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Sample records for fas fatty acid

  1. Liver dominant expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene in two chicken breeds during intramuscular-fat development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H X; Zheng, M Q; Liu, R R; Zhao, G P; Chen, J L; Wen, J

    2012-04-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a key enzyme of lipogenesis. In this study, the FAS mRNA expression patterns were examined in three fat related tissues (liver, breast and thigh) at different developmental stages in two chicken breeds (Beijing-You, BJY and Arbor Acres broiler, AA). Results of the Real time-qPCR showed that the expression of FAS mRNA level in liver was significantly higher (P chicken breeds. Significant differences of FAS mRNA expression in liver were found between BJY and AA chickens during different developmental stages. After the contents of intramuscular-fat (IMF) and the liver fat were measured, the correlation analysis was performed. In liver, the FAS mRNA level was highly correlated with hepatic fat content (r = 0.891, P breed. The results here can contribute to the knowledge on the developmental expression pattern of FAS mRNA and facilitate the further research on the molecular mechanism underlying IMF deposition in chicken.

  2. Combined Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN Loss and Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS Overexpression Worsens the Prognosis of Chinese Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehua Zhu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the expression pattern of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN, to evaluate the relationship between PTEN expression and clinicopathological characteristics, including fatty acid synthase (FAS expression, and to determine the correlations of PTEN and FAS expression with survival in Chinese patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The expression patterns of PTEN and FAS were determined using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry. The expression of PTEN was compared with the clinicopathological characteristics of HCC, including FAS expression. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to calculate the clinical sensitivity and specificity of PTEN expression. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed to evaluate the correlations of PTEN loss and FAS overexpression with overall survival. We found that the loss of PTEN expression occurred predominantly in the cytoplasm, while FAS was mainly localized to the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic and total PTEN expression levels were significantly decreased in HCC compared with adjacent non-neoplastic tissue (both, p < 0.0001. Decreased cytoplasmic and total PTEN expression showed significant clinical sensitivity and specificity for HCC (both, p < 0.0001. Downregulation of PTEN in HCC relative to non-neoplastic tissue was significantly correlated with histological grade (p = 0.043 for histological grades I–II versus grade III. Loss of total PTEN was significantly correlated with FAS overexpression (p = 0.014. Loss of PTEN was also associated with poor prognosis of patients with poorly differentiated HCC (p = 0.049. Moreover, loss of PTEN combined with FAS overexpression was associated with significantly worse prognosis compared with other HCC cases (p = 0.011. Our data indicate that PTEN may serve as a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker of HCC. Upregulating PTEN expression and inhibiting FAS

  3. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  4. Different impacts of short-chain fatty acids on saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in Aurantiochytrium sp. SD116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaojin; Tan, Yanzhen; Liu, Yajun; Zhang, Jingtao; Liu, Guanglei; Feng, Yingang; Cui, Qiu

    2013-10-16

    Aurantiochytrium is an important docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) producer containing two kinds of fatty acid synthesis pathways, that is, the fatty acid synthase pathway (FAS) for saturated fatty acid synthesis and the polyketide synthase pathway (PKS) for polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis. To understand the regulation mechanism between the two pathways, the impacts of six short-chain fatty acids on the fatty acid synthesis of Aurantiochytrium sp. SD116 were studied. All short-chain fatty acids showed little effect on the cell growth, but some of them significantly affected lipid accumulation and fatty acid composition. Pentanoic acid and isovaleric acid greatly inhibited the synthesis of saturated fatty acids, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis was not affected. Analysis of malic enzyme activity, which supplied NADPH for saturated fatty acids biosynthesis, indicated that the two fatty acid synthesis pathways can utilize different substrates and possess independent sources of NADPH.

  5. DHEA and non-alcoholic fat liver disease: increased gene expression of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and fatty acid synthase (FAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Natali Almeida

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroespiandrosterone (DHEA is associated with improvements in chronic degenerative diseases, including obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, it is observed an increase in its concentration in individuals with liver lipid infiltration, but it is not precise if this condition emerges as a cause or a consequence. In this way, we aimed to identify gene expression alterations in lipid and glucose liver metabolism markers, as well as oxidative stress markers. For this purpose, male Wistar rats, 12-14 months old were treated with subcutaneous injections of DHEA (only dose of 10 mg kg-1; and after 7 days, hepatic gene expression by PCR real time were performed for the following genes:  G6Pase, PEPCK, FAS, PPARγ, malic enzyme, ChREBP, LXR, catalase, GPx, iNOS, NADPH oxidase subunits and PCNA. We observed a tendency of reduction in G6Pase gene expression in treated group (p = 0.08. In addition, it was identified an increase in liver PPARγ and FAS gene expressions, two markers of increased activity of lipogenic pathway. We also observed an increase in iNOS gene expression, a known inductor of systemic and hepatic insulin resistance. In conclusion, our data indicates that the treatment with DHEA can be associated with the development of liver lipid infiltration and hepatic insulin resistance.

  6. 2-Hexadecynoic Acid Inhibits Plasmodial FAS-II Enzymes and Arrest Erythrocytic and Liver Stage Plasmodium Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Tasdemir, Deniz; Sanabria, David; Lauinger, Ina L.; Tarun, Alice; Herman, Rob; Perozzo, Remo; Zloh, Mire; Kappe, Stefan H.; Brun, Reto; Carballeira, Néstor M.

    2010-01-01

    Acetylenic fatty acids are known to display several biological activities, but their antimalarial activity has remained unexplored. In this study, we synthesized the 2-, 5-, 6-, and 9-hexadecynoic acids (HDAs) and evaluated their in vitro activity against erythrocytic (blood) stages of Plasmodium falciparum and liver stages of P. yoelii infections. Since the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (PfFAS-II) has recently been shown to be indispensable for liver stage malaria parasites, the in...

  7. Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression in the Prostate: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    expression and fatty acid synthesis. Research in normal cells has demonstrated that dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFA ...particularly omega -3 fatty acids , inhibits SREBP-1 activation, resulting in a decreased transcription of FAS. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate Cancer...Lipid Medtabolism, Clinical Trial; Omega -3 Fatty Acids 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of ...

  9. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant ...

  10. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  11. Interaction between fatty acid and the elastin network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, van J.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction between salts of fatty acids (FAS) and elastin. Absorption of fatty acids in elastin may affect the elasticity of elastin-containing tissue. Such phenomena could, for instance, be of relevance for the understanding of the

  12. Interaction between fatty acid salts and the elastin network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, van J.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction between salts of fatty acids (FAS) and elastin. Absorption of fatty acids in elastin may affect the elasticity of elastin-containing tissue. Such phenomena could, for instance, be of relevance for the understanding of the formation of a

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive function in women

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Jennifer G.; Ijioma, Nkechinyere; Harris, William

    2010-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) could play an important role in maintaining cognitive function in aging individuals. The omega-3 FA docosahexaenoic acid is a major constituent of neuronal membranes and, along with the other long-chain omega-3 FAs from fish such as eicosapentaentoic acid, has been shown to have a wide variety of beneficial effects on neuronal functioning, inflammation, oxidation and cell death, as well as on the development of the characteristic pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. Ome...

  14. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  15. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors isolated from Punica granatum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, He-Zhong [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Liang, Wen-Juan; Huang, Sheng-Zhuo; Dai, Hao-Fu; Wang, Peng-Cheng; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhaoyx1011@163.com [Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou (China); Fan, Hui-Jin; Ma, Xiao-Feng, E-mail: maxiaofeng@gucas.ac.cn [College of Life Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-05-15

    The aim of this work is the isolation of fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitors from the ethyl acetate extracts of fruit peels of Punica granatum L. Bioassay-guided chemical investigation of the fruit peels resulted in the isolation of seventeen compounds mainly including triterpenoids and phenolic compounds, from which one new oleanane-type triterpene (punicaone) along with fourteen known compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant. Seven isolates were evaluated for inhibitory activities of FAS and two compounds showed to be active. Particularly, flavogallonic acid exhibited strong FAS inhibitory activity with IC{sub 50} value of 10.3 {mu}mol L{sup -1}. (author)

  16. Fats and fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

  17. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also......, chlorinated lipids have been found in meat exposed to hypochlorite disinfected water, and in chlorine-treated flour and in products made from such flour. Following exposure to chlorine bleached pulp mill effluents, aquatic organisms may have elevated concentrations of chlorinated fatty acids in their lipids....... However, a natural production of halogenated fatty acids is also possible. In this paper we summarize the present knowledge of the occurrence of halogenated fatty acids in lipids and suggested ways of their formation. In Part II (Trends Anal. Chem. 16 (1997) 274) we deal with methods...

  18. Survey on the fatty acids profile of fluid goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pittau

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluid goat milk submitted to thermal treatment has interesting nutritional properties and a potential expanding market. The present study was aimed to conduct fatty acids profile characterisation of goat milk placed on market. Forty-nine fluid milk samples were collected: 12 pasteurised, 12 pasteurised at high temperature, 11 ultrahigh temperature (UHT whole milk and 14 UHT semi-skimmed milk. Milk samples were collected at retail level from 7 different companies and from different production batches. After extraction and methilation, fatty acids (FAs profile was determined on each sample using a gas chromatograph with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID with high-polarity capillary column. The concentration (g/100mL of saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, trans fatty acids (t-FAs, and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA was determined. N-6/n-3 ratio, atherogenic index (AI and thrombogenic index (TI were also assessed. Fluid goat milk lipid profile was characterised by SFAs (68.4% of total FAs, PUFAs (5.3%, MUFAs (21.3%, t-FAs (3.6% and CLA (0.8%. The most represented fatty acids were: 16:0 (24.5%, 9cis-18:1 (18.2%, 18:0 (9.6%, 14:0 (9.5%, 10:0 (9.3% and 12:0 (4.5%. Nutritional indices were 2.8-6.8 for n-6/n-3 ratio; 2.3-2.9 for AI; and 2.7-3.2 for TI. Milk produced by small scale plants, with no milk fat standardisation, showed greater differences in fatty acid profile as compared to industrial plants milk. Large scale production is characterised by commingled bulk tank milk of different origins and then is more homogeneous. The whole goat milk supply chain should be controlled to obtain milk with fatty acids of high nutritional value.

  19. Genetic variation in genes of the fatty acid synthesis pathway and breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campa, Daniele; McKay, James; Sinilnikova, Olga; Huesing, Anika; Vogel, Ulla; Hansen, Rikke Dalgaard; Overvad, Kim; Witt, Petra Mariann; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Chajes, Veronique; Rohrmann, Sabine; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Fisher, Eva; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Villarini, Anna; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H. M.; van Gils, Carla H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Lund, Eiliv; Dolores Chirlaque, Maria; Sala, Nuria; Rodriguez Suarez, Laudina; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Lenner, Per; Hallmans, Goeran; Tsilidis, Kostas; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Gallo, Valentina; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Rinaldi, Sabina; Lenoir, Gilbert; Tavtigian, Sean V.; Canzian, Federico; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is the major enzyme of lipogenesis. It catalyzes the NADPH-dependent condensation of acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA to produce palmitic acid. Transcription of the FAS gene is controlled synergistically by the transcription factors ChREBP (carbohydrate response element-binding p

  20. Trans Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  1. A conditional mutant of the fatty acid synthase unveils unexpected cross talks in mycobacterial lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabruja, Matías; Mondino, Sonia; Tsai, Yi Ting; Lara, Julia; Gramajo, Hugo; Gago, Gabriela

    2017-02-01

    Unlike most bacteria, mycobacteria rely on the multi-domain enzyme eukaryote-like fatty acid synthase I (FAS I) to make fatty acids de novo. These metabolites are precursors of the biosynthesis of most of the lipids present both in the complex mycobacteria cell wall and in the storage lipids inside the cell. In order to study the role of the type I FAS system in Mycobacterium lipid metabolism in vivo, we constructed a conditional mutant in the fas-acpS operon of Mycobacterium smegmatis and analysed in detail the impact of reduced de novo fatty acid biosynthesis on the global architecture of the cell envelope. As expected, the mutant exhibited growth defect in the non-permissive condition that correlated well with the lower expression of fas-acpS and the concomitant reduction of FAS I, confirming that FAS I is essential for survival. The reduction observed in FAS I provoked an accumulation of its substrates, acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, and a strong reduction of C12 to C18 acyl-CoAs, but not of long-chain acyl-CoAs (C19 to C24). The most intriguing result was the ability of the mutant to keep synthesizing mycolic acids when fatty acid biosynthesis was impaired. A detailed comparative lipidomic analysis showed that although reduced FAS I levels had a strong impact on fatty acid and phospholipid biosynthesis, mycolic acids were still being synthesized in the mutant, although with a different relative species distribution. However, when triacylglycerol degradation was inhibited, mycolic acid biosynthesis was significantly reduced, suggesting that storage lipids could be an intracellular reservoir of fatty acids for the biosynthesis of complex lipids in mycobacteria. Understanding the interaction between FAS I and the metabolic pathways that rely on FAS I products is a key step to better understand how lipid homeostasis is regulated in this microorganism and how this regulation could play a role during infection in pathogenic mycobacteria.

  2. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  3. Interaction between fatty acid and the elastin network

    OpenAIRE

    Vreeswijk, van, M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction between salts of fatty acids (FAS) and elastin. Absorption of fatty acids in elastin may affect the elasticity of elastin-containing tissue. Such phenomena could, for instance, be of relevance for the understanding of the formation of atherosclerotic plaque in blood vessel walls.

    Chapter I gives a general introduction on the relevance of this study and an outline of the thesis. Furthermore, it contains informatio...

  4. Increased fatty acid synthase expression in prostate biopsy cores predicts higher Gleason score in radical prostatectomy specimen

    OpenAIRE

    HAMADA, SHINSUKE; Horiguchi, Akio; Kuroda, Kenji; Ito, Keiichi; ASANO, TOMOHIKO; Miyai, Kosuke; Iwaya, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    Background Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is highly expressed in various types of cancer, and elevated expression of FAS has been suggested to be a predictor of tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis. We examined whether FAS expression in prostate biopsy cores could predict the pathological characteristics of radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens. Methods Paraffin-embedded prostate biopsy cores, obtained from 102 patients who subsequently underwent RP, were immunostained with polyclonal anti-FAS a...

  5. Antibacterial actions of fatty acids and monoglycerides against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cynthia Q; O'Connor, Charmian J; Roberton, Anthony M

    2003-05-15

    The bactericidal potencies of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) and monoglycerides (MGs) against Helicobacter pylori were determined following short incubations with freshly harvested cells over a range of pHs. FAs and their derivatives with an equivalent-carbon number of 12 were the most potent: lauric acid had a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) at pH 7.4 of 1 mM, myristoleic and linolenic acid were the most potent unsaturated FAs (MBCs of 0.5 mM, pH 7.4), and monolaurin was the most potent MG (MBC 0.5 mM). Potencies of saturated FAs were increased sharply by lowering pH, and a decrease of only 0.5 pH units can cause a change from non-lethal to lethal conditions. Conversely, the bactericidal action of monolaurin was not pH-dependent. The bactericidal potencies of unsaturated FAs increased with degree of unsaturation. When more than one FA or FA plus MGs were present, their combined action was additive. Urea and endogenous urease did not protect H. pylori from the bactericidal action of FAs. These results suggest that H. pylori present in the stomach contents (but not necessarily within the mucus barrier) should be rapidly killed by the millimolar concentrations of FAs and MGs that are produced by pre-intestinal lipase(s) acting on suitable triglycerides such as milk fat.

  6. Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression in the Prostate: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    acids ( PUFA ), particularly omega -3 fatty acids , inhibits SREBP-1 activation, resulting in a decreased transcription of FAS. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate...Cancer; Lipid Metabolism; Clinical Trial; Omega -3 Fatty Acids 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES...controls, Menendez et al demonstrated that addition of omega -3 fatty acids (-3 FA), docosahexanoic acid (DHA), alpha- linolenic acid

  7. Type II fatty acid synthesis is essential only for malaria parasite late liver stage development

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, Ashley M.; O'Neill, Matthew T.; Tarun, Alice S.; Camargo, Nelly; Phuong, Thuan M; Aly, Ahmed S I; Cowman, Alan F.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.

    2008-01-01

    Intracellular malaria parasites require lipids for growth and replication. They possess a prokaryotic type II fatty acid synthesis (FAS II) pathway that localizes to the apicoplast plastid organelle and is assumed to be necessary for pathogenic blood stage replication. However, the importance of FAS II throughout the complex parasite life cycle remains unknown. We show in a rodent malaria model that FAS II enzymes localize to the sporozoite and liver stage apicoplast. Targeted deletion of Fab...

  8. DIETARY ADENINE ALLEVIATES FATTY LIVER INDUCED BY OROTIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Buang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary adenine in fatty liver induced by orotic acid (OA were studied. Rats were paired-fed 1% OA-supplemented diets with/or without 0.25% adenine or a diet without OA for 10 days. Serum lipid profiles were measured using enzyme assay kits. Lipids of liver tissues were extracted and liver lipid contents were determined. A peach of liver was prepared to determine the activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS and fatty acid β-oxidation. The results showed that liver TG content of OA-fed rats increased markedly in comparison to basal group.  However, the addition of adenine to the diet reversed promotion of liver TG content to basal level. It was also found that FAS activities decreased. Furthermore, these diets reversed the inhibition of fatty acid β-oxidation to basal level and induced the serum lipid levels secretion. Therefore, the alleviation of fatty liver in OA-treated rats given dietary adenine is associated with the inhibition of FAS activities accompanied with the promotion of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation and the promotion of serum lipid secretion from the hepatic tissue into the bloodstream.

  9. Production of Medium Chain Fatty Acids by Yarrowia lipolytica: Combining Molecular Design and TALEN to Engineer the Fatty Acid Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigouin, Coraline; Gueroult, Marc; Croux, Christian; Dubois, Gwendoline; Borsenberger, Vinciane; Barbe, Sophie; Marty, Alain; Daboussi, Fayza; André, Isabelle; Bordes, Florence

    2017-06-21

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a promising organism for the production of lipids of biotechnological interest and particularly for biofuel. In this study, we engineered the key enzyme involved in lipid biosynthesis, the giant multifunctional fatty acid synthase (FAS), to shorten chain length of the synthesized fatty acids. Taking as starting point that the ketoacyl synthase (KS) domain of Yarrowia lipolytica FAS is directly involved in chain length specificity, we used molecular modeling to investigate molecular recognition of palmitic acid (C16 fatty acid) by the KS. This enabled to point out the key role of an isoleucine residue, I1220, from the fatty acid binding site, which could be targeted by mutagenesis. To address this challenge, TALEN (transcription activator-like effector nucleases)-based genome editing technology was applied for the first time to Yarrowia lipolytica and proved to be very efficient for inducing targeted genome modifications. Among the generated FAS mutants, those having a bulky aromatic amino acid residue in place of the native isoleucine at position 1220 led to a significant increase of myristic acid (C14) production compared to parental wild-type KS. Particularly, the best performing mutant, I1220W, accumulates C14 at a level of 11.6% total fatty acids. Overall, this work illustrates how a combination of molecular modeling and genome-editing technology can offer novel opportunities to rationally engineer complex systems for synthetic biology.

  10. Polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids: Biomarkers for native and exotic mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezek, Tadej; Sverko, Ed; Ruddy, Martina D.; Zaruk, Donna; Capretta, Alfredo; Hebert, Craig E.; Fisk, Aaron T.; McGoldrick, Daryl J.; Newton, Teresa J.; Sutton, Trent M.; Koops, Marten A.; Muir, Andrew M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater organisms synthesize a wide variety of fatty acids (FAs); however, the ability to synthesize and/or subsequently modify a particular FA is not universal, making it possible to use certain FAs as biomarkers. Herein we document the occurrence of unusual FAs (polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids; PMI-FAs) in select freshwater organisms in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We did not detect PMI-FAs in: (a) natural seston from Lake Erie and Hamilton Harbor (Lake Ontario), (b) various species of laboratory-cultured algae including a green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), two cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Synechococystis sp.), two diatoms (Asterionella formosa, Diatoma elongatum) and a chrysophyte (Dinobryon cylindricum) or, (c) zooplankton (Daphnia spp., calanoid or cyclopoid copepods) from Lake Ontario, suggesting that PMI-FAs are not substantively incorporated into consumers at the phytoplankton–zooplankton interface. However, these unusual FAs comprised 4-6% of total fatty acids (on a dry tissue weight basis) of native fat mucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and plain pocketbook (L. cardium) mussels and in invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. bugensis) mussels. We were able to clearly partition Great Lakes' mussels into three separate groups (zebra, quagga, and native mussels) based solely on their PMI-FA profiles. We also provide evidence for the trophic transfer of PMI-FAs from mussels to various fishes in Lakes Ontario and Michigan, further underlining the potential usefulness of PMI-FAs for tracking the dietary contribution of mollusks in food web and contaminant-fate studies.

  11. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation...... and separation method. This review covers separation by solid phase chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, and liquid-liquid extraction, followed by halogen determination. All studies performed according to this outline have indicated that the major organohalogen compounds are chlorinated fatty acids...... bound in different lipids. For the detection and identification of individual, halogenated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) liberated from the lipids, gas chromatography (GC) has been employed together with detection methods such as electron capture detection, electrolytic conductivity detection (ELCD...

  12. Altered erythrocyte membrane fatty acid profile in typical Rett syndrome: effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Cinzia; De Felice, Claudio; Leoncini, Silvia; Durand, Thierry; Galano, Jean-Marie; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Zollo, Gloria; Guerranti, Roberto; Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Rossi, Marcello; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef

    2014-11-01

    This study mainly aims at examining the erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FAs) profile in Rett syndrome (RTT), a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disease. Early reports suggest a beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) on disease severity in RTT. A total of 24 RTT patients were assigned to ω-3 PUFAs-containing fish oil for 12 months in a randomized controlled study (average DHA and EPA doses of 72.9, and 117.1mg/kgb.w./day, respectively). A distinctly altered FAs profile was detectable in RTT, with deficient ω-6 PUFAs, increased saturated FAs and reduced trans 20:4 FAs. FAs changes were found to be related to redox imbalance, subclinical inflammation, and decreased bone density. Supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs led to improved ω-6/ω-3 ratio and serum plasma lipid profile, decreased PUFAs peroxidation end-products, normalization of biochemical markers of inflammation, and reduction of bone hypodensity as compared to the untreated RTT group. Our data indicate that a significant FAs abnormality is detectable in the RTT erythrocyte membranes and is partially rescued by ω-3 PUFAs.

  13. Fatty acids of Thiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, R A

    1971-12-01

    Fatty acid spectra were made on Thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. Small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. The addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. The predominant fatty acid was a C(19) cyclopropane acid.

  14. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K; Fuiman, Lee A

    2015-07-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 µatm) and under current control levels (400 µatm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs.

  15. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  16. Fatty acids-stress attenuates gluconeogenesis induction and glucose production in primary hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budick-Harmelin Noga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatic gluconeogenesis tightly controls blood glucose levels in healthy individuals, yet disorders of fatty acids (FAs oxidation are characterized by hypoglycemia. We studied the ability of free-FAs to directly inhibit gluconeogenesis, as a novel mechanism that elucidates the hypoglycemic effect of FAs oxidation defects. Methods Primary rat hepatocytes were pre-treated with FAs prior to gluconeogenic stimuli with glucagon or dexamethasone and cAMP. Results Pre-treatment with 1 mM FAs (mixture of 2:1 oleate:palmitate for 1 hour prior to gluconeogenic induction, significantly decreases the induced expression of the gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase as well as the induced glucose production by the cells. The inhibitory effect of FAs upon gluconeogenesis is abolished when pre-treatment is elongated to 18 hours, allowing clearance of FAs into triglycerides by the cells. Replacement of palmitate with the non-metabolic fatty acid 2-bromopalmitate inhibits esterification of FAs into triglycerides. Accordingly, the increased exposure to unesterified-FAs allows their inhibitory effect to be extended even when pre-treatment is elongated to 18 hours. Similar changes were caused by FAs to the induction of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α expression, indicating this transcriptional coactivator as the mediating link of the effect. This inhibitory effect of FAs upon gluconeogenic induction is shown to involve reduced activation of cAMP response element-binding (CREB transcription factor. Conclusions The present results demonstrate that free-FAs directly inhibit the induced gluconeogenic response in hepatocytes. Hence, high levels of free-FAs may attenuate hepatic gluconeogenesis, and liver glucose output.

  17. Fatty acids-stress attenuates gluconeogenesis induction and glucose production in primary hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budick-Harmelin, Noga; Anavi, Sarit; Madar, Zecharia; Tirosh, Oren

    2012-07-09

    Hepatic gluconeogenesis tightly controls blood glucose levels in healthy individuals, yet disorders of fatty acids (FAs) oxidation are characterized by hypoglycemia. We studied the ability of free-FAs to directly inhibit gluconeogenesis, as a novel mechanism that elucidates the hypoglycemic effect of FAs oxidation defects. Primary rat hepatocytes were pre-treated with FAs prior to gluconeogenic stimuli with glucagon or dexamethasone and cAMP. Pre-treatment with 1 mM FAs (mixture of 2:1 oleate:palmitate) for 1 hour prior to gluconeogenic induction, significantly decreases the induced expression of the gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase) as well as the induced glucose production by the cells. The inhibitory effect of FAs upon gluconeogenesis is abolished when pre-treatment is elongated to 18 hours, allowing clearance of FAs into triglycerides by the cells. Replacement of palmitate with the non-metabolic fatty acid 2-bromopalmitate inhibits esterification of FAs into triglycerides. Accordingly, the increased exposure to unesterified-FAs allows their inhibitory effect to be extended even when pre-treatment is elongated to 18 hours. Similar changes were caused by FAs to the induction of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) expression, indicating this transcriptional coactivator as the mediating link of the effect. This inhibitory effect of FAs upon gluconeogenic induction is shown to involve reduced activation of cAMP response element-binding (CREB) transcription factor. The present results demonstrate that free-FAs directly inhibit the induced gluconeogenic response in hepatocytes. Hence, high levels of free-FAs may attenuate hepatic gluconeogenesis, and liver glucose output.

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and FFAR4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Young eOh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial roles of omega-3 fatty acids (ω3-FAs on obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other metabolic diseases are well known. Most of these effects can be explained by their anti-inflammatory effects, triggered through their receptor, G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120 activation. Although the whole mechanism of action is not fully described yet, it has been shown that stimulation of ω3-FA to GPR120 is followed by receptor phosphorylation. This makes GPR120 be capable of interacting to beta-arrestin-2, which in turn results in association, of beta-arrestin-2 to TAB1. This stealing of an important partaker of the inflammatory cascade, leads to interruption of the pathway, resulting in reduced inflammation. Besides this regulation of the anti-inflammatory response, GPR120 signaling also has been shown to regulate glucose homeostasis, adiposity, gastrointestinal peptide secretion, and taste preference. In this review we summarize the current knowledge about the interaction of ω3-FAs with GPR120 and the consequent opportunities for the application of ω3-FAs and possible GPR120 targets.

  19. Inactivation of Gram-Positive Bacteria by Novel Phenolic Branched-Chain Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuetong; Wagner, Karen; Sokorai, Kimberly J B; Ngo, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Novel phenolic branched-chain fatty acids (PBC-FAs) were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against both gram-positive ( Listeria innocua , Bacillus subtilis , Enterococcus faecium ) and gram-negative ( Escherichia coli , Salmonella Typhimurium, and Pseudomonas tolaasii ) bacteria. In addition, PBC-FA derivatives, such as PBC-FA methyl ester mixture, methyl-branched fatty acid mixtures, and trimethylsilyl-PBC-FA methyl esters, were synthesized to study the structure activity relationship. Results showed that PBC-FAs were a potent antimicrobial against gram-positive bacteria with MICs of 1.8 to 3.6 μg/ml. The compounds were less effective against gram-negative bacteria. Derivatives of PBC-FAs and an equimolar mixture of oleic acid and phenol all had MICs above 233 μg/ml against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of the PBC-FAs with those of the derivatives suggests that the carboxylic group in the fatty acid moiety and the hydroxyl group on the phenol moiety were responsible for the antimicrobial efficacy. Growth curves of L. innocua revealed that PBC-FAs prevented bacterial growth, while MBC-FAs only delayed the onset of rapid growth of L. innocua . Our results demonstrated that the novel PBC-FAs have potential for use as antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria.

  20. N-alkanes, fatty acid esters, and fatty acid salts in size fractionated aerosols collected over the Mediterranean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicre, M.A.; Marty, J.C.; Saliot, A. (Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France))

    1990-03-20

    The {und n}-alkanes, fatty acid esters, and fatty acid salts have been analyzed in size fractionated aerosols collected over the Mediterranean Sea using a five-stage cascade impactor. Two main sources of {und n}-alkanes have been identified: terrestrially derived {und n}-alkanes evenly distributed over the whole particle size spectrum and anthropogenic {und n}-alkanes predominantly carried by submicron particles. The comparison between the fatty acid ester (FAE) and fatty acid salt (FAS) particle size distributions allowed an important contribution to be ascertained of the marine source in aerosols ranging from 7.2 to 3.0 {mu}m under rough weather conditions that may be due to larger bubble produced particles. In contrast, FAE and FAS were evenly distributed from the first to the fifth stage, when collected during calm sea surface conditions. Higher values of the degree of unsaturation of FAE and FAS were associated with mass concentration maxima observed on stages 2 and 3 in IMP1 aerosol sample whereas lower values were found on the other stages in the same sample, and over the whole particle size spectrum in IMP2 aerosol sample collected during calm weather conditions. The data the authors present here are discussed in terms of jet and film drop ejections and degradation processes.

  1. A human fatty acid synthase inhibitor binds β-ketoacyl reductase in the keto-substrate site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwicke, Mary Ann; Rendina, Alan R; Williams, Shawn P; Moore, Michael L; Wang, Liping; Krueger, Julie A; Plant, Ramona N; Totoritis, Rachel D; Zhang, Guofeng; Briand, Jacques; Burkhart, William A; Brown, Kristin K; Parrish, Cynthia A

    2014-09-01

    Human fatty acid synthase (hFAS) is a complex, multifunctional enzyme that is solely responsible for the de novo synthesis of long chain fatty acids. hFAS is highly expressed in a number of cancers, with low expression observed in most normal tissues. Although normal tissues tend to obtain fatty acids from the diet, tumor tissues rely on de novo fatty acid synthesis, making hFAS an attractive metabolic target for the treatment of cancer. We describe here the identification of GSK2194069, a potent and specific inhibitor of the β-ketoacyl reductase (KR) activity of hFAS; the characterization of its enzymatic and cellular mechanism of action; and its inhibition of human tumor cell growth. We also present the design of a new protein construct suitable for crystallography, which resulted in what is to our knowledge the first co-crystal structure of the human KR domain and includes a bound inhibitor.

  2. Fatty acid-induced changes in vascular reactivity in healthy adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christon, Raymond; Marette, André; Badeau, Mylène; Bourgoin, Frédéric; Mélançon, Sébastien; Bachelard, Hélène

    2005-12-01

    Dietary fatty acids (FAs) are known to modulate endothelial dysfunction, which is the first stage of atherosclerosis. However, their exact role in this initial phase is still unclear. The effects of isolated or combined (by 2) purified FAs from the main FA families were studied on the vascular response of isolated thoracic aorta in healthy rats to get a better understanding of the mechanisms of action of dietary FAs in regulating vascular endothelial function. Cumulative contraction curves to phenylephrine and relaxation curves to carbachol and then to sodium nitroprusside were obtained in the absence or presence of the FAs studied allowing endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent ability of the smooth muscle to relax to be assessed in each experimental group. The endothelium-dependent vasodilator response to carbachol was lowered by eicosapentaenoic acid, whereas it was not altered either by docosahexaenoic acid alone or by combined eicosapentaenoic acid-docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, or stearic acid, and it was increased by linoleic acid (LA). A decreased phenylephrine-induced contraction was observed after incubation with arachidonic acid and with stearic acid. On the other hand, the endothelium-dependent relaxation was reduced by the addition of combined LA-arachidonic acid and LA-oleic acid. In conclusion, these data point out the differential effects of different types of FAs and of FAs alone vs combined on vascular reactivity. The complex nature of these effects could be partially linked to metabolic specificities of endothelial cells and to interactions between some FAs.

  3. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of a complete bacterial fatty-acid synthase type I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enderle, Mathias [Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 15, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Max-Planck-Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried (Germany); McCarthy, Andrew [EMBL Grenoble, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble CEDEX 9 (France); Paithankar, Karthik Shivaji, E-mail: paithankar@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 15, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Grininger, Martin, E-mail: paithankar@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 15, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Max-Planck-Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried (Germany)

    2015-10-23

    Bacterial and fungal type I fatty-acid synthases (FAS I) are evolutionarily connected, as bacterial FAS I is considered to be the ancestor of fungal FAS I. In this work, the production, crystallization and X-ray diffraction data analysis of a bacterial FAS I are reported. While a deep understanding of the fungal and mammalian multi-enzyme type I fatty-acid synthases (FAS I) has been achieved in recent years, the bacterial FAS I family, which is narrowly distributed within the Actinomycetales genera Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium and Nocardia, is still poorly understood. This is of particular relevance for two reasons: (i) although homologous to fungal FAS I, cryo-electron microscopic studies have shown that bacterial FAS I has unique structural and functional properties, and (ii) M. tuberculosis FAS I is a drug target for the therapeutic treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and therefore is of extraordinary importance as a drug target. Crystals of FAS I from C. efficiens, a homologue of M. tuberculosis FAS I, were produced and diffracted X-rays to about 4.5 Å resolution.

  4. In vivo roles of fatty acid-biosynthetic enzymes in biosynthesis of biotin and α-lipoic acid in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masato; Nagashima, Takashi; Nakamura, Eri; Kato, Ryosuke; Ohshita, Masakazu; Hayashi, Mikiro; Takeno, Seiki

    2017-07-28

    For fatty acid biosynthesis, Corynebacterium glutamicum uses two type I fatty acid synthases (FAS-I), FasA and FasB, in addition to acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) consisting of AccBC, AccD1, and AccE. The in vivo roles of the enzymes in supplying precursors for biotin and α-lipoic acid remain unclear. Here, we report genetic evidence demonstrating that the biosynthesis of these cofactors is linked to fatty acid biosynthesis through the FAS-I pathway. For this study, we used wild-type C. glutamicum and its derived biotin-vitamer producer BFI-5, which was engineered to express Escherichia coli bioBF and Bacillus subtilis bioI Disruption of either fasA or fasB in strain BFI-5 led to decreased production of biotin-vitamers, whereas its amplification contributed to increased production, with a larger impact of fasA in both cases. Double disruptions of fasA and fasB resulted in no biotin-vitamer production. The acc genes showed a positive effect on production when amplified simultaneously. Augmented fatty acid biosynthesis was also reflected on pimelic acid production when carbon flow was blocked at the BioF reaction. These results indicate that carbon flow down the FAS-I pathway is destined for channeling into the biotin-biosynthetic pathway, and that FasA in particular has a significant impact on precursor supply. In contrast, fasB disruption resulted in auxotrophy for lipoic acid or its precursor octanoic acid in both wild-type and BFI-5 strains. The phenotypes were fully complemented by plasmid-mediated expression of fasB, but not fasA These results reveal that FasB plays a specific physiological role in lipoic acid biosynthesis in C. glutamicumIMPORTANCE For the de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids, C. glutamicum exceptionally uses eukaryotic, multifunctional type I fatty acid synthase (FAS-I) system comprising FasA and FasB, in contrast to most bacteria, such as E. coli and B. subtilis, which use individual, nonaggregating type II fatty acid synthase (FAS-II) system

  5. Natural fatty acid synthase inhibitors as potent therapeutic agents for cancers: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Sui; Lei, Jie-Ping; Wei, Guo-Qing; Chen, Hui; Ma, Chao-Ying; Jiang, He-Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Context Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is the only mammalian enzyme to catalyse the synthesis of fatty acid. The expression level of FAS is related to cancer progression, aggressiveness and metastasis. In recent years, research on natural FAS inhibitors with significant bioactivities and low side effects has increasingly become a new trend. Herein, we present recent research progress on natural fatty acid synthase inhibitors as potent therapeutic agents. Objective This paper is a mini overview of the typical natural FAS inhibitors and their possible mechanism of action in the past 10 years (2004-2014). Method The information was collected and compiled through major databases including Web of Science, PubMed, and CNKI. Results Many natural products induce cancer cells apoptosis by inhibiting FAS expression, with fewer side effects than synthetic inhibitors. Conclusion Natural FAS inhibitors are widely distributed in plants (especially in herbs and foods). Some natural products (mainly phenolics) possessing potent biological activities and stable structures are available as lead compounds to synthesise promising FAS inhibitors.

  6. Associations of erythrocyte fatty acid patterns with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigornia, Sherman J; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Harris, William S; Tucker, Katherine L

    2016-03-01

    Synergistic or additive effects or both on cardiometabolic risk may be missed by examining individual fatty acids (FAs). A pattern analysis may be a more useful approach. In addition, it remains unclear whether erythrocyte FA composition relates to insulin resistance among Hispanics/Latinos. We derived erythrocyte FA patterns for a Puerto Rican cohort and examined their association with diet and insulin resistance in cross-sectional and prospective analyses. At baseline, principal components analysis was used to derive factor patterns with the use of 24 erythrocyte FAs from 1157 participants of the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (aged 45-75 y). Dietary intake was assessed with a validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated at baseline and at the 2-y follow-up. Relations between FA patterns and HOMA-IR were analyzed in a sample of 922 participants with available data. Five FA patterns were derived, differentiated by 1) relatively high de novo lipogenesis (DNL) FAs and low n-6 (ω-6) FAs, 2) high very-long-chain saturated FAs, 3) high n-3 (ω-3) FAs, 4) high linoleic acid and low arachidonic acid, and 5) high trans FAs. The DNL pattern was positively correlated with sugar and inversely with n-6 and monounsaturated FA intakes. Only the DNL pattern was positively related to baseline HOMA-IR [adjusted geometric means (95% CIs) for quartiles 1 and 4: 1.72 (1.58, 1.87) and 2.20 (2.02, 2.39); P-trend insulin sensitivity in a Hispanic/Latino cohort. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Fatty acids linked to cardiovascular mortality are associated with risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven O. E. Ebbesson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although saturated fatty acids (FAs have been linked to cardiovascular mortality, it is not clear whether this outcome is attributable solely to their effects on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C or whether other risk factors are also associated with FAs. The Western Alaskan Native population, with its rapidly changing lifestyles, shift in diet from unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and dramatic increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD, presents an opportunity to elucidate any associations between specific FAs and known CVD risk factors. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that the specific FAs previously identified as related to CVD mortality are also associated with individual CVD risk factors. Methods: In this community-based, cross-sectional study, relative proportions of FAs in plasma and red blood cell membranes were compared with CVD risk factors in a sample of 758 men and women aged ≥35 years. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze relations between specific FAs and CVD risk factors (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index, fasting glucose and fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose and 2-hour insulin. Results: The specific saturated FAs previously identified as related to CVD mortality, the palmitic and myristic acids, were adversely associated with most CVD risk factors, whereas unsaturated linoleic acid (18:2n-6 and the marine n-3 FAs were not associated or were beneficially associated with CVD risk factors. Conclusions: The results suggest that CVD risk factors are more extensively affected by individual FAs than hitherto recognized, and that risk for CVD, MI and stroke can be reduced by reducing the intake of palmitate, myristic acid and simple carbohydrates and improved by greater intake of linoleic acid and marine n-3 FAs.

  8. Method for determination of fatty acids in bovine colostrum using GC-FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, S; Sats, A; Poikalainen, V; Karus, A

    2016-12-01

    Bovine colostrum is potentially valuable source of essential fatty acids (FAs), but so far only few studies have made the effort to estimate FA composition of this potential resource. The aim of current research was to fill this gap with selecting and validating an accurate procedure for the analysis of the composition of the FAs in bovine colostrum. We used colostrum samples of Holstein-Friesian cattle from Märja experimental farm as a test material. The validated method includes derivatization, in which FAs are sent through esterification with the acidic catalyst boron trifluoride. Formed methyl esters of fatty acids (FAMEs) were analysed using GC-FID. The obtained LOD and the LOQ of FAMEs were 0.11-0.68 and 0.37-2.27ppm, respectively. The analysis of fortified samples showed very good and similar recoveries, indicating that the method proposed here can be routinely used for determination and investigation of the fatty acids in dairy products.

  9. Effect of alpha-linolenic, capric and lauric acid on the fatty acid biosynthesis in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sado-Kamdem, Sylvain L; Vannini, Lucia; Guerzoni, M Elisabetta

    2009-02-28

    The antimicrobial activity of alpha-linolenic, capric and lauric acids on Staphylococcus aureus was studied in relation to their effect on the de novo fatty acid biosynthesis. Labelled acetate was used as integrated carbon source and traced in the de novo fatty acid by using a GC-Mass spectrometer and the single ion monitoring (SIM) technique. The detection of the incorporation of the labelled carbon into the individual cell fatty acids (FAs) provided an insight into the different effects of alpha-linolenic, capric and lauric acids on the FA biosynthesis. The results suggested that FAs pathway is the major target of alpha-linolenic acid and that other enzymes in addition to FabI are involved in S. aureus response mechanism when medium chain fatty acids are present.

  10. Fats for thoughts: An update on brain fatty acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Adele; Koczwara, Justyna Barbara; Gallelli, Cristina Anna; Vergara, Daniele; Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Gaetani, Silvana; Giudetti, Anna Maria

    2017-03-01

    Brain fatty acid (FA) metabolism deserves a close attention not only for its energetic aspects but also because FAs and their metabolites/derivatives are able to influence many neural functions, contributing to brain pathologies or representing potential targets for pharmacological and/or nutritional interventions. Glucose is the preferred energy substrate for the brain, whereas the role of FAs is more marginal. In conditions of decreased glucose supply, ketone bodies, mainly formed by FA oxidation, are the alternative main energy source. Ketogenic diets or medium-chain fatty acid supplementations were shown to produce therapeutic effects in several brain pathologies. Moreover, the positive effects exerted on brain functions by short-chain FAs and the consideration that they can be produced by intestinal flora metabolism contributed to the better understanding of the link between "gut-health" and "brain-health". Finally, attention was paid also to the regulatory role of essential polyunsaturated FAs and their derivatives on brain homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Shape-Memory Polymers Based on Fatty Acid-Filled Elastomeric Ionomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Elise; Weiss, Robert

    2009-03-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) have applications as medical devices, actuators, sensors, artificial muscles, switches, smart textiles, and self-deployable structures. All previous design of SMPs has involved synthesizing new polymers or modifying existing polymers. This paper describes a new type of SMP based on blends of an elastomeric ionomer and low molar mass fatty acids or their salts (FAS). Shape memory elastomers were prepared from mixtures of a sulfonated EPDM ionomer and various amounts of a FAS (e.g., zinc stearate, zinc oleate, and various aliphalic acids). Nanophase separation of the metal sulfonate groups provided the ``permanent'' crosslinks, while sub-microscopic crystals of the low molecular weight FAS provided a physical crosslink needed for the temporary shape. The material was deformed above the melting point of the FAS and the new shape was fixed by cooling the material while under stress to below the melting point of the FAS. Polar interactions between the ionomer and the FAS stabilized the dispersion of the FAS in the polymer and provided the continuity between the phases that allowed the crystals of the FAS to provide a second network of physical crosslinks. The temporary shape was erased and the material returned to the primary shape by heating above the melting point of the FAS.

  12. Composition of fatty acids in the Varroa destructor mites and their hosts, Apis mellifera drone-prepupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata; Zalewski, Kazimierz; Raczkowski, Marek; Żółtowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acid (FA) profile of lipids extracted from the Varroa destructor parasitic mite and its host, drone-prepupae of Apis mellifera, was determined by gas chromatography (GC). The percentages of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were generally similar in parasites and their hosts. Fatty acids were arranged in the following descending order based on their content: MUFAs (ca. 52-55%), SFAs (ca. 41%) and PUFAs (ca. 3%). The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (46% in mites, 44% in prepupae) and palmitic acid (23% and 30%, respectively). Varroa parasites differed from their hosts in the quantity of individual FAs and in their FA profiles. Three PUFAs noted in the host were not observed in parasitic mites, whereas the presence of C21:0, C24:0 and C22:1 FAs was reported in mites, but not in drones.

  13. Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY S HARE W ITH W OMEN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY During pregnancy, your ... the foods you eat and vitamins you take. Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) are an important ...

  14. Determination of free fatty acids in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Marconi, Ombretta; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-15

    Free fatty acids (FFA) content of beer affects the ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Moreover, the presence of saturated FAs is related sometimes to gushing problems in beer. The aim of this research was to validate an analytical method for the determination of FFAs in beer. The extraction of FFAs in beer was achieved via Liquid-Liquid Cartridge Extraction (LLCE), the FFAs extract was purified by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE), methylated by boron trifluoride in methanol, and injected into GC-FID system. The performance criteria demonstrate that this method is suitable for the analysis of medium and long chain FFAs in beer. The proposed method was tested on four experimental beers.

  15. Construction of a cyanobacterium synthesizing cyclopropane fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Shuntaro; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Iwane

    2016-09-01

    Microalgae have received much attention as a next-generation source of biomass energy. However, most of the fatty acids (FAs) from microalgae are multiply unsaturated; thus, the biofuels derived from them are fluid, but vulnerable to oxidation. In this study, we attempted to synthesize cyclopropane FAs in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 by expressing the cfa gene for cyclopropane FA synthase from Escherichia coli with the aim of producing FAs that are fluid and stable in response to oxidization. We successfully synthesized cyclopropane FAs in Synechocystis with a yield of ~30% of total FAs. Growth of the transformants was altered, particularly at low temperatures, but photosynthesis and respiration were not significantly affected. C16:1(∆9) synthesis in the desA(-)/desD(-) strain by expression of the desC2 gene for sn-2 specific ∆9 desaturase positively affected growth at low temperatures via promotion of various cellular processes, with the exceptions of photosynthesis and respiration. Estimation of the apparent activities of desaturases suggested that some acyl-lipid desaturases might recognize the lipid side chain.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids improve psychomotor performance via mechanism not related to nitric acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan S. M. Al-Nimer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3FAs are essential polyunsaturated fats that protect the brain from cognitive impairment. It increases the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS and thereby increases the nitric acid (NO production. This study aimed to explore the effect of ω-3FAs on psychomotor performance and to relate this effect to the reactive nitrogen species. This study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Al-Mustansiriya University in Baghdad, Iraq. Twenty healthy subjects, allocated randomly from medical college students, were participated in the single blind clinical trial. Participants were divided into two groups, each of ten subjects to receive either placebo or (ω-3FAs (750 mg single oral dose daily for 5 days. They were asked to perform psychomotor performance before and after 5 days of treatment, and venous blood was obtained for determination of serum nitric oxide (NO and peroxynitrite (ONOO. ω-3FAs treated group was significantly different from placebo-treated group in reducing choice and motor reaction times as well as the critical flicker frequency threshold. The serum levels of NO and ONOO in ω-3FAs-treated group did not significantly differ from placebo-treated group. Short term supplementation of ω-3FAs improves the psychomotor performance in young healthy subjects via a mechanism not related to the production of nitric oxide production. Inflorescence is a panicle few flowered and fruit is a capsule. The data of the results obtained were presented and discussed.

  17. Regulation of Connexin-Based Channels by Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puebla, Carlos; Retamal, Mauricio A.; Acuña, Rodrigo; Sáez, Juan C.

