidicoloides sp.; Spinitectus rodolphiheringi; Rhabdochona sp.; Spiroxys sp.; and Eustrongylides sp.. The fauna of A. fasciatus consisted of by larval specimens of Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium sp., Brevimulticaecum sp., Cystidicoloides sp., and Spiroxys sp., and by adult specimens of P. saofranciscencis, whose prevalence was greater than 10%. Thus, this fish acts as an intermediate host of some species of larval nematodes especially, Anisakidae and Acanthocheilidae (Brevimulticaecum sp., new host record and new locality. It participates in transmitting species such Rhabdochona sp. to carnivorous fish and also acts as a definitive host for P. saofranciscencis and S. rodolphiheringi in the upper São Francisco river.

  19. Population genetic structure and demographic history of Aphanius fasciatus (Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontiformes from hypersaline habitats in the eastern Adriatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Buj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the phylogeography and population genetic structure of the South European toothcarp (Aphanius fasciatus, we analysed gene sequences of two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome b and mtDNA control region in samples from eight localities along the eastern Adriatic coast and combined them with sequences from other Mediterranean localities. Since the South European toothcarp primarily inhabits hypersaline water bodies, it is a good model species for understanding patterns of colonization and dispersal of species adapted to variable conditions. The eastern Adriatic populations are separated into two groups of genetically related populations. The Northern group contains the populations from Sečovlje, Pag, Dinjiška, Nin and Pantan, whereas the Southern group contains the populations from Ston, Ulcinj and Narta. The majority of divergence events date back to the Pleistocene epoch and it is likely that sea level changes during glacial cycles played a significant role in shaping the recent genetic structure of this species. Our results imply pronounced intraspecific structuring of this species, whereas great environmental variations resulted in a smaller intrapopulational genetic diversity of A. fasciatus than seen in other Mediterranean fishes.

  20. Significant population genetic structure detected in the rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844) inferred from fluorescent-AFLP analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yongshuang; Ma, Daoyuan; Xu, Shihong; Liu, Qinghua; Wang, Yanfeng; Xiao, Zhizhong; Li, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Oplegnathus fasciatus (rock bream) is a commercial rocky reef fish species in East Asia that has been considered for aquaculture. We estimated the population genetic diversity and population structure of the species along the coastal waters of China using fluorescent-amplified fragment length polymorphisms technology. Using 53 individuals from three populations and four pairs of selective primers, we amplified 1 264 bands, 98.73% of which were polymorphic. The Zhoushan population showed the highest Nei's genetic diversity and Shannon genetic diversity. The results of analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 59.55% of genetic variation existed among populations and 40.45% occurred within populations, which indicated that a significant population genetic structure existed in the species. The pairwise fixation index F st ranged from 0.20 to 0.63 and were significant after sequential Bonferroni correction. The topology of an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean tree showed two significant genealogical branches corresponding to the sampling locations of North and South China. The AMOVA and STRUCTURE analyses suggested that the O. fasciatus populations examined should comprise two stocks.

  1. Differential infectivity of two Pseudomonas species and the immune response in the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Insecta: Hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M; Dorn, A

    2001-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida show a profound differential infectivity after inoculation in Oncopeltus fasciatus. Whereas P. putida has no significant impact on nymphs, P. aeruginosa kills all experimental animals within 48 h. Both Pseudomonas species, however, induce the same four hemolymph peptides in O. fasciatus. Also injection of saline solution and injury induced these peptides. In general peptide induction was stronger in nymphs than in adult males. A significantly higher number of nymphs survived a challenge with P. aeruginosa when an immunization with P. putida preceded. The antibacterial properties of the hemolymph were demonstrated in inhibition experiments with P. putida. Two of the four inducible peptides (peptides 1 and 4) could be partially sequenced after Edman degradation and were compared with known antibacterial peptides. Peptide 1, of 15 kDa, showed 47.1% identity with the glycine-rich hemiptericin of Pyrrhocoris apterus. Peptide 4, of 2 kDa, had a 77.8% identity with the proline-rich pyrrhocoricin of P. apterus and a 76.9% identity with metalnikowin 1 of Palomena prasina. Peptides 2 and 3 are also small, with molecular weights of 8 and 5 kDa.

  2. Revision of the genus 'Microbrotula' (Teleostei: Bythitidae), with description of two new species and a related new genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzhans, Werner; Nielsen, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Following recent systematic revisions of Anderson (2005, 2007), seven species of the viviparous genus Microbrotula (Teleostei: Bythitidae) have been described, all from the Indo-west Pacific Ocean. Six of these species are here recognised as valid: M. bentleyi, M. greenfieldi, M. punicea, M. quee...

  3. Protective immunity against Megalocytivirus infection in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) following CpG ODN administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Lee, Jehee; Ortega-Villaizan, M; Perez, Luis; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-06-27

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) disease in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) remains an unsolved problem in Korea aquaculture farms. CpG ODNs are known as immunostimulant, can improve the innate immune system of fish providing resistance to diseases. In this study, we evaluated the potential of CpG ODNs to induce anti-viral status protecting rock bream from different RBIV infection conditions. We found that, when administered into rock bream, CpG ODN 1668 induces better antiviral immune responses compared to other 5 CpG ODNs (2216, 1826, 2133, 2395 and 1720). All CpG ODN 1668 administered fish (1/5µg) at 2days before infection (1.1×10(7)) held at 26°C died even though mortality was delayed from 8days (1µg) and 4days (5µg). Similarly, CpG ODN 1668 administered (5µg) at 2days before infection (1.2×10(6)) held at 23/20°C had 100% mortality; the mortality was delayed from 9days (23°C) and 11days (20°C). Moreover, when CpG ODN 1668 administered (1/5/10µg) at 2/4/7days before infection or virus concentration was decreased to 1.1×10(4) and held at 20°C had mortality rates of 20/60/30% (2days), 30/40/60% (4days) and 60/60/20% (7days), respectively, for the respective administration dose, through 100 dpi. To investigate the development of a protective immune response, survivors were re-infected with RBIV (1.1×10(7)) at 100 and 400 dpi, respectively. While 100% of the previously unexposed fish died, 100% of the previously infected fish survived. The high survival rate of fish following re-challenge with RBIV indicates that protective immunity was established in the surviving rock bream. Our results showed the possibility of developing preventive measures against RBIV using CpG ODN 1668 by reducing RBIV replication speed (i.e. water temperature of 20°C and infection dose of 1.1×10(4)). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural polarity and dynamics of male germline stem cells in an insect (milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, David C; Dorn, August

    2008-01-01

    Knowing the structure opens a door for a better understanding of function because there is no function without structure. Male germline stem cells (GSCs) of the milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus) exhibit a very extraordinary structure and a very special relationship with their niche, the apical cells. This structural relationship is strikingly different from that known in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) -- the most successful model system, which allowed deep insights into the signaling interactions between GSCs and niche. The complex structural polarity of male GSCs in the milkweed bug combined with their astonishing dynamics suggest that cell morphology and dynamics are causally related with the most important regulatory processes that take place between GSCs and niche and ensure maintenance, proliferation, and differentiation of GSCs in accordance with the temporal need of mature sperm. The intricate structure of the GSCs of the milkweed bug (and probably of some other insects, i.e., moths) is only accessible by electron microscopy. But, studying singular sections through the apical complex (i.e., GSCs and apical cells) is not sufficient to obtain a full picture of the GSCs; especially, the segregation of projection terminals is not tangible. Only serial sections and their overlay can establish whether membrane ingrowths merely constrict projections or whether a projection terminal is completely cut off. To sequence the GSC dynamics, it is necessary to include juvenile stages, when the processes start and the GSCs occur in small numbers. The fine structural analysis of segregating projection terminals suggests that these terminals undergo autophagocytosis. Autophagosomes can be labeled by markers. We demonstrated acid phosphatase and thiamine pyrophosphatase (TPPase). Both together are thought to identify autophagosomes. Using the appropriate substrate of the enzymes and cerium chloride, the precipitation of electron-dense cerium phosphate granules

  5. Insecticidal effect of Canavalia ensiformis major urease on nymphs of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus and characterization of digestive peptidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defferrari, Marina S; Demartini, Diogo R; Marcelino, Thiago B; Pinto, Paulo M; Carlini, Celia R

    2011-06-01

    Jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis) ureases are entomotoxic upon the release of internal peptides by insect's digestive enzymes. Here we studied the digestive peptidases of Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug) and its susceptibility to jackbean urease (JBU). O. fasciatus nymphs fed urease showed a mortality rate higher than 80% after two weeks. Homogenates of midguts dissected from fourth instars were used to perform proteolytic activity assays. The homogenates hydrolyzed JBU in vitro, yielding a fragment similar in size to known entomotoxic peptides. The major proteolytic activity at pH 4.0 upon protein substrates was blocked by specific inhibitors of aspartic and cysteine peptidases, but not significantly affected by inhibitors of metallopeptidases or serine peptidases. The optimal activity upon N-Cbz-Phe-Arg-MCA was at pH 5.0, with complete blockage by E-64 in all pH tested. Optimal activity upon Abz-AIAFFSRQ-EDDnp (a substrate for aspartic peptidases) was detected at pH 5.0, with partial inhibition by Pepstatin A in the pH range 2-8. Fluorogenic substrates corresponding to the N- and C-terminal regions flanking a known entomotoxic peptide within urease sequence were also tested. While the midgut homogenate did not hydrolyze the N-terminal peptide, it cleaved the C-terminal peptide maximally at pH 4.0-5.0, and this activity was inhibited by E-64 (10 μM). The midgut homogenate was submitted to ion-exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration. A 22 kDa active fraction was obtained, resolved in SDS-PAGE (12%), the corresponding band was in-gel digested by trypsin, the peptides were analyzed by mass spectrometry, retrieving a cathepsin L protein. The purified cathepsin L was shown to have at least two possible cleavage sites within the urease sequence, and might be able to release a known insecticidal peptide in a single or cascade event. The results suggest that susceptibility of O. fasciatus nymphs to jackbean urease is, like in other insect models, due mostly

  6. Acute, chronic and reproductive effects of petroleum and two petroleum substitutes on the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, E.R.; Walton, B.T.

    1983-12-01

    Effects of petroleum and two synthetic oils on mortality and reproduction of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas), were compared. Reproduction was investigated because of its importance in the maintenance of population levels and the sensitivity of the reproductive system to toxicants. Adult milkweed bugs were dosed topically with the test oils to measure acute toxicity. Chronic toxicity was determined by mean survival after chronic exposure, starting with the fifth instar. The ability of sublethal levels of the test oils to affect reproduction was measured by the number of eggs laid and their percent hatch. The two synthetic oils were found to be more acutely and chronically toxic than petroleum. Egg production was not affected by petroleum but was reduced approximately 20% by sublethal levels of both synthetic oils. Egg viability was not affected.

  7. Glutathione peroxidase 1 expression, malondialdehyde levels and histological alterations in the liver of Acrossocheilus fasciatus exposed to cadmium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Di; Sheng, Zhang; Wang, You-Fa; Han, Ying-Li; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jun-Quan

    2016-03-10

    Cadmium (Cd) is known as a widespread pollutant in aquatic environment. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is attributed to Cd exposure, which may affect the growth, development and physiological metabolism of aquatic organisms. In response to these unfavorable damages, antioxidant systems have been developed to protect against oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of glutathione peroxidase 1 genes (GPx-1a and GPx-1b) in the liver of Acrossocheilus fasciatus after Cd administration. Total RNA extraction, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) were performed in order to clone the A. fasciatus GPx-1a and GPx-1b full-length cDNA sequences and partial fragment of β-actin cDNA from the liver for the first time. Tissue-specific expression analysis proved that GPx-1 genes were widely expressed in the liver, kidney, gill, testis, muscle, spleen, heart and brain. The changes of GPx-1 mRNA and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver treated with Cd were measured. In addition, the acute toxic effects of Cd on the microstructure of the liver were studied using light microscopy. These results suggest that GPx-1, MDA and liver histology which represent molecular, biochemical and histological levels, can be used as potential biomarkers to monitor Cd pollution. The overall findings also highlight the potential use of those three bio-indicators combined together as a multi-level tool (molecular, biochemical and histological levels) when monitoring Cd contamination and other possible exogenetic pollutants in aquatic environment.

  8. Absence of ribosomal DNA amplification in the meroistic (telotrophic) ovary of the large milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    In the typical meroistic insect ovary, the oocyte nucleus synthesizes little if any RNA. Nurse cells or trophocytes actively synthesize ribosomes which are transported to and accumulated by the oocyte. In the telotrophic ovary a morphological separation exists, the nurse cells being localized at the apical end of each ovariole and communicating with the ooocytes via nutritive cords. In order to determine whether the genes coding for ribosomal RNA (rRNA) are amplified in the telotrophic ovary of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, the percentages of the genome coding for ribosomal RNA in somatic cells, spermatogenic cells, ovarian follicles, and nurse cells were compared. The oocytes and most of the nurse cells of O. fasciatus are uninucleolate. DNA hybridizing with ribosomal RNA is localized in a satellite DNA, the density of which is 1.712 g/cm(-3). The density of main-band DNA is 1.694 g/cm(-3). The ribosomal DNA satellite accounts for approximately 0.2% of the DNA in somatic and gametogenic tissues of both males and females. RNA-DNA hybridization analysis demonstrates that approximately 0.03% of the DNA in somatic tissues, testis, ovarian follicles, and isolated nurse cells hybridizes with ribosomal RNA. The fact that the percentage of DNA hybridizing with rRNA is the same in somatic and in male and female gametogenic tissues indicates that amplification of ribosomal DNA does not occur in nurse cells and that if it occurs in oocytes, it represents less than a 50- fold increase in ribosomal DNA. An increase in total genome DNA accounted by polyploidization appears to provide for increasing the amount of ribosomal DNA in the nurse cells. PMID:1158969

  9. Characterization of eight microsatellite markers in the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, L; Infante, C; Ponce, M; Crespo, A; Zuasti, E; Funes, V; Catanese, G; Manchado, M

    2008-11-01

    The white sea bream, Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae), is a species with a high commercial importance in Mediterranean aquaculture. There is currently little information available about the genetic characteristics of cultured populations. In this survey, we have developed eight polymorphic microsatellites for the white sea bream using an enriched genome library protocol. All of them were polymorphic in the 67 individuals tested, 32 of which were wild specimens, and 35 were individuals from a captive F(1) broodstock. These markers can potentially be useful tools for use in population genetic studies.

  10. [New metacercariae of the genus Tylodelphys (Trematoda, Diplostomatidae) in lacustrine populations of Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei, Galaxiidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaggiotto, E A; Valverde, F

    1992-01-01

    Metacercariae of three new species of Tylodelphys (Trematoda, Diplostomatidae) were found in the brain of Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei, Galaxiidae), at the Meliquina Lake, Neuquen Province, Argentina. These metacercariae are morphologically described as Tylodelphys argentinus n. sp., Tylodelphys barilochensis n. sp. and Tylodelphys crubensis n. sp. This is the first time that a stage of genus Tylodelphys is mentioned parasitizing Galaxias maculatus. Metacercariae of T. barilochen sis n. sp. were also found in G. maculatus brain at the Perito Moreno Lake, Rio Negro Province, Argentina.

  11. A Comparative Study of Antioxidant Enzymes Activity to Heat Shock in Amphipods Gmelinoides fasciatus of Littoral Community of Lake Baikal and Thermal Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubyaga Y.A.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to comparative assessment of the antioxidant enzymes activity (peroxidase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase in endemic species Gmelinoides fasciatus (Stebbing, 1899 inhabitants of the littoral community of the Lake Baikal and the thermal spring under short term thermal stress. It was shown, that the exposure of G. fasciatus from different areas to acute temperature stress didn’t lead to changes in the activities of three key enzymes of the antioxidant system. However, it was found that the activity of glutathione S-transferase in the control animals of thermal springs population is higher than in animals of Lake Baikal. This can be determined by peculiarities of environment of different populations.

  12. Rediscovery of Microgecko helenae fasciatus (Schmidtler and Schmidtler, 1972) from Kermanshah Province, Western Iran with Notes on Taxonomy, Morphology, and Habitat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali GHOLAMIFARD; Nasrullah RASTEGAR-POUYANI; Eskandar RASTEGAR-POUYANI

    2015-01-01

    During extensive field work in the Zagros Mountains, western Iran, from October 2013 to November 2014, twenty five localities in different areas of the Kermanshah Province were investigated. Nineteen specimens of Schmidtler’s dwarf gecko, Microgecko helenae fasciatus, were collected from six localities in western and southeastern regions of the Kermanshah Province. This new collection verifies the presence of M. h. fasciatus in the area after the description of Schmidtler and Schmidtler of the holotype specimen in 1972. All of the collected specimens are consistent with the described specimens in diagnostic characters, as have a uniform dorsal pattern with five distinct dark crossbars and white posterior margins as well as the higher number of dorsal scales between axilla and groin. Detailed morphology of the new specimens is discussed and compared with those of rare previous records. Taxonomy, distribution, and habitat types of this tiny gecko in the western foothills of the Zagros Mountains are also discussed.

  13. Distinct classical and molecular cytogenetics of Astyanax marionae and A. fasciatus (Characiformes: Characidae): a comparative study of the organization of heterochromatin and repetitive genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DIOVANI PISCOR; LIANO CENTOFANTE; PATRICIA PASQUALI PARISE-MALTEMPI

    2017-09-01

    Genus Astyanax is well distributed in Neotropical freshwater environments and its taxonomic position is uncertain, as is the case with other Characidae genera allocated in the group incertae sedis. This study aimed to analyse the karyotype of different populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Corumbataí River basin) using Giemsa staining, C-band technique, and fluorescence in situ hybridization for the H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes, in addition we describe for the first time the chromosomal organization of H3 histone and 5S rRNAgenes in A. marionae (ParaguayRiver basin). Chromosomes of three A. fasciatus populations were analysed (two with 2n = 50 and one with 2n = 48) and the heterochromatin was organized in two forms (blocks with blurred boundaries and distinct blocks). H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes were observed in all the three populations of A. fasciatus on two chromosome pairs (one metacentric chromosome showing H3 histone and 5S rRNA gene clusters). In A. marionae (2n = 48), H3 histone and5S rRNA genes were observed in one acrocentric chromosome pair (different pairs). Further, differences between karyotypes and heterochromatin, as well as the chromosomal organization of H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes in Astyanax species, focussing on chromosome evolution in the group are discussed.

  14. Spatial, seasonal and ontogenetic variation in the diet of Astyanax aff. fasciatus (Ostariophysi: Characidae in an Atlantic Forest river, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lazzarini Wolff

    Full Text Available This study described the feeding habits of the characin Astyanax aff. fasciatus. The diet compositions of specimens from two sites (A and B on a river in Southern Brazil were compared according to the size of individuals and seasonal period. The collections were performed monthly from March 2005 to February 2006, where the stomach contents of 290 specimens were assessed. Food items for A. aff. fasciatus were basically composed of plants and insects, especially leaf fragments, seeds, fruits, filamentous algae, aquatic and terrestrial insects and insect fragments. At site A, the most common items were insect and plant fragments. Conversely at site B, plant fragments were more representative. In general, all items of animal origin showed the highest feeding index values at site A, whereas at site B detritus and grass items were more abundant. The composition of items varied seasonally, with higher diversity of items being recorded during the spring at both sites. Smaller individuals preferred items of animal origin, while the larger ones consumed mainly items of plant origin. According to its size, A. aff. fasciatus in this study may be considered a species with insectivorous tendencies when immature or herbivorous tendencies when adult. Nevertheless, its feeding habits may be flexible according to resource availability, showing wide ontogenetic, besides spatial and temporal variation.

  15. Quantitative proteomic analysis of Vietnamese krait venoms: Neurotoxins are the major components in Bungarus multicinctus and phospholipases A2 in Bungarus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshin, Rustam H; Kovalchuk, Sergey I; Arapidi, Georgij P; Starkov, Vladislav G; Hoang, Anh Ngoc; Thi Nguyen, Thao Thanh; Nguyen, Khoa Cuu; Shoibonov, Batozhab B; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2015-12-01

    Kraits are venomous snakes of genus Bungarus from family Elapidae. Krait venoms are generally neurotoxic, but toxicity strongly depends on the particular species and regional origin of snakes. We analyzed the proteomes of Vietnamese Bungarus multicinctus and Bungarus fasciatus venoms both qualitatively and quantitatively. It should be noted that no proteomic data for B. multicinctus venom existed so far. We have found that in this venom, almost half (45%) of the proteins by weight was represented by β-bungarotoxins, followed by three finger toxins (28%) and phospholipases A2 (16%), other proteins being present at the level of 1-3%. In B. fasciatus venom, phospholipase A2 was the main component (71%), followed by oxidase of l-amino acids (8%), acetylcholinesterase (5%) and metalloproteinases (4%). Unexpectedly, extremely low amount of three finger toxins (1%) was found in this venom. Interestingly, the presence of complement depleting factor was observed in both venoms. Although our data showed the presence of the same toxin families in Vietnamese krait venoms as those found earlier in the venoms of kraits from other geographic regions, their relative ratio is completely different. This concerns especially B. fasciatus venom with predominant content of phospholipases A2 and very low amount of three finger toxins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cytogenetic characterization of the strongly electric Amazonian eel, Electrophorus electricus (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes), from the Brazilian rivers Amazon and Araguaia

    OpenAIRE

    Fonteles,Soraia B.A.; Lopes,Carlos E.; Alberto Akama; FERNANDES, Flora M.C.; Fábio Porto-Foresti; José A. Senhorini; Maria de Fátima Z. Daniel-Silva; Fausto Foresti; Lurdes Foresti de Almeida-Toledo

    2008-01-01

    A karyotype analysis of the electric eel, Electrophorus electricus (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes), a strongly electric fish from northern South America, is presented. Two female specimens were analyzed, one from the Amazon River and one from the Araguaia River. The specimens had a chromosomal number of 2n = 52 (42M-SM + 10A). C-bands were present in a centromeric and pericentromeric position on part of the chromosomes; some interstitial C-bands were also present. Heteromorphic nucleolus organizer...

  17. Four new species of Cichlidogyrus (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalidae) from Sarotherodon mvogoi and Tylochromis sudanensis (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Pariselle, Antoine; Bitja Nyom, A. R.; Bilong Bilong, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    The four Cichlidogyrus species (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalidae) found on the gills of Sarotherodon mvogoi and Tylochromis sudanensis (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in Cameroon are considered new and are described herein. Cichlidogyrus mvogoi n. sp. from Sarotherodon mvogoi, characterised by a long (> 100 mu m), thin and spirally coiled penis and a short marginal hook pair I. Cichlidogyrus sigmocirrus n. sp. from Tylochromis sudanensis, characterised by a short marginal hook pair I, a slightly spirally c...

  18. The testis and ovary transcriptomes of the rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus: A bony fish with a unique neo Y chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus is considerably one of the most economically important marine fish in East Asia and has a unique neo-Y chromosome system that is a good model to study the sex determination and differentiation in fish. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the testis and ovary tissues of rock bream. A total of 40,004,378 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406649 and 53,108,992 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406648 high quality reads were obtained from testis and ovary RNA sequencing, respectively, and 60,421 contigs (with average length of 1301 bp were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 14,036 contigs that show gender-enriched expressional profile with either testis-enriched (237 contigs or ovary-enriched (581 contigs with RPKM >100. There are 237 male- and 582 female-abundant expressed genes that show sex dimorphic expression. We hope that the gonad transcriptome and those gender-enriched transcripts of rock bream can provide some insight into the understanding of genome-wide transcriptome profile of teleost gonad tissue and give useful information in fish gonad development.

  19. Toxic responses of developing fifth instar milkweed bugs, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Hemiptera), to aflatoxin B/sub 1/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llewellyn, G.C.; Gee, C.L.; Sherertz, P.C.

    1988-03-01

    Although studies on the aflatoxins have involved test systems ranging from cell cultures to laboratory animals, there appears to be a general lack of information on the ecological and economic effects of aflatoxins on insects. However, this situation is gradually changing. These studies involved the toxic responses of fifth instar milkweed bugs (Oncopeltus fasciatus) to AFB/sub 1/. Milkweed bugs pass through five distinct nymphal instars. In the fifth instar stage, the insect is marked with lateral spots on all of the abdominal pleurites and median spots on the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth dorsal abdominal tergites. The apex of the ventral abdominal surface is black and the remainder of the body is reddish-orange. Also, the adult is elongate to oval, and it is black and red in color. Because of this insect's ability to live and reproduce normally when provided dried sunflower seeds and water, it is a very desirable model to study through out the year. It is thought that juvenile insect stages are more sensitive to AFT than are adults, thus the instar and its developmental and sexual responses to aflatoxins are of interest.

  20. Establishment of rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus embryo (RoBE-4) cells with cytolytic infection of red seabream iridovirus (RSIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, So-Young; Nishizawa, Toyohiko

    2016-12-01

    Red seabream iridovirus (RSIV) is a member of genus Megalocytivirus in the family Iridoviridae. RSIV infection causes significant economic losses of marine-fishes in East Asian countries. Grunt fin (GF) cell line has been commonly used for culturing RSIV. However, it is not suitable for definite evaluation of infectivity titer of RSIV because cells infected with RSIV are not completely cytolysed. Thus, we established a new cell line, RoBE-4, from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) eyed-egg embryos in this study. Morphologically, RoBE-4 cells were fibroblastic-like. They have been stably grown over two-years with 60 passages using Leibovitz's L-15 medium containing 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum. RoBE-4 cells infected with RSIV exhibited cytopathic effects (CPE) with cell rounding. They were cytolysed completely after ≥2 weeks of culture. Numerous RSIV particles with icosahedral morphology of approximately 122nm in diameter were observed in cytoplasmic area of infected RoBE-4 cells. The RSIV-suceptibility and amount of extracellular RSIV released by RoBE-4 cells were 100-fold higher than those by GF cells. RSIV cultured with RoBE-4 cells was highly virulent to rock bream in infection experiments. Therefore, using RoBE-4 cells instead of GF cells will enable accurate and sensitive measurement of RSIV infectivity. In addition, RoBE-4 cells might be used to produce RSIV vaccine in the future with significant reduction in cost.

  1. Estimation of the dietary essential amino acid requirements of colliroja Astyanax fasciatus by using the ideal protein concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Massamitu Furuya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Colliroja, Astyanax fasciatus, is a new aquaculture species, and information on its dietary essential amino acid requirements is lacking. The whole body composition of 120 farmed fish (16.2 ± 8.8 g was determined to estimate the dietary essential amino acid requirement based on the ideal protein concept ((each essential amino acid/lysine x100, and the findings were correlated to the whole body essential amino acid content of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The dietary essential amino acids, including cysteine and tyrosine, accounted for 5.46, 4.62, 1.16, 3.28, 5.63, 2.01, 2.59, 2.84, 4.66, 3.39, 0.65, and 3.51% of the total protein for lysine, arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, methionine+tyrosine, phenylalanine, phenylalanine+tyrosine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine, respectively. There were positive linear and high correlations (r = 0.971 between the whole body amino acid profiles of colliroja and Nile tilapia. Thus, the whole body amino acid profile of colliroja might be used to estimate accurately the essential amino acid requirement.

  2. Factors involved in early polarization of the anterior-posterior axis in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Neta; Cohen, Mira; Chipman, Ariel D

    2017-05-01

    The axes of insect embryos are defined early in the blastoderm stage. Genes involved in this polarization are well known in Drosophila, but less so in other insects, such as the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. Using quantitative PCR, we looked at differential expression of several candidate genes for early anterior-posterior patterning and found that none of them are expressed asymmetrically in the early blastoderm. We then used an RNA-Seq approach to identify novel candidate genes that might be involved in early polarization in Oncopeltus. We focused on transcription factors (TFs) as these are likely to be central players in developmental processes. Using both homology and domain based identification approaches, we were unable to find any TF encoding transcripts that are expressed asymmetrically along the anterior-posterior axis at early stages. Using a GO-term analysis of all asymmetrically expressed mRNAs, we found an enrichment of genes relating to mitochondrial function in the posterior at the earliest studied time-point. We also found a gradual enrichment of transcription related activities, giving us a putative time frame for the maternal to zygotic transition. Our dataset provides us with a list of new candidate genes in early development, which can be followed up experimentally. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cloning of cDNAs encoding C-type lectins from Elapidae snakes Bungarus fasciatus and Bungarus multicinctus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, H G; Lee, W H; Zhang, Y

    2001-12-01

    A number of C-type lectins with various biological activities have been purified and characterized from Viperidae snake venoms. In contrast, only a few reports could be found in literature concerning the C-type lectins in Elapidae snake venoms. Based on the published cDNA sequences of C-type lectins from Viperidae snake venoms, oligonucleotide primers were designed and used to screen the cDNA libraries made from the venom glands of Bungarus fasciatus and Bungarus multicinctus. This allowed the cloning of three full length cDNAs encoding C-type lectins. The encoded proteins, named BFL-1, BFL-2 and BML, exhibit high degrees of sequence identities with Viperidae snake venom saccharide-binding lectins (around 60% with Trimeresurus stejnegeri venom lectin, Crotalus atrox venom lectin and Agkistrodon piscivorus venom lectin). They show much less identities with other venom C-type lectin-like proteins (around 30% with the platelet glycoprotein Ib-binding protein from Agkistrodon blomhoffi venom and the factor IX/X-binding protein from Trimeresurus flavoviridis venom). The cDNAs revealed that the precursors contain potential signal peptides characterized by a hydrophobic core. To our knowledge, these are the first cDNA cloning of group VII C-type lectins (Drickamer K. 1993. Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 45, 207-232) from Elapidae snake venom glands.

  4. Spatial, seasonal and ontogenetic variation in the diet of Astyanax aff. fasciatus (Ostariophysi: Characidae in an Atlantic Forest river, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lazzarini Wolff

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study described the feeding habits of the characin Astyanax aff. fasciatus. The diet compositions of specimens from two sites (A and B on a river in Southern Brazil were compared according to the size of individuals and seasonal period. The collections were performed monthly from March 2005 to February 2006, where the stomach contents of 290 specimens were assessed. Food items for A. aff. fasciatus were basically composed of plants and insects, especially leaf fragments, seeds, fruits, filamentous algae, aquatic and terrestrial insects and insect fragments. At site A, the most common items were insect and plant fragments. Conversely at site B, plant fragments were more representative. In general, all items of animal origin showed the highest feeding index values at site A, whereas at site B detritus and grass items were more abundant. The composition of items varied seasonally, with higher diversity of items being recorded during the spring at both sites. Smaller individuals preferred items of animal origin, while the larger ones consumed mainly items of plant origin. According to its size, A. aff. fasciatus in this study may be considered a species with insectivorous tendencies when immature or herbivorous tendencies when adult. Nevertheless, its feeding habits may be flexible according to resource availability, showing wide ontogenetic, besides spatial and temporal variation.Este estudo descreveu os hábitos alimentares do lambari Astyanax aff. fasciatus. Foram comparadas as composições alimentares de espécimes de dois sítios (A e B de um rio no sul do Brasil de acordo com o tamanho dos indivíduos e do período sazonal. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente de março de 2005 a fevereiro de 2006, sendo o conteúdo estomacal de 290 exemplares analisado. A dieta de A. aff. fasciatus foi composta basicamente por plantas e insetos, especialmente fragmentos de folhas, sementes, frutos, algas filamentosas, insetos aquáticos e terrestres

  5. Anatomical stomach description of dog fish, Hydrolycus armatus (Jardine & Schomburgk, 1841, (Teleostei: Cynodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlane de Medeiros Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolycus armatus (dog fish is a Teleostei of Cynodontidae Family that forms a distinct group of Neotropical Characiformes. This species is a predator, pelagic, freshwater and carnivorous and ichthyophagic feeding habits. Biological studies on fish are important in fishery, already that they are used as parameters to keep the exploitation to sustainable levels. This study aimed to describe the stomach anatomy of H. armatus, in order to generate basic information of this body of this vertebrate. We used ten (10 specimens of H. armatus, from the Teles Pires, city of Carlinda-MT, being this dissected and analyzed. The stomach of saccular format presented the regions cardial, pyloric and fundic, last being this last larger than the others. The anatomical features presented by the liver and stomach of H. armatus confirmed the relationship between the anatomy of these organs and their feeding habits being these, therefore, characteristics of predatory species, carnivorous and preferably ichthyophagics.

  6. OLDEST STEM TELEOSTEI FROM THE LATE LADINIAN (MIDDLE TRIASSIC OF SOUTHERN CHINA

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    ANDREA TINTORI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the largest modern vertebrate group, the Teleostei, saw major refinements in the last decades, thanks to newly discovered and stratigraphically closely spaced Triassic Lagerstätten. Here we report the oldest Pholidophoriformes (stem teleosts that were collected during a large scale yet detailed excavation of Upper Ladinian (Middle Triassic marine deposits in Xingyi City, Guizhou Province, China. Taxonomic comparisons support the erection of a new pholidophorid genus, Malingichthys gen. nov., with two species. The new genus shows a partially fused skull roof, a preopercular bone with a hockey-stick shape and, for the first time in Pholidophoridae, supraneural elements. Most Triassic marine vertebrate clades (fishes and reptiles, Malingichthys included first emerged in the South China Block, with Late Ladinian most showing an important faunal transformation that was strengthened by our last findings. The material here described is about 2 million years older than the previous records for pholidophorids. 

  7. Abandoning the ship: spontaneous mass exodus of Clinostomum complanatum (Rudolphi, 1814) progenetic metecercariae from the dying intermediate host Trichogaster fasciatus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Asim; Alam, Md Maroof; Parveen, Saltanat; Saleemuddin, M; Abidi, S M A

    2012-04-01

    The dramatic and spontaneous exodus of live Clinostomum complanatum progenetic metacercaria from the gill slits of the dying intermediate host, Trichogaster fasciatus is reported. Basic water parameter tests for dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature revealed slightly lower level of dissolved oxygen in tank water used for water change. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report of a digenean metacercariae, en mass leaving their intermediate host, upon its death in search of an alternative host to support their survival and help in continuing their life cycle.

  8. A conserved function of the zinc finger transcription factor Sp8/9 in allometric appendage growth in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus

    OpenAIRE

    Schaeper, Nina; Prpic, Nikola-Michael; Wimmer, Ernst

    2009-01-01

    The genes encoding the closely related zinc finger transcription factors Buttonhead (Btd) and D-Sp1 are expressed in the developing limb primordia of Drosophila melanogaster and are required for normal growth of the legs. The D-Sp1 homolog of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, Sp8 (appropriately termed Sp8/9), is also required for the proper growth of the leg segments. Here we report on the isolation and functional study of the Sp8/9 gene from the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. We ...

  9. Identification of a myeloperoxidase-like ortholog from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), deciphering its transcriptional responses to induced pathogen stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Whang, Ilson; Nam, Bo-Hye; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2015-08-01

    Myeloperoxidases (MPOs) are heme-linked oxidative stress-generating enzymes found abundantly in azurophilic granules of polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Mature MPOs act as potent antimicrobial agents by producing hypohalous acids using hydrogen peroxide and halide ions as substrates. These acids can readily oxidize reactive groups of biomolecules on invading microbes. In this study, we identified and characterized a homolog of MPO from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), designated as RbMPO. We analyzed the RbMPO gene for its basal expression level in physiologically important tissues and for transcriptional changes under different pathogenic stress conditions. The complete coding sequence of RbMPO consisted of 2652 nucleotides encoding an 884 amino acid sequence with a predicted molecular mass of 99.7 kDa. Our in silico analysis confirmed the typical MPO domain arrangement in RbMPO, including the propeptide, large chain and heavy chain, along with the heme peroxidase signature. Intriguingly, a C1q domain was also identified in the C-terminal region of the derived amino acid sequence. Most of the known functionally important residues of MPOs are found to be well conserved in RbMPO, showing a close evolutionary relationship with other teleostan MPOs, particularly with that of mandarin fish. RbMPO exhibited a ubiquitous basal expression in physiologically relevant tissues, with particularly high expression levels in blood cells. Basal transcript levels of RbMPO in gill and spleen tissues were found to change upon different pathogen or pathogen-derived mitogen stimulation, with detectable inductive responses. Together, these data suggest the potential involvement of RbMPO in the innate immune response in rock bream.

  10. Transcriptomic immune response of the cotton stainer Dysdercus fasciatus to experimental elimination of vitamin-supplementing intestinal symbionts.

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    Eugen Bauer

    Full Text Available The acquisition and vertical transmission of bacterial symbionts plays an important role in insect evolution and ecology. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the stable maintenance and control of mutualistic bacteria remain poorly understood. The cotton stainer Dysdercus fasciatus harbours the actinobacterial symbionts Coriobacterium glomerans and Gordonibacter sp. in its midgut. The symbionts supplement limiting B vitamins and thereby significantly contribute to the host's fitness. In this study, we experimentally disrupted the symbionts' vertical transmission route and performed comparative transcriptomic analyses of genes expressed in the gut of aposymbiotic (symbiont-free and control individuals to study the host immune response in presence and absence of the mutualists. Annotation of assembled cDNA reads identified a considerable number of genes involved in the innate immune system, including different protein isoforms of several immune effector proteins (specifically i-type lysozyme, defensin, hemiptericin, and pyrrhocoricin, suggesting the possibility for a highly differentiated response towards the complex resident microbial community. Gene expression analyses revealed a constitutive expression of transcripts involved in signal transduction of the main insect immune pathways, but differential expression of certain antimicrobial peptide genes. Specifically, qPCRs confirmed the significant down-regulation of c-type lysozyme and up-regulation of hemiptericin in aposymbiotic individuals. The high expression of c-type lysozyme in symbiont-containing bugs may serve to lyse symbiont cells and thereby harvest B-vitamins that are necessary for subsistence on the deficient diet of Malvales seeds. Our findings suggest a sophisticated host response to perturbation of the symbiotic gut microbiota, indicating that the innate immune system not only plays an important role in combating pathogens, but also serves as a communication interface

  11. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of Cathepsin B and L cysteine proteases from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Ilson; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Lee, Youngdeuk; Kim, Yucheol; Lee, Sukkyoung; Oh, Chulhong; Jung, Sung-Ju; Oh, Myung-Joo; Choi, Cheol Young; Yeo, Sang-Yeob; Kim, Bong-Seok; Kim, Se-Jae; Lee, Jehee

    2011-03-01

    Cathepsins are lysosomal cysteine proteases of the papain family that play an important role in intracellular protein degradation and turn over within the lysosomal system. In the present study, full-length sequences of cathepsin B (RbCathepsin B) and L (RbCathepsin L) were identified after transcriptome sequencing of rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus mixed tissue cDNA. Cathepsin B was composed of 330 amino acid residues with 36 kDa predicted molecular mass. RbCathepsin L contained 336 amino acid residues encoding for a 38 kDa predicted molecular mass protein. The sequencing analysis results showed that both cathepsin B and L contain the characteristic papain family cysteine protease signature and active sites for the eukaryotic thiol proteases of cysteine, asparagine and histidine. In addition, RbCathepsin L contained EF hand Ca(2+) binding and cathepsin propeptide inhibitor domains. The rock bream cathepsin B and L showed the highest amino acid identity of 90 and 95% to Lutjanus argentimaculatus cathepsin B and Lates calcarifer cathepsin L, respectively. By phylogenetic analysis, cathepsin B and L exhibited a high degree of evolutionary relationship to respective cathepsin family members of the papain superfamily. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis results confirmed that the expression of cathepsin B and L genes was constitutive in all examined tissues isolated from un-induced rock bream. Moreover, activation of RbCathepsin B and L mRNA was observed in both lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Edwardsiella tarda challenged liver and blood cells, indicating a role of immune response in rock bream.

  12. Diverging functions of Scr between embryonic and post-embryonic development in a hemimetabolous insect, Oncopeltus fasciatus.

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    Chesebro, John; Hrycaj, Steven; Mahfooz, Najmus; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2009-05-01

    Hemimetabolous insects undergo an ancestral mode of development in which embryos hatch into first nymphs that resemble miniature adults. While recent studies have shown that homeotic (hox) genes establish segmental identity of first nymphs during embryogenesis, no information exists on the function of these genes during post-embryogenesis. To determine whether and to what degree hox genes influence the formation of adult morphologies, we performed a functional analysis of Sex combs reduced (Scr) during post-embryonic development in Oncopeltus fasciatus. The main effect was observed in prothorax of Scr-RNAi adults, and ranged from significant alterations in its size and shape to a near complete transformation of its posterior half toward a T2-like identity. Furthermore, while the consecutive application of Scr-RNAi at both of the final two post-embryonic stages (fourth and fifth) did result in formation of ectopic wings on T1, the individual applications at each of these stages did not. These experiments provide two new insights into evolution of wings. First, the role of Scr in wing repression appears to be conserved in both holo- and hemimetabolous insects. Second, the prolonged Scr-depletion (spanning at least two nymphal stages) is both necessary and sufficient to restart wing program. At the same time, other structures that were previously established during embryogenesis are either unaffected (T1 legs) or display only minor changes (labium) in adults. These observations reveal a temporal and spatial divergence of Scr roles during embryonic (main effect in labium) and post-embryonic (main effect in prothorax) development.

  13. OCCURRENCE OF Henneguya sp. (THÉLOHAN, 1892 IN THE BLOOD OF Astyanax fasciatus (CUVIER, 1819 IN A STREAM OF THE MURIAÉ RIVER BASIN IN ITAPERUNA, RJ

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    Pedro Henrique CAETANO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo reporta a presença de Henneguya sp. no sangue de Astyanax fasciatus de ambiente natural, em um córrego da sub-bacia do rio Muriaé, pertencente a bacia do rio do Paraíba do Sul de Itaperuna, estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Oito coletas foram realizadas em outubro de 2009 e setembro de 2010, com 45 dias de intervalo, em cada coleta foram capturados dez espécimes de Astyanax fasciatus dando um total de 80 lâminas de sangue. Esse estudo relata a presença de Henneguya sp. em duas espécimes coletadas em novembro de 2009. Essa baixa incidência de parasitas ocorreu porque o gênero Henneguya já foi registrado em vários órgãos de espécies do gênero Astyanax. Embora os filamentos branquiais sejam de locais com maior tropismo e alta prevalência, não foram encontrados registros na literatura de parasitas com esse gênero no sangue de peixes.

  14. Molecular systematics of the enigmatic Middle American genus Vieja (Teleostei: Cichlidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Caleb D; Geheber, Aaron D; Piller, Kyle R

    2010-12-01

    The genus Vieja represents a group of heroine cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) distributed on the Atlantic and Pacific slopes of North and Central America from southern Mexico to Panama. Sixteen species of Vieja are presently recognized; however, based on long-standing taxonomic problems, the genus itself appears to be weakly defined. A number of different generic designations have been proposed for members of Vieja, and recent systematic studies of heroine cichlids have not specifically addressed the validity of the grouping and have not included all species in the genus. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the monophyly of the genus Vieja by including all nominal species in the genus using the mitochondrial encoded cytochrome b gene and nuclear S7-1 intron. Results of Maximum Parsimony, Bayesian inference, and topology tests (constraint tree searches and post-burn-in Bayesian filtering) indicate that the genus is not monophyletic as it is currently recognized. The genus Herichthys was recovered as sister to a clade consisting of a number of Vieja species (V. fenestrata, V. guttulata, V. zonata, V. hartwegi, V. bifasciata, V. breidohri, V. argentea, V. regani, V. melanura, V. synspila, and V. maculicauda, as well as Paraneetroplusbulleri). A clade consisting of V. intermedia, V. godmanni, and V. microphthalma was recovered sister to Theraps. Additionally, V. heterospila and V. tuyrensis were recovered outside of Vieja and Herichthys clades. Based on the results of this comprehensive study, we suggest a revised classification of Vieja species.

  15. Phylogenetic Relationships of Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Gobioninae Inferred from Multiple Nuclear Gene Sequences

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    Keun-Yong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gobionine species belonging to the genera Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae have been heavily studied because of problems on taxonomy, threats of extinction, invasion, and human health. Nucleotide sequences of three nuclear genes, that is, recombination activating protein gene 1 (rag1, recombination activating gene 2 (rag2, and early growth response 1 gene (egr1, from Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia species residing in China, Japan, and Korea, were analyzed to elucidate their intergeneric and interspecific phylogenetic relationships. In the phylogenetic tree inferred from their multiple gene sequences, Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia and Pungtungia species ramified into three phylogenetically distinct clades; the “tenuicorpa” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpa, the “parva” clade composed of all Pseudorasbora species/subspecies, and the “herzi” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia nigra, and Pungtungia herzi. The genus Pseudorasbora was recovered as monophyletic, while the genus Pseudopungtungia was recovered as polyphyletic. Our phylogenetic result implies the unstable taxonomic status of the genus Pseudopungtungia.

  16. Hyphessobrycon ocasoensis sp. n. (Teleostei, Characidae una nueva especie para el Alto Cauca, Colombia

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    García-Alzate, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyphessobrycon ocasoensis n. sp. (Teleostei, Characidae a new species from the Alto Cauca, Colombia Hyphessobrycon ocasoensis n. sp. (Characiformes, Characidae from heterorhabdus group (Gery, 1977 is described from the upper Cauca River in Colombia. The new species is distinguished from all other known species by the following combination of characters: three unbranched and eight branched fins in the dorsal fin; short maxillary bone with one or no teeth; four small foramens in the maxillary bone, and five in the premaxillary; 5-17 scales with pores in the lateral line, six between the lateral line and anal-fin origin, six between the lateral line and pelvic-fin origin, and nine predorsals; depth of the caudal peduncle has a mean of 16.7% in standard length; interorbital width 50.6% in head; a dark spot on caudal peduncle and a dark lateral band that extends vertically from the dorsal–fin origin to the tips of the middle caudal fin rays. Physical and chemical data of their habitat are included.

  17. A new species of Speleogobius (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the Western Mediterraenean Sea.

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    Kovačić, Marcelo; Ordines, Francesc; Schliewen, Ulrich K

    2016-01-15

    A new goby species, Speleogobius llorisi sp. nov. (Teleostei: Gobiidae) is described from the circalittoral sea bed at 46-69 m depth off the Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean. Six specimens, four females and two males, of the new species were collected from beam trawl samples carried out on the red algae beds off the south west coast of Mallorca Island. Among others, the main traits that differentiate the new species from the only congeneric species, S. trigloides, are the presence of preopercular head canal with pores γ, δ, ε vs. preopercular head canal absent; a longer snout, equal or longer than eye vs. shorter than eye; lower lip ending anteriorly slightly in front of upper lip vs. upper lip slightly protruding lower lip; scales in lateral series 28 or 29 vs. 26; scales in transverse series 6 vs.7-8. It also differs from S. trigloides in some non-overlapping morphometrics and in coloration. All individuals of the new species were collected from Peyssonnelia beds, beds of red algae dominated by species of the family Peyssonneliaceae. The generic diagnosis of Speleogobius is revised.

  18. Diversification of substrate specificities in teleostei Fads2: characterization of Δ4 and Δ6Δ5 desaturases of Chirostoma estor[S

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca-Madrigal, Jorge; Navarro, Juan C.; Hontoria, Francisco; Tocher, Douglas R.; Martínez-Palacios, Carlos A.; Monroig, Óscar

    2014-01-01

    Currently existing data show that the capability for long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis in teleost fish is more diverse than in other vertebrates. Such diversity has been primarily linked to the subfunctionalization that teleostei fatty acyl desaturase (Fads)2 desaturases have undergone during evolution. We previously showed that Chirostoma estor, one of the few representatives of freshwater atherinopsids, had the ability for LC-PUFA biosynthesis from C18 PUFA precursors, in agreement wit...

  19. Diet of Astyanax species (Teleostei, Characidae in an Atlantic Forest River in Southern Brazil

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    Fábio Silveira Vilella

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of six species of Astyanax from river Maquiné are described. Fishes were sampled bi-monthly from November/95 to September/96 in two zones of the river. Items were identified, counted and had their abundance estimated according to a semi-quantitative scale. Frequency of occurrence, alimentary importance index (IFI values and a similarity analysis of diets for each species-river zone sample were examined. All the species were considered typically omnivorous, with insects and vegetal matter being the most important items in their diet. These species could act as seed dispersers, particularly for macrophytes. Intra-specific spatial differences were not observed in comparisons of samples from two diferent regions of the river, except for A. fasciatus. The presence of Podostemaceae macrophytes in the mid-course of the river seemed to be important both as an autochthonous food resource and as habitat for several organisms preyed by the Astyanax species.Seis espécies do gênero Astyanax, presentes no rio Maquiné, RS, foram estudadas quanto aos seus hábitos alimentares. Os exemplares foram amostrados bimensalmente de novembro de 1995 a setembro de 1996 nas zonas ritral e potamal do rio. Os itens alimentares foram identificados e quantificados de acordo com uma escala semi-quantitativa de abundância, utilizando-se para análise a frequência de ocorrência e um índice de importância alimentar para cada espécie e zona do rio. Análises multivariadas de agrupamento e ordenação foram utilizadas para comparar as dietas intra e interespecíficas. Todas as espécies foram consideradas onivoras, sendo que os itens mais importantes foram os insetos e restos de vegetais superiores. Sugere-se que as espécies estudadas possam atuar como dispersoras de sementes, particularmente para macrófitas. Diferenças espaciais intraespecíficas não foram encontradas, exceto para A. fasciatus. A presença de Podostemaceae no curso médio do rio parece

  20. Genetic and biogeographical relationships among species of Astyanax (Teleostei, Characidae) in Brazilian river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, R; Maniglia, T C; Prioli, S M A P; Prioli, A J

    2015-11-30

    The genetic relationships among 17 species of Astyanax from the Iguaçu River and adjacent river basins in Brazil were examined using nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cytb). Congruent trees were constructed using neighbor-joining, maximum-likelihood, and Bayesian methods. The resulting clades suggest that at least three major groups share similar origins with the endemic species of the Iguaçu River. The results indicate that Astyanax is polyphyletic in this location, which suggests that Astyanax did not diversify from a single ancestral group that was isolated when the Iguaçu River basin formed. Astyanax bifasciatus shares an origin with some species of the altiparanae-bimaculatus complex, while A. minor originated from the same group as A. aff. paranae, A. fasciatus, and A. bockmanni. The third group includes A. dissimilis, Astyanax sp F, and A. serratus that are endemic species to the Iguaçu River basin. Geological and hydrological events that influenced the biogeographical patterns of these species are discussed.

  1. Cytogenetic characterization of the strongly electric Amazonian eel, Electrophorus electricus (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, from the Brazilian rivers Amazon and Araguaia

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    Soraia B.A. Fonteles

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A karyotype analysis of the electric eel, Electrophorus electricus (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, a strongly electric fish from northern South America, is presented. Two female specimens were analyzed, one from the Amazon River and one from the Araguaia River. The specimens had a chromosomal number of 2n = 52 (42M-SM + 10A. C-bands were present in a centromeric and pericentromeric position on part of the chromosomes; some interstitial C-bands were also present. Heteromorphic nucleolus organizer regions (NORs were detected in two chromosome pairs of the specimen from the Amazon River. The chromosome number and karyotype characteristics are similar to those of other Gymnotidae species. The genera Electrophorus and Gymnotus are positioned as the basal lineages in the Gymnotiformes phylogeny.

  2. Variación morfológica de las especies de Astyanax, subgénero Zygogaster (Teleostei, Characidae

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    Ruiz-C., R. I.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation of Astyanax species, subgenus Zygogaster (Teleostei, Characidae The diverse Neotropical fish genus Astyanax inhabits a variety of aquatic environments. As with other species in this genus, the taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationships of species of this subgenus remain largely undetermined. Based on 354 individuals, we analyzed the morphological variation of four species of the subgenus Zygogaster (A. atratoensis, A. caucanus, A. filiferus, and A. magdalenae using procrustes analysis and compared findings with two species of the sister group: subgenus Poecilurichthys (A. orthodus and A. superbus. The PCA (Principal Component Analysis and CVA (Canonical Variates Analysis showed morphological affinity between the subgenera and indicated variance in body depth, anterior trend of dorsal fin origin and humeral spot, depression on the dorsal surface of the skull, and ventral displacement of the orbit and snout. The variation in these structures may provide evidence supporting adaptive speciation as an alternative to speciation driven by geographical isolation.

  3. Population structure, reproductive biology and feeding of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819 in an Upper Paraná River tributary, Misiones, Argentina Estrutura populacional, biologia reprodutiva e alimentação de Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819 em um tributário do alto Rio Paraná, Misiones, Argentina

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    Lourdes María Hirt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The genus Astyanax is one of the richest in number of species and has one of the widest geographical distributions in Argentina, being possible to find in nine ichthyogeographic ecoregions. The aim of the present work was to analyze the population structure of Astyanax fasciatus in the Garupá Stream, Province of Misiones, Argentina, considering its distribution by size, standard length-total weight relationship and aspects of its reproductive and feeding biology; METHODS: A total of eight experimental fishing campaigns were carried out between September 2002 and May 2004, in agreement with the seasons of the year, using a set of gillnets; RESULTS: We captured a total of 386 individuals, 70% of which in the Middle Basin in autumn and winter. The following gonad stages were identified in both males and females: resting, maturing, mature and spawning. The highest gonadal activity corresponded to the autumn-winter period. The Middle Basin showed the highest capture of individuals in reproductive activity, thus reflecting the seasonality of spawning. The average fecundity was of 4000 oocytes, being 1100 µm the largest oocyte diameter. The mean standard length of the total catch was 99.3 mm and females reached larger sizes than males (P OBJETIVO: O gênero Astyanax é um dos mais ricos em número de espécies e tem uma das maiores distribuições geográficas na Argentina, sendo possível encontrar em nove ecorregiões ictiogeográfica. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar a estrutura populacional de Astyanax fasciatus no arroio Garupá, Província de Misiones, na Argentina, considerando a sua distribuição por tamanho, relação peso-padrão de comprimento total e aspectos de sua biologia reprodutiva e alimentação; MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas oito operações de pescaria sazonais, entre setembro de 2002 e maio de 2004, com uma bateria de redes de emalhar; RESULTADOS: Foram capturados 386 indivíduos, 70% na Bacia Média no outono e

  4. Un nouveau genre d'Aipichthyoidea (Teleostei, Acanthomorpha) du Cénomanien inférieur marin de Hgula (Liban): description et relations phylogénétiques

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    Otero, Olga

    1997-09-01

    Freigichthys elleipsis nov. gen., nov. sp., from the Lower Cenomanian of Hgula (Lebanon) is described. Its phylogenetic relationships within the Aipichthyoidea (Teleostei, Ctenosquamata) are established. It is the plesiomorphic member of this superfamily that includes the genera Aipichthys Steindachner, 1860, ParaipichthysGaudant, 1978and Aipichthyoides Gayet 1980.

  5. 温度对条石鲷幼鱼代谢率、排泄率及窒息点的影响%Impacts of temperature on metabolic, excretion rate and asphyxiation point of juvenile Oplegnathus fasciatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宣雄; 徐善良; 沈庞幼; 谷江稳; 颜付云; 邵波

    2012-01-01

    采用静水密闭式呼吸仪,分别测定了13,18,23,28和33℃5个水温梯度下条石鲷Oplegnathus asciatus幼鱼的代谢率、排泄率及窒息点.结果表明:(1)不同温度条件下,条石鲷幼鱼的代谢率和排泄率差异显著(p<0.05);当温度由13℃升高至28℃时,条石鲷幼鱼的代谢率和排泄率均随之升高;当水温为28℃时,其代谢率和排泄率达最大值,分别为(16.33±0.45) J/(g·h)和(1.03±0.04) J/(g·h),是13℃实验组的6.69倍和5.15倍;与28℃实验组相比,33℃实验组的代谢率和排泄率分别降低了19.04%和15.53%,33℃已超出了条石鲷幼鱼生长的最高适温.(2)实验温度下,条石鲷幼鱼的蛋白质供能比值为37.94%~72.24%,蛋白质是其主要能源物质.(3)条石鲷幼鱼的窒息点为(3.17~3.64) mg/L,并随水温升高而升高.(4)Q10值和蛋白质供能比值的变化特征表明,18~28℃是条石鲷幼鱼的适宜生长温度.%The metabolic, excretion rates and asphyxiation point of juvenile Oplegnathus fasciatus of an average body mass of (0. 61±0.14) g were measured at five different water temperatures(13, 18, 23, 28 and 33 ℃)with hydrostatic-closed breathing apparatus. The results showed that: (1) The metabolic and excretion rates have significant difference at different water temperatures(p<0. 05); The metabolic and excretion rates increased by 6. 69 times and 5. 15 times with the water temperature rising from 13 ℃ to 28 ℃, and the maximum value at 28 ℃ is (16. 33±0. 45) J/(g · H) and (1. 03±0. 04) J/(g · H) respectively, but they decreased by 19. 04% and 15. 53% at high water temperature of 33 ℃ compared with those at 28 TZ, which shows that 33 ℃ has exceed the optimum temperature for juvenile O. Fasciatus which leads to the decrease of metabolic rate and then the excretion rate. (2)The change regularity of the Q10 values reflectes the optimum temperature range for the juvenile O. Fasciatus, from 13 ℃ to 33 ℃ the value of Q

  6. First molecular cloning and gene expression analysis of teleost CD42 (glycoprotein Ib beta chain) GPIb-IX-V subunit from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ji-Min; Kim, Ju-Won; Kim, Do-Hyung; Park, Chan-Il

    2015-04-01

    CD42 is a platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib that plays a key role in haemostasis and thrombin-induced platelet activation. Here, we report the molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the CD42c gene from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). Rock bream CD42 (RbCD42c) gene expression profiles were determined after infection with Streptococcus iniae, Edwardsiella tarda and red seabream iridovirus (RSIV). The full-length RbCD42c cDNA contained an open reading frame of 624 bp encoding 207 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequences of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-N terminal and LRR-C terminal were conserved between fish and mammals. RbCD42c was highly expressed in red blood cells, spleen, gill, liver and kidney of healthy rock bream. The RbCD42c gene was not significantly up- or downregulated after E. tarda exposure. However, RbCD42c gene expression was upregulated in kidney, spleen and gill after S. iniae infection. RbCD42c was upregulated in spleen, liver and gill, but downregulated in kidney 24 and 48 h after RSIV infection. These results suggest that RbCD42c has different expression patterns after infection with bacterial or viral pathogens. This gene may be directly involved in haemostasis.

  7. Chromosomal mapping of microsatellite repeats in the rock bream fish Oplegnathus fasciatus, with emphasis of their distribution in the neo-Y chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongdong; Lou, Bao; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello

    2013-03-19

    Despite the theoretical and experimental progress, our understanding on sex chromosome differentiation is still diagrammatic. The accumulation of repetitive DNA sequences is believed to occur in early stages of such differentiation. As fish species present a wide range of sex chromosome systems they are excellent models to examine the differentiation of these chromosomes. In the present study, the chromosomal distribution of 9 mono-, di- and tri-nucleotide microsatellites were analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybrization (FISH) in rock bream fish (Oplegnathus fasciatus), which is characterized by an X1X2Y sex chromosome system. Generally, the males and females exhibited the same autosomal pattern of distribution for a specific microsatellite probe. The male specific Y chromosome displays a specific amount of distinct microsatellites repeats along both arms. However, the accumulation of these repetitive sequences was not accompanied by a huge heterochromatinization process. The present data provide new insights into the chromosomal constitution of the multiple sex chromosomes and allow further investigations on the true role of the microsatellite repeats in the differentiation process of this sex system.

  8. A proto-type galectin-2 from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): Molecular, genomic, and expression analysis, and recognition of microbial pathogens by recombinant protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulasitha, William Shanthakumar; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Wan, Qiang; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kang, Tae-Wook; Lee, Jehee

    2017-01-25

    A β-galactoside binding lectin, designated as galectin-2, was identified and characterized from rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus (OfGal-2). The cDNA of OfGal-2 comprised of 692 bp with a coding sequence of 396 bp, encoding a putative polypeptide of 131 amino acids. Gene structure analysis of OfGal-2 revealed a four exon-three intron organization. A single carbohydrate-binding domain containing all seven important residues for carbohydrate binding was located in the third exon, which formed a carbohydrate-binding pocket. Homology screening and sequence analysis demonstrated that OfGal-2 is an evolutionarily conserved proto-type galectin. OfGal-2 transcripts were detected in several healthy fish tissues, with the highest level observed in the intestine, followed by the liver. The expression of OfGal-2 was elevated upon the injection of various mitogenic stimulants and pathogens in a time-dependent manner. Upregulated expression in the liver after tissue injury suggested its role as a damage-associated molecular pattern. Recombinant OfGal-2 protein had hemagglutinating potential and possessed affinity towards lactose and galactose. Moreover, the recombinant protein agglutinated and bound potential pathogenic bacteria and a ciliate. The results of this study indicate that the galectin-2 from rock bream has a potential role in immunity, particularly in the recognition of invading pathogens.

  9. The loss of genetic diversity during captive breeding of the endangered sculpin, Trachidermus fasciatus, based on ISSR markers: implications for its conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Xiaoxiao; YANG Qiaoli; GAO Tianxiang; LI Chuangju

    2011-01-01

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to determine the genetic variation and genetic differentiation of cultured and wild populations of Trachidermus fasciatus,an endangered catadromous fish species in China.Six selected primers were used to amplify DNA samples from 85 individuals,and 353 loci were detected.Relatively low genetic diversity was detected in the cultured population (the percentage of polymorphic loci PPL=73.80%,Nei's gene diversity h=0.178 2,Shannon information index I=0.276 9).However,the genetic diversity at the species level was relatively high (PPL=91.78%; h=0.258 3,I=0.398 6).The UPGMA tree grouped together the genotypes almost according to their cultured and wild origin,showing distinct differences in genetic structure between wild and cultured populations.The pairwise Fst values confirmed significant genetic differentiation between wild and cultured samples.The cultivated population seems to be low in genetic diversity as a result of detrimental genetic effects in the captive population.The results suggest that ISSR markers are effective for rapid assessment of the degree of diversity of a population,thus giving important topical information relevant to preserving endangered species.

  10. Rediscovery of the 220-year-old holotype of the Banded Iguana, Brachylophus fasciatus (Brongniart, 1800) in the Paris Natural History Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ineich, Ivan; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    The Paris Natural History Museum herpetological collection (MNHN-RA) has seven historical specimens of Brachylophus spp. collected late in the 18th and early in the 19th centuries. Brachylophus fasciatus was described in 1800 by Brongniart but its type was subsequently considered as lost and never present in MNHN-RA collections. We found that 220 year old holotype among existing collections, registered without any data, and we show that it was donated to MNHN-RA from Brongniart’s private collection after his death in 1847. It was registered in the catalogue of 1851 but without any data or reference to its type status. According to the coloration (uncommon midbody saddle-like dorsal banding pattern) and morphometric data given in its original description and in the subsequent examination of the type in 1802 by Daudin and in 1805 by Brongniart we found that lost holotype in the collections. Another MNHN-RA specimen has Horn Islands (Wallis and Futuna) as the collection location but we show that most of the collections given to MNHN-RA by its collector, Louis Arnoux, have mixed localities in the MNHN-RA catalogues. We thus conclude that the locality is wrong and that the species never inhabited those islands located west of Western Samoa and north-east of Fiji.

  11. Establishment of caudal fin cell lines from tropical ornamental fishes Puntius fasciatus and Pristolepis fasciata endemic to the Western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, T Raja; Basheer, V S; Gopalakrishnan, A; Rathore, Gaurav; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Kumar, Raj; Jena, J K

    2013-12-01

    Two new cell lines, PFF and CFF were established from the caudal fin of the Puntius fasciatus, and Pristolepis fasciata respectively. Since their initiation, these cell lines (PFF and CFF) have been subcultured in L-15 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum for more than 35 passages at 28°C and both the cell lines were characterized. Karyotyping analysis of PFF and CFF cells at 25th passage indicated that the modal chromosome number was 2n=50 and 2n=48 respectively. The cell line was cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen at -196°C and could be recovered from storage after six months with good cell viability. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the fragments of two mitochondrial genes, 16S rRNA and COI confirmed that the cell lines originated from the respective species. The bacterial extracellular products from Vibrio cholerae MTCC3904 and Aeromonas hydrophila were found to be toxic to PFF and CFF. Both the cells were resistant to the marine viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV). No CPE could be found in both cell lines inoculated with the fish samples and cell culture supernatants were demonstrated free of SVC, iridovirus and KHV by molecular methods. These results indicated the absence of SVC, iridovirus and KHV in the ornamental fishes collected from the Western Ghats of India.

  12. A conserved function of the zinc finger transcription factor Sp8/9 in allometric appendage growth in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeper, Nina D; Prpic, Nikola-Michael; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2009-08-01

    The genes encoding the closely related zinc finger transcription factors Buttonhead (Btd) and D-Sp1 are expressed in the developing limb primordia of Drosophila melanogaster and are required for normal growth of the legs. The D-Sp1 homolog of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, Sp8 (appropriately termed Sp8/9), is also required for the proper growth of the leg segments. Here we report on the isolation and functional study of the Sp8/9 gene from the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. We show that Sp8/9 is expressed in the developing appendages throughout development and that the downregulation of Sp8/9 via RNAi leads to antennae, rostrum, and legs with shortened and fused segments. This supports a conserved role of Sp8/9 in allometric leg segment growth. However, all leg segments including the claws are present and the expression of the leg genes Distal-less, dachshund, and homothorax are proportionally normal, thus providing no evidence for a role of Sp8/9 in appendage specification.

  13. Functional analyses in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus (Hemiptera) support a role for Wnt signaling in body segmentation but not appendage development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, David R; Kaufman, Thomas C

    2005-07-15

    Specification of the proximal-distal (PD) axis of insect appendages is best understood in Drosophila melanogaster, where conserved signaling molecules encoded by the genes decapentaplegic (dpp) and wingless (wg) play key roles. However, the development of appendages from imaginal discs as in Drosophila is a derived state, while more basal insects produce appendages from embryonic limb buds. Therefore, the universality of the Drosophila limb PD axis specification mechanism has been debated since dpp expression in more basal insect species differs dramatically from Drosophila. Here, we test the function of Wnt signaling in the development of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a species with the basal state of appendage development from limb buds. RNA interference of wg and pangolin (pan) produce defects in the germband and eyes, but not in the appendages. Distal-less and dachshund, two genes regulated by Wg signaling in Drosophila and expressed in specific PD domains along the limbs of both species, are expressed normally in the limbs of pan-depleted Oncopeltus embryos. Despite these apparently paradoxical results, Armadillo protein, the transducer of Wnt signaling, does not accumulate properly in the nuclei of cells in the legs of pan-depleted embryos. In contrast, engrailed RNAi in Oncopeltus produces cuticular and appendage defects similar to Drosophila. Therefore, our data suggest that Wg signaling is functionally conserved in the development of the germband, while it is not essential in the specification of the limb PD axis in Oncopeltus and perhaps basal insects.

  14. First description of programmed cell death10 (PDCD10) in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): Potential relations to the regulation of apoptosis by several pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Won; Jeong, Ji-Min; Bae, Jin-Sol; Cho, Dong-Hee; Jung, Sung Hee; Hwang, Jee-Youn; Kwon, Mun-Gyeong; Seo, Jung Soo; Baeck, Gun-Wook; Park, Chan-Il

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we isolated and characterized programmed cell death10 (PDCD10), which is known to be related to apoptosis, from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). The full-length rock bream PDCD10 (RbPDCD10) cDNA (1459 bp) contains an open reading frame of 633 bp that encodes 210 amino acids. Furthermore, multiple alignments revealed that the six of the α-helix bundles were well conserved among the other PDCD10 sequences tested. RbPDCD10 was significantly expressed in the liver, RBC (red blood cell), gill, intestine, trunk kidney and spleen. RbPDCD10 gene expression was also examined in several tissues, including the kidney, spleen, liver, and gill, under bacterial and viral challenges. Generally, all of the examined tissues from the fish that were infected with Edwardsiella tarda and the red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) exhibited significant up-regulations of RbPDCD10 expression compared to the controls. However, RbPDCD10 expression exhibited dramatic down-regulations in all of the examined tissues following injections of Streptococcus iniae, which is major bacterial pathogen that is responsible for mass mortality in rock bream. Our results revealed that rock bream PDCD10 may be involved in the apoptotic regulation of rock bream immune responses.

  15. Effects of water temperature on mortality in Megalocytivirus-infected rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck et Schlegel) and development of protective immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M H; Jung, S J; Vinay, T N; Nikapitiya, C; Kim, J O; Lee, J H; Lee, J; Oh, M J

    2015-08-01

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) causes huge losses, especially in rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus. Rock bream injected with RBIV and held at 29, 26, 23 or 20 °C had 100% mortality. Conversely, all infected fish held at 17 °C survived even after the temperature was progressively increased to 26 °C at 100 dpi. Rock bream exposed to virus and held for 2, 4 and 7 days at 23/26 °C before the temperature was reduced to 17 °C had mortality rates of 26.6/73.2%, 66.6/100% and 93.4/100%, respectively, through 100 dpi. When surviving fish had the water temperature increased from 17 to 26 °C at 100 dpi, they did not exhibit signs of disease and had low virus copy numbers (below 10(3)). To investigate the development of a protective immune, rock bream were infected with RBIV and held at 23 °C before shifting the water temperature to 17 °C at 4 dpi. All injected fish survived until 120 dpi. While 100% of the previously unexposed fish died, 80.2% of the previously infected fish survived. When the survivors were rechallenged again at 160 dpi, no further mortality occurred. The high survival rate of fish following rechallenge with RBIV indicates that protective immunity was established in the surviving rock bream.

  16. The importance of gobies (Gobiidae, Teleostei) as hosts and transmitters of parasites in the SW Baltic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, C. D.; Strohbach, U.; Groenewold, S.

    1993-02-01

    The parasite fauna of five goby species (Gobiidae, Teleostei) was investigated in the Baltic Sea during the period 1987 to 1990. 13 parasite species were found in samples from the Lübeck Bight: Bothriocephalus scorpii, Schistocephalus sp. (Cestoda); Cryptocotyle concavum, Cryptocotyle lingua, Podocotyle atomon, Derogenes varicus (Digenea); Hysterothylacium sp. (cf. auctum), Contracaecum sp., Anisakis simplex (Nematoda); Corynosoma sp., Echinorhynchus gadi, Neoechinorhynchus rutili, Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala). The number of parasite species were: 10 in the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, 8 in the black goby Gobius niger, 7 in the two-spotted goby Gobiusculus flavescens, 6 in the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, and 5 in the painted goby Pomatoschistus pictus. Neoechinorhynchus rutili occurred only in P. minutus, and Corynosoma sp. only in G. niger. The extent to which the gobies were parasitized clearly depended on the respective ways of life and, moreover, on the kind of prey ingested by the hosts. Additionally, the age of the hosts might be important. The highest rate of parasitism, more than 60%, was reached by Hysterothylacium sp. in G. niger and by Cryptocotyle concavum in P. microps. Infestation incidence lay mostly below 40% which means a satellite species status (Holmes, 1991). The number of parasite species was highest in summer; the highest intensities of single parasites occurred in spring ( Podocotyle atomon) or autumn ( Crytocotyle concavum). Bothriocephalus scorpii, Hysterothylacium sp. and Podocotyle infested their juvenile hosts very early, but only Hysterothylacium was accumulated by G. niger during its whole life span, whereas Bothriocephalus persisted also in older gobies in low intensities. The cercariae of Cryptocotyle spp. penetrate actively into their hosts; all the other parasites named were transmitted in larval form by prey organisms which consisted mainly of planktonic and benthic crustaceans. The gobies were final hosts

  17. 条石鲷(Oplegnathus fasciatus)发育早期的脂肪酸组成变化研究*%THE STUDY OF FATTY ACID COMPONENTS IN EARLY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE OF OPLEGNATHUS FASCIATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐善良; 王亚军; 王丹丽; 严小军

    2013-01-01

      采用GC/MS法分析了条石鲷(Oplegnathus fasciatus)的未受精卵、胚胎、仔鱼、稚鱼及幼鱼各阶段的脂肪酸组成特点及含量变动,旨在研究条石鲷发育早期脂肪酸的组成和变化规律。共检测到28种脂肪酸,其中饱和脂肪酸(SFA)13种,单不饱和脂肪酸(MUFA)7种,多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFA)8种。结果表明:(1)鱼卵中主要脂肪酸依次为 C16:0、C22:6(n-3)(DHA)、C20:5(n-3)(EPA)和C18:1(n-9)(油酸);(2)胚胎及内源性营养阶段,主要利用C16:0、C18:0以及C18:1作为能量来源, EPA和 DHA 被优先保存下来;(3)摄食轮虫和桡足类 AA、EPA、DHA 含量显著提高,摄食卤虫则C18:1(n-9)、C18:2(n-6)及C18:3(n-3)含量迅速增加;(4)在稚鱼期必需脂肪酸AA、DHA含量不足,而EPA过高,可能引起细胞膜磷脂中DHA与EPA比例失衡,出现稚鱼“死亡高峰”。%In order to investigate the fatty acid composition and changes of Oplegnathus fasciatus in early development, the total lipid and fatty acids composition of O. fasciatus in different developmental stages (unfertilized eggs, embryos, larval, juvenile, young) were measured by means of GC/MS. The O. fasciatus was sampled from the Hengma mariculture base of Ningbo Marine and Fisheries Research Institute, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province in May 2009. As a result, Twenty-eight fatty acids were detected in O. fasciatus, including 13 saturated fatty acids (SFA), 7 single unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and 8 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Found the following characteristics:(1) The major fatty acids in eggs followed by C16:0, C22:6 (n-3) (DHA), C20:5 (n-3) (EPA) and C18:1 (n-9) (oleic acid), and the content of C16:0 was topped in each stage; (2) C16:0, C18:0 (SFA) and C18:1 (MUFA) were main source of energy metabolism during embryos and internal nutrition, while the DHA and EPA were preferentially preserved; (3) Feeding rotifers and copepods can significantly im-prove the

  18. Chromosome mapping of H1 histone and 5S rRNA gene clusters in three species of Astyanax (Teleostei, Characiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, D T; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Rens, W; Foresti, F; Porto-Foresti, F

    2011-01-01

    We report here on the physical mapping of the H1 histone genes (hisDNA) and the 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in 3 Neotropical fish species of the genus Astyanax(A. altiparanae, A. bockmanni and A. fasciatus) and the comparative analysis of the chromosomes bearing these genes. Nucleotide analyses by sequencing of both genes were also performed. The distribution of the H1 histone genes was more conserved than that of the rRNA genes, since these were always located in the pericentromeric regions of 2 chromosome pairs. 5S rDNA was found on one of the pairs that presented an H1 histone cluster; this seems to be a conserved chromosomal feature of the genus Astyanax. In addition, individuals of A. bockmanni and A. fasciatus showed clusters of 5S rDNA on 1 pair of acrocentric chromosomes, not found in A. altiparanae. The results obtained by chromosome mapping as well as by sequencing of both genes showed that A.bockmanni is more closely related to A. fasciatus than to A. altiparanae. The results allow the characterization of cytogenetic markers for improved elucidation of the processes involved in karyotype differentiation of fish genomes. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Bipteria formosa (Kovaleva et Gaevskaya, 1979) comb. n. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) in whiting Merlangius merlangus (Teleostei: Gadidae) from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlbakk, Egil; Køie, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    A total of 22 specimens of whiting Merlangius merlangus (L.) (Teleostei, Gadidae) from the northern Øresund, Denmark were examined for Myxosporea. Zschokkella hildae Auerbach, 1910 (Myxidiidae), Gadimyxa sp. (Parvicapsulidae) and a species of Bipteria occurred in the renal tubules of 9%, 18% and 68......% whiting, respectively. Immature spores of the Bipteria species are very occurred in the renal tubules of 9%, 18% and 68% whiting, respectively. Immature spores of the species are very similar to spores of Myxoproteus formosus Kovaleva et Gaevskaya, 1979 originally described from the urinary system...

  20. Expression Analysis of Lily Type Lectin Isotypes in the Rock Bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus: in the Tissue, Developmental Stage and Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Mee; Yang, In Jung; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choul-Ji; Park, Jong-Won; Noh, Gyeong Eon; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Kil

    2016-12-01

    Lectins belong to the pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) class and play important roles in the recognition and elimination of pathogens via the innate immune system. Recently, it was reported that lily-type lectin-1 is involved when a pathogen attacks in the early immune response of fish. However, this study is limited to information that the lectin is involved in the innate immune response against viral infection. In the present study, the lily-type lectin-2 and -3 of Oplegnathus fasciatus (OfLTL-2 and 3) have been presented to be included B-lectin domain and two D-mannose binding sites in the amino acid sequence that an important feature for the fundamental structure. To investigate the functional properties of OfLTLs, the tissue distribution in the healthy rock bream and temporal expression during early developmental stage analysis are performed using quantitative real-time PCR. OfLTL-2 and 3 are predominantly expressed in the liver and skin, but rarely expressed in other organ. Also, the transcripts of OfLTLs are not expressed during the early developmental stage but its transcripts are increased after immune-related organs which are fully formed. In the challenge experiment with RBIV (rock bream iridovirus), the expression of OfLTLs was increased much more strongly in the late response than the early, unlike previously known. These results suggest that OfLTLs are specifically expressed in the immune-related tissues when those organs are fully formed and it can be inferred that the more intensively involved in the second half to the virus infection.

  1. Re-evaluation of the optimum dietary protein level for maximum growth of juvenile barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus reared in cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Woong Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We determined the optimum dietary protein level in juvenile barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus in cages. Five semi-purified isocaloric diets were formulated with white fish meal and casein-based diets to contain 35, 40, 45, 50, and 60 % crude protein (CP. Fish with an initial body weight of 7.1 ± 0.06 g (mean ± SD were randomly distributed into 15 net cages (each size: 60 cm × 40 cm × 90 cm, W × L × H as groups of 20 fish in triplicates. The fish were fed at apparent satiation level twice a day. After 8 weeks of feeding, the weight gain (WG of fish fed 45, 50, and 60 % CP diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed 35 and 40 % CP diets. However, there were no significant differences in WG among fish fed 45, 50, and 60 % CP diets. Generally, feed efficiency (FE and specific growth rate (SGR showed a similar trend as WG. However, the protein efficiency ratio (PER was inversely related to dietary protein levels. Energy retention efficiency increased with the increase of dietary protein levels by protein sparing from non-protein energy sources. Blood hematocrit content was not affected by dietary protein levels. However, a significantly lower amount of hemoglobin was found in fish fed 35 % CP than in fish fed 40, 45, 50, and 60 % CP diets. Fish fed 60 % CP showed the lowest survival rate than the fish fed 35, 40, 45, and 50 % CP diets. Broken-line analysis of WG showed the optimum dietary protein level was 45.2 % with 18.8 kJ/g diet for juvenile barred knifejaw. This study has potential implication for the successful cage culture of barred knifejaw.

  2. RNAi analysis of Deformed, proboscipedia and Sex combs reduced in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus: novel roles for Hox genes in the hemipteran head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C L; Kaufman, T C

    2000-09-01

    Insects have evolved a large variety of specialized feeding strategies, with a corresponding variability in mouthpart morphology. We have, however, little understanding of the developmental mechanisms that underlie this diversity. Until recently it was difficult to perform any analysis of gene function outside of the genetic model insects Drosophila melanogaster and Tribolium castaneum. In this paper, we report the use of dsRNA-mediated interference (RNAi) to dissect gene function in the development of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, which has specialized suctorial mouthparts. The Hox genes Deformed (Dfd), proboscipedia (pb) and Sex combs reduced (Scr) have previously been shown to be expressed in the gnathal appendages of this species. Strikingly, the milkweed bug was found to have an unusual expression pattern of pb. Here, by analyzing single and combination RNAi depletions, we find that Dfd, pb and Scr are used in the milkweed bug to specify the identity of the mouthparts. The exact roles of the genes, however, are different from what is known in the two genetic model insects. The maxillary appendages in the bug are determined by the activities of the genes Dfd and Scr, rather than Dfd and pb as in the fly and beetle. The mandibular appendages are specified by Dfd, but their unique morphology in Oncopeltus suggests that Dfd's target genes are different. As in flies and beetles, the labium is specified by the combined activities of pb and Scr, but again, the function of pb appears to be different. Additionally, the regulatory control of pb by the other two genes seems to be different in the bug than in either of the other species. These novelties in Hox function, expression pattern and regulatory relationships may have been important for the evolution of the unique Hemipteran head.

  3. Effect of different wavelengths of light on the antioxidant and immunity status of juvenile rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus, exposed to thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jong Ryeol; Shin, Yoon Sub; Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Tae Hwan; Jung, Min-Min; Choi, Cheol Young

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the effect of light wavelengths on antioxidant and immunity parameters in juvenile rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus, exposed to thermal stress (25 and 30°C). We exposed the fish to light emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting green (520 nm) and red light (630 nm) of 0.25 and 0.5 W/m2 intensity, and measured the activity, and mRNA and protein expression levels of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We also determined the levels of plasma hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), melatonin, and lysozyme. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of caspase-3 were measured and terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were performed. We observed that mRNA expression and activities of antioxidant enzymes and plasma H2O2 levels were significantly higher after exposure to high temperatures. However, increases in these parameters were significantly lower after exposure to green LED light. The plasma melatonin and lysozyme levels were significantly lower in the different groups after exposure to high temperatures; however, in groups exposed to green LED light, their levels were significantly higher than those in the control group. The expression pattern of caspase-3 mRNA was similar to that of H2O2. The TUNEL assay showed that apoptosis was markedly higher at higher water temperatures than that at 20°C. These results indicate that high water temperatures induce oxidative stress and decrease the immunity in juvenile rock bream but green LED light inhibits the rise in oxidative stress and combats the decrease in immunity and should, thus, be useful in the culture of rock bream.

  4. Two new species of Monogenea (Platyhelminthes: Cercomeridea parasitic on Chaetodipterus faber (Teleostei: Ephippidae from the Brazilian coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Cezar

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Metazoan parasites were extracted for 110 Chaetodipterus faber (Broussonet, 1782 (Teleostei: Ephippidae specimens from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (nearly 21-23° S, 41-45° W. Two new species of monogeneans belonging to genera Sprostoniella and Parancylodiscoides are described and illustrated. The new species of Sprostoniella, differ from S. multitestis, the only known species of the genus, by: 1. the arrangement of septa (with 17 septa, two of them bifid and two incomplet in the new species; 17 septa, two of them trifid in S. multitestis. 2. the new species showed two central loculi, while S. multitestis only one, and 3. the first pair of anchors of the new species is small and poorly developed, while in S. multitestis is well developed and strong. The new species of Parancylodiscoides differs from P. chaetodipteri, the only known species of the genus, by: 1. the testis shape (bilobated in the new species, not bilobated in P. chaetodipteri, and 2. by the presence of accessory prostatic reservoir at the copulatory organ base (absent in P. chaetodipteri.Se extrajeron metazoos parásitos de 110 Chaetodipterus faber (Broussonet, 1782 (Teleostei: Ephippidae del litoral del Estado de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (aprox. 21-23° S, 41-45° W. Se describe e ilustra dos nuevas especies de monogéneos de los géneros Sprostoniella y Parancylodiscoides. La nueva especie de Sprostoniella difiere de S. multitestis, la otra especie del género, por 1. la disposición de los septos (con 17 septos, dos de ellos bífidos y dos incompletos en la nueva especie; 17 septos, dos de ellos trífidos en S. multitestis, 2. la nueva especie muestra dos lóculos centrales, mientras S. multitestis sólo uno, y 3. el primer par de ganchos en la nueva especie es pequeño y poco desarrollado, mientras que en S. multitestis es robusto y bien desarrollado. La nueva especie de Parancylodiscoides difiere de P. chaetodipteri, la otra especie del género, por

  5. Gonadal maturation and histological observations of the grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus Gmelin, 1789 (Teleostei: Balistidae in the Gulf of Gabès, Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hichem Kacem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the spawning activity using gonadosomatic index (GSI and gonad histology the Balistes capriscus (Teleostei: Balistidae of the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea. Methods: The reproductive biology of the species, based on 756 (480 females and 276 males, collected from commercial catches at several fishing ports including Chebba, Kerkennah and Zarzis at respective GPS coordinates (34°14' N, 11°06' E, (34°45' N, 11°17' E, (33°41' N, 11°48' E was studied over 28 months (January 2008-April 2010 using GSI and gonad histology. Sizes used in this study ranged from 11.30 to 45.60 cm in fork length. Results: Both GSI and gonad histology suggest that spawning activity occurred mainly between July and mid-September with a peak in July, coinciding with summer time. The first maturation occurred at 20.26 cm fork length for females and 21.30 cm fork length for males. The monthly values of hepatosomatic index and condition factor (K indicated that the liver is the main organ responsible for the mobilization process of the energizing reserves during the sexual cycle. Conclusions: It is the first inventory of gonadal maturation and histological observations of the grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus Gmelin, 1789 (Teleostei: Balistidae in the Gulf of Gabès, (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea.

  6. INTRASPECIFIC IDENTIFICATION OF TRACHIDERMUS FASCIATUS (SCORPAENIFORMES, COTTIDAE) BASED ON TRUSS NETWORK DATA%基于形态框架数据的淞江鲈种群鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金秋; 程起群; 梁鸿子; 罗武松

    2011-01-01

    采用形态框架数据阐明了中国3个现存的淞江鲈地理种群的形态差异.每条鱼测量22个形态度量参数,用Burnaby的多变量方法校正形态度量参数,采用聚类和判别分析来区别种群的差异.结果显示:1)3个地理种群可以分成两组,第1组包括青龙河种群和富春江种群,第2组包括鸭绿江种群;2)根据F-remove值,挑选出最大的5个形态参数:D (2-3)、D(7-9)、D(6-5)、D(6-8)、D(2-1),用挑选后的5个形态参数进行判别分析的判别准确率达100%,显示这3个地理种群是形态上可辨别的种群.地理隔离和环境因子也许是淞江鲈种群形态差异的主要影响因素.虽然形态度量对于判别淞江鲈的种群有效,但对于其种群结构的进一步确认研究是必要的.%Truss network data were used in order to clarify the morphological differences of three extant populations of Trachidermus fasciatus in China. Twenty-two morphometric measurements were made for each individual. Bumaby's multivariate method was used to obtain size-adjusted shape data.The duster analysis and discriminant analysis were used to discriminate among populations.The results indicated:1 ) the three populations were clustered into two distinct groups; the first group included the populations of T.fasciatus living in Qinglong He and in Fuchun Jiang,the last one included the population in Yalu Jiang;2) based on F-remove value,five morphological index,i.e.,D (2-3),D (7-9),D (6-5),D (6-8),and D (2-1 ),were sdected into model.Discriminant analysis with these sdected 5 morphological parameters showed that the identification accuracies were all 100 %. We concluded that these are three morphologically distinguishable populations of T.fasciatus.Reproductive isolation,genetic drift and environmental factors can cause diversification in body shape among different T.fasciatus populations.Though the present morphometric measurements discriminated the different populations of T.fasciatus

  7. New Extinct Carp Fish Species (Teleostei, Cyprinidae from the Late Neogene of Southeastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk М.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Новые вымершие виды карповых рыб (Teleostei, Cyprinidae из позднего неогена юга Восточ- ной Европы. Ковальчук А. Н. - Описаны новые виды вымерших карповых рыб из отложений верхнего неогена юга Восточной Европы. Rutilus robustus Kovalchuk, sp. n. из раннего плиоцена Приозерного (Республика Молдова отличается от других известных видов рода Rutilus массивной высокой ceratobranchiale, длинным передним неозубленным отростком, а также широкими пере- городками между септами кавернозной поверхности. Scardinius ponticus Kovalchuk, sp. n. из позд- него миоцена Лектостратотипа понта (Украина характеризуется большими глоточными зубами и увеличенным количеством зубцов на их внешнем жевательном крае.

  8. Parasitic inventory of Balistes capriscus (Teleostei: Balistidae from the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hichem Kacem

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the parasitic inventory of Balistes capriscus (Teleostei: Balistidae (B. capriscus from the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea. Methods: A parasitological survey of the grey triggerfish B. capriscus (Gmelin, 1788 from the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea was conducted monthly from May 2007 to April 2009. A total of 480 fishes were collected from commercial catches by pelagic trawl net at different fishing ports at Chebba (34°14' N, 11°06' E, Kerkennah (34°45' N, 11°17' E and Zarzis (33°41' N, 11°48' E. The weight, the size, the sex, the date and the area of capture of each specimen were recorded. B. capriscus were then examined to search for ectoparasites and endoparasites. For each parasite species, parasitological indices were calculated. Results: Five species of parasites were identified, among which a new species of Digenea Hypocreadium caputvadum was discovered and two species of parasites were reported for the first time in the Mediterranean. Conclusions: It is the first inventory of the ecto and endoparasites of grey triggerfish collected from the Gulf of Gabès Mediterranean Sea.

  9. Evolution of microhabitat association and morphology in a diverse group of cryptobenthic coral reef fishes (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Eviota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornabene, Luke; Ahmadia, Gabby N; Berumen, Michael L; Smith, Dave J; Jompa, Jamaluddin; Pezold, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Gobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae) are an extremely diverse and widely distributed group and are the second most species rich family of vertebrates. Ecological drivers are key to the evolutionary success of the Gobiidae. However, ecological and phylogenetic data are lacking for many diverse genera of gobies. Our study investigated the evolution of microhabitat association across the phylogeny of 18 species of dwarfgobies (genus Eviota), an abundant and diverse group of coral reef fishes. In addition, we also explore the evolution of pectoral fin-ray branching and sensory head pores to determine the relationship between morphological evolution and microhabitat shifts. Our results demonstrate that Eviota species switched multiple times from a facultative hard-coral association to inhabiting rubble or mixed sand/rubble habitat. We found no obvious relationship between microhabitat shifts and changes in pectoral fin-ray branching or reduction in sensory pores, with the latter character being highly homoplasious throughout the genus. The relative flexibility in coral-association in Eviota combined with the ability to move into non-coral habitats suggests a genetic capacity for ecological release in contrast to the strict obligate coral-dwelling relationship commonly observed in closely related coral gobies, thus promoting co-existence through fine scale niche partitioning. The variation in microhabitat association may facilitate opportunistic ecological speciation, and species persistence in the face of environmental change. This increased speciation opportunity, in concert with a high resilience to extinction, may explain the exceptionally high diversity seen in Eviota compared to related genera in the family.

  10. Population genetic patterns revealed by microsatellite data challenge the mitochondrial DNA based taxonomy of Astyanax in Mexico (Characidae, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorf, Bernhard; Wilkens, Horst; Strecker, Ulrike

    2011-07-01

    Astyanax has become an important model system for evolutionary studies of cave animals. We investigated correlations of population genetic patterns revealed by microsatellite data and phylogeographic patterns shown by mitochondrial DNA sequences in Mexican cave and surface fish of the genus Astyanax (Characidae, Teleostei) to improve the understanding of the colonization history of this neotropical fish in Central and North America and to assess a recent taxonomic classification. The distribution of nuclear genotypes is not congruent with that of the mitochondrial clades. Admixture analyses suggest there has been nuclear gene flow between populations defined by different mitochondrial clades. The microsatellite data indicate that there was mitochondrial capture of a cave population from adjacent populations. Furthermore, gene flow also occurred between populations belonging to different nuclear genotypic clusters. This indicates that neither the nuclear genotypic clusters nor the mitochondrial clades represent independent evolutionary units, although the mitochondrial divergences are high and in a range usually characteristic for different fish species. This conclusion is supported by the presence of morphologically intermediate forms. Our analyses show that the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt limited gene flow, but has been crossed by Astyanax several times. In Yucatán, where obvious geographic barriers are missing, the incongruence between the distribution of nuclear and mitochondrial markers reflects random colonization events caused by inundations or marine transgressions resulting in random phylogeographic breaks. Thus, conclusions about the phylogeographic history and even more about the delimitation of species should not be based on single genetic markers.

  11. Escape from the Ponto-Caspian: evolution and biogeography of an endemic goby species flock (Benthophilinae: Gobiidae: Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Matthew E; Stepien, Carol A

    2009-07-01

    Endemic Ponto-Caspian gobies include a flock of 24 "neogobiin" species (containing the nominal genera and subgenera Apollonia, Babka, Neogobius, Mesogobius, Ponticola, and Proterorhinus; Teleostei: Gobiidae), of which a large proportion (5 species; 21%) recently escaped to invade other freshwater Eurasian systems and the North American Great Lakes. We provide its first comprehensive phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis based on 4709 bp sequences from two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes with maximum parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian approaches. We additionally compare its relationships with the tadpole gobies (Benthophilus and Caspiosoma), which comprise a related endemic Ponto-Caspian gobiid group; along with a variety of postulated relatives and outgroups. Results of all phylogenetic approaches are highly congruent and provide very strong support for recognizing the subfamily Benthophilinae; which encompasses both the "neogobiins" and tadpole gobies, and genetically diverges from other Gobiidae subfamilies-including (non-monophyletic) Gobiinae and Gobinellinae. Benthophilinae contains three tribes: Neogobiini (Neogobius, which is synonymized here with Apollonia; containing the type species N. fluviatilis, along with N. melanostomus and N. caspius), Ponticolini (containing the genera Mesogobius, Proterorhinus, Babka, and Ponticola-elevating the latter two from subgenera and removing them from the formerly paraphyletic Neogobius), and Benthophilini (tadpole gobies). Within Ponticolini, Proterorhinus and Mesogobius comprise the sister clade of the Ponticola and Babka clade. Further work is needed to clarify the interrelationships of the tadpole gobies. Invasiveness is widespread in freshwater and euryhaline taxa of Neogobius, Proterorhinus, Babka, and Ponticola; but not in marine species, Mesogobius, or tadpole gobies.

  12. From sneaker to parental male: change of reproductive traits in the black goby, Gobius niger (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immler, Simone; Mazzoldi, Carlotta; Rasotto, Maria Berica

    2004-02-01

    This study focuses on the consequences of the switch of tactic from parasitic to parental male in the black goby, Gobius niger (Teleostei: Gobiidae), a species showing two alternative male mating tactics. Older and larger males defend nests, court, and perform parental care on eggs, while younger and smaller ones behave as parasites, sneaking into nests while spawning occurs. Males adopting different tactics are known to present differences in primary and secondary sex traits. The social context of sneaker males was manipulated to induce a tactic switch. Sneakers were kept under two different experimental treatments with or without a female, and under exclusion of male-male competition. Males changed tactics, courting females, spawning, and performing parental care. All males showed substantial changes in primary sexual traits, such as a reduction in gonadal development and an increase in the investment in accessory structures. The experimental groups differed in the functionality of gonads and accessory organs and in the development of the secondary sex traits. These results demonstrate that the moment of switching is not genetically fixed in the black goby. Sneaker males are able to quickly reallocate energy in primary and secondary sex traits, in accordance with the adopted tactic. Several aspects of this flexible reproductive pattern resemble the socially controlled sex change found in sequential hermaphrodites.

  13. Marine teleost ortholog of catalase from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): molecular perspectives from genomic organization to enzymatic behavior with respect to its potent antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Premachandra, H K A; Whang, Ilson; Priyathilaka, Thanthrige Thiunuwan; Kim, Eunmi; Lim, Bong-Soo; Jung, Hyung-Bok; Yeo, Sang-Yeob; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2013-10-01

    Catalases are well known antioxidant enzymes that can mainly dismutate hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen in order to prevent oxidative stress. The complete genomic DNA (gDNA) sequence of the catalase gene from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) was identified from our custom-constructed BAC genomic DNA library and designated as RbCat. RbCat consists of 13 exons, separated by 12 introns, within a 13,722-bp gDNA sequence. The complete cDNA sequence (3303 bp) of RbCat is comprised of a 1581-bp coding region, encoding a peptide of 527 amino acids (aa) in length, with a predicted molecular mass of 60 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 8.34. The anticipated promoter region of RbCat contains several transcription factor-binding sites, including sites that bind with immune- and antioxidant-responsive signaling molecules, suggesting its substantial transcriptional regulation. RbCat resembles the typical catalase family signature, i.e., it is composed of the catalase proximal active site motif along with a catalase proximal heme-ligand signature motif and shares great homology with its fish counterparts. According to multiple sequence alignment, functionally important amino acids present in RbCat were thoroughly conserved among its vertebrate counterparts. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RbCat evolved from a vertebrate origin, and further positioned it in the fish clade. Recombinant RbCat had noticeable peroxidase activity against its substrate, hydrogen peroxide, in a dose-dependent manner. However, it demonstrated substantial peroxidase activity within a broad range of temperatures and pH values. Constitutive RbCat mRNA expression of different magnitudes was detected in a tissue-specific manner, suggesting its diverse role in physiology with respect to the tissue type. Moreover, immune challenge experiments using Edwardsiella tarda and rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) as live pathogens and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid and lipopolysaccharide as mitogens

  14. Reproductive biomarkers responses induced by xenoestrogens in the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus inhabiting a South American reservoir: An integrated field and laboratory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Paula S.; Pinheiro, Ana Paula B. [Departamento de Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, C.P. 486, 30161-970, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Bazzoli, Nilo [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zoologia de Vertebrados, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, PUC Minas, Belo Horizonte 30535-610, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Rizzo, Elizete, E-mail: ictio@icb.ufmg.br [Departamento de Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, C.P. 486, 30161-970, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2014-05-01

    Field studies evaluating the effects of endocrine disruption chemicals (EDCs) on the fish reproduction are scarce worldwide. The goal of this study was to assess hepatic levels of vitellogenin (Vtg), zona radiata proteins (Zrp) and insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II), and relating them to reproductive endpoints in a wild fish population habiting a reservoir that receive domestic sewage, agricultural and industrial residues. Adult fish Astyanax fasciatus were sampled during the reproductive season in five sites from the Furnas Reservoir, Grande River, and Paraguay–Paraná basin. As a control to field data, fish were experimentally exposed via dietary intake, to oestradiol benzoate (OB) for 7 days. Fish from site with little anthropogenic interference showed hepatic levels of Vtg, Zrp and IGF-I and IGF-II similar to those from the non-treated experimental group. In sites located immediately downstream from the municipal wastewater discharges, the water total oestrogen was >120 ng/l, and male fish displayed increased Vtg and Zrp and decreased IGF-I levels similar to OB treated fish. In females, levels of Vtg, Zrp, IGF-I and IGF-II suggest an impairment of final oocyte maturation and spawning, as also detected by frequency of over-ripening, follicular atresia and fecundity. At the sites that receive agricultural and industrial residues, the water total oestrogen was <50 ng/l and females showed decreased Zrp and increased IGF-II levels associated to reduced diameter of vitellogenic follicles, indicating an inhibition of oocyte growth. Overall, the current study reports oestrogenic contamination impairing the reproduction of a wild fish from a hydroeletric reservoir and, the data contribute to improving the current knowledge on relationship between hepatic Vtg, Zrp and IGF-I and IGF-II, and reproductive endpoints in a teleost fish. In addition, our data point out novel reproductive biomarkers (IGF-I, IGF-II and over-ripening) to assessing xenoestrogenic

  15. Study of fatty acid composition change of Oplegnathus fasciatus in larva, juvenile, young stages%条石鲷仔、稚、幼鱼脂肪酸组成变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬加白; 徐善良; 沈庞幼; 齐闯; 岳咪咪

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the GC/MS method was used to research the fatty acid composition and change characteristics of Oplegnathus fasciatus in larva, juvenile, young stages. In total, there were 28 fatty acids found, including 13 saturated fatty acids (SFA) , 7 mo-nounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) , and 8 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Results indicated that saturated fatty acids like C16 : 0, C20 :0 and monounsaturated fatty acids like C16 : 1, C18 : 1 were the main source of energy metabolites for Oplegnathus fasciatus fry in endogenous vegetative stage. Judging by the low content of essential fatty acids likeC20 : 4 ( n - 6) (AA) , C22 : 5 ( n - 3) ( DPA) , C22 : 6 ( n -3) (DHA) in juvenile stage, and the content of Σ EPA + DHA was only 6. 89%. This must be the primary reason why juvenile tend to have the "bulge Biao disease". The DHA and EPA of prelarva came from maternal yolk.%通过采用GC/MS法研究了条石鲷(Oplegnathus fasciatus)仔鱼、稚鱼及幼鱼阶段的脂肪酸组成和变化特点.共检测到28种脂肪酸,其中饱和脂肪酸(SFA)13种,单不饱和脂肪酸(MUFA)7种,多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFA)8种.结果表明:条石鲷鱼苗内源性营养阶段以饱和脂肪酸C16:0、C20:0及单不饱和脂肪酸C16:1、C18:1作为能量代谢的主要来源;必需脂肪酸C20:4(n-6)(AA)、C22:5(n-3)(DPA)和C22:6(n-3)(DHA)在稚鱼期含量较低,∑EPA+ DHA仅为6.89%,认为是发生稚鱼“胀鳔病”的主要原因;仔鱼开口前体内的DHA和EPA是由母体卵黄提供的.

  16. Study on the Nutritional Components in the Muscles of Acrossocheilus fasciatus and Acrossocheilus labiatus%光唇鱼与厚唇鱼肌肉营养成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇希; 应建平

    2012-01-01

    [目的]比较光唇鱼和厚唇鱼的肌肉营养成分与氨基酸含量.[方法]对光唇鱼和厚唇鱼的肌肉营养成分进行测定,并探讨了2种鱼的营养价值.[结果]光唇鱼粗蛋白含量为19.4%,高于厚唇鱼(18.9%).光唇鱼粗脂肪含量为1.05%,比其他鱼类低,具有良好的适口性.光唇鱼氨基酸总量达13.19%,也高于厚唇鱼(13.04%).光唇鱼的必需氨基酸总量为5.31%,而必需氨基酸的占氨基酸总量的40.27%,均高于厚唇鱼.从与鱼肉味道相关的4种鲜味氨基酸来看,光唇鱼为5.11%,也高于厚唇鱼.[结论]该研究为光唇鱼和厚唇鱼的配合饲料研制和人工繁殖提供理论依据.%[ Objective] The research aimed to compare the nutritional components and amino acid content in the muscles of Acrossocheilus fasciatus and Acrossocheilus labiatus. [Method] The nutritional components in the muscles of A. fascialus and A. tabiatus were determined and the nutritional values of two fish varieties were discussed. [ Result] The content of crude protein in A. fascialus was 19.4% , higher lhan that of/4. labiatus( 18.9% ). The content of crude fat in A. fascialus was 1.05% , lower than that in other fishes. Therefore, A. fascialus had a good edibility. The total amount of amino acids in A. fascialus reached 13.19% , higher than that of 4. labiatus( 13.04% ). The amount of essential amino acids in A. fasciatus was 5. 31% and the proportion of essential amitio acids in total amount of amino acids was 40. 27% , which were both higher than that of A. labiatus. The content of four kinds of flavor amino acids that was related to the flavour of fish in A. fasciatus was 5.11%, higher than that in A. labiatus, [ Conclusion] The research provided theoretical basis for the production of the compound feed and the artificial breeding of A. fasciatus and A. labiatus.

  17. Molecular Identification and Traceability of Illegal Trading in Lignobrycon myersi (Teleostei: Characiformes), a Threatened Brazilian Fish Species, Using DNA Barcode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Alexandre dos Santos; Brandão, José Henrique Souza Galdino; Bitencourt, Jamille de Araújo; Jucá-Chagas, Ricardo; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horácio

    2016-01-01

    Lignobrycon myersi is a threatened freshwater fish species and endemic of a few coastal rivers in northeastern Brazil. Even though the Brazilian laws prohibit the fisheries of threatened species, L. myersi is occasionally found in street markets, being highly appreciated by local population. In order to provide a reliable DNA barcode dataset for L. myersi, we compared mitochondrial sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) from fresh, frozen, and salt-preserved specimens. Phylogenetically related species (Triportheus spp.) and other fish species (Astyanax fasciatus) commonly mixed with L. myersi in street markets were also included to test the efficiency of molecular identification. In spite of the differences in conservation processes and advanced deterioration of some commercial samples, high-quality COI sequences were obtained and effective in discriminating L. myersi specimens. In addition, while populations from Contas and Almada River basins seem to comprise a single evolutionary lineage, the specimens from Cachoeira River were genetically differentiated, indicating population structuring. Therefore, DNA barcoding has proved to be useful to trace the illegal trading of L. myersi and to manage threatened populations, which should focus on conservation of distinct genetic stocks and mitigation on human impacts along their range. PMID:27668281

  18. Evolution of microhabitat association and morphology in a diverse group of cryptobenthic coral reef fishes (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Eviota)

    KAUST Repository

    Tornabene, Luke

    2013-01-01

    Gobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae) are an extremely diverse and widely distributed group and are the second most species rich family of vertebrates. Ecological drivers are key to the evolutionary success of the Gobiidae. However, ecological and phylogenetic data are lacking for many diverse genera of gobies. Our study investigated the evolution of microhabitat association across the phylogeny of 18 species of dwarfgobies (genus Eviota), an abundant and diverse group of coral reef fishes. In addition, we also explore the evolution of pectoral fin-ray branching and sensory head pores to determine the relationship between morphological evolution and microhabitat shifts. Our results demonstrate that Eviota species switched multiple times from a facultative hard-coral association to inhabiting rubble or mixed sand/rubble habitat. We found no obvious relationship between microhabitat shifts and changes in pectoral fin-ray branching or reduction in sensory pores, with the latter character being highly homoplasious throughout the genus. The relative flexibility in coral-association in Eviota combined with the ability to move into non-coral habitats suggests a genetic capacity for ecological release in contrast to the strict obligate coral-dwelling relationship commonly observed in closely related coral gobies, thus promoting co-existence through fine scale niche partitioning. The variation in microhabitat association may facilitate opportunistic ecological speciation, and species persistence in the face of environmental change. This increased speciation opportunity, in concert with a high resilience to extinction, may explain the exceptionally high diversity seen in Eviota compared to related genera in the family. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  19. Cytomorphological alterations of the thymus, spleen, head-kidney, and liver in cardinal fish (Apogonidae, Teleostei) as bioindicators of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishelson, Lev

    2006-01-01

    Morphological and cytological alterations at the light microscope (LM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) levels were observed in the thymus, spleen, head-kidney, and liver of cardinal fishes (Apogonidae, Teleostei) from the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, sampled from a strongly polluted site at the northern end of the gulf, and compared to similar samples from a clean, reference site. At the polluted site, the most prominent change was the formation of numerous deposits of cells rich in phagosomes with lipofucin, melanin granules, and phagocytosed debris, including a high increase in number and dimensions of Hassall's corpuscles and melano-macrophage centers. The number of Hassall's corpuscles was 20 (+/-8.0)/mm(2) and of melano-macrophage centers 18 (+/-4.0)/mm(2) at the polluted site, and 7.0 (+/-4.0)/m(2) vs. 5.0 (+/-2.0)/mm(2) respectively at the reference site. In numerous instances the head kidney's melano-macrophage centers in fishes from the polluted site were encapsulated by reticulocytes, a phenomenon recognized as a marker of neoplasmosis and possible malignancy. In the spleens of fishes from the polluted site, numerous deposits of cell debris, peroxisomes, and enlarged lysosomes were also observed. The livers (hepatopancreas) of fishes from polluted waters demonstrated very strong hyperlipogeny. Many of their hepatocytes were laden with lipid vesicles, fragmented endoplasmic reticulula, and aberrant mitochondria. Although the observed alterations in the glands and liver do not indicate any immediate threat to the life of the fish, they can become crucial with respect to energy turnover and fecundity trajectories. This study strongly suggests the use of cytological alterations in vital organs, such as were observed, as pathological biomarkers to environmental stress.

  20. Lecithostaphylus tylosuri sp. nov. (Digenea, Zoogonidae) from the digestive tract of the needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (Teleostei, Belonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manel, Châari; Hela, Derbel; Lassâd, Neifar

    2013-03-01

    Lecithostaphylus tylosuri sp. nov. (Digenea, Zoogonidae) specimen were collected from the digestive tract of Tylosurus acus imperialis (Teleostei, Belonidae) caught off the eastern coast of Tunisia. L. tylosuri is very similar to its closest relatives, L. retroflexus and L. nitens. It can be easily distinguished from L. retroflexus (Molin, 1859) in having a more extensive vitellarium, with follicles reaching from the posterior margin of the acetabulum and extending beyond the posterior margin of the testes and a coiled seminal vesicle. L. tylosuri differs from L. nitens as illustrated by Linton 1898, in having a longer cirrus pouch (0.7 mm vs 0.36 mm, respectively) overlapping the anterior edge of the ventral sucker and a submarginal genital pore (submedian in L. nitens). It's also different from L. nitens as described by Manter 1947 in the vitelline disposition and in having the greater sucker ratio (1: 1.3-2.1 vs 1: 1.3-1.6, respectively). L. tylosuri differs from L. nitens as reported by Machida and Kuramochi 2000 by the absence of variations in the vitellarium disposition in all specimens. L. tylosuri is more similar to L. nitens from group A (considered synonym of L. ahaaha Yamaguti, 1970 = L. nitens by Bray 1987) by having vitelline follicles extending beyond the testes. L. tylosuri can be distinguished from L. ahaaha by its pedunculate rather than prominent acetabulum and its larger body size (4.10-7.85 mm long and 0.75-1.2 mm large vs 2.1-6 mm long and 0.45-1.1 mm large, respectively). The prevalence of L. tylosuri sp. nov. was negatively correlated with host length (decreasing with host size increasing). Host sex does not seem to affect infection parameters.

  1. Description de deux nouvelles espèces de Lamellodiscus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) du groupe morphologique 'ignoratus', parasites de Diplodus sargus et D. vulgaris (Teleostei: Sparidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, F; Euzet, L; Kechemir-Issad, N

    2006-05-01

    The study of the diplectanid gill parasites of Diplodus Rafinesque (Teleostei: Sparidae) from off the Algerian coast revealed the presence of several species of Lamellodiscus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 on D. sargus (Linnaeus) and D. vulgaris (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire). Some of these species differ from the others by having a copulatory organ "en lyre" and lamellodiscs of the morphological group 'ignoratus' of Oliver (1987). In Lamellodiscus, the subgroup 'ignoratus', proposed by Amine & Euzet (2005), characterised by a simple lateral dorsal bar, includes L. ignoratus Palombi, 1943 and L. fraternus Bychowsky, 1957. Two new species, L. falcus n. sp. and L. neifari n. sp. form part of the 'ignoratus' subgroup. These species are distinguished by the morphology and the size of the sclerotised parts of the haptor and copulatory organ.

  2. Length-weight and length-length relationships of seven loach species (Teleostei: Cypriniformes from five localities in northern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Keskar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Length-weight (LWR and length-length (LLR relationships of seven loach species (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Botia striata, Lepidocephalichthys thermalis, Paracanthocobitis mooreh, Indoreonectes evezardi, Nemacheilus anguilla, Nemachilichthys rueppelli and Schistura denisoni were studied from five localities within the Krishna River system of the Indian Western Ghats: Lonawala (Indrayani River, Paud (Mula River, Warje (Mutha River, Bhor (Nira River and Patan (Koyna River.  With the exception of L. thermalis all species are endemic to peninsular India, and to our knowledge this is the first presentation of LWR and LLR data for them.  New maximum lengths are also reported for I. evezardi, N. anguilla, N. rueppelli and S. denisoni. 

  3. Two new species of Hypostomus Lacépède (Teleostei: Loricariidae from the upper rio Paraná basin, Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio H. Zawadzki

    Full Text Available Two new species of Hypostomus Lacépède (Teleostei: Loricariidae from the rio Paranaíba and rio Grande basins, both in the upper rio Paraná basin, central Brazil, are described herein. One of them is distinguished from all congeners, except H. albopunctatus, by having the pectoral-fin spine length equal to or smaller than the pelvic-fin spine. From H. albopunctatus, it is distinguished by having round dark spots (vs. pale on body and fins. The second species is distinguished from all congeners, except H. multidens and H. ternetzi, by having more than 115 teeth (vs. less than 109 per ramus on dentary and premaxilla. It is distinguished most readily from H. ternetzi by having teeth with two symmetrical (vs. asymmetrical cusps. It is distinguished from H. multidens by having round dark spots (vs. pale over body and fins.

  4. Microstructure and Ultrastructure of the Skin in Roughskin Sculpin ( Trachidermus fasciatus )%松江鲈鱼皮肤的显微和亚显微结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋鑫; 潘连德; 马召腾

    2012-01-01

    采用光学显微镜、扫描电镜和透射电镜,对松江鲈鱼(Trachidermusfasciatus)成体皮肤的显微和亚显微结构进行了观察.结果表明,松江鲈鱼体表不同部位皮肤的厚薄不一,但基本结构相似.皮肤由表皮和真皮层构成.松江鲈鱼的皮肤裸露无鳞,表皮层较薄,由约4~8层细胞构成,主要由复层上皮细胞和黏液细胞及基底细胞组成.表层细胞呈扁平、多边形,细胞之间主要靠桥粒紧密连接,连接处形成增厚的边缘嵴状突起.表皮细胞游离面向内凹陷,表面形成指纹状微嵴.黏液细胞呈圆形或卵圆形,散布在上皮细胞之间.黏液细胞内的黏原颗粒具有椭圆颗粒状、均匀致密的块状和疏松丝状3种不同形态.真皮通过基膜与表皮相连,由稀疏层和致密层构成.真皮结缔组织在腹部较厚而在其他部位较薄.表皮与真皮连接处有色素层,头部、背部、尾柄和体侧皮肤色素细胞分布多,色素层明显,而腹部和颏部皮肤缺少色素.松江鲈鱼黄河群体真皮层中有角质棘状突起,而滦河群体则无.头部、体侧和尾柄处皮肤上还分布有侧线孔和表面神经丘等感觉器官.%Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the skin microstructure and ultrastructure of the adult Trachidermus fasciatus. The results show that the thickness of the skin in different parts of the body is different, but the basic structure is similar. Skin is composed of epidermis and dermis layers. There is no scale on the skin, and the epidermis layer is thinner, consisting of 4 to 8 layers of cells including epithelial cells and mucous cells and basal cells. The surface cells are flat or polygonal, and they are mainly connected by desmosomes, where the joint forms ridge-like processes. The free surface of epidermal cells invaginate to form some fingerprint-like micro-crests. Mucous cells are spherical,ovoid in shape and

  5. 条石鲷消化道发育的组织学观察%Histological study of the ontogeny of the digestive tract in Oplegnathus fasciatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马道远; 于道德; 肖永双; 刘清华; 徐世宏; 李军; 肖志忠

    2011-01-01

    Under artificial culture conditions, the developments of the digestive system and its associated glands were examined histologically in Oplegnathus fasciatus from the first day until the 45th day post hatching (dph).The digestive tube of the first hatching larva was undifferentiated and straight. On the 1st dph, the rudimentary digestive lumen formed as the larve developed. On the second dph (TL, 2.61~2.98 mm), the intestine began to connected with the oesophagus. On the third dph (TL, 2.56~2.89 mm), the upper and lower jaw moved with the mouth and anus opening, indicated the first external feeding. At this time, the digestive tract, consisting of buccopharynx, oesophagus, stomach anlage, intestine and rectum, and the digestive glands, including liver and pancreas, being accompanied by the gas bladder anlage, formed. On the 4th dph (TL, 2.73~3.05 mm), the yolk sac was almost completely absorbed, with residual oil globule, and the acidophilic supranuclear vesicles were seen in the rectum. On the 22 dph, the the gastric gland began to differentiate and was not functional until the 45th dph.%对人工养殖的条石鲷(Oplegnathus fasciatus)仔、幼稚鱼消化道及消化腺的发育过程进行了系统的组织学观察。研究表明: 初孵仔鱼 (体长1.66~2.20 mm)的消化道完全处于未分化状态。1 日龄仔鱼全长1.83~2.32 mm, 消化道中部开始形成空腔, 为初始的消化道腔。2 日龄仔鱼全长2.61~2.98 mm, 小肠与食道打通。3 日龄仔鱼全长2.56~2.89 mm, 上下颌开启, 口和肛门与外界开通, 部分仔鱼开口摄食。此时消化道已经分化为口咽腔、食道、胃前体、肠和直肠, 消化器官肝脏和胰腺及鳔原基出现。4 日龄仔鱼全长2.73~3.05 mm, 卵黄囊吸收殆尽, 油球残存, 鳔原基进一步增生, 后肠已经出现嗜伊红囊。22日龄, 胃腺开始分化, 至45 日龄, 大部分胃腺结构上分化成熟。本研究结果将为优

  6. Influence of season, size and sex on the dynamic of gill metazoan parasite infesting the Balistes capriscus (Teleostei: Balistidae of the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia

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    Hichem Kacem

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of season, size and sex on the dynamic of gill metazoan parasite infesting the Balistes capriscus (Gmelin, 1788 (Teleostei: Balistidae (B. capriscus of the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea. Methods: A parasitological survey of the grey triggerfish B. capriscus from the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea was conducted monthly from June 2011 to June 2012. A total of 1080 fish were collected from commercial catches by pelagic trawl net at different fishing ports at Chebba (34°14' N, 11°06' E, Kerkennah (34°45' N, 11°17' E and Zarzis (33°41' N, 11°48' E. The weight, size, sex, date and area of capture of each specimen were recorded. Then, B. capriscus was examined to search for ectoparasites. For each parasite species, parasitological indices were calculated. Results: The parasite species are indentified as two copepods: Naobranchia variabilis, Taneacanthus ballistae and a monogenean: Ancyrocephalus balisticus. The parasitological indices depend significantly on seasonality; the highest prevalence of Naobranchia variabilis, Taneacanthus ballistae and Ancyrocephalus balisticus (28.89%, 35.93% and 55.56% respectively was recorded during summer season (June–August, while the lowest prevalence of each (6.3%, 4.44%, 8.15% recorded during winter season (December–February. Furthermore the parasitological indices depend significantly on the host size but not on host sex. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the dynamic of gill metazoan parasite infesting B. capriscus is a result of a complex of biotic and abiotic factors. It is the first study on the effects of season, size and sex on the dynamic of gill metazoan parasite infesting B. capriscus (Teleostei: Balistidae of the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea.

  7. Anatomia Funcional e Morfometria do Intestino no Teleostei (Pisces de Água Doce Surubim (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans - Agassiz, 1829

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    Seixas Filho José Teixeira de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram estudar a anatomia funcional e a morfometria comparativas nos intestinos médio e no reto, do peixe Teleostei, surubim, Pseudoplatystoma coruscans (Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes, Siluroidei, Pimelodidae, de hábito alimentar carnívoro, em duas classes de tamanho, visando fornecer referência à nutrição para o ajuste de diferentes sistemas de alimentação artificial para essa espécie nativa. Por meio destes estudos concluiu-se que o intestino do surubim, sob o ponto de vista morfológico, deve ser denominado, de intestino médio e reto, devido a presença da valva ileorretal e da invaginação valvar intestinal entre esses segmentos. Em relação ao padrão de enrolamento do intestino, apesar do plano geral do intestino médio e do reto ter sido mantido, as alças do intestino médio apresentaram arranjo indefinido, não tendo sido determinado um arranjo-padrão para a espécie. O arranjo intestinal é compatível ao da maioria de peixes carnívoros, ou predominantemente carnívoro, uma vez que seu intestino é quase retilíneo; contudo, as circunvoluções das alças finais do intestino médio talvez possam ser vistas como adaptações a um possível regime onívoro, preferencialmente carnívoro. As pregas intestinais encontram-se mais complexas e desenvolvidas no intestino dos exemplares da segunda classe de tamanho. Procurando estabelecer relações entre o arranjo das pregas das mucosas e a velocidade de transporte do alimento no intestino médio da espécie estudada, sugere-se que o padrão longitudinal, com numerosas anastomoses retardam o avanço do alimento em sentido aboral, o que possibilita maior período digestivo e, conseqüentemente, maior aproveitamento dos nutrientes, pela exposição do material alimentar à mucosa intestinal por período maior, além de contribuir para a preparação do bolo fecal. As pregas da mucosa próxima ao ânus têm direção longitudinal, sugerindo auxílio na

  8. Crecimiento y mortalidad del pez Haemulon aurolineatum (Teleostei: Haemulidae en el suroeste de la isla de Margarita, Venezuela

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    Edwis Bravo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el crecimiento y la mortalidad natural del pez cují (Haemulon aurolineatum del suroeste de la Isla de Margarita (julio 2005 -junio 2006, para lo cual se analizó una muestra constituida por 2 541 ejemplares recolectados de la pesca artesanal de Boca del Río. La relación talla-peso entre machos y hembras no mostró diferencias significativas en las pendientes "b" (p>0.05; ts=-1.69 ni en los interceptos "a" (p>0.05; ts=-1.01, por lo que se estableció una relación común para ambos sexos: P=0.038*LT2.87. A partir de los datos de distribución de frecuencia de tallas se estimó la longitud asintótica ( aplicando la rutina de Powell-Wetherall, y el coeficiente de crecimiento (k a través de la rutina ELEFAN I (Gayanilo et al. 1996. Posteriormente se empleó el análisis de la progresión modal, previa descomposición de la frecuencia de longitudes de acuerdo al método de Bhattacharya (1967, y se optimizaron las estimaciones de y k según el procedimiento de Gulland y Holt (1959. Los parámetros de crecimiento estimados (L8=24.2 cm y k=0.48 año-1 mostraron un crecimiento moderadamente rápido. Los datos de frecuencias de longitudes fueron ajustados al modelo de von Bertalanffy (1960, indicando una tendencia de tipo exponencial: crecimiento acelerado hasta los 2 años de edad, que luego se hizo lento hasta que el pez alcanzó la longitud máxima. La tasa de mortalidad natural fue alta (M=1.15 año-1, probablemente por alta depredación.Growth and mortality of the fish Haemulon aurolineatum (Teleostei: Haemulidae from Southwest of Margarita Island, Venezuela. We analyzed the growth and natural mortality of the fish known locally as cují (H. aurolineatum in the southwest of Margarita Island, July 2005 to June 2006. A sample of 1 378 males and 1 143 females from artisanal fishing vessels of Boca del Río was analyzed. The common relation for both sexes was expressed by the equation P=0.038*L2.87. The asymptotic length ( was

  9. Crecimiento y mortalidad natural del pez Haemulon aurolineatum (Teleostei: Haemulidae del suroeste de la isla de Margarita, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwis Bravo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el crecimiento y la mortalidad natural del cují (Haemulon aurolineatum del suroeste de la isla de Margarita, entre julio 2005 hasta junio 2006, para lo cual se analizó una muestra de 2 541 ejemplares colectados de la pesca artesanal de Boca del Río. La relación talla-peso entre machos y hembras no mostró diferencias significativas en las pendientes "b" (p>0.05, ts = -1.69 ni en los interceptos "a" (p>0.05, ts = -1.01, por lo que se estableció una relación común para ambos sexos, expresada mediante el modelo P = 0.038*LT2.87. A partir de los datos de distribución de frecuencia de tallas se estimó la longitud asintótica (L∞ con la rutina de Powell-Wetherall, y el coeficiente de crecimiento (k con la rutina ELEFAN I (Gayanilo et al.1996. Se empleó el análisis de la progresión modal, previa descomposición de la frecuencia de longitudes de acuerdo al método de Bhattacharya (1967, y se optimizaron las estimaciones de L∞ y k según Gulland y Holt (1959. Los parámetros de crecimiento estimados (L∞ = 24.2 cm y k = 0.48 año-1 mostraron un crecimiento moderadamente rápido. Los datos de frecuencias de longitudes fueron ajustados al modelo de von Bertalanffy (1960, mostrando una tendencia de tipo exponencial, donde se observó un crecimiento acelerado hasta los 2 años de edad, que luego se hizo lento a medida que el pez alcanzó la longitud máxima. La tasa de mortalidad natural fue alta (M = 1.15 año-1, probablemente causada por alta depredación.Growth and natural mortality of the fish Haemulon aurolineatum (Teleostei: Haemulidae in the Southwest of Margarita Island, Venezuela. We analyzed the growth and natural mortality of the cují (Haemulon aurolineatum in the southwest of Margarita Island, from July 2005 through June 2006. A sample of 1 378 males and 1 143 females collected from Boca del Río artisanal fishing vessels was analyzed. The common relation for both sexes was expressed by the equation P=0.038*L2

  10. Diversification of substrate specificities in teleostei Fads2: characterization of Δ4 and Δ6Δ5 desaturases of Chirostoma estor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Madrigal, Jorge; Navarro, Juan C; Hontoria, Francisco; Tocher, Douglas R; Martínez-Palacios, Carlos A; Monroig, Óscar

    2014-07-01

    Currently existing data show that the capability for long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis in teleost fish is more diverse than in other vertebrates. Such diversity has been primarily linked to the subfunctionalization that teleostei fatty acyl desaturase (Fads)2 desaturases have undergone during evolution. We previously showed that Chirostoma estor, one of the few representatives of freshwater atherinopsids, had the ability for LC-PUFA biosynthesis from C18 PUFA precursors, in agreement with this species having unusually high contents of DHA. The particular ancestry and pattern of LC-PUFA biosynthesis activity of C. estor make this species an excellent model for study to gain further insight into LC-PUFA biosynthetic abilities among teleosts. The present study aimed to characterize cDNA sequences encoding fatty acyl elongases and desaturases, key genes involved in the LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Results show that C. estor expresses an elongase of very long-chain FA (Elovl)5 elongase and two Fads2 desaturases displaying Δ4 and Δ6/Δ5 specificities, thus allowing us to conclude that these three genes cover all the enzymatic abilities required for LC-PUFA biosynthesis from C18 PUFA. In addition, the specificities of the C. estor Fads2 enabled us to propose potential evolutionary patterns and mechanisms for subfunctionalization of Fads2 among fish lineages.

  11. Diversification of substrate specificities in teleostei Fads2: characterization of Δ4 and Δ6Δ5 desaturases of Chirostoma estor[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Madrigal, Jorge; Navarro, Juan C.; Hontoria, Francisco; Tocher, Douglas R.; Martínez-Palacios, Carlos A.; Monroig, Óscar

    2014-01-01

    Currently existing data show that the capability for long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis in teleost fish is more diverse than in other vertebrates. Such diversity has been primarily linked to the subfunctionalization that teleostei fatty acyl desaturase (Fads)2 desaturases have undergone during evolution. We previously showed that Chirostoma estor, one of the few representatives of freshwater atherinopsids, had the ability for LC-PUFA biosynthesis from C18 PUFA precursors, in agreement with this species having unusually high contents of DHA. The particular ancestry and pattern of LC-PUFA biosynthesis activity of C. estor make this species an excellent model for study to gain further insight into LC-PUFA biosynthetic abilities among teleosts. The present study aimed to characterize cDNA sequences encoding fatty acyl elongases and desaturases, key genes involved in the LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Results show that C. estor expresses an elongase of very long-chain FA (Elovl)5 elongase and two Fads2 desaturases displaying Δ4 and Δ6/Δ5 specificities, thus allowing us to conclude that these three genes cover all the enzymatic abilities required for LC-PUFA biosynthesis from C18 PUFA. In addition, the specificities of the C. estor Fads2 enabled us to propose potential evolutionary patterns and mechanisms for subfunctionalization of Fads2 among fish lineages. PMID:24792929

  12. Feeding of holoshesthes Heterodon eigenmann (Teleostei, Cheirodontinae of the cajuru reservoir (Minas Gerais, Brazil, in relation to the vegetal biomass on its depletion zone

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    Márcio Camilo Carvalho Alvim

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Stomach contents of Holoshesthes heterodon Eigenmann, 1915 (Teleostei, Cheirodontinae, collected in the depletion zone of Cajuru reservoir when it was at its maximum water level in two stations with different vegetal densities, were studied in order to investigate the influence of the flooded vegetal biomass on the food quantity and quality ingested by fish. Eighteen individuals from each station were examined. The standard length was l.53±0.05 cm and l.52±0.05 cm, respectively at the lower biomass (8.19 kg diy weight/ha and higher biomass (38.10 kg diy weight/ha sampling stations. The stomach repletion Index (SRI was applied for the quantitative analysis. The alimentary index (IAi was used for the quali-quantitative analysis, with the volume of the items obtained through the points method. SRI did not show values significatively different between the two stations, p>0.05, by applying the Mann-Whitney test. In both situations, Cladocera was the most important item. There were no correlation between the flooded vegetal biomass in the depletion zone and the intake of food by H. heterodon. However, as there were no empty stomachs, possibly even the lower vegetal biomass was enough to provide abundant feeding resources.

  13. Parasitic inventory of Balistes capriscus (Teleostei:Balistidae) from the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hichem Kacem; Lassad Neifar

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the parasitic inventory of Balistes capriscus (Teleostei:Balistidae) (B. capriscus) from the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea). Methods:A parasitological survey of the grey triggerfish B. capriscus (Gmelin, 1788) from the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea) was conducted monthly from May 2007 to April 2009. A total of 480 fishes were collected from commercial catches by pelagic trawl net at different fishing ports at Chebba (34°14' N, 11°06' E), Kerkennah (34°45' N, 11°17' E) and Zarzis (33°41' N, 11°48' E). The weight, the size, the sex, the date and the area of capture of each specimen were recorded. B. capriscus were then examined to search for ectoparasites and endoparasites. For each parasite species, parasitological indices were calculated. Results:Five species of parasites were identified, among which a new species of Digenea Hypocreadium caputvadum was discovered and two species of parasites were reported for the first time in the Mediterranean. Conclusions:It is the first inventory of the ecto and endoparasites of grey triggerfish collected from the Gulf of Gabès Mediterranean Sea.

  14. 乳草长蝽Ubx基因克隆及多转录本分析%Cloning and multiple transcript analysis of Ubx in the large milkweed bug,Oncopeltus fasciatus ( Hemiptera: Lygaeidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓轩; 谢强; 卜文俊

    2011-01-01

    The researches focusing on key developmental genes in non-holometabola insects are relatively insufficient, especially for the reports on the structure and sequences of Hox genes. In order to understand the structure of Ubx gene (a member of Hox genes) in non-holometabola insects, we selected the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltusfasciatus (Dallas, 1852), as a representative, and used RACE and RT-PCR to clone the whole ORF of Ubx gene. The results showed that the full-length ORF of Ubx gene of O. fasciatus (Of-Ubx) is 888 bp, encoding 295 aa. Southern blot analysis verified that Of-Ubx exists as a single copy and has introns within it. We found alternative splicing sites between YPWM and homeodomain motif,which lead to 3 types of transcript variants. Compared with the Ubx gene from Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen, 1830), Of-Ubx had similar splicing sites, conserved elements around splicing sites and isoform combination, suggesting that their splicing mechanism should be similar. This is the first detailed report about the multiple transcripts of Ubx genes within Insecta except for the genus Drosophila.%针对非完全变态类昆虫发育关键基因的研究相对匮乏,尤其缺少Hox基因家族的基因结构和序列信息.为了研究Hox基因家族成员之一的Ubx基因在非完全变态类昆虫中的结构特点,本实验选取乳草长蝽Oncopeltus fasciatus(Dallas,1852)为代表,应用RACE和RT-PCR技术,对其Ubx基因的全长开放阅读框进行克隆.结果显示:乳草长蝽Ubx基因(Of-Ubx)开放阅读框全长888 bp,推测的完整蛋白含有295个氨基酸.Southern blot证实Ubx基因以单拷贝形式存在且含有内含子.在Of-Ubx的YPWM基序和同源异型结构域之间存在选择性剪接位点,可产生3种不同转录本.分析以上实验结果,发现乳草长蝽与黑腹果蝇Drosophila melanogaster(Meigen,1830)的Ubx基因拥有相似的剪接位置、剪接体组合和边界序列,提示它们很可能具有相似的剪接机理.

  15. Ophiotaenia bungari n. sp. (Cestoda), a parasite of Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider) (Ophidia: Elapidae) from Vietnam, with comments on relative ovarian size as a new and potentially useful diagnostic character for proteocephalidean tapeworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Binh, Tran Thi; Scholz, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Ophiotaenia bungari n. sp. (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) is described from the intestine of the banded krait Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider) (Ophidia: Elapidae) in Vietnam. The new species differs from all but three Ophiotaenia species parasitic in Asian reptiles in the possession of a glandular apical organ. It differs from O. andersoni Jensen, Schmidt & Kuntz, 1983 in the position of the vagina in relation to the cirrus-sac (anterior and posterior in O. bungari versus anterior only in the latter species), in the cirrus-sac/proglottis width ratio (29-38 versus 50%) and by having more testes (100-150 versus 42-116 in O. andersoni); from O. chattoraji Srivastava, 1980 in the number of uterine diverticula (50-65 versus 10-26) and in the cirrus-sac/proglottis width ratio (29-38 versus 22%); and from O. rhabdophidis (Burt, 1937) by having more uterine diverticula (50-65 versus 30-45), by the cirrus-sac/proglottis width ratio (29-38 versus 20-25%) and by the width of the scolex (360-420 versus 130-187 μm). The taxonomic importance of the relative size of the ovary (i.e. the ratio of the ovarian size in relation to that of the entire proglottis), a character previously not used in the systematics of proteocephalidean cestodes, is discussed. Comparison of measurements of all of the nominal species of Ophiotaenia La Rue, 1911 and Proteocephalus Weinland, 1858 (c.135 species) has shown that the ovary of species parasitic in snakes in the Americas, Africa, Asia and Australia is not only considerably smaller than that of congeneric species from European hosts, but also smaller than in all species of Proteocephalus parasitic in teleost fishes throughout the world.

  16. Simultaneous analysis of five molecular markers provides a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis for the living bony-tongue fishes (Osteoglossomorpha: Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoué, Sébastien; Sullivan, John P

    2004-10-01

    Fishes of the Superorder Osteoglossomorpha (the "bonytongues") constitute a morphologically heterogeneous group of basal teleosts, including highly derived subgroups such as African electric fishes, the African butterfly fish, and Old World knifefishes. Lack of consensus among hypotheses of osteoglossomorph relationships advanced during the past 30 years may be due in part to the difficulty of identifying shared derived characters among the morphologically differentiated extant families of this group. In this study, we present a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for this group, based on the analysis of more than 4000 characters from five molecular markers (the mitochondrial cytochrome b, 12S and 16S rRNA genes, and the nuclear genes RAG2 and MLL). Our taxonomic sampling includes one representative of each extant non-mormyrid osteoglossomorph genus, one representative for the monophyletic family Mormyridae, and four outgroup taxa within the basal Teleostei. Maximum parsimony analysis of combined and equally weighted characters from the five molecular markers and Bayesian analysis provide a single, well-supported, hypothesis of osteoglossomorph interrelationships and show the group to be monophyletic. The tree topology is the following: (Hiodon alosoides, (Pantodon buchholzi, (((Osteoglossum bicirrhosum, Scleropages sp.), (Arapaima gigas, Heterotis niloticus)), ((Gymnarchus niloticus, Ivindomyrus opdenboschi), ((Notopterus notopterus, Chitala ornata), (Xenomystus nigri, Papyrocranus afer)))))). We compare our results with previously published phylogenetic hypotheses based on morpho-anatomical data. Additionally, we explore the consequences of the long terminal branch length for the taxon Pantodon buchholzi in our phylogenetic reconstruction and we use the obtained phylogenetic tree to reconstruct the evolutionary history of electroreception in the Notopteroidei.