    2017-01-01

    In this mini-review, we briefly summarize the current knowledge about the effects of fatty acids (FAs) on connexin-based channels, as well as discuss the limited information about the impact FAs may have on pannexins (Panxs). FAs regulate diverse cellular functions, some of which are explained by changes in the activity of channels constituted by connexins (Cxs) or Panxs, which are known to play critical roles in maintaining the functional integrity of diverse organs and tissues. Cxs are transmembrane proteins that oligomerize into hexamers to form hemichannels (HCs), which in turn can assemble into dodecamers to form gap junction channels (GJCs). While GJCs communicate the cytoplasm of contacting cells, HCs serve as pathways for the exchange of ions and small molecules between the intra and extracellular milieu. Panxs, as well as Cx HCs, form channels at the plasma membrane that enable the interchange of molecules between the intra and extracellular spaces. Both Cx- and Panx-based channels are controlled by several post-translational modifications. However, the mechanism of action of FAs on these channels has not been described in detail. It has been shown however that FAs frequently decrease GJC-mediated cell-cell communication. The opposite effect also has been described for HC or Panx-dependent intercellular communication, where, the acute FA effect can be reversed upon washout. Additionally, changes in GJCs mediated by FAs have been associated with post-translational modifications (e.g., phosphorylation), and seem to be directly related to chemical properties of FAs (e.g., length of carbon chain and/or degree of saturation), but this possible link remains poorly understood. PMID:28174541

  18. Regulation of Connexin-Based Channels by Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puebla, Carlos; Retamal, Mauricio A; Acuña, Rodrigo; Sáez, Juan C

    2017-01-01

    In this mini-review, we briefly summarize the current knowledge about the effects of fatty acids (FAs) on connexin-based channels, as well as discuss the limited information about the impact FAs may have on pannexins (Panxs). FAs regulate diverse cellular functions, some of which are explained by changes in the activity of channels constituted by connexins (Cxs) or Panxs, which are known to play critical roles in maintaining the functional integrity of diverse organs and tissues. Cxs are transmembrane proteins that oligomerize into hexamers to form hemichannels (HCs), which in turn can assemble into dodecamers to form gap junction channels (GJCs). While GJCs communicate the cytoplasm of contacting cells, HCs serve as pathways for the exchange of ions and small molecules between the intra and extracellular milieu. Panxs, as well as Cx HCs, form channels at the plasma membrane that enable the interchange of molecules between the intra and extracellular spaces. Both Cx- and Panx-based channels are controlled by several post-translational modifications. However, the mechanism of action of FAs on these channels has not been described in detail. It has been shown however that FAs frequently decrease GJC-mediated cell-cell communication. The opposite effect also has been described for HC or Panx-dependent intercellular communication, where, the acute FA effect can be reversed upon washout. Additionally, changes in GJCs mediated by FAs have been associated with post-translational modifications (e.g., phosphorylation), and seem to be directly related to chemical properties of FAs (e.g., length of carbon chain and/or degree of saturation), but this possible link remains poorly understood.

  19. 脂肪酸合成酶在高脂饮食诱导的肥胖易感和肥胖抗性大鼠白色脂肪组织中的表达差异%Different expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) in adipose tissue from high-fat diet induced obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾凡勇; 秦锐; 郭锡熔

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨高脂饮食诱导下肥胖易感(obesity-prone,OP)与肥胖抗性(obesity-resistant,OR)大鼠白色脂肪组织(white adipose tissue,WAT)中脂肪酸合成酶(fatty acid synthase,FAS)的表达差异.方法 72只SD大鼠,随机选取12只为标准对照组,基础饲料饲养7周,余60只基础饲料饲养1周后,按体重增值分为OP组、OR组和高脂组,分组后改用高脂饲料继续饲养6周.观察各大鼠体重变化、Lee's指数、脂肪湿重等;用RT-PCR技术分析WAT中FAS基因mRNA表达水平,Western blotting检测WAT中FAS的蛋白表达差异.结果 OP组体重增值、Lee's指数及脂肪湿重均高于OR组(P<0.05);OP组FAS基因mRNA表达水平高于OR组(P<0.05);OP组FAS蛋白表达显著高于OR组(P<0.001).结论 OP与OR大鼠的白色脂肪组织中存在FAS基因表达差异,其差异与大鼠发生肥胖的易感程度有关.

  20. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-04

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  1. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Min Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  2. Structure of the human beta-ketoacyl [ACP] synthase from the mitochondrial type II fatty acid synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Caspar Elo; Kragelund, Birthe Brandt; Von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny

    2007-01-01

    Two distinct ways of organizing fatty acid biosynthesis exist: the multifunctional type I fatty acid synthase (FAS) of mammals, fungi, and lower eukaryotes with activities residing on one or two polypeptides; and the dissociated type II FAS of prokaryotes, plastids, and mitochondria with individual...... activities encoded by discrete genes. The beta-ketoacyl [ACP] synthase (KAS) moiety of the mitochondrial FAS (mtKAS) is targeted by the antibiotic cerulenin and possibly by the other antibiotics inhibiting prokaryotic KASes: thiolactomycin, platensimycin, and the alpha-methylene butyrolactone, C75. The high...... degree of structural similarity between mitochondrial and prokaryotic KASes complicates development of novel antibiotics targeting prokaryotic KAS without affecting KAS domains of cytoplasmic FAS. KASes catalyze the C(2) fatty acid elongation reaction using either a Cys-His-His or Cys-His-Asn catalytic...

  3. Fatty acid profile of biscuits and salty snacks consumed by Brazilian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Flávia da Silva Lima; Passos, Maria Eliza Assis; do Carmo, Maria das Graças Tavares; Lopes, Maria Lúcia Mendes; Valente Mesquita, Vera Lúcia

    2015-03-15

    High levels of biscuit and salty snack consumption have an effect on human health. This aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid (FA) composition of 19 different biscuits and 10 types of salty snacks by gas chromatography. Palmitic acid was predominant in 79% of biscuits and represented more than 55% of the total saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in salty snacks. Low concentrations of trans fatty acids were observed in biscuits (0.86% of total FAs), and the highest values were observed in salty snacks (7.94% of total FAs). The results indicate a high daily intake of SFAs and trans fatty acids, which may have an unfavourable effect on health. Changes in dietary habits and appropriate food choices by students are strongly recommended to prevent the risk of chronic disease. Furthermore, knowledge of the FA profile of food can help to establish health programs targeted to this population.

  4. Cadmium Alters the Concentration of Fatty Acids in THP-1 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowski, Tomasz; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Łukomska, Agnieszka; Drozd, Arleta; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2017-06-10

    Fatty acid composition of human immune cells influences their function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of known toxicant and immunomodulator, cadmium, at low concentrations on levels of selected fatty acids (FAs) in THP-1 macrophages. The differentiation of THP-1 monocytes into macrophages was achieved by administration of phorbol myristate acetate. Macrophages were incubated with various cadmium chloride (CdCl2) solutions for 48 h at final concentrations of 5 nM, 20 nM, 200 nM, and 2 μM CdCl2. Fatty acids were extracted from samples according to the Folch method. The fatty acid levels were determined using gas chromatography. The following fatty acids were analyzed: long-chain saturated fatty acids (SFAs) palmitic acid and stearic acid, very long-chain saturated fatty acid (VLSFA) arachidic acid, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) palmitoleic acid, oleic acid and vaccenic acid, and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Treatment of macrophages with very low concentrations of cadmium (5-200 nM) resulted in significant reduction in the levels of arachidic, palmitoleic, oleic, vaccenic, and linoleic acids and significant increase in arachidonic acid levels (following exposure to 5 nM Cd), without significant reduction of palmitic and stearic acid levels. Treatment of macrophages with the highest tested cadmium concentration (2 μM) produced significant reduction in the levels of all examined FAs: SFAs, VLSFA, MUFAs, and PUFAs. In conclusion, cadmium at tested concentrations caused significant alterations in THP-1 macrophage fatty acid levels, disrupting their composition, which might dysregulate fatty acid/lipid metabolism thus affecting macrophage behavior and inflammatory state.

  5. Campylobacter jejuni fatty acid synthase II: Structural and functional analysis of [beta]-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase (FabZ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew S.; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Choi, Kyoung-Jae; Yeo, Hye-Jeong; (Houston)

    2009-08-14

    Fatty acid biosynthesis is crucial for all living cells. In contrast to higher organisms, bacteria use a type II fatty acid synthase (FAS II) composed of a series of individual proteins, making FAS II enzymes excellent targets for antibiotics discovery. The {beta}-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase (FabZ) catalyzes an essential step in the FAS II pathway. Here, we report the structure of Campylobacter jejuni FabZ (CjFabZ), showing a hexamer both in crystals and solution, with each protomer adopting the characteristic hot dog fold. Together with biochemical analysis of CjFabZ, we define the first functional FAS II enzyme from this pathogen, and provide a framework for investigation on roles of FAS II in C. jejuni virulence

  6. Fish, n-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular diseases in women of reproductive age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Mortensen, Erik L

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated a protective effect of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3FAs) against cardiovascular disease; however, women are underrepresented in cardiovascular research. The aim of this study was to explore the association between intake of LCn3FAs and the risk......, and ischemic heart disease used to define a combined measure of cardiovascular diseases. Intake of fish and LCn3FAs was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire and telephone interviews. During follow-up (1996-2008; median: 8 years), 577 events of cardiovascular disease were identified. Low LCn3FA intake...

  7. Role of bioactive fatty acids in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Hernández, Eva; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Uribe, Misael; Barbero-Becerra, Varenka J

    2016-08-02

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fat deposition in hepatocytes, and a strong association with nutritional factors. Dietary fatty acids are classified according to their biochemical properties, which confer their bioactive roles. Monounsaturated fatty acids have a dual role in various human and murine models. In contrast, polyunsaturated fatty acids exhibit antiobesity, anti steatosic and anti-inflammatory effects. The combination of these forms of fatty acids-according to dietary type, daily intake and the proportion of n-6 to n-3 fats-can compromise hepatic lipid metabolism. A chemosensory rather than a nutritional role makes bioactive fatty acids possible biomarkers for NAFLD. Bioactive fatty acids provide health benefits through modification of fatty acid composition and modulating the activity of liver cells during liver fibrosis. More and better evidence is necessary to elucidate the role of bioactive fatty acids in nutritional and clinical treatment strategies for patients with NAFLD.

  8. Comparison of yolk fatty acid content, blood and egg cholesterol of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The KFO diets reduced the blood cholesterol, yolk linoleic acid and yolk ω-6 FA ... a decrease and an increase in the ratio of ω-6/ ω-3 FAs (P<0.05), respectively. ... olein oil (POO), Kilka fish oil (KFO), hens, egg omega-9 and omega-3 fatty acid.

  9. Effect of fatty acids isolated from edible oils like mustard, linseed or coconut on astrocytes maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joardar, Anindita; Das, Sumantra

    2007-12-01

    The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) has been previously shown to facilitate some of the vital functions of astrocytes. Since some dietary oils contain alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), which is a precursor of DHA, we examined their effect on astrocyte development. Fatty acids (FAs) were isolated from commonly used oils and their compositions were determined by GLC. FAs from three oils, viz. coconut, mustard and linseed were studied for their effect on astrocyte morphology. Parallel studies were conducted with FAs from the same oils after heating for 72 h. Unlike coconut oil, FAs from mustard and linseed, both heated and raw, caused significant morphogenesis of astrocytes in culture. ss-AR binding was also substantially increased in astrocytes treated with FAs from raw mustard and linseed oils as compared to astrocytes grown in normal medium. The expression profile of the isoforms of GFAP showed that astrocyte maturation by FAs of mustard and linseed oil was associated with appearance of acidic variants of GFAP and disappearance of some neutral isoforms similar to that observed in cultures grown in serum containing medium or in the presence of DHA. Taken together, the study highlights the contribution of specific dietary oils in facilitating astrocyte development that can have potential impact on human health.

  10. Fatty Acid-Related Phylogeny of Myxobacteria as an Approach to Discover Polyunsaturated Omega-3/6 Fatty Acids ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ronald; Pistorius, Dominik; Stadler, Marc; Müller, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    In an analysis of 47 aerobic myxobacterial strains, representing 19 genera in suborders Cystobacterineae, Nannocystineae, Sorangiineae, and a novel isolate, “Aetherobacter” SBSr008, an enormously diverse array of fatty acids (FAs) was found. The distribution of straight-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) supports the reported clustering of strains in the phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA genes. This finding additionally allows the prediction and assignment of the novel isolate SBSr008 into its corresponding taxon. Sorangiineae predominantly contains larger amounts of SCFA (57 to 84%) than BCFA. On the other hand, Cystobacterineae exhibit significant BCFA content (53 to 90%), with the exception of the genus Stigmatella. In Nannocystineae, the ratio of BCFA and SCFA seems dependent on the taxonomic clade. Myxobacteria could also be identified and classified by using their specific and predominant FAs as biomarkers. Nannocystineae is remarkably unique among the suborders for its absence of hydroxy FAs. After the identification of arachidonic (AA) FA in Phaselicystidaceae, eight additional polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) belonging to the omega-6 and omega-3 families were discovered. Here we present a comprehensive report of FAs found in aerobic myxobacteria. Gliding bacteria belonging to Flexibacter and Herpetosiphon were chosen for comparative analysis to determine their FA profiles in relation to the myxobacteria. PMID:21317327

  11. Drosophila fatty acid taste signals through the PLC pathway in sugar-sensing neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Pavel; Keene, Alex C

    2013-01-01

    Taste is the primary sensory system for detecting food quality and palatability. Drosophila detects five distinct taste modalities that include sweet, bitter, salt, water, and the taste of carbonation. Of these, sweet-sensing neurons appear to have utility for the detection of nutritionally rich food while bitter-sensing neurons signal toxicity and confer repulsion. Growing evidence in mammals suggests that taste for fatty acids (FAs) signals the presence of dietary lipids and promotes feeding. While flies appear to be attracted to fatty acids, the neural basis for fatty acid detection and attraction are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a range of FAs are detected by the fly gustatory system and elicit a robust feeding response. Flies lacking olfactory organs respond robustly to FAs, confirming that FA attraction is mediated through the gustatory system. Furthermore, flies detect FAs independent of pH, suggesting the molecular basis for FA taste is not due to acidity. We show that low and medium concentrations of FAs serve as an appetitive signal and they are detected exclusively through the same subset of neurons that sense appetitive sweet substances, including most sugars. In mammals, taste perception of sweet and bitter substances is dependent on phospholipase C (PLC) signaling in specialized taste buds. We find that flies mutant for norpA, a Drosophila ortholog of PLC, fail to respond to FAs. Intriguingly, norpA mutants respond normally to other tastants, including sucrose and yeast. The defect of norpA mutants can be rescued by selectively restoring norpA expression in sweet-sensing neurons, corroborating that FAs signal through sweet-sensing neurons, and suggesting PLC signaling in the gustatory system is specifically involved in FA taste. Taken together, these findings reveal that PLC function in Drosophila sweet-sensing neurons is a conserved molecular signaling pathway that confers attraction to fatty acids.

  12. Recognition of intermediate functionality by acyl carrier protein over a complete cycle of fatty acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płoskoń, Eliza; Arthur, Christopher J; Kanari, Amelia L P; Wattana-amorn, Pakorn; Williams, Christopher; Crosby, John; Simpson, Thomas J; Willis, Christine L; Crump, Matthew P

    2010-07-30

    It remains unclear whether in a bacterial fatty acid synthase (FAS) acyl chain transfer is a programmed or diffusion controlled and random action. Acyl carrier protein (ACP), which delivers all intermediates and interacts with all synthase enzymes, is the key player in this process. High-resolution structures of intermediates covalently bound to an ACP representing each step in fatty acid biosynthesis have been solved by solution NMR. These include hexanoyl-, 3-oxooctanyl-, 3R-hydroxyoctanoyl-, 2-octenoyl-, and octanoyl-ACP from Streptomyces coelicolor FAS. The high-resolution structures reveal that the ACP adopts a unique conformation for each intermediate driven by changes in the internal fatty acid binding pocket. The binding of each intermediate shows conserved structural features that may ensure effective molecular recognition over subsequent rounds of fatty acid biosynthesis. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 2-Octadecynoic acid as a dual life stage inhibitor of Plasmodium infections and plasmodial FAS-II enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballeira, Néstor M; Bwalya, Angela Gono; Itoe, Maurice Ayamba; Andricopulo, Adriano D; Cordero-Maldonado, María Lorena; Kaiser, Marcel; Mota, Maria M; Crawford, Alexander D; Guido, Rafael V C; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2014-09-01

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium goes through two life stages in the human host, a non-symptomatic liver stage (LS) followed by a blood stage with all clinical manifestation of the disease. In this study, we investigated a series of 2-alkynoic fatty acids (2-AFAs) with chain lengths between 14 and 18 carbon atoms for dual in vitro activity against both life stages. 2-Octadecynoic acid (2-ODA) was identified as the best inhibitor of Plasmodium berghei parasites with ten times higher potency (IC50=0.34 μg/ml) than the control drug. In target determination studies, the same compound inhibited three Plasmodium falciparum FAS-II (PfFAS-II) elongation enzymes PfFabI, PfFabZ, and PfFabG with the lowest IC50 values (0.28-0.80 μg/ml, respectively). Molecular modeling studies provided insights into the molecular aspects underlying the inhibitory activity of this series of 2-AFAs and a likely explanation for the considerably different inhibition potentials. Blood stages of P. falciparum followed a similar trend where 2-ODA emerged as the most active compound, with 20 times less potency. The general toxicity and hepatotoxicity of 2-AFAs were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo methods in mammalian cell lines and zebrafish models, respectively. This study identifies 2-ODA as the most promising antiparasitic 2-AFA, particularly towards P. berghei parasites.

  14. Dietary unsaturated fatty acids differently affect catecholamine handling by adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Andreia; Correia, Gustavo; Coelho, Marisa; Araújo, João Ricardo; Pinho, Maria João; Teixeira, Ana Luisa; Medeiros, Rui; Ribeiro, Laura

    2015-05-01

    Catecholamines (CA) play an important role in cardiovascular (CDV) disease risk. Namely, noradrenaline (NA) levels positively correlate whereas adrenaline (AD) levels negatively correlate with obesity and/or CDV disease. Western diets, which are tipically rich in Ω-6 fatty acids (FAs) and deficient in Ω-3 FAs, may contribute to the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes and/or coronary artery disease. Taking this into consideration and the fact that our group has already described that saturated FAs affect catecholamine handling by adrenal chromaffin cells, this work aimed to investigate the effect of unsaturated FAs upon catecholamine handling in the same model. Our results showed that chronic exposure to unsaturated FAs differently modulated CA cellular content and release, regardless of both FA series and number of carbon atoms. Namely, the Ω-6 arachidonic and linoleic acids, based on their effect on CA release and cellular content, seemed to impair NA and AD vesicular transport, whereas γ-linolenic acid selectively impaired AD synthesis and release. Within the Ω-9 FAs, oleic acid was devoid of effect, and elaidic acid behaved similarly to γ-linolenic acid. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (Ω-3 series) impaired the synthesis and release of both NA and AD. These results deserve attention and future development, namely, in what concerns the mechanisms involved and correlative effects in vivo.

  15. Biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livore, Verónica I; Uttaro, Antonio D

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi showed similar fatty acid (FA) compositions, having a high proportion of unsaturated FAs, mainly 18:2Δ9,12 (23-39%) and 18:1Δ9 (11-17%). C22 polyunsaturated FAs are in significant amounts only in T. brucei (12-20%) but represent a mere 2% of total FAs in T. cruzi. Both species have also similar profiles of medium- and long-chain saturated FAs, from 14:0 to 20:0. Interestingly, procyclic and bloodstream forms of T. brucei lack very long chain FAs (VLCFAs), whereas epimastigotes and trypomastigotes of T. cruzi contain 22:0 (0.1-0.2%), 24:0 (1.5-2%), and 26:0 (0.1-0.2%). This is in agreement with the presence of an additional FA elongase gene (TcELO4) in T. cruzi. TcELO4 was expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant lacking the endogenous ScELO3, rescuing the synthesis of saturated and hydroxylated C26 FAs in the yeast. Expression of TcELO4 also rescued the synthetic lethality of a ScELO2, ScELO3 double mutation, and the VLCFA profile of the transformed yeast was similar to that found in T. cruzi. By identifying TcELO4 as the enzyme responsible for the elongation of FA from 16:0 and 18:0 up to 26:0, with 24:0 being the preferred product, this work completed the characterization of FA elongases in Trypanosoma spp.

  16. A robust GC-MS method for the quantitation of fatty acids in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Nirupama Samanmalie; Dias, Daniel Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are involved in a wide range of functions in biological systems. It is important to measure the exact amount of fatty acids in biological matrices in order to determine the level of fatty acids and understand the role they play. The ability to quantify fatty acids in various systems, especially plant species and microbes has recently paved the way to the mass production of pharmaceuticals and energy substitutes including biodiesel. This chapter describes an efficient method to quantify the total fatty acids (TFAs) in biological systems using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and a commercially available standard mix of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) using a step-by-step methodology to setup a quantitation method using the Agilent Chemstation software.

  17. Effect of growth hormone on fatty acid synthase gene expression in porcine adipose tissue cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A.F.B.V. José

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an efficient in vitro assay to test growth hormone effects on mRNA levels and fatty acid synthase (FAS, EC. 2.3.1.85 activity. Swine adipose tissue explants were long-term cultured in medium containing growth hormone and FAS mRNA levels and enzyme activity were measured. We quantified FAS transcripts by competitive reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR using total RNA from cultured adipose tissue explants and RT-PCR standard-curves were constructed using a cloned 307 bp segment of native FAS cDNA and a shorter fragment from which a 64 bp (competitor, 243 bp internal sequence had been deleted. A known amount of competitor was added to each PCR as an internal control and µ-actin transcripts were also measured to correct for differences in total RNA extraction and reverse transcription efficiency. In cultures with added growth hormone FAS mRNA levels decreased 70% (p < 0.01 and FAS enzyme activity decreased 22% (p < 0.05. These in vitro growth hormone effects were consistent with those observed in vivo, showing that in vitro adipose tissue culture combined with RT-PCR is a useful and accurate tool for studying growth hormone modulation of adipose tissue metabolism. This technique allowed the diagnosis of lower levels of FAS mRNA in the presence of growth hormone and these low levels were associated with decreased FAS activity in the adipose tissue explants.

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: A Case for Omega-3 Index as a New Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, William S.

    2007-01-01

    The omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) found in fish and fish oils (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, EPA and DHA) have been reported to have a variety of beneficial effects in cardiovascular diseases. Ecological and prospective cohort studies as well as randomized, controlled trials have supported the view that the effects of these FAs are clinically-relevant. They operate via several mechanisms, all beginning with the incorporation of EPA and DHA into cell membranes. From here, these omega...

  19. Fatty Acid Composition and Levels of Selected Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Four Commercial Important Freshwater Fish Species from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids (FAs particularly ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs play important role in human health. This study aimed to investigate the composition and levels of selected ω3 PUFAs in four commercial fish species, Nile perch (Lates niloticus, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Tilapia zillii, and dagaa (Rastrineobola argentea from Mwanza Gulf in Lake Victoria. The results indicated that 36 types of FAs with different saturation levels were detected. These FAs were dominated by docosahexaenoic (DHA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA, docosapentaenoic (DPA, and eicosatetraenoic acids. O. niloticus had the highest composition of FAs (34 compared to L. niloticus (27, T. zillii (26, and R. argentea (21. The levels of EPA differed significantly among the four commercial fish species (F=6.19,  P=0.001. The highest EPA levels were found in R. argentea followed by L. niloticus and O. niloticus and the lowest in T. zillii. The DPA levels showed no significant difference among the four fish species studied (F=0.652,  P=0.583. The study concluded that all four commercial species collected from Mwanza Gulf are good for human health, but R. argentea is the best for consumption because it contains higher levels of ω3 FAs, mainly EPA.

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce hepatic steatosis and consequently attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury following partial hepatectomy in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Marsman; M. Heger; J.J. Kloek; S.L. Nienhuis; F.J.W. ten Kate; T.M. van Gulik

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) treatment of experimental steatosis and the consequent effect on ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Background: Fatty livers are more susceptible to IR injury and display decreased regenerative capacity. Consequently, restriction

  1. Pentadecanoic and Heptadecanoic Acids: Multifaceted Odd-Chain Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeuffer, Maria; Jaudszus, Anke

    2016-07-01

    The odd-chain fatty acids (OCFAs) pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0), which account for only a small proportion of total saturated fatty acids in milk fat and ruminant meat, are accepted biomarkers of dairy fat intake. However, they can also be synthesized endogenously, for example, from gut-derived propionic acid (3:0). A number of studies have shown an inverse association between OCFA concentrations in human plasma phospholipids or RBCs and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We propose a possible involvement in metabolic regulation from the assumption that there is a link between 15:0 and 17:0 and the metabolism of other short-chain, medium-chain, and longer-chain OCFAs. The OCFAs 15:0 and 17:0 can be elongated to very-long-chain FAs (VLCFAs) such as tricosanoic acid (23:0) and pentacosanoic acid (25:0) in glycosphingolipids, particularly found in brain tissue, or can be derived from these VLCFAs. Their chains can be shortened, yielding propionyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Propionyl-CoA, by succinyl-CoA, can replenish the citric acid cycle (CAC) with anaplerotic intermediates and, thus, improve mitochondrial energy metabolism. Mitochondrial function is compromised in a number of disorders and may be impaired with increasing age. Optimizing anaplerotic intermediate availability for the CAC may help to cope with demands in times of increased metabolic stress and with aging. OCFAs may serve as substrates for synthesis of both odd-numbered VLCFAs and propionyl-CoA or store away excess propionic acid.

  2. Plasma fatty acids, oxylipins, and risk of myocardial infarction: the Singapore Chinese health study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: We aimed to examine the prospective association between plasma fatty acids (FAs), oxylipins and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a Singapore Chinese population. Methods: A nested case-control study with 744 incident AMI cases and 744 matched controls aged 47-83 years was condu...

  3. Relationship between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis and fatty acid metabolism in recurrent depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocking, Roel J T; Ruhe, Eric; Assies, Johanna; Lok, Anja; Koeter, Maarten W J; Visser, Ieke; Bockting, Claudi L H; Schene, Aart H

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and fatty acid (FA)-metabolism have been observed in (recurrent) major depressive disorder (MDD). Through the pathophysiological roles of FAs in the brain and cardiovascular system, a hypothesized relationship between HPA-axis activit

  4. Cloning and sequence analysis of putative type II fatty acid synthase genes from Arachis hypogaea L.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meng-Jun Li; Ai-Qin Li; Han Xia; Chuan-Zhi Zhao; Chang-Sheng Li; Shu-Bo Wan; Yu-Ping Bi; Xing-Jun Wang

    2009-06-01

    The cultivated peanut is a valuable source of dietary oil and ranks fifth among the world oil crops. Plant fatty acid biosynthesis is catalysed by type II fatty acid synthase (FAS) in plastids and mitochondria. By constructing a full-length cDNA library derived from immature peanut seeds and homology-based cloning, candidate genes of acyl carrier protein (ACP), malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase, -ketoacyl-ACP synthase (I, II, III), -ketoacyl-ACP reductase, -hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydrase and enoyl-ACP reductase were isolated. Sequence alignments revealed that primary structures of type II FAS enzymes were highly conserved in higher plants and the catalytic residues were strictly conserved in Escherichia coli and higher plants. Homologue numbers of each type II FAS gene expressing in developing peanut seeds varied from 1 in KASII, KASIII and HD to 5 in ENR. The number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was quite different in each gene. Peanut type II FAS genes were predicted to target plastids except ACP2 and ACP3. The results suggested that peanut may contain two type II FAS systems in plastids and mitochondria. The type II FAS enzymes in higher plants may have similar functions as those in E. coli.

  5. Cloning and sequence analysis of putative type II fatty acid synthase genes from Arachis hypogaea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Jun; Li, Ai-Qin; Xia, Han; Zhao, Chuan-Zhi; Li, Chang-Sheng; Wan, Shu-Bo; Bi, Yu-Ping; Wang, Xing-Jun

    2009-06-01

    The cultivated peanut is a valuable source of dietary oil and ranks fifth among the world oil crops. Plant fatty acid biosynthesis is catalysed by type II fatty acid synthase (FAS) in plastids and mitochondria. By constructing a full-length cDNA library derived from immature peanut seeds and homology-based cloning, candidate genes of acyl carrier protein (ACP), malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase, beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase (I, II, III), beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase, beta-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydrase and enoyl-ACP reductase were isolated. Sequence alignments revealed that primary structures of type II FAS enzymes were highly conserved in higher plants and the catalytic residues were strictly conserved in Escherichia coli and higher plants. Homologue numbers of each type II FAS gene expressing in developing peanut seeds varied from 1 in KASII, KASIII and HD to 5 in ENR. The number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was quite different in each gene. Peanut type II FAS genes were predicted to target plastids except ACP2 and ACP3. The results suggested that peanut may contain two type II FAS systems in plastids and mitochondria. The type II FAS enzymes in higher plants may have similar functions as those in E. coli.

  6. An accurate and reliable method for identification and quantification of fatty acids and trans fatty acids in food fats samples using gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumat Salimon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A method for the separation, identification and further quantification of fatty acids (FAs and trans fatty acids (TFAs by gas chromatography (GC using the combination of lipid extraction and derivatization with the base-catalysed method followed by trimethylsilyl-diazomethane (TMS-DM was developed. The proposed method was found to allow sensitive and accurate determination of a wide range of different types of FAs, including TFA isomers. The method was validated on real samples of dietary fat from hydrogenated edible oils (margarine and nine standard FAs as representatives of margarines. For this purpose, response linearity, limit of detection (LOD, limit of quantification (LOQ, precision and recovery (R% were all determined. Based on the results obtained, R-values from all the samples were revealed to be close to 100%, repeatability RSD ranged between 0.89% and 2.34%, and reproducibility RSD values ranged between 1.46% and 3.72%. The applicability of this method was demonstrated in four margarine samples and it was compared with the method used as reference. In general, the results proved that the proposed method is suitable for the analysis of FAs since it has shown higher effectiveness in TFA analysis than the classic methods. Thus, it could be an effective tool for analysing dietary fats and oils in complex mixtures of food products for the monitoring of low levels of FAs and TFA, and the control of labelling authenticity.

  7. Fatty acids affect micellar properties and modulate vitamin D uptake and basolateral efflux in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Gleize, Béatrice; Roi, Stéphanie; Nowicki, Marion; Dhaussy, Amélie; Huertas, Alain; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2013-10-01

    We have recently shown that vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) absorption is not a simple passive diffusion but involves cholesterol transporters. As free fatty acids (FAs) modulate cholesterol intestinal absorption and metabolism, we hypothesized that FAs may also interact with vitamin D absorption. Effects of FAs were evaluated at different levels of cholecalciferol intestinal absorption. First, the physicochemical properties of micelles formed with different FAs were analyzed. The micelles were then administered to human Caco-2 cells in culture to evaluate FA effects on (i) cholecalciferol uptake and basolateral efflux and (ii) the regulation of genes coding proteins involved in lipid absorption process. Micellar electric charge was correlated with both FA chain length and degree of unsaturation. Long-chain FAs at 500 μM in mixed micelles decreased cholecalciferol uptake in Caco-2 cells. This decrease was annihilated as soon as the long-chain FAs were mixed with other FAs. Oleic acid significantly improved cholecalciferol basolateral efflux compared to other FAs. These results were partly explained by a modulation of genes coding for lipid transport proteins such as Niemann-pick C1-like 1 and scavenger receptor class B type I. The data reported here show for the first time that FAs can interact with cholecalciferol intestinal absorption at different key steps of the absorption process. Cholecalciferol intestinal absorption may thus be optimized according to oil FA composition.

  8. Presence of fatty acid synthase inhibitors in the rhizome of Alpinia officinarum hance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing-Hui; Tian, Wei-Xi

    2003-08-01

    The galangal (the rhizome of Alpinia officinarum, Hance) is popular in Asia as a traditional herbal medicine. The present study reports that the galangal extract (GE) can potently inhibit fatty-acid synthase (FAS, E.C.2.3.1.85). The inhibition consists of both reversible inhibition with an IC50 value of 1.73 microg dried GE/ml, and biphasic slow-binding inactivation. Subsequently the reversible inhibition and slow-binding inactivation to FAS were further studied. The inhibition of FAS by galangin, quercetin and kaempferol, which are the main flavonoids existing in the galangal, showed that quercetin and kaempferol had potent reversible inhibitory activity, but all three flavonoids had no obvious slow-binding inactivation. Analysis of the kinetic results led to the conclusion that the inhibitory mechanism of GE is totally different from that of some other previously reported inhibitors of FAS, such as cerulenin, EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate) and C75.

  9. Heart Rate is Associated with Red Blood Cell Fatty Acid Concentration: the GOCADAN Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesson, Sven O.E.; Devereux, Richard B.; Cole, Shelley; Ebbesson, Lars O.E.; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Haack, Karin; Harris, William S.; Howard, Wm. James; Laston, Sandra; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; MacCluer, Jean W.; Okin, Peter M.; Tejero, M. Elizabeth; Voruganti, V. Saroja; Wenger, Charlotte R.; Howard, Barbara V.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) is associated with a reduction in deaths from coronary heart disease, arrhythmia, and sudden death. Although these FAs were originally thought to be anti-atherosclerotic, recent evidence suggests that their benefits are related to reducing risk for ventricular arrhythmia, and that this may be mediated by a slowed heart rate (HR). Methods The study was conducted in Alaskan Eskimos participating in the Genetics of Coronary Artery Disease in Alaska Natives (GOCADAN) Study, a population experiencing a dietary shift from unsaturated to saturated fats. We compared HR with red blood cell (RBC) FA content in 316 men and 391 women ages 35–74 years. Results Multivariate linear regression analyses of individual FAs with HR as the dependent variable and specific FAs as covariates revealed negative associations between HR and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3; p= 0.004) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3; p=0.009) and positive associations between HR and palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7; p=0.021), eicosenoic acid (20:1n9; p=0.007), and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3n-6; p=0.021). Factor analysis revealed that the omega-3 FAs were negatively associated with HR (p=0.003), while a cluster of other, non-omega-3 unsaturated FAs (16:1, 20:1, and 20:3) was positively associated. Conclusions Marine omega 3 FAs are associated with lower HR, whereas palmitoleic and DGLA, previously identified as associated with saturated FA consumption and directly related to cardiovascular mortality, are associated with higher HR. These relations may at least partially explain the relations between omega-3 FAs, ventricular arrhythmia, and sudden death. PMID:20569715

  10. Insulin resistance, inflammation, and serum fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Real, José-Manuel; Broch, Montserrat; Vendrell, Joan; Ricart, Wifredo

    2003-05-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) have been involved in the development of chronic inflammatory conditions such as insulin resistance and obesity. However, the relation among insulin resistance, obesity, inflammatory activity (circulating interleukin [IL]-6) and dietary FAs has been scarcely studied in otherwise healthy subjects. We aimed to study these interactions in 123 overweight (BMI 26.9 +/- 2.4 kg/m(2) [means +/- SD]) subjects and 109 lean (BMI 21.7 +/- 1.7 kg/m(2), P cromatography. The percentage of saturated FAs (r = 0.30, P = 0.01) and omega-6 FAs (r = -0.32, P = 0.001) were significantly associated with circulating IL-6, whereas the percentage of omega-3 FAs correlated negatively with C-reactive protein in overweight subjects (P = 0.04). Saturated-to-omega-3 and saturated-to-omega-6 FA ratios were significantly and positively associated with C-reactive protein (P < 0.0001) and IL-6 (P < 0.001), respectively. In contrast, none of these associations reached statistical significance in lean subjects. Those subjects in the most insulin-sensitive quintile (homeostasis model assessment value) showed a significantly higher percentage of linoleic acid (C18:2 varpi6) (P = 0.03) and a significantly lower level of araquidic (C20:0) (P = 0.04), behenic (C22:0) (P = 0.009), lignoceric (C24:0) (P = 0.02), and nervonic (C24:1 varpi9) (P = 0.001) FAs than the remaining subjects. In parallel, the most insulin-sensitive subjects showed significantly decreased C-reactive protein (P = 0.03). Serum C-reactive protein was significantly associated with percent linoleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in nonsmoking men (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively) and with docosahexaenoic acid in nonsmoking women (r = -0.46, P < 0.0001). We constructed a multivariant regression analysis to predict circulating IL-6. Age, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), smoking status, and the relation of saturated to omega-6 or saturated to omega-3 FAs were considered as independent variables separately in men and women

  11. Determinants of Serum Glycerophospholipid Fatty Acids in Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzymała-Czyż, Sławomira; Krzyżanowska, Patrycja; Koletzko, Berthold; Nowak, Jan; Miśkiewicz-Chotnicka, Anna; Moczko, Jerzy A.; Lisowska, Aleksandra; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2017-01-01

    The etiology of altered blood fatty acid (FA) composition in cystic fibrosis (CF) is understood only partially. We aimed to investigate the determinants of serum glycerophospholipids’ FAs in CF with regard to the highest number of FAs and in the largest cohort to date. The study comprised 172 CF patients and 30 healthy subjects (HS). We assessed Fas’ profile (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry), CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) genotype, spirometry, fecal elastase-1, body height and weight Z-scores, liver disease, diabetes and colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The amounts of saturated FAs (C14:0, C16:0) and monounsaturated FAs (C16:1n-7, C18:1n-9, C20:1n-9, C20:3n-9) were significantly higher in CF patients than in HS. C18:3n-6, C20:3n-6 and C22:4n-6 levels were also higher in CF, but C18:2n-6, C20:2n-6 and C20:4n-6, as well as C22:6n-3, were lower. In a multiple regression analysis, levels of seven FAs were predicted by various sets of factors that included age, genotype, forced expiratory volume in one second, pancreatic status and diabetes. FA composition abnormalities are highly prevalent in CF patients. They seem to be caused by both metabolic disturbances and independent clinical risk factors. Further research into the influence of CFTR mutations on fat metabolism and desaturases’ activity is warranted. PMID:28106773

  12. Determinants of Serum Glycerophospholipid Fatty Acids in Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomira Drzymała-Czyż

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of altered blood fatty acid (FA composition in cystic fibrosis (CF is understood only partially. We aimed to investigate the determinants of serum glycerophospholipids’ FAs in CF with regard to the highest number of FAs and in the largest cohort to date. The study comprised 172 CF patients and 30 healthy subjects (HS. We assessed Fas’ profile (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR genotype, spirometry, fecal elastase-1, body height and weight Z-scores, liver disease, diabetes and colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The amounts of saturated FAs (C14:0, C16:0 and monounsaturated FAs (C16:1n-7, C18:1n-9, C20:1n-9, C20:3n-9 were significantly higher in CF patients than in HS. C18:3n-6, C20:3n-6 and C22:4n-6 levels were also higher in CF, but C18:2n-6, C20:2n-6 and C20:4n-6, as well as C22:6n-3, were lower. In a multiple regression analysis, levels of seven FAs were predicted by various sets of factors that included age, genotype, forced expiratory volume in one second, pancreatic status and diabetes. FA composition abnormalities are highly prevalent in CF patients. They seem to be caused by both metabolic disturbances and independent clinical risk factors. Further research into the influence of CFTR mutations on fat metabolism and desaturases’ activity is warranted.

  13. Effects of n–3 Supplementation on Plasma and Liver Phospholipid Fatty Acids Profile in Aged Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The effects of fish oil supplementation in Wistar rats are focused on cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic and antioxidant status changes. We determined plasma and liver phospholipid fatty acids (FAs) status and plasma lipid concentrations in aged Wistar rats. Our results showed differences in plasma and liver FAs profiles as well as plasma chlolesterol (CHOL), triglicerides (TG), high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), CHOL/HDL ratio (risk factor for ...

  14. Genome-wide changes accompanying knockdown of fatty acid synthase in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jeffrey W

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS is up-regulated in a wide variety of cancers, and is considered a potential metabolic oncogene by virtue of its ability to enhance tumor cell survival. Inhibition of tumor FAS causes both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, indicating FAS is a promising target for cancer treatment. Results Here, we used gene expression profiling to conduct a global study of the cellular processes affected by siRNA mediated knockdown of FAS in MDA-MB-435 mammary carcinoma cells. The study identified 169 up-regulated genes (≥ 1.5 fold and 110 down-regulated genes (≤ 0.67 fold in response to knockdown of FAS. These genes regulate several aspects of tumor function, including metabolism, cell survival/proliferation, DNA replication/transcription, and protein degradation. Quantitative pathway analysis using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis software further revealed that the most pronounced effect of FAS knockdown was down-regulation in pathways that regulate lipid metabolism, glycolysis, the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. These changes were coupled with up-regulation in genes involved in cell cycle arrest and death receptor mediated apoptotic pathways. Conclusion Together these findings reveal a wide network of pathways that are influenced in response to FAS knockdown and provide new insight into the role of this enzyme in tumor cell survival and proliferation.

  15. Inhibition of fatty acid synthase by amentoflavone reduces coxsackievirus B3 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsky, Steffi; Sobotta, Katharina; Wiesener, Nadine; Pilas, Johanna; Althof, Nadine; Munder, Thomas; Wutzler, Peter; Henke, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is a human pathogen that causes acute and chronic infections, but an antiviral drug to treat these diseases has not yet been developed for clinical use. Several intracellular pathways are altered to assist viral transcription, RNA replication, and progeny release. Among these, fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression is increased. In order to test the potential of FAS inhibition as an anti-CVB3 strategy, several experiments were performed, including studies on the correlation of CVB3 replication and FAS expression in human Raji cells and an analysis of the time and dose dependence of the antiviral effect of FAS inhibition due to treatment with amentoflavone. The results demonstrate that CVB3 infection induces an up-regulation of FAS expression already at 1 h postinfection (p.i.). Incubation with increasing concentrations of amentoflavone inhibited CVB3 replication significantly up to 8 h p.i. In addition, suppression of p38 MAP kinase activity by treatment with SB239063 decreased FAS expression as well as viral replication. These data provide evidence that FAS inhibition via amentoflavone administration might present a target for anti-CVB3 therapy.

  16. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid oxidation disorders are tested for in newborn screening? The March of Dimes recommends that all babies ... in behavior Diarrhea, nausea (feeling sick to your stomach) and throwing up Drowsiness Fever Fussiness Little appetite ...

  17. Fatty Acid and Proximate Composition of Bee Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer Kaplan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Palynological spectrum, proximate and fatty acid (FA composition of eight bee bread samples of different botanical origins were examined and significant variations were observed. The samples were all identified as monofloral, namely Castanea sativa (94.4 %, Trifolium spp. (85.6 %, Gossypium hirsutum (66.2 %, Citrus spp. (61.4 % and Helianthus annuus (45.4 %. Each had moisture content between 11.4 and 15.9 %, ash between 1.9 and 2.54 %, fat between 5.9 and 11.5 %, and protein between 14.8 and 24.3 %. A total of 37 FAs were determined with most abundant being (9Z,12Z,15Z-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic, (9Z,12Z-octadeca-9,12-dienoic, hexadecanoic, (Z-octadec-9-enoic, (Z-icos-11-enoic and octadecanoic acids. Among all, cotton bee bread contained the highest level of ω-3 FAs, i.e. 41.3 %. Unsaturated to saturated FA ratio ranged between 1.38 and 2.39, indicating that the bee bread can be a good source of unsaturated FAs.

  18. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runguphan, Weerawat; Keasling, Jay D

    2014-01-01

    As the serious effects of global climate change become apparent and access to fossil fuels becomes more limited, metabolic engineers and synthetic biologists are looking towards greener sources for transportation fuels. In recent years, microbial production of high-energy fuels by economically efficient bioprocesses has emerged as an attractive alternative to the traditional production of transportation fuels. Here, we engineered the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals from simple sugars. Specifically, we overexpressed all three fatty acid biosynthesis genes, namely acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1), fatty acid synthase 1 (FAS1) and fatty acid synthase 2 (FAS2), in S. cerevisiae. When coupled to triacylglycerol (TAG) production, the engineered strain accumulated lipid to more than 17% of its dry cell weight, a four-fold improvement over the control strain. Understanding that TAG cannot be used directly as fuels, we also engineered S. cerevisiae to produce drop-in fuels and chemicals. Altering the terminal "converting enzyme" in the engineered strain led to the production of free fatty acids at a titer of approximately 400 mg/L, fatty alcohols at approximately 100mg/L and fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel) at approximately 5 mg/L directly from simple sugars. We envision that our approach will provide a scalable, controllable and economic route to this important class of chemicals.

  19. Maastricht essential fatty acid birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wurff, Inge; De Groot, Renate; Stratakis, Nikos; Gielen, Marij; Hornstra, Gerard; Zeegers, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    The Maastricht Essential Fatty Acid Birth cohort (MEFAB) was established in 1989 to study the changes in fatty acid concentration during pregnancy and how this related to the fatty acid concentrations of the neonate. The original sample contains data of 1203 subjects. Some participants whom particip

  20. Fatty acid composition of soybean/sunflower mix oil, fish oil and butterfat applying the AOCS Ce 1j-07 method with a modified temperature program

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, L.; Alfaro, T.; Camilo, C; Carvalho, A.; Illesca, P.; Torres, R.; Tavares do Carmo, M.; J. Mancini-Filho; Bernal, C.

    2015-01-01

    Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC) methods such as AOAC Fat in foods 966.06 (2005), AOCS Official Methods Ce 1h-05 (2005), Ce 1j-07 (2007), allow for analyzing the fatty acids (FAs) in dietary fats using highly polar liquid phase capillary columns. However, there are still difficulties in completely separating butiric acid from solvent, FA critical pairs with similar polarity, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers, and long chainpolyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs). Therefore, the selection of the te...

  1. The fatty acid transport protein Fat1p is involved in the export of fatty acids from lipid bodies in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulermo, Rémi; Gamboa-Meléndez, Heber; Dulermo, Thierry; Thevenieau, France; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2014-09-01

    In order to live, cells need to import different molecules, such as sugars, amino acids or lipids, using transporters. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ScFAT1 gene encodes the long-chain fatty acid transporter; however, the transport of fatty acids (FAs) in the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica has not yet been studied. In contrast to what has previously been found for ΔScfat1 strains, ΔYlfat1 yeast was still able to grow on substrates containing short-, medium- or long-chain FAs. We observed a notable difference in cell lipid content between wild-type (WT) and deletion mutant strains after 24 h of culture in minimal oleate medium: in the WT strain, lipids represented 24% of cell dry weight (CDW), while they accounted for 37% of CDW in the ΔYlfat1 strain. This result indicates that YlFat1p is not involved in cell lipid uptake. Moreover, we also observed that fatty acid remobilisation was decreased in the ΔYlfat1 strain and that fluorescence-tagged YlFat1p proteins localised to the interfaces between lipid bodies, which suggests that YlFat1p may play a role in the export of FAs from lipid bodies.

  2. Fatty acids determination in Bronte pistachios by gas chromatographic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantano, Licia; Lo Cascio, Giovanni; Alongi, Angelina; Cammilleri, Gaetano; Vella, Antonio; Macaluso, Andrea; Cicero, Nicola; Migliazzo, Aldo; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2016-10-01

    A gas chromatographic with flame ionization detector (GC-MS FID) method for the identification and quantification of fatty acids based on the extraction of lipids and derivatisation of free acids to form methyl esters was developed and validated. The proposed method was evaluated to a number of standard FAs, and Bronte pistachios samples were used for that purpose and to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method. In this regard, repeatability, mean and standard deviation of the analytical procedure were calculated. The results obtained have demonstrated oleic acid as the main component of Bronte pistachios (72.2%) followed by linoleic acid (13.4%) and showed some differences in composition with respect to Tunisian, Turkish and Iranian pistachios.

  3. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ameer Y; Burnham, W McIntyre; Auvin, Stéphane

    2010-08-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are dietary fatty acids that are involved in a myriad of physiologic processes in the brain. There is some evidence suggesting that PUFAs-and particularly omega-3 PUFAs-may have anticonvulsant effects, both in humans and in animals. In the present review, we assess the evidence related to the antiseizure properties of the n-3 PUFAs, discuss their possible mechanism(s) of action, and make recommendations for future clinical trials. In general, the available data from cell cultures and whole animal studies support the idea that the n-3 PUFAs have antiseizure properties. Future clinical trials involving the n-3 PUFAs should involve higher doses and longer periods of administration in order to definitively assess their possible antiseizure effects.

  4. Role of fatty acids in Bacillus environmental adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Esther Diomande

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The large bacterial genus genus Bacillus is widely distributed in the environment and is able to colonize highly diverse niches. Some Bacillus species harbour pathogenic characteristics. The fatty acid (FA composition is among the essential criteria used to define Bacillus species. Some elements of the FA pattern composition are common to Bacillus species, whereas others are specific and can be categorized in relation to the ecological niches of the species. Bacillus species are able to modify their FA patterns to adapt to a wide range of environmental changes, including changes in the growth medium, temperature, food processing conditions, and pH. Like many other Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus strains display a well-defined FA synthesis II system that is equilibrated with a FA degradation pathway and regulated to efficiently respond to the needs of the cell. Like endogenous FAs, exogenous FAs may positively or negatively affect the survival of Bacillus vegetative cells and the spore germination ability in a given environment. Some of these exogenous FAs may provide a powerful strategy for preserving food against contamination by the Bacillus pathogenic strains responsible for foodborne illness.

  5. Fatty acid profiles from the plasma membrane and detergent resistant membranes of two plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Salazar, Laura; El Hafidi, Mohammed; Gutiérrez-Nájera, Nora; Noyola-Martínez, Liliana; González-Solís, Ariadna; Gavilanes-Ruíz, Marina

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to establish the composition of the plant plasma membrane in order to understand its organization and behavior under continually changing environments. Knowledge of the lipid phase, in particular the fatty acid (FA) complex repertoire, is important since FAs determine many of the physical-chemical membrane properties. FAs are constituents of the membrane glycerolipid and sphingolipid backbones and can also be linked to some sterols. In addition, FAs are components of complex lipids that can constitute membrane micro-domains, and the use of detergent-resistant membranes is a common approach to study their composition. The diversity and cellular allocation of the membrane lipids containing FAs are very diverse and the approaches to analyze them provide only general information. In this work, a detailed FA analysis was performed using highly purified plasma membranes from bean leaves and germinating maize embryos and their respective detergent-resistant membrane preparations. The analyses showed the presence of a significant amount of very long chain FAs (containing 28C, 30C and 32C), in both plasma membrane preparations from bean and maize, that have not been previously reported. Herein is demonstrated that a significant enrichment of very long chain saturated FAs and saturated FAs can occur in detergent-resistant membrane preparations, as compared to the plasma membranes from both plant species. Considering that a thorough analysis of FAs is rarely performed in purified plasma membranes and detergent-resistant membranes, this work provides qualitative and quantitative evidence on the contributions of the length and saturation of FAs to the organization of the plant plasma membrane and detergent-resistant membranes.

  6. Molten fatty acid based microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirjean, Cecile; Testard, Fabienne; Dejugnat, Christophe; Jestin, Jacques; Carriere, David

    2016-06-21

    We show that ternary mixtures of water (polar phase), myristic acid (MA, apolar phase) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, cationic surfactant) studied above the melting point of myristic acid allow the preparation of microemulsions without adding a salt or a co-surfactant. The combination of SANS, SAXS/WAXS, DSC, and phase diagram determination allows a complete characterization of the structures and interactions between components in the molten fatty acid based microemulsions. For the different structures characterized (microemulsion, lamellar or hexagonal phases), a similar thermal behaviour is observed for all ternary MA/CTAB/water monophasic samples and for binary MA/CTAB mixtures without water: crystalline myristic acid melts at 52 °C, and a thermal transition at 70 °C is assigned to the breaking of hydrogen bounds inside the mixed myristic acid/CTAB complex (being the surfactant film in the ternary system). Water determines the film curvature, hence the structures observed at high temperature, but does not influence the thermal behaviour of the ternary system. Myristic acid is partitioned in two "species" that behave independently: pure myristic acid and myristic acid associated with CTAB to form an equimolar complex that plays the role of the surfactant film. We therefore show that myristic acid plays the role of a solvent (oil) and a co-surfactant allowing the fine tuning of the structure of oil and water mixtures. This solvosurfactant behaviour of long chain fatty acid opens the way for new formulations with a complex structure without the addition of any extra compound.

  7. Separation and Identification of Fatty Acid in the Seed Oils of Two New Species of Celosia Cristata L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Debao; WANG Haifeng

    2002-01-01

    The seed oils of two new species of Celosia cristata L., C. Argentea L. Var. Crispa Kuntze (Yellow flower) and C. Cristata L. Cv. Spicata ( Red flower), were extracted with organic solvent and the fatty acides (Fas) in seed oils were separated and identificated by gas chromatography (GC). They all contained 10 kinds of FA including 4 trace Fas, respectively. Two new Fas of odd number of carbons in the seed oils, pentadecanoic acid( C15:0) and heptadecenoic acid (C17:1 ), were found. The compositions of main Fas in the seed oils were palmitic 20.61%, 23.50%; stearic 1.87 %; 2.39 %; oleic 20.77 %, 19.93% ;linoleic 51.39%, 45.99%; linolenic 1.54%, 1.86% and arachidonic 3.20%, 3.42%, respectively.

  8. Distinct roles of specific fatty acids in cellular processes: implications for interpreting and reporting experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, Matthew J.; Hoy, Andrew J.; Muoio, Deborah M.; Coleman, Rosalind A.

    2011-01-01

    Plasma contains a variety of long-chain fatty acids (FAs), such that about 35% are saturated and 65% are unsaturated. There are countless examples that show how different FAs impart specific and unique effects, or even opposing actions, on cellular function. Despite these differing effects, palmitate (C16:0) is regularly used to represent “FAs” in cell based experiments. Although palmitate can be useful to induce and study stress effects in cultured cells, these effects in isolation are not p...

  9. Associations between omega fatty acid consumption and depressive symptoms among individuals seeking behavioural weight loss treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Luke, Anna K.; Evans, E. Whitney; Bond, Dale S; Thomas, J. Graham

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective The typical Western diet is deficient in omega‐3 and high in omega‐6 fatty acids (FAs). These FAs may play a role in depressive symptoms via inflammatory processes, especially in the context of obesity, a pro‐inflammatory state. This study investigated associations between omega‐3 and omega‐6 FA intake and depressive symptoms in adults seeking behavioural weight loss treatment (BWLT). Methods One hundred eighty‐eight persons with overweight or obesity (83.50% women, 93.10% W...

  10. IMPACT OF LACTATION STAGE ON MILK FAT FATTY ACIDS PROFILE IN GRAZING DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Kirchnerová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to extend the knowledge about correlation of current fatty acids (FAs profile of cow milk fat at herds of cows (n=134 at summer pasture period in mountain dairy farms in Slovakia to milk production and quality parameters. The FAs composition of individual milk was determined by GC-MS, where 54 FAs were identified. Saturated fatty acids (SAFA (70.48 ± 4.04% in the milk fat show in the first third of lactation highly significant positive correlation coefficients (r> 0.45, P <0.01 with all indicators of milk production (days, the total amount of milk fat and protein in kg. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA (26.26 ± 3.59% have to the total milk production significant indirect relationship. Their content decreases with the rise of the total amount (kg of produced fat (r=-0.426, protein (r=-0.494, milk (r=-0.514, and with the increasing number of days of lactation (r=-0.583, P <0.001. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA (3.26 ± 0.069% show negative correlation coefficients to total amount of produced milk, fat, protein (kg and the number of days in lactation from r=-0.468 to r=-0.485 (P <0.01. Grazing of dairy cows at mountain farms has a better value of the composition of milk fat from a health perspective, but at the account of lower production.

  11. Fatty acid composition of selected prosthecate bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, R N; Schmidt, J M

    1976-10-11

    The cellular fatty acid composition of 14 strains of Caulobacter speices and types, two species of Prosthecomicrobium, and two species of Asticcacaulis was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. In most of these bacteria, the major fatty acids were octadecenoic acid (C18:1), hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) and hexadecanoic acid (C16:0). Some cyclopropane and branched chain fatty acids were detected in addition to the straight chained acids. Hydroxytetradecanoic acid was an important component of P.enhydrum but significant amounts of hydroxy acids were not detected in other prosthecate bacteria examined.

  12. Aspirin increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E; Bharathi, Sivakama S; Zhang, Yuxun; Stolz, Donna B; Goetzman, Eric S

    2017-01-08

    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse the mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 h incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Arachidonic acid induces Fas and FasL upregulation in human leukemia U937 cells via Ca2+/ROS-mediated suppression of ERK/c-Fos pathway and activation of p38 MAPK/ATF-2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Hsin; Chang, Long-Sen

    2009-12-15

    Arachidonic acid (AA)-induced apoptotic death of human leukemia U937 cells was characteristic of increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), ROS generation, ERK inactivation, p38 MPAK activation, degradation of procaspase-8 and production of truncated Bid (tBid). Moreover, AA treatment upregulated Fas/FasL protein expression and transcription of Fas/FasL mRNA. Downregulation of FADD blocked AA-induced procaspase-8 degradation and rescued viability of AA-treated cells. BAPTA-AM (Ca(2+) chelator) pretreatment abolished AA-induced ROS generation, while N-acetylcysteine (NAC, ROS scavenger) was unable to alter AA-elicited [Ca(2+)]i increase. Pretreatment with BAPTA-AM or NAC abrogated p38 MAPK activation and restored ERK activation. Suppression of p38 MAPK or transfection of constitutively active MEK1 abolished AA-induced Fas and FasL upregulation. AA treatment repressed ERK-mediated c-Fos phosphorylation but evoked p38 MAPK-mediated ATF-2 phosphorylation. Knockdown of c-Fos and ATF-2 by siRNA reflected that c-Fos counteracted the effect of ATF-2 on Fas/FasL upregulation. Taken together, our data indicate that Fas/FasL upregulation in AA-treated U937 cells is elicited by Ca(2+)/ROS-mediated suppression of ERK/c-Fos pathway and activation of p38 MAPK/ATF-2, and suggest that autocrine Fas-mediated apoptotoic mechanism is involved in AA-induced cell death.

  14. Inhibitor of fatty acid synthase induced apoptosis in human colonic cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Lin Huang; Zhen Sheng Dai; Yue Lin Jin; Shi Neng Zhu; Shi Lun Lu

    2000-01-01

    @@INTRODUCTION The treatment of human epithelial malignancies is limited by drug resistance and toxic and side effects,which results in the failure in the treatment of majority of advanced cancer victims. To seek for a new, and specific antineoplastic therapy will provide hope for tumor treatment. Although disordered intermediary metabolism in cancer cells has been known for many years, much of the work focused on abnormal glucose catabolism. At the same time, little attention has been paid to fatty acid synthasis in tumor tissues, dispite of the significance of fatty acid synthase (FAS) in some clinical human ovarian[1], breast[2], colorectal[3],and prostatic cancers[4,5]. Tumor cells which express high levels of fatty acid synthesizing enzymes use endogeneously synthesized fatty acids for membrance biosynthesis and appear to export large amounts of lipid. In contrast, normal cells preferentially utilize diary lipid.

  15. Electrogenicity of hepatocellular fatty acid uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsing, C; Kassner, A; Gajdzik, L; Graf, J; Stremmel, W

    1998-08-18

    Sensitivity of cellular fatty acids uptake to the membrane potential difference is still a matter of controversy. For direct evaluation of potential sensitivity the effect of changing membrane potential on uptake of a fluorescent long chain fatty acid derivative, 12-NBD-stearate, in isolated rat hepatocytes, was examined. Changes in membrane potential were achieved by patch clamp procedures. Fatty acid influx was simultaneously determined by recording of cell fluorescence. Hyperpolarization from -30 to -70 mV accelerated fatty acid influx whereas depolarization to +50 mV reduced uptake. After obtaining equilibrium hyperpolarization increased cell fluorescence, whereas depolarization pushed NBD-stearate out of cells. Potential sensitivity of uptake was dependent on the fatty acid concentrations in the medium with most prominent effects at low unbound concentrations. These data show that, at low fatty acid concentrations, uptake is, in part, driven by an intracellular negative electric membrane potential.

  16. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Octopus vulgaris: Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterisation of a Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase and an Elongation of Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid 4 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Óscar; de Llanos, Rosa; Varó, Inmaculada; Hontoria, Francisco; Tocher, Douglas R; Puig, Sergi; Navarro, Juan C

    2017-03-21

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been acknowledged as essential nutrients for cephalopods but the specific PUFAs that satisfy the physiological requirements are unknown. To expand our previous investigations on characterisation of desaturases and elongases involved in the biosynthesis of PUFAs and hence determine the dietary PUFA requirements in cephalopods, this study aimed to investigate the roles that a stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd) and an elongation of very long-chain fatty acid 4 (Elovl4) protein play in the biosynthesis of essential fatty acids (FAs). Our results confirmed the Octopus vulgaris Scd is a ∆9 desaturase with relatively high affinity towards saturated FAs with ≥ C18 chain lengths. Scd was unable to desaturate 20:1n-15 ((∆5)20:1) suggesting that its role in the biosynthesis of non-methylene interrupted FAs (NMI FAs) is limited to the introduction of the first unsaturation at ∆9 position. Interestingly, the previously characterised ∆5 fatty acyl desaturase was indeed able to convert 20:1n-9 ((∆11)20:1) to (∆5,11)20:2, an NMI FA previously detected in octopus nephridium. Additionally, Elovl4 was able to mediate the production of 24:5n-3 and thus can contribute to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthesis through the Sprecher pathway. Moreover, the octopus Elovl4 was confirmed to play a key role in the biosynthesis of very long-chain (>C24) PUFAs.

  17. Fatty acid content of selected seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay; Sener, Bilge

    2002-01-01

    Fatty acid content of selected seed oils from world-wide edible fruits, Ceratonia ciliqua (carob) from Caesalpiniaceae family, Diospyros kaki (persimmon) from Ebenaceae family, Zizyphus jujuba (jujube) from Rhamnaceae family, and Persea gratissima (avocado pear) from Lauraceae family, were determined by capillary gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to find new natural sources for essential fatty acids. Among the seed oils analyzed, Ceratonia ciliqua has been found to have the highest essential fatty acid content.

  18. Fatty Acids in Veterinary Medicine and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rutland, Catrin S.; Mostyn, Alison; Simpson, Siobhan

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acid regulation is an essential process for all animals. A number of studies have shown that diet affects the levels/availability of fatty acids in the body but increasingly evidence shows that disease states can alter the amounts within the body too. Fatty acid levels and availability have been altered by a number of diseases, disorders and reactions including inflammatory responses, heart disease and heart failure and wound repair. They are also essential during the growth and develop...

  19. Cholesterol Interactions with Fatty Acids and DMPC Phospholipids of Liver Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Shukla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol and fatty acidsis important subject in liver to different model of regulation for realizing the evolution of vertebrates. The major solubility of cholesterol in bilayers of glycerol-phospholipids is between 65 and 50 mole%,relevant on the bilayerof lipid membrane but they cannot alone form multi layered structures. Livers from the transgenic rat showed increases in mRNAs encoding various enzymes of cholesterol synthesis, the LDL’s receptor and fatty acid synthesis. Based on our previous works we have modeled and simulated various molecules of that Cholesterol in binding to membrane. A number of computational chemistry studies carried out to understand of the cholesterol parallel to fatty acid synthesis (FAS for preventing the fatty liver disease.In this work ELF, LOL, ECP, electrical properties such as electron densities, energy densities, and potential energy densities, eta index forsome of the fatty acidshave been calculated.

  20. Fatty acid biosynthesis is involved in the production of hepatitis B virus particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Hitomi [Laboratory of Human Tumor Viruses, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaharacho, Shogoin, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoecho, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Nio, Yasunori, E-mail: yasunori.nio@takeda.com [Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Pharmaceutical Research Division, 26-1, Muraoka-Higashi 2-Chome, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 251-8555 (Japan); Akahori, Yuichi [Laboratory of Human Tumor Viruses, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaharacho, Shogoin, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoecho, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kim, Sulyi [Laboratory of Human Tumor Viruses, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaharacho, Shogoin, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Watashi, Koichi [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo 162-8640 (Japan); Department of Applied Biological Science, Tokyo University of Sciences, Noda 278-8510 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Wakita, Takaji [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo 162-8640 (Japan); Hijikata, Makoto, E-mail: mhijikat@virus.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Human Tumor Viruses, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaharacho, Shogoin, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoecho, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2016-06-17

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) proliferates in hepatocytes after infection, but the host factors that contribute to the HBV lifecycle are poorly understood at the molecular level. We investigated whether fatty acid biosynthesis (FABS), which was recently reported to contribute to the genomic replication of hepatitis C virus, plays a role in HBV proliferation. We examined the effects of inhibitors of the enzymes in the FABS pathway on the HBV lifecycle by using recombinant HBV-producing cultured cells and found that the extracellular HBV DNA level, reflecting HBV particle production, was decreased by treatment with inhibitors suppressed the synthesis of long-chain saturated fatty acids with little cytotoxicity. The reduced HBV DNA level was reversed when palmitic acid, which is the product of fatty acid synthase (FAS) during FABS, was used simultaneously with the inhibitor. We also observed that the amount of intracellular HBV DNA in the cells was increased by FAS inhibitor treatment, suggesting that FABS is associated with HBV particle production but not its genome replication. This suggests that FABS might be a potent target for anti-HBV drug with a mode of action different from current HBV therapy. -- Highlights: •Inhibitors of ACC1 and FAS but not SCD1 decreased production of extracellular HBV DNA. •Products of FABS, long chain fatty acids, increased production of extracellular HBV DNA. •FAS inhibitor increased intracellular levels of HBV DNA and HBcAg. •FABS was suggested to contribute to HBV particle production without significant relation with secretory pathway of the cells.

  1. Veal fatty acid composition of different breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Kos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Veal fatty acid composition in M. Longissimus thoracis was investigated in different calf breeds (Simmental, Holstein, Simmental x Holstein. Calves were reared on the same farm under identical feeding and handling conditions. Simmental calves had higher polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA but lower saturated fatty acid (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA values than Holstein and crossbreed calves (P<0,05. The PUFA/SFA ratio was the highest in Simmental calves and the lowest in Holstein calves. Simmental calves also had the highest n-6/n-3 ratio while the crossbreed calves had the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio.

  2. Albumin-bound fatty acids induce mitochondrial oxidant stress and impair antioxidant responses in proximal tubular cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishola, D. A.; Post, J. A.; van Timmeren, M. M.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Goldschmeding, R.; Koomans, H. A.; Braam, B.; Joles, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Albumin induces oxidative stress and cytokine production in proximal tubular cells (PTECs). Albumin-bound fatty acids (FAs) enhance tubulopathic effects of albumin in vivo. We proposed that FA aggravation of albumin-induced oxidative stress in PTECs might be involved. We hypothesized that mitochondr

  3. Albumin-bound fatty acids induce mitochondrial oxidant stress and impair antioxidant responses in proximal tubular cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishola, D. A.; Post, J. A.; van Timmeren, M. M.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Goldschmeding, R.; Koomans, H. A.; Braam, B.; Joles, J. A.

    Albumin induces oxidative stress and cytokine production in proximal tubular cells (PTECs). Albumin-bound fatty acids (FAs) enhance tubulopathic effects of albumin in vivo. We proposed that FA aggravation of albumin-induced oxidative stress in PTECs might be involved. We hypothesized that

  4. Trophic specialisation of metazoan meiofauna at the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano: fatty acid biomarker isotope evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gaever, S.; Moodley, L.; Pasotti, F.; Houtekamer, M.J.; Middelburg, J.J.; Danovaro, R.; Vanreusel, A.

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of a detailed investigation on the trophoecology of two dominant meiofaunal species at the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV), a deep-sea cold methane-venting seep. Analyses of fatty acids (FAs) and their stable carbon isotopes were used to determine the importance of chemosyntheti

  5. Odd-numbered very-long-chain fatty acids from the microbial, animal and plant kingdoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezanka, Tomás; Sigler, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Very long chain fatty acids (FAs) are important components of different classes of lipids in all organisms from bacteria to man. They include also, usually as minor components, odd-numbered FAs. These have so far been given little attention because of technical difficulties inherent in their detection and identification. Current modern analytical methods such as GC-MS and/or LC-MS make this detection and identification possible, and should promote a study of their properties. This review brings, in a concise manner, most of the currently available information about these FAs, their occurrence in different organisms, their structure and other properties. It should provide an impetus for further research into these very interesting compounds whose chemical, biochemical and biological properties are poorly known.

  6. Identification of novel genetic determinants of erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition among Greenlanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette Korre; Jørsboe, Emil; Sandholt, Camilla Helene

    2016-01-01

    .181), p = 2.8x10-4). In conclusion, we have identified novel genetic determinants of FA composition in phospholipids in erythrocyte membranes, and have shown examples of links between genetic variants associated with altered FA membrane levels and changes in metabolic traits.......Fatty acids (FAs) are involved in cellular processes important for normal body function, and perturbation of FA balance has been linked to metabolic disturbances, including type 2 diabetes. An individual's level of FAs is affected by diet, lifestyle, and genetic variation. We aimed to improve...... the understanding of the mechanisms and pathways involved in regulation of FA tissue levels, by identifying genetic loci associated with inter-individual differences in erythrocyte membrane FA levels. We assessed the levels of 22 FAs in the phospholipid fraction of erythrocyte membranes from 2,626 Greenlanders...

  7. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Orsavova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs of fourteen vegetable oils—safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil—were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC. Saturated (SFA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%–20.0%, oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%–71.1% and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%–79%, respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%–695.7% ERDI, PUFAs (10.6%–786.8% ERDI, n-3 FAs (4.4%–117.1% ERDI and n-6 FAs (1.8%–959.2% ERDI, expressed in % ERDI of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (ERDI for total fat (ERDI—37.7 kJ/g. The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% ERDI for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD and cardiovascular diseases (CVD in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman’s correlations.

  8. Study of Thiosemicarbazone Derivative of Essential Fatty Acid

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Essential fatty acids results in numerous health benefits. Only two fatty acids are known to be essential for human alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid).The importance of omega-3 fatty acids for physical well-being has been recognised for several decades . Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antiarrhythmic and hypolipidaemic effects. Cannabis sativa (Hemp) is an angiosperm belonging to the cannabaceae family and cannabi...

  9. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M; Erp van - Baart, M.A.; Anttolainen, M.; Becker, W.; Church, S.M.; Couet, C.; Hermann-Kunz, E.; Kesteloot, H.; Leth, T.; Martins, I.; Moreiras, O.; Moschandreas, J.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Rimestad, A.H.; Thorgeirsdottir, H.; Amelsvoort, J.M.M. van; Aro, A.; Kafatos, A.G.; Lanzmann-Petithory, D.; Poppel, G. van

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of fa

  10. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M; Erp van - Baart, M.A.; Anttolainen, M.; Becker, W.; Church, S.M.; Couet, C.; Hermann-Kunz, E.; Kesteloot, H.; Leth, T.; Martins, I.; Moreiras, O.; Moschandreas, J.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Rimestad, A.H.; Thorgeirsdottir, H.; Amelsvoort, J.M.M. van; Aro, A.; Kafatos, A.G.; Lanzmann-Petithory, D.; Poppel, G. van

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of

  11. Development of fatty acid biomarkers for the identification of wild and aquacultured sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhnyj, P. A.; Pivnenko, T. N.; Kovalev, N. N.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the fatty acids (FAs) of the organs and tissues of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were profiled in order to compare the FA composition of sea cucumber collected from natural habitat (wild) and cages (cultured). The differences in FA contents in dermomuscular tube, peripharyngeal annulus, gonad and intestine (with or without content) between the wild and the cultured were determined. The main fatty acids in all organs and tissues were 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7, 20:4n-6, 22:6n-3, 18:0, and 18:1n-7. The basically different FAs of body wall and digestive tube were 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-11. The ratio of saturated to mono- and polyunsaturated FAs in digestive tube was independent on inside content while there was a redistribution of the total amount of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. The comparison of FA composition of the wild and the cultured sea cucumber showed that 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7 and 18:1n-7 predominated the wild while 20:4n-6 predominated the cultured. The content of branched-chain fatty acids in the wild was 3%-4% and about 9% in the cultured. The possible FAs for identifying the wild and the cultured sea cucumbers were selected. It was suggested that the indexes such as the ratio of either (n-3:n-6) to (n-7:n-6) or (n-3) + (n-7) to (n-6) may serve as the biomarkers distinguishing the wild and the cultured sea cucumber.

  12. Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Javed Yakoob; Zaigham Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplementation with Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids (FAs) has been demonstrated to elicit several effects ranging from decrease in blood pressure, anti-arrhythmic effect and decrease in inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease, asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic disorder characterized by abdominal pain and irregular bowel habit. It is associated with visceral hypersensitivity, increased mucosal permeability and a low-grade mucosal inf...

  13. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of very long chain fatty acid-derived chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Zhou, Yongjin J.; Wenning, Leonie

    2017-01-01

    Production of chemicals and biofuels through microbial fermentation is an economical and sustainable alternative for traditional chemical synthesis. Here we present the construction of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae platform strain for high-level production of very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA......)-derived chemicals. Through rewiring the native fatty acid elongation system and implementing a heterologous Mycobacteria FAS I system, we establish an increased biosynthesis of VLCFAs in S. cerevisiae. VLCFAs can be selectively modified towards the fatty alcohol docosanol (C22H46O) by expressing a specific fatty...... acid reductase. Expression of this enzyme is shown to impair cell growth due to consumption of VLCFA-CoAs. We therefore implement a dynamic control strategy for separating cell growth from docosanol production. We successfully establish high-level and selective docosanol production of 83.5 mg l-1 in...

  14. Type II fatty acid biosynthesis is essential for Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite development in the midgut of Anopheles mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaijk, Ben C L; Kumar, T R Santha; Vos, Martijn W; Richman, Adam; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Li, Tao; Eappen, Abraham G; Williamson, Kim C; Morahan, Belinda J; Fishbaugher, Matt; Kennedy, Mark; Camargo, Nelly; Khan, Shahid M; Janse, Chris J; Sim, Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kappe, Stefan H I; Sauerwein, Robert W; Fidock, David A; Vaughan, Ashley M

    2014-05-01

    The prodigious rate at which malaria parasites proliferate during asexual blood-stage replication, midgut sporozoite production, and intrahepatic development creates a substantial requirement for essential nutrients, including fatty acids that likely are necessary for parasite membrane formation. Plasmodium parasites obtain fatty acids either by scavenging from the vertebrate host and mosquito vector or by producing fatty acids de novo via the type two fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (FAS-II). Here, we study the FAS-II pathway in Plasmodium falciparum, the species responsible for the most lethal form of human malaria. Using antibodies, we find that the FAS-II enzyme FabI is expressed in mosquito midgut oocysts and sporozoites as well as liver-stage parasites but not during the blood stages. As expected, FabI colocalizes with the apicoplast-targeted acyl carrier protein, indicating that FabI functions in the apicoplast. We further analyze the FAS-II pathway in Plasmodium falciparum by assessing the functional consequences of deleting fabI and fabB/F. Targeted deletion or disruption of these genes in P. falciparum did not affect asexual blood-stage replication or the generation of midgut oocysts; however, subsequent sporozoite development was abolished. We conclude that the P. falciparum FAS-II pathway is essential for sporozoite development within the midgut oocyst. These findings reveal an important distinction from the rodent Plasmodium parasites P. berghei and P. yoelii, where the FAS-II pathway is known to be required for normal parasite progression through the liver stage but is not required for oocyst development in the Anopheles mosquito midgut.

  15. Influence of fenofibrate treatment on triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides and fatty acids in fructose fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Thomas; Schaefer, Hans-Ludwig; Troetzmueller, Martin; Koefeler, Harald; Broenstrup, Mark; Konovalova, Tatiana; Schmitz, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Fenofibrate (FF) lowers plasma triglycerides via PPARα activation. Here, we analyzed lipidomic changes upon FF treatment of fructose fed rats. Three groups with 6 animals each were defined as control, fructose-fed and fructose-fed/FF treated. Male Wistar Unilever Rats were subjected to 10% fructose-feeding for 20 days. On day 14, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg p.o.) was initiated and maintained for 7 days. Lipid species in serum were analyzed using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS; LC-FT-MS, GC-MS) on days 0, 14 and 20 in all three groups. In addition, lipid levels in liver and intestine were determined. Short-chain TAGs increased in serum and liver upon fructose-feeding, while almost all TAG-species decreased under FF treatment. Long-chain unsaturated DAG-levels (36:1, 36:2, 36:4, 38:3, 38:4, 38:5) increased upon FF treatment in rat liver and decreased in rat serum. FAs, especially short-chain FAs (12:0, 14:0, 16:0) increased during fructose-challenge. VLDL secretion increased upon fructose-feeding and together with FA-levels decreased to control levels during FF treatment. Fructose challenge of de novo fatty acid synthesis through fatty acid synthase (FAS) may enhance the release of FAs ≤ 16:0 chain length, a process reversed by FF-mediated PPARα-activation.

  16. Influence of fenofibrate treatment on triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides and fatty acids in fructose fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kopf

    Full Text Available Fenofibrate (FF lowers plasma triglycerides via PPARα activation. Here, we analyzed lipidomic changes upon FF treatment of fructose fed rats. Three groups with 6 animals each were defined as control, fructose-fed and fructose-fed/FF treated. Male Wistar Unilever Rats were subjected to 10% fructose-feeding for 20 days. On day 14, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg p.o. was initiated and maintained for 7 days. Lipid species in serum were analyzed using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS; LC-FT-MS, GC-MS on days 0, 14 and 20 in all three groups. In addition, lipid levels in liver and intestine were determined. Short-chain TAGs increased in serum and liver upon fructose-feeding, while almost all TAG-species decreased under FF treatment. Long-chain unsaturated DAG-levels (36:1, 36:2, 36:4, 38:3, 38:4, 38:5 increased upon FF treatment in rat liver and decreased in rat serum. FAs, especially short-chain FAs (12:0, 14:0, 16:0 increased during fructose-challenge. VLDL secretion increased upon fructose-feeding and together with FA-levels decreased to control levels during FF treatment. Fructose challenge of de novo fatty acid synthesis through fatty acid synthase (FAS may enhance the release of FAs ≤ 16:0 chain length, a process reversed by FF-mediated PPARα-activation.

  17. Effect of fatty acids on leukocyte function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompéia C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids have various effects on immune and inflammatory responses, acting as intracellular and intercellular mediators. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs of the omega-3 family have overall suppressive effects, inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, antibody and cytokine production, adhesion molecule expression, natural killer cell activity and triggering cell death. The omega-6 PUFAs have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects. The most studied of these is arachidonic acid that can be oxidized to eicosanoids, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes, all of which are potent mediators of inflammation. Nevertheless, it has been found that many of the effects of PUFA on immune and inflammatory responses are not dependent on eicosanoid generation. Fatty acids have also been found to modulate phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production, cytokine production and leukocyte migration, also interfering with antigen presentation by macrophages. The importance of fatty acids in immune function has been corroborated by many clinical trials in which patients show improvement when submitted to fatty acid supplementation. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain fatty acid modulation of immune response, such as changes in membrane fluidity and signal transduction pathways, regulation of gene transcription, protein acylation, and calcium release. In this review, evidence is presented to support the proposition that changes in cell metabolism also play an important role in the effect of fatty acids on leukocyte functioning, as fatty acids regulate glucose and glutamine metabolism and mitochondrial depolarization.

  18. Lowered omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids and cholesteryl esters of depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, M; Christophe, A; Delanghe, J; Altamura, C; Neels, H; Meltzer, H Y

    1999-03-22

    Depression is associated with a lowered degree of esterification of serum cholesterol, an increased C20:4omega6/C20:5omega3 ratio and decreases in omega3 fractions in fatty acids (FAs) or in the red blood cell membrane. The aims of the present study were to examine: (i) serum phospholipid and cholesteryl ester compositions of individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) in major depressed patients vs. healthy volunteers; (ii) the relationships between the above FAs and lowered serum zinc (Zn), a marker of the inflammatory response in depression; and (iii) the effects of subchronic treatment with antidepressants on FAs in depression. The composition of the FAs was determined by means of thin layer chromatography in conjunction with gas chromatography. Lipid concentrations were assayed by enzymatic colorimetric methods. The oxidative potential index (OPI) of FAs was computed in 34 major depressed inpatients and 14 normal volunteers. Major depression was associated with: increased MUFA and C22:5omega3 proportions and increased C20:4omega6/C20:5omega3 and C22:5omega6/C22:6omega3 ratios; lower C22:4omega6, C20:5omega3 and C22:5omega3 fractions in phospholipids; lower C18:3omega3, C20:5omega3 and total (sigma)omega3 FAs, and higher C20:4omega6/C20:5omega3 and sigmaomega6/sigmaomega3 ratios in cholesteryl esters; lower serum concentrations of phospholipids and cholesteryl esters; and a decreased OPI. In depression, there were significant and positive correlations between serum Zn and C20:5omega3 and C22:6omega3 fractions in phospholipids; and significant inverse correlations between serum Zn and the sigmaomega6/sigmaomega3, C20:4omega6/C20:5omega3, and C22:5omega6/C22:6omega3 ratios in phospholipids. There was no significant effect of antidepressive treatment on any of the FAs. The results show that, in major depression, there is a deficiency of omega3 PUFAs and a compensatory increase in MUFAs and C22:5omega6 in

  19. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C. Calder

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.. Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component.

  20. Effect of breed on fatty acid composition and lipogenic enzyme abundance in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Duncan T; Chevillon, Patrick; Spencer-Phillips, Peter T N; Doran, Olena

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the role of lipogenic enzyme expression in breed-specific fat deposition in pigs. (i) determine effect of breed on the relative abundance of the key lipogenic enzymes stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), delta-6 desaturase (Δ6D), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in pig subcutaneous adipose tissue. (ii) Investigate breed-specific relationships between lipogenic enzyme abundance and fatty acid composition. Large White × Piétrain, Piétrain, and Duroc × Piétrain pigs were used. Expression of SCD, Δ6D, and FAS was analyzed by Western blotting. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. FAS protein in Large White × Piétrain pigs was similar to the Piétrain breed, but was significantly higher than Duroc × Piétrain. A positive relationship was found between FAS abundance and the saturated fatty acids (SFAs), for Large White × Piétrain pigs, but not for the other breeds. Δ6D was significantly higher in Large White × Piétrain compared with Duroc × Piétrain and Piétrain. This was accompanied by significantly higher total n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the Large White × Piétrain when compared to the other breeds. (i) increased subcutaneous adipose tissue SFA content in Large White × Piétrain pigs (but not Piétrain and Duroc × Piétrain) is related to increased abundance of FAS protein; (ii) high n-3 PUFA content in Large White × Piétrain pigs is related to activation of Δ6D protein synthesis; (iii) SCD and Δ6D abundance does not contribute to between-breed differences in MUFA and n-6 PUFA content of pig subcutaneous adipose tissue. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Fatty Acid Composition of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing.

    OpenAIRE

    Aktümsek, Abdurrahman; ÖZTÜRK, Celâleddin; KAŞIK, Giyasettin

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid compositions of fruit body, stem, lamellae and total of Agaricus bisporus were seperately analysed by GLC. In the all fatty acid compositions of A. bisporus, linoleic acid were predominant. Percentages of linoleic acid were varied between 53.45 - 68.78%. It was showed that the other major fatty acids were palmitic, oleic and stearic acid in the fatty acid compositions.

  2. Phylogenomic reconstruction of archaeal fatty acid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibrova, Daria V.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    2014-01-01

    While certain archaea appear to synthesize and/or metabolize fatty acids, the respective pathways still remain obscure. By analyzing the genomic distribution of the key lipid-related enzymes, we were able to identify the likely components of the archaeal pathway of fatty acid metabolism, namely, a combination of the enzymes of bacterial-type β-oxidation of fatty acids (acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) with paralogs of the archaeal acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase, an enzyme of the mevalonate biosynthesis pathway. These three β-oxidation enzymes working in the reverse direction could potentially catalyze biosynthesis of fatty acids, with paralogs of acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase performing addition of C2 fragments. The presence in archaea of the genes for energy-transducing membrane enzyme complexes, such as cytochrome bc complex, cytochrome c oxidase, and diverse rhodopsins, was found to correlate with the presence of the proposed system of fatty acid biosynthesis. We speculate that because these membrane complexes functionally depend on fatty acid chains, their genes could have been acquired via lateral gene transfer from bacteria only by those archaea that already possessed a system of fatty acid biosynthesis. The proposed pathway of archaeal fatty acid metabolism operates in extreme conditions and therefore might be of interest in the context of biofuel production and other industrial applications. PMID:24818264

  3. Polyunsaturated fatty acids for multiple sclerosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrat Kong-González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Fatty acids have an important role in structure and function of the nervous system. Recently, epidemiologic studies on neurodegenerative disorders have evaluated the usefulness of polyunsaturated fatty acids on multiple sclerosis. OBJECTIVE To examine recent studies, clinical trials, and reviews on the therapeutic effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids in multiple sclerosis. METHODS We conducted a search in MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane Library with the terms "fatty acids", "omega-3" and "omega-6" in combination with "multiple sclerosis". Articles were selected according to their relevance on the topic. RESULTS Epidemiologic studies have shown benefits of dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids -especially omega-3- in relation to inflammatory, autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorders. In contrast, the studies do not show a beneficial effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids in multiple sclerosis. However, there are limitations related to design and sample issues in these studies CONCLUSIONS There is some evidence of a protective effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the risk of multiple sclerosis. Despite this, to date controlled trials have not produced definite results on the benefits of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with multiple sclerosis. Any potential benefit will have to be confirmed in the long term.

  4. Fatty acids in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikunhi, Nabeel M; Narayanasamy, Rajendran; Kandasamy, Kathiresan

    2010-06-01

    Fatty acids have been successfully used to trace the transfer of organic matter in coastal and estuarine food webs. To delineate these web connections, fatty acid profiles were analyzed in species of microbes (Azotobacter vinelandii, and Lactobacillus xylosus), prawns (Metapenaeus monoceros and Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and finfish (Mugil cephalus), that are associated with decomposing leaves of two mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina. The fatty acids, except long chain fatty acids, exhibit changes during decomposition of mangrove leaves with a reduction of saturated fatty acids and an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids. The branched fatty acids are absent in undecomposed mangrove leaves, but present significantly in the decomposed leaves and in prawns and finfish, representing an important source for them. This revealed that the microbes are dominant producers that contribute significantly to the fishes and prawns in the mangrove ecosystem. This work has proved the fatty acid biomarkers as an effective tool for identifying the trophic interactions among dominant producers and consumers in this mangrove.

  5. Dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wadman, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids play a central role in all biological systems. They are constituents of the plasma membrane and serve as precursors to signaling molecules generated in response to external events. The conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids into signaling molecules starts by the hydrol

  6. Nickel inhibits mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W; Brant, Kelly A; Fabisiak, James P; Goetzman, Eric S

    2015-08-07

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation-the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy-in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with l-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 h), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis.

  7. Historical perspectives on fatty acid chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acids are basic renewable chemical building blocks that can be used as intermediates for a multitude of products. Today the global value of fatty acids exceeds 18 billion dollars and is expected to increase to nearly 26 billion over the period from 2014-2019. From it auspicious beginnings, the...

  8. Mechanisms of gene regulation by fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadi, A.; Kersten, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of specific dietary fatty acids has been shown to influence risk and progression of several chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, cancer, and arthritis. In recent years, insights into the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of fatty acids have improved consi

  9. Incorporation of extracellular fatty acids by a fatty acid kinase-dependent pathway in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Joshua B; Frank, Matthew W; Jackson, Pamela; Subramanian, Chitra; Rock, Charles O

    2014-04-01

    Acyl-CoA and acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthetases activate exogenous fatty acids for incorporation into phospholipids in Gram-negative bacteria. However, Gram-positive bacteria utilize an acyltransferase pathway for the biogenesis of phosphatidic acid that begins with the acylation of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate by PlsY using an acyl-phosphate (acyl-PO4 ) intermediate. PlsX generates acyl-PO4 from the acyl-ACP end-products of fatty acid synthesis. The plsX gene of Staphylococcus aureus was inactivated and the resulting strain was both a fatty acid auxotroph and required de novo fatty acid synthesis for growth. Exogenous fatty acids were only incorporated into the 1-position and endogenous acyl groups were channeled into the 2-position of the phospholipids in strain PDJ39 (ΔplsX). Extracellular fatty acids were not elongated. Removal of the exogenous fatty acid supplement led to the rapid accumulation of intracellular acyl-ACP and the abrupt cessation of fatty acid synthesis. Extracts from the ΔplsX strain exhibited an ATP-dependent fatty acid kinase activity, and the acyl-PO4 was converted to acyl-ACP when purified PlsX is added. These data reveal the existence of a novel fatty acid kinase pathway for the incorporation of exogenous fatty acids into S. aureus phospholipids.

  10. Solution Structure and Backbone Dynamics of Human Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein: Fatty Acid Binding Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Jun; Lücke, Christian; Chen, Zhongjing; Qiao, Ye; Klimtchuk, Elena; Hamilton, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), a cytosolic protein most abundant in liver, is associated with intracellular transport of fatty acids, nuclear signaling, and regulation of intracellular lipolysis. Among the members of the intracellular lipid binding protein family, L-FABP is of particular interest as it can i), bind two fatty acid molecules simultaneously and ii), accommodate a variety of bulkier physiological ligands such as bilirubin and fatty acyl CoA. To better understand the p...

  11. Propylenated fatty acids as emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shattory, Y.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxy propylenyl stéarate, palmitate, laurate, oléate and linoleate were prepared by reaction of propylene oxide with fatty acid at 160 °C for five hours stirring in presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. Physico-chemical properties of the five products, regarding their use as emulsifiers, were determined.

    Se prepararon estearato, palmitato, laurato, oleato y linoleato de hidroxipropilenilos mediante reacción de oxido de propileno con ácido graso a 160 °C durante cinco horas de agitación en presencia de hidróxido potásico como catalizador. Se determinaron las propiedades físico-químicas de los cinco productos, en cuanto a su uso como emulsionantes.

  12. Echium acanthocarpum hairy root cultures, a suitable system for polyunsaturated fatty acid studies and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravelo Ángel G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The therapeutic and health promoting role of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs from fish, i.e. eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3 are well known. These same benefits may however be shared by some of their precursors, the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, such as stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4 n-3. In order to obtain alternative sources for the large-scale production of PUFAs, new searches are being conducted focusing on higher plants oils which can contain these n-3 and n-6 C18 precursors, i.e. SDA and GLA (18:3n-6, γ-linolenic acid. Results The establishment of the novel Echium acanthocarpum hairy root cultures represents a powerful tool in order to research the accumulation and metabolism of fatty acids (FAs in a plant particularly rich in GLA and SDA. Furthermore, this study constitutes the first example of a Boraginaceae species hairy root induction and establishment for FA studies and production. The dominant PUFAs, 18:2n-6 (LA, linoleic acid and 18:3n-6 (GLA, accounted for about 50% of total FAs obtained, while the n-3 PUFAs, 18:3n-3 (ALA, α-linolenic acid and 18:4n-3 (SDA, represented approximately 5% of the total. Production of FAs did not parallel hairy root growth, and the optimal productivity was always associated with the highest biomass density during the culture period. Assuming a compromise between FA production and hairy root biomass, it was determined that sampling times 4 and 5 gave the most useful FA yields. Total lipid amounts were in general comparable between the different hairy root lines (29.75 and 60.95 mg/g DW, with the major lipid classes being triacylglycerols. The FAs were chiefly stored in the hairy roots with very minute amounts being released into the liquid nutrient medium. Conclusions The novel results presented here show the utility and high potential of E. acanthocarpum hairy roots. They are capable of biosynthesizing and accumulating a large

  13. The Nutrient-Dependent O-GlcNAc Modification Controls the Expression of Liver Fatty Acid Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, Steffi F; Wavelet, Cindy; Hainault, Isabelle; Guinez, Céline; Lefebvre, Tony

    2016-08-14

    Liver Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) is pivotal for de novo lipogenesis. Loss of control of this metabolic pathway contributes to the development of liver pathologies ranging from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which can lead to cirrhosis and, less frequently, to hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, deciphering the molecular mechanisms governing the expression and function of key enzymes such as FAS is crucial. Herein, we link the availability of this lipogenic enzyme to the nutrient-dependent post-translational modification O-GlcNAc that is thought to be deregulated in metabolic diseases (diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome). We demonstrate that expression and activity of liver FAS correlate with O-GlcNAcylation contents in ob/ob mice and in mice fed with a high-carbohydrate diet both in a transcription-dependent and -independent manner. More importantly, inhibiting the removal of O-GlcNAc residues in mice intraperitoneally injected with the selective and potent O-GlcNAcase (OGA) inhibitor Thiamet-G increases FAS expression. FAS and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) physically interact, and FAS is O-GlcNAc modified. Treatment of a liver cell line with drugs or nutrients that elevate the O-GlcNAcylation interferes with FAS expression. Inhibition of OGA increases the interaction between FAS and the deubiquitinase Ubiquitin-specific protease-2a (USP2A) in vivo and ex vivo, providing mechanistic insights into the control of FAS expression through O-GlcNAcylation. Together, these results reveal a new type of regulation of FAS, linked to O-GlcNAcylation status, and advance our knowledge on deregulation of lipogenesis in diverse forms of liver diseases.

  14. A comparative study of fatty acid profile and formation of biofilm in Geobacillus gargensis exposed to variable abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Beloshei, Noor Essa; Al-Awadhi, Husain; Al-Khalaf, Rania A; Afzal, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Understanding bacterial fatty acid (FA) profile has a great taxonomic significance as well as clinical importance for diagnosis issues. Both the composition and nature of membrane FAs change under different nutritional, biotic and (or) abiotic stresses, and environmental stress. Bacteria produce both odd-carbon as well as branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs). This study was designed to examine the effect of abiotic pressure, including salinity, temperature, pH, and oxinic stress on the growth, development, and FA profile in thermophilic Geobacillus gargensis. Under these stresses, 3 parametric ratios, 2-methyl fatty acids/3-methyl fatty acids (iso-/anteiso-FAs), BCFAs/straight-chain saturated fatty acids (SCSFA), and SCSFAs/straight-chain unsaturated fatty acids (SCUFA), in addition to total lipids affected by variable stresses were measured. Our results indicate that the ratio of total iso-/anteiso-FAs increased at the acidic pH range of 4.1-5.2 and decreased with increasing pH. The reverse was true for salt stress when iso-/anteiso-FAs ratio increased with salt concentration. The BCFAs/SCSFAs and SCSFAs/SCUFAs ratios increased at neutral and alkaline pH and high salt concentration, reduced incubation time, and comparatively high temperature (55-65 °C) of the growth medium. The bacterial total lipid percentage deceased with increasing salt concentration, incubation period, but it increased with temperature. The formation of extracellular polymeric substances was observed under all stress conditions and with the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (2 and 5 mmol/L) to the growth medium. The membrane phospholipid composition of the bacterium was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography.