  17. The basement membrane and the sex establishment in the juvenile hermaphroditism during gonadal differentiation of the Gymnocorymbus ternetzi (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Talita Sarah; Grier, Harry J; Quagio-Grassiotto, Irani

    2015-12-01

    Although there are several studies on morphogenesis in Teleostei, until now there is no research describing the role of the basement membrane in the establishment of the germinal epithelium during gonadal differentiation in Characiformes. In attempt to study these events that result in the formation of ovarian and testicular structures, gonads of Gymnocorymbus ternetzi were prepared for light microscopy. During gonadal development in G. ternetzi, all individuals first developed ovarian tissue. The undifferentiated gonad was formed by somatic cells (SC) and primordial germ cells (PGCs). After successive mitosis, the PGCs became oogonia, which entered into meiosis originating oocytes. An interstitial tissue developed. In half of the individuals, presumptive female, prefollicle cells synthesized a basement membrane around oocyte forming a follicle. Along the ventral region of the ovary, the tissue invaginated to form the ovigerous lamellae, bordered by the germinal epithelium. Stroma developed and the follicle complexes were formed. The gonadal aromatase was detected in interstitial cells in the early steps of the gonadal differentiation in both sexes. In another half of the individuals, presumptive male, there was no synthesis of basement membrane. The interstitium was invaded by numerous granulocytes. Pre-Leydig cells proliferated. Apoptotic oocytes were observed and afterward degenerated. Spermatogonia appeared near the degenerating oocytes and associated to SCs, forming testicular tubules. Germinal epithelium developed and the basement membrane was synthesized. Concomitantly, there was decrease of the gonadal aromatase and increase in the 3β-HSD enzyme expression. Thus, the testis was organized on an ovary previously developed, constituting an indirect gonochoristic differentiation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Integrative taxonomy identifies a new species of Phyllodistomum (Digenea: Gorgoderidae) from the twospot livebearer, Heterandria bimaculata (Teleostei: Poeciliidae), in Central Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    Phyllodistomum inecoli n. sp. is described from the twospot livebearer, Heterandria bimaculata (Teleostei: Poeciliidae), collected in the Río La Antigua basin, Veracruz, Mexico. The new species is described and characterised by using a combination of morphology, scanning electron microscopy, and sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Diagnostic characters of the new species of Phyllodistomum include a genital pore opening at the level of the caecal bifurcation; oval vitellarium, situated just posterior to the ventral sucker and not extended laterally and anterior extracaecal uterine loops variable in extension (reaching the anterior, median or posterior margin of the ventral sucker). P. inecoli n. sp. most closely resembles P. brevicecum, a species described as a parasite of the central mudminnow, Umbra limi, in other parts of North America; however, the genital pore in P. brevicecum is situated between the caecal bifurcation and the ventral sucker, the ovary is larger, the vitellarium is lobed and extended laterally and the anterior portion of the uterus extends to the posterior margin of the ventral sucker. Comparison of about 1,500–2,200 nucleotides of cox1 and 28S rDNA and ITS1 strongly supports the status of P. inecoli as a new species. Bayesian inference analysis of combined datasets of 28S rDNA and cox1 sequences showed that P. inecoli n. sp. and the other species found in freshwater fishes of Mexico, including the species complex of P. lacustri, are not sister species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 28S rDNA sequences of several gorgoderid taxa revealed the close relationship of P. inecoli n. sp. with several species of Phyllodistomum, Gorgodera and Gorgoderina with cystocercous cercariae developing in sphaeriid bivalves. Dot-plot analysis of ITS1 sequences of P. inecoli n. sp. revealed the presence of eight repetitive elements with different length, which together represent almost half the length of ITS1.

  19. Ultrastructure and development of Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia, a hyperparasite of Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda, a parasite of Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toguebaye Bhen Sikina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia, Nosematidae is described from Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda: Opecoelidae, a parasite of the fish Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei in the Atlantic Ocean. Electron microscopy reveals that all the stages of the cycle (merogony and sporogony are diplokaryotic and in direct contact with the cytoplasm of host cells. There is no sporophorous vesicle (pansporoblast. The earliest stages observed are meronts, which have a simple plasmic membrane. Their cytoplasm is granular, rich in ribosomes and contains some sacculi of endoplasmic reticulum. They divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporonts. The sporonts have a thick electron-dense wall. Their diplokaryon is slightly less electron-dense than the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm of more advanced sporonts has numerous electron-lucent vesicles. Sporonts with two diplokarya divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporoblasts. The older sporoblasts are irregular or elongate and the polar filament is in formation. Their cytoplasm is denser, with ribosomes and lamellae of granular endoplasmic reticulum. The sporoblasts evolve into spores. The mature spores are broadly oval and measure 3.6 (3.1–4.0 × 2.58 (1.8–3.3 μm. Their wall is 100–300 nm thick. The polar tube is isofilar with 11–16 coils, 130–155 nm in diameter and arranged in many layers in the centre of the spore. The polaroplast is divided into two regions: an outer electron-dense cup with granular content and lacking lamellae and an internal region, less electron-dense, composed of irregularly arranged sacs. The posterior vacuole, with an amorphous electron-dense content, is present. The new species is compared with other species of Nosema from trematodes.

  20. Catálogo dos Peixes Marinhos do Laboratório de Ictiologia da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Parte I: Chondrichthyes (Rajiformes. Teleostei (Elopiformes a Dactylopteriformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Duarte Lopes

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is the first part of the catalogue of marine fishes belonging to the collection of the Laboratory of Ichthyology (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-RJ to be published. Here are included Chondrichthyes (Rajiformes and part of Osteichthyes, Teleostei (Elopiformes to Dactylopteriformes in a total amount of 30 families, 52 genera and 62 species. The most part of the material have been collected at the littoral of the State of Rio de Janeiro. For each species considered is given the vulgar name (when known in Southeastern Brazil, the known distribution (in Western Atlantic Ocean and some data as collecting locality, total number of collected specimens and the register number in the collection. Scorpaena isthmensis Meek & Hildebrand, 1928 (Scorpaenidae is for the first time mentioned for the Southern littoral of Brazil.

  1. The evaluation of the antioxidant enzyme's activity and activity of anaerobic glycolysis' enzymes under gradual temperature increase in Baikal amphipod species Eulimnogammаrus marituji, E. maackii and Gmelinoides fasciatus

    OpenAIRE

    Axenov – Gribanov D. V.; Lubyaga J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Целью настоящей работы являлась оценка влияния повышенной температуры окружающей среды на активность ферментов антиоксидантной системы и анаэробного гликолиза у эндемичных байкальских видов амфипод Eulimnogammаrus marituji (Baz., 1945), E. maackii (Gerstf., 1858) и Gmelinoides fasciatus (Stebb., 1899). При экспозиции в условиях повышения температуры, у всех видов амфипод отмечали рост активности пероксидазы. Характер изменений активности каталазы, глутатион S-трансферазы и лактатдегидрогеназы...

  2. 南海区驯养条石鲷亲鱼的初次性成熟和产卵%First maturation and spawning of cultured Oplegnathus fasciatus broodstock in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区又君; 李加儿; 林锋

    2014-01-01

    2008年4月初在广东省饶平县对2006年5月人工孵化和培育的2龄条石鲷( Oplegnathus fasciatus)成熟亲鱼进行激素诱导,研究和观察条石鲷亲鱼初次性成熟的繁殖生物学。结果显示,在南海区全人工养殖的条石鲷亲鱼初次性成熟年龄为2龄,成熟亲鱼的最小型为全长245 mm、体质量610 g,最大个体为全长300 mm、体质量1450 g;产卵季节为4月10日~7月15日,产卵盛期为4月中旬至6月下旬;为升温产卵型鱼类,产卵温度为20.0~28.8℃,适宜的产卵温度为20.7~27.6℃;雌、雄亲鱼发育同步,个体大小和成熟年龄差别不大;雌鱼属于一年一次分批产卵类型,产卵期超过3个月;24尾初次性成熟雌性亲鱼的总产卵量为3180.0×104粒,日最高产卵量为341.5×104粒;其产卵量和受精卵质量与水温的变化关系密切,受精卵的浮卵率随温度的变化而变化,在水温相对衡定时,浮卵率相对稳定并维持在80%~95%的较高水平;受精卵平均卵径为(0.860±0.023)mm,油球径为(0.191±0.009)mm。%In early April of 2008,we carried out hormone inducement in 2-year-old Oplegnathus fasciatus broodstocks hatched in May of 2006 in Raoping of Guangdong Province,so as to investgate their reproductive biology for first maturation. Results show that in the South China Sea,it took 2 years for the first maturation with biological minimum size of 245 mm in total length and 610 g in weight, maximum size being 300 mm and 1 450 g for the O. fasciatus broodstocks by complete artificial breeding. Spawning season was from A-pril 10 to July 15 with the peak period from middle April to late June. Being a thermo-dependent spawning type,the breeding tempera-ture of the fish ranged from 20. 0~28. 8 ℃ with suitable temperature of 20. 7~27. 6 ℃. Development was synchronous for both sexes and no significant difference was found in size and mature age. Being an annual spawning multiplicity

  3. The supratemporal system and the pattern of ramification of cephalic sensory canals in Denticeps clupeoides (Denticipitoidei, Teleostei: additional evidence for monophyly of Clupeiformes and Clupeoidei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Di Dario

    2006-01-01

    bones in Denticeps and other lower teleosts. In general, data from the cephalic latero-sensory system corroborate Denticeps as the sister group to all other Recent clupeomorphs, and provide additional support for the monophyly of Clupeoidei and Clupeiformes.As porções cefálicas do sistema de canais látero-sensoriais em Denticeps clupeoides são descritas e analisadas. A espécie, uma pequena sardinha com distribuição restrita a poucos riachos relictuais na África Ocidental, é o mais primitivo Clupeomorpha vivente, e único representante Recente da subordem Denticipitoidei. Como grupo irmão das mais de 360 espécies incluídas em Clupeoidei, Denticeps é um táxon-chave no entendimento das relações filogenéticas em Clupeomorpha e outros Teleostei inferiores. Observações com base em espécimes recentemente coletados de Denticeps clupeoides revelaram detalhes inéditos e comparativamente importantes dos canais látero-sensoriais cefálicos, relevantes para o entendimento de relações em diferentes níveis da filogenia de Clupeomorpha. Os canais infraorbital, supraorbital, preopercular, extrascapular e pós-temporal de Denticeps possuem túbulos simples nos tecidos moles, como na situação considerada plesiomórfica para teleósteos inferiores. Em contraste, a presença de uma rede complexa formada por ramificações múltiplas dos canais cefálicos é considerada uma sinapomorfia de Clupeoidei. Denticeps e Clupeoidei compartilham um ramo sensorial exclusivo que se origina na junção entre o osso extrascapular e o recessus lateralis, aqui proposto como uma sinapomorfia adicional de Clupeiformes. O sistema supratemporal é registrado pela primeira vez em Denticeps, e o caráter é consequentemente proposto como sinapomorfia de Clupeiformes, e não de Clupeoidei como se acreditava previamente. A hipótese de que o sistema supratemporal seria homólogo à caverna supraorbital é refutada, e a última é considerada autapomórfica para Denticeps. Uma outra

  4. Global Fiducials Library Support for Essential Climate Variables Thomas P. DiNardo, US Geological Survey, Denver Co. 80225

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinardo, T. P.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is the steward of one of the most comprehensive records of the contemporary global landmass ever assembled. The Landsat archive going back to 1972 and continuing into the future provides an unprecedented record of the status of the Earth's natural resources and human activity. In 2010, the USGS embarked on a program to develop science-quality, applications-ready, time-series of key terrestrial variables using historical and current Landsat data. The terrestrial variables will follow the guidelines established through the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and include Fundamental Climate Data Records (FCDR's) that represent geophysical transformations of Landsat data (e.g., surface reflectance and surface temperature), and Essential Climate Variables (ECV's) that represent specific geo-and biophysical land properties. Currently, 45 ECVs are identified by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) as necessary to support global climate monitoring and assessment, and technically and economically feasible for systematic observation. A given ECV may be defined as a suite of products, the specifications for which are driven by the spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution of available data, as well as the measurement uncertainties. A number of the 14 terrestrial ECVs are fully and uniquely within the scope of the USGS science mission, with Land Cover, Fire Disturbance, Leaf Area Index, Surface Water Extent, and biomass being appropriate targets for systematic observation by the USGS. The Global Fiducials Library (GFL) is a historical archive of images from U.S. National Imagery Systems which represents a long-term periodic record for selected scientifically important sites. The GFL was created to be the collection, archive and data management component of the Global Fiducials Program. Since the 1990s, the Global Fiducials Program has been periodically collecting images of environmentally significant sites around the world. A fiducial site is a geographic location that is used as a benchmark for the long-term monitoring of processes, both natural and anthropogenic, associated with the causes and effects of global environmental change. Domestic U.S. fiducial sites were selected to support the US Global Change Research Program. This has been accomplished through the generation of unrestricted imagery derived products provides a high value way to offer valuable select imagery products to the scientific community. Opportunities to calibrate and validate ECV products for land change detection using Global Fiducial data records are rapidly becoming available as ECV data records and Global Fiducial temporal image sets are cross-referenced and compared.

  5. COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE OS MÉTODOS DE EXTRAÇÃO DE METACERCÁRIAS DE ASCOCOTYLE SP (TREMATODA: DIGENEA DOS TECIDOS DE MUGIL LIZA VALENCIENNES, 1836 (TELEOSTEI: MUGILIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ribeiro Nogueira Ferraz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand and consumption of fish and their derivatives has increased considerably in recent years. However, fish are ideal hosts of numerous parasites, highlighting the need to develop new research methodologies for its detection. The aim of present study was to compare the efficacy of Ascocotyle metacercariae (Trematoda: Digenea extraction from visceral tissues of Mugil liza Valenciennes, 1836 (Teleostei: Mugilidae by two methods: homogenization by blender or mixer. Twentysix samples of M. liza were collected, being 16 liver samples and 10 samples of muscle tissue. Approximately 5g of each sample were processed by blender and mixer techniques homogenization for metacercariae extraction. In liver samples, up to 46 metacercariae were found in samples homogenized in blender. The lowest amount found was 2 metacercariae for blender and mixer techniques. In samples of muscle tissue, 4 metacercariae were observed in the mixer extraction. The lowest amount was found to be 2 parasites to blender and mixer. The mean metacercariae found and extracted from muscle tissue were 0.2 (+0.357 and 1.2 (+0.963 for blender and mixer, respectively. The averages of metacercariae found and extracted from fish liver, in blender and mixer, were 24 (+15.145 and 18 (+8.246, respectively. The homogenization techniques for blender and mixer were effective for the extraction of metacercariae of mullet fish tissues, suggesting that they may be directly applicable in the field of study, especially due to the ease of testing.

  6. A specimen of Paralycoptera Chang & Chou 1977 (Teleostei: Osteoglossoidei) from Hong Kong (China) with a potential Late Jurassic age that extends the temporal and geographical range of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Tze-Kei; Pittman, Michael; Chang, Mee-Mann

    2015-01-01

    We describe a Mesozoic fish Paralycoptera sp. (Teleostei: Osteoglossoidei), on the basis of a postcranial skeleton collected from the volcaniclastic mudstones of the Lai Chi Chong Formation of Hong Kong, China. The new finding-representing the city's first Mesozoic fish-extends the geographical distribution of Paralycoptera from eastern mainland China into Hong Kong, demonstrating a wider distribution than previously appreciated for this genus. A radiometric age for the Lai Chi Chong Formation of 146.6 ± 0.2 Ma implies a temporal range expansion for Paralycoptera of approximately 40 million years back from the Early Cretaceous (∼110 Ma). However, spores found in the Formation suggest an Early Cretaceous age that is consistent with the existing age assignment to Paralycoptera. We argue that the proposed temporal range extension is genuine because it is based on recent high precision radiometric age data, but given the discrepancies with the biostratigraphic ages further investigation is needed to confirm this. This study provides an important step towards revealing Hong Kong's Mesozoic vertebrate fauna and understanding its relationship to well-studied mainland Chinese ones.

  7. Determinação do sistema endócrino difuso nos intestinos de três Teleostei (Pisces de água doce com hábitos alimentares diferentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seixas Filho José Teixeira de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de verificar a presença de células endócrinas nos intestinos médio e posterior, ou reto, e nos cecos pilóricos de três espécies tropicais de peixes Teleostei de água doce com hábitos alimentares diferentes: piracanjuba, (Brycon orbignyanus e piau (Leporinus friderici, onívoro; e surubim (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans, carnívoro. Para tanto, foram utilizados sete exemplares da piracanjuba, com médias de peso e comprimento-padrão de 410,16 ± 66,33 g e 27,42 ± 1,17 cm, respectivamente, 13 exemplares de piau com médias de 77,71 ± 24,31 g e 14,84 ± 1,56 cm de peso e comprimento-padrão, respectivamente; e cinco exemplares do surubim com médias de peso e comprimento-padrão de 309,91 ± 94,23 g e 32,70 ± 1,79 cm, respectivamente. Pode-se constatar a presença de células endócrinas do "tipo aberto" nos segmentos referentes aos intestinos médio e posterior das espécies onívoras e do "tipo fechado" no intestino médio e no reto da espécie carnívora. As células argirófilas foram observadas entre as células absortivas do epitélio intestinal. Os resultados permitem concluir que a presença de células endócrinas nas espécies estudadas pode indicar que estas atuam no mecanismo de controle da absorção dos nutrientes do alimento.

  8. Ligophorus spp. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) occurring in the fresh and brackish waters of the Shatt Al-Arab River and Estuary in southern Iraq, with the description of Ligophorus sagmarius sp. n. from the greenback mullet Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Khamees, Najim R; Ali, Atheer H

    2013-12-01

    The gills of three of five species of mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) collected from the brackish and fresh waters of southern Iraq were infected with species of Ligophorus (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) as follows: greenback mullet Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes) infected with Ligophorus lebedevi Dmitrieva, Gerasev, Gibson, Pronkina and Galli, 2012, Ligophorus bantingensis Soo and Lim, 2012, Ligophorus sagmarius n. sp., and Ligophorus fluviatilis (Bychowsky, 1949) Dmitrieva, Gerasev, Gibson, Pronkina, and Galli, 2012; Klunzinger’s mullet Liza klunzingeri (Day) with L. bantingensis, L. fluviatilis, and an apparently undescribed species of Ligophorus; and abu mullet Liza abu (Heckel) with L. bantingensis and L. fluviatilis. The keeled mullet Liza carinata (Valenciennes) and Speigler’s mullet Valamugil speigleri (Bleeker) were uninfected. L. sagmarius n. sp. is described, and L. lebedevi and L. bantingensis are redescribed. Available specimens of L. fluviatilis and the undescribed species of Ligophorus from Klunzinger’s mullet were insufficient for description.

  9. Phylogeny of the snailfishes (Teleostei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Møller, P. R.; Gravlund, P.

    2007-01-01

    Liparidae (snailfishes) is one of the most diverse and abundant fish families in polar and deep-sea habitats. However, the evolution of this family is poorly known because of the rarity of many species and difficulties in scoring morphological characters. We perform phylogenetic analyses of Lipar...

  10. (Teleostei: Sparidae) in Natal estuaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diet consists mainly of aquatic macrophytes and filamentous ... A study of the feeding ecology of R. sarbo formed part of an overall ... In order to assess the importance of the availability of .... During their ecological survey of Durban Bay.

  11. [Population genetic structure of the char species of the Northern Kuril Islands and the rank of the Dolly Varden Char in the system of the genus Salvelinus (Salmonidae: Teleostei)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubina, E A; Ponomareva, E V; Gritsenko, O F

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of the taxonomic position of most species and forms of the char (genus Salvelinus, Salmonidae: Teleostei) was made based on RAPD-PCR. The material was represented by samples from 29 populations from the Kuril Islands, coast of the Sea of Okhotsk, Kamchatka, Chukotka, Taymyr, Transbaikalia, the Kola Peninsula, Svalbard, Finland, and North America. It was shown that the genus Salvelinus splits into three well-justified clusters: (1) all the forms assigned to the Salvelinus alpinus--S. malma complex; (2) two samples of the White-Spotted Char from the Southern Kuril Islands and from Kamchatka; (3) two North American species, S. fontinalis and S. namaycush (samples of the North American species S. confluentis were absent from the collection). Analysis of the absolute values of genetic disctances of the S. alpinus--S. malma forms relative to S. leucomaenis, S. fontinalis, and S. namaycush revealed distances approaching the species rank between the following isolates: Frolikh Char, Mountain Char, Black Lake Char, Goggle-Eyed Char, and Neyva Char. Samples of Dolly Varden currently considered as "S. malma", do not constitute a separate cluster, falling within the group of the Arctic char S. alpinus. This conclusion is supported by the analysis of the results of three series of experiments by R. Phillips on ITS1 ribosome genes (Pleute et al., 1992; Phillips et al., 1995; Phillips et al., 1999). This indicates the infraspecific rank of malma within S. alpinus. Isolated populations of "Salvethymus svetovidovi" from the lake Elgygytgyn (Chukotka Peninsula) and of the char from the lake Chyornoye (Onekotan Island), recently described as S. gritzenkoi (Vasil'eva, Stygar, 2000), fell withing the S. alpinus--S. malma complex, the Onekotan char grouped together with another isolate from the same island. Comparison of genetic distances between the samples showed that the differences between the two isolated of Onekotan and migratory forms of the Kuril Islands are

  12. 饥饿与再投喂对条石鲷幼鱼组织和血清中主要代谢酶活性及糖元含量的影响%The effects of starvation and refeeding on tissue and serum metabolic enzyme activities and glycogen contents of barred knifejaw( Oplegnathus fasciatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施兆鸿; 彭士明; 宋国; 孙鹏; 尹飞; 王建钢

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of starvation and refeeding on tissue and serum metabolic enzyme activities and glycogen contents of Oplegnathus fasciatus with an average weight of (10.0 ± 1.0) g. Five experimental groups were designed,i. e. fed twice daily for 30 d(S0,control group) , starved for 3d and refed for 27 d( S3) , starved for 6d and refed for 24 d( S6) , starved for 9d and refed for 21 d(S9) .starved for 12 d and refed for 18 d(S12). The samples (serum, liver and muscle) were collected at the initial experiment, after starvation and refeeding, and the alkaline phosphatase( AKP) , acid phosphatase (ACP) , glutamic-pyruvic transaminase ( GPT) , glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase ( GOT) activities and glycogen contents of tissues were analyzed. The results showed that,serum and liver glycogen contents were significantly affected hy the starvation and refeeding, and serum glycogen ( except S12 group) and liver glycogen contents were reduced significantly as a result of starvation, while the liver glycogen contents returned to the level of control group after refeeding. However, only a little effect on the muscle glycogen contents was found during the starvation and refeeding. During the period of experiment, the AKP and GPT activities of serum and liver were significantly affected by starvation, and after refeeding, both enzymes activities returned to the levels of control group. However,during the whole experimental period,the effects of starvation and refeeding on muscle AKP,ACP,GPT and GOT activities were very little. In conclusion,the serum glycogen content with a level of (2.65 ±0.33) - (3.70 ±0.36) mmol/L was essential to maintain the stabilization of body metabolism. The main metabolic enzymes in serum and liver were very important in maintaining the basic metabolism of O.fasciatus under the condition of starvation.%为研究条石鲷幼鱼在饥饿与再投喂条件下机体各组织和血清中主要代谢酶活性和糖元

  13. Copper Induced Lysosomal Membrane Destabilisation in Haemolymph Cells of Mediterranean Green Crab (Carcinus aestuarii, Nardo, 1847 from the Narta Lagoon (Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valbona Aliko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTDestabilisation of blood cell lysosomes in Mediterranean green crabCarcinus aestuarii was investigated using Neutral Red Retention Assay (NRRA. Crabs collected in Narta Lagoon, Vlora (Albania during May 2014 were exposed in the laboratory to sub-lethal, environmentally realistic concentrations of copper. Neutral Red Retention Time (NRRT and glucose concentration in haemolymph of animals were measured. The mean NRRT showed a significant reduction for the animals of the treatment group compared to the control one (from 118.6 ± 28.4 to 36.4 ± 10.48 min, p<0.05, indicating damage of lysosomal membrane. Haemolymph glucose concentration was significantly higher in the treatment group (from 37.8 ± 2.7 to 137.8.4 ± 16.2 mg/dL, p<0.05 than in control group, demonstrating the presence of stress on the animals. These results showed thatC. aestuarii could be used as a successful and reliable bioindicator for evaluating the exposure to contaminants in laboratory conditions. NRRA provides a successful tool for rapid assessment of heavy metal pollution effects on marine biota.

  14. 8Preliminary Study on Morphologies of Head Spines and Scale Circulis of Collichthys lucidus (Teleostei: Sciaenidae) in China%中国海域棘头梅童鱼头棘和鳞片轮纹形态的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江艳娥; 林昭进; 邱永松; 方展强

    2012-01-01

    The exterior morphologies of 36 heads of Collichthys lucidus (Teleostei:Sciaenidae),which were collected from Shanghai and Guangzhou of China,were studied.To find out the relationship of head spines and scale circulis with other characters,seventeen morphometric measurements and eight numeric characters were analyzed by linear regression.The results showed that there was a linear relationship between head spines and other two characters,predorsal length and interorbital width.There was a linear relationship between scale circulis and other two characters,lower gill rakes and interorbital width.%对采自上海和广州的36尾棘头梅童鱼的外部形态学进行了分析,探讨了其头部头棘和鳞片鳞嵴这两个外部形态特征与该种类其他特征之间的关系.采用线形回归法分析了17个可量性状和8个可数性状.结果表明:头部头棘的特征与背鳍前长、眼间距两个特征之间存在更紧密的联系,而鳞片鳞嵴与下鳃耙数量、眼间距两个特征之间存在更紧密的联系.

  15. 条石鲷鳃的组织发育及鳃上钠钾三磷酸腺苷酶活性的早期变化%Ontogeny of the gill and Na+, K+-ATPase activity of rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何滔; 肖志忠; 刘清华; 李军

    2013-01-01

    Based on the histological observations under optical microscope, we studied the ontogeny of the gill of rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus at (24 ± 1. 0) ℃. At hatching, gill anlage was visible in the pharyngeal region. On 2 DAH(Day After Hatching) , as the branchial cavity was formed, four pairs of gill arches were evident and some muscular fibres were observed in gill arches. The blood cells were visible in the vascular structures of gills on 3 DAH, and the primordial filaments first appeared in the second and third arches, then in the first and fourth arches on 4 DAH. The primordial lamellae were first formed in the filaments of the second and third gill arches on 6 DAH,then in the first and fourth arches on 7 DAH. On 6 DAH,the pseudobranch anlage was observed as a paired structure lied by the anterior branchial cavity and the lamellae in the pseudobranch were visible on 7 DAH. The chloride cells were first arranged in the base of the lamellae on 7 DAH,then also in the base of filaments on 8 DAH. The pavement cells were visible in the branchial epithelium on 8 DAH and the pillar cells were developed to delimit the vascular structures of lamellae on 9 DAH. On 10 DAH,the mucous cells were seen in the lamellae of pseudobranch. From 14 DAH forward,the filaments and lamellae of gills increased in number and length prominently and the gill of larvae was similar to that of juvenile fish. The specific activity of Na+ ,K+ -ATPase increased from cleavage period (0.712 ±0.400)U/g to segmentation period(2. 315 ±0. 515)U/g,and then decreased progressively to a low level until 9 DAH( 1. 389 +0. 734)U/g. Subsequently,the activity increased. After 12 DAH,it decreased to the minimum at (0. 246 ±0. 126)U/g on 14 DAH. Then the activity increased rapidly and reached the maximum at(4.731 ±0. 309) U/g on 18 DAH. From 20 DAH, the specific activity of Na+ ,K + -ATPase reached a relatively stable level until 50 DAH ( 3. 667 ± 0. 633 ) U/g. The change of Na+ , K + -ATPase activity

  16. Mitochondrial genome of Silurus asotus (Teleostei: Siluriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qing; Wang, Zhijian; Peng, Zuogang

    2011-10-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of the Amur catfish Silurus asotus was determined using long PCRs. The genome was 16,528 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region; the gene composition and order of which was similar to most other vertebrates. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is 30.5% A, 25.8% T, 28.0% C, and 15.8% G, with an AT content of 56.3%. The mtDNA sequence of S. asotus shared 93.6% and 90.6% sequence identity with that of Silurus meridionalis and Silurus glanis. This mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in silurid catfish phylogenetics and siluriform catfish systematics in general.

  17. Biologia do jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei, Pimelodidae Biology of Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei, Pemelodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy de Carvalho Gomes

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O jundiá, Rhamdia quelen, é encontrado desde o centro da Argentina até o sul do México, e seu cultivo está aumentando no sul do Brasil. Portanto, o objetivo desta revisão é apresentar os dados existentes até o momento sobre a biologia dessa espécie. R. quelen pode atingir 50cm de comprimento e 3kg de peso, possui hábito noturno e habita locais calmos e profundos dos rios. Os alevinos suportam água do mar a 10%o, até 9,0g/l de sal comum e pH na faixa de 4,0 a 8,5, com melhor crescimento das larvas na faixa de pH de 8,0 a 8,5. É uma espécie euritérmica. Esse peixe é omnívoro, com tendência piscívora. A maturidade sexual é atingida no primeiro ano de vida. É uma espécie ovulípara e, na natureza, os cardumes desovam em locais com água limpa, calma e de fundo pedregoso. Não apresenta cuidado parental. Possui dois picos reprodutivos por ano (um no verão e outro na primavera e desova múltipla. A indução da desova apresentou bons resultados com gonadotrofina coriônica humana (HCG ou extrato hipofisário. O desenvolvimento embrionário de R. quelen é rápido e se dá entre 3 a 5 dias. O melhor alimento artificial para larvas de R. quelen é baseado em lecitina de soja, fígado bovino e levedura. Várias bactérias patogênicas e trematódeos digenéticos já foram identificados em R. quelen. Para um melhor aproveitamento dessa espécie na piscicultura, são necessários mais estudos relacionados ao efeito de parâmetros físicoquímicos da água, alimentação artificial e crescimento em cativeiro.The jundiá, Rhamdia quelen, occurs from Southern Mexico to Central Argentina, and the husbandry of this species is spreading in Southern Brazil. Consequently, the aim of this review is to present the available data of the biology of this species. R. quelen can reach 50cm of length and 3kg of weight, presents a nocturnal habit and lives in placid and deep waters of the rivers. Fingerlings support 10‰ seawater, up to 9g/l table salt and 4.0 - 8.5 pH range, with best growth at 8.0 - 8.5 pH range. It is an eurytermal species. This fish is omnivorous, but prefers fish. The sexual maturity is reached in the first year of life, and it is ovuliparous and in the natural environment the schools spawn in clean and calm waters with rocky bottom. There is no parental care. This species shows two reproductive peaks/year (spring and summer and multiple spawning. The induced spawning had good results with human chorionic gonadotrofin (HCG or pituitary extract. The embriological development of R. quelen is fast, and the larval development occurs in three to five days. The best feeding ration to the larvae of R. quelen is based on soybean lecithin, cattle liver and yeast. Several pathogenic bacteria and digenetic trematoda were identified in R. quelen. To improve the use of this species in fish culture, additional studies about physico-chemical parameters of the water, feeding rations and growth in captivity are essential.

  18. Responses of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) to high levels of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feir, D.; Hale, R.

    1983-01-01

    Milkweed bugs were exposed to either 300 ppm CO, 5-10 ppm SO/sub 2/, 5-10 ppm NO/sub 2/, or compressed air (controls) for two hours a day throughout their life cycle and until 50% of the adults had died. The apparent stimulation of growth and reproduction by gaseous pollutants is difficult to explain.

  19. The role of Toll signaling in dorsoventral axis formation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yen-Ta

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of dorsoventral (DV) axis in the Drosophila embryo relies on the Toll/Dorsal signaling pathway. The transcription factor Dorsal acts downstream of Toll forming a nuclear gradient that determines different cell fates along the DV axis. The formation of the DV axis has been studied in two other holometabolous insects, the bee- tle Tribolium and the wasp Nasonia. However, the role of Toll signaling has not been addressed in the more basally branching hemimetabolous insects. Her...

  20. Structural polarity and dynamics of male germline stem cells in the milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Esther D; Dorn, August

    2004-11-01

    The male germline stem cells (GSCs) of the milkweed bug present an extraordinary structural polarity that is, to our knowledge, unequalled by any other type of stem cells. They consist of a perikaryon and numerous projections arising from the cell pole directed toward the apical cells, the proposed niche of the GSCs. The projections can traverse a considerable distance until their terminals touch the apical cells. From hatching until death, the GSC projections undergo conspicuous changes, the sequence of which has been deduced from observations of all developmental stages. Projection formation starts from lobular cell protrusions showing trabecular ingrowths of the cell membrane. Finger-like projections result from a process of growth and "carving out". The newly formed projections contain mostly only free ribosomes other than a few mitochondria. A stereotyped degradation process commences in the projection terminals: profiles of circular, often concentric, cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum appear and turn into myelin bodies, whereas mitochondria become more numerous. The cytoplasm vesiculates, lysosomal bodies appear, and mitochondria become swollen. At the same time, the projection terminals are segregated by transverse ingrowths of the cell membrane. Finally, autophagic vacuoles and myelin bodies fill the segregated terminals, which then rupture. Simultaneously, new projections seem to sprout from the perikaryon of the GSCs. These dynamics, which are not synchronized among the GSCs, indicate that a novel type of signal exchange and transduction between the stem cells and their niche is involved in the regulation of asymmetric versus symmetric division of GSCs.

  1. Genomic characterization, expression analysis, and antimicrobial function of a glyrichin homologue from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Wan, Qiang; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Bathige, S D N K; Lim, Bong-Soo; Jung, Hyung-Bok; Lee, Jehee; Whang, Ilson

    2013-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are important innate effector molecules, playing a vital role in antimicrobial immunity in all species. Glyrichin is a transmembrane protein and an antibacterial peptide, exerting its functions against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, cDNA and a BAC clone harboring the glyrichin gene were identified from rock bream and characterized. Genomic characterization showed that the OfGlyrichin gene exhibited a 3 exon-2 intron structure. OfGlyrichin is a 79-amino-acid protein with a transmembrane domain at (22)GFMMGFAVGMAAGAMFGTFSCLR(44). Pairwise and multiple sequence alignments showed high identity and conservation with mammalian orthologues. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship with fish species. Higher levels of OfGlyrichin transcripts were detected in the liver from healthy rock bream which were induced by immunogens like lipopolysaccharide, poly I:C, rock bream irido virus, Edwardsiella tarda and Streptococcus iniae. The synthetic peptide (pOf19) showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, E. tarda, and S. iniae. Analysis of the bacterial morphological features after pOf19 peptide treatment showed breakage of the cell membrane, affirming that antibacterial function is accomplished through membrane lysis. The pOf19 peptide also showed antiviral activity against RBIV infection. The high conservation of the genomic structure and protein, together with the antimicrobial roles of OfGlyrichin, provide evidence for the evolutionary existence of this protein playing a vital role in innate immune defense in rock bream.

  2. Molecular cytogenetic of the Amoy croaker, Argyrosomus amoyensis (Teleostei, Sciaenidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Mengxiang; Zheng, Jiao; Wang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yilei; Zhang, Jing; Cai, Mingyi

    2017-08-01

    The family Sciaenidae is remarkable for its species richness and economic importance. However, the cytogenetic data available in this fish group are still limited, especially those obtained using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In the present study, the chromosome characteristics of a sciaenid species, Argyrosomus amoyensis, were examined with several cytogenetic methods, including dual-FISH with 18S and 5S rDNA probes, and a self-genomic in situ hybridization procedure (Self-GISH). The karyotype of A. amoyensis comprised 2n=48 acrocentric chromosomes. A single pair of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) was located at the proximal position of chromosome 1, which was positive for silver nitrate impregnation (AgNO3) staining and denaturation-propidium iodide (DPI) staining but negative for Giemsa staining and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, and was confirmed by FISH with 18S rDNA probes. The 5S rDNA sites were located at the centromeric region of chromosome 3. Telomeric FISH signals were detected at all chromosome ends with different intensities, but internal telomeric sequences (ITSs) were not found. Self-GISH resulted in strong signals distributed at the centromeric regions of all chromosomes. C-banding revealed not only centromeric heterochromatin, but also heterochromatin that located on NORs, in interstitial and distal telomeric regions of specific chromosomes. These results suggest that the karyotype of Amoy croaker was relatively conserved and primitive. By comparison with the reported cytogenetic data of other sciaenids, it can be deduced that although the karyotypic macrostructure and chromosomal localization of 18S rDNA are conserved, the distribution of 5S rDNA varies dynamically among sciaenid species. Thus, the 5S rDNA sites may have different evolutionary dynamics in relation to other chromosomal regions, and have the potential to be effective cytotaxonomic markers in Sciaenidae.

  3. The mitogenome of Liobagrus nigricauda (Teleostei, Siluriformes: Amblycipitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiang-Yang; Li, Ying-Wen; Wang, Deng-Qiang; Li, Shu-Hua; Tian, Hui-Wu; Xiong, Xing; Cheng, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Da-Qing

    2013-08-01

    Liobagrus nigricauda is endemic to the Yangtze River system (Ding 1994, The fishes of Sichuan province. pp. 470-78) and listed as an endangered species (IUCN 2012, Red list of threatened species. http://www.iucnredlist.org ). In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of L. nigricauda has been obtained with polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a noncoding control region with the total length of 16,512 bp. The gene arrangement and composition are similar to that of other vertebrates. Most of the genes are encoded on heavy strand, except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes. Just like most other vertebrates, the bias against G has a universality in different statistics results. The mitogenome sequence of L. nigricauda would contribute to better understand population genetics and to protect its genetic diversity.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of Liobagrus kingi (Teleostei, Siluriformes: Amblycipitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiang-Yang; Li, Ying-Wen; Wang, Deng-Qiang; Tian, Hui-Wu; Xiong, Xing; Li, Shu-Hua; Chen, Da-Qing

    2013-08-01

    Liobagrus kingi is endemic to southwest China and listed as endangered species (IUCN 2012). Genetic diversity is necessary for conservation issue. In studying this, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of L. kingi has been obtained with PCR, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region with the total length of 16,483 bp. The gene arrangement and composition are similar to that of other vertebrates. Most of the genes are encoded on heavy strand, except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes. Just like most other vertebrates, the against bias of G has a universality in different statistical results. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of L. kingi would contribute to better understand population genetics and protect its genetic diversity.

  5. The mitogenome of Liobagrus marginatoides (Teleostei, Siluriformes:Amblycipitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiang-Yang; Li, Ying-Wen; Wang, Deng-Qiang; Tian, Hui-Wu; Tu, Bin; Xiong, Xing; Li, Shu-Hua; Chen, Da-Qing

    2013-12-01

    Liobagrus marginatoides is endemic to southwest China (Ding, 1994), according to morphological taxonomy, and it is very similar to Liobagrus nigricauda, but its population is much smaller. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of L. Marginatoides has been obtained with polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region with the total length of 16,498 bp. The gene arrangement and composition are similar to that of other vertebrates. Most of the genes are encoded on heavy strand, except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes. Just like most other vertebrates, the against bias of G has a universality in different statistics results. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of L. Marginatoides would contribute to better understand population genetics and protect its genetic diversity.

  6. Molecular phylogenetics of the Neotropical fish family Prochilodontidae (Teleostei: Characiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Bruno F; Sidlauskas, Brian L; Hoekzema, Kendra; Frable, Benjamin W; Vari, Richard P; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    Migratory detritivores of the characiform family Prochilodontidae occur throughout the freshwaters of much of South America. Prochilodontids often form massive populations and many species achieve substantial body sizes; a combination that makes them one of the most commercially important fish groups on the continent. Their economic significance notwithstanding, prochilodontids have never been the subject of a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis. Using three mitochondrial and three nuclear loci spanning all prochilodontid species, we generated a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for the family. Our results strongly support monophyly of the family and the three included genera. A novel, highly supported placement of Ichthyoelephas sister to the clade containing Prochilodus and Semaprochilodus diverges from a previous morphological hypothesis. Most previously hypothesized interspecific relationships are corroborated and some longstanding polytomies within Prochilodus and Semaprochilodus are resolved. The morphologically similar P. brevis, P. lacustris, P. nigricans and P. rubrotaeniatus are embedded within what is herein designated as the P. nigricans group. Species limits and distributions of these species are problematic and the group clearly merits taxonomic revision.

  7. A new species of Poecilia from Honduras (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.N. Poeser

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Poecilia from the Atlantic slopes of Honduras is described and assigned to the subgenus Mollienesia. Poecilia hondurensis, new species, differs from all congeners in the combination of having tricuspid teeth on the inner of both jaws and lacking a prominent spine or hook on the gono

  8. Evolutionary history of anglerfishes (Teleostei: Lophiiformes: a mitogenomic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimazaki Mitsuomi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The teleost order Lophiiformes, commonly known as the anglerfishes, contains a diverse array of marine fishes, ranging from benthic shallow-water dwellers to highly modified deep-sea midwater species. They comprise 321 living species placed in 68 genera, 18 families and 5 suborders, but approximately half of the species diversity is occupied by deep-sea ceratioids distributed among 11 families. The evolutionary origins of such remarkable habitat and species diversity, however, remain elusive because of the lack of fresh material for a majority of the deep-sea ceratioids and incompleteness of the fossil record across all of the Lophiiformes. To obtain a comprehensive picture of the phylogeny and evolutionary history of the anglerfishes, we assembled whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome sequences from 39 lophiiforms (33 newly determined during this study representing all five suborders and 17 of the 18 families. Sequences of 77 higher teleosts including the 39 lophiiform sequences were unambiguously aligned and subjected to phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimation. Results Partitioned maximum likelihood analysis confidently recovered monophyly for all of the higher taxa (including the order itself with the exception of the Thaumatichthyidae (Lasiognathus was deeply nested within the Oneirodidae. The mitogenomic trees strongly support the most basal and an apical position of the Lophioidei and a clade comprising Chaunacoidei + Ceratioidei, respectively, although alternative phylogenetic positions of the remaining two suborders (Antennarioidei and Ogcocephaloidei with respect to the above two lineages are statistically indistinguishable. While morphology-based intra-subordinal relationships for relatively shallow, benthic dwellers (Lophioidei, Antennarioidei, Ogcocephaloidei, Chaunacoidei are either congruent with or statistically indistinguishable from the present mitogenomic tree, those of the principally deep-sea midwater dwellers (Ceratioidei cannot be reconciled with the molecular phylogeny. A relaxed molecular-clock Bayesian analysis of the divergence times suggests that all of the subordinal diversifications have occurred during a relatively short time period between 100 and 130 Myr ago (early to mid Cretaceous. Conclusions The mitogenomic analyses revealed previously unappreciated phylogenetic relationships among the lophiiform suborders and ceratioid familes. Although the latter relationships cannot be reconciled with the earlier hypotheses based on morphology, we found that simple exclusion of the reductive or simplified characters can alleviate some of the conflict. The acquisition of novel features, such as male dwarfism, bioluminescent lures, and unique reproductive modes allowed the deep-sea ceratioids to diversify rapidly in a largely unexploited, food-poor bathypelagic zone (200-2000 m depth relative to the other lophiiforms occurring in shallow coastal areas.

  9. Karyotype description of five species of Trichomycterus (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Luciana Ramos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomycteridae is a family of small catfish which are widely distributed throughout Southern Central America and South America. The present study showed that the cis-Andean species Trichomycterus florensis, Trichomycterus sp. aff. Trichomycterus itatiyae, Trichomycterus reinhardti, Trichomycterus davisi and Trichomycterus auroguttatus had 2n = 54 chromosomes (42 metacentric, 10 submetacentric and 2 subtelocentric, with T. reinhardti, T. auroguttatus and T. sp. aff. T. itatiyae exhibiting only one chromosome pair with silver-stained nucleolus organizer regions (NORs. The cytogenetic data suggest the existence of at least two groups of species in the cis-Andean representatives of the genus Trichomycterus. In the first group the first metacentric pair is considerably larger than the second metacentric pair and the NORs occur in the pericentromeric position of the short arm of a large submetacentric pair while in the second group the first and second metacentric pairs are about the same size and larger than the other metacentric pairs and the NORs are located in the pericentromeric position of the long arm of a large metacentric pair. The relative conservatism of the karyotype of the cis-Andean Trichomycterus species contrasts with the wide diversification observed in the trans-Andean species, reinforcing the hypothesis that the genus is not monophyletic.

  10. Interspecific chromosomal divergences in the genus Characidium (Teleostei: Characiformes: Crenuchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Pansonato Alves

    Full Text Available Karyotypes of seven fish species of the genus Characidium, three of them studied for the first time, were characterized using conventional cytogenetic techniques (Giemsa staining, Ag-NOR, and C-banding. All species presented a diploid number of 2n=50, with only metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes, as observed in all Characidium species studied. In two species cells with one to three B chromosomes were observed. All species analyzed have a single NOR-bearing chromosome pair with morphological differences among them. Characidium cf. zebra shows heterochromatic blocks restricted to the pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes denoting the absence of a sex chromosome system. On the other hand, the species Characidium lanei, C. pterostictum, C. lauroi, C. oiticicai, C. schubarti, and Characidium sp., besides presenting pericentromeric heterochromatic blocks, exhibited large interstitial and/or terminal heterochromatic blocks, and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. The constitutive heterochromatin seems to play a relevant role in the chromosome differentiation process of the studied species, mainly in relation to the sex chromosomes. The geographical isolation of the rivers in which the species were sampled, associated with their way of life restricted to headwaters environments, may have favored the process of fixation of different karyotypes found in each of the analyzed species.

  11. A profile of the introduced Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Teleostei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... comparison to its putative origin of Lakes Edward, George and Albert. O. niloticus is currently the .... rare bands; number and percentage of null bands; number and .... Lowe-McConnell RH (1958). Observations on the biology ...

  12. Mahseers genera Tor and Neolissochilus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoàng, Huy Đức; Phạm, Hùng Mạnh; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Trần, Ngân Trọng; Phan, Phúc Đình

    2015-08-25

    Two new species and two new basin records of mahseers in the genera Tor and Neolissochilus are described from the upper Krong No and middle Đồng Nai drainages of the Langbiang Plateau in southern Vietnam. These new species and new records are known from streams and rivers in montane mixed pine and evergreen forests between 140 and 1112 m. Their populations are isolated in the Sre Pok River of the Mekong basin, the middle of the Đồng Nai basin, and the An Lão River. Both new species are differentiated from their congeners by a combination of the following characters: 23-24 lateral scales, 9-10 predorsal scales, 2/7 or 1/8 pelvic-fin rays, mouth position, median lobe of lower lip, rostral hood, colour in life and by divergent mitochondrial DNA. Tor mekongensis sp. nov. is differentiated from Tor dongnaiensis sp. nov. by the number of transverse scale rows (3/1/2 vs. 4/1/2), number of pelvic-fin rays (2/7 vs. 1/8), a blunt rostral hood vs. pointed, caudal-fin lobes that are equal vs. unequal, and by mitochondrial DNA (0.7% sequence divergence). Molecular evidence identifies both species as members of the genus Tor and distinct from all congeners sampled (uncorrected sequence divergences >1.9% for all Tor species for which homologous COI sequences are available). Tor sinensis is recorded in the Krong No and the Sre Pok rivers, further south of its known distribution. Polymorphism is described in Neolissochilus stracheyi with a Tor-like morph and a Neolissochilus-like morph.

  13. Eviota piperata, a new gobiid species from Palau (Teleostei: Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, David W; Winterbottom, Richard

    2014-01-22

    A new species of dwarfgoby, Eviota piperata is described from Palau. It belongs to the cephalic sensory-pore system Group II (lacking only the IT pore); has a dorsal/anal-fin formula of 8/8; has some pectoral-fin rays branched; no dark spot over the ural centrum; the male genital papilla is not fimbriate; and the cheek and body are heavily peppered with chromatophores.

  14. Food preference of the giant mudskipper Periophthalmodon schlosseri (Teleostei : Gobiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli S.Z.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The giant mudskipper (Periophthalmodon schlosseri is one of the commonly found mudskipper species living and it makes a significant biomass value in the mangrove ecosystem. Samples of this mudskipper species were collected and analysed for stomach content and stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N to determine their food preference. The stomach content analysis showed four groups of food items: fiddler crabs (Uca sp., medaka fish (Oryzias sp., juveniles of indeterminate fish species and indeterminate remains of prey items. P. schlosseri females prefer to prey on Oryzias sp. (57.8%, Uca sp. (26.7% and juveniles of indeterminate fish species (6.7%, while the males prefer to prey on Uca sp. (84.6% and Oryzias sp. (7.7%. The indeterminate remaining prey items were 8.9% and 7.7% for respective sexes. The stable isotope analysis showed Uca sp. and Oryzias sp. being the main food items for P. schlosseri. The values of δ13C and δ15N ratios also showed differences in food preference among sexes, where females of all life stages prefer to prey more on Oryzias sp. and little Uca sp. In contrast, the male P. schlosseri prefer to prey only on Uca sp. throughout their life, with the exception of juvenile male P. schlosseri, which suggested they also consume a small amount of Oryzias sp. Behavioural differences among the sexes and life stages were suggested to cause differences in food selection. The size of the food items also influences food preference.

  15. Careproctus kidoi, a new Arctic species of snailfish (Teleostei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Møller, Peter Rask

    2008-01-01

    and 1,487 m. It differs from Arctic and North Atlantic congeners in the combination of the characters: pectoral fin rays 21-26, dorsal fin rays 54-60, anal fin rays 50-54, vertebrae 61-64; sucking disc oval, 4.2-6.6% SL; teeth simple; pyloric coeca 3-12; head pore formula (2-6-7-1); color light to dark...

  16. Taxonomic review and phylogenetic analysis of Enchodontoidei (Teleostei: Aulopiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda M. A Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Enchodontoidei are extinct marine teleost fishes with a long temporal range and a wide geographic distribution. As there has been no comprehensive phylogenetic study of this taxon, we performed a parsimony analysis using a data matrix with 87 characters, 31 terminal taxa for ingroup, and three taxa for outgroup. The analysis produced 93 equally parsimonious trees (L = 437 steps; CI = 0. 24; RI = 0. 49. The topology of the majority rule consensus tree was: (Sardinioides + Hemisaurida + (Nardorex + (Atolvorator + (Protostomias + Yabrudichthys + (Apateopholis + (Serrilepis + (Halec + Phylactocephalus + (Cimolichthys + (Prionolepis + ( (Eurypholis + Saurorhamphus + (Enchodus + (Paleolycus + Parenchodus + ( (Ichthyotringa + Apateodus + (Rharbichthys + (Trachinocephalus + ( (Apuliadercetis + Brazilodercetis + (Benthesikyme + (Cyranichthys + Robertichthys + (Dercetis + Ophidercetis + (Caudadercetis + (Pelargorhynchus + (Nardodercetis + (Rhynchodercetis + (Dercetoides + Hastichthys . The group Enchodontoidei is not monophyletic. Dercetidae form a clade supported by the presence of very reduced neural spines and possess a new composition. Enchodontidae are monophyletic by the presence of middorsal scutes, and Rharbichthys was excluded. Halecidae possess a new composition, with the exclusion of Hemisaurida. This taxon and Nardorex are Aulopiformes incertae sedis.Os Enchodontoidei são peixes teleósteos marinhos extintos, com uma longa amplitude temporal e uma ampla distribuição geográfica. Tendo em vista que não há nenhuma proposta ampla para a filogenia deste táxon, foi realizada uma aná lise de parcimônia com base numa matriz de dados de 87 caracteres, 31 táxons terminais no grupo interno, e três táxons no grupo externo. Como resultado da análise, foram obtidas 93 árvores igualmente parcimoniosas (L = 437 passos; CI = 0,24; RI = 0,49. O consenso de maioria é representado pela seguinte topologia: (Sardinioides + Hemisaurida + (Nardorex + (Atolvorator + (Protostomias + Yabrudichthys + (Apateopholis + (Serrilepis + (Halec + Phylactocephalus + (Cimolichthys + (Prionolepis + ( (Eurypholis + Saurorhamphus + (Enchodus + (Paleolycus + Parenchodus + ( (Ichthyotringa + Apateodus + (Rharbichthys + (Trachinocephalus + ( (Apuliadercetis + Brazilodercetis + (Benthesikyme + (Cyranichthys + Robertichthys + (Dercetis + Ophidercetis + (Caudadercetis + (Pelargorhynchus + (Nardodercetis + (Rhynchodercetis + (Dercetoides + Hastichthys . O grupo Enchodontoidei não é monofilético. Os Dercetidae formam um clado suportado pela presença de espinhos neurais muito reduzidos e possuem uma nova composição. Os Enchodontidae são um grupo monofilético, devido à presença de escudos no dorso, e Rharbichthys foi excluído do clado. Os Halecidae possuem uma nova composição, com a exclusão de Hemisaurida. Este táxon e Nardorex são Aulopiformes incertae sedis.

  17. First sighting of Zebrasoma flavescens (Teleostei: Acanthuridae and Balistoides conspicillum (Teleostei: Balistidae in the Mediterranean Sea: Two likely aquarium releases

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    B. WEITZMANN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we provide the first documented occurrence of the yellow tang Zebrasoma flavescens and of the clown triggerfish Balistoides conspicillum in the Mediterranean Sea. These tropical fishes were photographed in October 2008 off Sitges (Costa Daurada, Spain: 41°13'27.09" N; 1°47'22.35" E and in July 2012 in front of Palamós (Costa Brava, Spain: 41°50'56.19" N; 3°8'26.29" E, respectively. Their possible release from private aquaria is discussed.

  18. Nuclear DNA content in Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei: Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae Contenido de ADN nuclear en Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei: Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae

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    Pedro Jara-Seguel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear DNA content (2C value was determined in the commercial fish Galaxias maculatus (Galaxiidae was determined by microdensitometry of erythrocyte nuclei after Feulgen staining; rainbow trout erythrocytes with a known 2C value were used as a standard. The 2C value of G. maculatus was 2.21 ± 0.12 pg and its C value was equivalent to 1.105 pg (1,082.9 Mbp. This C value is within the range recorded for other osmeriform species (0.62-3.2 pg. The average sperm head diameter of G. maculatus is lower than the average sperm head diameter of rainbow trout (used as a standard, which coincides with the differences observed in the nuclear DNA content of both species. This information increases the genome data available for G. maculatus and might be useful in future programs dealing with its genetic manipulation.El contenido de ADN nuclear (valor 2C fue determinado en el pez comercial Galaxias maculatus (Galaxiidae usando microdensitometría de núcleos de eritrocitos sometidos a tinción de Feulgen, utilizando como estándar eritrocitos de trucha arco iris con un valor 2C conocido. El valor 2C de G. maculatus fue 2,21 ± 0,12 pg y su valor C es equivalente a 1,105 pg (1.082,9 pMb. Este valor C está dentro del rango registrado para otras especies de osmeriformes (0,62-3,2 pg. El diámetro promedio de la cabeza del espermatozoide de G. maculatus es menor al promedio descrito para la trucha arco iris utilizado como estándar, lo que coincide con las diferencias observadas en el contenido de ADN nuclear entre ambas especies. Estos datos contribuyen a ampliar los antecedentes genómicos disponibles para G. maculatus y podrían ser útiles en futuros programas tendientes a su manipulación genética.

  19. Recombinant thioredoxin 1 protein: the immune-adjuvant effect of Streptococcus iniae and its safety in rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Won; Shim, Sang Hee; Lee, Jung-Ho; Jeong, Ji-Min; Park, Chan-Il

    2014-08-01

    Adjuvant is an immune enhancer commonly used during vaccination to enhance the host immune response. In the present study, we analysed the recombinant protein produced from rock bream thioredoxin 1 cDNA (rRbTRx1). To verify the immune-stimulatory effect of this recombinant protein, changes in the expression level of several genes were investigated using the cDNA microarray chips in rock bream peripheral blood leukocytes stimulated with rRbTRx1. Furthermore, the immune responses of rock bream to Streptococcus iniae FKC (formalin-killed cell) vaccination alone or in combination with recombinant proteins were analysed after an experimental challenge with living S. iniae. Microarray analysis showed that 237 unique genes were upregulated more than two-fold after rRbTRx1 stimulation. Serum agglutination titres were relatively low; however, the FKC vaccine still conferred protection against S. iniae. Moreover, the adverse effects showed no statistically significant difference between fish injected with a concentration and non-injected fish. After experimental challenge to the rock bream by injection with living bacteria (S. iniae), the relative percent survival in the vaccinated groups with FKC + rRbTRx1 was significantly higher than that of the vaccinated groups with FKC alone, which were 85.9% and 68.2%, respectively. This indicated that the recombinant protein as an adjuvant showed synergism with the injected vaccine in rock bream.

  20. Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) replication in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) exposed for different time periods to susceptible water temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Vinay, Tharabenahalli-Nagaraju; Lee, Jehee; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-09-15

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) is a member of the Megalocytivirus genus that causes severe mortality to rock bream. Water temperature is known to affect the immune system and susceptibility of fish to RBIV infection. In this study, we evaluated the time dependent virus replication pattern and time required to completely eliminate virus from the rock bream body against RBIV infection at different water temperature conditions. The rock bream was exposed to the virus and held at 7 (group A1), 4 (group A2) and 2 days (group A3) at 23 °C before the water temperature was reduced to 17 °C. A total of 28% mortality was observed 24-35 days post infection (dpi) in only the 7 day exposure group at 23 °C. In all 23 °C exposure groups, virus replication peaked at 20 to 22 dpi (10(6)-10(7)/μl). In recovery stages (30-100 dpi), the virus copy number was gradually reduced, from 10(6) to 10(1) with faster decreases in the shorter exposure period group at 23 °C. When the water temperature was increased in surviving fish from 17 to 26 °C at 70 dpi, they did not show any mortality or signs of disease and had low virus copy numbers (below 10(2)/μl). Thus, fish need at least 50 days from peaked RBIV levels (approximately 20-25 dpi) to inhibit the virus. This indicates that maintaining the fish at low water temperature (17 °C) for 70 days is sufficient to eradicate RBIV from fish body. Thus, RBIV could be eliminated slowly from the fish body and the virus may be completely eliminated under the threshold of causing mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Myxosporea (Cnidaria : Myxozoa) infecting the saddled seabream Oblada melanura (L. 1758) (Teleostei : Sparidae) and the painted comber Serranus scriba (L. 1758) (Teleostei : Serranidae) in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laamiri, Sayef

    2017-05-19

    First parasitological surveys of Myxozoa are performed on the sparid saddled seabream Oblada melanura (Linnaeus, 1758) and the serranid painted comber Serranus scriba (Linnaeus, 1758) caught from the Bay of Bizerte and the Gulf of Tunis respectively in Northeast Tunisia, Western Mediterranean. In this study, 6 bivalvulid myxosporean species belonging to the 3 genera Ceratomyxa Thélohan, 1892, Myxodavisia Zhao, Zhou, Kent & Whipps, 2008 and Zschokkella Auerbach, 1910, are isolated infecting their hosts. Two species Ceratomyxa sp. 1 ex O. melanura (Prevalence (P) = 36%) and Ceratomyxa sp. 2 ex O. melanura (P = 13%) infected the saddled seabream and four species Ceratomyxa sp. 1 ex S. scriba (P = 11.7%), Ceratomyxa sp. 2 ex S. scriba (P = 6.7%), Myxodavisia sp. (P = 8.3%) and Zschokkella sp. (P = 5.6%) infected the painted comber. These myxosporeans differ, in vegetative stages and/or in mature spores, from all the previously known congeneric species, and are described here on the basis of their morphological and morphometric features, their host and tissue specificities and their biogeographical distribution. This is the first report of myxosporean infections in O. melanura and S. scriba. The occurrence of two ceratomyxid species in each host species supports that the genus Ceratomyxa is host-specific not only in sparids but also in serranids, which agrees with data previously obtained from Sparidae in Mediterranean Sea and from Serranidae in GBR, Australia. A member of the myxosporean genus Myxodavisia is recorded from the Mediterranean Sea for the first time, and Zschokkella spp. infections have not previously been recorded from a host in Serranidae. During the examination, a several cases of Co-infection among myxosporeans, both with two and three species, are provided and statistically studied. Indeed, 5% of the breams and 9.4% of the combers are infected with more than one myxosporean parasite. The relationship between myxosporean infections and some biological parameters are pointed out. A higher prevalence of myxosporean infection is coincided with the peak period of spawning activity in May-June for S. scriba. For both hosts, analysis using Fulton's condition factor (K) has revealed no significant difference between infected and non-infected fishes. Clinically, no external signs of disease have been occurred in infected hosts, but some changes in the bile fluid, colour, and viscosity and in the gall bladder 's tissue are examined in S. scriba.

  2. Anatomia e histologia gastrintestinal da garoupa-verdadeira Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Teleostei, Serranidae = Dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Teleostei, Serranidae gastrintestinal anatomy and histology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Machado Cunha da Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A garoupa-verdadeira (Epinephelus marginatus é uma espécie de serranídeo com grande importância ecológica e boas perspectivas para o cultivo. A investigação da morfologia do trato digestório, associada à atividade alimentar, é fundamental para a compreensão da biologia dessa espécie e premissa básica para pesquisas sobrerequerimentos nutricionais, desenvolvimento de rações e práticas adequadas de manejo alimentar. O presente trabalho descreve a anatomia e, por meio da microscopia de luz, as variações histológicas ao longo do tubo digestório de juvenis de Epinephelus marginatus, correlacionando a histologia de cada seguimento com as respectivas funções e o hábito alimentar. Verificou-se que essa espécie possui elevado número de tipos celulares ao longo do tubo digestório que estão intimamente relacionados com a resposta imunológica inata e adaptativa, permitindo o hábito alimentar detritívoro.

  3. Revisión taxonómica y geográfica de Bryconamericus peruanus (Teleostei, Characidae Taxonomic and geographic revision of Bryconamericus peruanus (Teleostei, Characidae

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    César Román-Valencia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se efectúa un análisis taxonómico y geográfico de Bryconamericus peruanus y se compara con las especies de este género presentes en las vertientes del Pacífico sur en Colombia, Ecuador y Perú. Bryconamericus peruanus restringe su distribución al sistema hidrográfico del Pacífico en Perú y se plantea que algunas formas del Pacífico y Amazonas de Ecuador son especies por describir. Los caracteres asociados al dimorfismo sexual, como ganchos en todas las aletas con radios excepto la aleta caudal, son útiles en la diferenciación de B. peruanus y Bryconamericus sp.1 con respecto a B. brevirostris, B. dahli, B. guaytarae, B. miraensis, Bryconamericus sp. 2 y Bryconamericus sp. 3. De acuerdo con la forma (de la mandíbula superior, longitud aleta dorsal-hipurales y longitud pedúnculo caudal, el análisis de componentes principales distingue 2 grupos de especies: I B. peruanus, B. brevirostris, B. guaytarae, B. miraensis y Bryconamericus sp. 3 y II B. dahli, Bryconamericus sp. 1 y Bryconamericus sp. 2.Axonomic and geographic status of Bryconamericus peruanus were analyzed and compared with species belonging to the genus Bryconamericus that occurs in the Pacific basin from Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Distribution range of B. peruanus is restricted to Peruvian drainages and the populations from the Pacific basin and those located at the Amazons in Ecuador are regarded new species. The presence of hooks on all the fins, except on the caudal fin, was the most reliable character to separate populations of B. peruanus and Bryconamericus sp.1 from B. brevirostris, B. dahli, B. guaytarae, B. miraensis, Bryconamericus sp. 2 and Bryconamericus sp. 3. According to the form upper jaw, dorsal fin-hypurals distance and caudal peduncle length from the principal component analysis, 2 groups are distinguished: I B. peruanus, B. brevirostris, B.guaytarae, B. miraensis y Bryconamericus sp. 3, and II B. dahli, Bryconamericus sp. 1 and Bryconamericus sp. 2.

  4. Avances en el cultivo de Hippocampus spp. (Teleostei: Syngnathidae): investigaciones en el siglo XXI/Culture conditions for Hippocampus spp. (Teleostei: Syngnathidae): research in the XXI century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nicolás Vite-García; Serapio López-Jiménez; Lenin Rangel-López

    2017-01-01

    .... Desde inicios del presente siglo, se ha generado información relevante en torno a las condiciones de cultivo de diferentes especies de caballito de mar, desde los parámetros físicos y químicos del agua y otras condiciones físicas como tipos y tamaños de los tanques, hasta cuestiones relacionadas con la nutrición, la supervivencia, el crecimiento, la m...

  5. A new species of barb Puntius nigripinnis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae from southern Western Ghats, India

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    J.D Marcus Knight

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Puntius ticto, a widely distributed barb, was long believed to have many variants. Recent research has shown that what was earlier known as P. ticto in different regions of India comprised of many similar looking species such as P. manipurensis, P. muvattupuzhaensis, P. pookodensis, among others. As yet another addition to this complex, we describe Puntius nigripinnis sp. nov. from the Nilgiris and Wyanad area of the southern Western Ghats. Puntius nigripinnis, sp. nov., is distinguished from all other congeners by lacking barbels and having the last unbranched dorsal ray serrated; 20-21 lateral line scales; lateral line incomplete, piercing 3-5 scales; dorsal, anal, pelvic and pectoral fins black in adult males; body pattern consisting of a humeral mark on the 3rd or 4th lateral-line scale and a second larger, band-like spot on the 18th and 19th scale, forming a ring around the caudal peduncle, and only two scales between the second spot and the root of the caudal fin.

  6. Cytogenetic analysis of two locariid species (Teleostei, Siluriformes from Iguatemi River (Parana River drainage in Brazil

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    Carlos Alexandre Fernandes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fishes of the Loricariidae family, known as “cascudos”, constitute an endemic group in Neotropical freshwaters. In this study, were cytogenetically examined two species of Loricariidae (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 and Farlowella amazonum (Günther, 1864 belonging to Hypostominae and Loricariinae subfamilies respectively from Iguatemi River. Our study provide the first description regarding C-band and fluorochromic analysis in F. amazonum. In Farlowella amazonum, diploid number was 58 chromosomes, with single Ag-NOR and heterochromatic blocks in centromeric regions of some chromosomes and large subtelomeric blocks were evidenced on the long arm of the pair 27, being this region CMA3+/DAPI-. The Pterygoplichthys anisitsi showed diploid number equal 52 chromosomes, with single Ag-NOR and heterochromatic blocks in centromeric and telomeric regions of some chromosomes and conspicuous large telomeric blocks on the long arm of the pair 10, being this region CMA3+/DAPI-. The results show that karyotype formula is nonconservative in P. anisitsi and F. amazonum.

  7. Uncovering the Ancestry of B Chromosomes in Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomia, Ricardo; Silva, Duílio Mazzoni Zerbinato de Andrade; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J.; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Claudio; Trifonov, Vladmir A.; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M.; Foresti, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    B chromosomes constitute a heterogeneous mixture of genomic parasites that are sometimes derived intraspecifically from the standard genome of the host species, but result from interspecific hybridization in other cases. The mode of origin determines the DNA content, with the B chromosomes showing high similarity with the A genome in the first case, but presenting higher similarity with a different species in the second. The characid fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae harbours highly invasive B chromosomes, which are present in all populations analyzed to date in the Parana and Tietê rivers. To investigate the origin of these B chromosomes, we analyzed two natural populations: one carrying B chromosomes and the other lacking them, using a combination of molecular cytogenetic techniques, nucleotide sequence analysis and high-throughput sequencing (Illumina HiSeq2000). Our results showed that i) B chromosomes have not yet reached the Paranapanema River basin; ii) B chromosomes are mitotically unstable; iii) there are two types of B chromosomes, the most frequent of which is lightly C-banded (similar to euchromatin in A chromosomes) (B1), while the other is darkly C-banded (heterochromatin-like) (B2); iv) the two B types contain the same tandem repeat DNA sequences (18S ribosomal DNA, H3 histone genes, MS3 and MS7 satellite DNA), with a higher content of 18S rDNA in the heterochromatic variant; v) all of these repetitive DNAs are present together only in the paracentromeric region of autosome pair no. 6, suggesting that the B chromosomes are derived from this A chromosome; vi) the two B chromosome variants show MS3 sequences that are highly divergent from each other and from the 0B genome, although the B2-derived sequences exhibit higher similarity with the 0B genome (this suggests an independent origin of the two B variants, with the less frequent, B2 type presumably being younger); and vii) the dN/dS ratio for the H3.2 histone gene is almost 4–6 times higher for B chromosomes than for A chromosome sequences, suggesting that purifying selection is relaxed for the DNA sequences located on the B chromosomes, presumably because they are mostly inactive. PMID:26934481

  8. Laimosemion leticia (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae), a new species from the upper Rio Amazonas, Southern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdesalici, Stefano

    2016-03-02

    Laimosemion leticia is described from the Rio Tacana drainage, upper Rio Amazonas basin, Southern Colombia. The new species was found in a shallow swamp within a tropical rainforest in the vicinity of Leticia, capital of the department of Amazonas and southernmost municipality of Colombia. This miniature species is considered to be a member of the Owiyeye subgenus, which is diagnosed by a unique frontal squamation. Laimosemion leticia can be distinguished from all other species of the genus by the unique colour pattern on the unpaired fins. The new species appears related to L. jauaperi, L. uatuman and L. ubim due to the similar flank colour pattern in males, but is easy distinguished by coloration of the unpaired fins and morphological characters.