  15. Exploitable Lipids and Fatty Acids in the Invasive Oyster Crassostrea gigas on the French Atlantic Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore Dagorn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic exploitation is one means to offset the cost of controlling invasive species, such as the introduced Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg on the French Atlantic coast. Total lipid and phospholipid (PL fatty acids (FAs and sterols were examined in an invasive population of C. gigas in Bourgneuf Bay, France, over four successive seasons, with a view to identify possible sources of exploitable substances. The total lipid level (% dry weight varied from 7.1% (winter to 8.6% (spring. Of this, PLs accounted for 28.1% (spring to 50.4% (winter. Phosphatidylcholine was the dominant PL throughout the year (up to 74% of total PLs in winter. Plasmalogens were identified throughout the year as a series of eleven dimethylacetals (DMAs with chain lengths between C16 and C20 (up to 14.5% of PL FAs + DMAs in winter. Thirty-seven FAs were identified in the PL FAs. Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3 EPA/7.53% to 14.5% and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA/5.51% to 9.5% were the dominant polyunsaturated FAs in all seasons. Two non-methylene-interrupted dienoic (NMID FAs were identified in all seasons: 7,13-docosadienoic and 7,15-docosadienoic acids, the latter being present at relatively high levels (up to 9.6% in winter. Twenty free sterols were identified, including cholesterol at 29.9% of the sterol mixture and about 33% of phytosterols. C. gigas tissues thus contained exploitable lipids for health benefits or as a potential source of high-quality commercial lecithin.

  16. Transcriptional regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis is linked to fatty acid metabolism by an acyl-CoA-binding-protein-dependent mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feddersen, Søren; Neergaard, Thomas B F; Knudsen, Jens;

    2007-01-01

    proteins involved in fatty acid and phospholipid synthesis (e.g. FAS1, FAS2, ACC1, OLE1, INO1 and OPI3), glycolysis and glycerol metabolism (e.g. GPD1 and TDH1), ion transport and uptake (e.g. ITR1 and HNM1) and stress response (e.g. HSP12, DDR2 and CTT1). In the present study, we show that transcription...

  17. Changes of cellular fatty acids of soil Actinobacteria producing antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    LIPENSKÁ, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Changes of cellular fatty acids in membrane of Actinobacteria. Changes of fatty acids are significant biomarkers of changing conditions of surroundings. This can also indicate production of antibiotics along with production of atypical fatty acids.

  18. Near Infrared Spectrometry of Clinically Significant Fatty Acids Using Multicomponent Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, A. V.; Krasheninnikov, V. N.; Sviridov, A. P.; Titov, V. N.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed methods for determining the content of clinically important fatty acids (FAs), primarily saturated palmitic acid, monounsaturated oleic acid, and the sum of polyenoic fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic + docosahexaenoic), in oily media (food products and supplements, fish oils) using different types of near infrared (NIR) spectrometers: Fourier-transform, linear photodiode array, and Raman. Based on a calibration method (regression) by means of projections to latent structures, using standard samples of oil and fat mixtures, we have confirmed the feasibility of reliable and selective quantitative analysis of the above-indicated fatty acids. As a result of comparing the calibration models for Fourier-transform spectrometers in different parts of the NIR range (based on different overtones and combinations of fatty acid absorption), we have provided a basis for selection of the spectral range for a portable linear InGaAs-photodiode array spectrometer. In testing the calibrations of a linear InGaAs-photodiode array spectrometer which is a prototype for a portable instrument, for palmitic and oleic acids and also the sum of the polyenoic fatty acids we have achieved a multiple correlation coefficient of 0.89, 0.85, and 0.96 and a standard error of 0.53%, 1.43%, and 0.39% respectively. We have confirmed the feasibility of using Raman spectra to determine the content of the above-indicated fatty acids in media where water is present.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids regulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation and prevent behavior deficits after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao; Chao, Honglu; Li, Zheng; Xu, Xiupeng; Liu, Yinlong; Bao, Zhongyuan; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xiaoming; You, Yongping; Liu, Ning; Ji, Jing

    2017-04-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) attenuate inflammation and improve neurological outcome in response to traumatic brain injury (TBI), but the specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we found that NLRP3 inflammasome and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokines were activated in human brains after TBI. Rats treated with ω-3 FAs had significantly less TBI-induced caspase-1 cleavage and IL-1β secretion than those with vehicle. G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) was observed to be involved in this anti-inflammation. GW1100, a GPR40 inhibitor, eliminated the anti-inflammatory effect of ω-3 FAs after TBI. β-Arrestin-2 (ARRB2), a downstream scaffold protein of GPR40, was activated to inhibit inflammation via directly binding with NLRP3 in the ω-3 FAs treatment group. Interestingly, we also observed that ω-3 FAs prevented NLRP3 mitochondrial localization, which was reversed by GW1100. Furthermore, ω-3 FAs markedly ameliorated neuronal death and behavioral deficits after TBI, while GW1100 significantly suppressed this effect. Collectively, these data indicate that the GPR40-mediated pathway is involved in the inhibitory effects of ω-3 FAs on TBI-induced inflammation and ARRB2 is activated to interact with NLRP3.

  20. Structural diversity and possible functional roles of free fatty acids of the novel soil isolate Streptomyces sp. NP10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic-Tomic, Tatjana; Genčić, Marija S; Živković, Milena Z; Vasiljevic, Branka; Djokic, Lidija; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Radulović, Niko S

    2015-06-01

    Herein, a novel soil bacterium Streptomyces sp. NP10 able to grow outside usual streptomycetes optimum conditions (e.g., at 4 °C, pH 9 and high NaCl concentration), exhibiting atypical hemolytic, DNAse, and cellulolytic activities, is described. This strain produces and excretes into the growth medium large amounts of free long-chain fatty acids (FAs). A concurrent lipidomics study revealed a large structural diversity of FAs with over 50 different n- and branched-chain, (un)saturated, and cyclopropane FAs (C7-C30) produced by this strain. Two of these, i-17:0cy9-10 and a-18:0cy9-10, represent new natural products and the first ever identified branched cyclopropane FAs. Both free and bound lipid profiles of Streptomyces sp. NP10 were dominated by saturated branched chain FAs (i-14:0, a-15:0, and i-16:0). Although these free FAs showed only a moderate antimicrobial activity, our results suggest that they could have an ecophysiological role in interspecies signaling with another soil microorganism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This work represents the first comprehensive report on the structural diversity and complexity of the free FA pool in Streptomyces. A naturally occurring streptomycete, such as Streptomyces sp. NP10, which secretes significant amounts of free long-chain FAs (non-cytotoxic) into the medium, could be useful in microbial biodiesel production.

  1. Potent Inhibitory Effect of Chinese Dietary Spices on Fatty Acid Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bing; Liang, Yan; Sun, Xuebing; Liu, Xiaoxin; Tian, Weixi; Ma, Xiaofeng

    2015-09-01

    Dietary spices have been adopted in cooking since ancient times to enhance flavor and also as food preservatives and disease remedies. In China, the use of spices and other aromatic plants as food flavoring is an integral part of dietary behavior, but relatively little is known about their functions. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) has been recognized as a remedy target, and its inhibitors might be applied in disease treatment. The present work was designed to assess the inhibitory activities on FAS of spices extracts in Chinese menu. The in vitro inhibitory activities on FAS of 22 extracts of spices were assessed by spectrophotometrically monitoring oxidation of NADPH at 340 nm. Results showed that 20 spices extracts (90.9 %) exhibited inhibitory activities on FAS, with half inhibition concentration (IC(50)) values ranging from 1.72 to 810.7 μg/ml. Among them, seven spices showed strong inhibitory effect with IC(50) values lower than 10 μg/ml. These findings suggest that a large proportion of the dietary spices studied possess promising inhibitory activities on FAS, and subsequently might be applied in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related human diseases.

  2. Determination of fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacity of Mespilus germanica L. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Seçilmiş Canbay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacitiy of first cultured Mespilus germanica L. Methods: A total of 15 fruits were taken randomly from four directions of adult trees. Then the physical and chemical properties of first cultured medlar fruit (Istanbul/Turkey were measured by using refractometer, colorimeter, spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, respectivly. Results: In the fruit studied, the results showed that palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid were the most abundant fatty acids (FAs, and the main FA was palmitic acid [(35.35 ± 1.20%]. The percentage of linoleic acid and stearic acid in this fruit oil were (29.10 ± 1.70% and (8.53 ± 0.25%, respectively. As a result of the analysis, the total antioxidant capacity of medlar fruit was (1.1 ± 0.2 mmol trolox equivalents/L. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the concentrations of FAs and the antioxidantive capacity of first cultured Istanbul medlar fruits by using many tested methods. It is proved that in our daily life, medlar fruit plays a significant role with its nutrition and health effect.

  3. Polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce Fatty Acid Synthase and Hydroxy-Methyl-Glutaryl CoA-Reductase gene expression and promote apoptosis in HepG2 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miccolis Angelica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are the two major classes of PUFAs encountered in the diet, and both classes of fatty acids are required for normal human health. Moreover, PUFAs have effects on diverse pathological processes impacting chronic disease, such as cardiovascular and immune disease, neurological disease, and cancer. Aim To investigate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and arachidonic acid (ARA on the proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatoma cell line HepG2 after exposure to increasing concentrations of EPA or ARA for 48 h. Moreover, in the same cells the gene expression of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS and 3-Hydroxy-3-Methyl-Glutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase (HMG-CoAR was also investigated. Method Cell growth and apoptosis were assayed by MTT and ELISA test, respectively after cell exposure to increasing concentrations of EPA and ARA. Reverse-transcription and real-time PCR was used to detect FAS and HMG-CoAR mRNA levels in treated cells. Results Our findings show that EPA inhibits HepG2 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, starting from 25 μM (P Conclusion Our results demonstrate that EPA and ARA inhibit HepG2 cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. The down-regulation of FAS and HMG-CoAR gene expression by EPA and ARA might be one of the mechanisms for the anti-proliferative properties of PUFAs in an in vitro model of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  4. Hepatic steatosis in n-3 fatty acid depleted mice: focus on metabolic alterations related to tissue fatty acid composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaisse WJ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are only few data relating the metabolic consequences of feeding diets very low in n-3 fatty acids. This experiment carried out in mice aims at studying the impact of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA depletion on hepatic metabolism. Results n-3 PUFA depletion leads to a significant decrease in body weight despite a similar caloric intake or adipose tissue weight. n-3 PUFA depleted mice exhibit hypercholesterolemia (total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol as well as an increase in hepatic cholesteryl ester and triglycerides content. Fatty acid pattern is profoundly modified in hepatic phospholipids and triglycerides. The decrease in tissue n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio correlates with steatosis. Hepatic mRNA content of key factors involved in lipid metabolism suggest a decreased lipogenesis (SREBP-1c, FAS, PPARγ, and an increased β-oxidation (CPT1, PPARα and PGC1α without modification of fatty acid esterification (DGAT2, GPAT1, secretion (MTTP or intracellular transport (L-FABP. Histological analysis reveals alterations of liver morphology, which can not be explained by inflammatory or oxidative stress. However, several proteins involved in the unfolded protein response are decreased in depleted mice. Conclusion n-3 PUFA depletion leads to important metabolic alterations in murine liver. Steatosis occurs through a mechanism independent of the shift between β-oxidation and lipogenesis. Moreover, long term n-3 PUFA depletion decreases the expression of factors involved in the unfolded protein response, suggesting a lower protection against endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatocytes upon n-3 PUFA deficiency.

  5. Composition of amino acids, fatty acids and dietary fibre monomers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composition of amino acids, fatty acids and dietary fibre monomers in kernels of ... Nuts are rich in protein and essential amino acids, and have a high energy value ... of protein, especially when combined with foods with high lysine content.

  6. Reducing isozyme competition increases target fatty acid accumulation in seed triacylglycerols of transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, Harrie; Shockey, Jay; Zhang, Meng; Adhikari, Neil D; Browse, John

    2015-05-01

    One goal of green chemistry is the production of industrially useful fatty acids (FAs) in crop plants. We focus on hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) and conjugated polyenoic FAs (α-eleostearic acids [ESAs]) using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as a model. These FAs are found naturally in seed oils of castor (Ricinus communis) and tung tree (Vernicia fordii), respectively, and used for the production of lubricants, nylon, and paints. Transgenic oils typically contain less target FA than that produced in the source species. We hypothesized that competition between endogenous and transgenic isozymes for substrates limits accumulation of unique FAs in Arabidopsis seeds. This hypothesis was tested by introducing a mutation in Arabidopsis diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (AtDGAT1) in a line expressing castor FA hydroxylase and acyl-Coenzyme A:RcDGAT2 in its seeds. This led to a 17% increase in the proportion of HFA in seed oil. Expression of castor phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1A in this line increased the proportion of HFA by an additional 12%. To determine if our observations are more widely applicable, we investigated if isozyme competition influenced production of ESA. Expression of tung tree FA conjugase/desaturase in Arabidopsis produced approximately 7.5% ESA in seed lipids. Coexpression of VfDGAT2 increased ESA levels to approximately 11%. Overexpression of VfDGAT2 combined with suppression of AtDGAT1 increased ESA accumulation to 14% to 15%. Our results indicate that isozyme competition is a limiting factor in the engineering of unusual FAs in heterologous plant systems and that reduction of competition through mutation and RNA suppression may be a useful component of seed metabolic engineering strategies.

  7. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A P; Aggarwal, K K; Zhang, P-Y

    2015-01-01

    Cardioceuticals are nutritional supplements that contain all the essential nutrients including vitamins, minerals, omega-3-fatty acids and other antioxidants like a-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 in the right proportion that provide all round protection to the heart by reducing the most common risks associated with the cardiovascular disease including high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels and factors that contribute to coagulation of blood. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to significantly reduce the risk for sudden death caused by cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause mortality in patients with known coronary heart disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are also used to treat hyperlipidemia and hypertension. There are no significant drug interactions with omega-3 fatty acids. The American Heart Association recommends consumption of two servings of fish per week for persons with no history of coronary heart disease and at least one serving of fish daily for those with known coronary heart disease. Approximately 1 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid is recommended for cardio protection. Higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids are required to reduce elevated triglyceride levels (2-4 g/day). Modest decreases in blood pressure occur with significantly higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids.

  8. Fatty acid synthesis is inhibited by inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids for glycerolipid assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Philip D; Johnson, Sean R; Cao, Xia; Li, Jia; Nam, Jeong-Won; Jaworski, Jan G; Ohlrogge, John B; Browse, John

    2014-01-21

    Degradation of unusual fatty acids through β-oxidation within transgenic plants has long been hypothesized as a major factor limiting the production of industrially useful unusual fatty acids in seed oils. Arabidopsis seeds expressing the castor fatty acid hydroxylase accumulate hydroxylated fatty acids up to 17% of total fatty acids in seed triacylglycerols; however, total seed oil is also reduced up to 50%. Investigations into the cause of the reduced oil phenotype through in vivo [(14)C]acetate and [(3)H]2O metabolic labeling of developing seeds surprisingly revealed that the rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis within the transgenic seeds was approximately half that of control seeds. RNAseq analysis indicated no changes in expression of fatty acid synthesis genes in hydroxylase-expressing plants. However, differential [(14)C]acetate and [(14)C]malonate metabolic labeling of hydroxylase-expressing seeds indicated the in vivo acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity was reduced to approximately half that of control seeds. Therefore, the reduction of oil content in the transgenic seeds is consistent with reduced de novo fatty acid synthesis in the plastid rather than fatty acid degradation. Intriguingly, the coexpression of triacylglycerol synthesis isozymes from castor along with the fatty acid hydroxylase alleviated the reduced acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity, restored the rate of fatty acid synthesis, and the accumulation of seed oil was substantially recovered. Together these results suggest a previously unidentified mechanism that detects inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids within the endoplasmic reticulum and activates an endogenous pathway for posttranslational reduction of fatty acid synthesis within the plastid.

  9. Prescription omega-3 fatty acid products: considerations for patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajuddin N

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nadeem Tajuddin,1 Ali Shaikh,2 Amir Hassan2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; 2Clinic of Endocrinology, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and metabolic syndrome contribute to hypertriglyceridemia, which may increase residual risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with elevated triglyceride (TG levels despite optimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels with statin therapy. Prescription products containing the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are an effective strategy for reducing TG levels. This article provides an overview of prescription OM3FAs, including relevant clinical data in patients with T2DM and/or metabolic syndrome. Prescription OM3FAs contain either combinations of DHA and EPA (omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-carboxylic acids, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A or EPA alone (icosapent ethyl. These products are well tolerated and can be used safely with statins. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that all prescription OM3FAs produce statistically significant reductions in TG levels compared with placebo; however, differential effects on LDL-C levels have been reported. Products containing DHA may increase LDL-C levels, whereas the EPA-only product did not increase LDL-C levels compared with placebo. Because increases in LDL-C levels may be unwanted in patients with T2DM and/or dyslipidemia, the EPA-only product should not be replaced with products containing DHA. Available data on the effects of OM3FAs in patients with diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome support that these products can be used safely in patients with T2DM and have beneficial effects on atherogenic parameters; in particular, the EPA-only prescription product significantly reduced TG, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Apo B, remnant lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-sensitivity CRP levels without increasing

  10. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Tanja Hess; Trinette Ross-Jones

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different levels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are de...

  11. Changes in Sediment Fatty Acid Composition during Passage through the Gut of Deposit Feeding Holothurians: Holothuria atra (Jaeger, 1883 and Holothuria leucospilota (Brandt, 1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosper L. Mfilinge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS, foregut (FG, midgut (MG, hindgut (HG, and faecal pellets (FPs indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H. atra and H. leucospilota. Saturated fatty acids (SAFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, and branched fatty acids (BrFAs were significantly higher in FG than in AS, suggesting that both species selectively ingested nutrient rich particles. Significant reduction of SAFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and BrFAs occurred in MD and HD, with complete elimination of most PUFAs in FPs. A decrease in PUFAs 20:5ω3, 18:4ω3, 22:5ω3, 22:6ω3, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, 18:3ω6, odd-numbered BrFAs, and MUFA 18:1ω7 indicated that algal detritus and bacteria were important part of diet. These results have implications for the fate of specific dietary FAs, especially ω3 and ω6, and the contribution holothurian FPs make to the FA composition of coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems.

  12. Omega-3 fatty acid fish oil dietary supplements contain saturated fats and oxidized lipids that may interfere with their intended biological benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R Preston; Sherratt, Samuel C R

    2017-01-29

    Widely available fish oil dietary supplements (DS) may contain fats and oxidized lipids in addition to the beneficial omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs) for which they are purchased. Little is known about the potential biological effects of these oxidized lipids. The objective of this study was to assess the fatty acid content, oxidation products, and biological effects of leading fish oil DS available in the United States. Three top-selling fish oil DS in the US were included in this analysis. Fatty acid composition was measured using gas chromatography. Lipid oxidation (primary and secondary products) was measured by spectroscopy in both DS and a prescription OM3FA product. OM3FAs were also isolated and concentrated from DS and were tested for the ability to inhibit copper-induced oxidation of human small dense low-density lipoprotein particles (sdLDL) in vitro. Fish oil DS were found to contain more than 30 different fatty acids, including 10 to 14 different saturated species comprising up to 36% of the total fatty acid content. Levels of OM3FAs also varied widely among DS (33%-79%). Primary (peroxide), secondary (anisidine), and total oxidation products exceeded maximum levels established by international standards of quality in the DS but not the prescription OM3FA product. Oxidation of sdLDL was inhibited by >95% (P saturated fat and oxidized OM3FAs found in common DS may interfere with their intended/potential biological benefits.

  13. Fatty Acid Prof iles of Ram's Sperm after Removing Some Fatty Acid Sources from the Diets and Persistency of Fatty Acids in Sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Zarrabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mammalian spermatozoa are characterized by a high proportion of polyunsaturatedfatty acids (PUFAs, but reliable data concerning dietary effects on fatty acid (FA profile in ram'ssperm and the persistency of FA in the ration to the FA in sperm has not been reported. Therefore,the aim of this study was to determine the stability of saturated and unsaturated FAs in ram's spermdespite removing FA sources from their diet.Materials and Methods: Nine Kalkoohi rams were used in a completely randomized design and theywere assigned to 3 groups. The treatments were diet supplemented (35 g/d/ram by C16:0 (RP-10®,C18: 2 (Sunflower oil; SO and n-3 (Fish oil; FO with Vitamin E. Fifteen weeks after the start of thesupplemented diet, rams were offered a basal diet without any supplementary FA source for 35 dayswhen the sperm’s FA ratio was determined. The data were analyzed by ANOVA (Analysis of varianceusing the General Linear Model (GLM procedure of SAS Institute.Results: Thirty five days after removing the fat supplement from the diet, major FA in sperm consisted of:C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 cis, C18:2 cis and C22:6 n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The percentageof C14:0 (p=0.8 and C18:1 cis (P =0.4 were similar among all the treatments. Interestingly, 35 daysafter the removal of fatty acid source, the percentage of C22:6 was highest in the FO treated group.Conclusion: The different sperm FA profile among various groups suggests that dietary FA hadsignificant direct or indirect impacts on sperm FA profile after 35 days which might lead to physicaland chemical changes in sperm characteristics.

  14. Exposure to omega-3 fatty acids at early age accelerate bone growth and improve bone quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Netta; Simsa-Maziel, Stav; Shahar, Ron; Schwartz, Betty; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat

    2014-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) are essential nutritional components that must be obtained from foods. Increasing evidence validate that omega-3 FAs are beneficial for bone health, and several mechanisms have been suggested to mediate their effects on bone, including alterations in calcium absorption and urinary calcium loss, prostaglandin synthesis, lipid oxidation, osteoblast formation and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. However, to date, there is scant information regarding the effect of omega-3 FAs on the developing skeleton during the rapid growth phase. In this study we aim to evaluate the effect of exposure to high levels of omega-3 FAs on bone development and quality during prenatal and early postnatal period. For this purpose, we used the fat-1 transgenic mice that have the ability to convert omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the ATDC5 chondrogenic cell line as models. We show that exposure to high concentrations of omega-3 FAs at a young age accelerates bone growth through alterations of the growth plate, associated with increased chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. We further propose that those effects are mediated by the receptors G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and hepatic nuclear factor 4α, which are expressed by chondrocytes in culture. Additionally, using a combined study on the structural and mechanical bone parameters, we show that high omega-3 levels contribute to superior trabecular and cortical structure, as well as to stiffer bones and improved bone quality. Most interestingly, the fat-1 model allowed us to demonstrate the role of maternal high omega-3 concentration on bone growth during the gestation and postnatal period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids differentially modulate prostaglandin E secretion but not markers of lipogenesis in adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxton Arnold M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A dramatic rise in the incidence of obesity in the U.S. has accelerated the search for interventions that may impact this epidemic. One recently recognized target for such intervention is adipose tissue, which secretes a variety of bioactive substances including prostaglandins. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 has been shown to decrease lipolysis in adipocytes, but limited studies have explored alternative mechanisms by which PGE2 might impact obesity, such as adipogenesis or lipogenesis. Studies conducted on ApcMin/+ mice indicated that selective inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX-2 enzyme led to significant reductions in fatty acid synthase (FAS activity in adipose tissue suggesting lipogenic effects of PGE2. To further investigate whether these lipid mediators directly regulate lipogenesis, we used 3T3-L1 adipocytes to determine the impact of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and celecoxib on PGE2 formation and FAS used as a lipogenic marker. Both arachidonic acid (AA and EPA dose-dependently increased PGE secretion from adipocytes. AA was expectedly more potent and exhibiting at 150 uM dose a 5-fold increase in PGE2 secretion over EPA. Despite higher secretion of PGE by EPA and AA compared to control, neither PUFA significantly altered FAS activity. By contrast both AA and EPA significantly decreased FAS mRNA levels. Addition of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, significantly decreased PGE2 secretion (p 2 and celecoxib further decreased the FAS activity compared to PGE2 alone or untreated controls. In conclusion, EPA-mediated inhibition of AA metabolism did not significantly alter FAS activity while both AA and EPA significantly decreased FAS mRNA expression. COX-2 inhibition significantly decreased PGE2 production resulting in a decrease in FAS activity and expression that was not reversed with the addition of exogenous PGE2, suggesting an additional mechanism that is independent of COX-2.

  16. Production of hydroxy fatty acids by microbial fatty acid-hydroxylation enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2013-12-01

    Hydroxy fatty acids are widely used in chemical, food, and cosmetic industries as starting materials for the synthesis of polymers and as additives for the manufacture of lubricants, emulsifiers, and stabilizers. They have antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities and therefore can be applied for medicinal uses. Microbial fatty acid-hydroxylation enzymes, including P450, lipoxygenase, hydratase, 12-hydroxylase, and diol synthase, synthesize regio-specific hydroxy fatty acids. In this article, microbial fatty acid-hydroxylation enzymes, with a focus on region-specificity and diversity, are summarized and the production of mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxy fatty acids is introduced. Finally, the production methods of regio-specific and diverse hydroxy fatty acids, such as gene screening, protein engineering, metabolic engineering, and combinatory biosynthesis, are suggested. © 2013.

  17. Fatty Acid Composition of Meat from Ruminants, with Special Emphasis on trans Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Ovesen, L.; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition was determined in 39 samples of beef, 20 samples of veal, and 34 samples of lamb, representative of the supply of ruminant meat in Denmark. Five cuts of beef and veal and three cuts of lamb with increasing fat content were selected, and analysis of the fatty acid methyl...... esters was performed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) on a polar 50-m capillary column CP Sil 88 with flame-ionization detection. Lamb had the highest content of saturated fatty acids (52.8 +/- 1.8 g/100 g fatty acids), higher than beef and veal (45.3 +/- 3.1 and 45.4 +/- 0.8 g/100 g fatty acids...... of trans fatty acids from ruminant meat is estimated at 0.2 g/d....

  18. Exploring unsaturated fatty acid cholesteryl esters as transdermal permeation enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambharose, Sanjeev; Kalhapure, Rahul S; Jadhav, Mahantesh; Govender, Thirumala

    2017-04-01

    The intrinsic protective barrier property of skin, one of the major challenges in the design of transdermal drug delivery systems, can be overcome through the use of chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs). Herein, we explore the potential of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) esters of cholesterol (Chol) viz., oleate, linoleate and linolenate, as transdermal CPEs using tenofovir (TNF) as a model drug. All Chol UFA esters at 1% w/w were found to be more effective enhancers when compared to their respective parent fatty acids (FAs) and saturated FA counterparts. Cholesteryl linolenate (Chol-LLA) showed the most superior performance (enhancement ratio (ER) = 3.71). The greatest ER for Chol-LLA (5.93) was achieved at a concentration of 2% w/w. The histomorphological and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) evaluations supported the results of the permeability studies. These findings showed no significant loss in the integrity of the epidermis, with drug and enhancer treatment having temporary effects on the barrier property of the epidermis. Chol UFA esters can therefore be considered as new CPEs for exploitation in topical formulations for various classes of drugs.

  19. Antisense technologies targeting fatty acid synthetic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinshun; Liu, Feng; Jiang, Yuyang

    2012-05-01

    Fatty acid synthesis is a coordinated process involving multiple enzymes. Overexpression of some of these enzymes plays important roles in tumor growth and development. Therefore, these enzymes are attractive targets for cancer therapies. Antisense agents provide highly specific inhibition of the expression of target genes and thus have served as powerful tools for gene functional studies and potential therapeutic agents for cancers. This article reviews different types of antisense agents and their applications in the modulation of fatty acid synthesis. Patents of antisense agents targeting fatty acid synthetic enzymes are introduced. In addition, miR-122 has been shown to regulate the expression of fatty acid synthetic enzymes, and thus antisense agent patents that inhibit miR-122 expression are also discussed.

  20. Introduction to fatty acids and lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdge, Graham C; Calder, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the structure, function and metabolism of fatty acids and lipids that are of particular importance in the context of parenteral nutrition. Lipids are a heterogeneous group of molecules that share the common property of hydrophobicity. Lipids range in structure from simple short hydrocarbon chains to more complex molecules, including triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sterols and their esters. Lipids within each class may differ structurally. Fatty acids are common components of complex lipids, and these differ according to chain length and the presence, number and position of double bonds in the hydrocarbon chain. Structural variation among complex lipids and among fatty acids gives rise to functional differences that result in different impacts upon metabolism and upon cell and tissue responses. Fatty acids and complex lipids exhibit a variety of structural variations that influence their metabolism and their functional effects.

  1. Fatty Acid Composition of Meat from Ruminants, with Special Emphasis on trans Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Ovesen, L.; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    esters was performed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) on a polar 50-m capillary column CP Sil 88 with flame-ionization detection. Lamb had the highest content of saturated fatty acids (52.8 +/- 1.8 g/100 g fatty acids), higher than beef and veal (45.3 +/- 3.1 and 45.4 +/- 0.8 g/100 g fatty acids...

  2. Naturally occurring and process-induced trans fatty acids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHOKRI

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... found in position 9, such as elaidic acid, with a Gaussian distribution of FAs with the ... traditional method of manually churning the naturally fermented milk and heating the ..... trans PUFA and CLA. PC1 was heavily weighted.

  3. Prediction of the fatty acid composition of beef by near infrared transmittance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, V; Aldai, N; Castro, P; Osoro, K; Coto-Montes, A; Oliván, M

    2008-03-01

    The intramuscular fat content and composition influence consumer selection of meat products. A study predicting the fatty acid (FA) profile of ground beef from the Longissimus thoracis of yearling bulls (n=100) using near infrared transmittance spectroscopy (NIT) was conducted. The samples were scanned using an Infratec 1265 Meat Analyzer which operates in transmittance mode from 850 to 1050nm. NIT technology was able to accurately predict (R(CV)(2) over 0.76) some prominent FAs such as C14:0, C16:0, C16:1cis9, C17:0, C18:1cis9 and C18:1cis11, and minor FAs like C13:0, C15:0, C17:1cis9 and C18:1cis13. When studying FA groups, NIT spectra were able to accurately predict saturated (R(CV)(2)=0.837), branched (R(CV)(2)=0.701) and monounsaturated (R(CV)(2)=0.852) FAs. In addition, NIT spectra provided useful information on the contents of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in beef. These results show the potential of NIT technique as a rapid and easy tool to predict the major FAs in beef, especially those located in triglycerides.

  4. Exocrine pancreas ER stress is differentially induced by different fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danino, Hila; Ben-Dror, Karin; Birk, Ruth

    2015-12-10

    Exocrine pancreas acinar cells have a highly developed endoplasmic reticulum (ER), accommodating their high protein production rate. Overload of dietary fat (typical to obesity) is a recognized risk factor in pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Dietary fat, especially saturated fat, has been suggested by others and us to induce an acinar lipotoxic effect. The effect of different dietary fatty acids on the ER stress response is unknown. We studied the effect of acute (24h) challenge with different fatty acids (saturated, mono and poly-unsaturated) at different concentrations (between 200 and 500µM, typical to normal and obese states, respectively), testing fat accumulation, ER stress indicators, X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1) splicing and nuclear translocation, as well as unfolded protein response (UPR) transcripts and protein levels using exocrine pancreas acinar AR42J and primary cells. Acute exposure of AR42J cells to different fatty acids caused increased accumulation of triglycerides, dependent on the type of fat. Different FAs had different effects on ER stress: most notably, saturated palmitic acid significantly affected the UPR response, as demonstrated by altered Xbp1 splicing, elevation in transcript levels of UPR (Xbp, CHOP, Bip) and immune factors (Tnfα, Tgfβ), and enhanced Xbp1 protein levels and Xbp1 time-dependent nuclear translocation. Poly-unsaturated FAs caused milder elevation of ER stress markers, while mono-unsaturated oleic acid attenuated the ER stress response. Thus, various fatty acids differentially affect acinar cell fat accumulation and, apart from oleic acid, induce ER stress. The differential effect of the various fatty acids could have potential nutritional and therapeutic implications.

  5. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    This review details the specific needs of women for omega-3 fatty acids, including alpha linoleic acid (ALA) and the very long chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acid (dietary or in capsules) ensures that a woman's adipose tissue contains a reserve of these fatty acids for the developing fetus and the breast-fed newborn infant. This ensures the optimal cerebral and cognitive development of the infant. The presence of large quantities of EPA and DHA in the diet slightly lengthens pregnancy, and improves its quality. Human milk contains both ALA and DHA, unlike that of other mammals. Conditions such as diabetes can alter the fatty acid profile of mother's milk, while certain diets, like those of vegetarians, vegans, or even macrobiotic diets, can have the same effect, if they do not include seafood. ALA, DHA and EPA, are important for preventing ischemic cardiovascular disease in women of all ages. Omega-3 fatty acids can help to prevent the development of certain cancers, particularly those of the breast and colon, and possibly of the uterus and the skin, and are likely to reduce the risk of postpartum depression, manic-depressive psychosis, dementias (Alzheimer's disease and others), hypertension, toxemia, diabetes and, to a certain extend, age-related macular degeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids could play a positive role in the prevention of menstrual syndrome and postmenopausal hot flushes. The normal western diet contains little ALA (less than 50% of the RDA). The only adequate sources are rapeseed oil (canola), walnuts and so-called "omega-3" eggs (similar to wild-type or Cretan eggs). The amounts of EPA and DHA in the diet vary greatly from person to person. The only good sources are fish and seafood, together with "omega-3" eggs.

  6. [Elimination of all trans fatty acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, M B

    2008-02-09

    At the start of the 20th century, the production of trans fatty acids was originally largely driven by the increasing demand for margarine. The two Dutch margarine firms Van den Bergh and Jurgens played an important role in this early development. In the early 1990s it was shown that trans fatty acids increase the risk of heart disease. Unilever, the successor to Van den Bergh and Jurgens, then took the lead in eliminating trans fatty acids from retail foods worldwide. As a result, intake in The Netherlands fell from 15 g per day in 1980 to 3 g per day in 2003. Dairy products and meat are now the major source of trans fatty acids. The effects on health of these ruminant trans fatty acids are unclear. There are three lessons to be learned from the rise and fall of trans fatty acids. First, a history of safe use does not guarantee safety of food components, because routine surveillance will fail to detect adverse effects on common illnesses with long incubation periods. Second, it shows that it is more effective and easier to change the composition of foods than to change consumer behaviour. And third, governments can have a major impact on consumers' health by mandating the use of healthier food ingredients.

  7. Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auestad, N.

    1988-01-01

    Astrocytes were derived from cortex of two-day-old rat brain and grown in primary culture to confluence. The metabolism of the fatty acids, octanoate and palmitate, to CO{sub 2} in oxidative respiration and to the formation of ketone bodies was examined by radiolabeled tracer methodology. The net production of acetoacetate was also determined by measurement of its mass. The enzymes in the ketogenic pathway were examined by measuring enzymic activity and/or by immunoblot analyses. Labeled CO{sub 2} and labeled ketone bodies were produced from the oxidation of fatty acids labeled at carboxy- and {omega}-terminal carbons, indicating that fatty acids were oxidized by {beta}-oxidation. The results from the radiolabeled tracer studies also indicated that a substantial proportion of the {omega}-terminal 4-carbon unit of the fatty acids bypassed the {beta}-ketothiolase step of the {beta}-oxidation pathway. The ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the (1-{sup 14}C)labeled fatty acids, obligated to pass through the acetyl-CoA pool, contained 50% of the label at carbon 3 and 50% at carbon 1. In contrast, the ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the ({omega}-1)labeled fatty acids contained 90% of the label at carbon 3 and 10% at carbon 1.

  8. Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; McIntyre, M; Nicolosi, R J

    2001-01-01

    Trans fatty acids are found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, in meats, and in dairy products. Their effect on blood cholesterol concentrations was examined decades ago, but recently there has been renewed interest in understanding how trans fatty acids affect blood lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Current advice to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk includes decreasing the consumption of saturated and total fat to help manage blood cholesterol concentrations. Saturated fat contributes significantly to total fat intake and markedly raises blood cholesterol concentrations. Trans fatty acids, which are consumed in much smaller quantities, have been shown to be modestly hypercholesterolemic in studies that have substituted hydrogenated vegetable oils for unhydrogenated oils. In contrast, when partially hydrogenated vegetable oils containing trans fatty acids are substituted for cholesterol-raising saturated fats, blood cholesterol levels are reduced. Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils are used in place of saturated fat in many food products. These foods can help consumers lower their saturated fat intake to achieve dietary recommendations. The following review critically examines the role of hydrogenated fats in the food supply, the metabolism of trans fatty acids, and the scientific literature surrounding the effects of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and trans fatty acids on blood cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk.

  9. A novel cisplatin mediated apoptosis pathway is associated with acid sphingomyelinase and FAS proapoptotic protein activation in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurmann, L; Belkacemi, L; Adams, N R; Majmudar, P M; Moghaddas, S; Bose, R N

    2015-07-01

    Platinum-based anticancer drugs, including cisplatin and carboplatin, have been cornerstones in the treatment of solid tumors. We report here that these DNA-damaging agents, particularly cisplatin, induce apoptosis through plasma membrane disruption, triggering FAS death receptor via mitochondrial (intrinsic) pathways. Our objectives were to: quantify the composition of membrane metabolites; and determine the potential involvement of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) in the FAS-mediated apoptosis in ovarian cancer after cisplatin treatment. The resulting analysis revealed enhanced apoptosis as measured by: increased phosphocholine, and glycerophosphocholine; elevated cellular energetics; and phosphocreatine and nucleoside triphosphate concentrations. The plasma membrane alterations were accompanied by increased ASMase activity, leading to the upregulation of FAS, FASL and related pro-apoptotic BAX and PUMA genes. Moreover FAS, FASL, BAX, PUMA, CASPASE-3 and -9 proteins were upregulated. Our findings implicate ASMase activity and the intrinsic pathways in cisplatin-mediated membrane demise, and contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms by which ovarian tumors may become resistant to cisplatin.

  10. Analysis of Fatty Acid Content and Composition in Microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuer, G.; Evers, W.A.C.; Vree, de J.H.; Kleinegris, D.M.M.; Martens, D.E.; Wijffels, R.H.; Lamers, P.P.

    2013-01-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of c

  11. [Biology of essential fatty acids (EFA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobryniewski, Jacek; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    Essential Fatty Acids (EFA), are unsaturated fatty acids not produced by human being, but essential for proper functioning of the human body. To EFA-s belongs: linoleic acid (LA) (18:2,cis detla(9,12), omega6)--precursor o f gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) (18:3,cisA6,9,12, )6) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)(18:3,cisdelta(9, 12, 15), omega3)--product of dehydrogenation of linoleic acid (LA). Most important EFA is gamma-linolenic acid (GLA)--18 carbons, one-carboxylic, non-branched fatty acid with 3 double cis-bonds (the last is situated by 6-th carbon from methylic end). The diet devoided of EFA leads to decreased growth, skin and kidney injury and infertility. Modern research of GLA and others EFA's is concerned mainly on therapeutic impact on the inflammatory process. The biogenic amines, cytokines, prostaglandins, tromboxanes and leukotrienes are the main inflammatory mediators. The last three are described with the common name eicosanoides (eico-twenty). Eicosanoides are synthesized from 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acids: dihomo-gamma-linoleic (DGLA) (20:3, cis delta(8,11,14), omega6), arachidonic acid (AA-20:4, cis delta(5,8,11,14), omega6), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA-20:5, cis delta(5,8,11,14,17, omega3). Derivatives of gamma and gamma-linolenic acids regulate the inflammatory process, through their opposed activity. PG2, leucotrien C4 and tromboxan A2 have the strongest proinflammatory action. Derivatives of alpha-linolenic acid 15-HETE and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) have weak pro-inflammatory action, or even anti-inflammatory (PGE1), and additionally, they inhibit the transformation of arachidonic acid (AA) to leukotriens. delta6-desaturase (transformes linolenic acid into gamma-linolenic acid by making additional double bond) is the slowest step of the fatty acid metabolism. It's activity is impaired by many physiological and pathologic factors and leads to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) deficiency. The gamma-linolenic acid

  12. Nitro-fatty acid pharmacokinetics in the adipose tissue compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzari, Marco; Khoo, Nicholas K H; Woodcock, Steven R; Jorkasky, Diane K; Li, Lihua; Schopfer, Francisco J; Freeman, Bruce A

    2017-02-01

    Electrophilic nitro-FAs (NO2-FAs) promote adaptive and anti-inflammatory cell signaling responses as a result of an electrophilic character that supports posttranslational protein modifications. A unique pharmacokinetic profile is expected for NO2-FAs because of an ability to undergo reversible reactions including Michael addition with cysteine-containing proteins and esterification into complex lipids. Herein, we report via quantitative whole-body autoradiography analysis of rats gavaged with radiolabeled 10-nitro-[(14)C]oleic acid, preferential accumulation in adipose tissue over 2 weeks. To better define the metabolism and incorporation of NO2-FAs and their metabolites in adipose tissue lipids, adipocyte cultures were supplemented with 10-nitro-oleic acid (10-NO2-OA), nitro-stearic acid, nitro-conjugated linoleic acid, and nitro-linolenic acid. Then, quantitative HPLC-MS/MS analysis was performed on adipocyte neutral and polar lipid fractions, both before and after acid hydrolysis of esterified FAs. NO2-FAs preferentially incorporated in monoacyl- and diacylglycerides, while reduced metabolites were highly enriched in triacylglycerides. This differential distribution profile was confirmed in vivo in the adipose tissue of NO2-OA-treated mice. This pattern of NO2-FA deposition lends new insight into the unique pharmacokinetics and pharmacologic actions that could be expected for this chemically-reactive class of endogenous signaling mediators and synthetic drug candidates.

  13. Omega 3 fatty acids and the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay

    2008-01-01

    The health benefits of fish oil have been known for decades. Most of the health benefits of fish oil can be attributed to the presence of omega-3 essential fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Clinical studies have suggested that DHA and EPA lower triglycerides; slow the buildup of atherosclerotic plaques; lower blood pressure slightly; as well as reduce the risk of death, heart attack, and arrhythmias. Studies have also shown that omega-3 fatty acids may slow the progression of vision loss from AMD and reverse the signs of dry eye syndrome.

  14. Increased fatty acid synthase as a potential therapeutic target in multiple myeloma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-qin WANG; Xiao-ying ZHAO; Hai-yan WANG; Yun LIANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression in human multiple myeloma and verify its potential as a therapeutic target in multiple myeloma. Methods: FAS expression was determined by immunohistochemistry, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblot analysis in bone marrow samples obtained from 27 patients with multiple myeloma (MM patients) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 12 healthy donors. In parallel, additional analyses were performed on 2 human multiple myeloma cell lines, U266 and RPMI8226. U266 cells were treated with cerulenin at various concentrations (5 to 320μg/ml) for 24 h, and metabolic activity was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Apoptosis was evaluated by dual Annexin V/PI (propidium iodide) labeling and flow cytometry (FCM) in U266 cells treated with 20μg/ml cerulenin for 12 h or 24 h. Results: By immunohistochemistry, we found that 19 of 27 bone marrow samples obtained from MM patients expressed significantly high levels of FAS. Similarly, by RT-PCR, 22 of 27 bone marrow samples obtained from MM patients, U266 and RPMI8226 showed FAS expression, whereas PBMC samples from 12 healthy donors did not express detectable level of FAS. FAS protein expression was confirmed by immunoblot analysis in 16 of 27 bone marrow samples obtained from MM patients, U266 and RPMI8226 cell lines, and no FAS protein expression was detected in PBMC samples from 12 healthy donors. U266 cells were highly sensitive to cerulenin treatment, with a dosage-related effect on metabolic activity, as a measure for cell proliferation. U266 cells treated with20 μg/ml cerulenin for 12 and 24h also showed early sign of apoptosis with 56.9% and 69.3% Annexin V+/PI+ cells, and late apoptotic and necrotic cells with 3.2% and 17.6% Annexin V+/PI+ cells. Conclusion: Increased FAS expression existed in multiple myeloma samples and human myeloma cell lines

  15. Expression of fatty acid synthase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Christoph; Riener, Marc-Oliver; Kirovski, Georgi; Saugspier, Michael; Steib, Kathrin; Weiss, Thomas S; Gäbele, Erwin; Kristiansen, Glen; Hartmann, Arndt; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2010-03-25

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic lipid accumulation which starts with simple hepatic steatosis and may progress toward inflammation (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH]). Fatty acid synthase (FASN) catalyzes the last step in fatty acid biosynthesis, and thus, it is believed to be a major determinant of the maximal hepatic capacity to generate fatty acids by de novo lipogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between hepatic steatosis and inflammation with FASN expression. In vitro incubation of primary human hepatocytes with fatty acids dose-dependently induced cellular lipid-accumulation and FASN expression, while stimulation with TNF did not affect FASN levels. Further, hepatic FASN expression was significantly increased in vivo in a murine model of hepatic steatosis without significant inflammation but not in a murine NASH model as compared to control mice. Also, FASN expression was not increased in mice subjected to bile duct ligation, an experimental model characterized by severe hepatocellular damage and inflammation. Furthermore, FASN expression was analyzed in 102 human control or NAFLD livers applying tissue micro array technology and immunohistochemistry, and correlated significantly with the degree of hepatic steatosis, but not with inflammation or ballooning of hepatocytes. Quantification of FASN mRNA expression in human liver samples confirmed significantly higher FASN levels in hepatic steatosis but not in NASH, and expression of SREBP1, which is the main transcriptional regulator of FASN, paralleled FASN expression levels in human and experimental NAFLD. In conclusion, the transcriptional induction of FASN expression in hepatic steatosis is impaired in NASH, while hepatic inflammation in the absence of steatosis does not affect FASN expression, suggesting that FASN may serve as a new diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for the progression of NAFLD.

  16. Accumulation of fatty acids in purslane grown in hydroponic salt stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastácio, Ana; Carvalho, Isabel S

    2013-03-01

    Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is the eighth most common plant distributed throughout the world being a heat- and drought-tolerant plant. In this study, we evaluated the effect of salinity on total amounts of fatty acids (FAs) and ω3/ω6 ratio in leaves of purslane. Plants exposed to four levels of chloride salinity in the root zone (60, 90, 120 and 240 mM NaCl) for 40 days showed no signs of toxicity or death. The main FAs detected were C16:0>C18:3>C18:2. The ratio of ω6 to ω3 was not changed with salt stress. Hierarchic cluster analysis brought together 60 and 90 mM NaCl in control plants, based on their FA content. The results of this study confirm the purslane as a plant rich in FAs whose consumption may contribute to dietary intake of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, with obvious benefits to human health.

  17. Effect of estrogen on gene expression of fatty acid synthase in periosteum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Rui-min; LIN Shou-qing; LIU Yong; HUANG Man-ting; GONG Wei-yan; WU Zhi-hong

    2009-01-01

    Background Estrogen deficiency contributes to postmenopausal osteoporosis.Periosteum might be a potential target of estrogen,but the underlying mechanism at gene level is far from being elucidated.The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between estrogen and fatty acid synthase(FAS)expression in periosteum.Methods Human periosteum cells were cultured in vitro.Expressed genes in the substrated cDNA library were verified using semi-quantitative PCR and real-time PCR.The expression of FAS in periosteum of ovarectomized(OVX)SD rats was investigated.Results FAS gene was most significantly expressed in the subtracted cDNA library of periosteal cells screened by semi-quantitative PCR.Low FAS expression was verified by real-time PCR in the estrogen exposed human periosteum rather than in the control.The estradiol levels were(20.81±12.62)pg/ml,(19.64±4.35)pg/ml and(13.47+1.84)pg/ml in the sham group,the control,and the OVX group,respectively.The estradiol levels in the OVX group was significantly lower(P=0.0386).The FAS gene expression in periosteum in the OVX group,sham group,and control group was 3.09±1.97,1.33±0.47 and 1.51±1.32,respectively.The gene expression in the OVX group was significantly higher (P=0.0372).Conclusion Estrogen modulates FAS gene expression in in vitro human perisoteum as well as in in vivo rat periosteum.

  18. [Omega-3 fatty acids in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2005-02-01

    The brain is one of the organs with the highest level of lipids (fats). Brain lipids, formed of fatty acids, participate in the structure of membranes, for instance 50 % fatty acids are polyunsaturated in the gray matter, 1/3 are of the omega-3 family, and are thus of dietary origin. The omega-3 fatty acids (mainly alpha-linolenic acid, ALA) participated in one of the first experimental demonstration of the effect of dietary substances (nutrients) on the structure and function of the brain. Experiments were first of all carried out on ex vivo cultured brain cells, then on in vivo brain cells (neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) from animals fed ALA deficient diet, finally on physicochemical (membrane fluidity), biochemical, physiological, neurosensory (vision an auditory responses), and behavioural or learning parameters. These findings indicated that the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids (in particular omega-3) present in formula milks for human infants determines to a certain extend the visual, neurological, and intellectual abilities. Thus, in view of these results and of the high polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the brain, it is normal to consider that they could be involved in psychiatric diseases and in the cognitive decline of ageing. Omega-3 fatty acids appear effective in the prevention of stress, however their role as regulator of mood is a matter for discussion. Indeed, they play a role in the prevention of some disorders including depression (especially post partum), as well as in dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease. Their role in major depression and bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disease), only poorly documented, is not clearly demonstrated. The intervention of omega-3 in dyslexia, autism, and schizophrenia has been suggested, but it does not necessarily infer a nutritional problems. The respective importance of the vascular system (where the omega-3 are actually active) and the cerebral parenchyma itself, remain to be

  19. Production of unusual fatty acids in rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roscoe Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable-derived oils are of interest for industrial applications partly because of the chemical similarity of plant oils to mineral oils but also because of the economic need to reduce overproduction of seed oils for nutritional use. Complex oils can be produced in seeds as a low cost agricultural product based on renewable solar energy that requires less refining and is biodegradable and thus produces less adverse effects on the environment. In addition, biotechnologies have accelerated selection programmes and increased the genetic diversity available for the development of new varieties of oilseeds with specific fatty acid compositions. In the developing oilseed, energy and carbon are stored as lipid under the form of triacylglycerol, that is, a glycerol molecule to which three fatty acids are esterified. Fatty acids comprise a linear chain of carbon atoms, the first of which carries an organic acid group. The chain length and the presence of double bonds determine the properties of the fatty acid which in turn determine the physical and chemical properties of the oil of storage lipids and hence their economic value. In addition to the common C16- and C18-saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of membrane lipids, the seed storage lipids of many plant species contain unusual fatty acids (UFAs which can vary in chain length, in the degree of unsaturation, possess double bonds in unusual positions, or can contain additional functional groups such as hydroxy, epoxy, cyclic and acetylenic groups [1]. These unusual fatty acids are of value as industrial feedstocks and their uses include the production of fuels and lubricants, soap and detergents, paints and varnishes, adhesives and plastics (Figure 1.

  20. Digestion and absorption of fatty acids in the ruminant

    OpenAIRE

    Cuvelier, Christine; Cabaraux, Jean-François; Dufrasne, Isabelle; Istasse, Louis; Hornick, Jean-Luc

    2005-01-01

    From a biochemical point of view, in ruminants, there are two major groups of fatty acids. They are firstly the volatile fatty acids from the rumen metabolism of dietary carbohydrates, and secondly the fatty acids from the rumen metabolism of lipids. This second group is made of the fatty acids synthesized by the microorganisms of the rumen and the fatty acids originating from the hydrolysis of dietary triacylglycerols, which are mostly hydrogenated by microorganisms in the rumen before intes...

  1. Associations of fatty acids in cerebrospinal fluid with peripheral glucose concentrations and energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Jumpertz

    Full Text Available Rodent experiments have emphasized a role of central fatty acid (FA species, such as oleic acid, in regulating peripheral glucose and energy metabolism. Thus, we hypothesized that central FAs are related to peripheral glucose regulation and energy expenditure in humans. To test this we measured FA species profiles in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma of 32 individuals who stayed in our clinical inpatient unit for 6 days. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and glucose regulation by an oral glucose test (OGTT followed by measurements of 24 hour (24EE and sleep energy expenditure (SLEEP as well as respiratory quotient (RQ in a respiratory chamber. CSF was obtained via lumbar punctures; FA concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. As expected, FA concentrations were higher in plasma compared to CSF. Individuals with high concentrations of CSF very-long-chain saturated FAs had lower rates of SLEEP. In the plasma moderate associations of these FAs with higher 24EE were observed. Moreover, CSF monounsaturated long-chain FA (palmitoleic and oleic acid concentrations were associated with lower RQs and lower glucose area under the curve during the OGTT. Thus, FAs in the CSF strongly correlated with peripheral metabolic traits. These physiological parameters were most specific to long-chain monounsaturated (C16:1, C18:1 and very-long-chain saturated (C24:0, C26:0 FAs.Together with previous animal experiments these initial cross-sectional human data indicate that central FA species are linked to peripheral glucose and energy homeostasis.

  2. Amino and fatty acids in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    Analyses of two carbonaceous meteorites have provided much of the latest evidence which seems to support Oparin's theory on the origin of life. The meteorites involved are the Murray meteorite, which fell in 1950, and the Murchison meteorite, which fell in 1969. The amino acids in the two meteorites are similar in composition. Eight of the twenty amino acids found belong to amino acids present in proteins. A number of monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic fatty acids were also found in the meteorites.

  3. Altered heart and kidney phospholipid fatty acid composition are associated with cardiac hypertrophy in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Oh Yoen; Jung, Young-Sang; Cho, Yoonsu; Chung, Ji Hyung; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2013-08-01

    We examined the association of cardiac hypertrophy or fibrosis with the phospholipid fatty acid (FA) composition of heart and kidney in hypertensive rats. Eight-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) (n=8) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs, n=8) as a normotensive control, were fed ad libitum for 6 weeks with regular AIN-76 diet. Phospholipid FA compositions in the left ventricle and kidney were measured and histological analyses were performed. Compared with WKYs, SHRs had lower proportions of γ-linolenic acid, α-linolenic acid, eicosadienoic acid, eicosatrienoic acid, dihomo-γ-linoleic acid, docosadienoic acid and nervonic acid in heart, and stearic acid (SA), γ-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in kidney. After adjusting for food intake, SHRs still maintained higher proportions of SA, and total saturated FAs in the heart and a lower proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid in the kidney. Additionally, compared with WKYs, SHRs showed larger cardiomyocyte diameters in the left ventricles, indicating cardiac hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Cardiomyocyte diameters also positively correlated with cardiac SA (r=0.550, pcardiac hypertrophy in a hypertensive setting, implicating the pathogenic role of tissue FAs in hypertension and related complications. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Proportions of rumen volatile fatty acids in relation to milk fatty acid profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaeminck, B.; Fievez, V.; Dhanoa, M.S.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dewhurst, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted in order to develop and validate principal component (PC) regressions for predicting rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) proportions, based on a combination of milk odd and branched chain fatty acids (MOBCFA). Grass- or legume silage and concentrate-based diets were fed

  5. Effect of precipitation, geographical location and biosynthesis on New Zealand milk powder bulk and fatty acids D/H ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, R.; Emad Ehtesham, R.; Van Hale, R.; Hayman, A.; Baisden, T.

    2012-04-01

    D/H ratio measurements provide useful information for the investigation of biogeochemical influences on natural and agricultural produce, particularly with application to food traceability and authentication. Numerous studies have shown that variation of a product's D/H ratio is influenced by both environmental factors and biological processes. This study investigates the D/H ratio of New Zealand milk powder and individual fatty acids, and causal determinants of isotopic variation. One of the key environmental factors is precipitation, and the D/H ratio "isoscaping" of NZ has been undertaken. New Zealand provides a unique geography for these kinds of study in terms of proximity to the ocean and natural geographical variability from sea level to elevations as high as 3700 m. Milk powder samples were collected from different geographical regions from milk processing units, which were supplied by producers in the immediate region. H/D ratios of bulk milk powder and of individual fatty acids were determined. Initial comparison of the precipitation and milk powder bulk D/H data show a very good differentiation from north to southernmost parts of New Zealand and a relation between rain and milk bulk D/H abundance ratio. Almost 98% of milk FAs are in the form of triglycerides that have been extracted and hydrolysed to free FAs. Free FAs were esterified and analyzed with GC-IRMS. Individual FAs show variation in D/H ratio, and all values are depleted relative to the precipitation data. The difference in D/H ratio amongst individual FAs reflects the geographical environment and biological processes i.e. micro-organisms activity in the rumen of the cow. Short chain FAs (less than 8 carbons), particularly C4 (Butyric acid), appear to be key determinants. The variation in the data can be rationalized using statistical multivariate analysis.

  6. Mercaptoacetate blocks fatty acid-induced GLP-1 secretion in male rats by directly antagonizing GPR40 fatty acid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Jun; Wang, Qing; Dinh, Thu T; Simasko, Steve M; Ritter, Sue

    2016-04-15

    Mercaptoacetate (MA) is an orexigenic agent reported to block fatty acid (FA) oxidation. Recently, however, we reported evidence from isolated nodose ganglion neurons that MA antagonizes the G protein-coupled long- and medium-chain FA receptor GPR40. GPR40 mediates FA-induced secretion of the satietogenic incretin peptide glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), by enteroendocrine L cells, as well as FA-induced enhancement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Our results in cultured nodose neurons suggest that MA would also block GPR40 in enteroendocrine cells controlling GLP-1 secretion. If so, this would suggest an alternative mechanism by which MA increases food intake. We tested the hypothesis that MA blocks FA-induced GLP-1 secretion in vitro using cultured STC-1 cells (a murine enteroendocrine cell line) and in vivo in adult male rats. In vitro, MA blocked the increase in both cytosolic Ca(2+)and GLP-1 release stimulated by FAs and also reduced (but less effectively) the response of STC-1 cells to grifolic acid, a partial agonist of the GPR120 FA receptor. In vivo, MA reduced GLP-1 secretion following olive oil gavage while also increasing glucose and decreasing insulin levels. The carnitine palmatoyltransferase 1 antagonist etomoxir did not alter these responses. Results indicate that MA's actions, including its orexigenic effect, are mediated by GPR40 (and possibly GPR120) receptor antagonism and not by blockade of fat oxidation, as previously believed. Analysis of MA's interaction with GPR40 may facilitate understanding of the multiple functions of this receptor and the manner in which FAs participate in the control of hunger and satiety.

  7. Plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids reflect intakes of saturated and n-6 PUFA within a similar time frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Leanne; Eyles, Helen C; McLachlan, Kirsten J; Bell, Melanie L; Green, Timothy J; Skeaff, C Murray

    2014-01-01

    Erythrocytes, compared with plasma, are considered more robust markers of n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake, because dietary-induced change in fatty acid (FA) composition takes longer to complete. The extent to which this applies to intakes of saturated fatty acid (SFA) or n-6 PUFA is unclear. We compared the pattern of change over time in the fatty acid composition of plasma, erythrocyte, buccal cell, and adipose tissue lipids when changing between diets high in SFA or n-6 PUFA. Twenty-four (n = 7 male) healthy participants were instructed to consume either an SFA-rich (18% energy) or n-6 PUFA-rich (10% energy) diet for 8 wk before crossing over, without washout, to the alternate diet. The FA composition of plasma triacylglycerol (TG), nonesterified FAs, cholesterol ester, total phospholipids, erythrocyte total phospholipids, erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine, and buccal cell total phospholipids was measured every 2 wk and adipose tissue TG every 4 wk during the 16-wk intervention. Linoleic acid composition of plasma, erythrocyte, and buccal cell lipids increased (P acid composition of plasma and erythrocyte lipids; however, the pentadecanoic acid composition of buccal cell lipids did not differ between the diet periods. There were no differences in linoleic or pentadecanoic acid composition of adipose tissue TG. These results suggest plasma and erythrocyte FAs reflect intakes of SFA and n-6 PUFA over a similar period of time.

  8. Lipids and fatty acids in Calanus sinicus during over-summering in the southern Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Li, Chaolun; Liu, Mengtan; Jin, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Over-summering is a crucial period for Calanus sinicus in the southern Yellow Sea, where it is a key member of the zooplankton community. Lipids play an important role in copepod diapause, which is part of their over-summering strategy. We investigated how different fatty acids and lipid classes, including wax esters, changed during over-summering of C. sinicus during three cruises in June and August 2011 and November 2010, corresponding to the pre-, during and post- diapause periods, respectively. Large amounts of lipids were accumulated, mainly wax esters as previously found in C. finmarchicus during its diapause, and most of the storage lipids were used during over-summering. Wax ester polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) showed the most variation of the fatty acids (FAs), while the percentage composition of FAs in polar lipids was relatively stable. Selective use of wax ester PUFAs has already been shown to play important roles in the winter diapause of Calanus species in other regions, and our FA results show that this is the case for the YSCBW population that diapauses in summer.

  9. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

    2002-10-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

  10. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Weston, AU); Boddupalli, Sekhar S. (Manchester, MI)

    2011-08-23

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  11. Fatty acid metabolism and its longitudinal relationship with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in major depression : Associations with prospective antidepressant response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocking, Roel J. T.; Verburg, Hanka F.; Westerink, Anne M.; Assies, Johanna; Vaz, Frederic M.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Schene, Aart H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metabolism of dietary fatty acids (FAs), and its relationship with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, have been found to be altered in major depressive disorder (MDD). Moreover, indications exist that these factors are associated with antidepressant-response. If we better und

  12. Lipid fatty acid profile analyses in liver and serum in rats with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis using improved gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acids (FA) are essential components of lipids and exhibit important biological functions. The analyses of FAs are routinely carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, after multi-step sample preparation. In this study, several key experimental factors were carefully examined, validat...

  13. Effects of rice bran on performance, egg quality, oxidative status, yolk fatty acid composition, and fatty acid metabolism-related gene expression in laying ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, D; Lin, Y C; Chen, W; Wang, S; Xia, W G; Fouad, A M; Zheng, C T

    2015-12-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effects of different dietary levels of rice bran (RB) in laying duck diets on performance, egg quality, oxidation status, egg yolk fatty acid composition, and hepatic expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes. Longyan females (1080) with similar BW at 19 wk of age were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments, each consisting of 6 replicates of 30 birds. The basal diet (I) was a typical corn-soybean ration while the experimental diets (II to VI) substituted RB for corn and wheat bran and a small reduction of soybean meal. The level of substitution in diets (II to VI) was 6%, 12%, 18%, 24%, and 30%, respectively. The experiment lasted for 12 wks. Average egg weight and daily egg mass decreased linearly as the level of RB inclusion increased (Pegg yolk linearly decreased with increasing RB, and many of the key polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), like C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3, linearly increased (Pegg yolk cholesterol or triglyceride content (P>0.05). In conclusion, the current study suggests that ducks from 19 to 31 wk could be fed diets with up to about 18% RB without effect on the number of eggs produced, egg quality, and oxidative status. Increasing amounts of RB linearly increased egg yolk concentrations of key fatty acids like C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 and decreased the hepatic abundance of FAS and SREBP-1 transcripts.

  14. Land-use impacts on fatty acid profiles of suspended particulate organic matter along a larger tropical river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boëchat, Iola; Krüger, Angela; Chavez, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    . Here, we analyzed land-use effects on the fatty acid (FA) composition and concentrations in suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) along a fourth-order tropical river, the Rio das Mortes. Thereby, we aimed at testing the potential of fatty acids in riverine suspended particulate organic matter...... (SPOM-FAs) as indicators of land-use change in tropical catchments, and at identifying major human impacts on the biochemical composition of SPOM, which represents an important basal energy and organic matter resource for aquatic consumers. River water SPOM and total FA concentrations ranged between 2...

  15. Therapeutic Benefits Of ?-3 Fatty Acids from Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Samanta S Khora

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids play important roles in human nutrition and disease management. Fish are rich in Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LC- PUFAs). Marine fish are the best source of these fatty acids. They typically include eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The major health maintenance and prevention of diseases recognized in EPA and DHA. These forms of fatty acids have excellent body usability com...

  16. Unusual fatty acid substitution in lipids and lipopolysaccharides of Helicobacter pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Geis, G; Leying, H; Suerbaum, S; Opferkuch, W

    1990-01-01

    Cellular fatty acids, phospholipid fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharide fatty acids of four strains of Helicobacter pylori were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The presence of myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid, beta-hydroxypalmitic acid, and beta-hydroxystearic acid was confirmed. In phospholipids, myristic acid and 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid were the major fatty acids. Hydroxy fatty acids and unsaturated fatt...

  17. Fatty acids from fat cell lipolysis do not activate an inflammatory response but are stored as triacylglycerols in adipose tissue macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar-Bauguil, Sylvie; Kolditz, Catherine-Ines; Lefort, Corinne; Vila, Isabelle; Mouisel, Etienne; Beuzelin, Diane; Tavernier, Geneviève; Marques, Marie-Adeline; Zakaroff-Girard, Alexia; Pecher, Christiane; Houssier, Marianne; Mir, Lucile; Nicolas, Sarah; Moro, Cédric; Langin, Dominique

    2015-11-01

    Activation of macrophages by fatty acids (FAs) is a potential mechanism linking obesity to adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and insulin resistance. Here, we investigated the effects of FAs released during adipocyte lipolysis on AT macrophages (ATMs). Human THP-1 macrophages were treated with media from human multipotent adipose-derived stem (hMADS) adipocytes stimulated with lipolytic drugs. Macrophages were also treated with mixtures of FAs and an inhibitor of Toll-like receptor 4, since this receptor is activated by saturated FAs. Levels of mRNA and the secretion of inflammation-related molecules were measured in macrophages. FA composition was determined in adipocytes, conditioned media and macrophages. The effect of chronic inhibition or acute activation of fat cell lipolysis on ATM response was investigated in vivo in mice. Whereas palmitic acid alone activates THP-1, conditioned media from hMADS adipocyte lipolysis had no effect on IL, chemokine and cytokine gene expression, and secretion by macrophages. Mixtures of FAs representing de novo lipogenesis or habitual dietary conditions also had no effect. FAs derived from adipocyte lipolysis were taken up by macrophages and stored as triacylglycerol droplets. In vivo, chronic treatment with an antilipolytic drug did not modify gene expression and number of ATMs in mice with intact or defective Tlr4. Stimulation of adipocyte lipolysis increased storage of neutral lipids by macrophages without change in number and phenotype. Our data suggest that adipocyte lipolysis does not activate inflammatory pathways in ATMs, which instead may act as scavengers of FAs.

  18. Probing fatty acid metabolism in bacteria, cyanobacteria, green microalgae and diatoms with natural and unnatural fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beld, Joris; Abbriano, Raffaela; Finzel, Kara; Hildebrand, Mark; Burkart, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fatty acid synthases are responsible for the biosynthesis of fatty acids in an iterative process, extending the fatty acid by two carbon units every cycle. Thus, odd numbered fatty acids are rarely found in nature. We tested whether representatives of diverse microbial phyla have the ability to incorporate odd-chain fatty acids as substrates for their fatty acid synthases and their downstream enzymes. We fed various odd and short chain fatty acids to the bacterium Escherichia coli, cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Major differences were observed, specifically in the ability among species to incorporate and elongate short chain fatty acids. We demonstrate that E. coli, C. reinhardtii, and T. pseudonana can produce longer fatty acid products from short chain precursors (C3 and C5), while Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 lacks this ability. However, Synechocystis can incorporate and elongate longer chain fatty acids due to acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasS) activity, and knockout of this protein eliminates the ability to incorporate these fatty acids. In addition, expression of a characterized AasS from Vibrio harveyii confers a similar capability to E. coli. The ability to desaturate exogenously added fatty acids was only observed in Synechocystis and C. reinhardtii. We further probed fatty acid metabolism of these organisms by feeding desaturase inhibitors to test the specificity of long-chain fatty acid desaturases. In particular, supplementation with thia fatty acids can alter fatty acid profiles based on the location of the sulfur in the chain. We show that coupling sensitive gas chromatography mass spectrometry to supplementation of unnatural fatty acids can reveal major differences between fatty acid metabolism in various organisms. Often unnatural fatty acids have antibacterial or even therapeutic properties. Feeding of short

  19. Profiling of Fatty Acids Composition in Suet Oil Based on GC–EI-qMS and Chemometrics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid (FA composition of suet oil (SO was measured by precolumn methylesterification (PME optimized using a Box–Behnken design (BBD and gas chromatography/electron ionization-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC–EI-qMS. A spectral library (NIST 08 and standard compounds were used to identify FAs in SO representing 90.89% of the total peak area. The ten most abundant FAs were derivatized into FA methyl esters (FAMEs and quantified by GC–EI-qMS; the correlation coefficient of each FAME was 0.999 and the lowest concentration quantified was 0.01 μg/mL. The range of recovery of the FAMEs was 82.1%–98.7% (relative standard deviation 2.2%–6.8%. The limits of quantification (LOQ were 1.25–5.95 μg/L. The number of carbon atoms in the FAs identified ranged from 12 to 20; hexadecanoic and octadecanoic acids were the most abundant. Eighteen samples of SO purchased from Qinghai, Anhui and Jiangsu provinces of China were categorized into three groups by principal component analysis (PCA according to the contents of the most abundant FAs. The results showed SOs samples were rich in FAs with significantly different profiles from different origins. The method described here can be used for quality control and SO differentiation on the basis of the FA profile.

  20. Relationship of lipogenic enzyme activities to the rate of rat liver fatty acid synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, G.; Kelley, D.; Schmidt, P.; Virk, S.; Serrato, C.

    1986-05-01

    The mechanism by which diet regulates liver lipogenesis is unclear. Here the authors report how dietary alterations effect the activities of key enzymes of fatty acid (FA) synthesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 400-500 g, were fasted for 48h and then refed a fat-free, high carbohydrate (HC) diet (75% cal. from sucrose) for 0,3,9,24 and 48h, or refed a HC diet for 48h, then fed a high-fat (HF) diet (44% cal. from corn oil) for 3,9,24 and 48h. The FA synthesis rate and the activities of acetyl CoA carboxylase (AC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), ATP citrate lyase (CL), and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) were determined in the livers. FA synthesis was assayed with /sup 3/H/sub 2/O, enzyme activities were measured spectrophotometrically except for AC which was assayed with /sup 14/C-bicarbonate. There was no change in the activity of AC during fasting or on the HC diet. Fasting decreased the rate of FA synthesis by 25% and the activities of FAS and CL by 50%; refeeding the HC diet induced parallel changes in FA synthesis and the activities of FAS, CL, and G6PDH. After 9h on the HF diet, FA synthesis had decreased sharply, AC activity increased significantly while no changes were detected in the other activities. Subsequently FA synthesis did not change while the activities of the enzymes decreased slowly. These enzymes did not appear to regulate FA synthesis during inhibition of lipogenesis, but FAS, CL or G6PDH may be rate limiting in the induction phase. Other key factors may regulate FA synthesis during dietary alterations.

  1. Jinggangmycin increases fecundity of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) via fatty acid synthase gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Jiang, Yiping; Liu, Zongyu; You, Linlin; Wu, You; Xu, Bing; Ge, Linquan; Stanley, David; Song, Qisheng; Wu, Jincai

    2016-01-01

    The antibiotic jinggangmycin (JGM) is mainly used in controlling the rice sheath blight, Rhizoctonia solani, in China. JGM also enhances reproduction of the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). To date, however, molecular mechanisms of the enhancement are unclear. Our related report documented the influence of foliar JGM sprays on ovarian protein content. Here, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) protocols to analyze ovarian proteins of BPH females following JGM spray (JGM-S) and topical application (JGM-T). We recorded changes in expression of 284 proteins (142↑ and 142↓) in JGM-S compared to the JGM-S control group (S-control); 267 proteins were differentially expressed (130↑ and 137↓) in JGM-T compared to the JGM-T control group (T-control), of which, 22 proteins were up-regulated in both groups. Comparing the JGM-S to the JGM-T group, 114 proteins were differentially expressed (62↑ and 52↓). Based on the biological significance of fatty acids, pathway annotation and enrichment analysis, we designed a dsRNA construct to silence a gene encoding fatty acid synthase (FAS). FAS was more highly expressed in JGM-S vs S-control and JGM-S vs JGM-T groups. The dsFAS treatment reduced fecundity by about 46% and reduced ovarian and fat body fatty acid concentrations in JGM-S-treated females relative to controls. We infer FAS provides critically needed fatty acids to support JGM-enhanced fecundity in BPH.

  2. Prevalent mutations in fatty acid oxidation disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, N; Andresen, B S; Bross, P

    2000-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The mutational spectrum in a given disease-associated gene is often comprised of a large number of different mutations, of which a single or a few are present in a large proportion of diseased individuals. Such prevalent mutations are known in four genes of the fatty acid oxidation: t...... of the disease in question and determination of the carrier frequency in the general population may help in elucidating the penetrance of the genotype. This is exemplified in disorders of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation....

  3. Fatty acids, eicosanoids and PPAR gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion-Letellier, Rachel; Savoye, Guillaume; Ghosh, Subrata

    2016-08-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) belongs to the family of nuclear nuclear receptors and is mainly expressed in adipose tissue, hematopoietic cells and the large intestine. Contrary to other nuclear receptors that mainly bind a single specific ligand, there are numerous natural PPARγ ligands, in particular fatty acids or their derivatives called eicosanoids. PPARγ have pleiotropic functions: (i) glucose and lipid metabolism regulation, (ii) anti-inflammatory properties, (iii) oxidative stress inhibition, (iv) improvement of endothelial function. Its role has been mainly studied by the use synthetic agonists. In this review, we will focus on the effects of PPARγ mediated through fatty acids and how these have beneficial health properties.

  4. SLC27 fatty acid transport proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Courtney M; Stahl, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The uptake and metabolism of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) are critical to many physiological and cellular processes. Aberrant accumulation or depletion of LCFA underlie the pathology of numerous metabolic diseases. Protein-mediated transport of LCFA has been proposed as the major mode of LCFA uptake and activation. Several proteins have been identified to be involved in LCFA uptake. This review focuses on the SLC27 family of fatty acid transport proteins, also known as FATPs, with an emphasis on the gain- and loss-of-function animal models that elucidate the functions of FATPs in vivo and how these transport proteins play a role in physiological and pathological situations.

  5. Fatty acid composition of forage herb species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, D.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Cone, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy......, Phleum pratense) were sown in a cutting trial. The chemical composition and concentration of fatty acids (FA) of individual species were determined during the growing season. Concentrations of crude protein and FA were generally higher in the herbs than in timothy. C. intybus had the highest nutritive...

  6. Fatty acids and coronary heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Woodside, J.V.; Kromhout, D

    2005-01-01

    During the last century much evidence has accumulated to suggest that from a public health perspective the type of fat is more important than the amount of fat. Saturated and trans-fatty acids increase and both n-6 and n-3 PUFA decrease the risk of CHD. Most of the knowledge about the effects of dietary fatty acids on CHD risk is based on observational studies and controlled dietary experiments with intermediate end points (e.g. blood lipoprotein fractions). Information from high-quality rand...

  7. The clinical relevance of omega-3 fatty acids in the management of hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, James; Anzalone, Deborah; Hilleman, Daniel; Catini, Julia

    2016-07-22

    Hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides > 150 mg/dL) affects ~25 % of the United States (US) population and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥ 500 mg/dL) is also a risk factor for pancreatitis. Three omega-3 fatty acid (OM3FA) prescription formulations are approved in the US for the treatment of adults with severe hypertriglyceridemia: (1) OM3FA ethyl esters (OM3EE), a mixture of OM3FA ethyl esters, primarily eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (Lovaza®, Omtryg™, and generics); (2) icosapent ethyl (IPE), EPA ethyl esters (Vascepa®); and (3) omega-3 carboxylic acids (OM3CA), a mixture of OM3FAs in free fatty acid form, primarily EPA, DHA, and docosapentaenoic acid (Epanova®). At approved doses, all formulations substantially reduce triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein levels. DHA-containing formulations may also increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, this is not accompanied by increased non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which is thought to provide a better indication of cardiovascular risk in this patient population. Proposed mechanisms of action of OM3FAs include inhibition of diacylglycerol acyltransferase, increased plasma lipoprotein lipase activity, decreased hepatic lipogenesis, and increased hepatic β-oxidation. OM3CA bioavailability (area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to the last measurable concentration) is up to 4-fold greater than that of OM3FA ethyl esters, and unlike ethyl esters, the absorption of OM3CA is not dependent on pancreatic lipase hydrolysis. All three formulations are well tolerated (the most common adverse events are gastrointestinal) and demonstrate a lack of drug-drug interactions with other lipid-lowering drugs, such as statins and fibrates. OM3FAs appear to be an effective treatment option for patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia.

  8. Long-term high fructose and saturated fat diet affects plasma fatty acid profile in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabrice TRANCHIDA; Léopold TCHIAKPE; Zo RAKOTONIAINA; Valérie DEYRIS; Olivier RAVION; Abel HIOL

    2012-01-01

    As the consumption of fructose and saturated fatty acids (FAs) has greatly increased in western diets and is linked with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome,the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a moderate (10 weeks) and a prolonged (30 weeks) high fructose and saturated fatty acid (HFS) diet on plasma FA composition in rats.The effects of a few weeks of HFS diet had already been described,but in this paper we tried to establish whether these effects persist or if they are modified after 10 or 30 weeks.We hypothesized that the plasma FA profile would be altered between 10 and 30 weeks of the HFS diet.Rats fed with either the HFS or a standard diet were tested after 10 weeks and again after 30 weeks.After 10 weeks of feeding,HFS-fed rats developed the metabolic syndrome,as manifested by an increase in fasting insulinemia,total cholesterol and triglyceride levels,as well as by impaired glucose tolerance.Furthermore,the plasma FA profile of the HFS group showed higher proportions of monounsaturated FAs like palmitoleic acid [16:1(n-7)] and oleic acid [18:1(n-9)],whereas the proportions of some polyunsaturated n-6 FAs,such as linoleic acid [18:2(n-6)] and arachidonic acid [20:4(n-6)],were lower than those in the control group.After 30 weeks of the HFS diet,we observed changes mainly in the levels of 16:1(n-7) (decreased)and 20:4(n-6) (increased).Together,our results suggest that an HFS diet could lead to an adaptive response of the plasma FA profile over time,in association with the development of the metabolic syndrome.

  9. Temporal dynamics of amino and fatty acid composition in the razor clam Ensis siliqua (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Miguel; Repolho, Tiago; Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Lopes, Vanessa M.; Narciso, Luis; Marques, António; Bandarra, Narcisa; Rosa, Rui

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have been conducted on the temporal dynamics of both amino acid (AA) and fatty acid (FA) profiles in marine bivalves. We investigated the seasonal variation of these compounds in the pod razor clam Ensis siliqua in relation to food availability, salinity, water temperature and reproductive cycle. AA content varied between 46.94 and 54.67 % dry weight (DW), and the AAs found in greater quantity were glutamic acid, glycine and aspartic acid. FA content varied between 34.02 and 87.94 mg g-1 DW and the FAs found in greater quantity were 16:0 and 22:6 n-3. Seasonal trends were observed for AAs and FAs. FAs increased with gametogenesis and decreased with spawning while AA content increased throughout spawning. The effect of increasing temperature and high food availability during the spawning season masked the loss of AAs resulting from gamete release. Still, a comparatively greater increase in the contents of glutamic acid and leucine with spawning indicate their possible involvement in a post-spawning gonad recovery mechanism. A post-spawning decrease in 14:0, 16:0, 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-7 and 18:1 n-9 is indicative of the importance of these FAs in bivalve eggs. An increase in 18:3 n-3, 18:4 n-3, 20:1 n-9 and 20:2 n-6 during gametogenesis suggests their involvement in oocyte maturation. The FA 22:4 n-6, while increasing with spawning, appears to play a role in post-spawning gonad recovery. Salinity did not have an effect on the AA composition. None of the environmental parameters measured had an effect on FA composition.

  10. Effect of dietary fatty acids on serum parameters, fatty acid compositions, and liver histology in Shaoxing laying ducks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-meng LIU; Guo-qin LI; De-qian WANG; Jin-jun LI; Yong TIAN; Shu-jing LAI; Li-zhi LU; Fang-xiong SHI; Jing ZHANG; Yu LIU; Bo YU; Zheng-rong TAO; Jun-da SHEN

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different fatty acid (FA) contents in diet on serum parameters,FA compositions of eggs and meat,and liver morphological changes were studied in Shaoxing laying ducks.A total of 264 ducks at 17 weeks were fed a control diet or a diet containing 30 g/kg fish oil (FO),25 g/kg sunflower oil (SO),or 30 g/kg palm oil with 20 g/kg beef tallow (PBO).Malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the liver and the serum of ducks fed the PBO diet was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of ducks fed the other diets.Triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were significantly lower (P<0.05) in ducks fed the FO diet.Serum TC also was lower in ducks fed the SO diet.Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was also affected by diets.The contents of polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) in eggs and meat were significantly higher (P<0.001) in ducks fed the FO and SO diets than in ducks fed the control diet.The level of C22:6 (n-3) FA in ducks fed the FO diet was significantly higher than that in ducks fed the other diets.However,the conversion efficiency of the longer-chain C20:5 (n-3) FA was higher than that of C22:6 (n-3).Ducks fed the PBO diet exhibited lipid droplet accumulation in the liver.These results demonstrate that a diet enriched with different FAs has strong effects on serum lipid levels and the deposition of PUFAs into tissue lipids.

  11. Breeds and muscle types modulate performance of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict the fatty acid composition of bovine meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourot, B P; Gruffat, D; Durand, D; Chesneau, G; Mairesse, G; Andueza, D

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy feasibility for predicting beef fatty acid (FA) composition. Experimental scheme included four breeds (Angus, Blond d'Aquitaine, Charolais, Limousin) and three muscles, Longissimus thoracis (LT), Rectus abdominis (RA), Semitendinosus (ST). The results showed that 1) increasing FA content variability with several breeds increased calibration model reliability (R(2)CV>0.86) for the major individual and groups of FA unless polyunsaturated FAs, 2) Longissimus thoracis FAs were better predicted than RA FAs while no ST FAs were correctly predicted (R(2)CV<0.71). This difference could be explained by FA content, FA variability or specific muscle physico-chemical characteristics.

  12. Technological Aspects of Chemoenzymatic Epoxidation of Fatty Acids, Fatty Acid Esters and Vegetable Oils: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Milchert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The general subject of the review is analysis of the effect of technological parameters on the chemoenzymatic epoxidation processes of vegetable oils, fatty acids and alkyl esters of fatty acids. The technological parameters considered include temperature, concentration, amount of hydrogen peroxide relative to the number of unsaturated bonds, the amounts of enzyme catalysts, presence of solvent and amount of free fatty acids. Also chemical reactions accompanying the technological processes are discussed together with different technological options and significance of the products obtained.

  13. Flavonoid inhibitors as novel antimycobacterial agents targeting Rv0636, a putative dehydratase enzyme involved in Mycobacterium tuberculosis fatty acid synthase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alistair K; Papaemmanouil, Athina; Bhowruth, Veemal; Bhatt, Apoorva; Dover, Lynn G; Besra, Gurdyal S

    2007-10-01

    Flavonoids comprise a large group of bioactive polyphenolic plant secondary metabolites. Several of these possess potent in vivo activity against Escherichia coli and Plasmodium falciparum, targeting enzymes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, such as enoyl-ACP-reductase, beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase and beta-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase. Herein, we report that butein, isoliquirtigenin, 2,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone and fisetin inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Furthermore, in vitro inhibition of the mycolic-acid-producing fatty acid synthase II (FAS-II) of Mycobacterium smegmatis suggests a mode of action related to those observed in E. coli and P. falciparum. Through a bioinformatic approach, we have established the product of Rv0636 as a candidate for the unknown mycobacterial dehydratase, and its overexpression in M. bovis BCG conferred resistance to growth inhibition by butein and isoliquirtigenin, and relieved inhibition of fatty acid and mycolic acid biosynthesis in vivo. Furthermore, after overexpression of Rv0636 in M. smegmatis, FAS-II was less sensitive to these inhibitors in vitro. Overall, the data suggest that these flavonoids are inhibitors of mycobacterial FAS-II and in particular Rv0636, which represents a strong candidate for the beta-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase enzyme of M. tuberculosis FAS-II.

  14. Fatty Acids as Surfactants on Aerosol Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervahattu, H.; Juhanoja, J.; Niemi, J.

    2003-12-01

    Fatty acids (n-alcanoic acids) are common compounds in numerous anthropogenic and natural emissions. According to Rogge et al. (1993), catalyst-equipped automobiles emitted more than 600 μg km-1 of fatty acids which was over 50% of all identified organics in fine aerosol emissions. Coal burning produces fatty acids ranging from about 1700 mg kg-1 for bituminous coal to over 10000 mg kg-1 for lignite (Oros and Simoneit, 2000). Similarly, biomass burning is an important source for aerosol fatty acids. They are the major identified compound group in deciduous tree smoke, their total emission factor being measured as 1589 mg kg-1 which was 56% of all identified organic compounds (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a). Large amounts of fatty acid are also emitted from burning of conifer trees and grass (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a; Simoneit, 2002). Fatty acids have been reported to be major constituents of marine aerosols in many investigations (Barger and Garrett, 1976; Gagosian et. al, 1981; Sicre et al., 1990; Stephanou, 1992). It has been suggested that as the marine aerosol particles form, they acquire a coating of organic surfactants (Blanchard, 1964; Gill et al., 1983; Middlebrook et al., 1998; Ellison et al., 1999). Amphiphilic molecules, including lipids, can be assembled as monomolecular layers at air/water interfaces as well as transported to a solid support. Recently, we could show by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry that fatty acids are important ingredients of the outermost surface layer of the sea-salt aerosol particles (Tervahattu et al., 2002). In their TOF-SIMS studies on the surface composition of atmospheric aerosols, Peterson and Tyler (2002) found fatty acids on the surface of Montana forest fire particles. In this work we have studied by TOF-SIMS the surface chemical composition of aerosol particles emitted from field fires in the Baltic and other East European countries and transported to Finland as well as aerosol particles transported from

  15. Fatty acids and algal lipids as precursors of chlorination by-products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Liang; Yuen Shan Lui; Huachang Hong

    2012-01-01

    Six common algal fatty acids (FAs) with different numbers of double bonds,lipophilic fractions and proteins extracted from the diatom Navicula pelliculosa and algal cells were chlorinated to evaluate their potential in generating disinfection by-products (DBPs).The result showed that the more double bonds in the FAs,the higher the amounts of chloroform and dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) produced,but such a pattern was not observed for trichloroacetic acid (TCAA).Based on the previously reported composition of fatty acids in algal lipids,the DBP generation potentials of algal lipids were calculated.These predicted values were much lower than those measured in the chlorinated algal lipophilic fraction,suggesting unknown lipophilic fraction(s) served as potent DBPs precursors.Another calculation attempted to predict DBP production in algal cells based on algal lipid and protein composition,given quantified measured DBP production per unit algal lipid and proteins.The analysis showed that the observed DBP production was similar to that predicted (< 35% difference),suggesting that algal biochemical compositions may serve as a bioindicator for preliminary estimation of chloroform,DCAA and TCAA formation upon chlorinating algae.

  16. Effect of variations in the fatty acid chain on functional properties of oligofructose fatty acid esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, van S.E.H.J.; Schols, H.A.; Linden, van der E.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Oligofructose fatty acid esters are surfactants that considerably lower the surface tension of an air/water interface, provide the interface with a high dilatational modulus and lead to a high foam stability. In this study, we investigate the effect of the molecular structure of oligofructose fatty

  17. Essential fatty acids and human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Yu; Ke, Der-Shin; Chen, Jen-Yin

    2009-12-01

    The human brain is nearly 60 percent fat. We've learned in recent years that fatty acids are among the most crucial molecules that determine your brain's integrity and ability to perform. Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are required for maintenance of optimal health but they can not synthesized by the body and must be obtained from dietary sources. Clinical observation studies has related imbalance dietary intake of fatty acids to impaired brain performance and diseases. Most of the brain growth is completed by 5-6 years of age. The EFAs, particularly the omega-3 fatty acids, are important for brain development during both the fetal and postnatal period. Dietary decosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is needed for the optimum functional maturation of the retina and visual cortex, with visual acuity and mental development seemingly improved by extra DHA. Beyond their important role in building the brain structure, EFAs, as messengers, are involved in the synthesis and functions of brain neurotransmitters, and in the molecules of the immune system. Neuronal membranes contain phospholipid pools that are the reservoirs for the synthesis of specific lipid messengers on neuronal stimulation or injury. These messengers in turn participate in signaling cascades that can either promote neuronal injury or neuroprotection. The goal of this review is to give a new understanding of how EFAs determine our brain's integrity and performance, and to recall the neuropsychiatric disorders that may be influenced by them. As we further unlock the mystery of how fatty acids affect the brain and better understand the brain's critical dependence on specific EFAs, correct intake of the appropriate diet or supplements becomes one of the tasks we undertake in pursuit of optimal wellness.

  18. Comparison of 4 % icodextrin and omega 3 Fatty acids in prevention of peritoneal adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Dursun Ozgur; Yigitler, Cengizhan; Gulec, Bulent; Kucukodaci, Zafer; Ipcioglu, Osman Metin; Akin, Mehmet Levhi

    2014-06-01

    Postoperative peritoneal adhesions are major concerns in abdominal surgery. In this experimental study, the effects of 4 % icodextrin and omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FA) on prevention of postoperative peritoneal adhesions were evaluated. Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. After laparotomy, serosal abrasion was carried out by cecal brushing. Intraperitoneally 3 cm(3) 0.9 % NaCl, 3 cm(3) 4 % icodextrin, and 200 mg/kg ω-3 FAs for each group were applied, and then the abdomen was closed. All subjects sacrificed 10 days postoperatively. Macroscopic and histopathological cellular reactions as a function of giant cell, lymphocyte/plasmocyte, neutrophil, histiocyte, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) were assessed and hydroxyproline levels were measured in all three groups and compared using Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA tests when appropriate. Macroscopically, both ω-3 FAs and 4 % icodextrin reduced adhesion formation but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.253). Histopathological examination revealed that there was no statistical significance in terms of giant cell, lymphocyte/plasmocyte, neutrophil, ICAM-1, and PECAM-1 scores; however, both ω-3 FAs and 4 % icodextrin were found to be prone to reduce fibrosis (P = 0.047), whereas in the ω-3 FA group, histiocytic reaction was significantly increased (P = 0.001), and hydroxyproline levels were significantly lower than other groups (P = 0.044). In this study, ω-3 FAs were found to be superior to 4 % icodextrin with the lower hydroxyproline level and greater histiocytic reaction. Considering these results, ω-3 FAs can be a promising agent in the prevention of adhesion formation.

  19. Fatty acids and coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodside, J.V.; Kromhout, D.

    2005-01-01

    During the last century much evidence has accumulated to suggest that from a public health perspective the type of fat is more important than the amount of fat. Saturated and trans-fatty acids increase and both n-6 and n-3 PUFA decrease the risk of CHD. Most of the knowledge about the effects of

  20. Trans Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mozaffarian, D.; Katan, M.B.; Ascherio, A.; Stampfer, M.J.; Willett, W.C.

    2006-01-01

    Trans fats, unsaturated fatty acids with at least one double bond in the trans configuration (Figure 1), are formed during the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, a process that converts vegetable oils into semisolid fats for use in margarines, commercial cooking, and manufacturing processes. F

  1. Dietary Fatty Acids and Predementia Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Solfrizzi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of epidemiological evidence suggests that elevated saturated fatty acids (SFA could have negative effects on age-related cognitive decline (ARCD. Furthermore, a reduction of risk for cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment (MCI has been found in population samples with elevated fish consumption, and high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, particularly n-3 PUFA. However, recent findings from clinical trials with n-3 PUFA supplementation showed efficacy on depressive symptoms in non–Vapolipoprotein E (APOE ε4 carriers, and on cognitive symptoms only in very mild Alzheimer's disease (AD subgroups, MCI patients, and cognitively unimpaired non-APOE ε4 carriers. These data, together with epidemiological evidence, support the idea that n-3 PUFA may play a role in maintaining adequate cognitive functioning in predementia syndromes, but not when the AD process has already taken over. Therefore, at present, no definitive dietary recommendations on fish and unsaturated fatty acids consumption, or lower intake of saturated fat, in relation to the risk for dementia and cognitive decline are possible.

  2. Trans Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mozaffarian, D.; Katan, M.B.; Ascherio, A.; Stampfer, M.J.; Willett, W.C.

    2006-01-01

    Trans fats, unsaturated fatty acids with at least one double bond in the trans configuration (Figure 1), are formed during the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, a process that converts vegetable oils into semisolid fats for use in margarines, commercial cooking, and manufacturing processes. F

  3. Fatty acids and coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodside, J.V.; Kromhout, D.

    2005-01-01

    During the last century much evidence has accumulated to suggest that from a public health perspective the type of fat is more important than the amount of fat. Saturated and trans-fatty acids increase and both n-6 and n-3 PUFA decrease the risk of CHD. Most of the knowledge about the effects of die

  4. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Hess

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different levels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are desired these need to be supplemented directly in the diet. In different species some evidence indicates a potential effect on improving insulin sensitivity. Recently, a novel class of n-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory mediators have been recognized, termed E-series and D-series resolvins, formed from EPA and DHA, respectively. N-3 PUFA derived resolvins and protectins are heavily involved in the resolution of inflammation. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in horses may help manage chronic inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, equine metabolic syndrome, laminitis, and thereby help to improve longevity of sport horse.

  5. Fatty Acid Content of Indonesian Aquatic Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI PRARTONO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available High utilization of fossil fuel increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and results in global warming phenomenon. These things establish the world’s thought to look for the other alternative energy that can reduce the use of fossil fuel even to be replaced by the substitute. Recently, Indonesia has been doing the research of microalgae as a feedstock of an alternative biofuel. Fatty acid content that microalgae have is also high to produce biofuel. The steps used in this research is a 7 days cultivation, harvesting, extraction using hexane, and fatty acid identification using Gas Chromatography of microalgae species. Fatty acid component in some species such as Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Nannochloropsis sp., and Isochrysis sp. is between 0.21-29.5%; 0.11-25.16%; 0.30-42.32%; 2.06-37.63%, respectively, based on dry weight calculation. The high content of fatty acid in some species of microalgae showed the potential to be the feedstock of producing biofuel in overcoming the limited utilization from petroleum (fossil fuel presently.

  6. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  7. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Revisited: Structure Elucidation and Metabolic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D. John

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases’ many intricate structural and regulatory elements. In this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field. PMID:25360565

  8. Short communication Fatty acid and cholesterol content, chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This study aimed to determine the fatty acid and chemical composition and ... ground in a knife mill, homogenized and frozen at -18 ºC pending analysis in triplicate. .... 2008), the qualitative and quantitative fatty acid composition were different,.

  9. Determination of Fatty Acid in Asparagus by Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra HAJRULAI-MUSLIU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus contain a lot of macronutrients and micronutrients including folate, dietary fibre (soluble and insoluble and phenolic compounds. Also asparagus is a good source of unsaturated linoleic and linolenic fatty acids which are precursors for Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA and Docosahexanoic acid (DHA. Unsaturated fatty acids have important biological effects and they have important role in human health. The objective of this study was to analyze fatty acid composition of asparagus as a potential source of linoleic and linolenic acid - a precursor for EPA and DHA. For this reason we analyzed fifty seven samples of asparagus collected from the local market. We used AOAC 996.06 method and analyses were performed with gas chromatograph with flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The highest concentration of fatty acid in the asparagus was linoleic acid (C18:2n6 which content in asparagus is 25.620±1.0%. Also, asparagus is good source of -linolenic fatty acid (C18:3n3 and content of this fatty acid in asparagus is 8.840±0.3%. The omega-6 to omega-3 (n6/n3 ratio in asparagus was 3.19. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs were higher than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, and from saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid was most frequent with 24.324±1.0%. From our study we can conclude that asparagus is very good source of unsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and linolenic fatty acids.