  9. Karyotype variability in neotropical catfishes of the family Pimelodidae (Teleostei: Siluriformes

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    Américo Moraes Neto

    Full Text Available Karyotypic data are presented for four species of fish belonging to the Pimelodidae family. These species show a conserved diploid number, 2n = 56 chromosomes, with different karyotypic formulae. The analyzed species showed little amount of heterochromatin located preferentially in the centromeric and telomeric regions of some chromosomes. The nucleolus organizer regions activity (Ag-NORs and the chromosomal location of ribosomal genes by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, with 18S and 5S probes, showing only one chromosome pair marked bearer of ribosomal genes, the only exception was Pimelodus britskii that presented multiple NORs and syntenic location of the 18S and 5S probes. Non-Robertsonian events, as pericentric inversion and NORs duplication are requested to explain the karyotype diversification in Pseudoplatystoma from the rio Paraguay (MS, Pimelodus from the rio Iguaçu (PR, Sorubim from the rio Paraguay (MS and Steindachneridion from the rio Paraíba do Sul (SP. The obtained data for the karyotype macrostructure of these species corroborates a conserved pattern observed in Pimelodidae. On the other hand, interspecific variations detected by molecular cytogenetics markers made possible cytotaxonomic inferences and differentiation of the species here analyzed.

  10. Taxonomic revision and stratigraphic provenance of 'Histiophorus rotundu' Woodward 1901 (Teleostei, Perciformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsch, K.A.; Fierstine, H.L.; Weems, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, Histiophorus rotundus Woodward 1901, was known from a single, poorly preserved rostrum from the Tertiary phosphate beds near Charleston, South Carolina, an area from which many fossils have been described. The specimen is relatively featureless externally; its internal anatomy is unknown and the documentation of its geological provenance was poor. In an earlier revision the species was transferred to the fossil billfish genus Xiphiorhynchus Van Beneden, 1871. Here we confirm this designation, supported by new morphological studies of the holotype, recently found specimens of Xiphiorhynchus rotundus (Woodward, 1901), and the stratigraphic record of Xiphiorhynchus. The systematic paleontology we present is a contribution to the taxonomic revision of billfishes world-wide. Because the holotype is heavily phosphatized and the type locality was vaguely described, we discuss the geology of the phosphate mining districts of the Charleston region. Based on our studies, we can narrow the possible age of the holotype to late Oligocene or early Miocene. We suggest X. rotundus was extinct by the Burdigalian. 

  11. Shape based assignment tests suggest transgressive phenotypes in natural sculpin hybrids (Teleostei, Scorpaeniformes, Cottidae

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    Sheets H David

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybridization receives attention because of the potential role that it may play in generating evolutionary novelty. An explanation for the emergence of novel phenotypes is given by transgressive segregation, which, if frequent, would imply an important evolutionary role for hybridization. This process is still rarely studied in natural populations as samples of recent hybrids and their parental populations are needed. Further, the detection of transgressive segregation requires phenotypes that can be easily quantified and analysed. We analyse variability in body shape of divergent populations of European sculpins (Cottus gobio complex as well as natural hybrids among them. Results A distance-based method is developed to assign unknown specimens to known groups based on morphometric data. Apparently, body shape represents a highly informative set of characters that parallels the discriminatory power of microsatellite markers in our study system. Populations of sculpins are distinct and "unknown" specimens can be correctly assigned to their source population based on body shape. Recent hybrids are intermediate along the axes separating their parental groups but display additional differentiation that is unique and coupled with the hybrid genetic background. Conclusion There is a specific hybrid shape component in natural sculpin hybrids that can be best explained by transgressive segregation. This inference of how hybrids differ from their ancestors provides basic information for future evolutionary studies. Furthermore, our approach may serve to assign candidate specimens to their source populations based on morphometric data and help in the interpretation of population differentiation.

  12. Histomorphology of the liver of bicuda Boulengerella cuvieri (agassiz, 1829 (Teleostei, Ctenoluciidae

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    Gerlane de Medeiros Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the morphology of the liver of Boulengerella cuvieri. Six specimens from the Rio Teles Pires, municipality of Carlinda - MT were used . For morphological analysis of the liver was performed with aperture of the peritoneal cavity with ventral incision, to expose the organs that were photographed in situ and separately. In the technique of light microscopy, specimens were processed in a series of increasing alcohol, leaf clearing in xylene and embedding in paraplast. The fragments were cut with a thickness of 5μm and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. The liver of this species appeared as a compact body, reddish brown in color, located in the cranial region of the peritoneal cavity, caudal to esophagus, cranial to the pyloric caeca and skull ventrally to the stomach. This organ consisted of a single hepatic lobe, which had three separate asymmetrical parts: a right side, a left side, and a central cranial portion of pyramidal shape. The right side portion of rectangular jagged edges presented flow, the upper longer than the lower, left side more elongated than the right, and center, lower than the others. Histologically, the parenchyma showed disorganized and composed of hepatocytes that formed cords and converging to blood vessels. It is possible also observe pancreatic tissue forming the hepatopancreas. Isolated cells were also present in the liver tissue, such as lymphocytes and free melanomacrophages. In B. cuvieri were not observed the portal triads.

  13. A new species of barb Puntius nigripinnis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae from southern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D Marcus Knight

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Puntius ticto, a widely distributed barb, was long believed to have many variants. Recent research has shown that what was earlier known as P. ticto in different regions of India comprised of many similar looking species such as P. manipurensis, P. muvattupuzhaensis, P. pookodensis, among others. As yet another addition to this complex, we describe Puntius nigripinnis sp. nov. from the Nilgiris and Wyanad area of the southern Western Ghats. Puntius nigripinnis, sp. nov., is distinguished from all other congeners by lacking barbels and having the last unbranched dorsal ray serrated; 20-21 lateral line scales; lateral line incomplete, piercing 3-5 scales; dorsal, anal, pelvic and pectoral fins black in adult males; body pattern consisting of a humeral mark on the 3rd or 4th lateral-line scale and a second larger, band-like spot on the 18th and 19th scale, forming a ring around the caudal peduncle, and only two scales between the second spot and the root of the caudal fin.

  14. Juvenile Thalassoma amblycephalum Bleeker (Labridae, Teleostei) dwelling among the tentacles of sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedlund, Michael; Iwao, Kenji; Brolund, Thea Marie

    2006-01-01

    each) of the juvenile wrasse Thalassoma amblycephalum dwelling among the tentacles of the two sea anemones Entacmaea quadricolor (clonal type), and Heteractis magnifica at a coral reef in southern Japan during 16 months in daylight hours. There are only two past records of this facultative association......, one from east Africa and one from Indonesia. The wrasse remained close to and was occasionally in physical contact with the host when foraging amongst the tentacles. When frightened, they took shelter among corals, away from the host anemone. The wrasse co-existed with the anemonefishes Amphiprion...

  15. Phylogeny of moray eels (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae), with a revised classification of true eels (Teleostei: Elopomorpha: Anguilliformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kevin L; Fielitz, Christopher

    2013-02-01

    The family Muraenidae is one of the largest and most recognizable eel groups. Moray eels are key components of marine ecosystems but their relationships remain poorly understood. The phylogenetic relationships of the morays are examined herein using mitochondrial 12S and 16S sequence data, totaling 1673 bp for 139 taxa. The results of our analyses found support for a monophyletic family Muraenidae that is part of a monophyletic suborder Muraenoidei, which is revised to include the anguilliform families Heterenchelyidae and Myrocongridae, and to exclude the family Chlopsidae. The muraenids form two monophyletic subfamilies, Muraeninae and Uropterygiinae. Of the genera that had multiple species included for analysis, only the type genus of the family, Muraena, is found to be monophyletic. In the subfamily Uropterygiinae, Uropterygius is not recovered as a monophyletic genus. In the subfamily Muraeninae, the species-rich piscivorous genera, Enchelycore and Gymnothorax, and the durophagous genus, Echidna, are demonstrably not monophyletic. The monotypic Gymnomuraena is the sister group to all other muraenine species. The relationships within Muraenidae require much additional study and its genera remain in urgent need of revision. The order Anguilliformes is revised herein to include four suborders: Anguilloidei, Congroidei, Muraenoidei, and Synaphobranchoidei. All four families of the order Saccopharyngiformes are nested within Anguilliformes, recovered as part of a clade that includes Anguillidae; the saccopharyngiform families are referred to the suborder Anguilloidei sensu novum.

  16. Body mass-related modifications involved in starvation at pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Centrarchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina F. Radu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the modifications observed on a population of pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758 after a 60 days period of exposure to starvation and attempt to correlate the obtained results to other body-related characteristics, either linearly-measured (such as length, volume and density or weight-related, in order to achieve an estimation of a weight-loss allowance for the species of interest, that may be interpreted, if of a low daily value, as an advantage in the invasion process.

  17. The most important Romanian researches on species Pseudorasbora parva(Temminck & Schlegel, 1846 (Teleostei, Cyprinidae

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    Ionel-Claudiu Gavriloaie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present shortly some data regarding the origin and occurrence of species Pseudorasbora parva, then they realise an analysis of the most important papers written by Romanian authors, both in our country and abroad, concerning this species.

  18. Population characteristics, space use and habitat associations of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Teleostei: Syngnathidae

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    Ierecê Lucena Rosa

    Full Text Available This paper provides a case study of a threatened seahorse species, Hippocampus reidi, highlighting the importance of using ecological information to assist conservation and management initiatives. Underwater visual sighting data (50 x 2m transect gathered along the NE, SE and S portions of the Brazilian coast revealed an unequal distribution across localities, perhaps related to harvesting pressure, and a mean density of 0.026 ind.m-2. Our findings suggest some restricted spatial use by H. reidi, which was consistent with its estimated home range, and with re-sighting of specimens. Reproduction was recorded year-round, however productive peaks may exist. Components of habitat structure mostly used as anchoring points were mangrove plants, macroalgae, cnidarians, seagrass, sponges, and bryozoans. Conservation recommendations include: further characterization and mapping of habitats; assessment of availability and condition of microhabitats in selected areas, and studies on dispersal routes during initial life stages.

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Moltrecht's minnow, Aphyocypris moltrechti (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), in comparison with A. kikuchii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Tsai, Chi-Li; Chang, Chia-Hao; Watanabe, Katsutoshi

    2013-04-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Moltrecht's minnow, Aphyocypris moltrechti, which is known as an endemic species to Taiwan. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,617 bp in size, consisting of 37 genes coding for 13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 1 control region. Its gene arrangement pattern was identical with most vertebrates. We compared the mitochondrial genome of A. moltrechti with that of the Kikuchi's minnow, Aphyocypris kikuchii, which had been considered closely related to A. moltrechti within a same genus. Nucleotide sequence divergence (K2P distance) between the two whole mitochondrial genomes was 11.62%. The detailed comparison between the mitochondrial genomes of two species was done.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Kikuchi's minnow Aphyocypris kikuchii (Teleostei, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Tsai, Chi-Li; Watanabe, Katsutoshi

    2013-02-01

    We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Kikuchi's minnow, Aphyocypris kikuchii (Oshima 1919), which is an endemic species to Taiwan. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,601 bp in size, containing 37 genes coding for 13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 1 control region. It has the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement. The sequence information could play an important role in resolving the conflict on its current taxonomic position and preservation of genetic resources for helping conservation of the endangered species.

  1. Devario deruptotalea, a new species of cyprinid fish from Manipur, India (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramananda, Yumnam; Vishwanath, Waikhom

    2014-07-02

    Devario deruptotalea, a new cyprinid fish, is described from Dutah Stream, a tributary of the Yu River (Chindwin drainage) in Manipur, India. It is distinguished from all its congeners by a unique colour pattern consisting of the following combination of pigmented elements: 4‒6 dark brown irregularly shaped and arranged bars that are partly confluent with adjacent bars at different levels on the anterior one-third of the side of the body, followed by three distinct dark brown stripes posteriorly, a P stripe that is darker and about twice as broad as other stripes and extending to the tip of the median caudal-fin rays.

  2. A new species of Psilorhynchus (Teleostei: Psilorhynchidae) from the Chindwin basin of Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangningam, Bungdon; Vishwanath, Waikhom

    2013-01-01

    Psilorhynchus chakpiensis, new species, is described from the Chakpi River, Chindwin basin in Manipur, India. It is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of characters: a dome-shaped rostral cap with horizontally arranged pointed tubercles, 1-2 rows of prominent globular papillae behind the upper lip, three unbranched and nine branched dorsal-fin rays, 30-31 lateral-line scales, head width 74-83% HL, and characteristic colour bands on the dorsal and caudal fins. It is distinguished from all congeners in having a caudal-fin pattern consisting of two black bars, one incomplete bar near the base of the upper lobe, and a complete bar across the centre of the fin, traversing from the upper to the lower margin of the fin.

  3. Parambassis waikhomi, a new species of glassfish (Teleostei: Ambassidae from Loktak Lake, northeastern India

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    K. Geetakumari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Parambassis waikhomi, a new species of glassfish from Loktak Lake, Chindwin basin in Manipur, northeastern India is distinguished from its congeners by the presence of 58-60 lateral line scales; two predorsal bones; a vertically elongated humeral spot; 24 vertebrae; maxilla reaching to ⅓ of the orbit; 8.2- 10.9 interorbital width; four preorbital ridge, 11 preorbital edge, six supraorbital ridge, 18 serrae at lower edge of preoperculum, 24 serrae at hind margin of preoperculum. The species differs from its nearest congener P. ranga by the presence of 9-10 (vs. 12-13 pectoral fin rays and 19-20 (vs. 22-28 gill rakers.

  4. Hematological studies in Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Cichlidae, Teleostei) - Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Ivete Kotomi Ueda; Mizue Imoto Egami; Wilson da Silva Sassp; Eliana Reiko Matushima

    1997-01-01

    Avaliou-se o hemograma e a morfologia celular em amostras de sangue periférico obtidas de 10 peixes da espécie Oreochromis niloticus. Parte das mesmas foi utilizada para o estudo da hematimetria, isto é,  contagem de eritrócitos (x = 2,35 x 106/mm3 ± 0,12), taxa de hemoglobina, (x = 7,04 g/dL ± 0,38), hematócrito (x = 27,85% ± 1,62), HCM (x = 30,31pg ± 1,64), VCM (x = 118,6p3 ± 3,53), CHCM (x = 25,78% ± 1,72), contagem global de leucócitos (x = 16,08 x 103/mm3 ± 1,28), contagem de trombócitos...

  5. Hematological studies in Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Cichlidae, Teleostei - Part I

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    Ivete Kotomi Ueda

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o hemograma e a morfologia celular em amostras de sangue periférico obtidas de 10 peixes da espécie Oreochromis niloticus. Parte das mesmas foi utilizada para o estudo da hematimetria, isto é,  contagem de eritrócitos (x = 2,35 x 106/mm3 ± 0,12, taxa de hemoglobina, (x = 7,04 g/dL ± 0,38, hematócrito (x = 27,85% ± 1,62, HCM (x = 30,31pg ± 1,64, VCM (x = 118,6p3 ± 3,53, CHCM (x = 25,78% ± 1,72, contagem global de leucócitos (x = 16,08 x 103/mm3 ± 1,28, contagem de trombócitos (x = 61,69 x 103/mm3 ± 5,96, sendo a avaliação da morfologia das células do sangue reallizada através do estudo de extensões sangüíneas submetidas à coloração de Wright. Os eritrócitos e trombócitos nucleados apresentaram-se elípticos; neutrófilos e eosinófilos esféricos de tamanho variável, com o núcleo também esférico, apresentaram citoplasmas abundantes, ligeiramente basófilo e altamente acidófilo, respectivamente. Não foram vistas as formas polimorfonucleares dessas células. Os basófilos apresentaram núcleo esférico e granuiações metacromáticas. Os monócitos e os linfócitos assemelharam-se morfologicamente aos dos mamíferos.

  6. Multilocus resolution of Mugilidae phylogeny (Teleostei: Mugiliformes): Implications for the family's taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Rong; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Fu, Cuizhang

    2016-03-01

    The interrelationships among mugilids (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) remain highly debated. Using a mitochondrial gene-based phylogeny as criterion, a revised classification with 25 genera in the Mugilidae has recently been proposed. However, phylogenetic relationships of major mitochondrial lineages remain unresolved and to gain a general acceptance the classification requires confirmation based on multilocus evidence and diagnostic morphological characters. Here, we construct a species-tree using twelve nuclear and three mitochondrial loci and infer the evolution of 71 morphological characters. Our multilocus phylogeny does not agree with previous morphology-based hypotheses for the relationships within Mugilidae, confirms the revised classification with 25 genera and further resolves their phylogenetic relationships. Using the well-resolved multilocus phylogeny as the criterion, we reclassify Mugilidae genera into three new subfamilies (Myxinae, Rhinomugilinae, and Cheloninae) and one new, recombined, subfamily (Mugilinae). The Rhinomugilinae subfamily is further divided into four tribes. The revised classification of Mugilidae is supported by morpho-anatomical synapomorphies or a combination of characters. These characters are used to erect a key to the subfamilies and genera.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA variability to explore the relationship complexity of Schizothoracine (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Syed Mudasir; Bhat, Farooz Ahmad; Balkhi, Masood-Ul Hassan; Bhat, Bilal Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Despite numerous studies on the taxonomy of a highly complex group of schizothoracine (snow trouts), with over five recognized species from Kashmir, India (Schizothorax niger, Schizothorax esocinus, Schizothorax plagiostomus, Schizothorax curvifrons and Schizothorax labiatus) based on traditional morphological data, the relationships between these species is poorly understood and the taxonomic validity is still under debate. To resolve the evolutionary relationships among these species, we sequenced mitochondrial fragments, including 16Sr RNA, Cytb and the D-loop. Separate analyses of 16S and Cytb showed intermixing of the species and 16S was found more conserved than Cytb. The D-loop was found highly variable and showed length variation between and within species. Length variation was observed in di-nucleotide (TA)n microsatellite repeats with a variable number of repeat units (n = 7-14) that did not show heteroplasmy. Central conserved sequence blocks (CSBs) in D-loop sequences were found comparable to other vertebrate species. All phylogenetic reconstructions recovered the focal taxa as a monophyletic clade within the schizothoracines. Analyses with combined mitochondrial data sets showed close genetic relationships of all the five species. In addition to a close relationship between S. niger and S. curvifrons, two distinct groupings of S. ecoscinus and S. plagiostomus were supported by all the analyses. This study gives an insight into molecular phylogeny of the species and improves our understanding of historical and taxonomic relationships derived from morphological and ecological studies.

  8. Extensive spreading of interstitial telomeric sites on the chromosomes of Characidium (Teleostei, Characiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; da Costa-Silva, Guilherme José; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-06-01

    Characidium comprises several species of small freshwater fish that display conserved diploid chromosome numbers and karyotypic formulae. In this study, a comparative cytogenetic analysis using telomeric DNA probes was carried out in nine species of Characidium; a molecular phylogenetic analysis with mitochondrial DNA was also performed in order to investigate the direction of the evolutionary chromosome changes observed here. Our results showed the existence of species with several and variable interstitial telomeric sites (ITSs), with other species showing only terminal signals in their chromosomes. Molecular phylogenetic data suggested that these ITSs emerged once in the evolutionary history of Characidium and were later differentially spread in distinct species/populations of this clade. Additionally, the origin of an exclusive acrocentric pair found in C. pterostictum, C. serrano and C. timbuiense was also investigated, revealing that this pair possibly had a common origin to these species. These results evidence the occurrence of intense and continuous genomic changes among species of Characidium.

  9. Molecular cytogenetic study of the European bitterling Rhodeus amarus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Acheilognathinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtiklis, Lech; Ocalewicz, Konrad; Wiechowska, Marzena; Boroń, Alicja; Hliwa, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    The European bitterlings (Rhodeus amarus) from the Eastern locations were cytogenetically examined by conventional and molecular techniques. All analyzed individuals presented invariably the same chromosomal constitution of 2n = 48, with 8 metacentrics + 20 submetacentrics + 20 subtelo-acrocentrics and C-banding positive heterochromatin at the pericentromeric regions in most of the chromosomes. Moreover, some of the chromosomes had short arms entirely built with heterochromatin. GC-rich Ag-NORs (nucleolus organizer regions) were located at the short arms of two submetacentric chromosomes, and the length polymorphism of these regions was found. Multiple location of 28S rDNA sequences with fluorescence in situ hybridization signals was observed on the long and/or short arms of three submetacentric chromosomes including NOR regions and short arms of three to five acrocentric chromosomes in the studied fish. 5S rDNA sites were found on the short arms of two subtelocentric chromosomes, and telomeric repeats were localized at the ends of all chromosomes. Provided results have expanded our knowledge concerning genetic characteristics of the European bitterlings that may be profitable in the conservation programs of this endangered species.

  10. The dorsal filament of the weakly electric Apteronotidae (Gymnotiformes; Teleostei) is specialized for electroreception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchina, C R; Hopkins, C D

    1996-01-01

    The Apteronotidae, a family of weakly electric fish from South America (Gymnotiformes), possess a structure called the dorsal filament with an unknown function and evolutionary origin. This study compared the gross anatomy of the dorsal filament of 13 species of apteronotids and used light microscopy to examine the filaments of Adontosternarchus balaenops, Apteronotus albifrons, and Apteronotus leptorhynchus. The dorsal filament is an unscaled, thin, tapering structure attached to a mid-dorsal groove on the posterior half of the fish's back. The interior of the filament is a gelatinous mucopolysaccharide matrix (connective tissue) containing blood vessels and a bilateral nerve in which nearly all the afferents are large (8-10 mu m) and heavily myelinated. The location of the anterior origin of the filament varies from 0.48 to 0.66 of the body length, posterior to the snout, in 13 species. The filament is covered with hundreds of large-type tuberous electroreceptors and some ampullary receptors, at approximately the same density and ratio as those on the nearby back. The morphology of the large-type tuberous receptors and their afferents suggests that they are phase-coding T-units. A double layer of epithelial cells separates the ventral side of the filament from the groove in the trunk of the fish, except at the anterior origin where the interior of the filament is continuous with the body. This specialized double epithelium could provide a high resistance barrier to electrical current. This study was unable to distinguish between two hypotheses: that the dorsal filament is a modified adipose fin (as suggested previously), retained only in this family of Gymnotiformes; or that it is a uniquely derived character of the Apteronotidae.

  11. A Glimpse into the Satellite DNA Library in Characidae Fish (Teleostei, Characiformes

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    Ricardo Utsunomia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Satellite DNA (satDNA is an abundant fraction of repetitive DNA in eukaryotic genomes and plays an important role in genome organization and evolution. In general, satDNA sequences follow a concerted evolutionary pattern through the intragenomic homogenization of different repeat units. In addition, the satDNA library hypothesis predicts that related species share a series of satDNA variants descended from a common ancestor species, with differential amplification of different satDNA variants. The finding of a same satDNA family in species belonging to different genera within Characidae fish provided the opportunity to test both concerted evolution and library hypotheses. For this purpose, we analyzed here sequence variation and abundance of this satDNA family in ten species, by a combination of next generation sequencing (NGS, PCR and Sanger sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. We found extensive between-species variation for the number and size of pericentromeric FISH signals. At genomic level, the analysis of 1000s of DNA sequences obtained by Illumina sequencing and PCR amplification allowed defining 150 haplotypes which were linked in a common minimum spanning tree, where different patterns of concerted evolution were apparent. This also provided a glimpse into the satDNA library of this group of species. In consistency with the library hypothesis, different variants for this satDNA showed high differences in abundance between species, from highly abundant to simply relictual variants.

  12. Description of a new species of Apistogramma from the Rio Madeira System in Brazil (Teleostei, Cichlidae)

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Apistogramma resticulosa sp.n. is described on the basis of six specimens, 12.8-26.5 mm standard length, from near Humaitá, Brazil. It belongs to the A. regani species-group and is distinguished by the vertical dash-marking of the abdominal sides.

  13. New insights on early evolution of spiny-rayed fishes (Teleostei: Acanthomorpha

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    Wei-Jen eChen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Acanthomorpha is the largest group of teleost fishes with about one third of extant vertebrate species. In the course of its evolution this lineage experienced several episodes of radiation, leading to a large number of descendant lineages differing profoundly in morphology, ecology, distribution and behavior. Although Acanthomorpha was recognized decades ago, we are only now beginning to decipher its large-scale, time-calibrated phylogeny, a prerequisite to test various evolutionary hypotheses explaining the tremendous diversity of this group. In this study, we provide new insights into the early evolution of the acanthomorphs and the euteleost allies based on the phylogenetic analysis of a newly developed dataset combining nine nuclear and mitochondrial gene markers. Our inferred tree is time-calibrated using 15 fossils, some of which have not been used before. While our phylogeny strongly supports a monophyletic Neoteleostei, Ctenosquamata (i.e., Acanthomorpha plus Myctophiformes, and Acanthopterygii, we find weak support (bootstrap value < 48% for the traditionally defined Acanthomorpha, as well as evidence of non-monophyly for the traditional Paracanthopterygii, Beryciformes, and Percomorpha. We corroborate the new Paracanthopterygii sensu Miya et al. (2005 including Polymixiiformes, Zeiformes, Gadiformes, Percopsiformes, and likely the enigmatic Stylephorus chordatus. Our timetree largely agrees with other recent studies based on nuclear loci in inferring an Early Cretaceous origin for the acanthomorphs followed by a Late Cretaceous/Early Paleogene radiation of major lineages. This is in contrast to mitogenomic studies mostly inferring Jurassic or even Triassic ages for the origin of the acanthomorphs. We compare our results to those of previous studies, and attempt to address some of the issues that may have led to incongruence between the fossil record and the molecular clock studies, as well as between the different molecular timetrees.

  14. Petroscirtes pylei, a new saber-toothed blenny from the Fiji Islands (Teleostei: Blenniidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Vaniz, W.F.

    2005-01-01

    Petroscirtes pylei is described from three specimens, 20.3-40.9 mm SL, obtained from a deep-water reef off Suva, Viti Levu, Fiji Islands. It is distinguished from all other congeners by its color pattern, including the presence of two dark body stripes, the lower one broadly extending onto the anal fin, and the dorsal fin with a broad, dark basal stripe, superimposed by a conspicuous white spot centered on the 4th spine. Among Petroscirtes, only the new species and P. springeri typically have 12 dorsal-fin spines but they are not closely related. The holotype was collected in 104-110 m, the second deepest depth record for a species of Petroscirtes. Discovery of this new species, and an apparently second new deep-water Petroscrites (uncollected), at a different Fijian reef indicates that our knowledge of the biodiversity of this habitat and of the saber-toothed blennies is very incomplete. Copyright ?? 2005 Magnolia Press.

  15. Pseudolimia n. gen., a new monotypic genus for Limia heterandria Regan, 1913 (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeser, Fred N.

    2002-01-01

    A new genus, Pseudolimia n. gen. is established for the South American Limia heterandria Regan, 1913. It is compared in an anatomical analysis with several nominal taxa of the tribe Poeciliini. Based on number and shape of the gonapophyses, Pseudolimia n. gen. is assigned to the tribe Poeciliini.

  16. Osteology of some catfishes of the genus Glyptothorax (Teleostei: Siluriformes of northeastern India

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    W. Vishwanath

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the premaxilla, dentary, Weberian lamina, infraorbital series, vomer and frontal bones were observed in eight species of Glyptothorax of northeastern India. In G. botius, G. granulus, G. manipurensis, G. ngapang, G. striatus and G. ventrolineatus, the premaxilla consists only of proximal and distal tooth plates, the anterior portion of the dentary is slender and its dorsal surface bears villiform teeth, the lateral extension of posterior portion of Weberian lamina terminates at the level of the lateral margin of its anterior portion, and the frontal has a shallow orbital notch. In G. cavia and G. chindwinica, the premaxilla consists of proximal, distal and posterior elements on the roof of the oral cavity; the anterior portion of the dentary bears posterior extension of dentary tooth-plate; the lateral extension of the posterior portion of Weberian lamina extends almost to the distal tip of the fifth parapophysis; there are nine or ten infraorbital bones with a longer and broader body of the lacrimal; greatly enlarged vomerine head; and frontal bears a deep orbital notch. The jaw structure of G. burmanicus is discussed.

  17. Phylogeny of the family Characidae (Teleostei: Characiformes: from characters to taxonomy

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    Juan Marcos Mirande

    Full Text Available The family Characidae is the most diverse among Neotropical fishes. Systematics of this family are mainly based on pre-cladistic papers, and only recently a phylogenetic hypothesis for Characidae was proposed by the author. That phylogeny was based on 360 morphological characters studied for 160 species, including representatives of families related to Characidae. This paper is based on that phylogenetic analysis, with the analyzed characters described herein and documented, accompanied by comparisons of their definition and coding in previous papers. Synapomorphies of each node of the proposed phylogeny are listed, comparisons with previous classifications provided, and autapomorphies of the analyzed species listed. Taxonomic implications of the proposed classification and the position of the incertae sedis genera within Characidae are discussed. A discussion of the phylogenetic information of the characters used in the classical systematics of the Characidae is provided.

  18. Osteology of Priocharax and remarkable developmental truncation in a miniature Amazonian fish (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, George M T; Britz, Ralf; Toledo-Piza, Mônica

    2016-01-01

    Establishing phylogenetic relationships of miniature fishes is challenging in taxa with developmental truncation. Within the Characiformes, developmental truncation appears to be relatively rare, with the Neotropical genus Priocharax being an example. Priocharax includes three miniature species among the smallest of the order and has been hypothesized to belong to the Heterocharacinae. The pronounced reduction in its skeleton, however, prevented a clearer evaluation of its relationships. The present detailed osteological study was designed to address this question and revealed that 21 bones are absent and nine other skeletal structures are simplified in Priocharax when compared to other characids. Comparison of the skeleton of adult Priocharax with early developmental stages of other characids demonstrated that most of the absences and simplifications can be interpreted as developmental truncations. The most striking developmental truncations are in the pectoral girdle, in which the endoskeleton remains entirely cartilaginous. Other interesting truncations are in the ethmoid region of the skull, infraorbital series, and Weberian apparatus, in which the claustrum is absent. Our study also revealed some unusual sexual dimorphisms in the pelvic girdle. Two cladistic analyses were performed to assess the relationships of Priocharax within the Heterocharacinae. The first consisted of a traditional analysis in which all absences and reductions of Priocharax were coded in the same way as in the remaining taxa. This resulted in three equally most parsimonious topologies, all of which have Priocharax as the most basal taxon of the Heterocharacinae. The second analysis incorporated ontogenetic information, and most absences and reductions of Priocharax were reinterpreted as apomorphic conditions and thus, coded differently from similar conditions in outgroups. This resulted in a single phylogenetic hypothesis with Priocharax and Gnathocharax as sister groups based on seven synapomorphies. Our approach demonstrates the importance of developmental studies to better understand morphological evolution of miniaturized, truncated taxa, and to generate hypotheses of their relationships.

  19. Osteology of Paedocypris, a miniature and highly developmentally truncated fish (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britz, R; Conway, K W

    2009-04-01

    Species of the cyprinid genus Paedocypris are among the smallest and most developmentally truncated fishes and vertebrates. Our analysis of their skeletal structure reveals a puzzling combination of extreme developmental truncation and an increased morphological complexity in sexually dimorphic characters. The skeleton of Paedocypris is characterized by reduction and loss and resembles in many aspects that of a larval/early juvenile stage of its close relatives. We found 61 characters that have been affected by developmental truncation. A comparison with the skeletal development of a close relative, the zebrafish Danio rerio, demonstrates that the majority of the absent bones or skeletal structures in Paedocypris are those that appear late in the ossification trajectory of the zebrafish. Thus, their absence in Paedocypris seems to be due to the simple developmental truncation of terminal stages in the ossification sequence. Our study of the sexually dimorphic structures in Paedocypris demonstrates that predominantly the male exhibits the more complex state. In relation to the female, male Paedocypris uniquely possess a cleithrum with a pointed posterior process that covers the scapula laterally, and a more medially situated posterior flange that contacts the dorsal area of the coracoid; a massive and heavily ossified uppermost pectoral radial tightly bound to the scapula; thickened and enlarged three uppermost pectoral-fin rays; a large triangular, dorsolaterally directed process on the outer arm of the massive os suspensorium; and a enlarged and shovel-like anterodorsally directed basipterygium; and a hypertrophied first pelvic-fin ray with additional anterior flanges that support keratinized pads of skin. Female Paedocypris show only one structure that is better developed than in males: the first proximal-middle radial and the anteriormost fin ray of the dorsal fin are more massive and more heavily ossified. Although the function and biological role of these dimorphisms is still unknown, we hypothesize that they are related to a special reproductive behavior. Paedocypris is a prime example for the recent claim that miniaturization among cyprinids is associated with evolutionary novelty only in developmentally truncated miniatures and not in proportioned dwarfs. Paedocypris offers a strong challenge to Schindleria as the most extreme example of developmental truncation known among fishes. We highlight the difficulties that developmentally truncated taxa frequently pose to the resolution of their phylogenetic position and propose an approach to overcome this problem. Our phylogenetic comparison to determine the systematic position of Paedocypris among cyprinids reveals that it shares not only a number of unique absences, but also highly unusual progressive characters with Sundadanio and Danionella, two other Asian miniature cyprinids. We hypothesize that the three genera form a monophyletic group. We further found that Paedocypris and Danionella share a number of uniquely derived characters pointing to a sister group relationship of the two.

  20. Phylogeny and biogeography of Triportheidae (Teleostei: Characiformes) based on molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariguela, T C; Roxo, F F; Foresti, F; Oliveira, C

    2016-03-01

    Triportheidae represents a relatively small family of characiform fishes with highly modified morphology. The relationship among characiform families is still unclear, and a phylogenetic analysis for the family including a representative number of Triportheus species has never been performed. Here, we inferred a phylogeny for 19 of the 22 species recognized for this family and two possible new Triportheus species using two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes. Our results show that (1) Triportheidae is monophyletic and a sister group of the clade consisting of the families Bryconidae and Gasteropelecidae; (2) Triportheus is monophyletic, but some species need to be reviewed and described; (3) all genera in Triportheidae, except for Agoniates originated in the period between Early Oligocene and Early Miocene; and (4) speciation in Triportheidae coincides with important geological events in South America, reinforcing the importance of time-calibrated trees to study fish evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Multi-locus fossil-calibrated phylogeny of Atheriniformes (Teleostei, Ovalentaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Daniela; Hughes, Lily C; Unmack, Peter J; Bloom, Devin D; Piller, Kyle R; Ortí, Guillermo

    2015-05-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among families within the order Atheriniformes have been difficult to resolve on the basis of morphological evidence. Molecular studies so far have been fragmentary and based on a small number taxa and loci. In this study, we provide a new phylogenetic hypothesis based on sequence data collected for eight molecular markers for a representative sample of 103 atheriniform species, covering 2/3 of the genera in this order. The phylogeny is calibrated with six carefully chosen fossil taxa to provide an explicit timeframe for the diversification of this group. Our results support the subdivision of Atheriniformes into two suborders (Atherinopsoidei and Atherinoidei), the nesting of Notocheirinae within Atherinopsidae, and the monophyly of tribe Menidiini, among others. We propose taxonomic changes for Atherinopsoidei, but a few weakly supported nodes in our phylogeny suggests that further study is necessary to support a revised taxonomy of Atherinoidei. The time-calibrated phylogeny was used to infer ancestral habitat reconstructions to explain the current distribution of marine and freshwater taxa. Based on these results, the current distribution of Atheriniformes is likely due to widespread marine dispersal along the margins of continents, infrequent trans-oceanic dispersal, and repeated invasion of freshwater habitats. This conclusion is supported by post-Gondwanan divergence times among families within the order, and a high probability of a marine ancestral habitat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The infrabranchial musculature and its bearing on the phylogeny of percomorph fishes (Osteichthyes: Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datovo, Aléssio; de Pinna, Mário C C; Johnson, G David

    2014-01-01

    The muscles serving the ventral portion of the gill arches ( = infrabranchial musculature) are poorly known in bony fishes. A comparative analysis of the infrabranchial muscles in the major percomorph lineages reveals a large amount of phylogenetically-relevant information. Characters derived from this anatomical system are identified and discussed in light of current hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships among percomorphs. New evidence supports a sister-group relationship between the Batrachoidiformes and Lophiiformes and between the Callionymoidei and Gobiesocoidei. Investigated data also corroborate the existence of two monophyletic groups, one including the Pristolepididae, Badidae, and Nandidae, and a second clade consisting of all non-amarsipid stromateiforms. New synapomorphies are proposed for the Atherinomorphae, Blenniiformes, Lophiiformes, Scombroidei (including Sphyraenidae), and Gobiiformes. Within the latter order, the Rhyacichthyidae and Odontobutidae are supported as the successive sister families of all remaining gobiiforms. The present analysis further confirms the validity of infrabranchial musculature characters previously proposed to support the grouping of the Mugiliformes with the Atherinomorphae and the monophyly of the Labriformes with the possible inclusion of the Pholidichthyiformes. Interestingly, most hypotheses of relationships supported by the infrabranchial musculature have been advanced by preceding anatomists on the basis of distinct data sources, but were never recovered in recent molecular phylogenies. These conflicts clearly indicate the current unsatisfactory resolution of the higher-level phylogeny of percomorphs.

  3. Mitochondrial molecular clocks and the origin of the major Otocephalan clades (Pisces: Teleostei)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Zuogang; He, Shunping; Wang, Jun

    2006-01-01

    The Otocephala, a clade including ostariophysan and clupeomorph teleosts, represents about a quarter of total fish species diversity, with about 1000 genera and more than 7000 species. A series of recent papers have defended that the origin of this clade and of its major groups may be significantly...... otophysans could have originated before the splitting of the Pangean supercontinent is of extreme importance, since otophysan fishes are among the most useful animal groups for the determination of historical continental relationships. In the present work we examined divergence times for each major...... otocephalan group by an analysis of complete mtDNA sequences, in order to investigate if these divergence times support the hypotheses advanced in recent studies. The complete mtDNA sequences of nine representative non-otocephalan fish species and of twenty-one representative otocephalan species was compared...

  4. Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the Capoeta damascina Species Complex (Pisces: Teleostei: Cyprinidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Alwan

    Full Text Available Capoeta damascina was earlier considered by many authors as one of the most common freshwater fish species found throughout the Levant, Mesopotamia, Turkey, and Iran. However, owing to a high variation in morphological characters among and within its various populations, 17 nominal species were described, several of which were regarded as valid by subsequent revising authors. Capoeta damascina proved to be a complex of closely related species, which had been poorly studied. The current study aims at defining C. damascina and the C. damascina species complex. It investigates phylogenetic relationships among the various members of the C. damascina complex, based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships were projected against paleogeographical events to interpret the geographic distribution of the taxa under consideration in relation to the area's geological history. Samples were obtained from throughout the geographic range and were subjected to genetic analyses, using two molecular markers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (n = 103 and the two adjacent divergence regions (D1-D2 of the nuclear 28S rRNA genes (n = 65. Six closely related species were recognized within the C. damascina complex, constituting two main lineages: A western lineage represented by C. caelestis, C. damascina, and C. umbla and an eastern lineage represented by C. buhsei, C. coadi, and C. saadii. The results indicate that speciation of these taxa is rather a recent event. Dispersal occurred during the Pleistocene, resulting in present-day distribution patterns. A coherent picture of the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the C. damascina species complex is drawn, explaining the current patterns of distribution as a result of paleogeographic events and ecological adaptations.

  5. Phylogeny and polyploidy: resolving the classification of cyprinine fishes (Teleostei: Cypriniformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Sado, Tetsuya; Vincent Hirt, M; Pasco-Viel, Emmanuel; Arunachalam, M; Li, Junbing; Wang, Xuzhen; Freyhof, Jörg; Saitoh, Kenji; Simons, Andrew M; Miya, Masaki; He, Shunping; Mayden, Richard L

    2015-04-01

    Cyprininae is the largest subfamily (>1300 species) of the family Cyprinidae and contains more polyploid species (∼400) than any other group of fishes. We examined the phylogenetic relationships of the Cyprininae based on extensive taxon, geographical, and genomic sampling of the taxa, using both mitochondrial and nuclear genes to address the phylogenetic challenges posed by polyploidy. Four datasets were analyzed in this study: two mitochondrial gene datasets (465 and 791 taxa, 5604bp), a mitogenome dataset (85 taxa, 14,771bp), and a cloned nuclear RAG1 dataset (97 taxa, 1497bp). Based on resulting trees, the subfamily Cyprininae was subdivided into 11 tribes: Probarbini (new; Probarbus+Catlocarpio), Labeonini Bleeker, 1859 (Labeo & allies), Torini Karaman, 1971 (Tor, Labeobarbus & allies), Smiliogastrini Bleeker, 1863 (Puntius, Enteromius & allies), Poropuntiini (Poropuntius & allies), Cyprinini Rafinesque, 1815 (Cyprinus & allies), Acrossocheilini (new; Acrossocheilus & allies), Spinibarbini (new; Spinibarbus), Schizothoracini McClelland, 1842 (Schizothorax & allies), Schizopygopsini Mirza, 1991 (Schizopygopsis & allies), and Barbini Bleeker, 1859 (Barbus & allies). Phylogenetic relationships within each tribe were discussed. Two or three distinct RAG1 lineages were identified for each of the following tribes Torini, Cyprinini, Spinibarbini, and Barbini, indicating their hybrid origin. The hexaploid African Labeobarbus & allies and Western Asian Capoeta are likely derived from two independent hybridization events between their respective maternal tetraploid ancestors and Cyprinion.

  6. Phylogeny of the sand goby group (Gobionellidae, Teleostei based on mitochondrial gene sequences and morphological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Gkenas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sand gobies are a monophyletic group of small, nearshore marine to freshwater fishes, including 43 species in four genera that inhabit Europe and the Mediterranean Sea. Herein, we evaluate the phylogenetic relationships of the sand goby group based on molecular and morphological data. We sequenced fragments of mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase I, from 87 specimens from 20 localities collected from Greece and the Venice lagoon. We examine morphometric and meristic variation on 269 sand goby specimens from 17 localities using multivariate analysis. Principal component analysis demonstrated that variables accounting for most of the interspecific differentiation were first dorsal fin length, anal fin length and size of the head among species. Discriminant analysis revealed that about 91% of the examined fish could be correctly classified into the seven species considered. The most important morphometric variables for species differentiation were the shape of the head, the distance between the two dorsal fins and the width of the caudal peduncle. Phylogenetic analysis supported the systematic classification of genus Economidichthys through the clustering of E. pygmaeus and E. trichonis. The split-up of K. caucasica populations from the Ionian Sea including K. milleri with the K. caucasica populations from the Aegean Sea demonstrated a paraphyletic problem. Within these groupings there is limited genetic differentiation between Ionian populations. In terms of taxonomic implications, our data suggest that K. caucasica from the Ionian Sea and K. milleri should be regarded as synonyms. Finally, the genus Pomatoschistus is divided into three clades corresponding to the species P. minutus, P. marmoratus and P canestrinii. The differentiation between the samples of the Aegean and Ionian Sea is likely a result of the hydrogeologic characteristics and climatic conditions that existed during the Pleistocene.

  7. Molecular phylogeny of the Neotropical fish genus Tetragonopterus (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Bruno F; Benine, Ricardo C; Silva, Gabriel S C; Avelino, Gleisy S; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Tetragonopterinae encompasses characid species of the genus Tetragonopterus, which are widely distributed throughout east of the Andes in South America. While taxonomy has recently clarified the species diversity and molecular evidence strongly supports the monophyly of Tetragonopterus, no interspecific relationship studies are currently available. Here we used a large molecular dataset composed of two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci containing an extensive taxon sampling within the family Characidae and included eleven species of Tetragonopterus to generate the first time-calibrated phylogeny for Tetragonopterinae. Our results support monophyly of the subfamily represented solely by Tetragonopterus and corroborate previous molecular hypothesis of close relationship with Exodon plus Roeboexodon and the subfamily Characinae. Internally, we found Moenkhausia georgiae as sister species to all remaining species followed by T. rarus, being both species endemic to the Guiana Shield drainages. Species-level relationships are first hypothesized and putative morphological apomorphies are discussed as support to monophyletic clades. Our time-calibrated phylogeny suggested an origin of the genus during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene. We hypothesized that the Andean geological activity followed by transformations in the Amazonian hydrographic scenario during the Miocene may have promoted most of the lineage diversification within the Tetragonopterus.

  8. Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Amphidromous Fish Genus Dormitator Gill 1861 (Teleostei: Eleotridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván-Quesada, Sesángari; Doadrio, Ignacio; Alda, Fernando; Perdices, Anabel; Reina, Ruth Gisela; García Varela, Martín; Hernández, Natividad; Campos Mendoza, Antonio; Bermingham, Eldredge; Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Species of the genus Dormitator, also known as sleepers, are representatives of the amphidromous freshwater fish fauna that inhabit the tropical and subtropical coastal environments of the Americas and Western Africa. Because of the distribution of this genus, it could be hypothesized that the evolutionary patterns in this genus, including a pair of geminate species across the Central American Isthmus, could be explained by vicariance following the break-up of Gondwana. However, the evolutionary history of this group has not been evaluated. We constructed a time-scaled molecular phylogeny of Dormitator using mitochondrial (Cytochrome b) and nuclear (Rhodopsin and β-actin) DNA sequence data to infer and date the cladogenetic events that drove the diversification of the genus and to relate them to the biogeographical history of Central America. Two divergent lineages of Dormitator were recovered: one that included all of the Pacific samples and another that included all of the eastern and western Atlantic samples. In contrast to the Pacific lineage, which showed no phylogeographic structure, the Atlantic lineage was geographically structured into four clades: Cameroon, Gulf of Mexico, West Cuba and Caribbean, showing evidence of potential cryptic species. The separation of the Pacific and Atlantic lineages was estimated to have occurred ~1 million years ago (Mya), whereas the four Atlantic clades showed mean times of divergence between 0.2 and 0.4 Mya. The splitting times of Dormitator between ocean basins are similar to those estimated for other geminate species pairs with shoreline estuarine preferences, which may indicate that the common evolutionary histories of the different clades are the result of isolation events associated with the closure of the Central American Isthmus and the subsequent climatic and oceanographic changes.

  9. Higher and lower-level relationships of the deep-sea fish order alepocephaliformes (Teleostei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jan Y.; Møller, Peter R.; Lavoué, Sébastien

    2009-01-01

    Fishes of the order Alepocephaliformes, slickheads and tubeshoulders, constitute a group of deep-sea fishes poorly known in respect to most areas of their biology and systematics. Morphological studies have found alepocephaliform fishes to display a mosaic of synapomorphic and symplesiomorphic...... are alepocephaliforms and unambiguously aligned sequences were subjected to partitioned maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Results from the present study support Alepocephaliformes as a genetically distinct otocephalan order as sister clade to Ostariophysi (mostly freshwater fishes comprising Gonorynchiformes...

  10. Stone loaches of Choman River system, Kurdistan, Iran (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamangar, Barzan Bahrami; Prokofiev, Artem M; Ghaderi, Edris; Nalbant, Theodore T

    2014-01-20

    For the first time, we present data on species composition and distributions of nemacheilid loaches in the Choman River basin of Kurdistan province, Iran. Two genera and four species are recorded from the area, of which three species are new for science: Oxynoemacheilus kurdistanicus, O. zagrosensis, O. chomanicus spp. nov., and Turcinoemacheilus kosswigi Băn. et Nalb. Detailed and illustrated morphological descriptions and univariate and multivariate analysis of morphometric and meristic features are for each of these species. Forty morphometric and eleven meristic characters were used in multivariate analysis to select characters that could discriminate between the four loach species. Discriminant Function Analysis revealed that sixteen morphometric measures and five meristic characters have the most variability between the loach species. The dendrograms based on cluster analysis of Mahalanobis distances of morphometrics and a combination of both characters confirmed two distinct groups: Oxynoemacheilus spp. and T. kosswigi. Within Oxynoemacheilus, O. zagrosensis and O. chomanicus are more similar to one other rather to either is to O. kurdistanicus.

  11. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, a new subterranean loach from Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei; Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyhof, Jörg; Abdullah, Younis Sabir; Ararat, Korsh; Ibrahim, Hamad; Geiger, Matthias F

    2016-10-04

    Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, new species, is described from subterranean waters in the Little Zab River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. After the discovery of E. smithi in 1976, E. proudlovei is the second troglomorphic nemacheilid loach found in the Middle East and the second species placed in Eidinemacheilus. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei is distinguished from E. smithi by having 8+8 or 8+7 branched caudal-fin rays, no adipose keel on the caudal peduncle, enlarged jaws and a fully developed head canal system. It furthers differs substantially in its DNA barcode (>8% K2P distance) from all other nemacheilid loaches in the Middle East, Europe and Western India.

  12. Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus from the Tigris drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyhof, Jörg; Abdullah, Younis Sabir

    2017-03-02

    Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus are described from the Sirvan River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. Oxynoemacheilus gyndes, new species, is distinguished by having a very short lateral line, reaching behind the pectoral-fin base, no scales except on the posteriormost part of the caudal peduncle, a slightly emarginate caudal fin and no suborbital groove in males. Oxynoemacheilus hanae, new species, is distinguished by having a midlateral row of elongated blotches, isolated patches of dark-brown spots or blotches on lower flank, a deeply emarginate caudal fin and a suborbital groove in males.

  13. The c-myc coding DNA sequences of cyprinids (Teleostei: Cypriniformes): Implications for phylogeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG XiangHui; WANG XuZhen; GAN XiaoNi; HE ShunPing

    2007-01-01

    The family Cyprinidae is one of the largest fish families in the world, which is widely distributed in East Asian, with obvious difference in characteristic size among species. The phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid taxa based on the functionally important genes can help to understand the speciation and functional divergence of the Cyprinidae. The c-myc gene is an important gene regulating individual growth.In the present study, the sequence variations of the cyprinid c-myc gene and their phylogenetic significance were analyzed. The 41 complete sequences of the c-myc gene were obtained from cyprinids and outgroups through PCR amplification and clone. The coding DNA sequences of the c-myc gene were used to infer molecular phylogenetic relationships within the Cyprinidae. Myxocyprinus asiaticus (Catostomidae), Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Cobitidae) and Hemimyzon sinensis (Homalopteridae)were assigned to the outgroup taxa. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian retrieved similar topology. Within the Cyprinidae, Leuciscini and Barbini formed the monophyletic lineage respectively with high nodal supports. Leuciscini comprises Xenocyprinae, Cultrinae, East Asian species of Leuciscinae and Danioninae, Gobioninae and Acheilognathinae, and Barbini contains Schizothoracinae, Barbinae, Cyprininae and Labeoninae. Danio rerio, D.myersi and Rasbora trilineata were supposed to separate from Leuciscinae and Barbini and to form another lineage. The positions of some Danioninae species were still unresolved. Analyses of both amino acid variation with parsimony information and two high variation regions indicated that there is no correlation between variations of single amino acid or high variation regions and characteristic size of cyprinids. In addition, the species with smaller size were usually found to be basal within clades in the tree, which might be the results of the adaptation to the primitive ecology and survival pressure.

  14. Complete mitogenomes of Cocos lemonpeel angelfish (Centropyge flavissima) and Eibl's angelfish (Centropyge eibli) (Teleostei: Pomacanthidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kang-Ning; Chang, Chih-Wei; Lin, Zi-Han; Chan, Yen-Fan; Tsai, Shiou-Yi; Chen, Ching-Hung; Hsiao, Chung-Der

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we used the next-generation sequencing method to deduce two complete mitogenomes of Cocos lemonpeel angelfish (Centropyge flavissima) and Eibl's angelfish (Centropyge eibli) for the first time. The assembled mitogenome, consisting of 17 010 bp and 17 101 bp, showing 98.3% identity each other. Both mitogenomes follow the typical vertebrate arrangement, including 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding control region of D-loop. D-loop contains 1302 bp in C. flavissima and 1392 bp in C. eibli and locates between tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe. The overall GC content is 45.2% for C. flavissima and 44.9% for C. eibli. Complete mitogenomes of C. flavissima and C. eibli provide essential and important DNA molecular data for phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis for marine angelfishes.

  15. Juvenile Thalassoma amblycephalum Bleeker (Labridae, Teleostei) dwelling among the tentacles of sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedlund, Michael; Iwao, Kenji; Brolund, Thea Marie

    2006-01-01

    each) of the juvenile wrasse Thalassoma amblycephalum dwelling among the tentacles of the two sea anemones Entacmaea quadricolor (clonal type), and Heteractis magnifica at a coral reef in southern Japan during 16 months in daylight hours. There are only two past records of this facultative association......, one from east Africa and one from Indonesia. The wrasse remained close to and was occasionally in physical contact with the host when foraging amongst the tentacles. When frightened, they took shelter among corals, away from the host anemone. The wrasse co-existed with the anemonefishes Amphiprion...

  16. Reproductive biology of weakly electric fish Eigenmannia trilineata López and Castello, 1966 (Teleostei, Sternopygidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Giora

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study described the reproductive biology of a population of the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia trilineata from southern Brazil, providing the information on the estimation of reproductive period, fecundity, spawning type, first maturation size, and analysis of gonadal morphology and histology of the species, relating these data to alimentary and abiotic characters. The species showed a relatively long reproductive period, a relative fecundity of 0.27 oocytes per mg of total weight and a parcelled spawning type. First maturation size estimated for the females was 80.5 mm and for the males 63.5 mm of total length. Sex ratio did not differ from 1:1 under a X²test (α= 0.01 during all the sampled months. Sexual dimorphism was related to total length, and males had larger total length than females. The abiotic factors photoperiod and water conductivity presented significant correlations with female GSI, while male GSI presented a significant correlation only with photoperiod.Este trabalho descreve a biologia reprodutiva de uma população do peixe elétrico Eigenmannia trilineata do Sul do Brasil. São apresentadas informações a respeito do período reprodutivo, fecundidade, tipo de desova, tamanho de primeira maturação, morfologia e histologia das gônadas da espécie, relacionando estes dados a caracteres alimentares e abióticos. A espécie apresentou período reprodutivo relativamente longo, com fecundidade relativa de 0,27 ovócito por miligrama do peso da fêmea e desova do tipo parcelada. O tamanho de primeira maturação gonadal estimado para fêmeas foi 80,5 mm e para machos, 63,5 mm de comprimento total. A proporção sexual, testada pelo teste X² (Α= 0.01, foi de 1:1 durante todos os meses amostrados; dimorfismo sexual relacionado ao comprimento total foi detectado, possuindo os machos um maior comprimento total. Dos fatores abióticos testados, fotoperíodo e condutividade da água mostraram correlação significativa com o IGS das fêmeas, enquanto somente fotoperíodo apresentou-se relacionado ao IGS dos machos.

  17. Nematode larvae infecting Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier, 1829 (Pisces: Teleostei in Brazil

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    BIANCA P. KURAIEM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available From July to December, 2013, thirty Priacanthus arenatus specimens commercialized in the cities of Niterói and Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, were acquired. The fish were necropsied and filleted to investigate the presence of nematode larvae. Twenty fish (66.7% out of the total were parasitized by nematode larvae. A total of 2024 larvae were collected; among them, 30 third-instar larvae of Anisakis sp. showed prevalence (P = 20%, mean abundance (MA = 1, and the mean intensity (MI = 5, and infection sites (IS = caecum, stomach, liver, and mesentery; and 1,994 third-instar larvae (1,757 encysted and 237 free of Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum with P = 66.7%, MA = 66.5, and MI = 99.7, and IS = spleen, caecum, stomach, liver, mesentery, and abdominal muscle. This is the first study to report H. deardorffoverstreetorum and Anisakis sp. larvae parasitizing P. arenatus.

  18. Aspidoras mephisto, new species: The first troglobitic Callichthyidae (Teleostei: Siluriformes) from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2017-01-01

    Aspidoras mephisto n. sp. is described from the Anésio-Russão cave system, upper Tocantins River basin, Goiás, Brazil. The species can be readily distinguished from its congeners by troglomorphic features and also by presenting the following combination of features: infraorbital 1 generally with well-developed ventral laminar; or moderately developed; poorly-developed serrations on posterior margin of pectoral spine; nuchal plate not externally visible; dorsal fin, even in conspicuously colored specimens, with only dark brown or black chromatophores concentrated on rays, forming spots in some specimens; membranes hyaline; or sparse dark brown or black chromatophores on membranes, not forming any conspicuous pattern; and inner laminar expansion of infraorbital 1 moderately developed. Information about its habitat, ecology, behaviour and conservation status are provided and also a brief description of the juvenile stage. PMID:28248959

  19. Reproductive biology of a population of Gymnotus aff.carapo (Teleostei: Gymnotidae from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego de Paula Cognato

    Full Text Available The reproductive period and its relation with somatic and abiotic factors, the relative and absolute fecundity, spawning type, length of first maturation and sex ratio is describe for Gymnotus aff.carapo from a small lake at Itapuã State Park, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Gymnotus aff. carapo presents a relatively long reproductive cycle extending from November/2003 to March/2004. Decreases in water conductivity and increases in dissolved oxygen are correlated with increased gonadal development in males. In females, seasonal increases in temperature and photoperiod and decreases in dissolved oxygen are correlated with increased gonadal development. The mean absolute fecundity was 915.3 oocytes, and mean relative fecundity 0.20 oocytes/mg body weight. Egg size distributions indicate multiple spawning. The size of first maturation was 141 mm in females and 146 mm in males. The sex ratio was 1:1, with a male bias only in smaller size classes.

  20. Spawning migrations of the endemic Labeobarbus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) species of Lake Tana, Ethiopia: status and threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anteneh, W.; Getahun, A.; Dejen, E.; Sibbing, F.A.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Graaf, de M.; Wudneh, T.; Vijverberg, J.; Palstra, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The reproductive biology of the only known intact species flock of large cyprinids, the 16 Labeobarbus species of Lake Tana (Ethiopia), has been extensively studied for the past two decades. Seven species of Labeobarbus are known to migrate >50 km upstream into tributary rivers for spawning durin

  1. Reproductive biology of Haemulon plumieri (Teleostei: Haemulidae) in Ceará state, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki-Mendes, R A; Santander-Neto, J; Silva, J R F; Hazin, F H V

    2013-05-01

    The Haemulon plumieri is a typical reef-associated and tropical species found in warm and temperate waters of the Western Atlantic. Due to the large fishing effort directed to H. plumieri, the knowledge about its reproductive biology is essential for correct stock management and conservation. The aim of this study was to characterise reproductive biology with a focus on its seasonal variation of gonadal maturation stages, first maturation size and fecundity. Specimens were monthly collected and a total of 119 females and 136 males were analysed. The reproductive cycle of Haemulon plumieri is seasonal, with higher activity between March and May. Size at first maturity (L50) was estimated at 16.86 and 18.55 cm for females and males, respectively. The total fecundity ranged between 17,816 and 120,333 mature oocytes per female and relative fecundity was 235 ± 63 oocyte.g-1 whereas batch fecundity varied between 20 and 25% from total fecundity. Since the species is widely caught, we suggest a closed season from March to May and to establish a minimum catch size of 18.5 cm for both sexes, since there is no evident sexual dimorphism.

  2. Un caso de xantismo parcial en Aplodactylus punctatus (Teleostei: Aplodactylidae del sur de Perú

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    Philippe Béarez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta por primera vez en Ilo, sur del Perú, una jerguilla amarilla (Aplodactylus punctatus. Esa condición de tener una piel de color amarillo se denomina xantismo. Este registro, único, corresponde probablemente a una extensión hacia el norte del rango de distribución de la «jerguilla reina», conocida de la costa central de Chile.

  3. Hemiodus iratapuru, a new species of Hemiodontidae from the Rio Jari, Amazon Basin, Brazil (Teleostei, Characiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeani, F; Moreira, C R

    2013-04-01

    Hemiodus iratapuru, a new species of the Hemiodontidae from the Rio Iratapuru, a left bank tributary of the Rio Jari, Amazon Basin, Brazil, is described. The new species is diagnosed from other species of Hemiodus by modifications in the ectopterygoid, tooth form, scale counts, dorsal-fin form and colour pattern. The new species is proposed to be related to the Hemiodus quadrimaculatus species group.

  4. The diversity of chromosome structure of males in Cobitis (Teleostei, Cobitidae populations

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    Alicja Boron

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The populations of Cobitis distributed in Poland are usually composed of the spined loach C. taenia Linnaeus, 1758 (2n=48 or the danubian loach C. elongatoides Bacescu & Maier, 1969 (2n=50, triploid hybrid females (3n=73, 3n=74, 3n=75 and tetraploid (4n=98, 4n=99 hybrids of both sexes. The results of our experimental studies reveal that c. 60% of eggs of allotriploid females dominating in these populations may be fertilized by C. taenia males whereas the tetraploid Cobitis males are sterile. The aim of this study was to show the chromosome structure of diploid and polyploid Cobitis males distributed in diploid and diploid-polyploid populations in Polish water bodies. Chromosomes of C. taenia and C. elongatoides males (each of 10 individuals and of tetraploid Cobitis males (12 individuals were examined using double-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH with 28S and 5S rDNA probes. In the karyotype of C. taenia and C. elongatoides respectively the modal number of nine and six, and seven and two, respectively of 28S rDNA and 5S rDNA sites were detected. C. taenia and C. elongatoides characterized respectively by four and two chromosomes containing hybridization sites of both rDNA probes (co-localizations. The chromosome sets of 4n males were composed of the C. taenia, C. elongatoides and C. tanaitica genomes. The pattern of rDNA sites distribution indicated that apart others the karyotypes of 4n males were composed of one or two haploid chromosome set of C. elongatoides. The presented data give an important insight into the structure of chromosomes of two Cobitis species and into the genome structure of allotetraploid Cobitis males. The obtained result is discussed with previously published studies.

  5. Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species (Teleostei: Rivulidae) from western Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodet Rodriguez

    2015-04-24

    Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species, is described from a small stream in Sierra de Cajalbana, northwestern Cuba. It is readily distinguished from Rivulus cylindraceus Poey by the combination of an exclusive color pattern and meristic characters such as a d-type frontal scalation pattern (versus e-type pattern in Rivulus cylindraceus). The current diagnosis of Rivulus berovidesi based on chromatic, morphological and meristic characters is consistent with a recent molecular analysis of this genus in Cuba.

  6. Description of a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in Thoracocharax cf. stellatus (Teleostei, Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae

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    Carvalho Margarida Lima

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The family Gasteropelecidae is composed of three genera and eight species. This study shows that Thoracocharax cf. stellatus has 2n = 52 chromosomes for both sexes. The five males studied showed 8 metacentric, 16 submetacentric, 4 subtelocentric, and 24 acrocentric chromosomes; the seven females showed only one submetacentric chromosome, belonging to pair 11, and one extra acrocentric chromosome, smaller than all the other chromosomes, characterizing the presence of a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in this species. Nucleolus organizing regions (NORs were detected on the short arms of the subtelocentric chromosome pair 13. Constitutive heterochromatin was identified at pericentromeric and terminal positions in almost all chromosomes. The W chromosome was almost entirely heterochromatic, except for a small terminal euchromatic segment. The analyses of the amount of nuclear DNA found 2.18 ± 0.09 pg of DNA per diploid nucleus, without significant differences between sexes. A discussion about the evolution of the sex chromosomes in this group is presented.

  7. Infection of the heart of Pimelodus ornatus (Teleostei, Pimelodidae), by Myxobolus sp. (Myxozoa, Myxobolidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Edilson; Videira, Marcela; Velasco, Michele; Sanches, Osimar; Clemente, Sergio Carmona de São; Matos, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The phylum Myxozoa Grassé, 1970, consists of a heterogenous group of around 50 genera that are worldwide disseminated in a wide variety of aquatic media. In the present study, 43 specimens of Pimelodus ornatus were collected from an adjacent area to the Cachoeira do Arari municipality on Marajó Island, in the Brazilian state of Pará, in 2013. Macroscopic analysis showed the presence of whitened plasmodia located in the cardiac muscle and also in the region between the bulbus arteriosus and atrium cordis. Microscopic analysis on the parasitized tissues revealed spores that were typically piriform, with the anterior portion slightly narrower than the posterior end. The spore valves were symmetrical. The present species is placed in the genus Myxobolus Butschli, 1882, because of the presence of a pair of equal polar capsules in each spore. The prevalence of parasitism observed was 13.9% (6/43). This research note reports the first occurrence of Myxobolus as a parasite of the heart in the teleostean fish P. ornatus in the Amazon region and confirms the occurrence of secondary myocarditis in this fish, caused by parasitism by Myxobolus sp. The rarity of this parasitic species of Myxobolus at this tissue site, associated with other spore morphology characteristics in the fish, suggests that it is an undescribed species.

  8. Channa aurantipectoralis, a new species of snakehead from Mizoram, north-eastern India (Teleostei: Channidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalhlimpuia, Denis Van; Lalronunga, Samuel; Lalramliana, Lalramliana

    2016-08-04

    Channa aurantipectoralis, a new species of snakehead of the C. gachua species group, is described from Karnaphuli drainage of Mizoram, India. The species is immediately distinguished from all other snakehead species by its unique coloration in life, specifically its brightly-coloured orange pectoral fins, which lack any spots or stripes; and by the presence of a dark V-shaped blotch on the dorsal surface of the head. It can be further distinguished from all other species of the genus by the combination of the following characters: presence of pelvic fins, a large scale on the ventral surface of the lower jaw, 51-64 lateral-line scales, 34-37 dorsal-fin rays, 23-25 anal-fin rays, 13-14 pectoral-fin rays, 5½-6½ /1/ 7½-8½ transverse scale rows, and the absence of scales on the gular region.

  9. Channa andrao, a new species of dwarf snakehead from West Bengal, India (Teleostei: Channidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britz, Ralf

    2013-10-30

    Channa andrao, new species, from Lefraguri swamp, West Bengal, India, differs from all its congeners except, C. asiatica, C. bleheri and C. burmanica and the recently described C. hoaluensis and C. ninhbinhensis by the absence of pelvic fins. It can be distinguished from all other pelvic fin-less species of snakeheads by its colour pattern, and differs further in its number of vertebrae, dorsal- and anal-fin rays, and lateral-line scales from individual snakehead species in this complex. Channa andrao raises the number of snakehead species endemic to the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot to ten, representing almost one third of the known species in the genus.

  10. Preliminary observations on the feeding habits of the Mediterranean needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (Teleostei: Belonidae

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    Manel Châari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the first information on the feeding habits of the Mediterranean needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (T. a. imperialis of Tunisia and to examine the diet variation in relation to the fish size, maturity and sex. Methods: Gut contents of 92 specimens of T. a. imperialis, collected mainly from May 2004 to July 2006 off the Gulf of Gabès, Southeastern Tunisian coast, were analyzed. Results: The results showed that 55.4% of them had empty guts and 44.6% contained food in their guts. The emptiness index did not vary significantly according to size classes or sexes of T. a. imperialis. Basic food consisted of teleosts (Mugilidae, Gobidae and Belonidae (62.6% followed by crustaceans (37.3%, mostly decapods Sycionia carinata (5.4%. A decrease in the feeding rate at the peak of the spawning season was observed for both sexes. A diet variation among juvenile and adult specimens of T. a. imperialis was found. Conclusions: This study enhances our knowledge on the biology of the Mediterranean needlefish T. a. imperialis. This fish is an active predator and an opportunistic feeder but the feeding rate declines at the peak of the spawning season.

  11. Parasitic infections in the Mediterranean needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (Teleostei: Belonidae off Tunisian coast

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    Manel Châari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To provide a current survey of parasitic infections in the Mediterranean needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (T. acus imperialis. The impact of host’s size and sex on some characteristics of the infection was also examined. Methods: Between 2004 and 2009, 126 specimens of T. acus imperialis were necropsied to study their parasites. Results: Fifteen species of metazoan parasites were collected including 3 monogeneans (Aspinatrium gallieni, Nudaciraxine imperium and Axinoides sp., 4 digeneans (Lecithostaphylus tylosuri, Tetrochetus coryphaenae, Oesophagotrema mediterranea and Sclerodistomoides pacificus, 1 cestode (Ptychobothrium sp., 3 copepods (Lernanthropus tylosuri, Caligodes laciniatus and Caligus sp., 1 isopod (Irona nana, 1 acanthocephalan (Rhadinorhynchus sp., 1 nematode (anisakid larvae and 1 annelid (piscicolid. Cestoda Ptychobothrium sp. was the most frequent species (72%. Prevalence and abundance of infection with Ptychobothrium sp. and Rhadinorhynchus sp. were positively correlated with the total length of the host. Host’s sex did not seem to affect the infection parameters of parasites in T. acus imperialis. Conclusions: This study provides first information on parasitic infections in the Mediterranean needlefish T. acus imperialis off Tunisia. Parasites can be used to understand phylogeny, biology and ecology of fish host and also as bioindicators of water quality

  12. Parasitic infections in the Mediterranean needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (Teleostei: Belonidae) off Tunisian coast

    OpenAIRE

    Manel Châari; Lassâd Neifar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To provide a current survey of parasitic infections in the Mediterranean needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (T. acus imperialis). The impact of host’s size and sex on some characteristics of the infection was also examined. Methods: Between 2004 and 2009, 126 specimens of T. acus imperialis were necropsied to study their parasites. Results: Fifteen species of metazoan parasites were collected including 3 monogeneans (Aspinatrium gallieni, Nudaciraxine imperi...

  13. The biology of Solea bleekeri (Teleostei) in Lake St Lucia on the southeast coast of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, D. P.

    Several aspects of the biology of Solea bleekeri in Lake St Lucia were investigated, these included occurrence, distribution, reproduction and recruitment, food and feeding, size frequency distribution and the role of estuaries in the species' life cycle. Solea bleekeri was found to occur throughout the system in muddy turbid areas and was largely absent from the eastern shores of the lake where clear water sandy substrata occur. The preferred diet of the species was bivalve siphon tips of the species Solon cylindraceus, when these were in abundant supply. However, when numbers of large (length > 20 mm) specimens were not available then S. bleekeri fed on whatever prey was available in or near the substratum. Analysis of stomach contents under the latter conditions showed that food consumption reflected the composition of the benthos. Large numbers of S. bleekeri spend their entire post-larval and juvenile phases as well as the greater part of their adult life within estuaries. Evidence is presented to support the idea that S. bleekeri breeds in certain areas of the lake and that spawning takes place between September and November. The current data suggest that there may be two populations in St Lucia: one migrates from the system to spawn at sea during winter along with the other marine fish species which utilize estuaries as nursery areas, while the other population breeds within the system. Alternatively there may simply be a single population which normally breeds at sea, but which may breed within the system when conditions are suitable. Recruitment of S. bleekeri into the St Lucia estuarine system takes place from the muddy offshore marine banks and possibly from within the system as well. Solea bleekeri appears not to be totally dependent on estuaries for the completion of its life cycle. The advantages of utilizing these systems for their development relate to the shallow, calm, turbid food-rich areas which estuaries offer. The fact that breeding takes place within St Lucia means that adults and juveniles are present in varying numbers throughout the year.

  14. The ultrastructural aspects of vitellogenesis or oocyte secondary growth in Serrasalmus spilopleura (Teleostei, Characiformes, Serrasalminae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, A C D; Quagio-Grassiotto, I

    2002-04-01

    Oocyte secondary growth in S. spiloleura corresponds to the period in which different vesicular structures are formed, including the cortical alveoli and the yolk granules. The oocytes with cortical alveolus formation show vesicular structures with filamentous content in the cortical cytoplasmic region, which are the cortical alveolus precursors. In these oocytes, electron-dense vesicles of heterogenous content are dispersed in the inner cytoplasmic region and their nuclei are irregular, showing many nucleoli of different sizes. The oocytes in vitellogenesis are filled with many vesicles. The cortical alveolus precursors are in the peripheral region, and electron-dense granules are seen near to the nucleus. These fuse and form yolk granules. The oocytes in vitellogenesis show a very irregular nucleus that has nucleoli of different sizes. In the oocytes in final vitellogenesis, the yolk granules are scattered throughout the cytoplasm, displacing the cortical alveoli toward cell periphery. The nucleus is similar to the other stages.

  15. Ultrastructural aspects of oogenesis and oocyte primary growth in Serrasalmus spilopleura (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, A C; Quagio-Grassiotto, I

    2001-06-01

    The ultrastructural characteristics of the organelles present in Serrasalmus spilopleura oogonia and oocytes undergoing primary growth were described in detail, considering its role in the nuclear and cytoplasmic metabolic processes that occur in these cell types. Even though these cells do not significantly differ from those similar to them that are found in other teleost groups, the analysis of their ultrastructure makes available new data on the reproductive biology of Characiformes.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships and natural hybridization in rabbitfishes (Teleostei: Siganidae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriiwa, Kaoru; Hanzawa, Naoto; Yoshino, Tetsuo; Kimura, Seishi; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2007-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of rabbitfishes (the family Siganidae), ecologically important components as primary consumers in coral reef communities, were studied using mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and nuclear ITS1 (internal transcribed spacer 1) sequence analyses. The analyses of 19 out of 22 species known in the Western Pacific region revealed that siganids are genetically clustered into three major clades, which are characterized by some morphological and ecological traits. Between closely related species, such as Siganus guttatus-S. lineatus and S. virgatus-S. doliatus, and also between two morphs recognized in S. corallinus, small but discernible genetic differentiation was found, implying that the components of each pair are incipient species. On the other hand, between some species, such as S. fuscescens-S. canaliculatus and S. unimaculatus-S.vulpinus, individuals of the components of each pair were found to construct a genetic mosaic, suggesting that the components are genetic color morphs within a single biological species, respectively. Moreover, evidence from morphological characters, mtDNA, and nuclear DNA gave an inconsistent picture of identity and relationships for several individuals. They were regarded as hybrids or individuals with hybrid origin. Such instances were observed not only between closely related species, such as S. guttatus-S. lineatus, S. virgatus-S. doliatus, and two morphs (incipient species) in S. corallinus, respectively, but also between distantly related ones, such as S. corallinus-S. puellus. In fact, more than half of the species examined (11/20, when treating the two morphs in S. corallinus as independent species) were involved in hybridization. These suggest that hybridization is much more prevalent in marine fishes than previously assumed, and may have some relevance to their diversification.

  17. Spermatozoon ultrastructure of Gyliauchen sp. (Digenea: Gyliauchenidae), an intestinal parasite of Siganus fuscescens (Pisces: Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilichini, Y; Foata, J; Justine, J-L; Bray, R A; Marchand, B

    2011-10-01

    The ultrastructure of the mature spermatozoon of Gyliauchen sp., a parasite of the dusky rabbitfish Siganus fuscescens, was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The spermatozoon possesses two axonemes of the 9+"1" pattern of Trepaxonemata, four attachment zones, one mitochondrion, a nucleus, cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, and spine-like bodies. The main characteristics of this spermatozoon are the presence of one mitochondrion, spine-like bodies not associated with the external ornamentation, and a posterior extremity of type 3 that is characterized by the following sequence: posterior extremity of the nucleus then posterior extremity of the second axoneme. Numerous other ultrastructural features are also discussed and compared to the digenean spermatology literature. This is the first study of a member of the Gyliauchenidae and the fourth within the Lepocreadioidea. The results show that many ultrastructural characters are variable within this superfamily and could be useful for phylogeny.

  18. Stages in the early and larval development of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei, Clariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyi, Wasiu Adekunle; Omitogun, Ofelia Galman

    2014-08-01

    The African catfish Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822 is a favourite aquaculture fish in many parts of Africa and Asia because of its hardiness and fast growth rate. In this study, early, post-embryonic and larval developmental stages of C. gariepinus were examined chronologically and described. Photomicrographs of unfertilized matured oocytes from 0 min of fertilization through all cell stages to alevin, to complete yolk absorption, to free swimming larval stages are shown and documented live from lateral and top views, with the aid of a light microscope. Extruded oocytes had a mean diameter of 1 ± 0.1 mm, and possessed a thin perivitelline membrane whose space was filled with a protoplasmic layer. Heartbeat was in the range of 115-160/min prior to hatching. Hatchability rate was 85% and hatching occurred at 17 h at a controlled temperature of 28.5 ± 0.5°C, while ontogeny of the eyes and other organs were discernible. At day 4, larvae mean length was 9.3 ± 0.5 mm, exogenous feeding had commenced fully and melanophores spread cephalocaudally but were concentrated significantly on the head parts. This paper, for the first time, presents the significant chronological developmental stages of C. gariepinus embryology that will have significant implications for genetic manipulation and catfish seed production for aquaculture.

  19. Autonomic control of post-air-breathing tachycardia in Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei: Clariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Mariana Teodoro; Armelin, Vinicius Araújo; Abe, Augusto Shinya; Rantin, Francisco Tadeu; Florindo, Luiz Henrique

    2015-08-01

    The African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is a teleost with bimodal respiration that utilizes a paired suprabranchial chamber located in the gill cavity as an air-breathing organ. Like all air-breathing fishes studied to date, the African catfish exhibits pronounced changes in heart rate (f H) that are associated with air-breathing events. We acquired f H, gill-breathing frequency (f G) and air-breathing frequency (f AB) in situations that require or do not require air breathing (during normoxia and hypoxia), and we assessed the autonomic control of post-air-breathing tachycardia using an infusion of the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist atropine. During normoxia, C. gariepinus presented low f AB (1.85 ± 0.73 AB h(-1)) and a constant f G (43.16 ± 1.74 breaths min(-1)). During non-critical hypoxia (PO2 = 60 mmHg), f AB in the African catfish increased to 5.42 ± 1.19 AB h(-1) and f G decreased to 39.12 ± 1.58 breaths min(-1). During critical hypoxia (PO2 = 20 mmHg), f AB increased to 7.4 ± 1.39 AB h(-1) and f G decreased to 34.97 ± 1.78 breaths min(-1). These results were expected for a facultative air breather. Each air breath (AB) was followed by a brief but significant tachycardia, which in the critical hypoxia trials, reached a maximum of 143 % of the pre-AB f H values of untreated animals. Pharmacological blockade allowed the calculation of cardiac autonomic tones, which showed that post-AB tachycardia is predominantly regulated by the parasympathetic subdivision of the autonomic nervous system.

  20. Age and growth estimation of bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (Teleostei: Scombridae in the southwestern Atlantic

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    Paulo Duarte-Neto

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to supply the first information on age and growth for Thunnus obesus caught in the equatorial south-western Atlantic using dorsal spines, an approach that has been successfully employed for ageing tuna species. The study was conducted using a multi-model inference based on information theory for back-calculated and observed length-at-age data. Uncertainty associated with the parameter estimation was verified and results were compared to other accounts on the species, considering both the statistical and methodological contexts. Samples were collected in Natal city (Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil from February 1999 to January 2000, of tuna vessels and from surveys, aimed at providing information on the Brazilian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ in the area around São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago. Validation using marginal increment indicated that one ring is deposited per year. Mean length-at-age ranged of 54.3 to 177.5 cm (fork length for ages 1 to 9 years. Von Bertalanffy, Richards, and Gompertz models were considered suitable for the bigeye tuna. Hence, the model-averaged asymptotic length ¯L∞ was estimated. The averaged model generated in the present study by back-calculation was considered appropriate for describing the growth of T. obesus.

  1. A new jellynose, Ateleopus edentatus, from the western Pacific Ocean (Teleostei: Ateleopodiformes: Ateleopodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaga, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Ateleopus edentatus sp. nov. is described based on 12 specimens collected from the Kyushu-Palau Ridge in the western Pacific Ocean. It is distinguished from its three known congeners in completely lacking upper-jaw teeth. It is also distinguished from Ateleopus indicus by having 94-130 anal+caudal-fin rays vs. 76-82 in A. indicus, 11-13 gill rakers vs. 7-8, and 26-28+81-107=109-135 vertebrae vs. 22-24+75-80=97-103.

  2. Characteristics of infection of Diplectanum sp. (Monogenea: Monopisthocolytea: Diplectanidae in Cynoscion analis Jenyns (Pisces: teleostei: Scianidae

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    José Iannacone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 120 Cynoscion analis Jenyns were collected from Chorrillos fishmarket, Lima, Perú, between January and February 2000 and necropsied to study ectoparasite monogenean Diplectanum sp. from branchial filaments. This parasite was considered a core specie, because it parasites 2/3 hosts examined. Of the fishes collected 80 were female and 40 male. Females and males showed a standard length between 16,4-27,0 cm (mean = 21,08 ± 2,24 and 16,5-26,3 cm (mean = 20,47 ± 2,06, respectively. The prevalence of infection of Diplectanurn was 72,5%, mean intensity and abundance were 3,16 ± 2,84 and 2,29 ± 2,80 respectively. This monogenean showed an overclispersal spatial distribution (2,55 at level of fish hosts. We observed a correlation between mean intensity of infestation and standard length of C. analis. Males (4,14 ± 3,75 showed a higher mean intensity than females (2,67 ± 2,14. A high prevalence, intensity and abundance of Diplectanum to 11 gill was found. However, we did not find neither preference when we separated each gill in three parts (fore, middle and hind respectively. Finally, we compared our results of population assemblages of other ectoparasite monogeneans in marine fishes. Diplectanurn sp. is a new record to C. analis and to Peru.

  3. Monophyly of Heterandriini (Teleostei: Poeciliidae revisited: a critical review of the data

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    Alfy Morales-Cazan

    Full Text Available The systematics and taxonomy of poeciliid fishes (guppies and allies remain poorly understood despite the relative importance of these species as model systems in the biological sciences. This study focuses on testing the monophyly of the nominal poeciliine tribe Heterandriini and the genus Heterandria, through examination of the morphological characters on which the current classification is based. These characters include aspects of body shape (morphometrics, scale and fin-ray counts (meristics, pigmentation, the cephalic laterosensory system, and osteological features of the neurocranium, oral jaws and suspensorium, branchial basket, pectoral girdle, and the gonopodium and its supports. A Maximum Parsimony analysis was conducted of 150 characters coded for 56 poeciliid and outgroup species, including 22 of 45 heterandriin species (from the accounted in Parenti & Rauchenberger, 1989, or seven of nine heterandriin species (from the accounted in Lucinda & Reis, 2005. Multistate characters were analyzed as both unordered and ordered, and iterative a posteriori weighting was used to improve tree resolution. Tree topologies obtained from these analyses support the monophyly of the Middle American species of "Heterandria," which based on available phylogenetic information, are herein reassigned to the genus Pseudoxiphophorus. None of the characters used in previous studies to characterize the nominal taxon Heterandriini are found to be unambiguously diagnostic. Some of these characters are shared with species in other poeciliid tribes, and others are reversed within the Heterandriini. These results support the hypothesis that Pseudoxiphophorus is monophyletic, and that this clade is not the closest relative of H. formosa (the type species from southeastern North America. Available morphological data are not sufficient to assess the phylogenetic relationships of H. formosa with respect to other members of the Heterandriini. The results further suggest that most tribe-level taxa of the Poeciliinae are not monophyletic, and that further work remains to resolve the evolutionary relationships of this group.

  4. Muscular system in the pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Teleostei: Scombridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Masanori; Sasaki, Kunio; Shinohara, Gento; Okada, Tokihiko; Matsuura, Keiichi

    2014-02-01

    The muscular system in the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis is studied in detail. For the first time, a complete description of the muscular anatomy of a thunnid is provided here. Eighty-two elements including subdivisions of components of the muscular system are identified. This is less than found in a basal perciform and two other investigated scombrid species, owing mainly to the absence or fusion of pectoral, pelvic and caudal fin muscles. The absence of elements of the basal perciform pattern was most prominent in the caudal fin, which includes only the flexor dorsalis, flexor ventralis, hypochordal longitudinalis, and interradialis. In the caudal fin, the medial fan-shaped ray was identified as the first dorsal ray, judging from myological and neuroanatomical characters. The highly developed gill filament muscles in Thunnus orientalis and sheet-like rectus communis control gill ventilation. Long body muscle tendons reduce the metabolic energy needed during rapid and continuous swimming. These characters are interpreted as adaptations in the context of the oceanic life style of the species.

  5. Phylogeny of the family Characidae (Teleostei: Characiformes): from characters to taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Marcos Mirande

    2010-01-01

    The family Characidae is the most diverse among Neotropical fishes. Systematics of this family are mainly based on pre-cladistic papers, and only recently a phylogenetic hypothesis for Characidae was proposed by the author. That phylogeny was based on 360 morphological characters studied for 160 species, including representatives of families related to Characidae. This paper is based on that phylogenetic analysis, with the analyzed characters described herein and documented, accompanied by co...

  6. Goblet cell types in intestine of tiger barb and black tetra (Cyprinidae, Characidae: Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leknes, I L

    2014-10-01

    Histochemical properties of goblet cells in intestine of a stomach-less teleost, tiger barb (Puntius tetrazona), and a stomach-containing teleost, black tetra (Gymnocorymbus ternetzi), are described and compared. The intestine goblet cells were mostly wide in both species, but in tiger barb, some of them were markedly thinner. In black tetra, all the intestine goblet cells displayed magenta colour after PAS, whereas in the tiger barb, only the thinner goblet cells displayed such affinity. The latter cell type was coloured strongly magenta when the tissue was treated with alcian blue (pH 2.5) followed by PAS, whereas the wide goblet cells in tiger barb and all goblet cells in black tetra displayed mainly a blue colour after such treatment. Further, the goblet cells in both species were coloured cleanly blue after high iron diamine followed by alcian blue (pH 2.5). The intestine goblet cells in both species displayed a moderate affinity to WGA and concanavalin A lectins and no affinity to DBA. Most of the goblet cells displayed no affinity to PNA, but some of them in the tiger barb displayed a moderate or strong affinity to this lectin. The affinity to WGA was somewhat strengthened after pre-treatment with neuraminidase. These results suggest that tiger barb contains two types or variants of intestinal goblet cells: high numbers of wide cells filled by acidic, non-sulphated mucin and some thinner cells filled by neutral mucin. The intestine goblet cells in black tetra were filled by variable amounts of neutral and acidic mucin, but the total number of such cells is much less than in tiger barb. The present lectin and neuraminidase results suggest that the intestinal mucins in both species contain significant amounts of N-acetylglucosamine, sialic acid and glucose/mannose, but seem to lack N-acetylgalactosamine. However, some of these cells in tiger barb contain moderate to large amounts of galactose. Together, these results suggest significant species-specific features of the intestine goblet cells and mucin types in tiger barb and black tetra. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the diet and feeding habits in stomach-less teleosts compared with stomach-containing teleosts, greatly influence the number of intestine goblet cells and type of mucin in these cells. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Moments of induced spawning and embryonic development of Brycon amazonicus (Teleostei, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Neumann, Erika; Faustino, Francine; Mendes, José Mário Ribeiro; de Braga, Francisco Manoel

    2014-11-01

    Based on the economic and ecological relevance of Brycon amazonicus, the goal of this work was to describe the diameter of oocytes and eggs of this species, as well as the chronological embryonic development. The material was provided by Buriti fish farm, Nova Mutum - MT, Brazil. Samples of both oocytes and eggs were obtained from extrusion to hatching. The material was fixed and measured under stereomicroscope, and the samples were divided for light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. At extrusion, the oocytes were bluish green. The frequency distribution of oocytes revealed that 87.7% of them ranged from 1.11-1.30 mm in diameter. During incubation, the total diameter of the eggs increased from 1.22 ± 0.04 mm to 3.06 ± 0.46 mm in the first 60 min post fertilization (PF), and growth ceased at 180 min PF. Between 10-30 s PF, most eggs were fertilized and fertilization cones were observed from 10 s onwards after gamete activation. The main fertilization events took place asynchronically and spermatozoa were visualized in the micropyle vestibule up to 90 s PF. The first cell was formed in the centre of the blastodisc 20 min PF. The morula stage was identified 2 h PF and, 3 h later, 70% of the yolk was covered by the blastoderm; the blastopore was almost entirely closed at 6 h PF. The cephalic and caudal regions of the embryo could be defined 8 h PF and hatching occurred after 13 h of embryonic development. The larvae hatched with undifferentiated organic systems and with a large yolk sac, free from swimming abilities or visual acuity.

  8. Taxonomic revision and molecular phylogeny of Gymnocorymbus Eigenmann, 1908 (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benine, Ricardo C; Melo, Bruno F; Castro, Ricardo M C; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-05-07

    Characidae, one of the most diverse families of Characiformes and one of the largest clades of fishes in the world, has a complex taxonomic background, with one issue being the placement of various genera, including Gymnocorymbus. Herein, we generate the first molecular phylogeny for the genus using three nuclear and two mitochondrial loci and review the systematics of Gymnocorymbus. This genus includes the black tetra, a well-known and popular species among aquarists. Molecular phylogeny strongly supports the monophyly of Gymnocorymbus, with this hypothesis corroborated by the presence of three morphological synapomorphies. Of the six previously known nominal species of Gymnocorymbus, three are considered valid herein: Gymnocorymbus bondi from the Río Orinoco basin, Gymnocorymbus ternetzi from the Rio Paraguay basin, and Gymnocorymbus thayeri from the Corantijn and Amazon basin and rivers of northeastern Brazil. A fourth species, Gymnocorymbus flaviolimai sp. n., is described from the Rio Madeira, Amazon basin. Lectotypes are designated for G. ternetzi and G. thayeri. Our results support previous hypotheses of the alignment of Gymnocorymbus close to the subfamily Stethaprioninae and also support the sister relationship between G. ternetzi and G. thayeri, and of that clade as sister to G. bondi.

  9. Uncovering the Ancestry of B Chromosomes in Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomia, Ricardo; Silva, Duílio Mazzoni Zerbinato de Andrade; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Claudio; Trifonov, Vladmir A; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; Foresti, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    B chromosomes constitute a heterogeneous mixture of genomic parasites that are sometimes derived intraspecifically from the standard genome of the host species, but result from interspecific hybridization in other cases. The mode of origin determines the DNA content, with the B chromosomes showing high similarity with the A genome in the first case, but presenting higher similarity with a different species in the second. The characid fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae harbours highly invasive B chromosomes, which are present in all populations analyzed to date in the Parana and Tietê rivers. To investigate the origin of these B chromosomes, we analyzed two natural populations: one carrying B chromosomes and the other lacking them, using a combination of molecular cytogenetic techniques, nucleotide sequence analysis and high-throughput sequencing (Illumina HiSeq2000). Our results showed that i) B chromosomes have not yet reached the Paranapanema River basin; ii) B chromosomes are mitotically unstable; iii) there are two types of B chromosomes, the most frequent of which is lightly C-banded (similar to euchromatin in A chromosomes) (B1), while the other is darkly C-banded (heterochromatin-like) (B2); iv) the two B types contain the same tandem repeat DNA sequences (18S ribosomal DNA, H3 histone genes, MS3 and MS7 satellite DNA), with a higher content of 18S rDNA in the heterochromatic variant; v) all of these repetitive DNAs are present together only in the paracentromeric region of autosome pair no. 6, suggesting that the B chromosomes are derived from this A chromosome; vi) the two B chromosome variants show MS3 sequences that are highly divergent from each other and from the 0B genome, although the B2-derived sequences exhibit higher similarity with the 0B genome (this suggests an independent origin of the two B variants, with the less frequent, B2 type presumably being younger); and vii) the dN/dS ratio for the H3.2 histone gene is almost 4-6 times higher for B chromosomes than for A chromosome sequences, suggesting that purifying selection is relaxed for the DNA sequences located on the B chromosomes, presumably because they are mostly inactive.

  10. A new species of the lowland Oligosarcus Günther species group (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naércio Aquino Menezes

    Full Text Available A new characid species is described from the rio Jacuí basin, a coastal drainage from southern Brazil. Itis morphologically most similar to its sympatric congeners Oligosarcus jenynsii and O. jacuiensis , but can be distinguished from both species in having the interorbital region wider and the pectoral fin shorter and additionally from O. jenynsii in having a smaller orbital diameter.

  11. Phylogeny of the family Characidae (Teleostei: Characiformes): from characters to taxonomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mirande, Juan Marcos

    2010-01-01

    The family Characidae is the most diverse among Neotropical fishes. Systematics of this family are mainly based on pre-cladistic papers, and only recently a phylogenetic hypothesis for Characidae was proposed by the author...

  12. Whole chromosome painting of B chromosomes of the red-eye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Patricia Elda Sobrinho; Diniz, Débora; Wasko, Adriane Pinto; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract B chromosomes are dispensable genomic elements found in different groups of animals and plants. In the present study, a whole chromosome probe was generated from a specific heterochromatic B chromosome occurring in cells of the characidae fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907). The chromosome painting probes were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments for the assessment of metaphase chromosomes obtained from individuals from three populations of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae. The results revealed that DNA sequences were shared between a specific B chromosome and many chromosomes of the A complement in all populations analyzed, suggesting a possible intra-specific origin of these B chromosomes. However, no hybridization signals were observed in other B chromosomes found in the same individuals, implying a possible independent origin of B chromosome variants in this species. FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes revealed the presence of non-active ribosomal genes in some B chromosomes and in some chromosomes of the A complement, suggesting that at least two types of B chromosomes had an independent origin. The role of heterochromatic segments and ribosomal sequences in the origin of B chromosomes were discussed. PMID:26753081

  13. Variability and evolutionary implications of repetitive DNA dynamics in genome of Astyanax scabripinnis (Teleostei, Characidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Patrícia; Leal, Eliza Viola; da Silva, Maelin; de Almeida, Mara Cristina; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Abstract DNA sequences of multiple copies help in understanding evolutionary mechanisms, genomic structures and karyotype differentiation. The current study investigates the organization and distribution of different repetitive DNA in the standard complement and B chromosomes in Astyanax scabripinnis (Jenyns, 1842) chromosomes from three allopatric populations in Campos do Jordão region, São Paulo State, Brazil. The location of microsatellite sequences showed different chromosome distribution between Lavrinha Farm Stream (LFS) and Lake of Pedalinho (LP) populations. However, the karyotype of these populations basically followed the pattern of dispersed distribution in the A complement, conspicuous in telomeric/interstitial regions and preferential accumulation in the B chromosome. The B chromosome showed heterogeneous location of microsatellite probes CA, CAC and GA. The H3 and H4 histone genes were isolated from the total genome of the species and then the chromosomal mapping was performed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The FISH signals showed high similarity for the probes H3 and H4 mapping in genomes of the populations analyzed. The sequences (GATA)n revealed a sex-specific trend between the chromosomal location in males and females at (LFS) and (LP) populations. Although species that comprise the Astyanax scabripinnis complex do not have morphologically differentiated sex chromosomes, the preferential GATA location – sex-associated – may represent a sex chromosome in differentiation. PMID:28919955

  14. Identification and chromosome mapping of repetitive elements in the Astyanax scabripinnis (Teleostei: Characidae) species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Patrícia; de Oliveira, Luiz Antonio; Pucci, Marcela Baer; Santos, Mateus Henrique; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Nogaroto, Viviane; de Almeida, Mara Cristina; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Most part of the eukaryotic genome is composed of repeated sequences or multiple copies of DNA, which were considered as "junk DNA", and may be associated to the heterochromatin. In this study, three populations of Astyanax aff. scabripinnis from Brazilian rivers of Guaratinguetá and Pindamonhangaba (São Paulo) and a population from Maringá (Paraná) were analyzed concerning the localization of the nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs), the As51 satellite DNA, the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), and the 5S rDNA. Repeated sequences were also isolated and identified by the Cot - 1 method, which indicated similarity (90%) with the LINE UnaL2 retrotransposon. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the retrotransposon dispersed and more concentrated markers in centromeric and telomeric chromosomal regions. These sequences were co-localized and interspaced with 18S and 5S rDNA and As51, confirmed by fiber-FISH essay. The B chromosome found in these populations pointed to a conspicuous hybridization with LINE probe, which is also co-located in As51 sequences. The NORs were active at unique sites of a homologous pair in the three populations. There were no evidences that transposable elements and repetitive DNA had influence in the transcriptional regulation of ribosomal genes in our analyses.

  15. Astyanax hastatus Myers, 1928 (Teleostei, Characidae): A new species complex within the genus Astyanax?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Four populations of Astyanax hastatus Myers 1928 from the Guapimirim River basin (Rio de Janeiro State) were analyzed and three distinct cytotypes identified. These cytotypes presented 2n = 50 chromosomes, with 4M+8SM+10ST+28A (Cytotype A), 8M+10SM+14ST+18A (Cytotype B), 6M+8SM+4ST+32A (Cytotype C) and scanty heterochromatin, mainly located throughout pericentromeric regions of several chromosomal pairs. No homologies with the As-51 satellite DNA were observed in the three cytotypes, although all of them presented multiple 18S rDNA sites, as detected by both silver nitrate staining and FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization). The application of the term “species complex” in Astyanax is discussed from a cytotaxonomic viewpoint. PMID:21637509

  16. A Glimpse into the Satellite DNA Library in Characidae Fish (Teleostei, Characiformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomia, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J.; Silva, Duílio M. Z. A.; Serrano, Érica A.; Rosa, Ivana F.; Scudeler, Patrícia E. S.; Hashimoto, Diogo T.; Oliveira, Claudio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M.; Foresti, Fausto

    2017-01-01

    Satellite DNA (satDNA) is an abundant fraction of repetitive DNA in eukaryotic genomes and plays an important role in genome organization and evolution. In general, satDNA sequences follow a concerted evolutionary pattern through the intragenomic homogenization of different repeat units. In addition, the satDNA library hypothesis predicts that related species share a series of satDNA variants descended from a common ancestor species, with differential amplification of different satDNA variants. The finding of a same satDNA family in species belonging to different genera within Characidae fish provided the opportunity to test both concerted evolution and library hypotheses. For this purpose, we analyzed here sequence variation and abundance of this satDNA family in ten species, by a combination of next generation sequencing (NGS), PCR and Sanger sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We found extensive between-species variation for the number and size of pericentromeric FISH signals. At genomic level, the analysis of 1000s of DNA sequences obtained by Illumina sequencing and PCR amplification allowed defining 150 haplotypes which were linked in a common minimum spanning tree, where different patterns of concerted evolution were apparent. This also provided a glimpse into the satDNA library of this group of species. In consistency with the library hypothesis, different variants for this satDNA showed high differences in abundance between species, from highly abundant to simply relictual variants. PMID:28855916

  17. A revision of the species of Saturnius Manter, 1969 (Digenea: Hemiuridae), parasites of mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Montero, Francisco E; Gibson, David I; Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Raga, Juan Antonio; Shvetsova, Ludmila S; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2008-09-01

    The genus Saturnius Manter, 1969 is defined, its species re-examined and a key to the species presented. S. overstreeti n. sp. is described from Mugil soiuy Basilewsky and M. cephalus L. from the Russian coast of the Sea of Japan and distinguished from the morphologically related S. papernai Overstreet, 1977 and S. maurepasi Overstreet, 1977. S. segmentatus Manter, 1969 is redescribed on the basis of the type- and newly collected material from M. cephalus on the Russian coast of the Sea of Japan. The morphometric variation of S. papernai is studied based on newly collected material from Liza aurata (Risso) in the Ebro Delta and off Santa Pola, Spain. The comparisons reveal lower ranges of most metrical features than previously known. A principal component analysis, carried out after adding the new data to those of Blasco-Costa et al. (2006), confirms the species identification. Other valid species recognised are S. mugilis (Yamaguti, 1970), S. maurepasi, S. belizensis Fischthal, 1977, S. dimitrovi Blasco-Costa et al., 2006 and S. minutus Blasco-Costa et al., 2006. Forms considered species inquirendae are S. valamugilis Rekharani & Madhavi, 1984, Bunocotyle constrictus Domnich & Sarabeev, 1999 [=S. papernai of Domnich & Sarabeev (2000a, b, c, d)], B. mugilis Yamaguti, 1970 of Solonchenko (1976) and S. mugilis of Dmitrieva & Gaevskaya (2001). Host and locality information is given in detail for all species. Lisa ramado (Risso) and Chelon labrosus (Cuvier) are new host records for S. papernai (sensu stricto) and S. dimitrovi. L. aurata is a new host record for S. dimitrovi and S. minutus, and L. saliens (Risso) is a new host record for S. minutus.

  18. Helminth species richness of introduced and native grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabeev, Volodimir

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative complex analyses of parasite communities of invaders across different native and introduced populations are largely lacking. The present study provides a comparative analysis of species richness of helminth parasites in native and invasive populations of grey mullets. The local species richness differed between regions and host species, but did not differ when compared with invasive and native hosts. The size of parasite assemblages of endohelminths was higher in the Mediterranean and Azov-Black Seas, while monogeneans were the most diverse in the Sea of Japan. The helminth diversity was apparently higher in the introduced population of Liza haematocheilus than that in their native habitat, but this trend could not be confirmed when the size of geographic range and sampling efforts were controlled for. The parasite species richness at the infracommunity level of the invasive host population is significantly lower compared with that of the native host populations that lends support to the enemy release hypothesis. A distribution pattern of the infracommunity richness of acquired parasites by the invasive host can be characterized as aggregated and it is random in native host populations. Heterogeneity in the host susceptibility and vulnerability to acquired helminth species was assumed to be a reason of the aggregation of species numbers in the population of the invasive host.

  19. Microsatellite variation and genetic structuring in Mugil liza (Teleostei: Mugilidae) populations from Argentina and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ana C. G.; Miño, Carolina I.; Marins, Luis F. F.; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Miranda, Laura; Schwingel, Paulo R.; Lemos, Valéria M.; Gonzalez-Castro, Mariano; Castello, Jorge P.; Vieira, João P.

    2014-08-01

    The mullet Mugil liza is distributed along the Atlantic coast of South America, from Argentina to Venezuela, and it is heavily exploited in Brazil. We assessed patterns of distribution of neutral nuclear genetic variation in 250 samples from the Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (latitudinal range of 23-31°S) and from Buenos Aires Province in Argentina (36°S). Nine microsatellite loci revealed 131 total alleles, 3-23 alleles per locus, He: 0.69 and Ho: 0.67. Significant genetic differentiation was observed between Rio de Janeiro samples (23°S) and those from all other locations, as indicated by FST, hierarchical analyses of genetic structure, Bayesian cluster analyses and assignment tests. The presence of two different demographic clusters better explains the allelic diversity observed in mullets from the southernmost portion of the Atlantic coast of Brazil and from Argentina. This may be taken into account when designing fisheries management plans involving Brazilian, Uruguayan and Argentinean M. liza populations.

  20. Reproductive cycles of Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada and Liza aurata (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartulović, V; Dulčić, J; Matić-Skoko, S; Glamuzina, B

    2011-06-01

    The reproductive cycles of three mullet species from the Eastern Adriatic coast were described using several biological parameters (gonado-somatic index, oocyte diameter and sex ratio) to improve knowledge about their reproduction.

  1. Genus-level taxonomic changes implied by the mitochondrial phylogeny of grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Jean-Dominique; Chen, Wei-Jen; Shen, Kang-Ning; Fu, Cuizhang; Borsa, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive mitochondrial phylogeny of the family Mugilidae (Durand et al., Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 64 (2012) 73-92) demonstrated the polyphyly or paraphyly of a proportion of the 20 genera in the family. Based on these results, here we propose a revised classification with 25 genera, including 15 genera currently recognized as valid (Agonostomus, Aldrichetta, Cestraeus, Chaenomugil, Chelon, Crenimugil, Ellochelon, Joturus, Mugil, Myxus, Neomyxus, Oedalechilus, Rhinomugil, Sicamugil and Trachystoma), 7 resurrected genera [Dajaus (for Agonostomus monticola), Gracilimugil (for Liza argentea), Minimugil (for Sicamugil cascasia), Osteomugil (for several species currently under Moolgarda and Valamugil, including M. cunnesius, M. engeli, M. perusii, and V. robustus), Planiliza (for Indo-Pacific Chelon spp., Indo-Pacific Liza spp., and Paramugil parmatus), Plicomugil (for Oedalechilus labiosus), and Squalomugil (for Rhinomugil nasutus)] and 3 new genera: Neochelon gen. nov. (for Liza falcipinnis), Parachelon gen. nov. (for L. grandisquamis) and Pseudomyxus gen. nov. (for Myxus capensis). Genus Chelon was shown to include exclusively Chelon spp. and Liza spp. from the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, and Liza spp. species endemic to eastern southern Africa. Genus Crenimugil should now include C. crenilabis, Moolgarda seheli and V. buchanani. Genus names Liza, Moolgarda, Paramugil, Valamugil and Xenomugil should be abandoned because they are no longer valid. Further genetic evidence is required to confirm or infirm the validity of the genus Paracrenimugil Senou 1988. The mitochondrial phylogeny of the 25 genera from the present revision is the following: [(Sicamugil, (Minimugil, Rhinomugil)); Trachystoma; ((Myxus, Neomyxus), (Cestraeus, Chaenomugil, (Agonostomus, Dajaus, Joturus), Mugil)); (Aldrichetta, Gracilimugil); Neochelon gen. nov.; (Pseudomyxus gen. nov., (Chelon, Oedalechilus, Planiliza, Parachelon gen. nov.)); ((Squalomugil, (Ellochelon, Plicomugil)), (Crenimugil, Osteomugil))]. Agonostomus monticola and several species with large distribution ranges (including Moolgarda seheli, Mugil cephalus and M. curema) consist of separate lineages whose geographic distribution suggests they are cryptic species, thus warranting further taxonomic work in the Mugilidae at the infra-generic level.

  2. Meso and microhabitat analysis and feeding habits of small nektonic characins (Teleostei: Characiformes in Neotropical streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Ceneviva-Bastos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The habitat use and feeding habits of a set of nektonic fish species often found in small low-gradient streams in Brazil were investigated. The core species in the present study was Knodus moenkhausii (Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903, the most abundant of five species in the nektonic guild. Records of the species in 22 streams indicate that K. moenkhausii is associated, on a mesohabitat scale, with runs, and on a microhabitat scale, with sandy bottoms, intermediate depth, and open sites without coverage or submerged vegetation. During snorkeling observations, two additional nektonic registered species showed spatial segregation from K. moenkhausii with respect to foraging microhabitats. Feeding habits of the observed nektonic species were significantly correlated with riparian vegetation. The six species studied appear to use different resources, as suggested by a non-metric ordination of diet, and sites with characteristic riparian vegetation. The studied species may be considered generalists with a tendency to insectivory, with K. moenkhausii feeding on the widest variety of resources. Such opportunism explains its ability to successfully occupy instream habitats with low complexity.

  3. Estudo citoquimico estrutural e ultra-estrutual do desenvolvimento em Serrasalmus spilopleura (Teleostei, Characiformes, Serrasalminae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ariene Cristina Dias Guimarães

    2004-01-01

    Resumo: Durante o desenvolvimento oocitário o metabolismo celular é intenso. Várias vias biossintéticas interagem na formação dos componentes e estruturas celulares, destinadas a viabilizar a fertilização e o desenvolvimento inicial do embrião e da larva. Nos oócitos dos teleósteos aparecem e se desenvolvem com esse objetivo, o envelope oocitário, os alvéolos corticais, as inclusões lipídicas e os grânulos de vitelo. Estudos morfológicos, fisiológicos e bioquímicos apontam diferentes sítios e...

  4. Molecular evolution of connective tissue growth factor in Cyprinidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianghui Kong; Xuzhen Wang; Xiaoni Gan; Junbing Li; Shunping He

    2008-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) plays an important role in regulation ofcell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and individual development in animals. The study of sequences variation and molecular evolution of CTGF gene across various species of the cyprinid could be helpful for understanding of speciation and gene divergence in this kind of fish. In this study, 19 novel sequences of CTGF gene were obtained from the representative species of the family Cyprinidae using PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing. Phylogenetic relationships of Cyprinidae were reconstructed by neighbor-joining (N J), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian method. Oryzias latipes from the family Cyprinodontidae was assigned to be the outgroup taxon. Leuciscini and Barbini were clustered into the monophyletic lineages, respectively, with the high nodal supports. The estimation of the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution (dN/dS) for the various branches indicated that there stood the different evolution rates between the Leuciscini and the Barbini. With the ratio of dN/dS of the Leuciscini being lower than that of the Barbini, species within the Barbini were demonstrated to be subjected to the relatively less selection pressure and under the relaxable evolution background. A 6 bp indel (insertion/deletion) was found at the 5' end of CTGF gene of Cyprinidae, and this 6 bp deletion only appeared in the Leuciscini, which is a typical characteristic of the Leuciscini and provides evidence for the monophylogeny of the Leuciscini. For the amino acid sequences of CTGF protein, the most variations and indels were distributed in the signal region and IGFBP region of this protein, implying that these variations were correlated with the regulation of the CTGF gene expression and protein activity.

  5. Description of larvae and juveniles of Bairdiella ronchus (Sciaenidae: Teleostei in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kengo Itagaki

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Developmental stages from flexion larvae to early juvenile of Bairdiella ronchus were described and illustrated from specimens collected along the margins of tidal creeks in the southern zone of the Cananéia-Iguape System on the southeastern coast of Brazil. The B. ronchus larvae were identified working backwards from the juvenile using characteristics common to successively earlier ontogenetic stages. The number of myomeres was 25 (11+14. The flexion of notochord was completed by 5.5 mm SL. The fin formation began in the following sequence: caudal, second dorsal and anal, pelvic fins, first dorsal and pectoral. It was fully completed in this sequence: principal caudal, second dorsal, anal, first dorsal, pelvic and pectoral fins. Squamation began between 10.0 mm SL and 11.1 mm SL, and was entirely completed by 35.0 mm SL. The major head spines included the posterior preocular, supraocular and post-temporal. The larval morphology and pigmentation, mainly the swath pigmentation pattern, were very similar to those described for B. chrysoura in the South Atlantic Bight of the United States. Among sciaenid larvae co-occurring in the study area, Stellifer rastrifer shows larval characteristics more similar to those of B. ronchus, mainly in the preflexion and flexion stages, and in the contraction of the swath pigmentation. They can be differentiated by the fact that in S. rastrifer there is a post-anal lateral pigmentation or caudal pigment on the ventral midline radiating dorsally, which is absent in B. ronchus.

  6. Repetitive DNA Sequences and Evolution of ZZ/ZW Sex Chromosomes in Characidium (Teleostei: Characiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; da Costa Silva, Guilherme José; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Characidium constitutes an interesting model for cytogenetic studies, since a large degree of karyotype variation has been detected in this group, like the presence/absence of sex and supernumerary chromosomes and variable distribution of repetitive sequences in different species/populations. In this study, we performed a comparative cytogenetic analysis in 13 Characidium species collected at different South American river basins in order to investigate the karyotype diversification in this group. Chromosome analyses involved the karyotype characterization, cytogenetic mapping of repetitive DNA sequences and cross-species chromosome painting using a W-specific probe obtained in a previous study from Characidium gomesi. Our results evidenced a conserved diploid chromosome number of 2n = 50, and almost all the species exhibited homeologous ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in different stages of differentiation, except C. cf. zebra, C. tenue, C. xavante and C. stigmosum. Notably, some ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes showed 5S and/or 18S rDNA clusters, while no U2 snDNA sites could be detected in the sex chromosomes, being restricted to a single chromosome pair in almost all the analyzed species. In addition, the species Characidium sp. aff. C. vidali showed B chromosomes with an inter-individual variation of 1 to 4 supernumerary chromosomes per cell. Notably, these B chromosomes share sequences with the W-specific probe, providing insights about their origin. Results presented here further confirm the extensive karyotype diversity within Characidium in contrast with a conserved diploid chromosome number. Such chromosome differences seem to constitute a significant reproductive barrier, since several sympatric Characidium species had been described during the last few years and no interespecific hybrids were found.

  7. Patterns of brain morphology in mid-European Cyprinidae (Pisces, Teleostei): a quantitative histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, K; Junger, H

    1988-01-01

    The present study considers patterns of brain morphology in 14 common species of mid-European Cyprinidae. Sixteen areas per brain were measured on serial cryostat sections by computer-aided planimetry. The volumes of these areas were expressed as % of the total brain volume. These brain centres (ranked according to falling values of the coefficient of variation VR, of the interspecific mean) are: Lobus facialis, L. vagus, central acustic area, Crista cerebellaris, Bulbus olfactorius, Eminentia granularis, Stratum opticum (of the optic tectum), Torus longitudinalis, Nucleus habenularis, Valvula cerebelli, Corpus cerebelli, Telencephalon, Tectum opticum, Diencephalon, Torus semicircularis, mesencephalic tegmentum. Seven primary sensory areas are leading in VR; highest in interspecific variability were the two special viscerosensory brainstem lobes for external (L. facialis) and internal (L. vagus) taste. Low in interspecific variability were integration centres (see above). By plotting the relative volumina of those brain centres which represent three major sensory modalities: brain stem chemosense, acoustico-lateralis and sense of vision, species are separated into three groups: 1) Most species scatter along an axis from moderately (Aspius aspius, Rutilus rutilus, Leuciscus cephalus, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Alburnus alburnus, Chondrostoma nasus) to highly developed chemo- and acustico-lateralis centres (Vimba vimba, Abramis brama, Abramis ballerus). Blicca bjoercna is situated in the middle of this axis. Within the latter group the optic centres are evenly well developed. 2) Carassius carassius, Gobio gobio and Tinca tinca are characterized by relatively small acoustico-lateralis and optic areas, but highly developed chemocentres. 3) Pelecus cultratus is monotypic among the species investigated by having large acoustico-lateralis and optic, but modestly developed chemocentres. The brain patterns relative to life style are discussed.

  8. Biological performance of Asian catfish (Clarias batrachus (Teleostei, Clariidae cultured in recirculating aquaculture system

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    Rahmat Fadhil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the biological performance of Asian catfish in RAS by using4 tanks (3 culture tanks and 1 sedimentation tank measuring 2 m x 1 m x 0.60 m with a volume of 900liters and bio-filter as water purification unit. The numbers of catfish cultured in each tank were as manyas 300 fish i each tank, with a size of 5-8 cm (Tank 1, 8-12 cm (Tank 2 and 12-15 cm (Tank 3,respectively. This study was conducted for 30 days (August-September 2010 by considering the waterquality during experiment, indicates that the RAS are able to provide proper conditions for growth andsurvival of catfish with a survival rate more than 92% on all tank experiments with specific growth ratefrom 0.64 to 0.89% per day and feed conversion rate of about 0.18-0.27. The existence of the impuritiesfrom the fish waste directly influences water quality, but the decline of water quality still at a decent levelfor the culture of catfish. The ANOVA test to the biological performance and water quality showed thatthe difference in the size of fish in each tank has no significant influence between each other.

  9. Revisão taxonômica do gênero Homodiaetus (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae

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    Koch Walter Rudolf

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Homodiaetus Eigenmann & Ward, 1907 is revised and four species are recognized. Its distribution is restricted to southeastern South America, from Uruguay to Paraguay river at west to the coastal drainages of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Homodiaetus is currently distinguished from other genus of Stegophilinae by the combination of the following characters: origin of ventral-fin at midlength between the snout tip and the caudal-fin origin; opercle with three or more odontodes; and gill membranes confluent with the istmus. Homodiaetus anisitsi Eigenmann & Ward, 1907, is diagnosed by the caudal-fin with black middle rays, margin of upper and lower procurrent caudal-fin rays with dark stripes extending to the caudal-fin, and 3-6 opercular odontodes; H. passarellii (Ribeiro, 1944 with 6-7 opercular odontodes, 21-24 lower procurrent caudal-fin rays and 23-26 upper procurrent caudal-fin rays; H. banguela sp. nov. with 9 opercular odontodes, 17-19 lower procurrent caudal-fin rays, 17-22 upper procurrent caudal-fin rays, reduction of fourth pharyngobranchial with only three teeth and untoothed fifth ceratobranchial; and H. graciosa sp. nov. with 5-6 dentary rows, 7-9 opercular odontodes and 16-23 upper procurrent caudal-fin rays.

  10. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of Scomber (Teleostei: Scombridae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jiao; GAO Tianxiang; MIAO Zhenqing; YANAGIMOTO Takashi

    2011-01-01

    A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the genus Scomber was conducted based on mitochondrial (COI, Cyt b and control region) and nuclear (5S rDNA) DNA sequence data in multigene perspective. A variety of phylogenetic analytic methods were used to clarify the current taxonomic classification and to assess phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history of this genus. The present study produced a well-resolved phylogeny that strongly supported the monophyly of Scomber. We confirmed that S. japonicus and S. colias were genetically distinct. Although morphologically and ecologically similar to S. colias, the molecular data showed that S. japonicus has a greater molecular affinity with S. australasicus, which conflicts with the traditional taxonomy. This phyiogenetic pattern was corroborated by the mtDNA data, but incompletely by the nuclear DNA data. Phylogenetic concordance between the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA regions for the basal nodes supports an Atlantic origin for Scomber. The present-day geographic ranges of the species were compared with the resultant molecular phylogeny derived from partition Bayesian analyses of the combined data sets to evaluate possible dispersal routes of the genus. The present-day geographic distribution of Scomber species might be best ascribed to multiple dispersal events. In addition, our results suggest that phylogenies derived from multiple genes and long sequences exhibited improved phylogenetic resolution, from which we conclude that the phylogenetic reconstruction is a reliable representation of the evolutionary history of Scomber.

  11. Two new species of shovel-jaw carp Onychostoma (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Huy Duc; Pham, Hung Manh; Tran, Ngan Trong

    2015-05-22

    Two new species of large shovel-jaw carps in the genus Onychostoma are described from the upper Krong No and middle Dong Nai drainages of the Langbiang Plateau in southern Vietnam. These new species are known from streams in montane mixed pine and evergreen forests between 140 and 1112 m. Their populations are isolated in the headwaters of the upper Sre Pok River of the Mekong basin and in the middle of the Dong Nai basin. Both species are differentiated from their congeners by a combination of the following characters: transverse mouth opening width greater than head width, 14-17 predorsal scales, caudal-peduncle length 3.9-4.2 times in SL, no barbels in adults and juveniles, a strong serrated last simple ray of the dorsal fin, and small eye diameter (20.3-21.5% HL). Onychostoma krongnoensis sp. nov. is differentiated from Onychostoma dongnaiensis sp. nov. by body depth (4.0 vs. 3.2 times in SL), predorsal scale number (14-17 vs. 14-15), dorsal-fin length (4.5 vs. 4.2 times in SL), caudal-peduncle length (3.9 vs. 4.2 times in SL), colour in life (dark vs. bright), and by mitochondrial DNA (0.2% sequence divergence). Molecular evidence indicates that both species are members of Onychostoma and are distinct from all congeners sampled (uncorrected sequence divergences at the 16S rRNA gene of >2.0% for all Onychostoma for which homologous 16S rRNA sequences are available).

  12. Population characteristics, space use and habitat associations of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Teleostei: Syngnathidae

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    Ierecê Lucena Rosa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a case study of a threatened seahorse species, Hippocampus reidi, highlighting the importance of using ecological information to assist conservation and management initiatives. Underwater visual sighting data (50 x 2m transect gathered along the NE, SE and S portions of the Brazilian coast revealed an unequal distribution across localities, perhaps related to harvesting pressure, and a mean density of 0.026 ind.m-2. Our findings suggest some restricted spatial use by H. reidi, which was consistent with its estimated home range, and with re-sighting of specimens. Reproduction was recorded year-round, however productive peaks may exist. Components of habitat structure mostly used as anchoring points were mangrove plants, macroalgae, cnidarians, seagrass, sponges, and bryozoans. Conservation recommendations include: further characterization and mapping of habitats; assessment of availability and condition of microhabitats in selected areas, and studies on dispersal routes during initial life stages.Neste artigo apresenta-se um estudo de caso de uma espécie ameaçada de cavalo-marinho, Hippocampus reidi, enfatizando a importância de utilizar informações ecológicas nas ações de conservação e manejo. Dados de censo visual (transectos de 50 x 2m obtidos nas porções NE, SE e S da costa brasileira revelaram uma distribuição heterogênea entre as localidades, talvez relacionada à pressão de coleta, e uma densidade média de 0.026 ind.m-2. Os resultados sugerem limitação no uso do espaço por H. reidi (consistente com a área vital estimada e com a re-avistagem de exemplares e que a reprodução ocorre o ano inteiro, embora com possíveis picos. Os componentes da estrutura do habitat mais freqüentemente utilizados como pontos de ancoragem pelos cavalos-marinhos foram vegetação de mangue, macroalgas, cnidários, capim marinho e briozoários. Recomendações conservacionistas incluem caracterização adicional e mapeamento de habitats; avaliação da disponibilidade e condição dos microhabitats em áreas selecionadas, e estudos sobre rotas de dispersão durante as fases iniciais de vida.

  13. Chriolepis prolata, a new species of Atlantic goby (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the North American continental shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Philip A; Findley, Lloyd T

    2015-01-08

    A new species of seven-spined goby of the genus Chriolepis is described from five specimens collected from the continental shelf of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean off South Carolina in depths of ca 54 to 110 m. The "Platform Goby", Chriolepis prolata, is distinguishable from all other western Atlantic species currently assigned to the genus Chriolepis and the morphologically similar genus Varicus in having pelvic-fin rays one through four branched, the fifth (innermost) pelvic-fin ray unbranched and relatively long (longer than the second ray to longer than all other pelvic-fin rays); most lateral body scales ctenoid, extending anteriorly in a wedge to a level anterior to the first dorsal-fin insertion or nearly to the pectoral-fin axil, with two or more rows of small cycloid scales extending anteriorly to near the pectoral-fin axil, cycloid scales along the bases of the dorsal and anal fins, and no scales on the belly; and the first two anal-fin pterygiophores inserted anterior to the first haemal spine. It closely resembles C. bilix but differs from that species which has a scaled belly, a shorter fifth pelvic-fin ray, prolonged dorsal-fin spines and smaller teeth in the lower jaw. An earlier report of C. bilix from Florida waters apparently refers to C. prolata. 

  14. Do invasive bighead goby Neogobius kessleri and round goby N. melanostomus (Teleostei, Gobiidae compete for food?

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    Števove B.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bighead goby (Neogobius kessleri and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus have been invading new non-native areas about two decades successfully. In this study, diet spectrum, seasonal variation, feeding strategy and diet overlap between these two invasive species were assessed. Materials were collected from the Danube at Bratislava by fishing rods and/or electrofishing. The diet spectrum of both species was diverse: a total of 46 food types in bighead goby and 51food types in round goby were observed. Dikerogammarus sp., chironomid larvae and Corophium sp. were the most predominant food types in bighead goby, whereas in round goby, chironomid larvae, Corophium sp., bryozoans and Cladocera predominated. The diet varied over seasons. In the Slovak part of the Danube, bighead goby and round goby have adapted to local food resources, consuming diverse food from small to large items, both with soft and/or hard body. This enhances the capability of these invasive species to spread successfully. It appears that even if both exploit similar food resources, their proportional content differs. Further differences between these gobies were also found in their food behaviour and feeding strategy. Both species tend to be specialists where possible, but round goby demonstrates higher flexibility towards general feeding strategy.

  15. Descriptions of three new species of Glossogobius (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoese, Douglass F; Allen, Gerald R

    2015-07-16

    Three new species of Glossogobius are described from New Guinea. Glossogobius multipapillus, n. sp. from northeastern New Guinea has a lobed mental fraenum and a distinctive papilla pattern unlike any other species in the genus. Glossogobius sentaniensis, n. sp. is described from Lake Sentani. The species is similar to Glossogobius aureus and G. koragensis differing in head pores and large dark spots on the body. Glossogobius macrocephalus n. sp. from Lake Tebera and surrounding rivers has a lobed mental fraenum and differs from other species in the Glossogobius celebius group in the combination of having a large head, head pore, fin-ray and predorsal scale counts.

  16. Lebetus scorpioides and Buenia jeffreysii (Teleostei: Gobiidae found north of the Arctic Circle

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    Ingvar Byrkjedal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Two gobiid species, Lebetus scorpioides and Buenia jeffreysii, were recorded in northern Norway, for the first time north of the Arctic Circle. While both species were found on the continental shelf west of the Lofoten islands, one of them, L. scorpioides, was found north of 70°N off western Finnmark. The records represent a considerable northward extension of the distribution of these species. Being well within the size of reproductive individuals, the specimens appear to belong to resident populations most probably missed by earlier samplings.

  17. Two new dwarfgobies of the genus Eviota from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan (Teleostei: Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, David W; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Shibukawa, Koichi

    2014-03-10

    Two species of dwarfgoby are described from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Eviota flebilis n. sp. belongs to cephalic sensory-pore system pattern 2 (lacking only IT pore), has a dorsal/anal fin-ray formula of 8/7, unbranched pectoral-fin rays, the 5th pelvic-fin ray 12.9% of the 4th, a distinctive narrow, red-orange line under the eye, and a dark vertical line at the caudal-fin base. Eviota specca n. sp. has a cephalic sensory-pore system pattern 1 (complete), has a dorsal/anal-fin formula of 8/8, the body heavily sprinkled with chromatophores, and a single dark spot on the upper pectoral-fin base.

  18. A new marine gobiid species of the genus Clariger Jordan & Snyder (Gobiidae, Teleostei from Taiwan

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    Nian-Hong Jang-Liaw

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Clariger Jordan & Snyder, 1901 was collected from northern Taiwan. The genus was previously known only from Japanese waters. This discovery is the first formal and southernmost record of these marine gobies from the waters of subtropical Taiwan. The new species, Clariger taiwanensis sp. n., is distinguished from its congeners by a unique combination of features: (1 fin rays: dorsal-fin rays III, I/8; anal-fin rays modally I/8; and pectoral-fin rays modally 19 (2+16+1; (2 longitudinal dermal ridge on head with 6 barbels; and (3 specific coloration pattern: head and trunk dark brown with scattered pale spots and blotches; cheek, ventral portion of head sometimes pale with deep brown spots; pectoral-fin base with a dark brown band; and caudal fin mostly dark brown proximally and with alternating and irregular dark brown and pale bands distally. A diagnostic key to all nominal species from Japan and Taiwan is provided.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Java fat-nose goby Pseudogobius javanicus (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Pin; Shen, Chia-Ning; Chen, I-Shiung

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the fat-nose goby Pseudogobius javanicus has been amplified. P. javanicus is widely contributed species in Southeast to East Asia. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,493 base pairs (bp) in total length, had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, 1 control region (CR) and 1 light-strand replication origin (OL). The overall base composition of P. javanicus is 27.1% for A, 27.3% for T, 28.6% for C, 17.0% for G, with higher AT content of 54.4%. This study will contribute for understanding the phylogenetic approach in genus Pseudogobius.

  20. Two new dwarfgobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan: Eviota flavipinnata and Eviota rubrimaculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Greenfield, David W; Motomura, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-28

    Two new species of Eviota from Yoron Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, are described. Both species belong to the cephalic sensory-canal pore system pattern 2 (lacking only the H [IT] pore); have some pectoral-fin rays branched; have a dorsal/anal-fin formula of 9/8; no dark spot over the ural centrum; no prominent distinct dark spots on the pectoral-fin base; no postocular spots; and no strong dark spots on the caudal fin. The species share the most characters with E. afelei, E. bimaculata and E. punctulata, but differ from Eviota afelei and E. punctulata by having two versus three dark marks over the anal-fin base, and from Eviota bimaculata by lacking the two dark, prominent occipital spots present in that species. Both species differ from all other described species of Eviota in fresh coloration. Eviota flavipinnata has bright golden-yellow dorsal fins and an orange anal fin, and a fifth pelvic-fin ray that is 12% the length of the fourth ray. Eviota rubrimaculata has clear dorsal fins with red spots, large red spots on the body, and lacks the fifth pelvic-fin ray.

  1. Prey selection of the shallow water fish Pomatoschistus minutus (Gobiidae, Teleostei) in the SW Baltic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, C. Dieter

    1990-06-01

    The aim of this investigation is to demonstrate the reasons of an opportunist feeder to select some components of the available food supply and to avoid others. Object of this test is the eurytopic and euryhaline sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas), from the Luebeck Bight. It inhabits both sand habitats as well as bottoms mixed with pebbles or continuous hard substrates. Therefore, it is often in close contact with Mytilus-belts which present a very rich food supply of small crustaceans. The selectivity behaviour of sand gobies from a sand/clay ecotone was compared with that of populations from a stony pier and a sand bottom during the reproduction period. Regarding the numbers of prey organisms, crustaceans of the periphyton were generally preferred at the pier but avoided in the ecotone. The same is valid for prey organisms of the psammal which were preferred by gobies of the sand bottom but mostly avoided by populations of mixed bottoms. Analyses of size selections revealed that the preferred gammarids or Jaera isopods were between 2 and 5 mm length. A balanced relation of goby biomass and utilizable food supply (predatory impact index) seems to effect positive selectivity of gammarids in the Mytilus-belts or of harpacticoids in the sand bottom.

  2. Diet of Ctenogobius shufeldti (Jordan and Eigenmann, 1887 (Teleostei, Gobiidae in Guaratuba Bay, subtropical west Atlantic

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    Diego Zanlorenzi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The diet composition of the American freshwater goby, Ctenogobius shufeldti, was investigated in an estuarine area and two of its tributaries. 397 individuals, total length from 21 to 70mm, were sampled over a period of 12 months and their stomach contents were analysed by the Frequency of Occurrence and Number of Points methods. According to the Alimentary Index, diet was constituted mainly by Ostracoda (IA=50.51 and Tanaidacea (IA=40.85, and secondarily by Gastropoda (IA=1.21, Amphipoda (IA=0.10, Isopoda (IA=0.01, Cirripedia (IA=0.01, Decapoda larvae (IA=0.01, Insecta (IA=0.01, Chlorophyta (IA=2.15 and Rodophyta (IA=0.15 filamentous algae, and plants (IA=4.99. Diversity of diet was higher in rivers than in the Bay. Except for Decapoda larvae, items found in the two rivers were the same. In the Bay, Amphipoda and Cirripedia were not found. Previous to this research, the filamentous algae Chlorophyta and Rodophyta had not been noted in the diet of this species in estuaries close to Guaratuba. In view of this, and regarding the possible roles played by cryptobenthic fish species in aquatic communities (Depczynski and Bellwood, 2003, it is concluded that C. shufeldti takes part in trophic dynamics feeding on benthic organisms as well as on algae, a behaviour that can result from both marine and continental influences existing in the region.

  3. Eviota santanai, a new Dwarfgoby from Timor-Leste (Teleostei: Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, David W; Erdmann, Mark V

    2013-11-29

    Eviota santanai is described based on four specimens from Timor-Leste, taken in 5-8 m depth. In general coloration pattern, the species is most similar to E. latifasciata, but differs in the cephalic sensory-pore system pattern, the absence of an occipital spot, and live color including pinkish-mauve bars. Eviota santanai has a dorsal/anal fin-ray formula of 8/8, 5th pelvic-fin ray absent, some lower pectoral-fin rays branched, and IT and PITO pores absent.

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of the amphidromous, red-tailed goby Sicyopterus lagocephalus (Pallas) (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Tzen-Yuh; Chen, I-Shiung; Lin, Hung-Du; Hsiao, Sheng-Tai; Ju, Yu-Min

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the complete mitogenome of the amphidromous, red-tailed goby, Sicyopterus lagocephalus has been amplified and sequenced by long polymerase chain reaction. This mitochondrial genome consists of 16,500 bp, with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region (CR), and its gene arrangement is identical to those of most vertebrates. The CR (841 bp) is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of the heavy strand is A, 28.9%; G, 16.4%; C, 28.3%; and T, 26.4%, with a slight AT bias of 55.3%. The complete mitogenomic data may provide more informative for phylogenetic approach for gobioid phylogeny especially for Sicydiine gobies.

  5. A new species of Didogobius (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tassell, James L; Kramer, Annemarie

    2014-05-01

    Didogobius helenae is described from the Canary Islands. It has a sensory papillae pattern that is consistent with the current diagnosis for Didogobius, but lacks all head canals and pores that are present in other members of the genus. Pores, in general, are replaced by large papillae.  The species is defined by first dorsal fin VI; second dorsal fin I,10; anal fin I,9; pectoral fin 16-17; pelvic fin I,5 and disk shaped; lateral scales 28-30, cycloid at anterior, becoming ctenoid posteriorly; cycloid scales present on belly and posterior breast; predorsal region, cheek, operculum and base of pectoral fin without scales; lower most scale on the caudal fin-base with elongate, thickened ctenii along the upper and lower posterior edges. Color in life consists of four mottled, wide brown-orange bars separated by narrower white bars on the trunk, the cheek whitish with 5 more or less circular blotches of orange, outlined in dark brown and a black spot on ventral operculum. A key to the species is provided. 

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of Hoeven's mullet-goby Hemigobius hoevenii (Bleeker) (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Pin; Shen, Chia-Ning; Chen, I-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Hoeven's mullet-goby Hemigobius hoevenii (Bleeker, 1851) collected from Malay Peninsula has been amplified and sequenced. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,469 base pairs (bp) in total length, had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, 1 control region (CR) and 1 light-strand replication origin (OL). The overall base composition of H. hoevenii is 27.1% for A, 26.6% for T, 29.0% for C, 17.3% for G, with higher AT content 53.7%. This study will contribute for understanding the phylogenetic approach of Hemigobius species as well as the related genera of gobiid fishes.

  7. Seasonal changes of spermatogenesis in the male sand goby Oxyeleotris marmoratus Bleeker, 1852 (Teleostei, Gobiidae

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    Piyakorn Boonyoung

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The annual reproductive cycle of the total 84 mature male sand gobies Oxyeleotris marmoratus, was investigated during March 2002 to March 2003. The specimens were obtained from the natural freshwater marsh in Pattani Province, southern Thailand. The seasonal changes in the testes were determined based on the histological characteristics during testicular development. The cranial, medial and caudal regions of testis are synchronously arranged with various stages of germ cells such as spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa. The germ cells are found from the periphery to the center of each seminiferous tubule. The testicular cycle of adult male O. marmoratus can be divided into five stages: resting, developing, mature, spawning, and spent stages. In the present study, O. marmoratus shows a seasonal cycle of spermatogenesis with a defined spermiation period. The highest spawning peak occurred in November 2002, and the second highest peak in May with respectively 100% and 66% of male spawning. Spawning did not take place during January to March. However, sperm production occurred throughout the year and presented three peaks ofmature stage in April, June, and September. The present work describes the ultrastructure of spermatogenesis with an emphasis on the spermiogenesis. The mature sperm consists of a head without an acrosome, a short midpiece and a long flagellar tail with lateral fins. The flagellum contains an axoneme of classical form with 9 peripheral double microtubules. The nucleus is symmetrical with a deep basal invagination and the centriolar complex is located outside the nuclear fossa. Sperm morphology and spermatogenesis between sand goby and those of the related families are compared.

  8. First record of redneck goby Schismatogobius deraniyagalai (Teleostei: Gobiidae from Seethanathi river, Karnataka, Southern India.

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    Muthukumarasamy Arunachalam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Schismatogobius deraniyagalai is recorded from the Seethanathi River of Karnataka state in the southern part of India. Previous records of these species were from the streams in Kerala of India and from freshwater habitats of Sri Lanka. Herein we report the occurrence of this species in Seethanathi River showing its distribution extended further north along the west coast of Peninsular India.

  9. Silhouettea chaimi Goren, 1978, a junior synonym of Papillogobius melanobranchus (Fowler, 1934) (Teleostei: Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačić, Marcelo; Bogorodsky, Sergey

    2013-02-12

    The high resemblance of Silhouettea chaimi Goren, 1978 to two Papillogobius species, P. melanobranchus and P. reichei was noticed from their published descriptions. The comparison of types of S. chaimi with comparative material of P. melanobranchus and P. reichei confirmed the lack of morphological differences between two nominal species, S. chaimi and P. melanobranchus. Therefore, S. chaimi is placed as a junior synonym of P. melanobranchus.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Abe's mangrove goby Mugilogobius abei (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Pin; Shen, Chia-Ning; Chen, I-Shiung

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Abe's mangrove goby Mugilogobius abei has been amplified. Mugilogobius abei is widely contributed species in Northeast to East Asia. The complete mitogenome is 16,483 base pairs (bp) in total length, had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 1 control region (CR). The overall base composition of M. abei is 27.7% for A, 27.0% for T, 28.6% for C, 16.7% for G, with higher AT content of 54.7%. This study will contribute for understanding the phylogenetic approach in genus Mugilogobius and related gobiid genera.