  10. Simultaneous analysis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids present in pequi fruits by capillary electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M. de Castro Barra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, an alternative method has been proposed for simultaneous analysis of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE using indirect detection. The background electrolyte (BGE used for the analysis of these fatty acids (FAs consisted of 15.0 mmol L−1 NaH2PO4/Na2HPO4 at pH 6.86, 4.0 mmol L−1 SDBS, 8.3 mmol L−1 Brij 35, 45% v/v acetonitrile (can, and 2.1% n-octanol. The FAs quantification of FAs was performed using a response factor approach, which provided a high analytical throughput for the real sample. The CZE method, which was applied successfully for the analysis of pequi pulp, has advantages such as short analysis time, absence of lipid fraction extraction and derivatization steps, and no significant difference in the 95% confidence intervals for FA quantification results, compared to the gas chromatography official method (AOCS Ce 1h-05.

  11. Fatty acid composition of human milk and infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Delaš

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate fatty acid composition of membrane lipids is necessary for structure and function of the developing nervous system. Rapid synthesis of brain tissue occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the early postnatal weeks. This synthesis of brain structure involves the formation of complex lipids, many of which contain significant quantities of essential fatty acids and their higher homologs. This study was undertaken to elucidate how fatty acid compositions of available diets for infants meet the requirements for essential fatty acids. Samples of infant formulas, present on the market, as well as milk samples obtained from breast feeding mothers, were extracted by chloroform : methanol mixtures in order to obtain total lipids. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and fatty acid composition was revealed by gas chromatography. Special interest was directed to the content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results have shown that infant formulas, designed to substitute mothers’ breast milk, contain medium chain fatty acids (C 10:0, C 12:0, along with the other saturated fatty acids, in the amounts acceptable for infants’ energy consumption. Although linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6 was present at the level expected to cover needs for essential fatty acids, most of the tested products did not contain sufficient amounts of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, despite the fact that these fatty acids are necessary for undisturbed brain development, ignoring the strong recommendations that they should be used as a supplement in infants’ food.

  12. Determination of fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacity ofMespilus germanica L. fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hale Seilmi Canbay; Ersin Atay; Serdal Ot

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacitiy of first culturedMespilus germanica L. Methods: A total of15 fruits were taken randomly from four directions of adult trees.Then the physical and chemical properties of first cultured medlar fruit (Istanbul/Turkey) were measured by using refractometer, colorimeter, spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, respectivly. Results: In the fruit studied, the results showed that palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid were the most abundant fatty acids (FAs), and the main FA was palmitic acid [(35.35 ± 1.20)%]. The percentage of linoleic acid and stearic acid in this fruit oil were (29.10 ± 1.70)% and(8.53 ± 0.25)%, respectively. As a result of the analysis, the total antioxidant capacity of medlar fruit was (1.1 ± 0.2) mmol trolox equivalents/L. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the concentrations of FAs and the antioxidantive capacity of first cultured Istanbul medlar fruits by using many tested methods. It is proved that in our daily life, medlar fruit plays a significant role with its nutrition and health effect.

  13. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  14. Trans Fatty Acids: Their Chemical Structures, Formation and Dietary Intake

    OpenAIRE

    O. Daglioglu; Tasan, M.

    2005-01-01

    Trans fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids with at least a double bond in trans configuration or geometry.The double-bond angle of the trans fatty acids is smaller than the cis isomeric configuration and the acylchain is more linear, resulting in a more rigid molecule with different physical properties such as a highermelting point and greater thermodynamic stability. These appear in dairy fat because of ruminal activity, andin hydrogenated oils. Trans unsaturated fatty acids are solid fat...

  15. Distinct fatty acid profile of ten brown macroalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Graça Silva; Pereira, Renato B.; Patrícia Valentão; Andrade, Paula B.; Carla Sousa

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the consumption of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has beneficial effects on human health. In this work, ten brown macroalgae species collected along the Portuguese west coast were studied for their fatty acids composition by GC-MS after alkaline hydrolysis and derivatization. The results of this survey showed that different macroalgae from the same region display distinct fatty acids profile. Concerning ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic ac...

  16. A Mutant of Hepatitis B Virus X Protein (HBxΔ127 Promotes Cell Growth through A Positive Feedback Loop Involving 5-Lipoxygenase and Fatty Acid Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx contributes to the development of HCC, whereas HBx with COOH-terminal deletion is a frequent event in the HCC tissues. Previously, we identified a natural mutant of HBx-truncated 27 amino acids at the COOH-terminal (termed HBxΔ127, which strongly enhanced cell growth. In the present study, we focused on investigating the mechanism. Accordingly, fatty acid synthase (FAS plays a crucial role in cancer cell survival and proliferation; thus, we examined the signaling pathways involving FAS. Our data showed that HBxΔ127 strongly increased the transcriptional activities of FAS in human hepatoma HepG2 and H7402 cells. Moreover, we found that 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX was responsible for the up-regulation of FAS by using MK886 (an inhibitor of 5-LOX and 5-LOX small interfering RNA. We observed that HBxΔ127 could upregulate 5-LOX through phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2 and thus resulted in the increase of released leukotriene B4 (LTB4, a metabolite of 5-LOX by ELISA. The additional LTB4 could upregulate the expression of FAS in the cells as well. Interestingly, we found that FAS was able to upregulate the expression of 5-LOX in a feedback manner by using cerulenin (an inhibitor of FAS. Collectively, HBxΔ127 promotes cell growth through a positive feedback loop involving 5-LOX and FAS, in which released LTB4 is involved in the up-regulation of FAS. Thus, our finding provides a new insight into the mechanism involving the promotion of cell growth mediated by HBxΔ127.

  17. Variation in oil content, fatty acid and phytosterols profile of Onopordum acanthium L. during seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfaoui, Moufida Oueslati; Renaud, Justin; Ghazghazi, Hanen; Boukhchina, Sadok; Mayer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study has determined oil, fatty acid (FA) and phytosterols content during the ripening of the Tunisian Onopordum acanthium L. seeds. In total, nine FAs and six phytosterols were identified. The main FAs were linoleic acid (0.18-8.06 mg/g of seed) followed by oleic acid (0.051-2.45 mg/g of seed), palmitic acid and stearic acid. Pentadecanoic acid was detected, for the first time, in unripe fruits and the two last stages of development were characterised by a relative abundance of erucic acid. Overall, β-sitosterol (34.5-77.79% of total sterols) was the major 4-desmethylsterols during maturation. The first episodes of growth were characterised by the best amounts of stigmasterol and campesterol, while stigmastanol and Δ7 sitosterol had quoted the semi-ripe and fully ripe fruits; however, cholesterol was absent. These findings are useful in understanding a potential new source of important natural compounds (Phytosterols and USFA) found in this fruit and when harvest should be undertaken to optimise desired FA and phytosterols content.

  18. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a... contains ammonium or calcium salts of volatile fatty acids and shall conform to the...

  19. 75 FR 71556 - Polyoxyalkylated Glycerol Fatty Acid Esters; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Polyoxyalkylated Glycerol Fatty Acid Esters; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of polyoxyalkylated glycerol fatty acid esters; the... ethylene oxide or propylene oxide, also known as polyoxyalkylated glycerol fatty acid esters, when used as...

  20. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, up to and including the decaglycerol esters, may be safely used in food in...

  1. A Review of the Metabolic Origins of Milk Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria COZMA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat and its fatty acid profile are important determinants of the technological, sensorial, and nutritional properties of milk and dairy products. The two major processes contributing to the presence of fatty acids in ruminant milk are the mammary lipogenesis and the lipid metabolism in the rumen. Among fatty acids, 4:0 to 12:0, almost all 14:0 and about a half of 16:0 in milk fat derive from de novo synthesis within the mammary gland. De novo synthesis utilizes as precursors acetate and butyrate produced through carbohydrates ruminal fermentation and involves acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase as key enzymes. The rest of 16:0 and all of the long-chain fatty acids derive from mammary uptake of circulating lipoproteins and nonesterified fatty acids that originate from digestive absorption of lipids and body fat mobilization. Further, long-chain fatty acids as well as medium-chain fatty acids entering the mammary gland can be desaturated via Δ-9 desaturase, an enzyme that acts by adding a cis-9-double bond on the fatty acid chain. Moreover, ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids results in the formation of numerous fatty acids available for incorporation into milk fat. Ruminal biohydrogenation is performed by rumen microbial population as a means of protection against the toxic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Within the rumen microorganisms, bacteria are principally responsible for ruminal biohydrogenation when compared to protozoa and anaerobic fungi.

  2. Naturally occurring fatty acids: source, chemistry and uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural occurring fatty acids are a large and complex class of compounds found in plants and animals. Fatty acids are abundant and of interest because of their renewability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, low cost, and fascinating chemistry. Of the many fatty acids, only 20-25 of them are widel...

  3. Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health: research completed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.A.; Wanders, A.J.; Katan, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    This review asks the question if further research on trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health is needed. We therefore review the evidence from human studies on trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health, and provide a quantitative review of effects of trans fatty acid intake on lipoproteins. The

  4. Relationship between fatty acids and the endocrine and neuroendocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhathena, Sam J

    2006-01-01

    Significant interactions exist between fatty acids and the endocrine system. Dietary fatty acids alter both hormone and neuropeptide concentrations and also their receptors. In addition, hormones affect the metabolism of fatty acids and the fatty acid composition of tissue lipids. The principal hormones involved in lipid metabolism are insulin, glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol and growth hormone. The concentrations of these hormones are altered in chronic degenerative conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which in turn leads to alterations in tissue lipids. Lipogenesis and lipolysis, which modulate fatty acid concentrations in plasma and tissues, are under hormonal control. Neuropeptides are also involved in lipid metabolism in brain and other tissues. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are also precursors for eicosanoids including prostaglandins, leucotrienes, and thromboxanes, which have hormone-like activities. Fatty acids in turn affect the endocrine system. Saturated and trans fatty acids decrease insulin concentration leading to insulin resistance. In contrast, polyunsaturated fatty acids increase plasma insulin concentration and decrease insulin resistance. In humans, omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alter the levels of opioid peptides in plasma. Free fatty acids have been reported to inhibit glucagon release. Fatty acids also affect receptors for hormones and neuropeptides.

  5. Fatty acid supply of growing pigs in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Linh Quang

    2002-01-01

    This thesis concerns the influence of essential dietary fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and growth performance of growing pigs kept on samll holdings in Central Vietnam. Essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the body and have to be ingested with the feed. There a

  6. Composition of physiologically important fatty acids in great tits differs between urban and rural populations on a seasonal basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin N Andersson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids (FA have crucial functions in animals, affecting e.g. inflammatory responses, thermoregulation, and cell membrane fluidity. Diet and ambient temperature affect animals’ FA composition, which, in turn, may influence these physiological processes. Great tits (Parus major −common in both urban and rural habitats− are mainly granivorous during winter and insectivorous during summer. These diets show pronounced differences in FA composition. Such variation has context-dependent effects on physiology, because the thermal environment, food availability, and levels of pro-inflammatory environmental stressors differ between urban and rural areas. Thus, we investigated how great tit plasma FA composition varied between urban and rural habitats and across seasons. Eight FAs differed between urban and rural birds. Among these, arachidonic acid (omega (ω-6 polyunsaturated FA with thermoregulatory and pro-inflammatory properties was more abundant in urban than rural birds in winter, whereas ω-3 FAs with anti-inflammatory properties were more abundant in rural birds. The difference in pro- and anti-inflammatory FAs suggest that the negative health effects that urban birds suffer from being exposed to higher levels of pollutants might be enhanced by an elevated inflammatory response. Eight FAs differed between winter and summer birds. This variation reflected the diet change: FAs common in seeds, e.g. oleic- and linoleic acid, were present in higher amounts in winter birds, whereas ω-3 polyunsaturated FAs that are common in caterpillars were more abundant in summer birds. Overall, a larger seasonal variation was seen among the urban birds. This study is the first to reveal a difference in FA composition between urban and rural populations for all animals studied to date. Future experiments should unravel the physiological implications of this variation, and ultimately, link its effects to fitness of animals with different physiological and

  7. Marine lipids and the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Müllertz, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Marine lipids are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids are important membrane lipids and have many recognized health benefits, the bioavailability of these fatty acids can therefore be important for achieving...... of omega-3 fatty acids has been reported to be affected by several factors; among the important factors were the digestion and absorption processes of omega-3 containing lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Both lipid structures and food structures can affect the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids....... Human studies have shown that the relative bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil (triglyceride formulation) was similar to that from fish, whereas lower relative bioavailability was observed from fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) formulation in comparison with other lipid formulations...

  8. Fatty acid facts, Part I. Essential fatty acids as treatment for depression, or food for mood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawels, E K J; Volterrani, D

    2008-10-01

    The epidemic character of depressive disorders has prompted further research into dietary habits that could make an etiological contribution. One clear change in the diet of the population in developed countries has been the replacement of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by saturated fats and trans-fats as well as by omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids, and the members of the -3 and -6 series are crucial for human health. In biochemical processes there is a competition between these two series. A higher dietary intake of omega-6 results in the excessive incorporation of these molecules in the cell membrane with numerous pathological consequences, presumably due to the formation of proinflammatory eicosanoids. Members of the omega-3 family and their derivatives modulate the inflammatory action. Essential fatty acids play a major role in brain development and brain functioning. The omega-3 series members docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) provide fluidity to the cell membrane, facilitating certain processes including neurotransmission and ion channel flow. It is thought that omega-3 deficiency during the fetal and postnatal period may have a long-term effect at various levels. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a positive association between omega-3 deficits and mood disorders. As for treatment, there is convincing evidence that add-on omega-3 fatty acids to standard antidepressant pharmacotherapy results in improved mood. There is no evidence that fatty acid monotherapy has a mood-elevating effect, with a possible exception for childhood depression. There are indications that omega-3 has a prophylactic effect on perinatal depression and has a negative effect on natural killer cell activity and T-lymphocyte function. These observations need further study in view of the popularity of self-medication. Copyright 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  9. Ala54Thr fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2 polymorphism in recurrent depression: associations with fatty acid concentrations and waist circumference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel J T Mocking

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fatty acid (FA-alterations may mediate the mutual association between Major Depressive Disorder (MDD and cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, etiology of observed FA-alterations in MDD and CVD remains largely unclear. An interesting candidate may be a mutation in the fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2-gene, because it regulates dietary FA-uptake. Therefore, we aimed to test the hypotheses that in MDD-patients the FABP2 Ala54Thr-polymorphism would be (I more prevalent than in sex- and age-matched controls, (II associated with observed alterations in FA-metabolism, and (III associated with CVD-risk factor waist circumference. METHODS: We measured concentrations of 29 different erythrocyte FAs, FABP2-genotype, and waist circumference in recurrent MDD-patients and matched never-depressed controls. RESULTS: FABP2-genotype distribution did not significantly differ between the 137 MDD-patients and 73 matched controls. However, patients with the Ala54Thr-polymorphism had (I higher concentrations of especially eicosadienoic acid (C20:2ω6; P=.009 and other 20-carbon FAs, and associated (II lower waist circumference (P=.019. In addition, FABP2-genotype effects on waist circumference in patients seemed (I mediated by its effect on C20:2ω6, and (II different from controls. CONCLUSIONS: Although Ala54Thr-polymorphism distribution was not associated with recurrent MDD, our results indicate that FABP2 may play a role in the explanation of observed FA-alterations in MDD. For Ala54Thr-polymorphism patients, potentially adaptive conversion of increased bioavailable dietary precursors into eicosadienoic acid instead of arachidonic acid might be related to a low waist circumference. Because this is the first investigation of these associations, replication is warranted, preferably by nutrigenetic studies applying lipidomics and detailed dietary assessment.

  10. Crude palm oil from interspecific hybrid Elaeis oleifera×Elaeis guineensis: fatty acid regiodistribution and molecular species of glycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzon, Massimo; Pacetti, Deborah; Lucci, Paolo; Balzano, Michele; Frega, Natale Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    The composition and structure of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and partial glycerides of crude palm oil obtained from interspecific hybrid Elaeis oleifera×Elaeis guineensis, grown in Colombia, were fully characterised and compared to data obtained by analysing crude African palm oil. Hybridisation appears to substantially modify the biosynthesis of fatty acids (FAs) rather than their assembly in TAGs. In fact, total FAs analysis showed significant differences between these two types of oil, with hybrid palm oil having a higher percentage of oleic acid (54.6 ± 1.0 vs 41.4 ± 0.3), together with a lower saturated fatty acid content (33.5 ± 0.5 vs 47.3 ± 0.1), while the percentage of essential fatty acid, linoleic acid, does not undergo significant changes. Furthermore, 34 TAG types were identified, with no qualitative differences between African and E. guineensis×E. oleifera hybrid palm oil samples. Short and medium chain FAs (8:0, 10:0, 12:0, 14:0) were utilised, together, to build a restricted number of TAG molecular species. Oil samples from the E. guineensis×E. oleifera hybrid showed higher contents of monosaturated TAGs (47.5-51.0% vs 36.7-37.1%) and triunsaturated TAGs (15.5-15.6% vs 5.2-5.4%). The sn-2 position of TAGs in hybrid palm oil was shown to be predominantly esterified with oleic acid (64.7-66.0 mol% vs 55.1-58.2 mol% in African palm oil) with only 10-15% of total palmitic acid and 6-20% of stearic acid acylated in the secondary position. The total amount of diacylglycerols (DAGs) was in agreement with the values of free acidity; DAG types found were in agreement with the representativeness of different TAG species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nitro-fatty acids in plant signaling: New key mediators of nitric oxide metabolism

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    Capilla Mata-Pérez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in animal systems have shown that NO can interact with fatty acids to generate nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FAs. They are the product of the reaction between reactive nitrogen species and unsaturated fatty acids, and are considered novel mediators of cell signaling based mainly on a proven anti-inflammatory response. Although these signaling mediators have been described widely in animal systems, NO2-FAs have scarcely been studied in plants. Preliminary data have revealed the endogenous presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FAs in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO, which appear to be contributing to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet. Importantly, new findings have displayed the endogenous occurrence of nitro-linolenic acid (NO2-Ln in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the modulation of NO2-Ln levels throughout this plant's development. Furthermore, a transcriptomic analysis by RNA-seq technology established a clear signaling role for this molecule, demonstrating that NO2-Ln was involved in plant-defense response against different abiotic-stress conditions, mainly by inducing the chaperone network and supporting a conserved mechanism of action in both animal and plant defense processes. Thus, NO2-Ln levels significantly rose under several abiotic-stress conditions, highlighting the strong signaling role of these molecules in the plant-protection mechanism. Finally, the potential of NO2-Ln as a NO donor has recently been described both in vitro and in vivo. Jointly, this ability gives NO2-Ln the potential to act as a signaling molecule by the direct release of NO, due to its capacity to induce different changes mediated by NO or NO-related molecules such as nitration and S-nitrosylation, or by the electrophilic capacity of these molecules through a nitroalkylation mechanism. Here, we describe the current state of the art regarding the advances performed in the field of NO2-FAs in plants and their

  12. Human placenta metabolizes fatty acids: implications for fetal fatty acid oxidation disorders and maternal liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Prem; Bennett, Michael J; Sadovsky, Yoel; Nelson, D Michael; Rakheja, Dinesh; Strauss, Arnold W

    2003-06-01

    The role of fat metabolism during human pregnancy and in placental growth and function is poorly understood. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorders in an affected fetus are associated with maternal diseases of pregnancy, including preeclampsia, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and the hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome called HELLP. We have investigated the developmental expression and activity of six fatty acid beta-oxidation enzymes at various gestational-age human placentas. Placental specimens exhibited abundant expression of all six enzymes, as assessed by immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses, with greater staining in syncytiotrophoblasts compared with other placental cell types. beta-Oxidation enzyme activities in placental tissues were higher early in gestation and lower near term. Trophoblast cells in culture oxidized tritium-labeled palmitate and myristate in substantial amounts, indicating that the human placenta utilizes fatty acids as a significant metabolic fuel. Thus human placenta derives energy from fatty acid oxidation, providing a potential explanation for the association of fetal fatty acid oxidation disorders with maternal liver diseases in pregnancy.

  13. Fatty acid composition of Mediterranean buffalo milk fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the variation in fatty acid composition of milk fat from four buffalo (Bubalus bubalis herds under different feeding management and ration composition. Changes in milk fatty acid composition were monitored on a weekly basis. Saturated fatty acids (65.5% predominated in buffalo milk fat; monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 27.0% and 4.5%, respectively. Of saturated fatty acids, the content of palmitic acid was the highest (30.6% followed by stearic acid (12.0% and myristic acid (10.7%. Of the unsaturated fatty acids the content of oleic acid was the highest (26.6%. The average content of conjugated linoleic acid (0.76±0.33 was higher than the maximal values generally reported for dairy cow.

  14. Chemical composition and fatty acid contents in farmed freshwater prawns

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    Carolina de Gasperi Portella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition and fatty acid contents of Amazonian and giant river prawns. After four-month farming, with the same diet for both species, palmitic and stearic acids were the main saturated fatty acids. Oleic acid was the main monounsatured fatty acid, and the eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were the most abundant polyunsaturated acids. Amazonian prawn has higher levels of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids than those of the giant river prawn, which shows its potential for aquaculture.

  15. Amino and fatty acid dynamics of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vanessa M; Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Paula, José R; Couto, Ana; Bandarra, Narcisa; Anacleto, Patrícia; Marques, António; Rosa, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The oceans are becoming warmer, and the higher temperatures are expected to have a major impact on marine life at different levels of biological organization, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Thus, we hypothesize that the future warmer scenarios (here +3 °C) will affect the biochemical composition (amino acid - AA, and fatty acid-FA) of octopod (Octopus vulgaris) embryos and recently-hatched pelagic paralarvae. The main essential amino acids found in octopus embryos were arginine, leucine and lysine; while aspartic and glutamic acids, and taurine were the main non-essential amino acids. Palmitic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were the main FAs found in octopus tissues. Relevant ontogenetic changes were observed, namely a steep decrease in the content of many AAs, and a selective retention of FAs, thus evidencing the protein-based metabolism of these cephalopods. Temperature per si did not elicit significant changes in the overall FA composition, but was responsible for a significant decrease in the content of several AAs, indicating increased embryonic consumption.

  16. Tamoxifen-induced anorexia is associated with fatty acid synthase inhibition in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus and accumulation of malonyl-CoA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Miguel; Lelliott, Christopher J; Tovar, Sulay; Kimber, Wendy; Gallego, Rosalía; Virtue, Sam; Blount, Margaret; Vázquez, Maria J; Finer, Nick; Powles, Trevor J; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Saha, Asish K; Diéguez, Carlos; Vidal-Puig, Antonio J

    2006-05-01

    Fatty acid metabolism in the hypothalamus has recently been shown to regulate feeding. The selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen (TMX) exerts a potent anorectic effect. Here, we show that the anorectic effect of TMX is associated with the accumulation of malonyl-CoA in the hypothalamus and inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression specifically in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN). Furthermore, we demonstrate that FAS mRNA expression is physiologically regulated by fasting and refeeding in the VMN but not in other hypothalamic nuclei. Thus, the VMN appears to be the hypothalamic site where regulation of FAS and feeding converge. Supporting the potential clinical relevance of these observations, reanalysis of a primary breast cancer prevention study showed that obese women treated with TMX gained significantly less body weight over a 6-year period than obese women given placebo. The finding that TMX can modulate appetite through alterations in FAS expression and malonyl-CoA levels suggests a link between hypothalamic sex steroid receptors, fatty acid metabolism, and feeding behavior.

  17. Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in antrhropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2011-01-01

    in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. Methods 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate......Introduction Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns...

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids (ῳ-3 fatty acids) in epilepsy: animal models and human clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGiorgio, Christopher M; Taha, Ameer Y

    2016-10-01

    There is growing interest in alternative and nutritional therapies for drug resistant epilepsy. ῳ-3 fatty acids such as fish or krill oil are widely available supplements used to lower triglycerides and enhance cardiovascular health. ῳ-3 fatty acids have been studied extensively in animal models of epilepsy. Yet, evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials in epilepsy is at an early stage. This report focuses on the key ῳ-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA, their incorporation into the lipid bilayer, modulation of ion channels, and mechanisms of action in reducing excitability within the central nervous system. This paper presents pre-clinical evidence from mouse, rat, and canine models, and reports the efficacy of n-3 fatty acids in randomized controlled clinical trials. An English language search of PubMed and Google scholar for the years 1981-2016 was performed for animal studies and human randomized controlled clinical trials. Expert commentary: Basic science and animal models provide a cogent rationale and substantial evidence for a role of ῳ-3 fatty acids in reducing seizures. Results in humans are limited. Recent Phase II RCT evidence suggests that low to moderate dose of ῳ-3 fatty acids reduce seizures; however, larger multicenter randomized trials are needed to confirm or refute the evidence. The safety, health effects, low cost and ease of use make ῳ-3 fatty acids an intriguing alternative therapy for drug resistant epilepsy. Though safety of profile is excellent, the human data is not yet sufficient to support efficacy in drug resistant epilepsy at this time.

  19. Essential fatty acid requirements of cats: pathology of essential fatty acid deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, M L; Anderson, B C; Rogers, Q R; Buffington, C A; Morris, J G

    1984-07-01

    The pathologic changes of essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency were studied in specific-pathogen-free, domestic shorthair cats which were fed purified diets for 1.5 to 2.5 years. Cats fed an EFA-deficient diet exhibited signs of deficiency: severe fatty degeneration of the liver, excessive fat in the kidneys, dystrophic mineralization of the adrenal glands, degeneration of the testes, and hyperkeratosis of the skin. Minor clinical pathologic changes were consistent with liver damage. Fatty acid analyses of plasma lipids revealed low concentrations of linoleate and other n6-fatty acids, and high concentrations of n7- and n9-fatty acids, consistent with EFA deficiency. These signs of deficiency were prevented by including safflower seed oil in the diet at a concentration to supply linoleate at 6.7% of dietary energy. Therefore, linoleate is an EFA for the cat, despite negligible conversion of linoleate to arachidonate in cat liver. However, in cats fed a diet containing linoleate, but lacking arachidonate, there was mild mineralization of the kidneys, and the neutral fat content of the liver was slightly higher than that of cats fed a diet containing arachidonate and other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Also, 2 of the 19 cats fed arachidonate-deficient diets developed unusual inflammatory skin lesions. In cats fed a diet containing hydrogenated coconut oil, safflower seed oil, and chicken fat, fatty livers developed despite the presence of high levels of linoleate. The fatty livers appeared to result from a specific deleterious effect of the medium-chain triglycerides in hydrogenated coconut oil. Most of the organ pathologic changes of EFA deficiency in the cat can be prevented by feeding dietary linoleate. Linoleate meets the EFA requirement for functions which depend on proper membrane structure: growth, lipid transport, normal skin and coat condition, and maintenance of the epidermal permeability barrier. However, dietary arachidonate is required by the

  20. Polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berquin, Isabelle M; Edwards, Iris J; Kridel, Steven J; Chen, Yong Q

    2011-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) play important roles in the normal physiology and in pathological states including inflammation and cancer. While much is known about the biosynthesis and biological activities of eicosanoids derived from ω6 PUFA, our understanding of the corresponding ω3 series lipid mediators is still rudimentary. The purpose of this review is not to offer a comprehensive summary of the literature on fatty acids in prostate cancer but rather to highlight some of the areas where key questions remain to be addressed. These include substrate preference and polymorphic variants of enzymes involved in the metabolism of PUFA, the relationship between de novo lipid synthesis and dietary lipid metabolism pathways, the contribution of cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases as well as terminal synthases and prostanoid receptors in prostate cancer, and the potential role of PUFA in angiogenesis and cell surface receptor signaling.

  1. Laser signals' nonlinear change in fatty acids

    CERN Document Server

    Ghelmez-Dumitru, M; Piscureanu, M; Sterian, A

    2003-01-01

    Previous works showed that thin layers of fatty acids and fatty acid-cholesterol mixtures behaved as optical liquid crystals, even at low incident laser power. The paper presents an experimental and computer study of laser signals, emergent from such samples, in presence of fluctuations. The optical emergent laser beams' features at different incident parameters were experimentally determined for different type (c.w. and pulsed) lasers, as for example helium-neon and Nd sup 3 sup + glass lasers. The results were correlated with the amount of cholesterol in mixtures and with their response in external electric field. These measurements are in all cases affected by fluctuations. We developed some computer-based procedures, by using the TableCurve3D from Jandel Scientific software and equations Runge-Kutta in MATLAB for taking into account these fluctuations.

  2. Fatty acids composition of 10 microalgal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thidarat Noiraksar

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of 10 species of microalgae was determined at the exponential phase and the stationary phase. The microalgae consist of two species of diatoms, Bacillariophyceae, (Nitzschia cf. ovalis, Thalassiosira sp. five species of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae (Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorophyceae, (Dictyosphaerium pulchellum, Stichococcus sp., Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus falcatus and three species of blue green microalgae, Cyanophyceae (Anacystis sp., Synechococcus sp., Synechocystis sp..Medium for culture diatoms and green microalgae was F/2, and BG-11 media was used for Cyanophyceae. The microalgae were cultured beneath light intensity 143 μEm-2s-1, light: dark illustration 12:12 hrs., temperature 28ºC, and salinities 8-30 psu. The microalgae were harvested for analyzing fatty acid by centrivugal machine at 3500 rpm. for 5 min. at temperature 20ºC and stored at -80ºC prior to analysis.Fatty acids composition of microalgae differed from species to species. The majority fatty acids composition of diatoms at the exponential phase and the stationary phase were C16:1n-7 (17.12-31.47% and 28.22-42.02%, C16:0 (13.25-19.61% and 18.83-20.67%, C20:5 n-3 (16.65-26.67% and 11.32-23.68% respectively. The principle fatty acids composition of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae, Tetraselmis sp. were C18:3n-3 (16.17-16.67%, C16:0 (15.33-17.45%, C18:1n-9 (12.25-15.43%, C18:2n-6 (9.66-19.97%. The fatty acids composition of green microalgae, Chlorophyceae, were C18:3 n-3 (20.02-26.49% and 15.35- 30.63%, C16:0 (5.76-17.61% and 11.41-20.03%, C18:2n-6 (4.67-17.54% and 7.48-20.61% respectively. The major amounts of fatty acids content of blue green microalgae were C16:1n-7 (9.28-34.91% and 34.48- 35.04%, C14:0 (13.34-25.96% and 26.69-28.24%, C16:0 (5.89-29.15% and 5.70-16.81% except for Anacystis sp.which had a high amount of C18:3 n-3 (23.18-27.98% but low amount of C14:0 (3.66-4.98%.Bacillariophyceae contained the highest amount of highly unsaturated

  3. Quantification of fatty acids in the muscle of Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: Optimization of the analytical methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, C; Illuminati, S; Annibaldi, A; Antonucci, M; Scarponi, G

    2017-04-01

    This work presents data on the quantification of fatty acids (FAs, in terms of mass unit per tissue weight) in the muscle of Trematomus bernacchii, a key species in Antarctica, often used as bioindicator for contamination studies. Modifications in fatty acids content should be considered a useful biomarker to study how contaminants affect Antarctic biota. Until now, very few studies quantified fatty acids of muscle of T. bernacchii, and only as percentage of a single fatty acid on total lipids. To perform the quantification of fatty acids, we used an analytical method based on a fast microwave-assisted extraction of lipids from a lyophilized sample, a base-catalyzed trans-esterification of lipid extract to obtain Fatty Acids Methyl Esters (FAMEs), and a separation and identification of FAMEs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. With the optimized and validated method, a fast and accurate separation of Fatty Acids Methyl Esters was performed in 43 min. The linearity was checked up to about 320 μg mL(-1); limit of detection and limit of quantification are in the range 4-22 μg mL(-1) and 13-66 μg mL(-1), respectively. The optimized method showed a good accuracy and precision. Major fatty acids were 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n7, 18:1n9, 18:1n7, 20:1n9, 20:5n3 and 22:6n3. Quantified FAs compute for about 47 mg g(-1) tissue dry weight (dw), with 9.1 ± 0.1 mg g(-1) dw of saturated FAs, 25.5 ± 0.1 mg g(-1) dw of mono-unsaturated FAs, and 12.2 ± 0.1 mg g(-1) dw of poly-unsaturated FAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Using a gradient in food quality to infer drivers of fatty acid content in two filter-feeding aquatic consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Richardson, William B.; Vallazza, Jon; Bartsch, Lynn; Bartsch, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Inferences about ecological structure and function are often made using elemental or macromolecular tracers of food web structure. For example, inferences about food chain length are often made using stable isotope ratios of top predators and consumer food sources are often inferred from both stable isotopes and fatty acid (FA) content in consumer tissues. The use of FAs as tracers implies some degree of macromolecular conservation across trophic interactions, but many FAs are subject to physiological alteration and animals may produce those FAs from precursors in response to food deficiencies. We measured 41 individual FAs and several aggregate FA metrics in two filter-feeding taxa to (1) assess ecological variation in food availability and (2) identify potential drivers of among-site variation in FA content. These taxa were filter feeding caddisflies (Family Hydropyschidae) and dreissenid mussels (Genus Dreissena), which both consume seston. Stable isotopic composition (C and N) in these taxa co-varied across 13 sites in the Great Lakes region of North America, indicating they fed on very similar food resources. However, co-variation in FA content was very limited, with only one common FA co-varying across this gradient (α-linolenic acid; ALA), suggesting these taxa accumulate FAs very differently even when exposed to the same foods. Based on these results, among-site variation in ALA content in both consumers does appear to be driven by food resources, along with several other FAs in dreissenid mussels. We conclude that single-taxa measurements of FA content cannot be used to infer FA availability in food resources.

  5. TRIGLYCERIDES, ATHEROSCLEROSIS, AND CARDIOVASCULAR OUTCOME STUDIES: FOCUS ON OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelsman, Yehuda; Shapiro, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    To provide an overview of the roles of triglycerides and triglyceride-lowering agents in atherosclerosis in the context of cardiovascular outcomes studies. We reviewed the published literature as well as ClinicalTrials.gov entries for ongoing studies. Despite improved atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) outcomes with statin therapy, residual risk remains. Epidemiologic data and recent genetic insights provide compelling evidence that triglycerides are in the causal pathway for the development of atherosclerosis, thereby renewing interest in targeting triglycerides to improve ASCVD outcomes. Fibrates, niacin, and omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs) are three classes of triglyceride-lowering drugs. Outcome studies with triglyceride-lowering agents have been inconsistent. With regard to OM3FAs, the JELIS study showed that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) significantly reduced major coronary events in statin-treated hypercholesterolemic patients. Regarding other agents, extended-release niacin and fenofibrate are no longer recommended as statin add-on therapy (by some guidelines, though not all) because of the lack of convincing evidence from outcome studies. Notably, subgroup analyses from the outcome studies have generated the hypothesis that triglyceride lowering may provide benefit in statin-treated patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia. Two ongoing OM3FA outcome studies (REDUCE-IT and STRENGTH) are testing this hypothesis in high-risk, statin-treated patients with triglyceride levels of 200 to 500 mg/dL. There is consistent evidence that triglycerides are in the causal pathway of atherosclerosis but inconsistent evidence from cardiovascular outcomes studies as to whether triglyceride-lowering agents reduce cardiovascular risk. Ongoing outcomes studies will determine the role of triglyceride lowering in statin-treated patients with high-dose prescription OM3FAs in terms of improved ASCVD outcomes. AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists

  6. Effects of food resources on the fatty acid composition, growth and survival of freshwater mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Michelle R; Bartsch, Lynn A; Richardson, William B; Vallazza, Jon M; Moraska Lafrancois, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Increased nutrient and sediment loading in rivers have caused observable changes in algal community composition, and thereby, altered the quality and quantity of food resources available to native freshwater mussels. Our objective was to characterize the relationship between nutrient conditions and mussel food quality and examine the effects on fatty acid composition, growth and survival of juvenile mussels. Juvenile Lampsilis cardium and L. siliquoidea were deployed in cages for 28 d at four riverine and four lacustrine sites in the lower St. Croix River, Minnesota/Wisconsin, USA. Mussel foot tissue and food resources (four seston fractions and surficial sediment) were analyzed for quantitative fatty acid (FA) composition. Green algae were abundant in riverine sites, whereas cyanobacteria were most abundant in the lacustrine sites. Mussel survival was high (95%) for both species. Lampsilis cardium exhibited lower growth relative to L. siliquoidea (p 63 μm) of seston, including the bacterial FAs, and several of the FAs associated with sediments. Reduced mussel growth was observed in L. siliquoidea when the abundance of cyanobacteria exceeded 9% of the total phytoplankton biovolume. Areas dominated by cyanobacteria may not provide sufficient food quality to promote or sustain mussel growth.

  7. Effects of food resources on the fatty acid composition, growth and survival of freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, William B.; Vallazza, Jon M.; Moraska Lafrancois, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Increased nutrient and sediment loading in rivers have caused observable changes in algal community composition, and thereby, altered the quality and quantity of food resources available to native freshwater mussels. Our objective was to characterize the relationship between nutrient conditions and mussel food quality and examine the effects on fatty acid composition, growth and survival of juvenile mussels. Juvenile Lampsilis cardium and L. siliquoidea were deployed in cages for 28 d at four riverine and four lacustrine sites in the lower St. Croix River, Minnesota/Wisconsin, USA. Mussel foot tissue and food resources (four seston fractions and surficial sediment) were analyzed for quantitative fatty acid (FA) composition. Green algae were abundant in riverine sites, whereas cyanobacteria were most abundant in the lacustrine sites. Mussel survival was high (95%) for both species. Lampsilis cardium exhibited lower growth relative to L. siliquoidea (p 63 μm) of seston, including the bacterial FAs, and several of the FAs associated with sediments. Reduced mussel growth was observed in L. siliquoidea when the abundance of cyanobacteria exceeded 9% of the total phytoplankton biovolume. Areas dominated by cyanobacteria may not provide sufficient food quality to promote or sustain mussel growth. PMID:28267810

  8. Differential expression of fatty acid synthase genes, Acl, Fat and Kas, in Capsicum fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluru, Maneesha R; Mazourek, Michael; Landry, Laurie G; Curry, Jeanne; Jahn, Molly; O'Connell, Mary A

    2003-07-01

    The biosynthesis of capsaicinoids in the placenta of chilli fruit is modelled to require components of the fatty acid synthase (FAS) complex. Three candidate genes for subunits in this complex, Kas, Acl, and Fat, isolated based on differential expression, were characterized. Transcription of these three genes was placental-specific and RNA abundance was positively correlated with degree of pungency. Kas and Acl were mapped to linkage group 1 and Fat to linkage group 6. None of the genes is linked to the pungency locus, C, on linkage group 2. KAS accumulation was positively correlated with pungency. Western blots of placental extracts and histological sections both demonstrated that the accumulation of this enzyme was correlated with fruit pungency and KAS was immunolocalized to the expected cell layer, the placental epidermis. Enzyme activity of the recombinant form of the placental-specific KAS was confirmed using crude cell extracts. These FAS components are fruit-specific members of their respective gene families. These genes are predicted to be associated with Capsicum fruit traits, for example, capsaicinoid biosynthesis or fatty acid biosynthesis necessary for placental development.

  9. Effects of food resources on the fatty acid composition, growth and survival of freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Michelle; Bartsch, Lynn; Richardson, William B.; Vallazza, Jon; Moraska Lafrancois, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Increased nutrient and sediment loading in rivers have caused observable changes in algal community composition, and thereby, altered the quality and quantity of food resources available to native freshwater mussels. Our objective was to characterize the relationship between nutrient conditions and mussel food quality and examine the effects on fatty acid composition, growth and survival of juvenile mussels. Juvenile Lampsilis cardium and L. siliquoidea were deployed in cages for 28 d at four riverine and four lacustrine sites in the lower St. Croix River, Minnesota/Wisconsin, USA. Mussel foot tissue and food resources (four seston fractions and surficial sediment) were analyzed for quantitative fatty acid (FA) composition. Green algae were abundant in riverine sites, whereas cyanobacteria were most abundant in the lacustrine sites. Mussel survival was high (95%) for both species. Lampsilis cardium exhibited lower growth relative to L. siliquoidea (p 63 μm) of seston, including the bacterial FAs, and several of the FAs associated with sediments. Reduced mussel growth was observed in L. siliquoidea when the abundance of cyanobacteria exceeded 9% of the total phytoplankton biovolume. Areas dominated by cyanobacteria may not provide sufficient food quality to promote or sustain mussel growth.

  10. Inventory of Fatty Acid Desaturases in the Pennate Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina-Juana Dolch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The diatom Phaeodactylum is rich in very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Fatty acid (FA synthesis, elongation, and desaturation have been studied in depth in plants including Arabidopsis, but for secondary endosymbionts the full picture remains unclear. FAs are synthesized up to a chain length of 18 carbons inside chloroplasts, where they can be incorporated into glycerolipids. They are also exported to the ER for phospho- and betaine lipid syntheses. Elongation of FAs up to 22 carbons occurs in the ER. PUFAs can be reimported into plastids to serve as precursors for glycerolipids. In both organelles, FA desaturases are present, introducing double bonds between carbon atoms and giving rise to a variety of molecular species. In addition to the four desaturases characterized in Phaeodactylum (FAD2, FAD6, PtD5, PtD6, we identified eight putative desaturase genes. Combining subcellular localization predictions and comparisons with desaturases from other organisms like Arabidopsis, we propose a scheme at the whole cell level, including features that are likely specific to secondary endosymbionts.

  11. Hydrolysis optimization and characterization study of preparing fatty acids from Jatropha curcas seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salimon Jumat

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acids (FAs are important as raw materials for the biotechnology industry. Existing methods of FAs production are based on chemical methods. In this study potassium hydroxide (KOH-catalyzed reactions were utilized to hydrolysis Jatropha curcas seed oil. Results The parameters effect of ethanolic KOH concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time to free fatty acid (FFA% were investigated using D-Optimal Design. Characterization of the product has been studied using Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, gas chromatography (GC and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The optimum conditions for maximum FFA% were achieved at 1.75M of ethanolic KOH concentration, 65°C of reaction temperature and 2.0 h of reaction time. Conclusions This study showed that ethanolic KOH concentration was significant variable for J. curcas seed oil hydrolysis. In a 18-point experimental design, FFA% of hydrolyzed J. curcas seed oil can be raised from 1.89% to 102.2%, which proved by FTIR and HPLC.

  12. Genes associated with long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in bovine skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, R; Cañón, J; Dunner, S

    2010-01-01

    Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) influence meat tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, and are beneficial to human health. The percentage of long-chain n-3 FAs in total FAs is termed the omega-3 index (O3I). It is thus of great interest to favor rising this index in bovine skeletal muscle, to obtain healthier, tastier, and more nutritive meat. This study was aimed to detect transcriptomic variations related to O3I in muscles in 15-month-old males of 4 Spanish cattle breeds raised under the same conditions. Through the analysis of extreme O3I phenotypes, 3 genes of interest (AANAT, UCP2 and AHA1) were identified. AANAT and UCP2 were strongly up-regulated, while AHA1 was repressed in animals with a high O3I. Moreover, gene expression differed between GDF8-null animal muscles (tested for nt821del11 and Q204X mutations) and the wild-type muscles for genes GDH1, IGF2R, FADS1, ASPH, and AIM1, all showing down-regulation in Asturiana de los Valles calves with muscle hypertrophy (GDF8-null). This shows that in GDF8-null animals other pathways are used for FA synthesis.

  13. Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio

    2012-02-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds) as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA) sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA) analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among the 29 identified FAs, three from feeds were catabolized in the rabbits, five were de novo synthesized and stored chiefly in the muscle. It was possible to linearly characterize the incorporation from the feed to the muscle of 16 FAs. This study has confirmed that the dietary inclusion of various raw materials could be considered as a way of enriching the n-3 PUFA of rabbit meat. A proposal for the prediction of n-3 PUFA from dietary α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3) and a panel of another 10 FAs has been made for intramuscular fat (R² = 0.94) and perirenal fat (R² = 0.96).

  14. Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among the 29 identified FAs, three from feeds were catabolized in the rabbits, five were de novo synthesized and stored chiefly in the muscle. It was possible to linearly characterize the incorporation from the feed to the muscle of 16 FAs. This study has confirmed that the dietary inclusion of various raw materials could be considered as a way of enriching the n-3 PUFA of rabbit meat. A proposal for the prediction of n-3 PUFA from dietary α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3 and a panel of another 10 FAs has been made for intramuscular fat (R2 = 0.94 and perirenal fat (R2 = 0.96.

  15. Synthesis and structural analysis of 13C-fatty acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The 13C-labeled fatty acids octanoic-1-13C acid and palmitic-l-13C acid were synthetically prepared from Ba 13CO3. The yield of the former was more than 90% and that of the latter was above 85%. MS, IR, 1H-NMR and 13NMR were performed to analyze the structures of the two 13C-fatty acids, compared with their unlabeled fatty acids.

  16. Succinct synthesis of saturated hydroxy fatty acids and

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Mads Holmgaard; Jenkins, Laura; Dunlop, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Saturated hydroxy fatty acids make up a class of underexplored lipids with potentially interesting biological activities. We report a succinct and general synthetic route to saturated hydroxy fatty acids hydroxylated at position 6 or higher, and exemplify this with the synthesis of hydroxylauric...... acids. All regioisomers of hydroxylauric acids were tested on free fatty acid receptors FFA1, FFA4 and GPR84. The results show that the introduction of a hydroxy group and its position have a high impact on receptor activity....

  17. Fatty acid and sn-2 fatty acid composition in human milk from Granada (Spain) and in infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, A; López-Sabater, M C; Campoy-Folgoso, C; Rivero-Urgell, M; Castellote-Bargalló, A I

    2002-12-01

    To investigate differences in fatty acid and sn-2 fatty acid composition in colostrum, transitional and mature human milk, and in term infant formulas. Departament de Nutrició i Bromatologia, University of Barcelona, Spain and University Hospital of Granada, Spain. One-hundred and twenty mothers and 11 available types of infant formulas for term infants. We analysed the fatty acid composition of colostrum (n=40), transitional milk (n=40), mature milk (n=40) and 11 infant formulas. We also analysed the fatty acid composition at sn-2 position in colostrum (n=12), transitional milk (n=12), mature milk (n=12), and the 11 infant formulas. Human milk in Spain had low saturated fatty acids, high monounsaturated fatty acids and high linolenic acid. Infant formulas and mature human milk had similar fatty acid composition. In mature milk, palmitic acid was preferentially esterified at the sn-2 position (86.25%), and oleic and linoleic acids were predominantly esterified at the sn-1,3 positions (12.22 and 22.27%, respectively, in the sn-2 position). In infant formulas, palmitic acid was preferentially esterified at the sn-1,3 positions and oleic and linoleic acids had higher percentages at the sn-2 position than they do in human milk. Fatty acid composition of human milk in Spain seems to reflect the Mediterranean dietary habits of mothers. Infant formulas resemble the fatty acid profile of human milk, but the distribution of fatty acids at the sn-2 position is markedly different.

  18. Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in antrhropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns...... in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. Methods 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate...... the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WCBMI), adjusting for confounders. Results 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men...

  19. Essential fatty acids and lipid mediators. Endocannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caramia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1929 Burr and Burr discovered the essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3. Since then, researchers have shown a growing interest in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA as precursors of “lipid mediator” molecules, often with opposing effects, prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, lipossines, resolvines, protectines, maresins that regulate immunity, platelet aggregation, inflammation, etc. They showed that the balance between omega-3 and omega-6 acids has a profound influence on all the body’s inflammatory responses and a raised level of PUFA omega-3 in tissue correlate with a reduced incidence of degenerative cardiovascular disease, some mental illnesses such as depression, and neuro-degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s. The CYP-catalyzed epoxidation and hydroxylation of arachidonic acid (AA were established recently as the so-called third branch of AGE cascade. Cytochrome P450 (CYP epoxygenases convert AA to four epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET regioisomers, that produce vascular relaxation anti-inflammatory effects on blood vessels and in the kidney, promote angiogenesis, and protect ischemic myocardium and brain. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are accessible to CYP enzymes in the same way as AA. Metabolites derived from EPA include epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EETR and hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids (19- and 20-HEPE, whereas DHA include epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids (21- and 22-HDoHE. For many of the CYP isoforms, the n-3 PUFAs are the preferred substrates and the available data suggest that some of the vasculo- and cardioprotective effects attributed to dietary n-3 PUFAs may be mediated by CYP-dependent metabolites of EPA and DHA. From AA derives also endocannabinoids like anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, capable of mimicking the pharmacological actions of the active principle of Cannabis sativa preparations such as

  20. Unsaturated fatty acids, desaturases, and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungjae; Park, Woo Jung

    2014-02-01

    With the increasing concern for health and nutrition, dietary fat has attracted considerable attention. The composition of fatty acids in a diet is important since they are associated with major diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) requires the expression of dietary fat-associated genes, such as SCD, FADS1, FADS2, and FADS3, which encode a variety of desaturases, to catalyze the addition of a double bond in a fatty acid chain. Recent studies using new molecular techniques and genomics, as well as clinical trials have shown that these genes and UFA are closely related to physiological conditions and chronic diseases; it was found that the existence of alternative transcripts of the desaturase genes and desaturase isoforms might affect human health and lipid metabolism in different ways. In this review, we provide an overview of UFA and desaturases associated with human health and nutrition. Moreover, recent findings of UFA, desaturases, and their associated genes in human systems are discussed. Consequently, this review may help elucidate the complicated physiology of UFA in human health and diseases.

  1. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids....

  2. Fatty acid patterns early after premature birth, simultaneously analysed in mothers' food, breast milk and serum phospholipids of mothers and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Karl-Göran; Lundqvist-Persson, Cristina; Bona, Elsa; Petzold, Max; Strandvik, Birgitta

    2009-06-10

    The supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids via the placenta is interrupted in premature infants, making them exclusively dependent on breast milk, which varies in fatty acid (FA) concentrations depending on the mother's diet. To in a longitudinal study explore the relation between FA status in mothers and infants from an unselected cohort of prematures, not requiring intensive care. Breast milk and mothers' and infants' plasma phospholipid FA concentrations from birth to 44 weeks of gestational age were analysed and compared with mothers' food intake, assessed using a 3-day diary. Fatty acids were analysed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. The energy intake was low in 75% of mothers, and 90% had low intake of essential FAs (EFAs). Dietary linoleic acid (LA, 18:2w6), but not w3 FAs, correlated to concentrations in breast milk. Infants' plasma and breast milk correlated for arachidonic (AA, 20:4w6), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5w3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6w3) acids. A high concentration of mead acid (20:3w9) in the infants at birth correlated negatively to the concentrations of LA, AA and w3 FAs. Infants of mothers who stopped breastfeeding during the study period showed decreased DHA concentrations and increased w6/w3 ratios, with the opposite FA pattern seen in the mothers' plasma. Although dietary w3 FAs were insufficient in an unselected cohort of mothers of premature infants, breastfeeding resulted in increased levels of DHA in the premature infants at the expense of the mothers, suggesting a general need to increase dietary w3 FAs during pregnancy and lactation.

  3. Trans fatty acid contents in selected dietary fats in the Estonian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meremäe, Kadrin; Roasto, Mati; Kuusik, Sirje; Ots, Meelis; Henno, Merike

    2012-08-01

    In response to public concern, this study assessed the fatty acid (FA) composition of blended spreads, margarines and shortenings in the Estonian retail market in 2011. Special attention was paid to the trans fatty acids (TFA) composition. The changes in these characteristics of selected dietary fats in the market over recent years are also presented. Twenty-six edible fat brands, available in the Estonian retail market in 2011, were purchased and FA compositions were analyzed by chromatography. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) were the dominant group of FAs for all blended spreads (49.6 to 65.8%), and for the majority of shortenings (from 21.1 to 54.6%). Cis monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were the dominant group of FAs for the majority of margarines, ranging from 25.3% to 50.5%. The total TFA for blended spreads varied from 1.18% to 9.08%, for margarines from 0.04% to 34.96% and for shortenings from 0.14% to 39.50%. Octadecenoic (C18:1) isomers were the main TFA found. Compared to 2008/2009, the industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA) content in several of the dietary fat brands was much reduced in 2011. This voluntary reformulation was probably a response to consumer demand associated with a public health campaign directed against IP-TFA in Estonian foods, and were mainly achieved by replacing TFA with SFA C12:0-C16:0. Present paper is directed toward public health related institutions and food industries producing foods with potentially high contents of trans fatty acids (TFA). According to the public concern TFA content in domestic blended spreads has declined significantly over the past 3 y in Estonia. The reduction in the TFA content was achieved by replacing TFA with saturated fatty acids (SFA) (C12:0-C16:0). To shift food composition toward healthier product formulations, mandatory labeling of the sum of IP-TFA and SFA (C12:0-C16:0) was recommended. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Structural Insight into the Differential Effects of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids on the Production of Aβ Peptides and Amyloid Plaques*

    OpenAIRE

    Amtul, Zareen; Uhrig, Markus; Rozmahel, Richard F.; Beyreuther, Konrad

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have shown the protective effects of dietary enrichment of various lipids in several late-onset animal models of Alzheimer Disease (AD); however, none of the studies has determined which structure within a lipid determines its detrimental or beneficial effects on AD. High-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) shows that saturated fatty acids (SFAs), upstream omega-3 FAs, and arachidonic acid (AA) resulted in significantly higher secretion of both Aβ 40 and 42 p...

  5. Response of fatty acid synthesis genes to the binding of human salivary amylase by Streptococcus gordonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitkova, Anna E; Haase, Elaine M; Vickerman, M Margaret; Gill, Steven R; Scannapieco, Frank A

    2012-03-01

    Streptococcus gordonii, an important primary colonizer of dental plaque biofilm, specifically binds to salivary amylase via the surface-associated amylase-binding protein A (AbpA). We hypothesized that a function of amylase binding to S. gordonii may be to modulate the expression of chromosomal genes, which could influence bacterial survival and persistence in the oral cavity. Gene expression profiling by microarray analysis was performed to detect genes in S. gordonii strain CH1 that were differentially expressed in response to the binding of purified human salivary amylase versus exposure to purified heat-denatured amylase. Selected genes found to be differentially expressed were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Five genes from the fatty acid synthesis (FAS) cluster were highly (10- to 35-fold) upregulated in S. gordonii CH1 cells treated with native amylase relative to those treated with denatured amylase. An abpA-deficient strain of S. gordonii exposed to amylase failed to show a response in FAS gene expression similar to that observed in the parental strain. Predicted phenotypic effects of amylase binding to S. gordonii strain CH1 (associated with increased expression of FAS genes, leading to changes in fatty acid synthesis) were noted; these included increased bacterial growth, survival at low pH, and resistance to triclosan. These changes were not observed in the amylase-exposed abpA-deficient strain, suggesting a role for AbpA in the amylase-induced phenotype. These results provide evidence that the binding of salivary amylase elicits a differential gene response in S. gordonii, resulting in a phenotypic adjustment that is potentially advantageous for bacterial survival in the oral environment.

  6. A study of petroleum fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, I.V.; Kulachenko, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a study conducted through a method of gas liquid chromatography of n-fatty acids, separated from the oils of a number of deposits of Western Siberia, are discussed. In particular, the molecular mass distribution of n-acids and paraffins, as well as the free acids and the thermodestruction acids in the oil of the Fedorovsk deposit, were studied. The existence of a predominance of acids of even structure in the range of C/sub 16/-C/sub 20/ is common for the free and bound acids. At the same time, it is noted that for the time being, it is difficult to provide an unambiguous explanation for the obtained results. But one fact is certain: the free, in the form of complex ethers, as well as the form of the compounds which liberate the acids after precise thermal action. The individual composition of the acids of all three forms is different. A specific regularity is traced in the distribution of the n-acids in the oil fractions. It is explained that the molecular mass distribution of the acids in the fractions and in the initial oil is identical.

  7. Intake of specific fatty acids and fat alters growth, health, and titers following vaccination in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselburn, K M; O'Diam, K M; Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L; Daniels, K M

    2013-09-01

    Typical fatty acid profiles of milk and milk replacer (MR) differ. Calf MR in the United States are made from animal fat, which are low in short- and medium-chain fatty acids and linolenic acid. Two 56-d trials compared a control MR containing 27% crude protein and formulated with 3 fat and fatty acid compositions. The 3 MR treatments were (1) only animal fat totaling 17% fat (CON), (2) animal fat supplemented with butyrate, medium-chain fatty acids, and linolenic acid using a commercial product (1.25% NeoTec4 MR; Provimi North America, Brookville, OH) totaling 17% fat (fatty acid-supplemented; FA-S), and (3) milk fat totaling 33% fat (MF). The MR were fed at 660 g of dry matter from d 0 to 42 and weaned. Starter (20% crude protein) and water were fed ad libitum for 56 d. Trial 1 utilized Holstein calves (24 female, 24 male) during summer months and trial 2 utilized Holstein calves (48 male) during fall months. Calves (41±1 kg of initial body weight; 2 to 3d of age) were sourced from a single farm and housed in a naturally ventilated nursery without added heat. Calves were in individual pens with straw bedding. Calf was the experimental unit. Data for each trial were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a 3 (MR treatment) × 2 (sex) factorial arrangement of treatments in trial 1 with repeated measures and as a completely randomized design with 3 MR treatments in trial 2 with repeated measures. Preplanned contrast statements of treatments CON versus FA-S and CON versus MF were used to separate means. We found no interactions of MR treatment by sex. Calf average daily gain, hip width change, and feed efficiency differed (CONFA-S). Titers to bovine respiratory parainfluenza-3 and bovine virus diarrhea type 1 (vaccinations to these pathogens were on d 7 and 28) in serum samples taken on d 49 and 56 differed (CONFA-S; CONFA-S; CON>MF). Calves fed FA-S and MF had improved growth and feed efficiency compared with calves fed CON, whereas calves fed FA-S also

  8. Rosiglitazone increases fatty acid Δ9-desaturation and decreases elongase activity index in human skeletal muscle in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Knut; Andres, Janin; Bobbert, Thomas; Assmann, Anke; Biedasek, Katrin; Diederich, Sven; Graham, Ian; Larson, Tony R; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Spranger, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The ratio of unsaturated to saturated long-chain fatty acids (LC-FAs) in skeletal muscle has been associated with insulin resistance. Some animal data suggest a modulatory effect of peroxisome proliferator receptor γ (PPARγ) stimulation on stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and LC-FA composition in skeletal muscle, but human data are rare. We here investigate whether treatment with a PPARγ agonist affects myocellular SCD1 expression and modulates the intramyocellular fatty acid profile in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. Muscle biopsies and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed in 7 men before and after 8 weeks of rosiglitazone treatment. Intramyocellular saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated intramuscular fatty acid profiles were measured by gas chromatography. Effects on SCD1 messenger RNA expression were analyzed in C2C12 cells and in human biopsies before and after rosiglitazone treatment. As expected, treatment with the PPARγ activator rosiglitazone improved insulin sensitivity in humans. Myocellular SCD1 messenger RNA expression was increased in human biopsies and C2C12 cells. Although the total content of myocellular LC-FA was unchanged, a relative shift from saturated LC-FAs to unsaturated LC-FAs was observed in human biopsies. Particularly, the amount of stearate was reduced, whereas the amounts of palmitoleate as well as oleate and vaccenate were increased, after rosiglitazone therapy. These changes resulted in an increased fatty acid Δ9-desaturation index (16:1/16:0 and 18:1/18:0) in skeletal muscle and a decreased elongase activity index (18:0/16:0). The PPARγ associated phenotypes may be partially explained by an increased Δ9-desaturation and a decreased elongase activity of skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Engineered Production of Short Chain Fatty Acid in Escherichia coli Using Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawed, Kamran; Mattam, Anu Jose; Fatma, Zia; Wajid, Saima; Abdin, Malik Z; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyric acid, have a broad range of applications in chemical and fuel industries. Worldwide demand of sustainable fuels and chemicals has encouraged researchers for microbial synthesis of SCFAs. In this study we compared three thioesterases, i.e., TesAT from Anaerococcus tetradius, TesBF from Bryantella formatexigens and TesBT from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, for production of SCFAs in Escherichia coli utilizing native fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway and modulated the genetic and bioprocess parameters to improve its yield and productivity. E. coli strain expressing tesBT gene yielded maximum butyric acid titer at 1.46 g L-1, followed by tesBF at 0.85 g L-1 and tesAT at 0.12 g L-1. The titer of butyric acid varied significantly depending upon the plasmid copy number and strain genotype. The modulation of genetic factors that are known to influence long chain fatty acid production, such as deletion of the fadD and fadE that initiates the fatty acid degradation cycle and overexpression of fadR that is a global transcriptional activator of fatty acid biosynthesis and repressor of degradation cycle, did not improve the butyric acid titer significantly. Use of chemical inhibitor cerulenin, which restricts the fatty acid elongation cycle, increased the butyric acid titer by 1.7-fold in case of TesBF, while it had adverse impact in case of TesBT. In vitro enzyme assay indicated that cerulenin also inhibited short chain specific thioesterase, though inhibitory concentration varied according to the type of thioesterase used. Further process optimization followed by fed-batch cultivation under phosphorous limited condition led to production of 14.3 g L-1 butyric acid and 17.5 g L-1 total free fatty acid at 28% of theoretical yield. This study expands our understanding of SCFAs production in E. coli through FASII pathway and highlights role of genetic and process optimization to enhance the desired product.

  10. Engineered Production of Short Chain Fatty Acid in Escherichia coli Using Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawed, Kamran; Mattam, Anu Jose; Fatma, Zia; Wajid, Saima; Abdin, Malik Z.; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyric acid, have a broad range of applications in chemical and fuel industries. Worldwide demand of sustainable fuels and chemicals has encouraged researchers for microbial synthesis of SCFAs. In this study we compared three thioesterases, i.e., TesAT from Anaerococcus tetradius, TesBF from Bryantella formatexigens and TesBT from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, for production of SCFAs in Escherichia coli utilizing native fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway and modulated the genetic and bioprocess parameters to improve its yield and productivity. E. coli strain expressing tesBT gene yielded maximum butyric acid titer at 1.46 g L-1, followed by tesBF at 0.85 g L-1 and tesAT at 0.12 g L-1. The titer of butyric acid varied significantly depending upon the plasmid copy number and strain genotype. The modulation of genetic factors that are known to influence long chain fatty acid production, such as deletion of the fadD and fadE that initiates the fatty acid degradation cycle and overexpression of fadR that is a global transcriptional activator of fatty acid biosynthesis and repressor of degradation cycle, did not improve the butyric acid titer significantly. Use of chemical inhibitor cerulenin, which restricts the fatty acid elongation cycle, increased the butyric acid titer by 1.7-fold in case of TesBF, while it had adverse impact in case of TesBT. In vitro enzyme assay indicated that cerulenin also inhibited short chain specific thioesterase, though inhibitory concentration varied according to the type of thioesterase used. Further process optimization followed by fed-batch cultivation under phosphorous limited condition led to production of 14.3 g L-1 butyric acid and 17.5 g L-1 total free fatty acid at 28% of theoretical yield. This study expands our understanding of SCFAs production in E. coli through FASII pathway and highlights role of genetic and process optimization to enhance the desired product. PMID:27466817

  11. Separation of cis-fatty acids from saturated and trans-fatty acids by nanoporous polydicyclopentadiene membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abhinaba; Bowden, Ned B

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the separation of mixtures of fatty acid salts using a new organic solvent nanofiltration membrane based on polydicyclopentadiene (PDCPD). Mixtures of free fatty acids could not be separated by the membranes because they permeated at similar rates. When triisobutylamine was added to the fatty acids, the cis-fatty acid salts (oleic, petroselinic, vaccenic, linoleic, and linolenic acid) had slower permeation though the membranes than saturated (stearic acid) and trans-fatty acid (elaidic acid) salts. The reason for the difference in permeation was due to the formation of stable salt pairs between the amine and fatty acids that increased their cross-sectional areas. The fatty acid salts derived from saturated and trans-fatty acids were smaller than the critical area cutoff for the PDCPD membranes, so they readily permeated. In contrast, the fatty acid salts derived from the cis-fatty acids had critical areas larger than critical area cutoff of the PDPCD membranes and had slowed permeation. The partitioning coefficients of fatty acids and fatty acid salts were investigated to demonstrate that they were not responsible for the difference in permeation. The use of pressure was investigated to greatly accelerate the permeation through the membranes. For a solvent mixture of 35/65 (v/v) toluene/hexanes, the permeation of solvent was approximately 39 L m(-2) h(-1). This value is similar to values reported for permeation through membranes used in industry. The separation of a mixture of fatty acids based on the composition of soybean oil was investigated using pressure. The saturated fatty acid salts were almost completely removed from the cis-fatty acid salts when iBu(3)N was used as the amine to form the salt pairs. The separation of the cis-fatty acids found in soybean oil was investigated with Pr(3)N as the amine. The oleic acid salt (oleic acid has one cis double bond) preferentially permeated the membrane while the linoleic (two cis double bonds

  12. Nitro-fatty acids: novel anti-inflammatory lipid mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rubbo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitro-fatty acids are formed and detected in human plasma, cell membranes, and tissue, modulating metabolic as well as inflammatory signaling pathways. Here we discuss the mechanisms of nitro-fatty acid formation as well as their key chemical and biochemical properties. The electrophilic properties of nitro-fatty acids to activate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways are discussed in detail. A critical issue is the influence of nitroarachidonic acid on prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases, redirecting arachidonic acid metabolism and signaling. We also analyze in vivo data supporting nitro-fatty acids as promising pharmacological tools to prevent inflammatory diseases.

  13. Bioavailability of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Supplements have reached a prominent role in improving the supply of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5n-3) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n-3). Similar to other nutrients, the availability of omega-3 fatty acids is highly variable and determined by numerous factors. However, the question of omega-3 fatty acids bioavailability has long been disregarded, which may have contributed to the neutral or negative results concerning their effects in several studies. This review provides an overview of the influence of chemical binding form (free fatty acids bound in ethylesters, triacylglycerides or phospholipids), matrix effects (capsule ingestion with concomitant intake of food, fat content in food) or galenic form (i.e. microencapsulation, emulsification) on the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids. There is a need to systematically investigate the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids formulations, which might be a key to designing more effective studies in the future.

  14. Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health: research completed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, I A; Wanders, A J; Katan, M B

    2013-05-01

    This review asks the question if further research on trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health is needed. We therefore review the evidence from human studies on trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health, and provide a quantitative review of effects of trans fatty acid intake on lipoproteins. The results show that the effect of industrially produced trans fatty acids on heart health seen in observational studies is larger than predicted from changes in lipoprotein concentrations. There is debate on the effect of ruminant trans fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. Of special interest is conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which is produced industrially for sale as supplements. Observational studies do not show higher risks of cardiovascular disease with higher intakes of ruminant trans fatty acids. However, CLA, industrial and ruminant trans fatty acids all raise plasma low-density lipoprotein and the total to high-density lipoprotein ratio. Gram for gram, all trans fatty acids have largely the same effect on blood lipoproteins. In conclusion, the detrimental effects of industrial trans fatty acids on heart health are beyond dispute. The exact size of effect will remain hard to determine. Further research is warranted on the effects of ruminant trans fatty acids and CLA on cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.

  15. ANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MIANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Čuboň

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work was analysedquality of raw cow’s milkof dairy cows which was fed with winter food ration of feed. Milk was observed in terms of the composition of milk fat and fatty acids during the months of August, October, December and February. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was 63.22 % and it was found the highest proportion of palmitic acid 34.85%myristic acid accounted for 11.44 % and 10.86 % stearic acid. Linoleic acid, which is given special attention in view of the favourable effect on cholesterol, consisted of 3.48 % milk fat. The average proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat was 36.76 % of which 32.77 % were monounsaturated and polyunsaturated 4.0 %. A high proportion of milk fat formed monounsaturated oleic acid 30.92 %. The proportion of linoleic acid in milk fat was 3.48 % and 0.31 % linoleic acid.

  16. Whole Blood Levels of the n-6 Essential Fatty Acid Linoleic Acid Are Inversely Associated with Stunting in 2-to-6 Year Old Tanzanian Children: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia Jumbe

    Full Text Available In Tanzania, 35% of all children below five years of age are stunted. Dietary fatty acids (FA are critical for growth and development. However, whole blood FA levels in Tanzanian children are poorly described.The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to assess 1 whole blood levels of essential fatty acids and 2 the association between whole blood FA levels and growth parameters in Tanzanian children 2-6 years of age.A drop of blood was collected on an antioxidant treated card and analyzed for FA composition. Weight and height were measured and z-scores calculated. Relationships between FAs and growth parameters were analyzed by linear regression.Of the 334 children that participated, 30.3% were stunted. The average whole blood level of Mead acid was 0.15%. The anthropometric z-score height-for-age (HAZ was inversely associated with Mead acid, the Mead acid to arachidonic acid (T/T ratio, and total n-9 FA. Additionally, HAZ was positively associated with linoleic acid and total n-6 FA. BMI-for-age was positively associated with oleic acid, total n-9 FA and T/T ratio but inversely associated with arachidonic acid and total n-6 FA. Weight-for-height was inversely associated with arachidonic acid and total n-6 FAs and positively associated with oleic acid and total n-9 FA. Weight-for-age was not associated with any FA tested. Total n-3 FAs were not associated with any growth parameters measured.The EFA linoleic acid and the markers of FA deficiency were associated with HAZ, an indicator for stunting in 2-6 year old Tanzanian children. Total n-6, total n-9, and a number of individual FAs were associated with growth. Increasing dietary intake of EFA and n-6 FAs may be a strategy to combat stunting in this population.

  17. Differential transcriptional modulation of duplicated fatty acid-binding protein genes by dietary fatty acids in zebrafish (Danio rerio: evidence for subfunctionalization or neofunctionalization of duplicated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denovan-Wright Eileen M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Duplication-Degeneration-Complementation (DDC model, subfunctionalization and neofunctionalization have been proposed as important processes driving the retention of duplicated genes in the genome. These processes are thought to occur by gain or loss of regulatory elements in the promoters of duplicated genes. We tested the DDC model by determining the transcriptional induction of fatty acid-binding proteins (Fabps genes by dietary fatty acids (FAs in zebrafish. We chose zebrafish for this study for two reasons: extensive bioinformatics resources are available for zebrafish at zfin.org and zebrafish contains many duplicated genes owing to a whole genome duplication event that occurred early in the ray-finned fish lineage approximately 230-400 million years ago. Adult zebrafish were fed diets containing either fish oil (12% lipid, rich in highly unsaturated fatty acid, sunflower oil (12% lipid, rich in linoleic acid, linseed oil (12% lipid, rich in linolenic acid, or low fat (4% lipid, low fat diet for 10 weeks. FA profiles and the steady-state levels of fabp mRNA and heterogeneous nuclear RNA in intestine, liver, muscle and brain of zebrafish were determined. Result FA profiles assayed by gas chromatography differed in the intestine, brain, muscle and liver depending on diet. The steady-state level of mRNA for three sets of duplicated genes, fabp1a/fabp1b.1/fabp1b.2, fabp7a/fabp7b, and fabp11a/fabp11b, was determined by reverse transcription, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. In brain, the steady-state level of fabp7b mRNAs was induced in fish fed the linoleic acid-rich diet; in intestine, the transcript level of fabp1b.1 and fabp7b were elevated in fish fed the linolenic acid-rich diet; in liver, the level of fabp7a mRNAs was elevated in fish fed the low fat diet; and in muscle, the level of fabp7a and fabp11a mRNAs were elevated in fish fed the linolenic acid-rich or the low fat diets. In all cases

  18. Optimization of creamy vegetable spreads for fatty acid composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cream-plant spreads optimization method by fatty acid content is developed. Product organoleptic properties analysis is carried out, its microstructure and fatty acid content is evaluated, acid and peroxide numbers are defined. Milk plasma active acidity alteration is examined and rational shelf life is determined.

  19. Caveolar fatty acids and acylation of caveolin-1.

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    Qian Cai

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Caveolae are cholesterol and sphingolipids rich subcellular domains on plasma membrane. Caveolae contain a variety of signaling proteins which provide platforms for signaling transduction. In addition to enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids, caveolae also contain a variety of fatty acids. It has been well-established that acylation of protein plays a pivotal role in subcellular location including targeting to caveolae. However, the fatty acid compositions of caveolae and the type of acylation of caveolar proteins remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the fatty acids in caveolae and caveolin-1 bound fatty acids. METHODS: Caveolae were isolated from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells. The caveolar fatty acids were extracted with Folch reagent, methyl esterificated with BF3, and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS. The caveolin-1 bound fatty acids were immunoprecipitated by anti-caveolin-1 IgG and analyzed with GC/MS. RESULTS: In contrast to the whole CHO cell lysate which contained a variety of fatty acids, caveolae mainly contained three types of fatty acids, 0.48 µg palmitic acid, 0.61 µg stearic acid and 0.83 µg oleic acid/caveolae preparation/5 × 10(7 cells. Unexpectedly, GC/MS analysis indicated that caveolin-1 was not acylated by myristic acid; instead, it was acylated by palmitic acid and stearic acid. CONCLUSION: Caveolae contained a special set of fatty acids, highly enriched with saturated fatty acids, and caveolin-1 was acylated by palmitic acid and stearic acid. The unique fatty acid compositions of caveolae and acylation of caveolin-1 may be important for caveolae formation and for maintaining the function of caveolae.

  20. TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL ENRICHED BY POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Leshukov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The technology of butter with the "OmegaTrin" complex with the balanced content of polynonsaturated fat acids is developed. Studied the fatty acid composition of milk - raw materials, optimal amount of insertion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, organoleptic characteristics of enriched butter; studied physico-chemical properties and biological value (biological effectiveness of the final product, fatty acid composition of a new product, set the shelf life and developed an oil recipe.

  1. Identification of Novel Genetic Determinants of Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acid Composition among Greenlanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette Korre; Jørsboe, Emil; Sandholt, Camilla Helene;

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are involved in cellular processes important for normal body function, and perturbation of FA balance has been linked to metabolic disturbances, including type 2 diabetes. An individual's level of FAs is affected by diet, lifestyle, and genetic variation. We aimed to improve...... in relation to single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped on the MetaboChip or imputed. We identified six independent association signals. Novel loci were identified on chromosomes 5 and 11 showing strongest association with oleic acid (rs76430747 in ACSL6, beta (SE): -0.386% (0.034), p = 1.8x10......-28) and docosahexaenoic acid (rs6035106 in DTD1, 0.137% (0.025), p = 6.4x10-8), respectively. For a missense variant (rs80356779) in CPT1A, we identified a number of novel FA associations, the strongest with 11-eicosenoic acid (0.473% (0.035), p = 2.6x10-38), and for variants in FADS2 (rs174570), LPCAT3 (rs2110073...

  2. Effect of a purification step and the type of internal standard used on fatty acid determination of grass and maize silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Susana P; Cabrita, Ana R J; Fonseca, António J M; Bessa, Rui J B

    2009-11-25

    The fatty acid (FA) analysis of grass and maize silages was studied by application of a direct transesterification method (DT) followed by purification by solid-phase extraction (SPE). The choice of the internal standard (IS) for quantification of FA by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) was also studied. The acidic DT method applied to grass silage samples produced a high amount of non-fatty acid methyl ester compounds (non-FAME) compared with those formed in maize silages. The application of the SPE cleanup step reduced significantly the amount of non-FAME compounds in both samples. Five FAs were tested as IS; among them, 3 were naturally present in all silages, however their use as IS did not affect quantification of total FA composition. Nevertheless, some minor FAs present in silages were significantly affected by the IS used. Additionally, application of corrections to the GLC peak areas did not significantly influence quantification of total FA composition of silages.

  3. Targets for modulation of fatty acid oxidation in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2004-03-01

    Fatty acids are a major source of fuel used by the heart to provide large amounts of energy necessary to sustain contractile function. In the healthy heart, a balance between fatty acid and carbohydrate use ensures that energy supply to the heart matches demand. However, myocardial ischemia causes profound changes in metabolism, including alterations in glucose and fatty acid metabolism that can lead to excessive myocardial fatty acid oxidation, which occurs at the expense of glucose oxidation. This contributes to cellular acidosis, a decrease in cardiac efficiency and contractile dysfunction in the ischemic heart. Inhibition of fatty acid oxidation has recently emerged as a promising approach to the prevention of these adverse effects of fatty acids. As a result, a number of key enzymes involved in the metabolism of fatty acids are potential targets for therapeutic intervention in myocardial ischemia. This includes inhibition of fatty acid uptake into the myocyte, inhibition of mitochondrial fatty acid uptake and direct inhibition of fatty acid beta-oxidation. This review describes these potential targets for modulation of energy metabolism in the heart.

  4. Dietary supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deline, Marshall L; Vrablik, Tracy L; Watts, Jennifer L

    2013-11-29

    Fatty acids are essential for numerous cellular functions. They serve as efficient energy storage molecules, make up the hydrophobic core of membranes, and participate in various signaling pathways. Caenorhabditis elegans synthesizes all of the enzymes necessary to produce a range of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. This, combined with the simple anatomy and range of available genetic tools, make it an attractive model to study fatty acid function. In order to investigate the genetic pathways that mediate the physiological effects of dietary fatty acids, we have developed a method to supplement the C. elegans diet with unsaturated fatty acids. Supplementation is an effective means to alter the fatty acid composition of worms and can also be used to rescue defects in fatty acid-deficient mutants. Our method uses nematode growth medium agar (NGM) supplemented with fatty acid sodium salts. The fatty acids in the supplemented plates become incorporated into the membranes of the bacterial food source, which is then taken up by the C. elegans that feed on the supplemented bacteria. We also describe a gas chromatography protocol to monitor the changes in fatty acid composition that occur in supplemented worms. This is an efficient way to supplement the diets of both large and small populations of C. elegans, allowing for a range of applications for this method.

  5. Analysis of fatty acid content and composition in microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A C; de Vree, Jeroen H; Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H; Lamers, Packo P

    2013-10-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (ω-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification.

  6. A novel role for an ECF sigma factor in fatty acid biosynthesis and membrane fluidity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

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    Ana Laura Boechat

    Full Text Available Extracytoplasmic function (ECF sigma factors are members of cell-surface signaling systems, abundant in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Twenty genes coding for ECF sigma factors are present in P. aeruginosa sequenced genomes, most of them being part of TonB systems related to iron uptake. In this work, poorly characterized sigma factors were overexpressed in strain PA14, in an attempt to understand their role in the bacterium's physiology. Cultures overexpressing SigX displayed a biphasic growth curve, reaching stationary phase earlier than the control strain, followed by subsequent growth resumption. During the first stationary phase, most cells swell and die, but the remaining cells return to the wild type morphology and proceed to a second exponential growth. This is not due to compensatory mutations, since cells recovered from late time points and diluted into fresh medium repeated this behavior. Swollen cells have a more fluid membrane and contain higher amounts of shorter chain fatty acids. A proteomic analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins due to overexpression of sigX, revealing the induction of several fatty acid synthesis (FAS enzymes. Using qRT-PCR, we showed that at least one isoform from each of the FAS pathway enzymes were upregulated at the mRNA level in the SigX overexpressing strain thus pointing to a role for this ECF sigma factor in the FAS regulation in P. aeruginosa.

  7. Fatty-acid profiles of white muscle and liver in stream-maturing steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from early migration to kelt emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Zachary L.; Moffitt, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    The profiles of specific fatty acids (FA) in white muscle and liver of fasting steelhead troutOncorhynchus mykiss were evaluated at three periods during their prespawning migration and at kelt emigration in the Snake–Columbia River of Washington, Oregon and Idaho, to improve the understanding of energy change. Twenty-seven FAs were identified; depletion of 10 of these was positively correlated in liver and white muscle of prespawning O. mykiss. To observe relative changes in FA content more accurately over sampling intervals, the lipid fraction of tissues was used to normalize the quantity of individual FA to an equivalent tissue wet mass. Saturated and monounsaturated FAs were depleted between upstream migration in September and kelt emigration in June, whereas polyunsaturated FAs were more conserved. Liver was depleted of FAs more rapidly than muscle. Three FAs were detected across all sampling intervals: 16:0, 18:1 and 22:6n3, which are probably structurally important to membranes. When structurally important FAs of O. mykiss are depleted to provide energy, physiological performance and survival may be affected.

  8. Fatty Acids Profile of Intramuscular Fat in Light Lambs Traditionally and Artificially Reared

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    Milan MARGETÍN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of 40 carcasses of light lambs of the synthetic population of Slovak Dairy sheep from (a artificial rearing (AR and (b traditional rearing (TR was assessed on the basis of fatty acids profile of intramuscular fat (IMF. Lambs from AR in comparison with TR were of lower quality as assessed on the basis of fatty acids (FAs profile. The content of conjugated linolic acid (CLA in the fat of TR lambs was severalfold higher (0.749 vs. 0.193 g.100g-1 FAME, P<0.001 than in AR lambs. Similarly, the content of trans-vaccenic (TVA, á-linolenic (ALA, rumenic (RA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA was in TR lambs significantly higher (P<0.001 than in AR lambs (0.955 vs. 0.111; 0.715 vs. 0.251; 0.672 vs. 0.148; 0.352 vs. 0.061; 0.252 vs. 0.079 g.100g-1 FAME. In contrary, the content of linoleic acid (LA, the ratio of LA/ALA and n-6/n-3 in AR lambs was higher than in TR lambs (9.07 vs. 4.81 g.100 g-1 FAME; 39.11 vs. 6.80; 14.56 vs. 3.25, P<0.001. In TR lambs the content of n-3 PUFA and BCFA was significantly higher (P<0.001 than in AR lambs (2.08 vs. 0.84 and 1.95 vs. 0.45. The value of thrombogenic index was higher in AR lambs in comparison with TR lambs (1.44 vs. 1.31; P<0.05. Significant differences between FAs of IMF of ram lambs and ewe lambs were observed only in the case of arachidonic acid (P<0.05.

  9. Metabolomics of dietary fatty acid restriction in patients with phenylketonuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Mütze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA. Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6-C18 in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re- absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6 a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B(2 and thromboxane B(3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta

  10. Potential Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Abyor Handayani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, public awareness of healthcare importance increase. Polyunsaturated fatty acid is an essential nutrition for us, such arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. The need of Polyunsaturated fatty acid generally derived from fish oil, but fish oil has a high risk chemical contamination. Microalgae are single cell microorganism, one of Phaeodactylum tricornutum which have relatively high content of eicosapentaenoic acid (29,8%. Biotechnology market of Polyunsaturated fatty acid is very promising for both foods and feeds, because the availability of abundant raw materials and suitable to develop in the tropics. This literature review discusses about the content of Polyunsaturated fatty acid in microalgae, omega-3, omega-6, Polyunsaturated fatty acid production processes, and applications in public health

  11. Impact of Montmorillonite and Calcite on Release and Adsorption of Cyanobacterial Fatty Acids at Ambient Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Deng; Yang Xiaofen; Wang Hongmei; Li Jihong; Su Nian

    2008-01-01

    Minerals might act as important sorbents of sedimentary organic matter and reduce biodegradation, which favors the formation of hydrocarbon source rocks in the earth's history. Since most organic matter is degraded during the sinking process, at ambient temperature, it is important to investigate the adsorption capacity of different minerals during this process, to assess the organic loss from primary productivity to sedimentary organic matter. In this study, montmorillonite and calcite have been selected to study the impact of different minerals on the release, adsorption, and deposition of cyanobacterial (Synechococcus elonpata) fatty acids (FAs) at ambient temperature. Gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have been utilized to detect the variation in fatty acids. Primary results suggest that minerals have a different impact on dissolved organic matter. Montmorillonite can specifically enhance the release of fatty acids from cyanobacterial cells by lowering the pH values of the solution. The adsorption of the dissolved organic matter by montmorillonite will also be enhanced under a lower pH value. Conjunction of fatty acids with montmorillonite to form a complex will favor the sinking and preservation of these organics. Selective adsorption is observed among fatty acids with different carbon numbers. In contrast, calcite does not show any impact on the release and adsorption of organic matter even though it is reportedly capable of acting as a catalyst during the transformation of organic matter at high temperature. The primary data bridge a link between primary productivity and sedimentary organic matter, suggesting the relative importance of claystoncs in the formation of hydrocarbon source rocks in the earth's history.

  12. Hyperinsulinemia and skeletal muscle fatty acid trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaley, Jill A; Shadid, Samyah; Sheehan, Michael T; Guo, ZengKui; Jensen, Michael D

    2013-08-15

    We hypothesized that insulin alters plasma free fatty acid (FFA) trafficking into intramyocellular (im) long-chain acylcarnitines (imLCAC) and triglycerides (imTG). Overnight-fasted adults (n = 41) received intravenous infusions of [U-¹³C]palmitate (0400-0900 h) and [U-¹³C]oleate (0800-1400 h) to label imTG and imLCAC. A euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (1.0 mU·kg fat-free mass⁻¹·min⁻¹) clamp (0800-1400 h) and two muscle biopsies (0900 h, 1400 h) were performed. The patterns of [U-¹³C]palmitate incorporation into imTG-palmitate and palmitoylcarnitine were similar to those we reported in overnight postabsorptive adults (saline control); the intramyocellular palmitoylcarnitine enrichment was not different from and correlated with imTG-palmitate enrichment for both the morning (r = 0.38, P = 0.02) and afternoon (r = 0.44, P = 0.006) biopsy samples. Plasma FFA concentrations, flux, and the incorporation of plasma oleate into imTG-oleate during hyperinsulinemia were ~1/10th of that observed in the previous saline control studies (P women than men, suggesting that sex differences in intramyocellular palmitate trafficking may occur under hyperinsulinemic conditions. We conclude that plasma FFA trafficking into imTG during hyperinsulinemia is markedly suppressed, and these newly incorporated FFA fatty acids do not readily enter the LCAC preoxidative pools. Hyperinsulinemia does not seem to inhibit the entry of fatty acids from imTG pools that were labeled under fasting conditions, possibly reflecting the presence of two distinct imTG pools that are differentially regulated by insulin.

  13. Lipase catalyzed synthesis of epoxy-fatty acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN, Qian; LI, Zu-Yi

    2000-01-01

    Lipase catalyzed synthesis of epoxy-fatty acidas from unsaturated carboxylic acids was investigated.Under mild conditions unsaturated arboxylic acids were convcveed to peroxide,then the unsaturated peroxycarboxylic acids epoxidised the C=C bond of themselves

  14. Direct infusion electrospray ionization–ion mobility–mass spectrometry for comparative profiling of fatty acids based on stable isotope labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Jiapeng, E-mail: jpleng@126.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Guan, Qing [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC), Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Sun, Tuanqi, E-mail: tuanqisun@163.com [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC), Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wang, Haoyang [National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032 (China); Cui, Jianlan; Liu, Qinghao [Department of Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Zhang, Zhixu; Zhang, Manyu [Agilent Technologies China Co., Ltd, Shanghai 200080 (China); Guo, Yinlong, E-mail: ylguo@sioc.ac.cn [National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2015-08-05

    A rapid method for fatty acids (FAs) comparative profiling based on carboxyl-specific stable isotope labeling (SIL) and direct infusion electrospray ionization–ion mobility–mass spectrometry (ESI–IM–MS) is established. The design of the method takes advantage of the three-dimensional characteristics of IM–MS including drift time, m/z and ion intensity, for comparison of d0-/d6-2,4-dimethoxy-6-piperazin-1-yl pyrimidine (DMPP)-labeled FAs. In particular, without chromatographic separation, the method allowed direct FAs profiling in complex samples due to the advantageous priority of DMPP in signal enhancement as well as the extra resolution that IM–MS offered. Additionally, the d0-/d6-DMPP-labeled FAs showed expected features, including very similar drift times, 6 Da mass deviations, specific reporter ions, similar MS responses, and adherence to the drift time rule regarding the influence of carbon chain length and unsaturation on relative drift times. Therefore, the introduction of isotope analogs minimized the matrix effect and variations in quantification and ensured accurate identification of non-targeted FAs by those typical features. Peak intensity ratios between d0-/d6-DMPP-labeled ions were subsequently used in relative quantification for the detected FAs. The established strategy has been applied successfully in the rapid profiling of trace free FAs between normal and cancerous human thyroid tissues. Sixteen free FAs were found with the increased level with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) compared to the normal tissue samples. The integrated SIL technique and ESI–IM–MS are expected to serve as an alternative tool for high-throughput analysis of FAs in complex samples. - Highlights: • A novel method based on IM–MS and SIL was developed for FAs comparative profiling. • Without LC separation, the method allowed direct infusion profiling of FAs in complex samples. • Both of the efficiency and accuracy for FAs analyses

  15. Identification of characteristic fatty acids to quantify triacylglycerols in microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peili eShen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid profiles of lipids from microalgae are unique. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are generally enriched in polar lipids, whereas saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids constitute the majority of fatty acids in triacylglycerols (TAG. Each species has characteristic fatty acids, and their content is positively or negatively correlated with TAGs. The marine oleaginous diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was used as the paradigm to determine the quantitative relationship between TAG and characteristic fatty acid content. Fatty acid profiles and TAG content of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were determined in a time course. C16:0/C16:1 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3 were identified as characteristic fatty acids in TAGs and polar lipids, respectively. The percentage of those characteristic fatty acids in total fatty acids had a significant linear relationship with TAG content and thus the correlation coefficient presenting r2 were 0.96, 0.94 and 0.97 respectively. The fatty acid-based method for TAG quantification could also be applied to other microalgae such as Nannochloropsis oceanica in which the r2 of C16:0, EPA were 0.94, 0.97 respectively and Chlorella pyrenoidosa, whose r2 value correspondingly between C18:1, C18:3 and TAG content were 0.91, 0.99 as well. This characteristic fatty acid-based method provided a distinct way to quantify TAGs in microalgae, by which TAGs could be measured precisely by immediate transesterification from wet biomass rather than using conventional methods. This procedure simplified the operation and required smaller samples than conventional methods.

  16. Enhancement of neutrophil-mediated killing of Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood forms by fatty acids: importance of fatty acid structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaratilake, L M; Ferrante, A; Robinson, B S; Jaeger, T; Poulos, A

    1997-10-01

    Effects of fatty acids on human neutrophil-mediated killing of Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood forms were investigated by using a quantitative radiometric assay. The results showed that the antiparasitic activity of neutrophils can be greatly increased (>threefold) by short-term treatment with fatty acids with 20 to 24 carbon atoms and at least three double bonds. In particular, the n-3 polyenoic fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, and the n-6 fatty acid, arachidonic acid, significantly enhanced neutrophil antiparasitic activity. This effect was >1.5-fold higher than that induced by an optical concentration of the known agonist cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). At suboptimal concentrations, the combination of arachidonic acid and TNF-alpha caused a synergistic increase in neutrophil-mediated parasite killing. The fatty acid-induced effect was independent of the availability of serum opsonins but dependent on the structure of the fatty acids. The length of the carbon chain, degree of unsaturation, and availability of a free carboxyl group were important determinants of fatty acid activity. The fatty acids which increased neutrophil-mediated killing primed the enhanced superoxide radical generation of neutrophils in response to P. falciparum as detected by chemiluminescence. Scavengers of oxygen radicals significantly reduced the fatty acid-enhanced parasite killing, but cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors had no effect. These findings have identified a new class of immunoenhancers that could be exploited to increase resistance against Plasmodium species.

  17. Hyperinsulinemia and skeletal muscle fatty acid trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaley, Jill A.; Shadid, Samyah; Sheehan, Michael T.; Guo, ZengKui

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that insulin alters plasma free fatty acid (FFA) trafficking into intramyocellular (im) long-chain acylcarnitines (imLCAC) and triglycerides (imTG). Overnight-fasted adults (n = 41) received intravenous infusions of [U-13C]palmitate (0400–0900 h) and [U-13C]oleate (0800–1400 h) to label imTG and imLCAC. A euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (1.0 mU·kg fat-free mass−1·min−1) clamp (0800–1400 h) and two muscle biopsies (0900 h, 1400 h) were performed. The patterns of [U-13C]palmitate incorporation into imTG-palmitate and palmitoylcarnitine were similar to those we reported in overnight postabsorptive adults (saline control); the intramyocellular palmitoylcarnitine enrichment was not different from and correlated with imTG-palmitate enrichment for both the morning (r = 0.38, P = 0.02) and afternoon (r = 0.44, P = 0.006) biopsy samples. Plasma FFA concentrations, flux, and the incorporation of plasma oleate into imTG-oleate during hyperinsulinemia were ∼1/10th of that observed in the previous saline control studies (P < 0.001). At the time of the second biopsy, the enrichment in oleoylcarnitine was <25% of that in imTG-oleate and was not correlated with imTG-oleate enrichment. The intramyocellular nonesterified fatty acid-palmitate-to-imTG-palmitate enrichment ratio was greater (P < 0.05) in women than men, suggesting that sex differences in intramyocellular palmitate trafficking may occur under hyperinsulinemic conditions. We conclude that plasma FFA trafficking into imTG during hyperinsulinemia is markedly suppressed, and these newly incorporated FFA fatty acids do not readily enter the LCAC preoxidative pools. Hyperinsulinemia does not seem to inhibit the entry of fatty acids from imTG pools that were labeled under fasting conditions, possibly reflecting the presence of two distinct imTG pools that are differentially regulated by insulin. PMID:23820622

  18. Hyperinsulinemia and skeletal muscle fatty acid trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaley, Jill A.; Shadid, Samyah; Sheehan, Michael T.; Guo, ZengKui; Jensen, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that insulin alters plasma free fatty acid (FFA) trafficking into intramyocellular (im) long-chain acylcarnitines (imLCAC) and triglycerides (imTG). Overnight-fasted adults (n = 41) received intravenous infusions of [U-13C]palmitate (0400–0900 h) and [U-13C]oleate (0800–1400 h) to label imTG and imLCAC. A euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (1.0 mU·kg fat-free mass−1·min−1) clamp (0800–1400 h) and two muscle biopsies (0900 h, 1400 h) were performed. The patterns of [U-13C]palmitate in...

  19. The Danish trans-fatty acids ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2017-01-01

    In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled...... the creation of alliances between researchers, politicians, administration and industry. Danish researchers interpreted the research in a way to suit their ‘mental maps’ and to support their initially set goal to reduce industrially produced trans fats. The process displayed a ‘co-production’ where research...

  20. Feedlot lamb meat fatty acids profile characterization employing gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Cruz-Gonzalez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fat is an important constituent in diet, not only as an energy source, but for its essential fatty acids associated to fats in foods, considering that some polyunsaturated fatty acids like linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic cannot be synthesized by superior animals like humans. Scientific evidence show that the fatty acids ingest can affect the thrombotic tendency, cardiac rhythm, endothelial function systematic inflammation, insulin sensibility and oxidative stress. Samples from 21 ovine crossbreds from Pelibuey, Blackbelly, Dorper and Katahadin (40 kg average weight feed with corn based balanced diets were taken from loin area 18 h after refrigeration. Saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were analyzed by gas chromatography. Results in this work showed that the healthy fatty acids levels are higher as compared to saturated fatty acids levels, indicating that this meat can influence consumer’s buying choice decision regarded to their health.