  11. Two new dwarfgobies from the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Eviota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, David W; Jewett, Susan L

    2016-06-13

    Two new species of dwarfgobies are described, Eviota asymbasia from the Sulu Sea, Philippine Islands, south to Java and west to Damar, and E. bipunctata occurring from the Indian Ocean eastward into the western Pacific Ocean. Eviota asymbasia lacks the IT pore of the cephalic sensory-pore system and usually also the POP, has a dorsal/anal-fin formula of 8/8, has some pectoral-fin rays branched and usually 15 rays, two spots on the pectoral-fin base, no dark spot over the preural centrum, first dorsal fin may be filamentous, six ventral postanal spots, and the male genital papilla is not fimbriate. Eviota bipunctata belongs to the group with cephalic sensory-pore system pattern 2 (lacking only the IT pore), some pectoral-fin rays branched, pectoral-fin base with 1 or 2 prominent dark spots, dorsal/anal-fin formula usually 8/8, and no occipital spots.

  12. Genetic population structure of sympatric and allopatric populations of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex, Teleostei, Coregonidae

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    Nitz Barbara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teleost fishes of the Coregonidae are good model systems for studying postglacial evolution, adaptive radiation and ecological speciation. Of particular interest is whether the repeated occurrence of sympatric species pairs results from in-situ divergence from a single lineage or from multiple invasions of one or more different lineages. Here, we analysed the genetic structure of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex, examining 271 individuals from 8 lakes in northern Germany using 1244 polymorphic AFLP loci. Six lakes had only one population of C. albula while the remaining two lakes had C. albula as well as a sympatric species (C. lucinensis or C. fontanae. Results AFLP demonstrated a significant population structure (Bayesian θB = 0.22. Lower differentiation between allopatric (θB = 0.028 than sympatric (0.063-0.083 populations contradicts the hypothesis of a sympatric origin of taxa, and there was little evidence for stocking or ongoing hybridization. Genome scans found only three loci that appeared to be under selection in both sympatric population pairs, suggesting a low probability of similar mechanisms of ecological segregation. However, removal of all non-neutral loci decreased the genetic distance between sympatric pairs, suggesting recent adaptive divergence at a few loci. Sympatric pairs in the two lakes were genetically distinct from the six other C. albula populations, suggesting introgression from another lineage may have influenced these two lakes. This was supported by an analysis of isolation-by-distance, where the drift-gene flow equilibrium observed among allopatric populations was disrupted when the sympatric pairs were included. Conclusions While the population genetic data alone can not unambiguously uncover the mode of speciation, our data indicate that multiple lineages may be responsible for the complex patterns typically observed in Coregonus. Relative differences within and among lakes raises the possibility that multiple lineages may be present in northern Germany, thus understanding the postglacial evolution and speciation in the C. albula complex requires a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of several potential founder lineages.

  13. Bagrichthys vaillantii (Popta, 1906), a valid species of bagrid catfish from eastern Borneo (Teleostei: Siluriformes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, H.H.

    2000-01-01

    Bagrichthys vaillantii (Popta, 1906), a species of bagrid catfish previously considered a junior synonym of B. macracanthus Bleeker, 1854, is found to be a valid species distinct from the latter. It can be differentiated from B. macracanthus in having a shorter dorsal spine, smaller eye and steeper

  14. Spontaneous behavior of basal Copionodontinae cave catfishes from Brazil (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae

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    Bianca Rantin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cave animals are particularly interesting due to their behavioral specializations, resultant from evolution in isolation. We present data from a spontaneous behavior study (spatial distribution and preference for microhabitats of two troglobitic catfish from Brazil: Glaphyropoma spinosum and a new species of Copionodon. We compared the data with those obtained of a sympatric epigean species, Copionodon pecten. These Trichomycteridae species belong to a basal and apparently monophyletic subfamily – Copionodontinae, endemic to Chapada Diamantina, central Bahia state, eastern Brazil. We observed the fishes in natural and laboratory conditions through ad libitum and focal animal methods. Each spatial behavioral category (hidden, bottom, midwater, surface and wall swimming and stationary in the bottom was timed individually, with a sample of 12 specimens per species. Unlike most troglobitic fishes, cave copionodontines tested herein did not extend exploratory behavior to midwater, with benthonic and thigmotactic-related exploratory behavior. This behavior is possibly related to its feeding behavior specializations, strong territorialism and photophobic behavior. The epigean Copionodon species is also benthonic. The spatial behavior of the cave Copionodontinae could be interpreted as a retained and plesiomorphic character-state in relation to other trichomycterid catfishes.

  15. Nuclear DNA content in 20 species of Siluriformes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi from the Neotropical region

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    Paulo César Fenerich

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 20 species of Siluriformes fish were analyzed in order to determine their nuclear DNA content and compare these data with their diploid number. In addition, the extension and importance of the changes that occurred during the process of diversification in the group of Neotropical freshwater catfish were investigated. The only species studied of the family Doradidae, Rhinodoras d'orbignyi (2n = 58, presented 3.46 ± 0.13 pg of DNA. Among the species of the family Heptapteridae, the values of nuclear DNA content and the diploid numbers ranged from 1.13 ± 0.09 pg of DNA in Pimelodella sp. (2n = 46 to 2.38 ± 0.07 pg of DNA in Imparfinis mirini (2n = 58. The family Loricariidae showed the widest variation in diploid number and nuclear DNA content values, ranging from 2n = 52 and 3.96 ± 0.22 pg of DNA in Liposarcus anisitsi to 2n = 76 and 4.90 ± 0.12 pg of DNA in Hypostomus sp. 4. In this group, two local samples of Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae were analyzed, and both exhibited 2n = 56, but different nuclear DNA content values (2.68 ± 0.22 pg and 2.82 ± 0.20 pg, respectively. Among the Pseudopimelodidae species analyzed, Pseudopimelodus mangurus (2n = 54 showed 2.23 ± 0.15 pg and Microglanis cottoides (2n = 54 exhibited 2.50 ± 0.18 pg of DNA. Two species of Trichomycterus (Trichomycteridae also presented the same diploid number, 2n = 54 chromosomes, but, while the species from the Quinta stream presented a DNA content of 2.62 ± 0.19 pg, in the sample from the Capivara river this value was 2.30 ± 0.23 pg. In the analyzed species, the results showed that the changes in DNA content were frequently not followed by changes in the diploid number. This fact permits to suggest that, in addition to structural chromosome rearrangements, other mechanisms, including deletions, duplications and polyploidy, could be involved in the process of species differentiation in the representatives of the fish order Siluriformes.

  16. Reproductive characteristics of characid fish species (Teleostei, Characiformes and their relationship with body size and phylogeny

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    Marco A. Azevedo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I investigated the reproductive biology of fish species from the family Characidae of the order Characiformes. I also investigated the relationship between reproductive biology and body weight and interpreted this relationship in a phylogenetic context. The results of the present study contribute to the understanding of the evolution of the reproductive strategies present in the species of this family. Most larger characid species and other characiforms exhibit a reproductive pattern that is generally characterized by a short seasonal reproductive period that lasts one to three months, between September and April. This is accompanied by total spawning, an extremely high fecundity, and, in many species, a reproductive migration. Many species with lower fecundity exhibit some form of parental care. Although reduction in body size may represent an adaptive advantage, it may also require evolutionary responses to new biological problems that arise. In terms of reproduction, smaller species have a tendency to reduce the number of oocytes that they produce. Many small characids have a reproductive pattern similar to that of larger characiforms. On the other hand they may also exhibit a range of modifications that possibly relate to the decrease in body size and the consequent reduction in fecundity. Examples of changes in the general reproductive pattern include the following: reduction in the size of mature oocytes; increase in fecundity; production of several batches of oocytes; an extended reproductive period or even continuous reproduction that allows individuals to reproduce more than once a year; high growth rates; rapid recruitment of juveniles; presence of more than one reproductive cohort that increases the sexually active population; and multiple independent development of insemination as a reproductive strategy. These changes are possibly associated with adaptive pressures that are related to the reduction in body size. In addition, such reproductive characteristics or novelties may reflect the phylogenetic history of a given species.

  17. Feeding ecology of Lutjanus analis (Teleostei: Lutjanidae from Abrolhos Bank, Eastern Brazil

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    Matheus Oliveira Freitas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Diet and feeding ecology of the mutton snapper Lutjanus analis were investigated in the Abrolhos Bank, Eastern Brazil, the largest and richest coral reefs in the South Atlantic, where about 270 species of reef and shore fishes occur. To evaluate seasonal and ontogenetic shifts in the diet, specimens of L. analis were obtained through a fish monitoring program in four cities in southern Bahia State, from June 2005 to March 2007. Stomachs from 85 mutton snappers that ranged in size from 18.1 to 74.0 cm TL were examined. Prey were identified to the lowest possible taxon and assessed by the frequency of occurrence and volumetric methods. Variations in volume prey consumption were evaluated using non-metric multi-dimensional scaling ordination, analysis of similarity, and similarity percentage methods. Significant differences in diet composition among size classes were registered, whereas non significant differences between seasons were observed. Considering size-classes, food items consumption showed important variations: juveniles (50.1 cm TL consumed basically fish, mostly Anguiliformes. Lutjanus analis is an important generalist reef predator, with a broad array of food resources and ontogenetic changes in the diet. This snapper species plays an important role on the trophic ecology of the Abrolhos Bank coral reefs.Foram avaliadas a dieta e a ecologia alimentar da cioba Lutjanus analis no Banco dos Abrolhos, Leste do Brasil. O Banco dos Abrolhos abrange os maiores e mais diversos recifes de corais do Atlântico Sul, onde cerca de 270 espécies de peixes recifais e costeiros ocorrem. Para a avaliação das variações sazonais e ontogênicas na dieta, exemplares de L. analis foram obtidos através de um programa de monitoramento em quatro cidades do extremo sul da Bahia, entre junho de 2005 e março de 2007. Estômagos de 85 exemplares com comprimento total variando entre 18,1 e 74,0 cm foram examinados. Os itens alimentares foram identificados até o menor nível taxonômico possível e avaliados através dos métodos de frequência de ocorrência e volumétrico. Variações no consumo das presas foram avaliadas através do método de escalonamento multidimensional não-métrico e métodos de análise de similaridade e percentagem de similaridade. Diferenças significativas na dieta foram observadas entre as classes de tamanho, porém estas não foram detectadas entre as estações do ano. Considerando as classes de tamanho, os itens consumidos apresentaram importantes variações: os juvenis (50,1 cm CT consumiram basicamente peixes, principalmente Anguiliformes. Lutjanus analis é um importante predador recifal generalista, que consome um amplo espectro de presas, apresentando mudanças ontogênicas na dieta. Esse lutjanídeo desempenha um importante papel na ecologia trófica dos recifes de corais do Banco dos Abrolhos.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships of the algae scraping cyprinid genus Capoeta (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Boris A; Freyhof, Jörg; Lajbner, Zdeněk; Perea, Silvia; Abdoli, Asghar; Gaffaroğlu, Muhammet; Ozuluğ, Müfit; Rubenyan, Haikaz R; Salnikov, Vladimir B; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    We reconstructed the matrilineal phylogeny of Asian algae-eating fishes of the genus Capoeta based on complete mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b sequences obtained from 20 species sampled from the majority of the range and 44 species of closely related barbs of the genera Barbus s. str. and Luciobarbus. The results of this study show that Capoeta forms a strongly supported monophyletic subclade nested within the Luciobarbus clade, suggesting that specialized scraping morphology appeared once in the evolutionary history of the genus. We detected three main groups of Capoeta: the Mesopotamian group, which includes three species from the Tigris-Euphrates system and adjacent water bodies, the Anatolian-Iranian group, which has the most diversified structure and encompasses many species distributed throughout Anatolian and Iranian inland waters, and the Aralo-Caspian group, which consists of species distributed in basins of the Caspian and Aral Seas, including many dead-end rivers in Central Asia and Northern Iran. The most probable origination pathway of the genus Capoeta is hypothesized to occur as a result of allopolyploidization. The origin of Capoeta was found around the Langhian-Serravallian boundary according to our molecular clock. The diversification within the genus occurred along Middle Miocene-Late Pliocene periods.

  19. Lake Tanganyika--a 'melting pot' of ancient and young cichlid lineages (Teleostei: Cichlidae?

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    Juliane D Weiss

    Full Text Available A long history of research focused on the East Africa cichlid radiations (EAR revealed discrepancies between mtDNA and nuclear phylogenies, suggesting that interspecific hybridisation may have been significant during the radiation of these fishes. The approximately 250 cichlid species of Lake Tanganyika have their roots in a monophyletic African cichlid assemblage, but controversies remain about the precise phylogenetic origin and placement of different lineages and consequently about L. Tanganyika colonization scenarios. 3312 AFLP loci and the mitochondrial ND2 gene were genotyped for 91 species representing almost all major lacustrine and riverine haplotilapiine east African cichlid lineages with a focus on L. Tanganyika endemics. Explicitly testing for the possibility of ancient hybridisation events, a comprehensive phylogenetic network hypothesis is proposed for the origin and diversification of L. Tanganyika cichlids. Inference of discordant phylogenetic signal strongly suggests that the genomes of two endemic L. Tanganyika tribes, Eretmodini and Tropheini, are composed of an ancient mixture of riverine and lacustrine lineages. For the first time a strong monophyly signal of all non-haplochromine mouthbrooding species endemic to L. Tanganyika ("ancient mouthbrooders" was detected. Further, in the genomes of early diverging L. Tanganyika endemics Trematocarini, Bathybatini, Hemibatini and Boulengerochromis genetic components of other lineages belonging to the East African Radiation appear to be present. In combination with recent palaeo-geological results showing that tectonic activity in the L. Tanganyika region resulted in highly dynamic and heterogeneous landscape evolution over the Neogene and Pleistocene, the novel phylogenetic data render a single lacustrine basin as the geographical cradle of the endemic L. Tanganyika cichlid lineages unlikely. Instead a scenario of a pre-rift origin of several independent L. Tanganyika precursor lineages which diversified in ancient rivers and precursor lakes and then amalgamated in the extant L. Tanganyika basin is put forward as an alternative: the 'melting pot Tanganyika' hypothesis.

  20. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  1. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus(Teleostei)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹏; 尤锋; 刘梦侠; 吴志昊; 文爱韵; 李军; 徐永立; 张培军

    2010-01-01

    Steroid sex hormones,such as estradiol-17β(E2)and testosterone(T),are important regulators of sex change in fish.In this study,we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay(RIA).Flounder larvae were divided into five groups(G0–G4),and fed with 0 (control),0.2,2,20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching(dph).Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not signific...

  2. Ejaculate of sneaker males is pheromonally inconspicuous in the black goby, Gobius niger (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatello, L; Mazzoldi, C; Rasotto, M B

    2002-11-01

    The black goby, Gobius niger, shows alternative male mating tactics, i.e., parental and sneaker males. Males release a sexual pheromone that attracts females and stimulates aggressive displays in males. This pheromone is produced by the mesorchial gland, a structure well developed in parental males but markedly undeveloped in sneakers. We measured the behavioral response of parental males to the ejaculates of males performing different reproductive tactics. Parental males reacted to the ejaculate of other parental males, with stereotypic aggressive behaviors, but not to the ejaculate of sneakers; consequently sneaker male ejaculate appears to be pheromonally inconspicuous.

  3. Local ecological knowledge on the goliath grouper epinephelus itajara (teleostei: serranidae in southern Brazil

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    Leopoldo Cavaleri Gerhardinger

    Full Text Available The goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara is a large sized (> 400 kg and critically endangered marine fish, which is protected in many countries, including Brazil. Through the application of semi-structured interviews, we investigated the local ecological knowledge of seven fishermen specialist on catching E. itajara from the Babitonga bay, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Local long-line fisheries for E. itajara seemed to be a disappearing tradition in the studied site, with a detailed inherent local ecological knowledge system, which is also being lost. Our study also showed that fishermen engaged in recent fisheries, such as spear-fishing, can also possess a detailed local ecological knowledge system. Through the analysis of fishermen local ecological knowledge, several aspects of E. itajara life history were registered. This species is found in the inner and outer Babitonga bay, from saline waters to areas with a large input of freshwater, and inhabits submerged wooden substrates and artificial reefs such as shipwrecks, mooring pillars and cargo containers. It is known to spawn in December and subsequent summer months in the studied area. Spawning aggregations are usually seen in December (during full moon, being also eventually observed in January and February by our informants. While lobsters, spadefishes and octopuses seem to constitute the most important food items of inner bay E. itajara, outer bay individuals may feed on catfishes, crustaceans and other fish species. The goliath grouper is regarded as pacific and curious fish, but frequently display agonistic behavior in the presence of divers. Based on the perception of well experienced spear fishermen, we hypothesize that E. itajara undertakes seasonal migrations from the inner to the outer bay during summer, and that the studied population is suffering from growth over-fishing. Our data provides a practical evidence of how joining scientific and local ecological knowledge will likely benefit E. itajara local conservation and management practices by adding important new biological data into the decision-making process.

  4. Whole chromosome painting of B chromosomes of the red-eye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Patricia Elda Sobrinho; Diniz, Débora; Wasko, Adriane Pinto; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    B chromosomes are dispensable genomic elements found in different groups of animals and plants. In the present study, a whole chromosome probe was generated from a specific heterochromatic B chromosome occurring in cells of the characidae fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907). The chromosome painting probes were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments for the assessment of metaphase chromosomes obtained from individuals from three populations of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae. The results revealed that DNA sequences were shared between a specific B chromosome and many chromosomes of the A complement in all populations analyzed, suggesting a possible intra-specific origin of these B chromosomes. However, no hybridization signals were observed in other B chromosomes found in the same individuals, implying a possible independent origin of B chromosome variants in this species. FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes revealed the presence of non-active ribosomal genes in some B chromosomes and in some chromosomes of the A complement, suggesting that at least two types of B chromosomes had an independent origin. The role of heterochromatic segments and ribosomal sequences in the origin of B chromosomes were discussed.

  5. Reproductive biology of the Neotropical electric fish Brachyhypopomus draco (Teleostei: Hypopomidae from southern Brazil

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    Andrea B. Schaan

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of a population of the weakly electric fish Brachyhypopomus draco from southern Brazil is described. Information is provided on the establishment of the reproductive period in this species and its relations with environmental and feeding factors, as well as on the absolute and relative fecundities, spawning type, sex ratio and sexual dimorphism. The species exhibits a relatively long reproductive period, a relative fecundity of 0.173 oocytes per mg of female total weight, and fractional spawning. The sex ratio did not differ from 1:1 during all sampled months. Sexual dimorphism related to hypertrophy of the male's distal portion of caudal filament was observed and males grew to greater lengths than females. Male gonadosomatic index (GSI was significantly related to water depth, oxygen saturation and temperature. Female GSI was significantly related to water depth and hepatosomatic index.

  6. Sperm ultrastructure in three different families of weakly electric fishes (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes

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    Júlia Giora

    Full Text Available This study presents details of sperm ultrastructure for Gymnotus aff. carapo (Gymnotidae, Eigenmannia trilineata (Sternopygidae, and three Brachyhypopomus species (B. draco, B. bombilla, and B. gauderio - Hypopomidae from southern Brazil. Differences were found among the representatives of the different families. For example, nuclear rotation was present in E. trilineata and in the Brachyhypopomus species, but absent in Gymnotus aff. carapo, and the presence of flagellar fins was only observed in E. trilineata. Some intraspecific variations could also be noticed among the Brachyhypopomus species analyzed. Most of the characters found in the spermatozoa of the species studied herein are shared with species of Gymnotiformes previously analyzed.

  7. Microanatomy of the paired-fin pads of ostariophysan fishes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Kevin W; Lujan, Nathan K; Lundberg, John G; Mayden, Richard L; Siegel, Dustin S

    2012-10-01

    Members of the teleost superorder Ostariophysi dominate freshwater habitats on all continents except Antarctica and Australia. Obligate benthic and rheophilic taxa from four different orders of the Ostariophysi (Gonorynchiformes, Cypriniformes, Characiformes, and Siluriformes) frequently exhibit thickened pads of skin along the ventral surface of the anteriormost ray or rays of horizontally orientated paired (pectoral and pelvic) fins. Such paired-fin pads, though convergent, are externally homogenous across ostariophysan groups (particularly nonsiluriform taxa) and have been considered previously to be the result of epidermal modification. Histological examination of the pectoral and/or pelvic fins of 44 species of ostariophysans (including members of the Gonorynchiforms, Cypriniformes, Characiformes, and Siluriformes) revealed a tremendous and previously unrecognized diversity in the cellular arrangement of the skin layers (epidermis and subdermis) contributing to the paired-fin pads. Three types of paired-fin pads (Types 1-3) are identified in nonsiluriform ostariophysan fishes, based on differences in the cellular arrangement of the epidermis and subdermis. The paired-fin pads of siluriforms may or may not exhibit a deep series of ridges and grooves across the surface. Two distinct patterns of unculus producing cells are identified in the epidermis of the paired-fin pads of siluriforms, one of which is characterized by distinct bands of keratinization throughout the epidermis and is described in Amphilius platychir (Amphiliidae) for the first time. General histological comparisons between the paired fins of benthic and rheophilic ostariophysan and nonostariophysan percomorph fishes are provided, and the possible function(s) of the paired-fin pads of ostariophysan fish are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Etheostoma erythrozonum, a new species of darter (teleostei: Percidae) from the Meramec River drainage, missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, J.F.; Wood, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    A new species of darter, Etheostoma erythrozonum, is described from the Meramec River drainage of Missouri, USA. Etheostoma erythrozonum is the first known fish species endemic to the Meramec River drainage. It differs morphologically and genetically from populations of its sister species, Etheostoma tetrazonum, from the Gasconade River, Osage River, and Moreau River drainages. Copyright ?? 2009 ?? Magnolia Press.

  9. LENTIPES KAAEA, A NEW SPECIES OF FRESHWATER GOBY (TELEOSTEI: GOBIOIDEI: SICYDIINAE FROM NEW CALEDONIA.

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    WATSON R. E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Lentipes kaaea, new species, is described on the basis of 28 specimens collected from high gradient streams occurring in eastern slope region of North Province on New Caledonia and streams in the island nation of Vanuatu. Lentipes kaaea, new species, is distinguished from all other congeners by the following combination of characteristics: males and females with a single pair of fleshy lobes associated with and attached basally with urogenital papilla, lobes always apparent in males and only apparent in gravid females; usually 17 (17-18 pectoral rays; usually 10 (9-10 segmented rays in second dorsal fin; caudal peduncle with cycloid scales, few ctenoid scales may be present along midline in females, between belly and first dorsal fin ctenoid scales with 3 to 5 large spike like ctenii present on males and absent in females; cephalic sensory pore system with pores A, B, C, D, F, H, K, L, N and O, pore D singular with all other pores paired, oculoscapular canal divided into posterior and anterior canals between pores H and K; males bright red to purplish on head and on posterior half of body, second dorsal fin with a black spot between spine and ray 1, individuals may have more than one spot present, first dorsal fin bluish to purplish and usually without spots, anal fin reddish to purplish basally and bluish distally; females usually whitish with variable tan to brownish markings that may include a distinct lateral band and a spot at medial base of caudal fin, above midline dusky bars and bands may be present, dusky saddles may be present dorsally, fin rays and spines with basal half slightly brownish and distally without pigment, membrane in all fins generally clear.

  10. The types of Osteoglossum formosum Müller & Schlegel, 1840 (Teleostei, Osteoglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oijen, Martien J P; Van Der Meij, Sancia E T

    2013-01-01

    The designation of a neotype for Scleropages formosus (Müller & Schlegel, 1840) by Pouyaud et al. (2003) triggered a search for the type specimens of the species, which were found in the collections of the Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden (RMNH) and the Natural History Museum, London (BM(NH)). The publication date of the species is corrected. Moreover, detailed data on the day of capture and the type locality were uncovered. An English translation of the major part of the original Dutch description is provided, and a number of neglected colour descriptions and figures of S.formosus are discussed. Lastly, a lectotype is designated.

  11. A checklist of macroparasites of Liza haematocheila (Temminck & Schlegel (Teleostei: Mugilidae

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    Kostadinova Aneta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mugilid fish Liza haematocheila (syn. Mugil soiuy, native to the Western North Pacific, provides opportunities to examine the changes of its parasite fauna after its translocation to the Sea of Azov and subsequent establishment in the Black Sea. However, the information on macroparasites of this host in both ranges of its current distribution comes from isolated studies published in difficult-to-access literature sources. Materials and methods Data from 53 publications, predominantly in Chinese, Russian and Ukrainian, were compiled from an extensive search of the literature and the Host-Parasite Database maintained up to 2005 at the Natural History Museum, London. Results The complete checklist of the metazoan parasites of L. haematocheila throughout its distributional range comprises summarised information for 69 nominal species of helminth and ectoparasitic crustacean parasites, from 45 genera and 27 families (370 host-parasite records in total and includes the name of the parasite species, the area/locality of the host capture, and the author and date of the published record. The taxonomy is updated and the validity of the records and synonymies are critically evaluated. A comparison of the parasite faunas based on the records in the native and introduced/invasive range of L. haematocheila suggests that a large number of parasite species was 'lost' in the new distributional range whereas an even greater number was 'gained'. Conclusion Although the present checklist provides information that will facilitate future studies, the interesting question of macroparasite faunal diversity in L. haematocheila in its natural and introduced/invasive ranges cannot be dealt with the current data because of unreliability associated with the large number of non-documented and questionable records. This stresses the importance of data quality analysis in using host-parasite database and checklist data.

  12. Evolution of ontogenetic dietary shifts and associated gut features in prickleback fishes (Teleostei: Stichaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, D P; Gawlicka, A K; Horn, M H

    2014-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an ontogenetic dietary shift from carnivory to herbivory or omnivory, and concomitant changes in the gut facilitating digestion of algae, are synapomorphies of the tribes Xiphisterini and Esselenichthyini in the family Stichaeidae (pricklebacks). Previous investigations have revealed that two xiphisterine pricklebacks-Xiphister mucosus and Xiphister atropurpureus-become herbivorous or omnivorous, respectively, as their bodies grow larger, and that their guts show related changes in length and function. In this study we found that, with increase in size, the basal member of the Xiphisterini, Phytichthys chirus, showed an increased proportion of algae in its diet, increased activity of α-amylase and decreased activity of aminopeptidase, all of which support the synapomorphy hypothesis. Cebidichthys violaceus, a herbivore in the Esselenichthyini, shows similar ontogenetic changes in diet and digestive tract length and physiology, but these features were not observed in two derived carnivores, Dictyosoma burgeri and Dictyosoma rubrimaculatum, within the clade. These results suggest that herbivory is isolated to C. violaceus within the Esselenichthyini. Allometric relationships of gut length as a function of body size generally follow diet within the Xiphisterini and Esselenichthyini, with herbivores having the longest guts, which become disproportionately longer than body size as the fishes grow, omnivores intermediate gut lengths, and carnivores the shortest. A carnivore from an adjacent clade, Anoplarchus purpurescens, had the shortest gut, which did not change in length relative to body length as the fish grew. Overall, our results clarify the patterns of dietary evolution within the Stichaeidae and lay the foundation for more detailed studies of dietary and digestive specialization in fishes in the family.

  13. Stable isotope evidence for trophic overlap of sympatric Mexican Lake Chapala silversides (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae: Chirostoma spp.

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    Norman Mercado-Silva

    Full Text Available We explore the trophic role that a diverse sympatric group of fishes in the genus Chirostoma play in a large, shallow lake in central Mexico, Lake Chapala. We use δ13C and δ15N stable isotope - based food web analyses to explore how they relate to other components of the Lake Chapala ecosystem. We find five Chirostoma species in top trophic levels of the Chapala food web compared to other fishes, relying on a combination of zooplankton, fish and benthic resources as energy sources. Food web metric analyses showed generally overlapping trophic niches for members of Chirostoma, especially in terms of δ13C. However, C. jordani had lower mean δ15N isotopic values than C. promelas. As a group, "pescados blancos" (C. sphyraena and C. promelas also had higher δ15N signatures than "charales" (C. consocium, C. jordani and C. labarcae reflecting greater piscivory, but these differences were not strong for all food web metrics used. Trophic overlap among species of Chirostoma in Lake Chapala raises questions about the forces that might have led to a morphologically diverse but functionally similar and monophyletic group of species.

  14. Immunohistochemical and histochemical characteristics of the olfactory system of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Teleostei, Poecilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Simone; Lazzari, Maurizio; Ciani, Franco; Franceschini, Valeria

    2009-10-01

    Olfaction in fish has been studied using preferentially macrosmatic species as models. In the present research, the labelling patterns of different neuronal markers and lectins were analyzed in the olfactory neurons and in their bulbar axonal endings in the guppy Poecilia reticulata, belonging to the group of microsmatic fish. We observed that calretinin immunostaining was confined to a population of olfactory receptor cells localized in the upper layers of the sensory mucosa, probably microvillous neurons innervating the lateral glomerular layer. Immunoreactivity for S100 proteins was mainly evident in crypt cells, but also in other olfactory cells belonging to subtypes projecting in distinct regions of the bulbs. Protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) was not detected in the olfactory system of the guppy. Lectin binding revealed the presence of N-acetylglucosamine and alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine residues in the glycoconjugates of numerous olfactory neurons ubiquitously distributed in the mucosa. The low number of sugar types detected suggested a reduced glycosidic variability that could be an index of restricted odorant discrimination, in concordance with guppy visual-based behaviors. Finally, we counted few crypt cells which were immunoreactive for S100 and calretinin. Crypt cells were more abundant in guppy females. This difference is in accordance with guppy gender-specific responses to pheromones. Cells immunoreactive to calretinin showed no evidence of ventral projections in the bulbs. We assumed the hypothesis that their odorant sensitivity is not strictly limited to pheromones or sexual signals in general.

  15. Parasitofauna study of the brown trout, Salmo trutta (Pisces, Teleostei from Corsica (Mediterranean island rivers

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    Quilichini Y.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Corsica is a mediterranean island characterised by a great number of rivers. Salmonides are the main fishes which populate these rivers. Very appreciated by fishermen, Salmonides are represented by three species in the insular hydrographical network, among which an autochthonous species, the brown trout (Salmo trutta. In the present work, we have analysed the parasitofauna of this species. According to our knowledge, this research has never been carried out in Corsica. In a first step, we drew up an inventory of the parasites found in this freshwater fish. In a second step, we studied the differences which appeared in the composition of parasite communities of this species.

  16. Discovering Hidden Diversity of Characins (Teleostei: Characiformes) in Ecuador’s Yasuní National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Camacho, Daniel; Barriga, Ramiro; Ron, Santiago R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Management and conservation of biodiversity requires adequate species inventories. The Yasuní National Park is one of the most diverse regions on Earth and recent studies of terrestrial vertebrates, based on genetic evidence, have shown high levels of cryptic and undescribed diversity. Few genetic studies have been carried out in freshwater fishes from western Amazonia. Thus, in contrast with terrestrial vertebrates, their content of cryptic diversity remains unknown. In this study, we carried out genetic and morphological analyses on characin fishes at Yasuní National Park, in eastern Ecuador. Our goal was to identify cryptic diversity among one of the most speciose fish families in the Amazon region. This is the first time that genetic evidence has been used to assess the species content of the Napo Basin, one of the richest regions in vertebrate diversity. Results Phylogenetic analyses of partial mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (∼600 pb) DNA sequences from 232 specimens of the family Characidae and its closest groups revealed eight candidate new species among 33 species sampled, representing a 24% increase in species number. Analyses of external morphology allowed us to confirm the species status of six of the candidate species. Conclusions Our results show high levels of cryptic diversity in Amazonian characins. If this group is representative of other Amazonian fish, our results would imply that the species richness of the Amazonian ichthyofauna is highly underestimated. Molecular methods are a necessary tool to obtain more realistic inventories of Neotropical freshwater fishes. PMID:26275041

  17. Migration and reproductive biology of Mugil liza (Teleostei: Mugilidae) in south Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, V M; Varela, A S; Schwingel, P R; Muelbert, J H; Vieira, J P

    2014-09-01

    The mullet Mugil liza occurs along the Atlantic coast of South America from Venezuela to Argentina, but 95% of the commercial catch is collected from south Brazil between São Paulo and Argentina. Mugil liza is a single spawner with oocyte development occurring synchronously in two groups. Spawning happens in marine areas and occurs after migration. The reproductive migration occurs from Argentina (38° S) to the southern Brazilian states (24-26° S) from April to July, with peak spawning in June between northern Santa Catarina and Paraná. The presence of hyaline oocytes was associated with high salinity and sea surface temperatures of 19-21° C, and followed the seasonal northward displacement of these oceanographic conditions. The average size at first maturity (Lm ) for both sexes was 408·3 mm total length, LT . Males (Lm  = 400·1) matured earlier than females (Lm  = 421·9 mm). Fecundity ranged from 818,992 to 2,869,767 oocytes (mean = 1,624,551) in fish that were between 426 and 660 mm LT .

  18. Reproductive characteristics of characid fish species (Teleostei, Characiformes) and their relationship with body size and phylogeny

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo,Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, I investigated the reproductive biology of fish species from the family Characidae of the order Characiformes. I also investigated the relationship between reproductive biology and body weight and interpreted this relationship in a phylogenetic context. The results of the present study contribute to the understanding of the evolution of the reproductive strategies present in the species of this family. Most larger characid species and other characiforms exhibit a reproductive p...

  19. Spawning migrations of the endemic Labeobarbus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) species of Lake Tana, Ethiopia, status and threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anteneh, W.; Getahun, A.; Dejen, E.; Sibbing, F.A.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; de Graaf, M.; Wudneh, T.; Vijverberg, J.; Palstra, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The reproductive biology of the only known intact species flock of large cyprinids, the 16 Labeobarbus species of Lake Tana (Ethiopia), has been extensively studied for the past two decades. Seven species of Labeobarbus are known to migrate >50 km upstream into tributary rivers for spawning during t

  20. Peroxisomes in intestinal and gallbladder epithelial cells of the stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus L. (Teleostei)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, A.J.H. de; Veenhuis, M.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    The occurrence of microbodies in the epithelial cells of the intestine and gallbladder of the stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus L., is described. In the intestine the organelles are predominantly located in the apical and perinuclear zone of the cells and may contain small crystalline cores. In ga

  1. Reproductive biology of the mullet Mugil liza (Teleostei: Mugilidae in a tropical Brazilian bay

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    Rafael J. Albieri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of Mugil liza Valenciennes, 1836 is described as a contribution to an elaborate management programm. A total of 243 specimens (89 males and 154 females were collected in the Sepetiba Bay in south-eastern Brazil from July/2006 to June/2007. The gonadosomatic index (I G and the sequential development of the ovaries observed through histological studies suggested that the spawning season ranged from May to August. The population reached total sexual maturity (L T100 at 550 and 570 mm total length (L T for males and females, respectively. Females attained a larger size than males, and the sex ratio was female-biased for fish larger than 500 mm L T. The hepatosomatic index (I H was significantly related to the I G, indicating that vitellogenesis mobilizes hepatic energy during reproduction. Mean fecundity was 3,080,000 oocytes. The presence of only two phases of oocyte development in ripe ovaries - a reserve stock and a clutch of post-vitellogenic oocytes - indicated that ovarian development is group synchronic and this species is characterized as a total spawner. The results suggest that establishing a closed fishing season from May to August and establishing a minimum size for capture of 350 mm L T would enhance stock conservation and production for future harvest seasons.

  2. Population genetic of Petroleuciscus esfahani (Teleostei: Cyprinidae in Zayandeh Rood River, Iran

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    Neda Shojaee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Population genetics of Petroleuciscus esfahani in Zayandeh Rood River, Iran were analysed using 120 samples of adult fish from four stations of the river Cheshmeh Dimeh (CHD, Khersoonak (KH, Chamgordan (CH and Safaeye Bridge (SB and 5 pairs of microsatellite primers. All loci showed polymorphism. A total number of 54 alleles were recorded across loci ranging from 6 at CnaB-030 to 17 at Ca3. The mean number of alleles per populations ranged from 9.6 in CHD to 8.6 in others. Mean observed heterozygosity at the five loci detected ranged from 0.92 to 1.00 which showed high level of genetic diversity in each population. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was obvious in most combinations (locus × population, mainly due to heterozygosity excess. The lowest and highest genetic distances were calculated between CHD-KH and CHD-CH populations, respectively. The results showed low but significant FST values between each pair of the populations. This investigation represented at least four separate populations of P. esfahani in the river which showed the effects of river landscape fragmentation on population genetic structure of P. esfahani.

  3. Multiple invasions into freshwater by pufferfishes (teleostei: tetraodontidae: a mitogenomic perspective.

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    Yusuke Yamanoue

    Full Text Available Pufferfishes of the Family Tetraodontidae are the most speciose group in the Order Tetraodontiformes and mainly inhabit coastal waters along continents. Although no members of other tetraodontiform families have fully discarded their marine lives, approximately 30 tetraodontid species spend their entire lives in freshwaters in disjunct tropical regions of South America, Central Africa, and Southeast Asia. To investigate the interrelationships of tetraodontid pufferfishes and thereby elucidate the evolutionary origins of their freshwater habitats, we performed phylogenetic analysis based on whole mitochondrial genome sequences from 50 tetraodontid species and closely related species (including 31 newly determined sequences. The resulting phylogenies reveal that the family is composed of four major lineages and that freshwater species from the different continents are independently nested in two of the four lineages. A monophyletic origin of the use of freshwater habitats was statistically rejected, and ancestral habitat reconstruction on the resulting tree demonstrates that tetraodontids independently entered freshwater habitats in different continents at least three times. Relaxed molecular-clock Bayesian divergence time estimation suggests that the timing of these invasions differs between continents, occurring at 0-10 million years ago (MA in South America, 17-38 MA in Central Africa, and 48-78 MA in Southeast Asia. These timings are congruent with geological events that could facilitate adaptation to freshwater habitats in each continent.

  4. Microsatellite Development for an Endangered Bream Megalobrama pellegrini (Teleostei, Cyprinidae Using 454 Sequencing

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    Zuogang Peng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Megalobrama pellegrini is an endemic fish species found in the upper Yangtze River basin in China. This species has become endangered due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam and overfishing. However, the available genetic data for this species is limited. Here, we developed 26 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the M. pellegrini genome using next-generation sequencing techniques. A total of 257,497 raw reads were obtained from a quarter-plate run on 454 GS-FLX titanium platforms and 49,811 unique sequences were generated with an average length of 404 bp; 24,522 (49.2% sequences contained microsatellite repeats. Of the 53 loci screened, 33 were amplified successfully and 26 were polymorphic. The genetic diversity in M. pellegrini was moderate, with an average of 3.08 alleles per locus, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.47 and 0.51, respectively. In addition, we tested cross-species amplification for all 33 loci in four additional breams: M. amblycephala, M. skolkovii, M. terminalis, and Sinibrama wui. The cross-species amplification showed a significant high level of transferability (79%–97%, which might be due to their dramatically close genetic relationships. The polymorphic microsatellites developed in the current study will not only contribute to further conservation genetic studies and parentage analyses of this endangered species, but also facilitate future work on the other closely related species.

  5. Genetic differentiation among natural populations of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei, cichlidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnèse, J F; Adépo-Gourène, B; Abban, E K; Fermon, Y

    1997-07-01

    We analysed the genetic differentiation among 17 natural populations of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) using allozymes and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The populations studied, from the River Senegal to Lake Tana and from Lake Manzalla to Lake Baringo, represent all subspecies which have been previously described. Sixteen variable nuclear loci showed that these populations can be clustered in three groups: (1) West African populations (Senegal, Niger, Volta and Chad drainages), (2) Ethiopian Rift Valley populations (Lakes Awasa, Ziway, Koka and the Awash River) and (3) Nile drainage (Manzalla, Cairo, Lake Edward) and Kenyan Rift Valley populations (Lakes Turkana, Baringo and River Suguta). Nine different mtDNA haplotypes were found in the RFLP analysis of a 1 kb portion of the D-loop region. The network obtained showed that there are three geographically distinct groups; all West African populations and O. aureus are clustered, the two Ethiopian Rift Valley populations are distinct and between these two groups are the Kenyan and Ugandan Rift Valley populations. Nile populations show affinities both with West African populations and with specimens from Lakes Tana and Turkana. Taxonomic and biogeographical implications of these results are discussed.

  6. Eviota brahmi n. sp. from Papua New Guinea, with a redescription of Eviota nigriventris (Teleostei: Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, David W; Tornabene, Luke

    2014-04-28

    Greenfield & Randall (2011) described the gobiid fishes Eviota dorsogilva from Fiji and E. dorsopurpurea from Papua New Guinea as new species in what they termed the Eviota nigriventris complex. They also extended the range of E. nigriventris, type locality Banda Sea, to Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea. In the present paper, we describe their misidentified E. nigriventris from Papua New Guinea as a new species, E. brahmi, and redescribe E. nigriventris based on new material from near the type locality. The four species of this complex differ mainly in coloration, but are also shown to be distinct using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.

  7. THE NUCLEAR RECEPTOR E75A HAS A NOVEL PAIR-RULE-LIKE FUNCTION IN PATTERNING THE MILKWEED BUG, ONCOPELTUS FASCIATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erezyilmaz, Deniz F.; Kelstrup, Hans C.; Riddiford, Lynn M.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic studies of the fruit fly Drosophila have revealed a hierarchy of segmentation genes (maternal, gap, pair-rule and HOX) that subdivide the syncytial blastoderm into sequentially finer scale coordinates. Within this hierarchy, the pair-rule genes translate gradients of information into periodic stripes of expression. How pair-rule genes function during the progressive mode of segmentation seen in short and intermediate-germ insects is an ongoing question. Here we report that the nuclear receptor Of’E75A is expressed with double segment periodicity in the head and thorax. In the abdomen, Of’E75A is expressed in a unique pattern during posterior elongation, and briefly resembles a sequence that is typical of pair-rule genes. Depletion of Of’E75A mRNA caused loss of a subset of odd-numbered parasegments, as well as parasegment 6. Because these parasegments straddle segment boundaries, we observe fusions between adjacent segments. Finally, expression of Of’E75A in the blastoderm requires even-skipped, which is a gap gene in Oncopeltus. These data show that the function of Of’E75A during embryogenesis shares many properties with canonical pair-rule genes in other insects. They further suggest that parasegment specification may occur through irregular and episodic pair-rule-like activity. PMID:19580803

  8. Molecular cloning, transcriptional profiling, and subcellular localization of signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2) ortholog from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Priyathilaka, Thanthrige Thiunuwan; Thulasitha, William Shanthakumar; Jayasinghe, J D H E; Wan, Qiang; Nam, Bo-Hye; Lee, Jehee

    2017-08-30

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2) is a key element that transduces signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus via the type I interferon-signaling pathway. Although the structural and functional aspects of STAT proteins are well studied in mammals, information on teleostean STATs is very limited. In this study, a STAT paralog, which is highly homologous to the STAT2 members, was identified from a commercially important fish species called rock bream and designated as RbSTAT2. The RbSTAT2 gene was characterized at complementary DNA (cDNA) and genomic sequence levels, and was found to possess structural features common with its mammalian counterparts. The complete cDNA sequence was distributed into 24 exons in the genomic sequence. The promoter proximal region was analyzed and found to contain potential transcription factor binding sites to regulate the transcription of RbSTAT2. Phylogenetic studies and comparative genomic structure organization revealed the distinguishable evolution for fish and other vertebrate STAT2 orthologs. Transcriptional quantification was performed by SYBR Green quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and the ubiquitous expression of RbSTAT2 transcripts was observed in all tissues analyzed from healthy fish, with a remarkably high expression in blood cells. Significantly (Prock bream irido virus; RBIV), bacterial (Edwardsiella tarda and Streptococcus iniae), and immune stimulants (poly I:C and LPS). Antiviral potential was further confirmed by WST-1 assay, by measuring the viability of rock bream heart cells treated with RBIV. In addition, results of an in vitro challenge experiment signified the influence of rock bream interleukin-10 (RbIL-10) on transcription of RbSTAT2. Subcellular localization studies by transfection of pEGFP-N1/RbSTAT2 into rock bream heart cells revealed that the RbSTAT2 was usually located in the cytoplasm and translocated near to the nucleus upon poly I:C administration. Altogether, these findings suggest that RbSTAT2 is involved in various biologically crucial mechanisms, and provides immune protection to the rock bream. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Protective immunity against rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) infection and TLR3-mediated type I interferon signaling pathway in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) following poly (I:C) administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the potential of poly (I:C) to induce antiviral status for protecting rock bream from RBIV infection. Rock bream injected with poly (I:C) at 2 days before infection (1.1 × 10(4)) at 20 °C had significantly higher protection with RPS 13.4% and 33.4% at 100 and 200 μg/fish, respectively, through 100 days post infection (dpi). The addition of boost immunization with poly (I:C) at before/post infection at 20 °C clearly enhanced the level of protection showing 33.4% and 60.0% at 100 and 200 μg/fish, respectively. To investigate the development of a protective immune response, rock bream were re-infected with RBIV (1.1 × 10(7)) at 200 dpi. While 100% of the previously unexposed fish died, 100% of the previously infected fish survived. Poly (I:C) induced TLR3 and Mx responses were observed at several sampling time points in the spleen, kidney and blood. Moreover, significantly high expression levels of IRF3 (2.9- and 3.1-fold at 1 d and 2 days post administration (dpa), respectively), ISG15 and PKR expression (5.4- and 10.2-fold at 2 dpa, respectively) were observed in the blood, but the expression levels were low in the spleen and kidney after poly (I:C) administration. Our results showed the induction of antiviral immune responses and indicate the possibility of developing long term preventive measures against RBIV using poly (I:C). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. CpG ODN 1668 induce innate and adaptive immune responses in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) against rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-10-01

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) causes severe mass mortalities in rock bream in Korea. CpG ODN 1668 showed promise as immunoprotective agents against RBIV infection in rock bream. In this study, we assessed innate/adaptive-related gene expression patterns in RBIV-infected rock bream with and without CpG ODN 1668 administration to determine important immune defense related factors that may affect fish survival. In the CpG ODN 1668+virus-injected group, virus copies were more than 7.4- to 790591-fold lower than in the virus-injected group at 4 d (8.79 × 10(4) and 6.58 × 10(5)/μl, respectively), 7 d (5.30 × 10(2) and 2.29 × 10(7)/μl, respectively) and 10 dpi (7.79 × 10(1) and 6.16 × 10(7)/μl, respectively). Furthermore, in the CpG ODN 1668+virus-injected group, significantly higher levels of MyD88 (6 h, 1 d, 4 d and 7 dpi), IL1β (1 d, 2 d and 7 dpi) and perforin/granzyme (1 dpi) expression were observed, whereas these genes were not significantly expressed in the virus-injected group at that time points. Mx, ISG15 and PKR were significantly highly expressed at 4 d and 7 dpi and reduced when low viral loads at 10 dpi in the CpG ODN 1668+virus-injected group. Conversely, in the virus-injected group, Mx, ISG15 and PKR expression were significantly higher than the control group until 10 dpi. However, MHC class I, CD8, Fas, Fas ligand and caspases (3, 8 and 9) expression levels showed no statistically significant differences between virus- and CpG ODN 1668+virus-injected group. In summary, CpG ODN 1668 administration in fish induces innate immune response or cell death pathway, which could be a major contributing factor to effective fish control over viral transcription on 4 d to 10 dpi. Expression of MyD88, IL1β, perforin and granzyme-related immune gene response is critical factor for inhibition of RBIV replication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Diploglossus fasciatus Gray, 1831 (Diploglossa: Anguidae. Primer registro para el Parque Nacional y Área Natural de Manejo Integrado Madidi

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    Enrique Domic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia, Departamento de La Paz, Provincia Franz Tamayo, Municipio Apolo, Parque Nacional y Área Natural de Manejo Integrado Madidi, TCO Pueblo Indígena de San José de Uchupiamonas, Campamento Corazón del Madidi, cerca de encuentro al arroyo Eslabón y río Tuichi (14°32'32.58"S 67°45'44.91"W; 288 m.s.n.m.. Colectores: Jesús Martínez y Mileniusz Spanowicz. 15 de Marzo del 2013. Macho (SVL: 180 mm; LT: 379 mm; Peso: 130 g. Depositado en la Colección Boliviana de Fauna (CBF 3699, La Paz, Bolivia.

  12. The nuclear receptor E75A has a novel pair-rule-like function in patterning the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erezyilmaz, Deniz F; Kelstrup, Hans C; Riddiford, Lynn M

    2009-10-01

    Genetic studies of the fruit fly Drosophila have revealed a hierarchy of segmentation genes (maternal, gap, pair-rule and HOX) that subdivide the syncytial blastoderm into sequentially finer-scale coordinates. Within this hierarchy, the pair-rule genes translate gradients of information into periodic stripes of expression. How pair-rule genes function during the progressive mode of segmentation seen in short and intermediate-germ insects is an ongoing question. Here we report that the nuclear receptor Of'E75A is expressed with double segment periodicity in the head and thorax. In the abdomen, Of'E75A is expressed in a unique pattern during posterior elongation, and briefly resembles a sequence that is typical of pair-rule genes. Depletion of Of'E75A mRNA caused loss of a subset of odd-numbered parasegments, as well as parasegment 6. Because these parasegments straddle segment boundaries, we observe fusions between adjacent segments. Finally, expression of Of'E75A in the blastoderm requires even-skipped, which is a gap gene in Oncopeltus. These data show that the function of Of'E75A during embryogenesis shares many properties with canonical pair-rule genes in other insects. They further suggest that parasegment specification may occur through irregular and episodic pair-rule-like activity.

  13. Aspectos biológicos del pleco invasor Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Teleostei: Loricariidae en el río Palizada, Campeche, México Biological aspects of the invasor plecos Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Teleostei: Loricariidae from Palizada River, Campeche, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando T. Wakida-Kusunoki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el comportamiento de la abundancia, la relación peso-longitud y el índice gonadosomático de Pterygoplichthys pardalis en el río Palizada en Campeche, México. Se realizaron muestreos mensuales de junio de 2008 a mayo de 2009 con redes agalleras. Se colectaron 118 plecos cuyas tallas estuvieron entre 222 y 422.5 mm de longitud total (LT y un peso de 72.8 a 385.4 g. El periodo de mayor abundancia se presentó de junio a agosto, no hubo diferencias significativas de la abundancia en diferentes periodos del día (p≤ 0.05. Se observó que el índice de abundancia está correlacionado con el nivel del río y el índice gonadosomático. El índice gonadosomático muestra que la época de reproducción se presenta de mayo a agosto; sin embargo, se encontraron hembras con gónadas bien desarrolladas durante todo el año de muestreo. Los parámetros de la relación peso-longitud para ambos sexos son: b= 2.78 y a= 0.0003. La comparación de esta relación entre ambos sexos no resultó significativa (p≤ 0.05. Es necesario realizar esfuerzos para la erradicación de este pez por medio de incentivos a pescadores durante el periodo de mayor vulnerabilidad y de mayor actividad reproductiva.Abundance, length-weight relationship and gonad somatic index of Pterygoplichthys pardalis in Palizada River, Mexico were analyzed. Monthly samplings were carried out from June 2008 to May 2009 with gill nets. A total of 118 plecos were catched; theirs sizes were between 222 and 422.5 mm of total longitude (TL and weight between 72.8 to 385.4 g. The highest abundance period was found from June to August, with not statistical differences between their values in the different periods of the day (p≤ 0.05. The abundance index was correlationed with river level and gonad somatic index. The gonad somatic index showed that the spawning season occurs from May to August; however, females with well developed gonads were observed during all sampling period. The parameters of the length-weight relationship for both sexes are: b= 2.78 and a= 0.0003. The comparison of this relationship between both sexes is not significant (p≤ 0.05. It is necessary that efforts be made to eradicate this species through incentives to fishermen during bigger vulnerability and of more reproductive activity period.

  14. Tolerância de juvenis do pampo Trachinotus marginatus (Teleostei, Carangidae ao choque agudo de salinidade em laboratório Acute salinity tolerance of juvenile pompano Trachinotus marginatus (Teleostei, Carangidae under laboratory conditions

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    Luís André Sampaio

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O pampo Trachinotus marginatus é uma espécie com potencial para piscicultura, mas a sua utilização pode ser limitada pelas variações de salinidade comuns em estuários ou em ambientes super-salinos. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar a tolerância à salinidade de juvenis de T. marginatus em laboratório. Foram testadas 12 salinidades em duplicata (0, 6, 8, 10, 15, 25, 45, 55, 58, 61, 65 e 75‰ e um tratamento controle (35‰. Dez peixes (comprimento total: 20,7±2,3mm e peso úmido: 427±113mg foram colocados em tanques plásticos de 3L. A temperatura da água foi mantida em 24ºC com um banho termostatisado, aeração constante e, a cada 24 horas, os meios experimentais foram completamente renovados. Após 96 horas de exposição, as salinidades letais médias inferior e superior, com os respectivos intervalos de confiança (IC 95%, foram estimadas em 6,99‰ (IC 95% = 6,86-7,13‰ e 58,50‰ (IC 95% = 56,81-60,24‰, respectivamente. Estes resultados permitem caracterizar esta espécie como eurialina. O estudo da influência da salinidade sobre T. marginatus deve ser aprofundado, buscando avaliar principalmente os efeitos sobre o crescimento, de modo que seja possível determinar o potencial do seu cultivo em ambientes com diferentes salinidades.The pompano Trachinotus marginatus shows good potential for aquaculture, but the success of its culture might be limited by the salinity fluctuations common in estuaries or in hyper-saline environments. The objective of this work was to establish the salinity tolerance of juvenile T. marginatus under laboratory conditions. Twelve salinities (0, 6, 8, 10, 15, 25, 45, 55, 58, 61, 65, and 75‰ plus a control (35‰ were tested in duplicate. Groups of ten fish (total length: 20.7±2,3mm and wet weight: 427±113mg were placed in plastic tanks with 3L of water. A water bath was set to control the temperature at 24ºC, water was continuously aerated, and completely exchanged every 24h. After 96 hours, lower and upper medium lethal salinities and their respective confidence intervals (CI 95% were estimated as 6.99‰ (CI 95% = 6.86-7.13‰, and 58.50‰ (CI 95% = 56.81-60.24‰, respectively. These results allow the characterization of this species as euryhaline. The influence of salinity on T. marginatus should be studied with more detail, with special attention to its effects on growth, in order to determine the potential for T. marginatus culture in different salinities.

  15. Variação geográfica de caracteres quantitativos em Ogcocephalus vespertilio (Linnaeus (Teleostei, Lophiiformes, Ogcocephalidae Geographic variation of morphometric characters in Ogcocephalus vespertilio (Linnaeus (Teleostei, Lophiiformes, Ogcocephalidae

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    Mauro José Cavalcanti

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of geographic variation in 10 morphometric characters were analyzed in a sample of 91 specimens of the batfish, Ogcocephalus vespertilio (L., from the NE and SE Brazilian coast, using multivariate statistics and randomization tests. The specimens were ordinated by principal components analysis in two groups corresponding to the regions north and south of the 23ºC isotherm, and size variation was found to account for 70.3%, whereas shape differences accounted for 23.6% of the total variation in morphometric characters. The two groups were different at the 1% significance level by multivariate analysis of variance based on the Wilk's criterion, tested by a randomization procedure. Width of illicial cavity and distance from anus to anal fin were the characters most contributing to the differentiation of the population samples.

  16. Light microscopy and ultrastructure ight of the liver of Astyanax altiparanae Garutti and Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae = Histologia e ultraestrutura do fígado de Astyanax altiparanae Garutti e Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae

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    Bruno Bertolucci

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Livers of thirty specimens of Astyanax altiparanae obtained from a commercial fish farm were subjected to light and transmission electron microscopy, in order to describe the hepatic parenchyma and the intrahepatic exocrine pancreatic tissue. Anatomically, theliver showed only three hepatic lobes. Histological analysis demonstrated that the hepatocytes were spread out as anastomotic cords, arranged in two cellular layers and surrounded by sinusoids. The intrahepatic exocrine pancreatic tissue exhibited an acinararrangement and was diffused in the hepatic parenchyma. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the hepatocytes had a rounded nucleus and a rough endoplasmatic reticulum, with a parallel disposition to the nuclear membrane. The exocrine pancreatic cells showed secretion granules at the apical portion, and the rough endosplasmatic reticulum was concentrically distributed.Fígados de 30 exemplares de Astyanax altiparanae, obtidos de pesqueiros, foram submetidos à microscopia de luz e à microscopia eletrônica de transmissão para descrição do parênquima hepático e do tecido pancreático exócrino intrahepático. Anatomicamente, o fígado apresenta somente três lobos hepáticos. A análise histológica demonstra que os hepatócitos se encontram arranjados na forma de cordões anastomosados, dispostos em duas camadas celulares, sendo que estes estão cercados por sinusóides. O tecido pancreático exócrino intra-hepático apresenta arranjo acinar difuso pelo parênquima hepático. A análise ultraestrutural demonstra que os hepatócitos possuem um núcleo arredondado e retículo endoplasmático rugoso, com disposição paralela à membrana nuclear. As células pancreáticas exócrinas apresentam grânulos de secreção na porção apical e retículo endoplasmático rugoso com distribuição concêntrica.

  17. Desenvolvimento gonadal do jundiá, Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei, Siluriformes, em viveiros de terra, na região sul do Brasil = Gonadal development of jundiá, Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei, Siluriformes, in earthen ponds in southern Brazil

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    Luciana Ghiraldelli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo caracterizou o desenvolvimento gonadal de jundiá até a maturação sexual, quando cultivados em viveiros de terra, visando subsidiar o desenvolvimento de tecnologia de cultivo para esta espécie na região sul do Brasil. Alevinos de jundiá (peso médio 8 ± 3,73 g foram estocados em três viveiros, na densidade de 0,6indivíduos m-2. Catorze indivíduos foram amostrados mensalmente, de setembro de 2001 a outubro de 2002. Os estádios de maturação gonadal foram caracterizados macroscopicamente, e fragmentos de ovários e testículos de alguns exemplares foram fixados em formalina 4% para análise histológica. Foram analisados 118 exemplares: 60 machos e 58 fêmeas. Os machos apresentaram atividade reprodutiva precoce, quandocomparados às fêmeas. Testículos e ovários apresentaram morfologia similar a de outras espécies de Siluriformes. De acordo com a análise microscópica, as gônadas foram classificadas em quatro estádios de desenvolvimento: imaturo, em maturação inicial, em maturação final e maduro. A relação gonadossomática variou de 0,29 a 9,16 para os machose de 0,11 a 13,03 para as fêmeas. Indivíduos maduros foram observados nos meses de verão (dezembro/2001 e janeiro/2002, outono (abril e maio/2002 e primavera (setembro e outubro/2002, acompanhando o aumento de temperatura.The study characterized the gonadal development of jundiá from approximately 8 g until gonadal maturation, to provide further knowledge for farming jundiá in Southern Brazil. Jundiá fingerlings(average weight 8.00 ± 3.73 g were stocked in three ponds at 0.6 fish m-2. Fourteen fish were sampled each month from September 2001 to October 2002. Gonadal maturation stages were characterized macroscopically, and samples of ovaries and testicles were fixedin 4-%-buffered formalin for histological examination. One hundred and eighteen fish were analyzed: 60 males e 58 females. Jundiá males matured earlier than females. Testicles and ovaries presented similar morphology to other Siluriformes species. Gonads were classified in four development phases of the ovarian follicle, according to histology: immature, initial maturation, final maturation and mature. The gonadosomatic index varied from 0.29 to 9.16 for males and from 0.11 to 13.03 for females. Mature individuals were observed during summer (December/2001 and January/2002, fall (April and May/2002 and spring (September and October/2002, following the increase in water temperature.

  18. Toxicidade aguda do nitrito em larvas do peixe-rei marinho Odontesthes argentinensis (Teleostei, Atherinopsidae Acute toxicity of nitrite on larvae of the marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis (Teleostei, Atherinopsidae

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    Luís André Sampaio

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou a determinar o efeito tóxico do nitrito sobre larvas do peixe-rei marinho Odontesthes argentinensis através de testes agudos com 96h de duração. As larvas utilizadas neste experimento foram cultivadas no Laboratório de Maricultura da FURG (Rio Grande - RS. Foi utilizada água do mar filtrada na salinidade 35‰, na temperatura de 23°C, com fotoperíodo de 14 horas de luz e aeração constante. Diariamente, as larvas mortas foram retiradas e, em seguida, 100% do meio experimental foi renovado. Não foi fornecido alimento durante a exposição ao nitrito. As larvas foram expostas a cinco concentrações de nitrito: 50, 150, 250, 350 e 450mg L-1 N-NO2-, mais um controle onde o nitrito não foi adicionado. A CL50-96h (concentração letal para 50% dos organismos após 96 horas e seu intervalo de confiança (95% foram de 199,3 (142,0-279,6mg L-1 N-NO2-. Os resultados deste trabalho sugerem que, assim como outras espécies de peixes marinhos, o O. argentinensis é uma espécie tolerante a altas concentrações de nitrito e é pouco provável que este último seja um problema para o cultivo intensivo desta espécie.This work evaluated the toxicity of nitrite on larvae of the marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis through acute exposure during 96h. Larvae used in this experiment were cultivated in the Laboratory of Mariculture of the University of Rio Grande. During the tests temperature was 23°C, salinity 35‰, and 14 hours of light were provided. Every day dead larvae were removed and the experimental media were completely renewed. Larvae were deprived of food during the test. Concentrations for the acute tests were 50, 150, 250, 350 and 450mg L-1 N-NO2-, plus a control with no nitrite added. Lethal concentration for 50% of the organisms (LC50-96h, and its confidence interval, was 199.3 (142.0-279.6mg L-1 N-NO2-. The results of the acute tests suggest that, as other species of marine fish larvae, O. argentinensis is tolerant to high concentrations of nitrite, and it is unlikely that it would be a problem for the intensive culture of this species.

  19. Atividade reprodutiva de peixes (Teleostei e o defeso da pesca de arrasto no litoral norte de Santa Catarina, Brasil Reproductive activity of fish (Teleostei and closed season to shrimp trawling off ther northern coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Leda M. de Souza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Desembarques de arrasto visando à pesca do camarão sete-barbas, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri, foram acompanhados de 2005 a 2007 no município de São Francisco do Sul, Santa Catarina. Setenta e seis espécies de teleósteos foram registradas como captura incidental e seus indivíduos foram avaliados quanto ao estádio de maturação e Índice de Atividade Reprodutiva. Constatou-se que indivíduos de metade das espécies são capturados com gônadas maduras, em estações que variaram conforme a espécie. Em Isopisthus parvipinnis a atividade enquadrou-se na categoria "muito intensa" na primavera de 2005 e no verão de 2007; em Menticirrhus americanus, Stellifer sp., Pomadasys corvinaeformis, Stellifer brasiliensis, Syacium papillosum, Larimus breviceps, Diapterus rhombeus, Symphurus tessellatus, Chirocentrodon bleekerianus, Pellona harroweri, Anchoa tricolor e Selene setapinnis apenas em uma estação, dependendo da espécie. O verão de 2007, seguido da primavera de 2005, foram as estações em que o arrasto incidiu sobre maior número de espécies em atividade reprodutiva "intensa" ou "muito intensa". No verão de 2007 o arrasto camaroeiro incidiu sobre um conjunto de espécies em atividade reprodutiva maior que na mesma estação em 2006. Atribui-se esse fato à proibição legal do arrasto de camarão no trimestre de outubro-dezembro de 2006, favorecendo a atividade reprodutiva das espécies na estação subseqüente. Recomenda-se que a gestão da pesca camaroeira na região mantenha o defeso de arrasto na primavera, assim beneficiando não apenas as espécies de peixes que desovam nesta estação, mas também aquelas que se preparam para a desova no verão.Shrimp trawling was monitored in southern Brazil in order to study the reproductive status of teleosts occurring as by-catch. From 2005 to 2007 seventy-six fish species were found in this kind of fisheries. Gonad stages were evaluated and the Reproductive Activity Index was calculated. Mature individuals were 50% of the total caught as by-catch. Breeding activity in Isopisthus parvipinnis was "very high" in spring 2005 and summer 2007, and in a particular season (depending on the species in Menticirrhus americanus, Stellifer sp., Pomadasys corvinaeformis, Stellifer brasiliensis, Syacium papillosum, Larimus breviceps, Diapterus rhombeus, Symphurus tessellatus, Chirocentrodon bleekerianus, Pellona harroweri, Anchoa tricolor, and Selene setapinnis. In the summer of 2007, followed by the spring of 2005, trawling caught more species in "high" or "very high" breeding activity. In the summer of 2007 a larger number of species was in reproductive activity than the same season of 2006, due to a closed season in October-December 2006. Aiming to improve the fish breeding activity in this region, it is recommended to close this area for shrimp trawling during the spring. This measure could be positive for both species that spawn in spring and those preparing to spawn in the summer.

  20. Estrutura populacional de Pomadasys corvinaeformis (Steindachner (Teleostei, Haemulidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Populacional structure of Pomadasys corvinaeformis (Steindachner (Teleostei, Haemulidae at Guaratuba Bay, Paraná, Brazil

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    Paulo de Tarso da Cunha Chaves

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive and biometrical analyses were pertormed on 1629 individuals of P. corvinaeformis collected monthly from October 1993 to September 1996, at Guaratuba Bay, Southern Brazilian coast. The results indicate that the species is more abundant in the mangrove area during winter, when the largest individuais were collected, and spring, when the water temperature is lower and the salinity higher than summer or autumn. The relationship of body weight to body length, for grouped sexes, is "lnTW= -12,0456 + 3,1831 lnTL". The monthly Condition Factor is highest during summer and lowest during winter. It is suggested that P. corvinaeformis is present in the mangrove area during a specific etape of its life cycle and does not use this area to maturation and spawn.

  1. Gonadal structure and gametogenesis of Loricaria lentiginosa Isbrücker (Pisces, Teleostei, Siluriformes Estrutura gonadal e gametogênese de Loricaria lentiginosa Isbrücker (Pisces, Teleostei, Siluriformes

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    Rodrigo J. Guimarães-Cruz

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The gonadal structure and gametogenesis of Loricaria lentiginosa Isbrücker, 1979 were studied through anatomical and histological techniques. Forty two males and ten females in maturation/mature stage were captured in the reservoir of Porto Colombia, Paraná river basin, Minas Gerais, using gill nets, from November 2001 to October 2002 (tri-monthly captures. Examination of the testes revealed that they were paired, elongated and not fringed organs. Histologically, the testes presented three distinct regions: cranial espermatogenic; transistion espermatogenic and secretory; and caudal exclusively secretory. Standard histochemical techniques detected neutral glycoproteins from the secretion of the tubules of the caudal region. Espermatogenesis occurred in cysts throughout the whole extension of the wall of the seminiferous tubules, which anastomosis themselves and liberated the spermatozoa into the lumen of the espermatic ducts. The ovaries were paired, saculiformes and, histologically, they presented ovigerous lamellae that contained the cells of ovogenic ancestry. The oocytes were classified into four stages, based on their cytological characteristics and the cell layers that surrounded them. Post-ovulatory follicles and vitelogenic oocytes in the follicular atresia process also were observed.A estrutura gonadal e a gametogênese de Loricaria lentiginosa Isbrücker, 1979 foram estudadas através de técnicas anatômicas e histológicas. Capturaram-se, trimestralmente, no reservatório de Porto Colômbia, bacia do rio Paraná, Minas Gerais, quarenta e dois machos e dez fêmeas nos estádios em maturação/maduro, utilizando-se redes de emalhar, no período de novembro de 2001 a outubro de 2002. Os testículos são órgãos pares, alongados e não franjados. Histologicamente, os testículos apresentam três regiões distintas: cranial espermatogênica, transição espermatogênica e secretora e caudal exclusivamente secretora. Na secreção dos túbulos da região caudal detectaram-se glicoproteínas neutras. A espermatogênese ocorre em cistos em toda a extensão da parede dos túbulos seminíferos, os quais anastomosam-se e liberam os espermatozóides no lume dos ductos espermáticos. Os ovários são órgãos pares, saculiformes e, histologicamente, apresentam lamelas ovulígeras que contém as células da linhagem ovogênica. Os ovócitos foram classificados em quatro estádios, baseando-se em suas características citológicas e nas camadas que os circundam. Folículos pós-ovulatórios e ovócitos vitelogênicos em processo de atresia folicular foram também observados.

  2. Morfologia e crescimento do músculo estriado esquelético no pirarucu Arapaima gigas Cuvier, 1817 (Teleostei, Arapaimidae = Morphology and skeletal muscle growth in pirarucu Arapaima gigas Cuvier, 1817 (Teleostei, Arapaimidae

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    Fernanda Regina Carani

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características morfológicas e de crescimento do músculo estriado esquelético no pirarucu (Arapaima gigas. Foram utilizados animais em duas fases de crescimento: alevinos, com 50 dias de idade, e juvenis, com umano de idade. Após eutanásia dos animais, fragmentos musculares das regiões dorsal, lateral cranial e lateral caudal foram coletados e congelados em nitrogênio líquido. Cortes histológicos (10 mm foram submetidos às colorações HE e Tricrômico de Gomori, para a análise morfológica, e NADH-TR, para a análise do metabolismo oxidativo das fibras musculares. Foi calculado o menor diâmetro das fibras musculares brancas nas regiões dorsal e lateral cranial. A musculatura dorsal branca mostrou-se mais desenvolvida e, namusculatura lateral, observaram-se compartimentos distintos: superficial vermelho e profundo branco. Nos alevinos, o crescimento muscular ocorreu predominantemente por hiperplasia das fibras e, nos juvenis, predominou o crescimento muscular por hipertrofia.The aim of this work was to evaluate the morphological and growth characteristics of skeletal muscle tissue in pirarucu (Arapaimagigas using alevins (50 days old and juveniles (1 year old. Muscle samples were collected from dorsal, lateral cranial and lateral caudal regions, and then frozen in liquid nitrogen. Histological frozen sections (10μm were stained with HE and Gomori Trichrome formorphological analysis, and NADH-TR to evaluate muscle fiber oxidative metabolism. Morphometric analysis samples were obtained from dorsal and lateral cranial regions, and the smallest-diameter white fibers were measured. White dorsal muscle was thicker, andtwo muscle fiber compartments were identified in the lateral cranial region: red (superficial and white (deep muscle. Hyperplasia muscle growth predominated in alevins and hypertrophy in juveniles.

  3. Ecomorphology and food habits of teleost fishes Trachinotus carolinus (Teleostei: Carangidae and Menticirrhus littoralis (Teleostei: Sciaenidae, inhabiting the surf zone off Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Luana Prestrelo Palmeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecomorphology and food habits of juvenile Trachinotus carolinus and Menticirrhus littoralis caught in the surf zone of sandy beaches in Niterói, RJ, were investigated between July 2006 and May 2007. These fish species differ morphologically, but present similarities in their diet composition suggest some slight overlapping in their diet. The importance of food items was assessed using Kawakami and Vazzoler's feeding index. Morphometric variables were recorded to correlate with the diet composition of the different size classes for each species. A total of 210 fishes (Trachinotus carolinus - 122, Menticirrhus littoralis - 88, ranging between 24.2 mm and 112 mm total length, were analyzed, but the stomachs of only 84.8% of them contained food. Trachinotus carolinus presented mysids, Polychaetes and Emerita spp. as the predominant items in their diet. Formicidae and Isopoda were the most important items for class I individuals, whereas mysids and Emerita spp. were important for classes II and III. Class I individuals also showed smaller sized prey (amphipods and isopods and clupeid fish larvae in their diet. Emerita spp. dominated the food items of Menticirrhus littoralis regardless of the size class. Polychaetes, the second most important item was better represented in class sizes II and III. The main morphometric variable correlated with such differences included mouth position and diameter of the eye.A ecomorfologia e os hábitos alimentares de juvenis de Trachinotus carolinus e Menticirrhus littoralis capturados na zona de arrebentação de praias arenosas em Niterói, RJ, foram investigados entre julho de 2006 e Maio de 2007. Ambas as espécies diferem morfologicamente, mas apresentam semelhanças em sua dieta, sugerindo uma possível sobreposição alimentar. A importância dos itens alimentares foi avaliada utilizando o índice alimentar de Kawakami e Vazzoler. Variáveis morfométricas foram correlacionadas à dieta observada para diferentes classes de tamanho, para cada espécie. Um total de 210 peixes (Trachinotus carolinus - 122, Menticirrhus littoralis - 88, variando entre 24.2 mm e 112 mm de comprimento total, foram analisados, mas apenas 84.8% continham alimento. Trachinotus carolinus apresentou mysidáceos, poliquetas e Emerita spp. como os itens predominantes na dieta. Formicidae e Isopoda foram os itens mais importantes para a classe I de tamanho dos indivíduos, enquanto que mysidáceos e Emerita spp. foram importantes para as classes II e III. Indivíduos da classe I também apresentaram itens de menor tamanho (anfípodos e isópodos bem como larvas de peixes clupeídeos na dieta. Emerita spp. dominou a alimentação de Menticirrhus littoralis, independentemente da classe de tamanho. Poliquetas, o segundo item mais importante, foi mais bem representado na classe II e III de tamanho dos indivíduos. As principais variáveis morfométricas correlacionadas com essas diferenças incluíram a posição da boca e o diâmetro do olho.

  4. Relação peso-comprimento de Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier (Teleostei, Haemulidae na Baia de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Length-weight relationship of Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier (Teleostei, Haemulidae in the Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    André L. B. dos Santos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A relação peso-comprimento de Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier, 1830 na Baia de Sepetiba (22º54'-23º04'S; 43º34'-44º10'W, Rio de Janeiro foi determinada. Este trabalho objetiva contribuir com o conhecimento sobre a morfometria desta espécie na baía e fornecer bases para comparações com outros ambientes. Os peixes foram coletados em programas de amostragens de arrasto de praia (juvenis e arrasto de fundo (adultos entre outubro de 1998 e setembro de 1999. A equação encontrada foi W = 0,000006 L3,1368 para machos e W = 0,000006 L3,14º3 para fêmeas. Alometria positiva foi encontrada para machos e fêmeas e a proporção sexual foi de 1:1. Os altos valores para o coeficiente alométrico indicam alto investimento no crescimento, que pode ser devido ao pequeno tamanho relativo dos espécimes da população analisada, ou ser um mecanismo para suportar as condições de estresse nesta área.The lenght-weight relationship of Orthopristis rubber (Cuvier, 1830 in the Sepetiba Bay (22º54'-23º04'S; 43º34'-44º10'W, Rio de Janeiro was determined. It aims to contribute to morphometrics knowledge of this species in a semi-closed coastal area and to supply basis for comparisons with others environment. Fishes were collected by beach seine (juveniles and otter trawl (adults from October 1998 to September 1999. The equation found was W = 0,000006 L3,1368 for males and W = 0,000006 L3,14º3 for females. Positive allometry was found for both sexes and sex rate was 1:1. The comparatively high values for allometric coefficient indicate high investment in growth, which can be due to relatively small size of the examined fish populations, or a mechanism to overcome stress conditions in the area.

  5. Inoculação de suspensão bacteriana de Plesiomonas shigelloides em Jundiá, Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei: Pimelodidae Inoculation of bacterial suspension of Plesiomonas shigelloides in jundiá, Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei: Pimelodidae

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    Cheila de Lima Boijink

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o crescimento da aqüicultura mundial e intensificação da criação de peixes, os animais ficam sujeitos às enfermidades bacterianas e outras. Com o objetivo de avaliar a patogenicidade da Plesiomonas shigelloides para jundiás (Rhamdia quelen, diferentes concentrações bacterianas (3 x 10(8 e 9 x 10(8 UFC - Unidade Formadora de Colônia/ml foram inoculadas por via intraperitoneal. Foram utilizados 84 jundiás juvenis com peso e comprimento médios de 24,37 ± 4,28g e 14,42 ± 1,62cm, respectivamente. Os animais inoculados foram mantidos durante 21 dias, em caixas d'agua de amianto, em condições semelhantes de temperatura, pH, alcalinidade e dureza. Os jundiás foram sacrificados a cada dois dias para contagem de UFC/ml de tecido renal. Por observações diárias, constatou-se que a inoculação intraperitoneal de Plesiomonas shigelloides não ocasionou nenhuma alteração nos jundiás, independente da concentração inoculada. As contagens das bactérias nos rins dos jundiás mantiveram-se entre 10(5 e 10(6UFC/ml até o 21º dia, quando o experimento foi finalizado.As worldwide aquaculture has grown, and intensification in fish raising, the animals are subject to bacterial diseases and others. With the aim of evaluating pathogenicity of Plesiomonas shigelloides for "jundiá" (Rhamdia quelen, different bacterial concentrations (3 x 10(8 e 9 x 10(8 CFU - Colony Former Unit/ml were inoculated via peritoneum. Eigthy four juvenile "jundiá" averaging 24.37 ± 4,28g of weight and 14.42 ± 1,62cm of length were utilized. The inoculated animals were maintained for 21 days, in asbestos water tanks, at similar temperature, pH, alkalinity and hardness conditions. The "jundiás" were slaughtered every other day for counting UFC/ml renal tissue. For daily inspections, it was observed that intraperitoneal inoculation of Plesiomonas shigelloides did not cause any change in the catfishes, regardless inoculated concentration. Bacteria counting in "jundiás" kidneys was maintained between 10(5 and 10(6 UFC/ml until the 21st day, when the experiment was ended.

  6. Reprodução de Stellifer rastrifer (Jordan (Teleostei, Sciaenidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Reproduction of Stellifer rastrifer (Jordan (Teleostei, Sciaenidae at the Guaratuba Bay, Paraná, Brazil

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    Paulo de Tarso da Cunha Chaves

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1312 individuais of S. rastrifer were sampled from March 1994 to September 1996 at the Guaratuba Bay, Southern Brazilian coast. This species is a permanently inhabitant of the mangrove area throughout the year. The weight/length relationship of the species in the region is "In TW =-12,35 + 3,22 In TL", and the individuais may reach 172mm of total length. The analyses of gonadal morphology and gonadossomatic index indicate that S. rastrifer is a multiple spawner species, that reproduces at the mangrove area during a long period of the year. The reproductive activity is more intense during the winter and mainly the spring, when the value of Condition Factor declines and empty folheies are found in the ovaries.

  7. On a record of two alien fish species (Teleostei: Osphronemidae from the natural waters of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

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    J.D. Marcus Knight

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquarium trade has been the source of many alien species being introduced into the natural waters of Chennai.  Trichopsis vittata and Macropodus opercularis are being reported for the first from Chennai. However,  contrary to the propagule pressure theory both these species are not common in the aquarium trade, raising speculations of inter-basin water transfer playing a role in introducing non-native species into an ecosystem.  

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of Ptychobarbus kaznakovi (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), and repetitive sequences in the D-loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingzhan; Wu, Bo; Li, Jiuxuan; Song, Zhaobin

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Ptychobarbus kaznakovi was sequenced and characterized. The genome is 16,842 bp in length. Similar with most teleosts, it has two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and one displacement loop (D-loop) region. Conserved sequence blocks, including ETAS, CSB-B, D, E, F, and CSB1-3, were identified in the D-loop, which is similar to other species in Cypriniformes. Nevertheless, a 55 bp tandem repeat array was also identified at 3' end of the D-loop, which is the first finding in Schizothoracinae. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the species of Ptychobarbus (P. dipogon and P. kaznakovi) formed a monophyletic group and represented close relationship to the species without scales in Schizothoracinae.

  9. Distribution of Hatschekia pagellibogneravei (Copepoda: Hatschekiidae) on the gills of Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Madeira, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Margarida; Cruz, Cristina; Saraiva, Aurélia

    2012-06-01

    A population of the gill parasite Hatschekia pagellibogneravei (Hesse, 1878) was studied on one of its sparid fish hosts, the blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich), off the coast of Madeira Island, Portugal, northeast Atlantic. Very high infection levels of this copepod were detected, with no significant seasonal differences. Abundance was negatively correlated with fish size. There were significant differences in the distribution of this copepod among the gill arches of the host, which seem to be best explained by differences in water flow within the gill habitat.

  10. 5S rDNA characterization in twelve Sciaenidae fish species (Teleostei, Perciformes: depicting gene diversity and molecular markers

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    Fernanda A. Alves-Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to extend the genetic data on the Sciaenidae fish family, the present study had the purpose to characterize PCR-generated 5S rDNA repeats of twelve species of this group through PAGE (Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis analysis. The results showed the occurrence of at least two different 5S rDNA size classes in all the species. Moreover, 5S rDNA repeats of one of the studied species - Isopisthus parvipinnis - were cloned and subjected to nucleotide sequencing and Southern blot membrane hybridization analyses, which permitted to confirm the existence of two major 5S rDNA classes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the nucleotide sequences of different 5S rDNA repeats of I. parvipinnis lead to their separation into two major clusters. These results may reflect the high dynamism that rules the evolution rate of 5S rDNA repeats. The obtained data suggest that 5S rDNA can be useful in genetic analyses to identify species-specific markers and determine relationships among species of the Sciaenidae group.

  11. lagoonal sand smelts ( , teleostei, atherinidae) inhabit marine shallow waters of the coasts of djerba island (Tunisia)

    OpenAIRE

    Bouriga, N.; S. Selmi; Aurelle, D.; Barthelemy, R.; Quignard, J-P.; Trabelsi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Atherina boyeri de la Méditerranée est un complexe hautement polymorphe ayant un génotype capable d’une réponse phénotypique flexible. Elle peut rapidement adapter les traits de sa morphologie à des environnements allant des eaux douces aux eaux saumâtres côtières polyhalines et aux eaux océaniques. Les travaux de recherche réalisés, en Méditerranée, sur ce complexe ont permis de le scinder en trois espèces. Deux espèces marines (Atherina boyeri et Atherina punctata) et une espèce qui peuple...

  12. Lagoonal sand smelts (atherina lagunaea, teleostei, atherinidae) inhabit marine shallow waters of the coasts of djerba island (tunisia)

    OpenAIRE

    Bouriga, N.; S. Selmi; Aurelle, D.; Barthelemy, R.; Quignard, J-P.; Trabelsi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Atherina boyeri de la Méditerranée est un complexe hautement polymorphe ayant un génotype capable d’une réponse phénotypique flexible. Elle peut rapidement adapter les traits de sa morphologie à des environnements allant des eaux douces aux eaux saumâtres côtières polyhalines et aux eaux océaniques. Les travaux de recherche réalisés, en Méditerranée, sur ce complexe ont permis de le scinder en trois espèces. Deux espèces marines (Atherina boyeri et Atherina punctata) et une espèce qui peuple...

  13. Cytogenetical and morphological features reveal significant differences among Venezuelan and Brazilian samples of Mugil curema (Teleostei: Mugilidae

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    Mauro Nirchio

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Karyotype of M. curema from the Gulf of Mexico and Brazil have been reported as possessing chromosome complement with 2n=28 and FN=48, whereas specimens from Venezuela has been reported as possessing a diploid number 2n=24 and a conserved FN (48. Although at first sight this variation suggests the presence of a chromosomal intraspecific (interpopulational variability, the possibility that we are dealing with two different species was examined. This work revisit the karyotypes of M. curema from Venezuela and Brazil, including new data on C-banding, and NOR localization, and compares morphologic characteristics of samples from both localities. Thus, besides diploid number, the constitutive heterochromatin distribution and NORs location, mark other differences between M. curema Cytotype 1 (2n=28; FN=48 and Cytotype 2 (2n=24; NF=48. Moreover, morphologic comparison revealed differences in the scale counts and pectoral fin rays: 35 scales in the middle body line and 15 pectoral fin rays in specimens possessing the karyotype 2n=28, compared with 37-39 scales in the middle body line and 17 pectoral fin rays in specimens with the karyotype 2n=24. These differences lead us to suggest that both cytotypes are not related merely to geographic polytipic variations but could correspond to different species.Os cariótipos de M. curema do Golfo do México e do Brasil possuem 2n=28 cromossomos e NF=48. Espécimes da Venezuela, entretanto, apresentam um número diplóide de 28 cromossomos e um NF conservado (48. Apesar desta variação sugerir, a princípio, uma variabilidade intraespecífica (interpopulacional, a possibilidade de estarmos perante diferentes espécies foi investigada. O presente trabalho re-analisa os cariótipos de M. curema da Venezuela e do Brasil, incluindo novos dados sobre bandamento C e localização das NORs e compara caracteres merísticos e morfométricos de amostras de ambas as localidades. Assim, junto com o número cromossômico, a heterocromatina constitutiva e a distribuição das NORs trazem outras diferenças entre M. curema Citótipo 1 (2n=48, FN=48 e Citótipo 2 (2n=48, FN=48. Além disso, as comparações dos caracteres morfológicos revelam diferenças nas contagens, com 35 escamas na linha média do corpo e 15 raios nas nadadeiras peitorais nos espécimes com cariótipo 2n=28, já o cariótipo 2n=24 apresenta 37-39 escamas e 17 raios nas peitorais. Essas diferenças sugerem que ambos citótipos não estão relacionados meramente a variações geográficas politípicas mas que podem corresponder a diferentes espécies.

  14. Phylogeny and biogeography of 91 species of heroine cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) based on sequences of the cytochrome b gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Gustavo A Concheiro; Rícan, Oldrich; Ortí, Guillermo; Bermingham, Eldredge; Doadrio, Ignacio; Zardoya, Rafael

    2007-04-01

    Heroini constitute the second largest tribe of Neotropical cichlids and show their greatest diversity in Mesoamerica. Although heroine species are morphologically and ecologically very diverse, they were all historically assigned to one single genus, Cichlasoma that was never formally revised from a phylogenetic point of view. Here, we present the most comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the tribe Heroini to date, based on the complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b, and the analysis of 204 individuals representing 91 species. Phylogenetic analyses did not support the monophyly of heroines because the genus Pterophyllum was placed as the sister group of all remaining heroines plus cichlasomatines. However, the recovered relative position of Pterophyllum was without strong statistical support. Within the remaining heroines, Hyspelecara and Hoplarchus are recovered with low support in a basal position with respect to a clade that includes Heros, Uaru, Mesonauta, and Symphysodon, and the circumamazonian (CAM) heroines. The first clade is restricted to South America. The largest clade of heroines, the CAM heroines, include more than 85% of the species within the tribe. This clade is mostly Mesoamerican, but also contains four species found in the Greater Antilles (Nandopsis), and three genera found in South America (the 'Heros' festae group, Australoheros, and Caquetaia). Up to eight major lineages can be recovered within the CAM heroines, but the phylogenetic relationships among them remain unresolved. Two large suprageneric groups can be distinguished, the amphilophines and the herichthyines. The amphilophines include Amphilophus, Archocentrus, Hypsophrys, Neetroplus, Parachromis, Petenia, and five additional unnamed genera (the 'Heros' istlanus group, the 'Amphilophus' calobrensis group, the 'Heros' urophthalmus group, the 'Heros' wesseli group, and the 'Heros' sieboldii group). The herichthyines include the crown-group herichthyines (Herichthys, Theraps, Vieja, and Paratheraps) and the genera Tomocichla, Herotilapia, and Thorichthys, together with three unnamed genera (the 'Heros' umbriferus group, the 'Heros' grammodes group, and the 'Heros' salvini group). Amphilophines are prevalent in southern Mesomerica south of the Motagua fault. Herichthyines have basal linages in Central America, whereas crown-group herichthyines and three related genera are found north from the Motagua fault. At least two independent origins are required to explain current Mesoamerican heroine distribution. Dispersal of heroines from South America into Mesoamerica was dated between 24 and 16 million years ago (MYA) based on geological calibrations and on standard fish mitochondrial cytochrome b rates, respectively. These datings cannot be reconciled with currently known geological evidence, and the existence of a connection between Central America and South America in the Miocene needs to be postulated in order to explain the origins of Mesoamerican heroine lineages. However, our datings agree with those estimated for the dispersal of other secondary freshwater fishes (Rivulidae, Synbranchus) into Mesoamerica, and predate the invasion of primary freshwater fishes by at least 10 myr.

  15. Host and environmental risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium scophthalmi (Apicomplexa) infection in cultured turbot, Psetta maxima (L.) (Pisces, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Pellitero, Pilar; Perez, Andrés; Quiroga, M Isabel; Redondo, M José; Vázquez, Sonia; Riaza, Ana; Palenzuela, Oswaldo; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Nieto, José M

    2009-11-12

    An epidemiological cohort study of Cryptosporidium scophthalmi in cultured turbot Psetta maxima L. of Northwestern Spain was conducted along a four-year period. Four different ongrowing cohorts were monitored monthly from introduction into the ongrowing tanks (10-50 g) until reaching market size (400-1400 g). The association of host and environmental factors with five categories of parasite abundance was assessed using a multivariable regression framework. Epidemiological factors assessed here were water temperature, weight, length, month of collection, season, age, origin, condition factor, water filtration, and status to the myxozoan Enteromyxum scophthalmi infection. E. scophthalmi was included into the analysis because it targets the same organ than C. scophthalmi and it was prevalent in the studied population. The multivariable analysis demonstrated the statistically significant association between several factors and parasite abundance. C. scophthalmi abundance was associated (P<0.05) with age, condition factor, season, and status to E. scophthalmi infection. Young animals, with poor condition factor, during spring or summer, and not infected with the myxozoan were most likely to be highly infected by C. scophthalmi. Inclusion of these four variables significantly (P<0.05) improved the model, compared to the model that did not include any of these epidemiological factors. Increasing levels of C. scophthalmi abundance were associated (P<0.01) with higher severity of C. scophthalmi-compatible lesions. The frequency of distribution of C. scophthalmi abundance was clearly right-skewed and fitted a negative binomial distribution, whereas the intensity of infection fitted a Poisson distribution. The quantification of the variance-to-mean ratio stratified by age demonstrated overdispersion for 8-16 months old fish, although this bivariate association is likely affected by several other factors, as suggested by the results of the multivariable analysis. The negative relation between C. scophthalmi abundance and status to E. scophthalmi infection suggests differences in the transmission, onset, and course of both infections. The coarse filtration used in some cohorts did not significantly affect the levels of infection. C. scophthalmi was probably introduced into the ongrowing tanks mainly with carrier fish, though the involvement of infective oocysts from the water supply cannot be disregarded. Infection prevalence and mean intensity decreased with fish age and a seasonal distribution was found. Results presented here will help to understand the epidemiology of C. scophthalmi in turbot, to estimate the expected levels of infection associated with presence or absence of epidemiological factors, and to quantify the impact that the disease may have on susceptible turbot populations. The multivariable model used here is more powerful than the visual inspection of graphics for exploring associations in cooperative processes and can be easily extended to the assessment of epidemiological associations in other population and parasitic diseases.

  16. Genetic variability in Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae from the Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

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    Maria Dolores Peres

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Allozyme data was used to assess the genetic diversity Astyanax altiparanae populations from the floodplain of the Upper Paraná River (PR. Specimens were collected in the southern Brazilian state of Paraná from PR in Porto Rico municipality and Ribeirão Ficha (RF in Ubiratã municipality. The authors used 15% (w/v corn starch gel electrophoresis to identify 21 putative loci for 13 enzymatic systems: Aspartate aminotransferase, 2.6.1.1 (AAT, Acid phosphatase, 3.1.3.2 (ACP, Esterase, 3.1.1.1 (EST, Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.8 (G3PDH, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.49 (G6PDH, Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, 5.3.1.9 (GPI, Iditol dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.14 (IDDH, Isocitrate dehydrogenase - NADP+, 1.1.1.42 (IDH, L-Lactate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.27 (LDH, Malate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.37 (MDH, Malate dehydrogenase - NADP+, 1.1.1.40 (MDHP, Phosphoglucomutase, 5.4.2.2 (PGM, and Superoxide dismutase, 1.15.1.1 (SOD. The proportion of polymorphic loci were estimated as 52.38% in the PR population and 38.10% in the RF population. Expected estimated heterozygosities were 0.1518 ± 0.0493 for the PR population and 0.0905 ± 0.0464 for the RF population. The A. altiparanae heterozygosity data were similar to previous estimates for other PR basin characid species. Allele frequencies were significantly different between the PR and RF populations in respect to some loci (Acp-1, G3pdh-1, Gpi-A, Iddh-1, Mdhp-1 and Mdhp-2. Wright’s statistics for all loci were estimated as Fis = 0.3919, Fit = 0.4804 and Fst = 0.1455. Our results show that the A. altiparanae populations studied are genetically different and have a high degree of genetic variability.

  17. Allozyme relationships in hypostomines (Teleostei: Loricariidae) from the Itaipu Reservoir, Upper Rio Paraná basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Cláudio Henrique; Renesto, Erasmo; dos Reis, Roberto Esser; Moura, Maurício Osvaldo; Mateus, Rogério Pincela

    2005-03-01

    In an allozyme electrophoresis survey of 15 hypostomine species from the Itaipu Hydroelectric Reservoir, 25 loci from 14 enzyme systems were scored. Allozyme data allowed recording diagnostic genetic markers for all species analyzed and for some species groups within Hypostomus, a taxon which is taxonomically still unresolved in the Upper Rio Paraná basin. The mean expected heterozygosity of the species was considerably variable and hypotheses to tentatively explain this variation are discussed. A cladogram based upon the allelic frequencies of the species analyzed was produced by the continuous maximum likelihood method: Rhinelepis aspera and M. parananus were separated from the species of Hypostominae by a long branch length. Pterygoplichthys anisitsi was the sister of all the representatives of the genus Hypostomus. Within Hypostomus, two main clades were produced: in the first, H. cochliodon was the sister of the species comprising the H. plecostomus group, and in the second, the tree showed the following relationships: (H. albopunctatus (H. regani + Hypostomus sp. 3) + (H. margaritifer (H. microstomus (Hypostomus sp. 1 (H. ternetzi + Hypostomus sp. 2)). Hypostomus ternetzi and Hypostomus sp. 2 are referred to here as representatives of the H. ternetzi group.

  18. Evidence for panmixia despite barriers to gene flow in the southern African endemic, Caffrogobius caffer (Teleostei: Gobiidae

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    von der Heyden Sophie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceanography and life-history characteristics are known to influence the genetic structure of marine species, however the relative role that these factors play in shaping phylogeographic patterns remains unresolved. The population genetic structure of the endemic, rocky shore dwelling Caffrogobius caffer was investigated across a known major oceanographic barrier, Cape Agulhas, which has previously been shown to strongly influence genetic structuring of South African rocky shore and intertidal marine organisms. Given the variable and dynamic oceanographical features of the region, we further sought to test how the pattern of gene flow between C. caffer populations is affected by the dominant Agulhas and Benguela current systems of the southern oceans. Results The variable 5' region of the mtDNA control region was amplified for 242 individuals from ten localities spanning the distributional range of C. caffer. Fifty-five haplotypes were recovered and in stark contrast to previous phylogeographic studies of South African marine species, C. caffer showed no significant population genetic structuring along 1300 km of coastline. The parsimony haplotype network, AMOVA and SAMOVA analyses revealed panmixia. Coalescent analyses reveal that gene flow in C. caffer is strongly asymmetrical and predominantly affected by the Agulhas Current. Notably, there was no gene flow between the east coast and all other populations, although all other analyses detect no significant population structure, suggesting a recent divergence. The mismatch distribution suggests that C. caffer underwent a population expansion at least 14 500 years ago. Conclusion We propose several possible life-history adaptations that could have enabled C. caffer to maintain gene flow across its distributional range, including a long pelagic larval stage. We have shown that life-history characteristics can be an important contributing factor to the phylogeography of marine species and that the effects of oceanography do not necessarily suppress its influence on effective dispersal.

  19. Fishery of the Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara (Teleostei: Epinephelidae) based on local ecological knowledge and fishery records in Yucatan, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; González-Salas, Carlos; Tuz-Sulub, Armin; Villegas-Hernández, Harold

    2008-01-01

    The Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara, a large-bodied (~ 2.5 m TL, > 400 kg) and critically endangered fish (Epinephelidae), is highly vulnerable to overfishing. Although protected from fishing in many countries, its exploitation in Mexico is unregulated; a situation that puts its populations at risk. Fishery records of E. itajara are scarce, which prevents determination of its fishery status. This work aimed to elucidate the E. itajara fishery in the northern Yucatan Peninsula by 1) ana...

  20. Fishery of the Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara (Teleostei: Epinephelidae) based on local ecological knowledge and fishery records in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; González-Salas, Carlos; Tuz-Sulub, Armin; Villegas-Hernández, Harold

    2009-09-01

    The Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara, a large-bodied (approximately 2.5 m TL, > 400 kg) and critically endangered fish (Epinephelidae), is highly vulnerable to overfishing. Although protected from fishing in many countries, its exploitation in Mexico is unregulated; a situation that puts its populations at risk. Fishery records of E. itajara are scarce, which prevents determination of its fishery status. This work aimed to elucidate the E. itajara fishery in the northern Yucatan Peninsula by 1) analyzing available catch records and 2) interviewing veteran fishermen (local ecological knowledge) from two traditional landing sites: Dzilam de Bravo and Puerto Progreso. Historic fishery records from two fishing cooperatives were analyzed in order to elucidate the current situation and offer viable alternatives for conservation and management. Catches have decreased severely. Local knowledge obtained from fishermen represented a very important source of information for reconstructing the fisheries history of this species. Conservation measures that incorporate regional and international regulations on critically endangered fish species are suggested.

  1. Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Microcotyle pancerii (Monogenea: Polyopisthocotylea: Microcotylidae), parasite of meagre Argyrosomus regius (Pisces: Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Joséphine; Marchand, Bernard

    2009-04-01

    The present work deals with the ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Microcotyle pancerii, a gill parasite of meagre Argyrosomus regius collected in Corsican fish farms. Spermiogenesis was rather similar to that observed in other polyopisthocotylean Monogenea. The intercentriolar body was different from that described in digeneans. The nuclear condensation occurred in 2 successive stages. First, during the nuclear migration in the median cytoplasmic process, the nucleus developed a honeycomb-like appearance. Then, after the flagellar fusion, a discontinuous twisting of the chromatin appeared along the nucleus, with this process ending in total nuclear condensation. The structure of the spermatozoon is characterized by 2 axonemes (9 + "1" pattern), a single and continuous field of cortical microtubules, a mitochondrion, and a nucleus. Our findings were compared with various ultrastructural features in order to highlight variability within the group.

  2. Embryonic and larval development of Jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, Quoy & Gaimard, 1824, Pisces, Teleostei, a South American Catfish

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    C. R. Pereira

    Full Text Available The jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, Quoy & Gaimard is an endemic South American fish species. Because this species supports cold winters and grows faster during warm months, it has begun to be viewed as an ideal species for fish production in southern South America. In the present study, jundiá oocytes used were obtained by extrusion from females after hormone injection. Soon after hydration, the eggs were transferred to 50 L conic glass incubators, with constant and controlled water influx. Samples of fertilized eggs were transferred to Petri dishes and, examined under a stereoscopic microscope, were spherical, demersal, and non-adhesive with defined perivitelline space and resistant chorion. Cleavage stages occurred during the first 3.5 h. After hatching, larvae were transferred to 200 L glass fiber incubators. First signs of embryo movement were observed 21 h after fertilization; larval eclosion occurred 30.5 h after fertilization. Present findings may provide a basis for studies aimed at determining the complete ontogeny of jundiá and may be useful in eco-toxicological studies.

  3. B chromosome dynamics in Prochilodus costatus (Teleostei, Characiformes) and comparisons with supernumerary chromosome system in other Prochilodus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Silvana; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Penitente, Manolo; Sobrinho-Scudeler, Patrícia Elda; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto; Dergam, Jorge Abdala

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Within the genus Prochilodus Agassiz, 1829, five species are known to carry B chromosomes, i.e. chromosomes beyond the usual diploid number that have been traditionally considered as accessory for the genome. Chromosome microdissection and mapping of repetitive DNA sequences are effective tools to assess the DNA content and allow a better understanding about the origin and composition of these elements in an array of species. In this study, a novel characterization of B chromosomes in Prochilodus costatus Valenciennes, 1850 (2n=54) was reported for the first time and their sequence complementarity with the supernumerary chromosomes observed in Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836) and Prochilodus argenteus Agassiz, 1829 was investigated. The hybridization patterns obtained with chromosome painting using the micro B probe of P. costatus and the satDNA SATH1 mapping made it possible to assume homology of sequences between the B chromosomes of these congeneric species. Our results suggest that the origin of B chromosomes in the genus Prochilodus is a phylogenetically old event. PMID:28919971

  4. Lipolytic response of adipose tissue and metabolic adaptations to long periods of fasting in red tilapia (Oreochromis sp., Teleostei: Cichlidae

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    WALTER DIAS JUNIOR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Adaptive changes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism induced by 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 150 and 200 days of fasting were investigated in red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.. Plasma glucose, lactate and free fatty acids (FFA levels, liver and muscle glycogen and total lipid contents and rates of FFA release from mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT were measured. Plasma glucose levels showed significant differences only after 90 days of fasting, when glycemia was 34% lower (50±5mg.dL-1 than fed fish values (74±1mg.dL-1, remaining relatively constant until 200 days of fasting. The content of liver glycogen ("15% in fed tilapia fell 40% in 7 days of food deprivation. In 60, 90 and 150 days of fasting, plasma FFA levels increased 49%, 64% and 90%, respectively, compared to fed fish values. In agreement with the increase in plasma FFA, fasting induced a clear increase in lipolytic activity of MAT incubated in vitro. Addition of isobutylmethylxanthine (cAMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitor and isoproterenol (non selective beta adrenergic agonist to the incubation medium induced a reduction of lipolysis in fasted fish, differently to what was observed in mammal adipose tissue. This study allowed a physiological assessment of red tilapia response to starvation.

  5. Apistogramma ortegai (Teleostei: Cichlidae), a new species of cichlid fish from the Ampyiacu River in the Peruvian Amazon basin

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Apistogramma ortegai, new species, is described from small streams tributaries of the Ampiyacu River near Pebas, in eastern Peru. It belongs to the Apistogramma regani species group and is distinguished from all other species of Apistogramma by the combination of contiguous caudal spot to bar 7, presence of abdominal stripes, short dorsal-fin lappets in both sexes, absence of vertical stripes on the caudal fin, and reduced number of predorsal and prepelvic scales.

  6. Two new species of Apistogramma Regan (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from the rio Trombetas, Pará State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Apistogramma angayuara is described from the rio Trombetas close to the cachoeira Vira Mundo where it is found in association with rapids. It is assigned to the A. pertensis species group, distinguished by the following characters in combination: three prominent stripes composed of dark spots along the sides of the abdomen, 2 vs. 3 postlachrymal infraorbital pores, 5 vs. 4 dentary pores, low dorsal fin in adult males, and presence of a caudal spot. It is the smallest species of Apistogramma r...

  7. Two new species of Apistogramma Regan (Teleostei: Cichlidae from the rio Trombetas, Pará State, Brazil

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    Sven O Kullander

    Full Text Available Apistogramma angayuara is described from the rio Trombetas close to the cachoeira Vira Mundo where it is found in association with rapids. It is assigned to the A. pertensis species group, distinguished by the following characters in combination: three prominent stripes composed of dark spots along the sides of the abdomen, 2 vs. 3 postlachrymal infraorbital pores, 5 vs. 4 dentary pores, low dorsal fin in adult males, and presence of a caudal spot. It is the smallest species of Apistogramma reported so far, with the largest male 24.7 mm SL and the largest female 22.7 mm SL, and the first cichlid species found with a significant proportion of rhizopods in the stomach content. Apistogramma salpinction is described from lentic habitats at the margin of road BR-163, circa 70 km from Cachoeira Porteira village, in a swamp most probably connected to the igarapé Caxipacoré. It is compared to members of the Apistogramma cacatuoides group with which it shares prolonged anterior dorsal fin lappets and marginal caudal fin streamers in adult males. It is distinguished from all other species of Apistogramma by the color pattern which includes a lateral band and abdominal stripes that become darker and have much lighter interspaces on the caudal peduncle, and a caudal spot that is divided into elongated blotches continuing the lateral band and upper two abdominal stripes, respectively.

  8. Apistogramma cinilabra sp. n. : description of a potentially endangered endemic cichlid species (Teleostei : Perciformes : Cichlidae) from the Departamenio Loreto, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Apistogramma is described from Peru, based on a total of 35 specimens collected in a small forest lake in the wider catchment of the Rio Itaya about 80 kilometres south of Iquitos, Departamento Loreto (approximately 73 degrees 35' W / 04 degrees 24' S). Apistogramma cinilabra sp. n. is separated from all other Apistogramma species by the combination of (in adult males) strikingly red base of pectoral, red spots on chest, (in aggression and display) light ash-grey lips, except...

  9. Apistogramma ortegai (Teleostei: Cichlidae), a new species of cichlid fish from the Ampyiacu River in the Peruvian Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britzke, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio; Kullander, Sven O

    2014-10-02

    Apistogramma ortegai, new species, is described from small streams tributaries of the Ampiyacu River near Pebas, in eastern Peru. It belongs to the Apistogramma regani species group and is distinguished from all other species of Apistogramma by the combination of contiguous caudal spot to bar 7, presence of abdominal stripes, short dorsal-fin lappets in both sexes, absence of vertical stripes on the caudal fin, and reduced number of predorsal and prepelvic scales.

  10. Dynamics of ovarian maturation during the reproductive cycle of Metynnis maculatus, a reservoir invasive fish species (Teleostei: Characiformes

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    Thiago Scremin Boscolo Pereira

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the dynamics of ovarian maturation and the spawning processes during the reproductive cycle of Metynnis maculatus. Adult females (n = 36 were collected bimonthly between April 2010 and March 2011. The mean gonadosomatic index (GSI was determined, ovarian and blood samples were submitted for morphometric evaluation and the steroid plasma concentration was determined by ELISA. This species demonstrated asynchronous ovarian development with multiple spawns. This study revealed that, although defined as a multiple spawning species, the ovaries of M. maculatus have a pattern of development with a predominance of vitellogenesis between April and August and have an intensification in spawning in September; in October, a drop in the mean GSI values occurred, and the highest frequencies of post-ovulatory follicles (POFs were observed. We observed a positive correlation between the POF and the levels of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone. Metynnis maculatus has the potential to be used as a source of pituitary tissue for the preparation of crude extracts for hormonal induction; the theoretical period for use is from September to December, but specific studies to determine the feasibility of this approach must be conducted.

  11. †Kenyaichthyidae fam. nov. and †Kenyaichthys gen. nov. - First Record of a Fossil Aplocheiloid Killifish (Teleostei, Cyprinodontiformes.

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    Melanie Altner

    Full Text Available The extant Cyprinodontiformes (killifishes with their two suborders Cyprinodontoidei and Aplocheiloidei represent a diverse and well-studied group of fishes. However, their fossil record is comparatively sparse and has so far yielded members of the Cyprinodontoidei only. Here we report on cyprinodontiform fossils from the upper Miocene Lukeino Formation in the Tugen Hills of the Central Rift Valley of Kenya, which represent the first fossil record of an aplocheiloid killifish. A total of 169 specimens - mostly extraordinarily well preserved - and a sample of ten extant cyprinodontiform species were studied on the basis of morphometrics, meristics and osteology. A phylogenetic analysis using PAUP was also conducted for the fossils. Both the osteological data and the phylogenetic analysis provide strong evidence for the assignment of the fossils to the Aplocheiloidei, and justify the definition of the new family †Kenyaichthyidae, the new genus †Kenyaichthys and the new species †K. kipkechi sp. nov. The phylogenetic analysis unexpectedly places †Kenyaichthys gen. nov. in a sister relationship to the Rivulidae (a purely Neotropical group, a probable explanation might be lack of available synapomorphies for the Rivulidae, Nothobranchiidae and Aplocheilidae. The specimens of †K. kipkechi sp. nov. show several polymorphic characters and large overlap in meristic traits, which justifies their interpretation as a species flock in statu nascendi. Patterns of variation in neural and haemal spine dimensions in the caudal vertebrae of †Kenyaichthys gen. nov. and the extant species studied indicate that some previously suggested synapomorphies of the Cyprinodontoidei and Aplocheiloidei need to be revised.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic Carlastyanax aurocaudatus (Eigenmann with remarks on the phylogeny of the Stevardiinae (Teleostei: Characidae

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    Juan Marcos Mirande

    Full Text Available The monotypic genus Carlastyanax Géry was defined to include Astyanax aurocaudatus, a morphologically odd species having, among other features, four teeth in the posterior premaxillary row and eight branched dorsal-fin rays. Later on, the characters used to define Carlastyanax were considered as invalid and this genus was synonymized with Astyanax. In this paper, we include Astyanax aurocaudatus in a phylogeny of the Characidae and obtain a sister-group relationship between this species and Creagrutus, within the Stevardiinae. The resurrection of Carlastyanax as a valid genus is therefore proposed. The analysis presented is the largest phylogeny of the Stevardiinae so far published. Relationships of this subfamily are also discussed.

  13. Henneguya tunisiensis n. sp. (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida), a new gill parasite of Symphodus tinca (L.) (Teleostei: Labridae) off Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Sihem; Marton, Szilvia; Marques, Adam; Eszterbauer, Edit

    2010-06-01

    Henneguya tunisiensis n. sp., a new myxosporean, is described from the gill-arches of the East Atlantic peacock wrasse Symphodus tinca (L.) collected from off the Kerkennah Islands, Tunisia. It is characterised by the presence of elongate white plasmodia of 1-1.5 x 1.5-2 mm in size. The mature spores are rounded in frontal view and have two identical polar capsules and two caudal appendages which taper considerably at the end. Both light and electron microscopical data show that this species differs in several morphological features from all previously described Henneguya spp. A molecular analysis, based on 18S rDNA sequence data, indicates that H. tunisiensis n. sp. is readily distinguishable from other myxozoan DNA sequences in GenBank. Phylogenetically, the new species is placed in the marine Henneguya clade, which is a sister group of marine Myxobolus spp. from perciform fishes in Tunisian waters.

  14. Enzymatic Activity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Pimelodus maculatus (Teleostei, Siluriformes) in Two Neotropical Reservoirs with Different Trophic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Duarte; Marcelo Bemquerer; Francisco Gerson de Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic activities for digestion of proteins and carbohydrates were compared among three organs of the digestive system of Pimelodus maculatus in two reservoirs with different trophic conditions during the winter of 2006. The aim was to test the hypothesis that enzymatic activity for the digestion of proteins and carbohydrates differed among organs and that such activities differ between the trophic state of the environment. Enzymatic activities were determined through the assays of specifi...

  15. Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879 (Teleostei: Clupeidae, nome válido aplicado à sardinha-verdadeira no sudeste do Brasil

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    José Lima de Figueiredo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A história nomenclatural de Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879 e de seu nome de substituição, Sardinella janeiro (Eigenmann, 1894 é apresentada, sendo confirmada a validade do primeiro por meio da aplicação dos dispositivos do Código Internacional de Nomenclatura Zoológica.The nomenclatural history of Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879 and its replacement name Sardinella janeiro (Eigenmann, 1894 is presented, and the validity of the first confirmed through the application of the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships within the speciose family Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes based on multilocus analysis and extensive ingroup sampling

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    Vari Richard P

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With nearly 1,100 species, the fish family Characidae represents more than half of the species of Characiformes, and is a key component of Neotropical freshwater ecosystems. The composition, phylogeny, and classification of Characidae is currently uncertain, despite significant efforts based on analysis of morphological and molecular data. No consensus about the monophyly of this group or its position within the order Characiformes has been reached, challenged by the fact that many key studies to date have non-overlapping taxonomic representation and focus only on subsets of this diversity. Results In the present study we propose a new definition of the family Characidae and a hypothesis of relationships for the Characiformes based on phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (4,680 base pairs. The sequences were obtained from 211 samples representing 166 genera distributed among all 18 recognized families in the order Characiformes, all 14 recognized subfamilies in the Characidae, plus 56 of the genera so far considered incertae sedis in the Characidae. The phylogeny obtained is robust, with most lineages significantly supported by posterior probabilities in Bayesian analysis, and high bootstrap values from maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses. Conclusion A monophyletic assemblage strongly supported in all our phylogenetic analysis is herein defined as the Characidae and includes the characiform species lacking a supraorbital bone and with a derived position of the emergence of the hyoid artery from the anterior ceratohyal. To recognize this and several other monophyletic groups within characiforms we propose changes in the limits of several families to facilitate future studies in the Characiformes and particularly the Characidae. This work presents a new phylogenetic framework for a speciose and morphologically diverse group of freshwater fishes of significant ecological and evolutionary importance across the Neotropics and portions of Africa.

  17. Molecular phylogeny of grunts (Teleostei, Haemulidae, with an emphasis on the ecology, evolution, and speciation history of New World species

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    Tavera José

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fish family Haemulidae is divided in two subfamilies, Haemulinae and Plectorhynchinae (sweetlips, including approximately 17 genera and 145 species. The family has a broad geographic distribution that encompasses contrasting ecological habitats resulting in a unique potential for evolutionary hypotheses testing. In the present work we have examined the phylogenetic relationships of the family using selected representatives of additional Percomorpha based on Bayesian and Maximum likelihood methods by means of three mitochondrial genes. We also developed a phylogenetic hypothesis of the New World species based on five molecular markers (three mitochondrial and two nuclear as a framework to evaluate the evolutionary history, the ecological diversification and speciation patterns of this group. Results Mitochondrial genes and different reconstruction methods consistently recovered a monophyletic Haemulidae with the Sillaginidae as its sister clade (although with low support values. Previous studies proposed different relationships that were not recovered in this analysis. We also present a robust molecular phylogeny of Haemulinae based on the combined data of two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes. All topologies support the monophyly of both sub-families (Haemulinae, Plectorhinchinae. The genus Pomadasys was shown to be polyphyletic and Haemulon, Anisotremus, and Plectorhinchus were found to be paraphyletic. Four of seven presumed geminate pairs were indeed found to be sister species, however our data did not support a contemporaneous divergence. Analyses also revealed that differential use of habitat might have played an important role in the speciation dynamics of this group of fishes, in particular among New World species where extensive sample coverage was available. Conclusions This study provides a new hypothesis for the sister clade of Hamulidae and a robust phylogeny of the latter. The presence of para- and polyphyletic genera underscores the need for a taxonomic reassessment within the family. A scarce sampling of the Old World Pomadasys species prevents us to definitively point to a New World origin of the sub-familiy Hamulinae, however our data suggest that this is likely to be the case. This study also illustrates how life history habitat influences speciation and evolutionary trajectories.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical patterns in Circum-Mediterranean subfamily Leuciscinae (Teleostei, Cyprinidae inferred from both mitochondrial and nuclear data

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    Perea Silvia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leuciscinae is a subfamily belonging to the Cyprinidae fish family that is widely distributed in Circum-Mediterranean region. Many efforts have been carried out to deciphering the evolutionary history of this group. Thus, different biogeographical scenarios have tried to explain the colonization of Europe and Mediterranean area by cyprinids, such as the "north dispersal" or the "Lago Mare dispersal" models. Most recently, Pleistocene glaciations influenced the distribution of leuciscins, especially in North and Central Europe. Weighing up these biogeographical scenarios, this paper constitutes not only the first attempt at deciphering the mitochondrial and nuclear relationships of Mediterranean leuciscins but also a test of biogeographical hypotheses that could have determined the current distribution of Circum-Mediterranean leuciscins. Results A total of 4439 characters (mitochondrial + nuclear from 321 individuals of 176 leuciscine species rendered a well-supported phylogeny, showing fourteen main lineages. Analyses of independent mitochondrial and nuclear markers supported the same main lineages, but basal relationships were not concordant. Moreover, some incongruence was found among independent mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies. The monophyly of some poorly known genera such as Pseudophoxinus and Petroleuciscus was rejected. Representatives of both genera belong to different evolutionary lineages. Timing of cladogenetic events among the main leuciscine lineages was gained using mitochondrial and all genes data set. Conclusions Adaptations to a predatory lifestyle or miniaturization have superimposed the morphology of some species. These species have been separated into different genera, which are not supported by a phylogenetic framework. Such is the case of the genera Pseudophoxinus and Petroleuciscus, which real taxonomy is not well known. The diversification of leuciscine lineages has been determined by intense vicariant events following the paleoclimatological and hydrogeological history of Mediterranean region. We propose different colonization models of Mediterranean region during the early Oligocene. Later vicariance events promoted Leuciscinae diversification during Oligocene and Miocene periods. Our data corroborate the presence of leuciscins in North Africa before the Messinian salinity crisis. Indeed, Messinian period appears as a stage of gradually Leuciscinae diversification. The rise of humidity at the beginning of the Pliocene promoted the colonization and posterior isolation of newly established freshwater populations. Finally, Pleistocene glaciations determined the current European distribution of some leuciscine species.

  19. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Rediscovery of the threatened Western Ghats endemic sisorid catfish Glyptothorax poonaensis (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Sisoridae

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    N. Dahanukar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Glyptothorax poonaensis Hora is an endemic sisorid catfish of the Western Ghats of India known only from its type locality in Mula-Mutha River, a tributary of Bhima River, at Pune. This fish has not been recorded from its type locality for more than 70 years and it was thought to be extinct. Here we report a recently discovered population of G. poonaensis from Indrayani River, a tributary of Bhima River. Based on 11 specimens, we have redescribed this species along with some comments on its taxonomy, length-weight relationship, feeding and breeding habits. We also performed molecular phylogeny of the fish by sequencing three mitochondrial genes encoding 16S ribosomal DNA, cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase subunit I. Molecular analysis suggests that G. poonaensis is nested within a lineage of Glyptothorax species from northern and northeastern India and China. Further, our analysis reveals that southern Indian species of Glyptothorax do not form a monophyletic group. Molecular dating of divergence times indicates that G. poonaensis diverged from other northern Indian species 1.9 to 2.5 million years ago. Current knowledge suggests that the species could be found in two river basins with total extent of around 6100km2; however, the species is already suspected to be locally extinct from half of its known extent of occurrence. Furthermore, the habitat of the species may be threatened by increasing pollution, deforestation leading to siltation, halting of flow by damming, sandmining and introduced fish species. In the light of biodiversity conservation, especially in an important biodiversity hotspot like Western Ghats, such rare and endemic species needs prioritization.

  20. Dynamics of Rex3 in the genomes of endangered Iberian Leuciscinae (Teleostei, Cyprinidae and their natural hybrids

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    Carla Sofia A. Pereira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Iberian Leuciscinae are greatly diverse comprising taxa of hybrid origin. With highly conservative karyotypes, Iberian Chondrostoma s.l. have recently demonstrated sub-chromosomal differentiation and rapid genome restructuring in natural hybrids, which was confirmed by ribosomal DNA (rDNA transposition and/or multiplication. To understand the role of repetitive DNAs in the differentiation of their genomes, a genetic and molecular cytogenetic survey was conducted in Achondrostoma oligolepis, Anaecypris hispanica, Iberochondrostoma lemmingii, I. lusitanicum, Pseudochondrostoma duriense, P. polylepis, Squalius pyrenaicus and hybrids between A. oligolepis x (P. duriense/P. polylepis, which represent 'alburnine', chondrostomine and Squalius lineages. The chromosomal distribution of Rex3 retroelement was found highly compartmentalized at centromeres and moderately at telomeres, co-localizing with 5S rDNA loci, and grossly correlating with heterochromatin and blocks of C0t-1 DNA. This accumulation was evident in at least 10 chromosome pairs, a pattern that seemed to be shared among the different species, likely predating their divergence. Nevertheless, species-specific clusters were detected in I. lusitanicum, P. duriense, P. polylepis and S. pyrenaicus demonstrating rapid and independent differentiation. Natural hybrids followed the same accumulation pattern and association with repetitive sequences but with increased number of Rex3 clusters and correlating with translocated 45S rDNA clusters. Rex3 sequence phylogeny didn't agree with its hosts' phylogeny but the observed distribution pattern is congruent with an evolutionary tendency to protect its activity, a robust regulatory system and/or events of horizontal transfer. This is the first report of retroelement physical mapping in Cyprinidae. It helped outlining conceivable ancestral homologies and recognizing retrotransposon activation in hybrids, being possibly associated with genome diversification in the subfamily. The extensive diversity of Iberian Leuciscinae makes them excellent candidates to explore the processes and mechanisms behind the great multiplicity distinguishing vertebrate genomes.

  1. General characteristics of the diet of Trachinotus paitensis (Teleostei: Carangidae) from San Ignacio Lagoon, Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Escalona, V H; Abitia Cárdenas, L A

    2004-03-01

    The food habits of Trachinotus paitensis, in San Ignacio Lagoon B.C.S., Mexico, were investigated. We observed that T. paitensis is carnivorous, feeding mainly on benthic invertebrates (the gastropods Anachis spp., Bittium spp., and the crustacean larvae). We concluded that T. paitensis is an opportunist predator that impacts mainly on epibenthic invertebrates.

  2. Phylogenetic studies of Chinese labeonine fishes (Teleostei:Cyprinidae) based on the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Junbing; WANG Xuzhen; HE Shunping; CHEN Yiyu

    2005-01-01

    The mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene is sequenced from 24 ingroups taxa, including 18 species from Labeoninae grouped in 13 genera. Phylogenetic analyses are subjected to neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Labeoninae is basically a monophyletic assemblage and can be divided into 2 major clades: one comprising the genera Cirrhinus, Crossocheilus and Garra; and the other consisting of the genera Labeo, Sinilabeo, Osteochilus, Pseudoorossocheilus, Parasinilabeo, Ptychidio, Semilabeo, Pseudogyricheilus, Rectori and Discogobio. According to our present analysis,the features such as the presence of the adhesive disc on the chin and the pharyngeal teeth in 2 rows used in the traditional taxonomy of Labeoninae provide scarce information for phylogeny of labeonine fishes.

  3. Crecimiento y mortalidad del pez Haemulon aurolineatum (Teleostei: Haemulidae en el suroeste de la isla de Margarita, Venezuela

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    Edwis Bravo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el crecimiento y la mortalidad natural del pez cují (Haemulon aurolineatum del suroeste de la Isla de Margarita (julio 2005 -junio 2006, para lo cual se analizó una muestra constituida por 2 541 ejemplares recolectados de la pesca artesanal de Boca del Río. La relación talla-peso entre machos y hembras no mostró diferencias significativas en las pendientes "b" (p>0.05; ts=-1.69 ni en los interceptos "a" (p>0.05; ts=-1.01, por lo que se estableció una relación común para ambos sexos: P=0.038*LT2.87. A partir de los datos de distribución de frecuencia de tallas se estimó la longitud asintótica ( aplicando la rutina de Powell-Wetherall, y el coeficiente de crecimiento (k a través de la rutina ELEFAN I (Gayanilo et al. 1996. Posteriormente se empleó el análisis de la progresión modal, previa descomposición de la frecuencia de longitudes de acuerdo al método de Bhattacharya (1967, y se optimizaron las estimaciones de y k según el procedimiento de Gulland y Holt (1959. Los parámetros de crecimiento estimados (L8=24.2 cm y k=0.48 año-1 mostraron un crecimiento moderadamente rápido. Los datos de frecuencias de longitudes fueron ajustados al modelo de von Bertalanffy (1960, indicando una tendencia de tipo exponencial: crecimiento acelerado hasta los 2 años de edad, que luego se hizo lento hasta que el pez alcanzó la longitud máxima. La tasa de mortalidad natural fue alta (M=1.15 año-1, probablemente por alta depredación.

  4. Redescription of Ateleopus japonicus Bleeker 1853, a senior synonym of Ateleopus natalensis Regan 1921 (Teleostei: Ateleopodiformes: Ateleopodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaga, Tatsuya

    2017-03-06

    Ateleopus natalensis Regan 1921, described from off the coast of Natal, South Africa, has been regarded as a valid species. Regan (1921) stated that the difference between the two species is the condition of the lower-jaw teeth: toothless in A. natalensis vs. teeth present in Ateleopus japonicus Bleeker 1853. However, the condition of lower-jaw teeth of Ateleopus has been proved an unreliable character because the lower-jaw teeth are very deciduous. Although Regan (1921) also implied that the differences between the two species include several body proportions, my examination of two syntypes and non-type specimens of A. natalensis from the western Indian Ocean revealed their close similarity to the range of many specimens of A. japonicus. Ateleopus japonicus is redescribed as a senior synonym of A. natalensis.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of the order Pleuronectiformes (Teleostei based on sequences of 12S and 16S mitochondrial genes

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    Marisa F.C. Azevedo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The fish order Pleuronectiformes, composed of 14 families, has two suborders: Psettodoidei (with one family and Pleuronectoidei (with thirteen families. The relationships among families of Pleuronectoidei and among the genera of their families have extensively been debated and a consensus has not yet been reached. In the present study, partial sequences of the 12S and 16S mitochondrial rRNA genes were obtained from 19 species belonging to the families Achiridae, Bothidae, Cynoglossidae, Paralichthyidae, Pleuronectidae, Scophthalmidae, and Soleidae. Additional sequences of 42 pleuronectiform species were obtained from GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted by the methods of maximum-parsimony, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian inference. Our results corroborate the monophyletic status of all families, excluding Paralichthyidae. In the family Achiridae, the genus Catathyridium (freshwater was the sister group of Trinectes (saltwater, and Hypoclinemus (freshwater was the sister group of Achirus (saltwater. Assuming that the putative ancestor of achirids lived in saltwater, it is suggested that the freshwater habitats in South America were colonized independently by different achirid lineages.

  6. Additional record of Batasio merianiensis (Chaudhuri 1913, a catfish (Teleostei: Bagridae in upper Brahmaputra River drainage in Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    L. Tamang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper communicates the extension of the distribution range of Batasio merianiensis in Sille River in the upper Brahmaputra drainage, East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh. Detailed examinations of the specimens revealed existence of few morphological variations against those reported by Heok Hee Ng in 2009 on the following characteristics: by having a longer preanal (70.4-73.4 vs. 66.3-68.2% SL; a longer prepectoral (25.1-29.3 vs. 21.4-25.7% SL; a longer adipose-fin base (22.0-27.6 vs. 16.9-22.2% SL; a shorter post-adipose distance (11.6-13.4 vs.13.4-15.5% SL; a deeper body at anus (depth 18.3-20.8 vs.15.2-18.4% SL and broader head (width 17.6-20.0 vs.13.5-16.2 % HL. Few additional characters of the fish are included along with brief information on its habitat. The LIPUM, the semi-traditional method of fishing in the river is identified as a major threat to this species.

  7. Crenicichla gillmorlisi, a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from the Paraná river drainage in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullander, Sven O; De Lucena, Carlos A Santos

    2013-01-01

    Crenicichla gillmorlisi, new species, is described from the río Acaray, a right bank tributary to the río Paraná. It is most similar to C. mandelburgeri in proportional measurements and meristics, but differs in colour pattern, adults having the body covered with small spots.

  8. Karyotypic conservatism in samples of Characidium cf. zebra (Teleostei, Characiformes, Crenuchidae): Physical mapping of ribosomal genes and natural triploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2011-04-01

    Basic and molecular cytogenetic analyses were performed in specimens of Characidium cf. zebra from five collection sites located throughout the Tietê, Paranapanema and Paraguay river basins. The diploid number in specimens from all samples was 2n = 50 with a karyotype composed of 32 metacentric and 18 submetacentric chromosomes in both males and females. Constitutive heterochromatin was present at the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and pair 23, had additional interstitial heterochromatic blocks on its long arms. The nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were located on the long arms of pair 23, while the 5S rDNA sites were detected in different chromosomes among the studied samples. One specimen from the Alambari river was a natural triploid and had two extra chromosomes, resulting in 2n = 77. The remarkable karyotypic similarity among the specimens of C. cf. zebra suggests a close evolutionary relationship. On the other hand, the distinct patterns of 5S rDNA distribution may be the result of gene flow constraints during their evolutionary history.

  9. Karyotypic conservatism in samples of Characidium cf. zebra (Teleostei, Characiformes, Crenuchidae: physical mapping of ribosomal genes and natural triploidy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Pansonato-Alves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic and molecular cytogenetic analyses were performed in specimens of Characidium cf. zebra from five collection sites located throughout the Tietê, Paranapanema and Paraguay river basins. The diploid number in specimens from all samples was 2n = 50 with a karyotype composed of 32 metacentric and 18 submetacentric chromosomes in both males and females. Constitutive heterochromatin was present at the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and pair 23, had additional interstitial heterochromatic blocks on its long arms. The nucleolar organizer regions (NORs were located on the long arms of pair 23, while the 5S rDNA sites were detected in different chromosomes among the studied samples. One specimen from the Alambari river was a natural triploid and had two extra chromosomes, resulting in 2n = 77. The remarkable karyotypic similarity among the specimens of C. cf. zebra suggests a close evolutionary relationship. On the other hand, the distinct patterns of 5S rDNA distribution may be the result of gene flow constraints during their evolutionary history.

  10. Induction of spawning in Capoeta aculeata, (Valenciennes in Cuv. & Val., 1844 (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, using carp pituitary extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kamali-Far

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Capoeta aculeata is a benthopelagic fresh-water fish that lives in subtropical climates and has awidely distribution in Iranian river basins. Hatchery production of fish for stocking is an important means oftemporarily supplementing insufficient natural reproduction, thus help to maintain or restore eroded fishpopulation. This study was done in May and June 2007 on captured brood fish from Zayandeh-Rood River,Iran in order to reach a suitable technique of artificial reproduction of C. aculeata. Caught brood fish wereinjected with carp pituitary extract at doses of 0.75 and 1.5 milligram per kilogram body weight of fish.Brood fish were tested for ovulation each 12 hours from final injection for 3 days, but no sing of readinessfor spawning was observed. To gain confidence of experiment, the study was repeated after one monthfrom the first try with new fish. The result, however, was the same and didn’t attain to any success.Inadequate information about reproduction biology of this species is one of the most important reasons ofthe negative result. Furthermore, unsuitable hormone and dosages as well as inappropriate injection timescan be probable causes of this failure that should be evaluated in later studies.

  11. Estudos ultraestruturais da glândula de Mehlis de Metamicrocotyla macracantha (Monogenea, Microcotylidae parasito de Mugil liza (Teleostei

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    Maria de Fatima Diniz Baptista Farias

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of Mehlis' gland of Metamicrocotyla macracantha, a gill parasite collected from Mugil liza from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The Mehlis' gland consists of two types of secretory cells, S1 and S2, each producing a different secretory body. The S1 bodies are spherical, lamellae-like and were observed in different stages of development in the cytoplasm of these cells. The S2 bodies are spherical to ovoid with dense content, showing a crystalline structure. The cytoplasm of Mehlis' gland cells contains also free ribosomes, granular endoplasmatic reticulum and Golgi complex, characteristic organelles of secretory cells.

  12. A new record of the non-native fish species Butis koilomatodon (Bleeker 1849 (Teleostei: Eleotridae for southeastern Brazil

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    Riguel Feltrin Contente

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the second record of the Indo-Pacific invasive mud sleeper, Butis koilomatodon, for coastal São Paulo in southeastern Brazil, and represents the southernmost record for this species in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. The risks of a potential invasion mediated by anthropogenic impacts on the area of occurrence are also discussed.

  13. Reproductive Strategy of Labeobarbus batesii (Boulenger, 1903 (Teleostei: Cyprinidae in the Mbô Floodplain Rivers of Cameroon

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    Claudine Tekounegning Tiogué

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the reproductive strategy of African carp, Labeobarbus batesii, were investigated from May 2008 to October 2009 in the Mbô Floodplain of Cameroon. Samples were collected monthly from artisanal fishermen. The total length and total body mass of each specimen were measured to the nearest mm and 0.01 g, respectively. Sex was determined by macroscopic examination of the gonads after dissection. The sex ratio was female skewed (overall sex ratio: 1 : 1.42. Females reach sexual maturity at a larger size (213 mm than the males (203 mm. The mean gonadosomatic index ranges from 0.32±0.17% to 1.91±1.15%, whereas the mean K factor ranges from 0.90±1.09 to 1.10±0.13. These two parameters are negatively correlated. The reproduction cycle begins in mid-September and ends in July of the next year, and they are reproductively quiescent for the rest of the year. Labeobarbus batesii is a group-synchronous spawner with pulses of synchronised reproduction spread over a long period. The mean absolute, potential, and relative fecundities are 2898±2837 oocytes, 1016±963 oocytes, and 9071±7184 oocytes/kg, respectively. The fecundity is higher and positively correlated with the gonad mass than with body size. Its reproductive biology suggests that L. batesii is suitable for pond culture.

  14. A new species of Neobathyclupea from the northern Indian Ocean with comments on N. malayana (Teleostei, Perciformes, Bathyclupeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofiev, Artem M; Gon, Ofer; Psomadakis, Peter N

    2016-12-19

    A new species of Neobathyclupea is described from two specimens collected off Myanmar and off Socotra Island. The new species is most similar to N. malayana, but differs from it and other congeners in having jet-black coloured fins, larger pseudobranch, dorsal-pterygiophore pattern and some body proportions. Neobathyclupea malayana is re-diagnosed. Individual variations in armament of the preopercle and in the dorsal-pterygiophore patterns within Bathyclupeidae are discussed.

  15. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the highly specialized grade schizothoracine fishes (Teleostei:Cyprinidae) inferred from cytochrome b sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE DeKui; CHEN YiFeng

    2007-01-01

    We recovered the phylogenetic relationships among 23 species and subspecies of the highly specialized grade schizothoracine fishes distributing at 36 geographical sites in the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding regions by analyzing sequences of cytochrome b genes. Furthermore, we estimated the possible divergent times among lineages based on a historical geological isolation event in the Tibetan Plateau. The molecular data revealed that the highly specialized grade schizothoracine fishes were not a monophyletic group, but were the same as genera Gymnocypris and Schizogypsis. Our results indicated that the molecular phylogenetic relationships apparently reflected their geographical and historical associations with drainages, namely species from the same and adjacent drainages clustered together and had close relationships. The divergence times of different lineages were well consistent with the rapid uplift phases of the Tibetan Plateau in the late Cenozoic, suggesting that the origin and evolution of schizothoracine fishes were strongly influenced by environment changes resulting from the upheaval of the Tibetan Plateau.

  16. Evidence of birth-and-death evolution of 5S rRNA gene in Channa species (Teleostei, Perciformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Anindya Sundar; Singh, Mamta; Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Lal, Kuldeep Kumar

    2016-12-01

    In higher eukaryotes, minor rDNA family codes for 5S rRNA that is arranged in tandem arrays and comprises of a highly conserved 120 bp long coding sequence with a variable non-transcribed spacer (NTS). Initially the 5S rDNA repeats are considered to be evolved by the process of concerted evolution. But some recent reports, including teleost fishes suggested that evolution of 5S rDNA repeat does not fit into the concerted evolution model and evolution of 5S rDNA family may be explained by a birth-and-death evolution model. In order to study the mode of evolution of 5S rDNA repeats in Perciformes fish species, nucleotide sequence and molecular organization of five species of genus Channa were analyzed in the present study. Molecular analyses revealed several variants of 5S rDNA repeats (four types of NTS) and networks created by a neighbor net algorithm for each type of sequences (I, II, III and IV) did not show a clear clustering in species specific manner. The stable secondary structure is predicted and upstream and downstream conserved regulatory elements were characterized. Sequence analyses also shown the presence of two putative pseudogenes in Channa marulius. Present study supported that 5S rDNA repeats in genus Channa were evolved under the process of birth-and-death.

  17. Wrapped in flames: Corydoras hephaestus, a new remarkably colored species from the Rio Madeira basin (Teleostei: Callichthyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Willian Massaharu; Tencatt, Luiz F C; Britto, Marcelo R

    2016-09-26

    A new species of Corydoras is described from the upper Rio Machado, Rio Madeira basin, Rondônia State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the absence of contact between the posterior process of the parieto-supraoccipital and the nuchal plate; a ventral laminar expansion of the infraorbital 1 conspicuously developed; and the posterior margin of the pectoral-fin spine with serrations along almost of its entire length, only lacking in the distal portion. Additionally, Corydoras hephaestus possesses dorsal and pectoral spines short, and exhibits an unusual color pattern in life. The conservation status of the new species and other endemic species are briefly commented.

  18. Otolith morphology and hearing abilities in cave- and surface-dwelling ecotypes of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Teleostei: Poeciliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Ladich, Friedrich; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2010-08-01

    Cave fish have rarely been investigated with regard to their inner ear morphology, hearing abilities, and acoustic communication. Based on a previous study that revealed morphological differences in the saccular otolith between a cave and two surface populations of Poecilia mexicana, we checked for additional differences in utricular and lagenar otoliths and tested whether different populations have similar hearing sensitivities. We found pronounced differences in the shape of all three otoliths. Otoliths of the saccule and lagena from cave fish differed from those of surface fish in the features of the face oriented towards the sensory epithelium. In addition, otoliths of the utricle and lagena were significantly heavier in cave fish. Auditory sensitivities were measured between 100 and 1500Hz, utilizing the auditory evoked potential recording technique. We found similar hearing abilities in cave and surface fish, with greatest sensitivity between 200 and 300Hz. An acoustic survey revealed that neither ecotype produced species-specific sounds. Our data indicate that cave dwelling altered the otolith morphology in Atlantic mollies, probably due to metabolic differences. Different otolith morphology, however, did not affect general auditory sensitivity or acoustic behavior.

  19. Population structure of two Astyanax Baird & Girard, 1854 (Teleostei, Characidae species from upper Paraguaçu river

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    Alexandre Clistenes de Alcântara Santos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The fishes of the family Characidae are among the main species of fresh water fishes in South America. In this work, some aspects of the population structure of two Astyanax species were assessed. The fishes were caught in Santo Antônio and São José rivers, in the Paraguaçu basin, by standardized monthly samplings adapted to the microhabitats. Astyanax sp. b (São José river presented larger size than Astyanax sp. a (Santo Antônio river. The length-weight relationship showed positive allometric growth for Astyanax sp. a, and negative for Astyanax sp. b. Both the species showed a long reproductive period, with higher activities in dry period.Os peixes da família Characidae estão entre os principais representantes de peixes de água doce da região Neotropical. Este trabalho apresenta alguns aspectos da estrutura populacional de duas espécies de Astyanax coletadas a partir de amostragens mensais padronizadas e adaptadas a diferentes microhabitats, em trechos dos rios Santo Antônio e São José, tributários do alto curso do rio Paraguaçu. Astyanax sp. b, coletada no rio São José apresentou maior tamanho que Astyanax sp. a, coletada no rio Santo Antônio. A relação peso-comprimento indicou um crescimento alométrico positivo para Astyanax sp. a e negativo para Astyanax sp. b. Ambas as espécies apresentaram um longo período reprodutivo, com maior atividade reprodutiva no período seco.

  20. Sperm ultrastructure of the digenean Aphallus tubarium (Rudolphi, 1819) Poche, 1926 (Platyhelminthes, Cryptogonimidae) intestinal parasite of Dentex dentex (Pisces, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foata, J; Quilichini, Y; Greani, S; Marchand, B

    2012-02-01

    The ultrastructural organization of the spermatozoon of a cryptogonimid digenean, Aphallus tubarium, a parasite of Dentex dentex, is described. The spermatozoon possesses the elements found in other digeneans: two axonemes with 9+"1" pattern, a mitochondrion, a nucleus, cortical microtubules, external ornamentation and spine-like bodies. However, the mitochondrion appears as a cord with a bulge; this characteristic has never been described in other studied cryptogonimid and in other digeneans except in one lepocreadiid, Holorchis micracanthum. Likewise, the presence of a thin cytoplasm termination in the anterior part of the spermatozoon has never been pointed out in the cryptogonimids.

  1. Comparative phylogeography of sympatric sister species, Clevelandia ios and Eucyclogobius newberryi (Teleostei, Gobiidae), across the California Transition Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, M N; Louie, K D; Barlow, M; Jacobs, D K; Swift, C C

    2002-06-01

    It is paradigmatic in marine species that greater dispersal ability often, but not always, results in greater gene flow and less population structure. Some of the exceptions may be attributable to studies confounded by comparison of species with dissimilar evolutionary histories, i.e. co-occurring species that are not closely related or species that are closely related but allopatric. Investigation of sympatric sister species, in contrast, should allow differences in phylogeographic structure to be attributed reliably to recently derived differences in dispersal ability. Here, using mitochondrial DNA control region sequence, we first confirm that Clevelandia ios and Eucyclogobius newberryi are sympatric sister taxa, then demonstrate considerably shallower phylogeographic structure in C. ios than in E. newberryi. This shallower phylogeographic structure is consistent with the higher dispersal ability of C. ios, which most likely results from the interaction of habitat and life-history differences between the species. We suggest that the paradigm will be investigated most rigorously by similar studies of other sympatric sister species, appended by thorough ecological studies, and by extending this sister-taxon approach to comparative phylogeographic studies of monophyletic clades of sympatric species.

  2. Integrative taxonomy of Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae (Nematoda) in Paralichthys patagonicus and Xystreurys rasile (Pisces: Teleostei) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Michelle Cristie Gonçalves da; Knoff, Marcelo; Felizardo, Nilza Nunes; Di Azevedo, Maria Isabel N; Torres, Eduardo José Lopes; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; São Clemente, Sérgio Carmona de

    2016-10-17

    Thirty-six Paralichthys patagonicus and 30 Xystreurys rasile were collected in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to investigate the presence of anisakid and raphidascaridid nematodes. Anisakis typica, Terranova sp., Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. were identified using integrative taxonomy of morphological and genetic data. Morphological and morphometric analysis was conducted using bright field microscopy with scanning electron microscopy for topographic characterization of the cuticular surface. Phylogenetic analysis, using ITS and cox2 molecular targets, clearly demonstrated the species identification of A. typica and H. deardorffoverstreetorum and the high diversity of H. deardorffoverstreetorum. This is the first report of A. typica, H. deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. parasitizing P. patagonicus and X. rasile.

  3. Karyological characterization of four Neotropical fish species of the genus Hisonotus (Teleostei, Loricariidae, Hypoptopomatinae from distinct Brazilian river basins

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    Artur Antonio Andreata

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotypes of four Hisonotus species (two provisionally-named species A and D, H. nigricauda, and H. leucofrenatus were found to have the same diploid number of 2n = 54 and interstitial silver-staining nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NORs located on the long arm of the largest metacentric pair. The C-banding pattern appeared to be species-specific, with one group (H. nigricauda and the unnamed species A and D being characterized by small amounts of positive C-banded segments and containing a sub-group (species A and D identified by a large positive C-banded segment on a small metacentric chromosome pair. The second group contained different samples of H. leucofrenatus, characterized by a larger amount of C-band positive segments spread over several chromosome arms. Heterochromatin appears to play an important evolutionary role in chromosome differentiation in Hisonotus species, especially in H. leucofrenatus. The geographic isolation of several H. leucofrenatus populations seems to have favored chromosome evolution of each sample analyzed.

  4. Ellipsomyxa syngnathi sp. n. (Myxozoa, Myxosporea) in the pipefish Syngnathus typhle and S. rostellatus (Teleostei, Syngnathidae) from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køie, Marianne; Karlsbakk, Egil

    2009-01-01

    A new species Ellipsomyxa syngnathi sp. n. (Myxozoa) is described from Syngnathus typhle L. and Syngnathus rostellatus Nilsson, 1855 (Syngnathidae), using spore morphology and SSU rDNA sequence data. Monosporic plasmodia develop in the internal gallbladder wall. The ellipsoid myxospore has two...... pyriform polar capsules which discharge at opposite sides some distance from both sutural line and spore ends. The myxospore mainly differs from that of Ellipsomyxa gobii Køie (Folia Parasitol 50:269-271, 2003) in being monosporic and in having the sutural line oblique to the thickness axis. Zschokkella...

  5. Myxobolus albi n. sp. (Myxozoa) from the Gills of the Common Goby Pomatoschistus microps Krøyer (Teleostei: Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picon-Camacho, Sara M; Holzer, Astrid S; Freeman, Mark A; Morris, David J; Shinn, Andrew P

    2009-01-01

    A recent investigation into the myxozoan fauna of common gobies, Pomatoschistus microps, from the Forth Estuary in Scotland, revealed numerous myxosporean cysts within the gill cartilage. They were composed of polysporous plasmodia containing myxobolid spores that were morphologically different from the other known species of Myxobolus and from the myxosporeans previously recorded from this host (i.e. the ceratomyxid Ellipsomyxa gobii, infecting the gall bladder, and the kudoid Kudoa camarguensis, infecting the muscle tissues). Spores were ovoid, 9.4 x 9.1 microm with a thickness of 6.6 microm, with two pyriform polar capsules, the polar filaments of which had four to five turns. Molecular analysis of the parasite's small subunit rDNA region, based upon a contiguous sequence of 1,558 base pairs, discriminated it from other myxosporean species that have been characterized so far. A comparison of the spore morphology and the molecular sequences determined for this new isolate with other myxozoans described to date, confirmed its identity as a previously unknown myxobolid supporting the proposal that this isolate be elevated to the species level as a new species within the genus Myxobolus. A phylogenetic analysis places this new myxobolid, Myxobolus albi n. sp., in a basal position of a clade containing the majority of Henneguya spp. sequenced to date and various Myxobolus spp.

  6. A young clade repeating an old pattern: diversity in Nothonotus darters (Teleostei: Percidae) endemic to the Cumberland River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Benjamin P; Near, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    Hypotheses of diversification in eastern North American freshwater fishes have focused primarily on allopatric distributions of species between disjunct highland areas and major river systems. However, these hypotheses do not fully explain the rich diversity of species within highland regions and river systems. Relatively old diversification events at small geographic scales have been observed in the Barcheek Darter subclade that occurs in the Cumberland River drainage (CRD) in Kentucky and Tennessee, United States of America, but it is unknown if this pattern is consistent in other darter subclades. We explored phylogeographic diversity in two species of Nothonotus darters, N. microlepidus and N. sanguifluus, endemic to the CRD to compare phylogenetic patterns between Barcheek Darters and species of Nothonotus. We collected sequence data for a mitochondrial gene (cytb) and three nuclear genes (MLL, S7 and RAG1) from 19 N. microlepidus and 35 N. sanguifluus specimens. Gene trees were estimated using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, and a 'species tree' was inferred using a Bayesian method. These trees indicate that species diversity in Nothonotus is underestimated. Five distinct lineages were evident, despite retained ancestral polymorphism and unsampled extirpated populations. Comparison of chronograms for Barcheek Darters and Nothonotus revealed that microendemism resulting from species diversification at small geographic scales in the CRD is a consistent pattern in both old and young darter subclades. Our analyses reveal that geographic isolating mechanisms that result in similar phylogeographic patterns in the CRD are persistent through long expanses of evolutionary time.

  7. [Lamellodiscus sanfilippoi n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) parasite from the gills of Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae) in Mediterranean Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, F; Neifar, L; Euzet, L

    2006-03-01

    Lamellodiscus sanfilippoi n. sp. takes place, among the other species of Lamellodiscus, in the "ergensi" sub-group (Amine et Euzet, 2005) characterized by the morphology of the dorsal lateral bars of the haptor. This sub-group comprises, in the Mediterranean, L. ergensi Euzet and Oliver, 1966, L. kechemirae Amine and Euzet, 2005, L. tomentosus Amine and Euzet, 2005, all parasite of Diplodus sargus, and L. baeri Oliver, 1974 parasite of Pagrus pagrus. L. sanfilippoi can be distinguished from the previous species by the morphology and size of the dorsal lateral bars. The new species is close to Lamellodiscus furcillatus Kritsky, Jiménez-Ruiz and Sey, 2000, a parasite of Diplodus noct in the Persian Gulf, but differs by the size of the haptoral sclerotised pieces and the morphology of the male copulatory apparatus. Lamellodiscus gussevi Sanfilippo (1978) et Lamellodiscus abbreviatus Sanfilippo (1978) are considered as nomina nuda.

  8. Nudaciraxine imperium sp. n. (Monogenea: Axinidae) from the gills of Mediterranean needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (Teleostei: Belonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Châari, Manel; Derbel, Hela; Neifar, Lassâd

    2010-03-01

    Nudaciraxine imperium sp. n. (Monogenea: Axinidae) is described from the gills of the needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (Rafinesque) caught in the Gulf of Gabès, Tunisia. This new species mainly differs from both previously described species, Nudaciraxine gracilis (Linton, 1940) Price, 1962 from Strongylura marina (Walbaum) and Nudaciraxine cabosanlucensis Payne, 1990 from Ablennes sp., by having more testes (42 vs. 20-22 and 32, respectively). Nudaciraxine imperium also differs from N. gracilis by having a median vaginal pore (submedian in N. gracilis), narrower clamps (52-70 microm vs. 75-100 microm) and differently shaped haptoral lateral hamuli. From N. cabosanlucensis it can be distinguished by a J-shaped rather than U-shaped ovary, a longer cirrus pouch (125-190 microm vs. 64-70 microm), an oesophageal bifurcation slightly anterior to genital complex (immediately after pharynx in N. cabosanlucensis) and a wider guard on the lateral hamuli. In agreement with Payne (1990), the diagnosis of the genus Nudaciraxine Price, 1962 is amended as follows: vaginal pore dorsal, median to submedian, armed or not with horn-like spines. This is the first report of the genus Nudaciraxine in the Mediterranean Sea. The potential use of axinid monogeneans as biological tags for subspecies of belonid fishes is discussed.

  9. UNE NOUVELLE ESPÈCE DE TOMETES (TELEOSTEI : CHARACIDAE : SERRASALMINAE DU BOUCLIER GUYANAIS, TOMETES LEBAILI N. SP.

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    JÉGU M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Tometes lebaili n. sp. diffère de Tometes trilobatus Valenciennes, 1850, par la position de la bouche, oblique et dirigée vers le haut. T. lebaili présente 7 à 8 dents à la série labiale du dentaire contre 5 chez T. trilobatus. T. trilobatus, citée des rapides de l’Araguari (Amapá, Brésil à l’Oyapock (Guyane française, est remplacée plus à l’ouest par T. lebaili n. sp., décrite de la Mana (Guyane fr. au Commewine (Surinam et peut-être présente dans le Sinnamary. La taille maximale observée pour T. lebaili est de 512 mm LS.

  10. Cytochemical characterization of the endomembranous system during the oocyte primary growth in Serrasalmus spilopleura (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, A C D; Quagio-Grassiotto, I

    2005-10-01

    The morphophysiological changes that occur during oocyte primary growth in Serrasalmus spilopleura were studied using ultrastructural cytochemical techniques. In the previtellogenic oocytes endoplasmic reticulum components, Golgi complex cisternae and vesicles, lysosomes, multivesicular bodies and some electron-dense vesicles react to acid phosphatase (AcPase) detection. The endoplasmic reticulum components, Golgi complex cisternae and vesicles also react to osmium tetroxide and potassium iodide impregnation (KI). These structures, except for the Golgi complex cisternae, are strongly contrasted by osmium tetroxide and zinc iodide impregnation (ZIO). Some electron-dense vesicles are ZIO-stained, while microvesicles in the multivesicular bodies and other large isolated cytoplasmic vesicles are contrasted by KI. At primary oocyte growth, the activity of the endomembranous system and the proliferation of membranous organelles are intense. The biosynthetic pathway of the lysosomal proteins such as acid phosphatase, involves the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, vesicles with inactive hydrolytic enzymes and, finally, the lysosomes. The oocyte endomembranous system have reduction capacity and are involved in the metabolism of rich in SH groups.

  11. A new myxozoan parasite from the Amazonian fish Metynnis argenteus (Teleostei, Characidae): light and electron microscope observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Graça; Matos, Edilson; Azevedo, Carlos

    2006-08-01

    Myxobolus metynnis n. sp. (Phylum Myxozoa) is described in the connective subcutaneous tissues of the orbicular region of the fish, Metynnis argenteus (Characidae), collected in the lower Amazon River, near the city of Peixe Boi, Pará State, Brazil. Polysporic, histozoic plasmodia were delimited by a double membrane with numerous microvilli on the peripheral cytoplasm. Several life-cycle stages, including mature spores, were observed. An envelope formed by numerous fine and anastomosed microfibrils was observed at the spore surface. The spore body presented an ellipsoidal shape and was about 13.1 microm long, 7.8 microm wide, and 3.9 microm thick. Elongated-pyriform polar capsules were of equal size, measuring 5.2 microm in length, 3.2 microm in width, and possessing a polar filament with 8-9 turns around the longitudinal axis. The binucleated sporoplasm contained a vacuole and numerous sporoplasmosomes. These were circular in cross-section, showing an adherent eccentric, dense structure, with a half-crescent section. Based on the morphological differences and host specificity, we propose that the parasite is a new species named Myxobolus metynnis n. sp.

  12. A Ploidy Difference Represents an Impassable Barrier for Hybridisation in Animals. Is There an Exception among Botiid Loaches (Teleostei: Botiidae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Bohlen

    Full Text Available One of the most efficient mechanisms to keep animal lineages separate is a difference in ploidy level (number of whole genome copies, since hybrid offspring from parents with different ploidy level are functionally sterile. In the freshwater fish family Botiidae, ploidy difference has been held responsible for the separation of its two subfamilies, the evolutionary tetraploid Botiinae and the diploid Leptobotiinae. Diploid and tetraploid species coexist in the upper Yangtze, the Pearl River and the Red River basins in China. Interestingly, the species 'Botia' zebra from the Pearl River basin combines a number of morphological characters that otherwise are found in the diploid genus Leptobotia with morphological characters of the tetraploid genus Sinibotia, therefore the aim of the present study is to test weather 'B.' zebra is the result of a hybridisation event between species from different subfamilies with different ploidy level. A closer morphological examination indeed demonstrates a high similarity of 'B.' zebra to two co-occurring species, the diploid Leptobotia guilinensis and the tetraploid Sinibotia pulchra. These two species thus could have been the potential parental species in case of a hybrid origin of 'B.' zebra. The morphologic analysis further reveals that 'B.' zebra bears even the diagnostic characters of the genera Leptobotia (Leptobotiinae and Sinibotia (Botiinae. In contrast, a comparison of six allozyme loci between 'B.' zebra, L. guilinensis and S. pulchra showed only similarities between 'B.' zebra and S. pulchra, not between 'B.' zebra and L. guilinensis. Six specimens of 'B.' zebra that were cytogenetically analysed were tetraploid with 4n = 100. The composition of the karyotype (18% metacentric, 18% submetacentric, 36% subtelocentric and 28% acrocentric chromosomes differs from those of L. guilinensis (12%, 24%, 20% and 44% and S. pulchra (20%, 26%, 28% and 26%, and cannot be obtained by any combination of genomes from L. guilinensis and S. pulchra. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on sequence data of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the nuclear RAG-1 gene invariably places 'Botia' zebra as sister species to S. pulchra, while L. guilinensis is only distantly related. The presented combination of genetic data demonstrates that 'B.' zebra is not the result of a hybridisation, but a species of tetraploid genus Sinibotia with a striking morphological evolution towards an enormous similarity with a co-occurring, but not directly related species. The complete lack of knowledge of the ecology of these species, their main predators or their ecological interactions hampers any conclusion regarding the evolutionary advantage of such adaptation.

  13. Cytogenetic divergence between two sympatric species of Characidium (Teleostei, Characiformes, Crenuchidae from the Machado River, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Alexandre Rodrigues da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic studies were performed on two sympatric species of Characidium, C. gomesi and C. cf. zebra, from the Grande River basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Although both species had a chromosome number of 50 with a karyotype exclusively consisting of meta- and submetacentric chromosomes, interspecific diversity was detected concerning the size of the two first chromosome pairs of the karyotypes. Active nucleolus organizer regions (NORs were located at the terminal position on the long arm of the 17th pair of C. gomesi and at subterminal position on the long arm of the 23rd pair of C. cf. zebra. For both species the fluorochrome CMA3 stained only the NOR-bearing pair of chromosomes. The heterochromatin pattern also showed some differentiation between these species restricted to the centromeric or pericentromeric region of C. cf. zebra and practically absent in C. gomesi. These data are discussed concerning chromosome diversification in this fish group.

  14. Cytogenetic and morphometric analysis in the species Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae) from the Iguatemi River Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Da Rocha, Rafael Henrique; Bailly, Dayani; Guterres, Zaira Da Rosa; Alves, Diandra Soares; Martins-Santos, Isabel Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The genus Astyanax is relatively common and encompasses various similar taxa forming a highly complex group that is difficult to precisely delimit. The present study aims to analyze cytogenetically and morphologically specimens of A. altiparanae belonging to distinct populations of the Iguatemi River Basin, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, for a better understanding of the evolutionary processes in this fish group. This study analysed 32 specimens of Astyanax altiparanae from Iguatemi River basin, MS, Brazil: 24 from the Agua Boa stream and 8 from the Santa Maria stream. All specimens showed a diploid number equal to 50 chromosomes with differences in the karyotypic formula and types of chromosomes bearing the NOR between the two localities. The constitutive heterochromatin showed interstitial markings evident in the region of some chromosomes in both populations. In the morphometric analysis, the first three axes were retained for interpretation which together explained 81% of variance, showing morphometric distinction between populations. Chromosomal and morphometric data obtained may be useful for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies in this group of fish.

  15. A new record of a flathead fish (Teleostei: Platycephalidae) from China based on morphological characters and DNA barcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan; Song, Na; Zou, Jianwei; Zhang, Zhaohui; Cheng, Guangping; Gao, Tianxiang; Zhang, Xiumei

    2013-05-01

    A new record of Platycephalus sp.1 (sensu Nakabo, 2002) was documented based on morphological characters and DNA barcoding. We collected 174 specimens of the genus Platycephalus from Chinese coastal waters of Dongying, Qingdao, Zhoushan, and Beihai. Samples were identified as Platycephalus sp.1 morphologically. The coloration, meristic traits, and morphometric measurements are consistent with previously published records. In brief, it is an orange-brown flathead fish with dark brown spots scattered on head and body, lateral line scales 83 to 99 with one or two spine-bearing anteriormost pored scale, no yellow blotch on the caudal fin. Cytochrome oxidase I subunit (COI) gene fragments were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The mean evolutionary distance within the species Platycephalus sp.1 was 0.1%. Net evolutionary distances between Platycephalus sp.1 and other species of Platycephalus ranged from 10.8% to 19.7%, which is much greater than the threshold for species delimitation. The COI sequence analysis strongly supports the validity of Platyceohalus sp.1 at genetic level.

  16. A new record of a flathead fish (Teleostei: Platycephalidae)from China based on morphological characters and DNA barcoding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Yan; SONG Na; ZOU Jianwei; ZHANG Zhaohui; CHENG Guangping; GAO Tianxiang; ZHANG Xiumei

    2013-01-01

    A new record of Platycephalus sp.1 (sensu Nakabo,2002) was documented based on morphological characters and DNA barcoding.We collected 174 specimens of the genus Platycephalus from Chinese coastal waters of Dongying,Qingdao,Zhoushan,and Beihai.Samples were identified as Platycephalus sp.1 morphologically.The coloration,meristic traits,and morphometric measurements are consistent with previously published records.In brief,it is an orange-brown flathead fish with dark brown spots scattered on head and body,lateral line scales 83 to 99 with one or two spine-bearing anteriormost pored scale,no yellow blotch on the caudal fin.Cytochrome oxidase I subunit (COI) gene fragments were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis.The mean evolutionary distance within the species Platycephalus sp.1 was 0.1%.Net evolutionary distances between Platycephalus sp.1 and other species of Platycephalus ranged from 10.8% to 19.7%,which is much greater than the threshold for species delimitation.The COI sequence analysis strongly supports the validity ofPlatyceohalus sp.1 at genetic level.

  17. Sexual development and reproductive pattern of the Mutton hamlet, Alphestes afer (Teleostei: Epinephelidae: a dyandric, hermaphroditic reef fish

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    Simone Marques

    Full Text Available There is little knowledge on the reproduction of the genus Alphestes. The reproduction of the Mutton hamlet, Alphestes afer, sampled in Pernambuco reefs (Brazil was studied based on macroscopic analysis during reproductive period and histological analysis of gonad material from March 2008 to October 2009. This study showed that A. afer is a diandric, protogynous hermaphrodite. Sex change followed protogynous mode in two pathways: primary males formed from immature female individuals or secondary males formed from resting, ripe or spent female individuals. The numerical distribution of gonad classes by size indicated that females from 11-18 cm L T were immature while females from 16-25 cm L T and males from 12-22 cm L T were in various stages of gonadal development. Individuals identified as immature bisexual and transitional (presenting both ovarian and sperm tissue were sized from 16-24 cm L T. Size of first reproduction for females was 18 cm L T and for males was 12 cm L T. Alphestes afer showed multiple spawning, with spawning season period from August to December 2008 and from August to October 2009. The sex-ratio (females: males in 2008 and 2009 was 0.94:1 during the months of spawning season. Males were smaller than females, reaching maximum size of 22 cm compared to 25 cm observed for females. Males showed a high sperm competition rank (3.8, suggesting intense sperm competition. This latter is a possible indication of a shift in the mating group structure from paired to group spawning. The presence of small males added to high sperm competition index, suggest that this species, while retaining the protogynous pattern, has a reproductive strategy similar to gonochorist epinephelids.

  18. Merluccius hubbsi (Teleostei: Merlucciidae: stock identification based on reproductive biology in the south-southeast brazilian region

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    André Martins Vaz-dos-Santos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Argentine hake, Merluccius hubbsi, a demersal-pelagic species found from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to the Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, has become an important target of the Brazilian bottom-trawler fleet since 2001. Earlier studies focusing on the species have suggested that more than one stock might occur off the Brazilian coast, in accordance with environmental features. In order to evaluate this hypothesis, fish were collected from four different areas in the Brazilian waters in which the hake is distributed, during the summers and winters of 1996-2001 and 2004, the females being used to analyze and compare spatial-temporal variations in ovarian maturation. Gonad indexes were also applied for the same purpose. Results indicate a north-south spawning gradient occurring as from summer at around 21°S to winter near 34°S, leading to the identification of two distinct stocks: one located between 21°S and 29°S (Southeastern stock and the other between 29°S and 34°S (Southern stock, this latter shared with Uruguay and Argentina. Brazilian stocks present clear signs of overexploitation, the situation calling for an urgent solution.A merluza Merluccius hubbsi, espécie demerso-pelágica distribuída desde o Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, até a Terra do Fogo, Argentina, tornou-se alvo das frotas de arrasto de fundo da região Sudeste-Sul do Brasil desde 2001. Estudos anteriores sobre a biologia da espécie sugeriram a existência de mais de um estoque em águas brasileiras, relacionados a características ambientais. Para verificar esta hipótese, exemplares oriundos de quatro áreas em águas brasileiras foram coletados durante o verão e o inverno nos períodos 1996-2001 e 2004, sendo as fêmeas utilizadas para analisar variações espaço-temporais na maturação gonadal. Para corroborar estas análises também foram aplicados índices gonadais. Os resultados mostraram a ocorrência de um gradiente norte-sul para a desova, que é mais intenso no verão em 21°S e no inverno em 34°S. Foram identificados dois estoques: um denominado Sudeste, que se distribui entre 21°S-29°S, e outro Sul, entre 29°S-34°S, este último compartilhado com o Uruguai e a Argentina. Os estoques brasileiros apresentam sinais de sobrepesca, situação que merece atenção e medidas apropriadas de gestão.

  19. A southern species of the tropical catfish genus Phractocephalus (Teleostei: Siluriformes) in the Miocene of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpelicueta, María de las Mercedes; Cione, Alberto Luis

    2016-04-01

    Catfish bones from Tortonian (Miocene) freshwater beds of central Argentina are here identified as pertaining to a new species of the tropical pimelodid genus Phractocephalus. The new species differs from the other recent and fossil species of the genus in skull, pectoral girdle and spine characters. The material was found in different localities near the city of Paraná, Entre Ríos Province. The bearing horizon is the so-called "Conglomerado osífero" which constitutes the lowermost beds of the fluvial Ituzaingó Formation. The aquatic vertebrate fauna occurring in the bearing bed shows a similar generic composition to several northern South American Miocene units where Phractocephalus remains were found. This report extends the range of Phractocephalus more than 2000 km to the South. The record is in agreement with higher global temperatures and putative ample hydrographic connections of the river basins in the Paraná area with the Amazon basin until at least the early late Miocene.

  20. Atherinella blackburni (Schultz, 1949 at Itamambuca Beach, Ubatuba, SP: ecological characterization and distribution on the Brazilian coast (Teleostei: Atheriniformes: Atherinopsidae

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    GMT. Mattox

    Full Text Available Atherinella blackburni is a silverside species whose occurrence on the Brazilian coast was not properly registered until recently. So far, records of its distribution along the Brazilian shore were limited to Itaparica Island, Bahia State, and Porto Inhaúma, Rio de Janeiro State. In a recent survey of the ichthyofauna of Itamambuca Beach, Ubatuba, São Paulo State, 100 specimens of this species were collected, yielding a considerable source of information regarding its ecology and a new southern limit of its distribution. A detailed survey of an ichthyological collection revealed lots of this species from regions of the Brazilian Northeast, resulting in a northward expansion of the occurrence of A. blackburni in Brazilian waters. Besides the populations found on the Brazilian coast, the species also occurs discontinuously in the Atlantic coasts of Costa Rica, Panama and Venezuela. Meristic and morphometric analysis showed overlapped values between Brazilian populations and the ones closer to the Caribbean. An ecological study of A. blackburni at Itamambuca Beach revealed that it is a predominantly diurnal species with preference for warm and salty waters, often occurring in sandy-bottom environments. It was more abundant in Summer and Winter, when individuals with smaller values of length and weight also occurred.

  1. Balitora jalpalli, a new species of stone loach (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Balitoridae from Silent Valley, southern Western Ghats, India

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    R. Raghavan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available TA new species of stone loach (Cypriniformes: Balitoridae, Balitora jalpalli, is described from Kunthi tributary of Bharatapuzha River located inside Silent Valley National Park in the southern Western Ghats of Kerala, India. It can be distinguished from known Indian species of Balitora by five major characters: head length, caudal peduncle depth, maximum head width and difference in number and pattern of bands on the dorsal side. The new species is distinct in having two unbranched and 8-9 branched ventral fin rays, nine unbranched and 10-11 branched pectoral fin rays and 66 lateral line scales, a caudal peduncle length to depth ratio of 2.3-2.7, anal fin to anus distance 3.3-4.7 % SL, least depth of caudal peduncle 6.3-6.7 % SL, length of caudal peduncle 15.4-17.2 % SL, length of upper caudal lobe 22.1-22.8 % SL, maximum head width 67.9-74.1 % HL, eye diameter 12.1-14.2 % HL, and gape 31.3-31.5 % HL.

  2. Gross anatomy and histology of the alimentary system of Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes) and potential phylogenetic information

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Alonso; Juan Marcos Mirande; Matías Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    A compared study of the morphology of the alimentary tract and liver of seven selected species corresponding to the main clades of the Characidae family is presented herein. Three new set of characters corresponding to 1) alimentary tract gross anatomy, 2) alimentary tract histology and 3) liver gross anatomy are evaluated as potential sources of data for future phylogenetic studies of the Characidae. Not considerable interspecific variation was observed at the histological level and therefor...

  3. The involvement of gonadotropins and gonadal steroids in the ovulatory dysfunction of the potamodromous Salminus hilarii (Teleostei: Characidae) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Renata Guimarães; Honji, Renato Massaaki; Melo, Renato Garcia; Narcizo, Amanda de Moraes; Amaral, Juliane Suzuki; Araújo, Ronaldo de Carvalho; Hilsdorf, Alexandre Wagner Silva

    2015-12-01

    Potamodromous teleosts that require migration to reproduce show dysfunctions that block ovulation and spawning while in captivity. To understand the physiological basis of these reproductive dysfunctions, follicle-stimulating hormone b subunit (fshb) and luteinizing hormone b subunit (lhb) gene expression analyses by real-time quantitative PCR, together with measurements of estradiol (E 2), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP) and 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17α,20β-DHP) levels, were carried out throughout the reproductive cycle of the potamodromous Salminus hilarii. The following reproductive stages were evaluated in captive and wild females: previtellogenic (PV), advanced maturation/mature (AM) and regression/spent (REG/SPENT). In the wild females, fshb expression decreased from the PV to the AM stage, and the opposite pattern was detected for E 2, which increased from the PV to the AM stage. fshb was expressed at lower levels in captive than in wild females, and this difference did not change during the reproductive cycle. lhb expression also increased from the PV to the AM stage in both groups, but the wild females at the AM and REG/SPENT stages showed higher lhb expression levels than the captive females. The concentrations of 17α-OHP did not change during the reproductive cycle, and the levels were higher in the captive than in the wild females at all reproductive stages. 17α,20β-DHP levels did not change between wild and captive females. However, in captive females, the transition from PV to AM stage was followed by an increase in 17α,20β-DHP levels. These data indicate that dysfunctions in the gonadotropins and steroids synthesis pathways cause the ovulation failure in captive S. hilarii.

  4. Blood cleansing cells in head kidney and spleen in Buenos Aires tetra, Hyphessobrycon anisitsi (Eigenmann), (Characidae: Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leknes, I L

    2012-06-01

    The general structure and cell types in kidney and spleen in Buenos Aires tetra, Hyphessobrycon anisitsi, family Characidae, are described. The capability and capacity of these organs to clean foreign ferritin from the blood stream are analysed and compared. Head kidney was mainly composed of neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes and other white blood cells, whereas unmatured and matured red blood cells were few in number. Spleen often contained much red pulp, that is mainly matured red blood cells between splenic cords, often with some macrophages and neutrophils in the latter. Occasionally, this pulp contained large volumes of unmatured red blood cells, particularly in the periphery of the spleen. The splenic white pulp consisted of ellipsoids composed of an inner endothelial layer covered by a thick sheet of white blood cells, which in the periphery consisted mainly of macrophages. Erythrocytes occupied nearly the entire splenic volume in some specimens, whereas up to half of this volume was filled by ellipsoid macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes and other white blood cells in other specimens. The macrophages and sinusoidal endothelial cells in kidney and spleen from ferritin-injected specimens were tightly packed by yellow-brown granules or Prussian blue precipitations, in tissue treated with Mallory stain or acid ferrocyanide, respectively, suggesting a large uptake of foreign ferritin. In the present tetra large amounts of white blood cells are developed in head kidney, where macrophages and sinusoidal endothelial cells play important roles in the cleansing of scavenger and foreign molecules and particles from the blood stream. The spleen seems primarily to be a site for iron recycling and production and storage of red blood cells. Sometimes, however, it was rich in macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes and other white blood cells, suggesting functions like blood cleansing and non-specific and specific defence in such specimens. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Revision of the South American genus Tetragonopterus Cuvier, 1816 (Teleostei: Characidae) with description of four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gabriel S C; Melo, Bruno F; Oliveira, Claudio; Benine, Ricardo C

    2016-11-27

    The systematics of the characid genus Tetragonopterus is reviewed based on morphological and molecular data of specimens from its entire geographical range encompassing all major South American river drainages from Orinoco basin southward to the La Plata basin. Eight previously described species (T. anostomus, T. araguaiensis, T. argenteus, T. carvalhoi, T. chalceus, T. denticulatus, T. georgiae n. comb., and T. rarus) are recognized as valid, four of which are redescribed (T. argenteus, T. chalceus, T. georgiae, and T. rarus), and four new species from the Brazilian Shield in the Amazon and São Francisco river basins are herein described. We also provide evidence for the reallocation of Moenkhausia georgiae into Tetragonopterus and recognize T. akamai as junior synonym of T. anostomus. DNA barcodes of Tetragonopterus revealed genetic support for each recognized species and provided valuable population-level information within T. argenteus, T. chalceus, T. georgiae, and T. rarus.

  6. Use of Muscular Cholinesterase of Astyanax bifasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae) as a Biomarker in Biomonitoring of Rural Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimet, Jardel; Guimarães, Ana Tereza Bittencourt; Delariva, Rosilene Luciana

    2017-08-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was measured in Astyanax bifasciatus maintained in controlled conditions. Muscle ChE activity of individuals collected in field conditions in two seasons was compared among specimens collected in seven streams (forest and rural) of the lower Iguaçu river basin in association with physical, chemical, pesticides and biological factors. Significant differences in muscle ChE activity between control fish and fish collected in streams in both seasons were found, with higher activity in natural conditions. This the first time that differences in muscle ChE activity have been found among fish collected from different streams, suggesting synergism among multiple factors (e.g. temperature, pH, animal weight) and ecological attributes (richness and abundance) as influencing the variation in biomarkers. It is necessary to evaluate the quality of aquatic environments for a more accurate biomonitoring approach.

  7. Description of three new species of Moenkhausia (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae) with the definition of the Moenkhausia jamesi species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrolli, Marina G; Benine, Ricardo C

    2015-07-20

    From the examination of extensive comparative material currently identified as M. jamesi we verified that there are, at least, three new species under this name. These, along with M. jamesi and M. justae, form what we herein called the M. jamesi species complex, by sharing the following group of characters: a short maxilla, with its distal margin not exceeding anterior third of the second infraorbital; first through third teeth of the inner row of premaxilla and first and second dentary teeth with cusps arranged in a pronounced arch, humeral spot positioned between the fourth and seventh scales of the lateral line and extending up to four scale rows above the lateral line and one scale row below the lateral line, and a vertically oval to round spot at the base of the caudal fin rays. Moenkhausia ischyognatha sp. n., from Rio Xingu basin, differs from the other species of the complex by its lower head depth. Moenkhausia alesis sp. n., from the river system Tocantins-Araguaia, differs from M. jamesi, M. ischyognatha, and M. sthenosthoma by the number of scale rows above the lateral line. Moenkhausia sthenosthoma sp. n., from the Rio Madeira basin, differs from M. jamesi by the number of scale rows between the lateral line and the midventral scale series. Moenkhausia justae can be diagnosed from the other species of the complex by having a tri to pentacuspidate tooth on the maxilla.

  8. Phylogenetic relationships within the speciose family Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes) based on multilocus analysis and extensive ingroup sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Claudio; Avelino, Gleisy S; Abe, Kelly T; Mariguela, Tatiane C; Benine, Ricardo C; Ortí, Guillermo; Vari, Richard P; Corrêa e Castro, Ricardo M

    2011-09-26

    With nearly 1,100 species, the fish family Characidae represents more than half of the species of Characiformes, and is a key component of Neotropical freshwater ecosystems. The composition, phylogeny, and classification of Characidae is currently uncertain, despite significant efforts based on analysis of morphological and molecular data. No consensus about the monophyly of this group or its position within the order Characiformes has been reached, challenged by the fact that many key studies to date have non-overlapping taxonomic representation and focus only on subsets of this diversity. In the present study we propose a new definition of the family Characidae and a hypothesis of relationships for the Characiformes based on phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (4,680 base pairs). The sequences were obtained from 211 samples representing 166 genera distributed among all 18 recognized families in the order Characiformes, all 14 recognized subfamilies in the Characidae, plus 56 of the genera so far considered incertae sedis in the Characidae. The phylogeny obtained is robust, with most lineages significantly supported by posterior probabilities in Bayesian analysis, and high bootstrap values from maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses. A monophyletic assemblage strongly supported in all our phylogenetic analysis is herein defined as the Characidae and includes the characiform species lacking a supraorbital bone and with a derived position of the emergence of the hyoid artery from the anterior ceratohyal. To recognize this and several other monophyletic groups within characiforms we propose changes in the limits of several families to facilitate future studies in the Characiformes and particularly the Characidae. This work presents a new phylogenetic framework for a speciose and morphologically diverse group of freshwater fishes of significant ecological and evolutionary importance across the Neotropics and portions of Africa.

  9. Cytogenetic and Molecular Data Suggest Deuterodon pedri Eigenmann, 1907 (Teleostei: Characidae) Is a Member of an Ancient Coastal Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho-Sanches, Natália; Dergam, Jorge Abdala

    2015-10-01

    The genus Deuterodon has been taxonomically recently redefined. Seven of its species have been included in this genus, whereas three others are regarded as Incertae Sedis in Characidae. One of latter is Deuterodon pedri, an endemic species from Santo Antônio River in Minas Gerais. Cytogenetic and molecular data on 21 specimens of D. pedri allowed to reevaluate the phylogenetic position of this taxon. The specimens showed karyotypic formula 12m+12sm+20st+6a, low heterochromatin content, nucleolar organizer regions present in two chromosome pairs, and 10 and 2 labeled regions by fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S and 5S probes respectively, a karyotype similar to Deuterodon stigmaturus. The phylogenetic tree generated by a cytochrome oxidase subunit I fragment revealed that D. pedri and Deuterodon singularis are closely related and are the sister-group of Deuterodon parahybae, Deuterodon iguape, Astyanax giton, Astyanax intermedius, Astyanax ribeirae, Astyanax scabripinnis, and Probolodus heterostomus. The same arrangement was partially recovered with the nuclear gene RAG2. Our data indicate the genus Deuterodon is not monophyletic and that it is closely related to other species that occur in Brazil coastal basins.

  10. Immunohistochemical, morphological and histometrical analyses of follicular development in Astyanax bimaculatus (Teleostei: Characidae) exposed to an organochlorine insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Lucas; Thomé, Ralph Gruppi; Mounteer, Ann Honor; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete; Benjamin, Laércio Dos Anjos

    2017-09-01

    Thiodan(®) is an organochlorine insecticide used in agriculture that can reach aquatic ecosystems where it can affect fish reproduction. This research aimed to evaluate follicular development and the expression of integrin β1, collagen type IV and caspase 3 by morphological, histometrical and immunohistochemical analyses of Astyanax bimaculatus exposed to Thiodan(®). Treatments included three sublethal concentrations of Thiodan(®) (1.15, 2.30, and 5.60μgL(-1)) for 96h and a control without the insecticide. Mature females with ovaries in advanced follicular development were chosen for study (average weight: 11.52 ± 2.0g; average total length: 9.12 ± 0.64cm). The follicles of A. bimaculatus exhibited normal morphology, while the diameters of secondary follicles showed an increase (P< 0.05) in all concentrations when compared to the control group; a characteristic of follicles undergoing the initial stages of intoxication. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed secondary follicles with greater expression of integrin β1 and collagen type IV in cytoplasm of follicular cells than in the primary follicles in all treatments and in the control. Immunolocalization of caspase 3 was detected in follicular cells during secondary development in all tested concentrations of Thiodan(®) and the control. These analyses demonstrate positive immunolocalization throughout the course of follicular development, even in fish exposed to varying concentrations of Thiodan(®) for 96h, demonstrating that follicular cells retain their physiological integrity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Kudoa unicapsula n. sp. (Myxosporea: Kudoidae) a parasite of the Mediterranean mullets Liza ramada and L. aurata (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurakhno, V M; Ovcharenko, M O; Holzer, A S; Sarabeev, V L; Balbuena, J A

    2007-11-01

    A new multivalvulid myxozoan parasite, Kudoa unicapsula n. sp., is described from the intestinal mesentery, intestine and pyloric caeca of the thin-lipped grey mullet Liza ramada (Risso 1826) and the golden grey mullet L. aurata (Risso, 1810) from the Mediterranean coastal waters of Spain. It is characterized by the presence of elongated, rice corn-like white cysts of 0.47-0.56 x 0.18-0.38 mm, filled with tetracapsulate, slightly asymmetric spores, rectangular in apical view and tear-shaped in lateral view with four polar capsules of considerably different size and slightly unequal spore valves with rounded edges, overlapping each other on the apex of the spore. One large polar capsule includes a polar filament coiled in two to three turns, and the other three polar capsules, which are very small, posses only a rudimental filament. Both light and electron microscopy data showed that this species differs from all previously described Kudoa spp. with unequal polar capsules. The molecular analysis based on 18S and 28S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid DNA sequence data of K. unicapsula n. sp. indicates a close relationship and thus phylogenetic clustering together with K. trifolia, a myxozoan from the same host and the same geographical location.

  12. Molecular phylogeny of grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae) in Greece: evidence from sequence analysis of mtDNA segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasotiropoulos, Vasilis; Klossa-Kilia, Elena; Alahiotis, Stamatis N; Kilias, George

    2007-08-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis has been used to explore genetic differentiation and phylogenetic relationships among five species of the Mugilidae family, Mugil cephalus, Chelon labrosus, Liza aurata, Liza ramada, and Liza saliens. DNA was isolated from samples originating from the Messolongi Lagoon in Greece. Three mtDNA segments (12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and CO I) were PCR amplified and sequenced. Sequencing analysis revealed that the greatest genetic differentiation was observed between M. cephalus and all the other species studied, while C. labrosus and L. aurata were the closest taxa. Dendrograms obtained by the neighbor-joining method and Bayesian inference analysis exhibited the same topology. According to this topology, M. cephalus is the most distinct species and the remaining taxa are clustered together, with C. labrosus and L. aurata forming a single group. The latter result brings into question the monophyletic origin of the genus Liza.

  13. Redescription of Liza bandialensis (Teleostei: Mugilidae) with an identification key to mullet species of Eastern Central Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trape, Sébastien; Harrison, Ian J; Diouf, Papa Samba; Durand, Jean-Dominique

    2012-02-01

    Liza bandialensis Diouf 1991 is redescribed because previous descriptions have not been in well-distributed publications and have lacked sufficient detail or reference to voucher specimens. The description provided here is based on specimens from the Sine Saloum estuary, Senegal (West Africa), from where the species was originally described. The distinctness of the species is confirmed both by meristic and molecular criteria. L. bandialensis presents a unique combination of characters with a low number of scales in the longitudinal series (32-33), 10.5-12 transverse scale rows, and distinctly yellowish dorsal, anal, and caudal fins. The currently known distribution of L. bandialensis includes coastal waters of Senegal, Gambia and Guinea Bissau. Finally, we provide a morphological identification key for the sixteen species of Mugilidae species occurring along the eastern central Atlantic coast of Africa.

  14. A complex of species related to Paradiscogaster glebulae (Digenea: Faustulidae) in chaetodontid fishes (Teleostei: Perciformes) of the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Pablo E; Bray, Rodney A; Cutmore, Scott C; Ward, Selina; Cribb, Thomas H

    2015-10-01

    A total of 1523 individuals of 34 species of chaetodontids from the Great Barrier Reef were examined for faustulid trematodes. Specimens resembling Paradiscogaster glebulae Bray, Cribb & Barker, 1994 were found in nine chaetodontid species at three localities. These specimens are shown, on the basis of combined morphological and molecular analyses, to comprise a complex of morphologically similar and partly cryptic species. The complex may comprise as many as six distinct species of which three are resolved here. The true P. glebulae is identified in Chaetodon ornatissimus Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon aureofasciatus Macleay, 1878, Chaetodon plebeius Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon rainfordi McCulloch, 1923 and Chaetodon speculum Cuvier, 1831. Two new species are described, Paradiscogaster munozae n. sp. from Heniochus varius (Cuvier, 1829), Heniochus chrysostomus Cuvier, 1831 and Chaetodon citrinellus Cuvier, 1831 and Paradiscogaster melendezi n. sp. from Chaetodon kleinii Bloch, 1790. In terms of morphology the three species differ most clearly in the development of the appendages on the ventral sucker. The three species differ at 3-6consistent bp of ITS2 rDNA. The host-specificity of the three species differs strikingly. P. melendezi n. sp. infects just one fish species, P. glebulae infects species of only one clade of Chaetodon, and P. munozae n. sp. infects quite unrelated species. The basis of this unusual pattern of host-specificity requires further exploration. Two of the species recognised here, P. glebulae and P. munozae n. sp., showed apparent intra-individual variation in the ITS2 rDNA sequences as demonstrated by clear, replicated double peaks in the electropherograms.

  15. Protogrammus alboranensis n. sp. (Teleostei: Callionymidae, a new species of dragonet from the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean Sea

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    Carlos Farias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Protogrammus alboranensis n. sp. is described on the basis of four specimens from the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean Sea. It is characterized within the genus Protogrammus by a total of nine unbranched rays on the second dorsal fin, eight unbranched rays on the anal fin, a very small preopercular spine with an upcurved main tip and one point on the dorsal margin, which is lacking an antrorse spine at the base, the first and second spines of the first dorsal fin filamentous and much longer than the first ray of the second dorsal fin in males, the tip of the last ray of the second dorsal fin reaching beyond the caudal fin base in males, and the anal fin distally black in the males (translucent in females. A key to the species of Protogrammus is presented; the zoogeography of the species is discussed.

  16. Biological performance of Asian catfish (Clarias batrachus) (Teleostei, Clariidae) cultured in recirculating aquaculture system

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmat Fadhil; Johari Endan; Farah S. Taip; Muhammad S. b. Hj. Ja’afar

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess the biological performance of Asian catfish in RAS by using4 tanks (3 culture tanks and 1 sedimentation tank) measuring 2 m x 1 m x 0.60 m with a volume of 900liters and bio-filter as water purification unit. The numbers of catfish cultured in each tank were as manyas 300 fish i each tank, with a size of 5-8 cm (Tank 1), 8-12 cm (Tank 2) and 12-15 cm (Tank 3),respectively. This study was conducted for 30 days (August-September 2010) by considering the waterqu...

  17. A new Pseudophoxinus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae species from Southwestern Anatolia, with remarks on the distribution of the genus in western Anatolia

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    Fahrettin Küçük

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pseudophoxinus burduricus sp. n. is described from drainages of Salda and Burdur lakes, southwestern Turkey. It is distinguished from other Anatolian Pseudophoxinus by a combination of characters: lateral line incomplete, with 21–39 (commonly 26–37 perforated scales and 47–57+1-2 scales in lateral series; 10½–12½ scale rows between lateral line and dorsal fin origin, 3–4(5 scale rows between lateral line and the pelvic fin origin; dorsal fin commonly with 7½ branched rays; anal fin commonly with 6½ branched rays; 7–8(9 gill rakers on the first branchial arch; a faint and diffuse epidermal black stripe from eye to caudal fin base in alive and preserved individuals; mouth slightly subterminal, tip of mouth cleft on about level of lower margin of eye; snout rounded, its length greater than eye diameter. Comparison is given with all Pseudophoxinus species from western Anatolia.

  18. Two new deep-reef basslets (Teleostei, Grammatidae, Lipogramma, with comments on the eco-evolutionary relationships of the genus

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    Carole C. Baldwin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The banded basslet, Lipogramma evides Robins & Colin, 1979, is shown to comprise two species: L. evides, which inhabits depths of 133–302 m, and a new species described here as Lipogramma levinsoni, which inhabits depths of 108–154 m and previously was considered to represent the juvenile of L. evides. A second new species of banded basslet, described here as Lipogramma haberi, inhabits depths of 152–233 m and was previously not reported in the literature. Morphologically, the three species differ in color patterns and modal numbers of gill rakers, whereas various other morphological features distinguish L. levinsoni from L. evides and L. haberi. DNA barcode data and multilocus, coalescent-based, species-delimitation analysis support the recognition of the three species. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear genetic data supports a sister-group relationship between the two deepest-living of the three species, L. evides and L. haberi, and suggests that the shallower L. levinsoni is more closely related to L. anabantoides Böhlke, 1960, which inhabits depths < 120 m. Evolutionary relationships within Lipogramma thus appear to be correlated with species depth ranges, an eco-evolutionary pattern that has been observed in other Caribbean marine teleosts and that warrants further investigation. The new species represent the eleventh and twelfth new fish species described in recent years from exploratory submersible diving in the Caribbean in the globally poorly studied depth zone of 50–300 m. This study suggests that there are at least two additional cryptic species of Lipogramma, which are being analyzed in ongoing investigations of Caribbean deep-reef ecosystems.

  19. Lamellodiscus sanfilippoi n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae parasite branchial de Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae en Méditerranée

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    Amine F.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Lamellodiscus sanfilippoi n. sp. entre, parmi les Lamellodiscus, dans le sous-groupe “ergensi” (Amine et Euzet, 2005, caractérisé par la morphologie des barres latérales dorsales du hapteur. Ce sous-groupe comprend, en Méditerranée, L. ergensi Euzet et Oliver, 1966, L. kechemirae Amine et Euzet, 2005 et L. tomentosus Amine et Euzet, 2005 parasites de Diplodus sargus, ainsi que L. baeri Oliver, 1974 parasite de Pagrus pagrus. L. sanfilippoi se distingue de ces espèces par la morphologie et la taille des barres latérales dorsales du hapteur. L’espèce se rapproche de Lamellodiscus furcillatus Kritsky, Jiménez-Ruíz et Sey, 2000, parasite de Diplodus noct du golfe Persique, mais s’en distingue par l’épaisseur des pièces du hapteur et la morphologie de l’appareil copulateur mâle. Lamellodiscus gussevi Sanfilippo (1978 et Lamellodiscus abbreviatus Sanfilippo (1978 sont considérés comme des nomina nuda.

  20. On Gonorynchus, Gonorhynchus, Gonorinchus, Gonorhinchus and Gonorrhynchus, and some other names of labeonine fishes (Teleostei: Gonorynchidae and Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottelat, Maurice

    2016-10-25

    The supposed cyprinid genus 'Gonorhynchus McClelland, 1838' does not exist; the name refers to Gonorhynchus Cuvier, 1816, which is a junior objective synonym of Gonorynchus Scopoli, 1777. The correct family-group name, authorship and date are: Gonorynchidae Fowler, 1941 (1848). Tariqilabeo Mirza & Saboohi, 1990 is the valid genus name for the South Asian species earlier placed in Crossocheilus or 'Gonorhynchus'. The family-group names Garrae Bleeker, 1863 and Labeonini Bleeker, 1859 are declared nomina protecta and Platycarinae Macleay, 1841 is declared nomen oblitum.

  1. Ultrastructural study of the spermatozoon of Pronoprymna ventricosa (Digenea, Baccigerinae), parasite of the twaite shad Alosa fallax Lacepede (Pisces, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Josephine; Marchand, Bernard

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we describe the ultrastructural organisation of the spermatozoon of a Digenea Baccigerinae Pronoprymna ventricosa. This spermatozoon possesses the elements found in the others digeneans: two axonemes with 9 + "1" pattern, a mitochondrion, a nucleus, cortical microtubules and external ornamentations. However, this spermatozoon presents two particularities. The first is the presence of a single field of cortical microtubules disposed in the ventral side (mitochondrion side) of the spermatozoon. In the other digeneans, two fields of cortical microtubules are observed between the two axonemes. The second is the presence of external ornamentations not associated with cortical microtubules. These two points have, to our knowledge, never been described in another digenean. Moreover, a separation in two groups of the digenean spermatozoa is proposed in relation to the localisation of the external ornamentations. We propose to distinguish a first group exhibiting these elements in the proximal part of the spermatozoon and a second one with external ornamentations in a second part of the gamete.

  2. Phylogeny of the Labeoninae (Teleostei, Cypriniformes) based on nuclear DNA sequences and implications on character evolution and biogeography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanping ZHENG; Junxing YANG; Xiaoyong CHEN

    2012-01-01

    The Labeoninae is a subfamily of the family Cyprinidae,Order Cypriniformes.Oromandibular morphology within the Labeoninae is the greatest among cyprinid fishes.Although several phylogenetic studies about labeonines have been undertaken the results have been inconsistent and a comprehensive phylogeny is needed.Further,an incongruence between morphological and molecular phylogeny requires a systematic exploration of the significance of morphological characters on the basis of the molecular phylogeny.In this study,a total of 292 nucleotide sequences from 73 individuals (representing 24 genera and 73 species) of Labeoninae were analyzed.The results of the phylogenetic analysis indicate that there are four major clades within Labeoninae and three monophyletic lineages within the fourth clade.Results of the character evolution show that all oromandibular morphological characters are homoplastically distributed on the molecular phylogenetic tree and suggests that these characters evolved several times during the history of labeonines.In particular,the labeonine,a specific disc on the lower lip,has been acquired three times and reversed twice.These morphological characters do not have systematic significance but can be useful for taxonomy.The results of biogeography suggest that the Labeoninae originated from Southeast Asia and separately dispersed to Africa,East Asia and South Asia.

  3. A redescription of grey pomfret Pampus cinereus (Bloch,1795) with the designation of a neotype (Teleostei:Stromateidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing; LI Chunsheng; NING Ping

    2013-01-01

    Pampus cinereus (Bloch,1795) (Stromateidae),a species believed to be widely distributed throughout the Indo-Western Pacific region,was redescribed and a neotype was designated.The designation of a neotype was necessary because of ambiguous data in Bloch's original description and the loss of the original type specimen.Morphological data indicated that 10 recently-collected specimens from the coasts of southern China agreed well with Bloch's original description and figure ofP.cinereus.A neotype for this species was selected from among the 10 specimens,and a detailed description is presented in this paper.

  4. Structure and function of the retinal pigment epithelium, photoreceptors and cornea in the eye of Sardinella aurita (Clupeidae, Teleostei

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    Mostafa Ali Salem

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the pigment epithelium, photoreceptors and the cornea in the eye of a teleost, Sardinella aurita was examined by light and electron microscopy. The retinal pigment epithelium forms a single layer of cells joined laterally by cell junctions. Centrally in the retina these cells are columnar, while more peripherally they become cuboidal in shape. The basal (scleral border of the pigment epithelial cells is not infolded but is relatively smooth. Phagosomes containing lysosome-like bodies are also common features of the retinal pigment epithelium. Numerous melanosomes (pigment granules are abundant throughout the epithelial cells. These melanosomes probably absorb light which has passed through the photoreceptor layer. Four photoreceptor cells were identified; rods, long single cones, short single cones and double cones. The presence of these types suggests a diversity of photoreceptor function. Square mosaic pattern of cones and well-developed choroid gland are also main features of the eye. The inner segment of rods and cones were rich in organelles indicating much synthetic activity. Calycal processes projecting from cone outer segments are also observed. The cornea includes an epithelium with a complex pattern of surface microplicae, a basement membrane, dermal stroma, an iridescent layer, scleral stroma, Descemet’s membrane and endothelium. The autochthonous layer which is seen in some teleosts has not been observed in the cornea of this species. These and other observations were discussed in relation to the photic environment and habits of this fish.

  5. A review of the glyptosternine catfish genus Exostoma Blyth 1860 from Thailand, with descriptions of two new species (Teleostei: Siluriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Heok Hee; Vidthayanon, Chavalit

    2014-10-02

    We review members of the sisorid catfish genus Exostoma known from Thailand. Three species are recognized, of which two from the headwaters of the Chao Phraya River drainage in northwestern Thailand, are described here as new: E. effrenum and E. peregrinator. In addition to the two new species, E. berdmorei (which is here redescribed) is also known from the Salween River drainage in western Thailand. The three species can be distinguished from each other and other congeners by the morphologies of the adipose and caudal fins, as well as morphometric data for the eye diameter, head width, dorsal-to-adipose distance, body depth at anus, caudal-peduncle length, caudal-peduncle depth, and numbers of branched pectoral-fin rays and preanal vertebrae. 

  6. Pollution biomonitoring in the Bizerte lagoon (Tunisia), using combined chemical and biomarker analyses in grass goby, Zosterisessor ophiocephalus (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhoumi, Badreddine; Clérandeau, Christelle; Gourves, Pierre-Yves; Le Menach, Karyn; El Megdiche, Yassine; Peluhet, Laurent; Budzinski, Hélène; Baudrimont, Magalie; Driss, Mohamed Ridha; Cachot, Jérôme

    2014-10-01

    In this study, biological responses and contaminant levels in biological tissues were investigated in grass goby fish specimens (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) collected from five stations in a moderately polluted ecosystem, namely the Bizerte lagoon on the north coast of Tunisia. The following biomarkers were measured: muscular acetylcholinesterase (AChE), hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), lipoperoxidation (TBARS), condition factor (CF), and hepatosomatic index (HSI). These measurements were taken in parallel with the content of Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace metals (As, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, V, Zn, Ag, Cd, Co and Ni) in muscle tissue. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 20.09 ± 0.68 to 105.77 ± 42.58 ng g(-1) dw, PCB from 33.19 ± 6.25 to 126.28 ± 7.37 ng g(-1) dw, OCP from 11.26 ± 1.62 to 19.17 ± 2.06 ng g(-1) dw, and metals from 107.83 ± 1.83 to 187.21 ± 2.00 mg/kg dw. The highest levels of pollutants and biomarkers were observed at station S1, located in the Bizerte channel. Elevated EROD, GST and CAT activities, as well as TBARS levels in liver were positively correlated with tissue contaminant levels at station S1. Significant negative correlations were also found between hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) body burden with AChE activity in muscle at station S2. The integration of biological responses and contaminant tissue content indicated that certain areas of the Bizerte lagoon, notably station S1, are significantly impacted by various human activities, which likely represent a threat for aquatic wildlife. On the basis of these results, and due to its ecological characteristics, the grass goby appears a suitable indicator species for pollution biomonitoring in coastal marine areas along the Mediterranean Sea.

  7. Callogobius liolepis Bleeker, a senior synonym of Gobiopsis aporia Lachner and McKinney (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Gobiopsis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delventhal, Naomi R; Mooi, Randall D

    2013-02-13

    Callogobius liolepis Bleeker in Koumans was briefly described from two specimens from Ambon. A later, more detailed description by Koumans was apparently based on Bleeker's unpublished description and specimens of C. okinawae (Snyder), considerably complicating the taxonomy of several species. Re-examination of the syntypes identifies C. liolepis as a species of the genus Gobiopsis Steindachner due to the absence of raised vertical ridges of papillae that characterise Callogobius and the presence of barbels in a pattern unique among gobiids to a subset of Gobiopsis. Gobiopsis liolepis (Bleeker) is determined as the senior synonym of G. aporia Lachner and McKinney based on the absence of head pores combined with the presence of a series of tightly spaced papillae over the eye, lateral scale counts of 36-42, pectoral-fin ray counts of 20-21, dorsal-fin ray counts VI+I,10 and anal-fin ray counts of I,9. The larger syntype is designated the lectotype and the smaller the paralectotype. Specimens identified as C. liolepis in museums or the literature are likely referable to C. okinawae (Snyder) or C. bifasciatus (Smith).

  8. Chriolepis bilix, a new species of goby (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from deep waters of the western Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Philip A; Findley, Lloyd T

    2013-12-09

    A new species of seven-spined goby of the genus Chriolepis is described from four specimens from four widely separate western Atlantic localities (Little Bahama Bank; off southwestern Florida; Tobago Island; and northeastern Colombia) from depths ranging from 62 to 138 m. The species is distinct from all other western Atlantic species currently assigned to the genus Chriolepis in having a fully scaled body, the first two dorsal-fin spines greatly elongated in both sexes, especially so in females, and two anal-fin pterygiophores inserted anterior to the first haemal spine. It differs from members of the similar genus Varicus in having branched pelvic-fins rays, a longer fifth pelvic-fin ray and more numerous meristic elements. It closely resembles Chriolepis atrimelum, known from a similar depth at Isla del Coco in the eastern Pacific Ocean. 

  9. First evidence for interspecific hybridization between invasive goby species Neogobius fluviatilis and Neogobius melanostomus (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Benthophilinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, K; Cerwenka, A F; Brandner, J; Gertzen, S; Borcherding, J; Geist, J; Schliewen, U K

    2013-06-01

    Two hybrids between the monkey goby Neogobius fluviatilis and the round goby Neogobius melanostomus from the Rhine River were identified by genotyping and morphological comparison. These are the first records of goby-hybrids outside the parent species' native ranges worldwide.

  10. Varicus lacerta, a new species of goby (Teleostei, Gobiidae, Gobiosomatini, Nes subgroup) from a mesophotic reef in the southern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornabene, Luke; Robertson, D Ross; Baldwin, Carole C

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of goby, Varicus lacerta sp. n., which was collected from a mesophotic reef at Curacao, southern Caribbean. The new species is the tenth species of Varicus, all of which occur below traditional SCUBA depths in the wider Caribbean area. Its placement in the genus Varicus is supported by a molecular phylogenetic analysis of three nuclear genes and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b. In addition, the new species has one anal-fin pterygiophore inserted anterior to the first haemal spine, which distinguishes Varicus species from most species in the closely related and morphologically similar genus Psilotris. Varicus lacerta sp. n. is distinguished from all other named species of Varicus by the absence of scales, having highly branched, feather-like pelvic-fin rays, and in its live coloration. We provide the cytochrome c oxidase I DNA barcode of the holotype and compare color patterns of all species of Varicus and Psilotris for which color photographs or illustrations are available. This study is one of several recent studies demonstrating the utility of manned submersibles in exploring the diversity of poorly studied but species-rich deep-reef habitats.

  11. Some aspects of the biology and ecology of Knipowitschia caucasica (Teleostei: Gobiidae) in the Evros Delta (North Aegean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevrekidis, T.; Kokkinakis, A. K.; Koukouras, A.

    1990-06-01

    Some aspects of the biology and ecology of the goby Knipowitschia caucasica were studied over a period of 13 months in a poly-to euhaline area in the Evros Delta (North Aegean Sea). This fish grows rapidly in the summer and autumn after hatching, matures after its first winter, breeds from the end of April to the end of July, and grows rapidly again in July September. The older males perish after their second February, whereas some females have a second breeding season at the end of April/beginning of May, shortly before their death. The fish grows to about 40 mm in total length. There is a positive correlation between the total length (TL) and the standard length (SL) or the cleaned body weight (CW). SL increases slower than TL, whereas CW increases slower than TL in immature individuals and faster in males and females. There is no difference between immature individuals, males and females, in the growth rate of SL, TL and CW, TL. The mean monthly values of the condition factor varies from 0.289 to 0.576 in females and from 0.313 to 0.548 in males. The overall sex ratio of females to males is 1: 1.46. Fecundity ranges from 60 to 217 eggs with a mean value of 109.8 and depends upon size, whereas relative fecundity varies between 968 and 2170 with a mean of 1558. The fish feeds predominantly on benthic amphipods and polychaetes.

  12. A new species of Gyrodactylus (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae, an ectoparasite from the endemic Iranocichla hormuzensis (Teleostei, Cichlidae, the only Iranian cichlid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter A. Boeger

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Iranocichla hormuzensis occupies a biogeographically peculiar position. This endemic of southern Iran is the only Iranian cichlid. While it is phylogenetically related to African oreochromine members of the cichlid family, it remains unclear how it has dispersed into its current range. It is one of the many lasting enigmas of cichlid biogeography. Monogenean fish parasites may provide useful additional information in such cases. Therefore, I. hormuzensis was examined for these flatworms. A gyrodactylid parasite is reported and compared to congeners from the Palearctic and from cichlids. In this way, we verify whether it shows affinities to parasites from fishes that are either biogeographically or phylogenetically close to Iranocichla hormuzensis. The species is new to science and described as Gyrodactylus jalalii sp. nov. This is the first description of a parasite infecting I. hormuzensis. Because of the fixation method or age of the material, DNA could not be isolated. Due to the lack of genetic data, no conclusions can be drawn on its phylogenetic positioning. Indeed, Gyrodactylus phylogeny cannot be inferred from morphological characteristics alone. Moreover, the congeners phenotypically reminiscent of the new species belong to a Gyrodactylus clade which is highly diverse in geographic range and host choice. Hence, there is no evidence linking the new species to an exclusively African or cichlid-bound Gyrodactylus lineage.

  13. Fishes of the family Ipnopidae (Teleostei: Aulopiformes) collected on the Brazilian continental slope between 11 degrees and 23 degrees S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, M A L; Braga, A C; Nunan, G W A; Costa, P A S

    2009-09-01

    A collection of fishes from the Brazilian continental slope between 11 degrees and 23 degrees S obtained through trawling revealed nine species of Ipnopidae. Bathypterois bigelowi and Bathytyphlops marionae represent first records from the south-western Atlantic Ocean and Bathypterois grallator is reported off Brazil for the first time. Four species have their distribution extended in Brazilian waters: Bathypterois phenax, Bathypterois quadrifilis, Bathypterois viridensis and Ipnops murrayi. An identification key of Ipnopidae species from the south-western Atlantic Ocean is included.

  14. A systematic review of diapoma (teleostei: characiformes: characidae: stevardiinae: diapomini with descriptions of two new species from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naércio A. Menezes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diapoma is reviewed and four species are recognized: (1 Diapoma thauma, new species, from streams of the rio Jacuí basin, state of Rio Grande do Sul; (2 D. pyrrhopteryx, new species collected from the rio Canoas and streams flowing into this basin in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, Brazil; (3 Diapoma terofali, from streams flowing into rio Uruguay in Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and streams flowing into rio de la Plata, Argentina; and (4 Diapoma speculiferum, from lowland coastal streams in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and Uruguay. Diapoma pyrrhopteryx possess the posteroventral opercular elongation typical of D. speculiferum, type species of the genus, but which is absent in D. thauma and D. terofali. Nonetheless, all the diapomin species have the caudal pouch organ about equally developed in both sexes and the dorsal portion of the pouch opening bordered by a series of 3 to 8 elongated scales, the two derived features that characterize the group. The two previously described species, D. speculiferum and D. terofali, are redescribed. Previous hypotheses of relationships among the diapomin genera Planaltina, Diapoma and A