  1. Fatty acids, inflammation and intestinal health in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulan

    2015-01-01

    The intestine is not only critical for nutrient digestion and absorption, but also is the largest immune organ in the body. However, in pig production, inflammation induced by numerous factors, such as pathogen infection and stresses (e.g., weaning), results in intestinal mucosal injury and dysfunction, and consequently results in poor growth of pigs. Dietary fatty acids not only play critical roles in energy homeostasis and cellular membrane composition, but also exert potent effects on intestinal development, immune function, and inflammatory response. Recent studies support potential therapeutic roles for specific fatty acids (short chain and medium chain fatty acids and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) in intestinal inflammation of pigs. Results of these new lines of work indicate trophic and cytoprotective effects of fatty acids on intestinal integrity in pigs. In this article, we review the effect of inflammation on intestinal structure and function, and the role of specific fatty acids on intestinal health of pigs, especially under inflammatory conditions.

  2. Assignment of Milk Fat Fatty Acid Propyl Esters by GC-FID Analysis with the Aid of Ag-ion Solid-phase Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ryo; Umezawa, Masatoshi; Tsukahara, Satoru; Ishiguro, Takashi; Sato, Shinichi; Watanabe, Yomi

    2015-01-01

    The recovery of short-chain fatty acids (FAs) in milk fat (MF) is improved when the analysis of the FA composition of MF by gas chromatography (GC) is conducted with the propyl or butyl ester derivatives, instead of the methyl esters. However, this approach complicates the detection of minor FAs, such as the minor positional isomers of 16:1, which represent <0.2% of the total content. In addition, the standards of these minor esters are not commercially available. In this study, with the aim to identify minor FAs, the fatty acid propyl esters (FAPEs) of MF were fractionated by Ag-ion solid phase extraction (Ag(+)-SPE) and analyzed by GC using a DB-23 capillary column. FAPEs were successfully fractionated mainly according to the degree of unsaturation by adjusting the elution conditions of the Ag(+)-SPE, and the minor FAPEs were easily determined without the aid of standard compounds. For example, by comparison of the GC profile of the saturated Ag(+)-SPE fraction with that of the original MF, minor FAs, such as iso-, anteiso-, and saturated FAs of 15:0 and 17:0, were expected to be eluted in this order. In addition, 16:1 propyl ester was co-eluted with iso 17:0 propyl ester under the GC conditions used in this study, as confirmed by the detection of the corresponding molecular ions (296 and 312, respectively) by GC-MS. Moreover, 9c,11t-conjugated linoleic acid was found to elute between 18:3 and 20:0. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting that the peak observed before that of cis-12:1 corresponds to trans-12:1. In conclusion, Ag(+)-SPE fractionation of FAPEs contributed to the identification of minor FAs in MF without the use of standard compounds.

  3. Emerging roles for specific fatty acids in developmental processes

    OpenAIRE

    Vrablik, Tracy L.; Watts, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Animals synthesize a vast range of fatty acids serving diverse cellular functions. The roles of specific fatty acids in early development are just beginning to be characterized. In this Perspective, a study by Kniazeva et al. (in the March 15, 2012, issue) that describes the particular combination of a branched chain fatty acid and an acyl-CoA synthetase required for critical cellular processes during early embryogenesis in C. elegans is discussed.

  4. Dietary Supplementation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Deline, Marshall L.; Vrablik, Tracy L.; Watts, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids are essential for numerous cellular functions. They serve as efficient energy storage molecules, make up the hydrophobic core of membranes, and participate in various signaling pathways. Caenorhabditis elegans synthesizes all of the enzymes necessary to produce a range of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. This, combined with the simple anatomy and range of available genetic tools, make it an attractive model to study fatty acid function. In order to investigate the genetic pathways...

  5. Important bioactive properties of omega-3 fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Xu

    2015-01-01

    Good health has been linked with healthy diet. N-3 fatty acids are required for proper functioning of many physiological systems. There is a large body of evidence documenting the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids with the first double bond at the third position from methyl-terminal on health benefits. Scientific evidence is accumulating to substantiate the role omega-3 fatty acids play in conditions such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and other diseases. The availability of ...

  6. Fatty acid biosynthesis in novel ufa mutants of Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich-Tanrikulu, M; Stafford, A E; Lin, J T; Makapugay, M I; Fuller, G; McKeon, T A

    1994-10-01

    New mutants of Neurospora crassa having the ufa phenotype have been isolated. Two of these mutants, like previously identified ufa mutants, require an unsaturated fatty acid for growth and are almost completely blocked in the de novo synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. The new mutations map to a different chromosomal location than previously characterized ufa mutations. This implies that at least one additional genetic locus controls the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in Neurospora.

  7. Intestinal absorption of essential fatty acids under physiological and essential fatty acid-deficient conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minich, DM; Vonk, RJ; Verkade, HJ

    The adequate supply of essential fatty acids (EFA) to the body depends upon sufficient dietary intake and subsequent efficient intestinal absorption. Lipid malabsorption is not only a leading cause of EFA deficiency (EFAD), but also occurs secondarily to EFAD. Understanding the relationship between

  8. Ruminal fatty acid metabolism : altering rumen biohydrolgenation to improve milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional guidelines promote a reduced intake of saturated fatty acids (FA) and increased intake of unsaturated FA by humans. Milk and dairy products contain a high proportion of saturated FA caused by extensive alterations of dietary lipids in the rumen through the processes of lipolysis and

  9. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshof, K. F. A. M.; Erp-Baart, M. A. van; Anttolainen, M.;

    1999-01-01

    and from clusters of fatty acids was less. Only in Finland, Italy, Norway and Portugal total fat did provide on average less than 35% of energy intake. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) provided on average between 10% and 19% of total energy intake, with the lowest contribution in most Mediterranean countries....... TFA intake ranged from 0.5% (Greece, Italy) to 2.1% (Iceland) of energy intake among men and from 0.8% (Greece) to 1.9% among women (Iceland) (1.2-6.7 g/d and 1.7-4.1 g/d, respectively). The TFA intake was lowest in Mediterranean countries (0.5-0.8 en%) but was also below 1% of energy in Finland...... and Germany. Moderate intakes were seen in Belgium, The Netherlands, Norway and UK and highest intake in Iceland. Trans isomers of C-18:1 were the most TFA in the diet. Monounsaturated fatty acids contributed 9-12% of mean daily energy intake (except for Greece, nearly 18%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids 3...

  10. Influence of virgin coconut oil-enriched diet on the transcriptional regulation of fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in rats - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunima, Sakunthala; Rajamohan, Thankappan

    2014-05-28

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) compared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower-seed oil on the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids and the molecular regulation of fatty acid metabolism in normal rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed the test oils at 8 % for 45 d along with a synthetic diet. Dietary supplementation of VCO decreased tissue lipid levels and reduced the activity of the enzymes involved in lipogenesis, namely acyl CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase (FAS) (P< 0·05). Moreover, VCO significantly (P< 0·05) reduced the de novo synthesis of fatty acids by down-regulating the mRNA expression of FAS and its transcription factor, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, compared with the other oils. VCO significantly (P< 0·05) increased the mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids, which was evident from the increased activities of carnitine palmitoyl transferase I, acyl CoA oxidase and the enzymes involved in mitochondrial β-oxidation; this was accomplished by up-regulating the mRNA expression of PPARα and its target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. In conclusion, the present results confirmed that supplementation of VCO has beneficial effects on lipid parameters by reducing lipogenesis and enhancing the rate of fatty acid catabolism; this effect was mediated at least in part via PPARα-dependent pathways. Thus, dietary VCO reduces the risk for CHD by beneficially modulating the synthesis and degradation of fatty acids.

  11. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psota, Tricia L; Gebauer, Sarah K; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2006-08-21

    Dietary omega-3 fatty acids decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both epidemiologic and interventional studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on many CVD end points, including all CVD (defined as all coronary artery disease [CAD], fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI], and stroke combined), all CAD, fatal and nonfatal MI, stroke, sudden cardiac death, and all-cause mortality. Much of the evidence comes from studies with fish oil and fish; to a lesser extent, data relate to plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Cardioprotective benefits have been observed with daily consumption of as little as 25 to 57 g (approximately 1 to 2 oz) of fish high in omega-3 fatty acids, an intake equivalent to >or=1 fish meal weekly or even monthly, with greater intakes decreasing risk further in a dose-dependent manner, up to about 5 servings per week. Fish, including farm-raised fish and their wild counterparts, are the major dietary sources of the longer-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Sources of plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids include flaxseed, flaxseed oil, walnuts, canola oil, and soybean oil. Because of the remarkable cardioprotective effects of omega-3 fatty acids, consumption of food sources that provide omega-3 fatty acids--especially the longer-chain fatty acids (>or=20 carbons) from marine sources--should be increased in the diet to decrease CVD risk significantly.

  12. Echinococcus granulosus fatty acid binding proteins subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2016-05-01

    Two fatty acid binding proteins, EgFABP1 and EgFABP2, were isolated from the parasitic platyhelminth Echinococcus granulosus. These proteins bind fatty acids and have particular relevance in flatworms since de novo fatty acids synthesis is absent. Therefore platyhelminthes depend on the capture and intracellular distribution of host's lipids and fatty acid binding proteins could participate in lipid distribution. To elucidate EgFABP's roles, we investigated their intracellular distribution in the larval stage by a proteomic approach. Our results demonstrated the presence of EgFABP1 isoforms in cytosolic, nuclear, mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, suggesting that these molecules could be involved in several cellular processes.

  13. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Murzina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes.

  14. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles and relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors in Cree (Eeyouch) of Northern Québec

    OpenAIRE

    Proust, Françoise; Drescher, Olivia; Laouan-Sidi, Elhadji A.; Robinson, Elizabeth; Lucas, Michel; Dewailly, Éric

    2016-01-01

    Background. n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) from fish are known modulators of cardiometabolic risk factors.Objective. To examine fatty acids (FAs) status and the relationship between n-3 LC-PUFA and cardiometabolic risk factors in Cree participants.Design. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional study (n=829) conducted in Cree adults (aged 18–74 years) from 7 communities of the James Bay territory of Quebec (Canada) in 2005–2009. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, clinical and...

  15. Effects of oxidative stress on fatty acid- and one-carbon-metabolism in psychiatric and cardiovascular disease comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assies, Johanna; Mocking, Roel J T; Lok, Christianne A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in severe psychiatric disorders (depression, schizophrenia). Here, we provide evidence of how the effects of oxidative stress on fatty acid (FA) and one-carbon (1-C) cycle metabolism, which may initially represent adaptive...... affects the intrinsically linked FA and 1-C cycle metabolism: FAs decrease in chain length and unsaturation (particularly omega-3 polyunsaturated FAs), and lipid peroxidation products increase; the 1-C cycle shifts from the methylation to transsulfuration pathway (lower folate and higher homocysteine...... membrane peroxidizability and fluidity, eicosanoid synthesis, neuroprotection and epigenetics. Conclusion: While oxidative-stress-induced alterations in FA and 1-C metabolism may initially enhance oxidative stress resistance, persisting chronically, they may cause damage possibly underlying (co...

  16. Effects of fatty acid activation on photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Qianqian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Direct conversion of solar energy and carbon dioxide to drop in fuel molecules in a single biological system can be achieved from fatty acid-based biofuels such as fatty alcohols and alkanes. These molecules have similar properties to fossil fuels but can be produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Results Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strains containing either overexpression or deletion of the slr1609 gene, which encodes an acyl-ACP synthetase (AAS, have been constructed. The complete segregation and deletion in all mutant strains was confirmed by PCR analysis. Blocking fatty acid activation by deleting slr1609 gene in wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 led to a doubling of the amount of free fatty acids and a decrease of alkane production by up to 90 percent. Overexpression of slr1609 gene in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 had no effect on the production of either free fatty acids or alkanes. Overexpression or deletion of slr1609 gene in the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strain with the capability of making fatty alcohols by genetically introducing fatty acyl-CoA reductase respectively enhanced or reduced fatty alcohol production by 60 percent. Conclusions Fatty acid activation functionalized by the slr1609 gene is metabolically crucial for biosynthesis of fatty acid derivatives in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. It is necessary but not sufficient for efficient production of alkanes. Fatty alcohol production can be significantly improved by the overexpression of slr1609 gene.

  17. Fatty acids profiling reveals potential candidate markers of semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbinati, C; Caponecchia, L; Rago, R; Leoncini, E; Bottaccioli, A G; Ciacciarelli, M; Pacelli, A; Salacone, P; Sebastianelli, A; Pastore, A; Palleschi, G; Boccia, S; Carbone, A; Iuliano, L

    2016-11-01

    Previous reports showed altered fatty acid content in subjects with altered sperm parameters compared to normozoospermic individuals. However, these studies focused on a limited number of fatty acids, included a short number of subjects and results varied widely. We conducted a case-control study involving 155 patients allocated into four groups, including normozoospermia (n = 33), oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (n = 32), asthenozoospermia (n = 25), and varicocoele (n = 44). Fatty acid profiling, including 30 species, was analyzed by a validated gas chromatography (GC) method on the whole seminal fluid sample. Multinomial logistic regression modeling was used to identify the associations between fatty acids and the four groups. Specimens from 15 normozoospermic subjects were also analyzed for fatty acids content in the seminal plasma and spermatozoa to study the distribution in the two compartments. Fatty acids lipidome varied markedly between the four groups. Multinomial logistic regression modeling revealed that high levels of palmitic acid, behenic acid, oleic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) confer a low risk to stay out of the normozoospermic group. In the whole population, seminal fluid stearic acid was negatively correlated (r = -0.53), and DHA was positively correlated (r = 0.65) with sperm motility. Some fatty acids were preferentially accumulated in spermatozoa and the highest difference was observed for DHA, which was 6.2 times higher in spermatozoa than in seminal plasma. The results of this study highlight complete fatty acids profile in patients with different semen parameters. Given the easy-to-follow and rapid method of analysis, fatty acid profiling by GC method can be used for therapeutic purposes and to measure compliance in infertility trials using fatty acids supplements. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  18. PPAR/RXR Regulation of Fatty Acid Metabolism and Fatty Acid -Hydroxylase (CYP4 Isozymes: Implications for Prevention of Lipotoxicity in Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Hardwick

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver disease is a common lipid metabolism disorder influenced by the combination of individual genetic makeup, drug exposure, and life-style choices that are frequently associated with metabolic syndrome, which encompasses obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistant diabetes. Common to obesity related dyslipidemia is the excessive storage of hepatic fatty acids (steatosis, due to a decrease in mitochondria -oxidation with an increase in both peroxisomal -oxidation, and microsomal -oxidation of fatty acids through peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs. How steatosis increases PPAR activated gene expression of fatty acid transport proteins, peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid -oxidation and -oxidation of fatty acids genes regardless of whether dietary fatty acids are polyunsaturated (PUFA, monounsaturated (MUFA, or saturated (SFA may be determined by the interplay of PPARs and HNF4 with the fatty acid transport proteins L-FABP and ACBP. In hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis, the -oxidation cytochrome P450 CYP4A gene expression is increased even with reduced hepatic levels of PPAR. Although numerous studies have suggested the role ethanol-inducible CYP2E1 in contributing to increased oxidative stress, Cyp2e1-null mice still develop steatohepatitis with a dramatic increase in CYP4A gene expression. This strongly implies that CYP4A fatty acid -hydroxylase P450s may play an important role in the development of steatohepatitis. In this review and tutorial, we briefly describe how fatty acids are partitioned by fatty acid transport proteins to either anabolic or catabolic pathways regulated by PPARs, and we explore how medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA CYP4A and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA CYP4F -hydroxylase genes are regulated in fatty liver. We finally propose a hypothesis that increased CYP4A expression with a decrease in CYP4F genes may promote the progression of steatosis to

  19. [Raman spectrometry of several saturated fatty acids and their salts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Man; Guan, Ping; Liu, Wen-hui; Liu, Yan

    2006-11-01

    Saturated fatty acids and their salts widely exist in the nature, and they are well known as important chemical materials. Their infrared spectra have been studied in detail. Nevertheless, few works on the Raman spectra characteristics of saturated fatty acids and their salts have been published before. Man-made crystals of acetic acid, stearic acid, calcium acetate, magnesium acetate, calcium stearate and magnesium stearate were investigated by means of Fourier transform Raman spectrometry for purpose of realizing their Raman spectra. Positive ions can cause the distinctions between the spectra of saturated fatty acids and their salts. The differences in mass and configuration between Ca2+ and Mg2+ result in the Raman spectra's diversity between calcium and magnesium salts of saturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, it is considered that the long carbon chain weakened the influence of different positive ions on the salts of saturated fatty acids.

  20. Marine lipids and the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Müllertz, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Marine lipids are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids are important membrane lipids and have many recognized health benefits, the bioavailability of these fatty acids can therefore be important for achieving...... the beneficial healthy effects. As important membrane lipids, the incorporation and depletion kinetics of EPA and DHA in biological membranes have been found to be different, DHA was depleted slowly from both erythrocyte and plasma membranes due to the slow re-synthesis of DHA in the body. The bioavailability...... of omega-3 fatty acids has been reported to be affected by several factors; among the important factors were the digestion and absorption processes of omega-3 containing lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Both lipid structures and food structures can affect the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids...

  1. Antineoplastic unsaturated fatty acids from Fijian macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ren-Wang; Hay, Mark E; Fairchild, Craig R; Prudhomme, Jacques; Roch, Karine Le; Aalbersberg, William; Kubanek, Julia

    2008-10-01

    Phytochemical analysis of Fijian populations of the green alga Tydemania expeditionis led to the isolation of two unsaturated fatty acids, 3(zeta)-hydroxy-octadeca-4(E),6(Z),15(Z)-trienoic acid (1) and 3(zeta)-hydroxy-hexadeca-4(E),6(Z)-dienoic acid (2), along with the known 3(zeta)-hydroxy-octadeca-4(E),6(Z)-dienoic acid (4). Investigations of the red alga Hydrolithon reinboldii led to identification of a glycolipid, lithonoside (3), and five known compounds, 15-tricosenoic acid, hexacosa-5,9-dienoic methyl ester, beta-sitosterol, 10(S)-hydroxypheophytin A, and 10(R)-hydroxypheophytin A. The structures of 1-3 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS). Compounds 1, 2, and 4, containing conjugated double bonds, demonstrated moderate inhibitory activity against a panel of tumor cell lines (including breast, colon, lung, prostate and ovarian cells) with IC(50) values ranging from 1.3 to 14.4 microM. The similar cell selectivity patterns of these three compounds suggest that they might act by a common, but unknown, mechanism of action.

  2. Effect of liver fatty acid binding protein on fatty acid movement between liposomes and rat liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, M; Brecher, P

    1987-01-01

    Although movement of fatty acids between bilayers can occur spontaneously, it has been postulated that intracellular movement is facilitated by a class of proteins named fatty acid binding proteins (FABP). In this study we have incorporated long chain fatty acids into multilamellar liposomes made of phosphatidylcholine, incubated them with rat liver microsomes containing an active acyl-CoA synthetase, and measured formation of acyl-CoA in the absence or presence of FABP purified from rat liver. FABP increased about 2-fold the accumulation of acyl-CoA when liposomes were the fatty acid donor. Using fatty acid incorporated into liposomes made either of egg yolk lecithin or of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, it was found that the temperature dependence of acyl-CoA accumulation in the presence of FABP correlated with both the physical state of phospholipid molecules in the liposomes and the binding of fatty acid to FABP, suggesting that fatty acid must first desorb from the liposomes before FABP can have an effect. An FABP-fatty acid complex incubated with microsomes, in the absence of liposomes, resulted in greater acyl-CoA formation than when liposomes were present, suggesting that desorption of fatty acid from the membrane is rate-limiting in the accumulation of acyl-CoA by this system. Finally, an equilibrium dialysis cell separating liposomes from microsomes on opposite sides of a Nuclepore filter was used to show that liver FABP was required for the movement and activation of fatty acid between the compartments. These studies show that liver FABP interacts with fatty acid that desorbs from phospholipid bilayers, and promotes movement to a membrane-bound enzyme, suggesting that FABP may act intracellularly by increasing net desorption of fatty acid from cell membranes. PMID:3446187

  3. Resolution and quantification of isomeric fatty acids by silver ion HPLC: fatty acid composition of aniseed oil (Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denev, Roumen V; Kuzmanova, Ivalina S; Momchilova, Svetlana M; Nikolova-Damyanova, Boryana M

    2011-01-01

    A silver ion HPLC procedure is described that is suitable to determine the fatty acid composition of plant seed oils. After conversion of fatty acids to p-methoxyphenacyl derivatives, it was possible to achieve baseline resolution of all fatty acid components with 0 to 3 double bonds, including the positionally isomeric 18:1 fatty acids oleic acid (cis 9-18:1), petroselinic acid (cis 6-18:1), and cis-vaccenic acid (cis 11-18:1), in aniseed oil (Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae) by a single gradient run on a single cation exchange column laboratory converted to the silver ion form. The UV detector response (280 nm) was linearly related to the fatty acid concentration in the range 0.01 to 3.5 mg/mL.

  4. Overproduction of fatty acids in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Guo, Daoyi; Cheng, Yongbo; Zhu, Fayin; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2014-09-01

    The long hydrocarbon fatty acyl chain is energy rich, making it an ideal precursor for liquid transportation fuels and high-value oleo chemicals. As Saccharomyces cerevisiae has many advantages for industrial production compared to Escherichia coli. Here, we attempted to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae for overproduction of fatty acids. First, disruption of the beta-oxidation pathway, elimination of the acyl-CoA synthetases, overexpression of different thioesterases and acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC1, and engineering the supply of precursor acetyl-CoA. The engineered strain XL122 produced more than 120 mg/L of fatty acids. In parallel, we inactivated ADH1, the dominant gene for ethanol production, to redirect the metabolic flux to fatty acids synthesis. The engineered strain DG005 produced about 140 mg/L fatty acids. Additionally, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase was identified as a critical bottleneck of fatty acids synthesis in S. cerevisiae with a cell-free system. However, overexpression of ACC1 has little effect on fatty acids biosynthesis. As it has been reported that phosphorylation of ACC1 may influent its activity, so phosphorylation sites of ACC1 were further identified. Although the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear, our results provide rationale for future studies to target this critical step. All these efforts, particularly the discovery of the limiting step are critical for developing a "cell factory" for the overproduction of fatty acids by using type I fatty acids synthase in yeast or other fungi.

  5. Lipid Droplet Formation in HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells Depends on Cell Density and the Concentration of Exogenous Unsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guštin, Ema; Jarc, Eva; Kump, Ana; Petan, Toni

    2017-09-01

    Cytosolic lipid droplets (LDs) store excess fatty acids (FAs) in the form of neutral lipids and prevent starvation-induced cancer cell death. Here we studied the ability of mono- and polyunsaturated FAs to affect LD formation and survival in HeLa cervical cancer cells. We found that the LD content in HeLa cells increases with cell density, but it decreases in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Exogenously-added unsaturated FAs, including oleic (OA), linoleic (LA), arachidonic (AA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) displayed a similar ability to alter LD formation in HeLa cells. There was a dual, concentration-dependent effect on neutral lipid accumulation: low micromolar concentrations of LA, AA and DHA reduced, while all FAs induced LD formation at higher concentrations. In serum starved He-La cells, OA stimulated LD formation, but, contrary to expectations, it promoted cell death. Our results reveal a link between cell population density and LD formation in HeLa cells and show that unsaturated FAs may both suppress or stimulate LD formation. This dynamic regulation of LD content must be accounted for when studying the effects of lipids and lipid metabolism-targeting drugs on LD metabolism in HeLa cells.

  6. Effect of Different Oil Sources on Muscle Fatty Acid Composition and Serum Lipoproteins Levels in Sarabi Beef Steer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Golshan-Zoroofi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of different vegetable oil sources on the Fatty Acid (FA composition of muscle and performance of beef steer (Sarabi strain. Twenty one steers (384±17 kg BW were assigned in seven treatment that fed diets containing 0% oil (control, 2 and 4% of Canola Oil (CO, Sunflower Oil (SO and Restaurant Waste Oils (RWO. Ribeye steaks from steers fed CO, SO and RWO for 90 days of experiment were used after slaughtering to evaluate the effects of oil source on fatty acid composition. Amounts of muscle saturated FAs decreased and polyunsaturated FAs increased in both 2% CO and 2% SO groups. The highest contents of total n-3, n-6 and n-7 FAs were significantly (p<0.05 obtained with 2% CO, 2% SO and control groups, respectively. Animals fed 2% CO had the lowest content of total n-9 FAs in compared to other groups. Control and 2% SO dietary groups presented lowest total cholesterol and 4% CO group resulted in a lowest triglycerides (p<0.01. The high and low-density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL was highest in 2 and 4% RWO group, respectively and animals fed 4% SO and 4% CO had the lowest LDL and very low-DL (VLDL, respectively. Control animals and those fed 2% oils tended to have higher dry matter intake (DMI, <0.05. The best Daily Weight Gain (DWG was related to 2% RWO dietary group and followed by 2% SO dietary groups; however, differences were not significant.

  7. Pseudo catalytic transformation of volatile fatty acids into fatty acid methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong-Min; Cho, Jinwoo; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2016-03-01

    Instead of anaerobic digestion of biodegradable wastes for producing methane, this work introduced the transformation of acidogenesis products (VFAs) into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) to validate the feasible production of short-chained fatty alcohols via hydrogenation of FAMEs. In particular, among VFAs, this work mainly described the mechanistic explanations for transforming butyric acid into butyric acid methyl ester as a case study. Unlike the conventional esterification process (conversion efficiency of ∼94%), the newly introduced esterification under the presence of porous materials via the thermo-chemical process reached up to ∼99.5%. Furthermore, the newly introduced esterification via the thermo-chemical pathway in this work showed extremely high tolerance of impurities: the conversion efficiency under the presence of impurities reached up to ∼99±0.3%; thus, the inhibition behaviors attributed from the impurities used for the experimental work were negligible.

  8. Relationship between concentration of health important groups of fatty acids and components and technological properties in cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Groups of fatty acids (FAs in milk fat can have positive and negative impact on consumer health. Profile of FAs could be influenced by dairy cow nutrition, breed, milk yield level et cetera. The question is what relationships the FAs could have to quality of milk products? Relationships between FAs and their groups to selected milk indicators were studied in Czech Fleckvieh and Holstein cows (64 bulk milk samples. There were 8 herds in 2-year investigation during winter and summer season. The relationship of saturated FAs (SAFA; 66.22% was significant only to lactose (L content (0.290; P < 0.05. The relationships of monounsaturated FAs (MUFA; 29.21% to milk indicators (MIs were in­si­gni­fi­cant (P > 0.05. The relationships of polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA, beneficial for consumer health; 4.53% to MIs were narrower: fat (T, 0.321; P < 0.05; lactose (L, 0.458; P < 0.01; milk alcohol stability (AL, 0.447; P < 0.01; titration acidity (SH, 0.342; P < 0.01; cheese curd quality (KV, 0.427; P < 0.01; milk fermentationability (JSH, 0.529; P < 0.001, streptococci count in yoghurt (Strepto, 0.316; P < 0.05; total count of noble bacteria in yoghurt (CPMUK, 0.314; P < 0.05; streptococci/lactobacilly ratio (StreptoLacto, 0.356; P < 0.01. The relationships of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; markedly beneficial for health; 0.68% to MIs were: T (0.379; P < 0.01; L (–0.542; P < 0.001; AL (0.266; P < 0.05; KV (0.411; P < 0.01; Strepto (0.260; P < 0.05; StreptoLacto (0.270; P < 0.05. The higher CLA levels were connected in this way with: higher fat content; lower lactose content; lower alcohol stability; lower streptococci count in yoghurt; lower streptococci/lactobacilly ratio in yoghurt. The PUFA and CLA representation decreased with L increase. Simultaneously some technological milk properties such as alcohol sta­bi­li­ty and fermentationability were slightly improved.

  9. Dynamic regulation of fatty acid pools for improved production of fatty alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teixeira, Paulo Goncalves; Ferreira, Raphael; Zhou, Yongjin J.

    2017-01-01

    faa4 Delta strain constitutively expressing a carboxylic acid reductase from Mycobacterium marinum (MmCAR) and an endogenous alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh5) for in vivo production of fatty alcohols from FFAs. We observed production of fatty acids and fatty alcohols with different rates leading to high...... loss of precursors that compromises the process yield. In the present study, we aimed for dynamic expression of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase gene FAA1 to regulate FFA and acyl-CoA pools in order to improve fatty alcohol production yields. Results: We analyzed the metabolite dynamics of a faa1 Delta...... levels of FFAs not being converted to the final product. To address the issue, we expressed the MmCAR + Adh5 pathway together with a fatty acyl-CoA reductase from Marinobacter aquaeolei to enable fatty alcohol production simultaneously from FFA and acyl-CoA, respectively. Then, we expressed FAA1 under...

  10. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles and relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors in Cree (Eeyouch of Northern Québec

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    Françoise Proust

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs from fish are known modulators of cardiometabolic risk factors. Objective: To examine fatty acids (FAs status and the relationship between n-3 LC-PUFA and cardiometabolic risk factors in Cree participants. Design: We analyzed data from a cross-sectional study (n=829 conducted in Cree adults (aged 18–74 years from 7 communities of the James Bay territory of Quebec (Canada in 2005–2009. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, clinical and anthropometric data were collected. FAs were quantified in red blood cells (RBCs under fasting conditions. Results: A total of 89% of the participants were overweight (with 69% obesity, 33% had hypertriglyceridemia, 44% had low plasma HDL-c and 77% had fasting plasma insulin ≥90 pmol/l. Total n-3 PUFAs accounted for 6% of total FAs and were higher among older participants, while n-6 PUFAs accounted for 31% of total FAs and were higher among younger participants. According to the adjusted multiple linear regression models, n-3 LC-PUFA was associated (p<0.05 with higher total cholesterol, LDL-c and apo B-100, and was also associated (p<0.05 with lower blood glucose. Conclusion: Overall, this study showed that n-3 LC-PUFA levels measured in the RBCs of the Cree adults are relatively low and tend towards lower levels among youth. These levels might be insufficient to offset the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors.

  11. Fatty acids composition in fruits of wild rose species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nowak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The oil content and fatty acids profile of a number of Polish wild species of rose fruits were examined by GC. The total fatty acid contents ranged from 6.5% to 12.9% of dry mass in fruits. The composition of oils was similar in the investigated species. 17 components were identified. An average composition was estimated as follows: linoleic acid (44.4-55.7%, a-linolenic acid (18.6-31.4%, oleic acid (13.5-20.3%, palmitic acid (2.3-3.3%, stearic acid (1-2.5%, octadecenoic acid (0.38-0.72%, eicosenoic acid (0.3-0.7%, eicosadienoic acid (0-0.16%, erucic acid (0.03-0.17% and minor fatty acids. The results indicate that rose fruits are a rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, especially in R. rubiginosa, R. rugosa and R. dumalis. There were statistically significant (p<0.05 differences in fatty acid compositions of some species. Fatty acids were suggested to have a potential chemotaxonomic value in this genus.

  12. Identification of Novel Genetic Determinants of Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acid Composition among Greenlanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette Korre; Jørsboe, Emil; Sandholt, Camilla Helene

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are involved in cellular processes important for normal body function, and perturbation of FA balance has been linked to metabolic disturbances, including type 2 diabetes. An individual's level of FAs is affected by diet, lifestyle, and genetic variation. We aimed to improve...... in relation to single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped on the MetaboChip or imputed. We identified six independent association signals. Novel loci were identified on chromosomes 5 and 11 showing strongest association with oleic acid (rs76430747 in ACSL6, beta (SE): -0.386% (0.034), p = 1.8x10...... variant was also associated with reduced insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, -0.193 (0.050), p = 3.8x10-6), as well as measures of smaller body size, including weight (-2.676 kg (0.523), p = 2.4x10-7), lean mass (-1.200 kg (0.271), p = 1.7x10-6), height (-0.966 cm (0.230), p = 2.0x10-5), and BMI (-0.638 kg/m2 (0...

  13. A lipidomic approach to understanding free fatty acid lipogenesis derived from dissolved inorganic carbon within cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis.

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    Simon R Dunn

    Full Text Available The cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis is arguably one of the most important within the marine environment in that it is integral to the formation of coral reefs. However, the regulatory processes that perpetuate this symbiosis remain unresolved. It is essential to understand these processes, if we are to elucidate the mechanisms that support growth and resource accumulation by coral host, and conversely, recently observed reduction and/or mortality of corals in response to rapid environmental change. This study specifically focused on one area of metabolic activity within the symbiosis, that of free fatty acid synthesis within both the dinoflagellate symbionts and cnidarian host. The main model system used was Aiptasia pulchella and Symbiodinium sp. in combination with aposymbiotic A. pulchella, the symbiotic coral Acropora millepora system and dinoflagellate culture. Fatty acids (FAs were selected because of their multiple essential roles inclusive of energy storage (resource accumulation, membrane structure fluidity and cell signaling. The study addressed free FA lipogenesis by using a new method of enriched stable isotopic ((13C incorporation from dissolved inorganic carbon (DI(13C combined with HPLC-MS. FAs derived from DI(13C aligned with a mixture of known lipogenesis pathways with the addition of some unusual FAs. After 120 hr, (13C-enriched FA synthesis rates were attributed to only a complex integration of both n-3 and n-6 lipogenesis pathways within the dinoflagellate symbionts. Furthermore, there was no detectible evidence of symbiont derived enriched isotope fatty acids, catabolized (13C derivatives or DI(13C being directly utilized, in host late n-6 pathway long-chain FA lipogenesis. These findings do not align with a popular mutualistic translocation model with respect to the use of translocated symbiont photoassimilates in host long-chain FA lipogenesis, which has important connotations for linking nutrient sources with

  14. Increased Brain Fatty Acid Uptake in Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmi, Anna; Iozzo, Patricia; Viljanen, Antti; Hirvonen, Jussi; Fielding, Barbara A.; Virtanen, Kirsi; Oikonen, Vesa; Kemppainen, Jukka; Viljanen, Tapio; Guiducci, Letizia; Haaparanta-Solin, Merja; Någren, Kjell; Solin, Olof; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We measured brain fatty acid uptake in a group of 23 patients with MS and 7 age-matched healthy control subjects during fasting conditions using positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]-palmitate and [18F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid ([18F]-FTHA). Sixteen MS subjects were restudied after 6 weeks of very low calorie diet intervention. RESULTS At baseline, brain global fatty acid uptake derived from [18F]-FTHA was 50% higher in patients with MS compared with control subjects. The mean percentage increment was 130% in the white matter, 47% in the gray matter, and uniform across brain regions. In the MS group, the nonoxidized fraction measured using [11C]-palmitate was 86% higher. Brain fatty acid uptake measured with [18F]-FTHA-PET was associated with age, fasting serum insulin, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. Both total and nonoxidized fractions of fatty acid uptake were associated with BMI. Rapid weight reduction decreased brain fatty acid uptake by 17%. CONCLUSIONS To our knowledge, this is the first study on humans to observe enhanced brain fatty acid uptake in patients with MS. Both fatty acid uptake and accumulation appear to be increased in MS patients and reversed by weight reduction. PMID:20566663

  15. A distinct fatty acid profile underlies the reduced inflammatory state of metabolically healthy obese individuals.

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    Maude Perreault

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with numerous health complications; however, a subgroup of obese individuals (termed the metabolically healthy obese or MHO appear to have lower risk for complications such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Emerging evidence suggests that MHO individuals have reduced inflammation compared to their metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO counterparts. As it is recognized that fatty acids (FAs have a strong relationship with inflammation, the current study aimed to uncover if the reduced inflammation observed in MHO individuals is mirrored by a more favourable FA profile. METHODS: Fasted serum samples were collected from lean healthy (LH, MHO, and MUO participants (n = 10/group recruited from the Diabetes Risk Assessment study. A panel of pro- and anti-inflammatory markers were measured by immunoassay. Total serum FA profiling, as well as the FA composition of circulating phospholipids (PL and triglycerides (TG, was measured by gas chromatography. ANOVA and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon tests were used to assess statistical significance between the groups (P<0.05. RESULTS: MHO and MUO individuals had similar BMI and body fat %; however, lipid parameters in MHO individuals more closely resembled that of LH individuals. MHO individuals had circulating levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6 similar to LH individuals, while levels of platelet derived growth factor-ββ (PDGF-ββ were intermediate to that of LH and MUO individuals. FA profiling analysis combined with discriminant analysis modelling highlighted a panel of nine FAs (consisting of three saturated, three monounsaturated, and three polyunsaturated FAs in PL and TG fractions that distinguished the three groups. Specifically, saturated FA (myristic and stearic acids levels in MHO individuals resembled that of LH individuals. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the reduced inflammatory state of MHO individuals compared

  16. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, A

    2002-10-01

    Inflammation is overall a protective response, whose main goal is to liberate the human being of cellular lesions caused by micro-organisms, toxins, allergens, etc., as well as its consequences, and of death cells and necrotic tissues. Chronic inflammation, which is detrimental to tissues, is the basic pathogenic mechanism of hypersensitivity reactions against xenobiotics. Other frequent pathologies, for instance atherosclerosis, chronic hepatitis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), liver cirrhosis, lung fibrosis, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis are also chronic inflammatory diseases. Chemical mediators of inflammation are derived from blood plasma or different cell-type activity. Biogenic amines, eicosanoids and cytokines are within the most important mediators of inflammatory processes. The different activities of eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) versus those derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) are one of the most important mechanisms to explain why n-3, or omega-3, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in many inflammatory diseases. Dietary supplements ranging 1-8 g per day of n-3 PUFA have been reportedly beneficial in the treatment of IBD, eczema, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, recent experimental studies in rats with experimental ulcerative colitis, induced by intrarectal injection of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid, have documented that treatment with n-3 long-chain PUFA reduces mucosal damage as assessed by biochemical and histological markers of inflammation. Moreover, the defence antioxidant system in this model is enhanced in treated animals, provided that the n-3 PUFA supply is adequately preserved from oxidation.

  17. Genetic variability of fatty acids in bovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyeurt H.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of bovine milk influences the technological properties of butterfat and also presents some potential benefits for human health. Impact of feeding on fat composition is well described in the literature; less information is available about the impact of genetics. Based on few studies, essentially conducted to isolate some feeding effect, the breed seemed to influence the fatty acids composition. The variation in the activity of δ-9 desaturase, key enzyme in the production of monounsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in milk, could explain these differences. Very few studies have been focussing on the estimation of genetic parameters of fatty acids composition. However, the moderate heritability estimates observed by these studies for the major fatty acids could suggest a potential genetic effect.

  18. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl

    2000-01-01

    The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(lll)/O-2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid......-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate fatty acids were oxidized in the presence...... in the formation of protein carbonyls, These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues...

  19. [Possible route for thiamine participation in fatty acid synthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buko, V U; Larin, F S

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of thiamine partaking in the synthesis of fatty acids through the functions unrelated to the catalytic properties of thiamine-diphosphate was studied. Rats kept on a fat-free ration devoid of thiamine were given thiamine of thiochrome with no vitaminic properties. The total fatty acids content in different tissues and incorporation therein of tagged acetate and pyruvate was determined, while the fatty acids composition of the liver was investigated by using gas chromatography. Thiamine and thiochrome produced a similar effect on a number of the study factors, i.e. they forced down the total acids level in the spleen, intensified incorporation of tagged acetate and pyruvate in fatty acids of the heart and uniformly changed the fatty acids composition in the liver. It is suggested that the unindirectional effects of thiamine and thiochrome is due to the oxidative transformation of thiamine into thiochrome.

  20. Orally administered fatty acids enhance anorectic potential but do not activate central fatty acid sensing in Senegalese sole post-larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Cristina; Bonacic, Kruno; Soengas, José L; Morais, Sofia

    2017-02-15

    Studies in fish have reported the presence and function of fatty acid (FA)-sensing systems comparable in many aspects to those known in mammals. Such studies were carried out in juvenile and adult fish, but the presence of FA-sensing systems and control of food intake have never been evaluated in early life stages, despite the importance of establishing when appetite regulation becomes functional in larval fish. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the possible effects of different specific FAs on neural FA-sensing systems and neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake in Senegalese sole post-larvae. To achieve this, we orally administered post-larvae with different solutions containing pure FA - oleate (OA), linoleate (LA), α-linolenate (ALA) or eicosapentaenoate (EPA) - and evaluated changes in mRNA abundance of neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake and of transcripts related to putative FA-sensing systems, 3 and 6 h post-administration. The changes in neuropeptide gene expression were relatively consistent with the activation of anorectic pathways (enhanced cart4 and pomcb) and a decrease in orexigenic factors (npy) following intake of FA. Even though there were a few differences depending on the nature of the FA, the observed changes appear to suggest the existence of a putative anorectic response in post-larvae fish to the ingestion of all four tested FAs. However, changes in neuropeptides cannot be explained by the integration of metabolic information regarding FAs in circulation through FA-sensing mechanisms in the brain. Only the reduction in mRNA levels of the FA metabolism gene acc in OA-treated (6 h), ALA-treated (3 h) and EPA-treated (3 and 6 h) post-larvae could be indicative of the presence of a FA-sensing system, but most genes either were not significantly regulated (fat/cd36-lmp2, acly, kir6.x, srebp1c) or were affected in a way that was inconsistent with FA-sensing mechanisms (fat/cd36-pg4l, fas, cpt1.1, cpt1

  1. Usefulness of ω-3 fatty acid supplementation in addition to mesalazine in maintaining remission in pediatric Crohn's disease: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C Romano; S Cucchiara; A Barabino; V Annese; C Sferlazzas; SIGENP Italian Study Group of Pediatric Inflammato

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the value of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids (FAs) supplementation in addition to amino-salicylic-acid (5-ASA) in pediatric patients with Crohn's disease (CD).METHODS: Thirty-eight patients (20 males and 18females, mean age 10.13 years, range 5-16 years)with CD in remission were randomized into two groups and treated for 12 mo. Group Ⅰ (18 patients) received 5-ASA (50 mg/kg/d)+ω-3 FAs as triglycerides in gastroresistant capsules, 3 g/d (eicosapentanoic acid, EPA, 400mg/g, docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, 200 mg/g). Group Ⅱ (20 patients) received 5-ASA (50 mg/kg/d)+olive oil placebo capsules. Patients were evaluated for fatty acid incorporation in red blood cell membranes by gas chromatography at baseline 6 and 12 mo after the treatment.RESUJLTS: The number of patients who relapsed at 1year was significantly lower in group Ⅰ than in group Ⅱ(P<0.001). Patients in group Ⅰ had a significant increase in the incorporation of EPA and DHA (P<0.001) and a decrease in the presence of arachidonic acids.CONCLUSION: Enteric-coated ω-3 FAs in addition to treatment with 5-ASA are effective in maintaining remission of pediatric CD.

  2. Sex Steroid Modulation of Fatty Acid Utilization and Fatty Acid Binding Protein Concentration in Rat Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockner, Robert K.; Lysenko, Nina; Manning, Joan A.; Monroe, Scott E.; Burnett, David A.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism by which sex steroids influence very low density hepatic lipoprotein triglyceride production has not been fully elucidated. In previous studies we showed that [14C]oleate utilization and incorporation into triglycerides were greater in hepatocyte suspensions from adult female rats than from males. The sex differences were not related to activities of the enzymes of triglyceride biosynthesis, whereas fatty acid binding protein (FABP) concentration in liver cytosol was greater in females. These findings suggested that sex differences in lipoprotein could reflect a sex steroid influence on the availability of fatty acids for hepatocellular triglyceride biosynthesis. In the present studies, sex steroid effects on hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization and FABP concentration were investigated directly. Hepatocytes from immature (30-d-old) rats exhibited no sex differences in [14C]oleate utilization. With maturation, total [14C]oleate utilization and triglyceride biosynthesis increased moderately in female cells and decreased markedly in male cells; the profound sex differences in adults were maximal by age 60 d. Fatty acid oxidation was little affected. Rats were castrated at age 30 d, and received estradiol, testosterone, or no hormone until age 60 d, when hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization was studied. Castration virtually eliminated maturational changes and blunted the sex differences in adults. Estradiol or testosterone largely reproduced the appropriate adult pattern of [14C]oleate utilization regardless of the genotypic sex of the treated animal. In immature females and males, total cytosolic FABP concentrations were similar. In 60-d-old animals, there was a striking correlation among all groups (females, males, castrates, and hormone-treated) between mean cytosolic FABP concentration on the one hand, and mean total [14C]oleate utilization (r = 0.91) and incorporation into triglycerides (r = 0.94) on the other. In 30-d-old animals rates of [14C

  3. Interactive effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition on fatty acid molecular and isotope composition of above- and belowground tree biomass and forest soil fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griepentrog, Marco; Eglinton, Timothy I; Hagedorn, Frank; Schmidt, Michael W I; Wiesenberg, Guido L B

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and reactive nitrogen (N) concentrations have been increasing due to human activities and impact the global carbon (C) cycle by affecting plant photosynthesis and decomposition processes in soil. Large amounts of C are stored in plants and soils, but the mechanisms behind the stabilization of plant- and microbial-derived organic matter (OM) in soils are still under debate and it is not clear how N deposition affects soil OM dynamics. Here, we studied the effects of 4 years of elevated (13C-depleted) CO2 and N deposition in forest ecosystems established in open-top chambers on composition and turnover of fatty acids (FAs) in plants and soils. FAs served as biomarkers for plant- and microbial-derived OM in soil density fractions. We analyzed above- and belowground plant biomass of beech and spruce trees as well as soil density fractions for the total organic C and FA molecular and isotope (δ13C) composition. FAs did not accumulate relative to total organic C in fine mineral fractions, showing that FAs are not effectively stabilized by association with soil minerals. The δ13C values of FAs in plant biomass increased under high N deposition. However, the N effect was only apparent under elevated CO2 suggesting a N limitation of the system. In soil fractions, only isotope compositions of short-chain FAs (C16+18) were affected. Fractions of 'new' (experimental-derived) FAs were calculated using isotope depletion in elevated CO2 plots and decreased from free light to fine mineral fractions. 'New' FAs were higher in short-chain compared to long-chain FAs (C20-30), indicating a faster turnover of short-chain compared to long-chain FAs. Increased N deposition did not significantly affect the quantity of 'new' FAs in soil fractions, but showed a tendency of increased amounts of 'old' (pre-experimental) C suggesting that decomposition of 'old' C is retarded by high N inputs.

  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Silvia; Martorell, Miquel; Capó, Xavier; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni; Sureda, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with multiple double bonds. Linolenic and alpha-linolenic acids are omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs, precursors for the synthesis of long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs), such as arachidonic acid (omega-6 PUFA), and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (omega-3 PUFAs). The three most important omega-3 fatty acids are alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, which cannot be synthesized in enough amounts by the body, and therefore they must be supplied by the diet. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the correct functioning of the organism and participate in many physiological processes in the brain. Epilepsy is a common and heterogeneous chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures leading to neuropsychiatric disabilities. The prevalence of epilepsy is high achieving about 1% of the general population. There is evidence suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids may have neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects and, accordingly, may have a potential use in the treatment of epilepsy. In the present review, the potential use of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of epilepsy, and the possible proposed mechanisms of action are discussed. The present article summarizes the recent knowledge of the potential protective role of dietary omega-3 fatty acids in epilepsy.

  5. Sources and Bioactive Properties of Conjugated Dietary Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Alan A; Ross, Paul R; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The group of conjugated fatty acids known as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been extensively studied with regard to their bioactive potential in treating some of the most prominent human health malignancies. However, CLA isomers are not the only group of potentially bioactive conjugated fatty acids currently undergoing study. In this regard, isomers of conjugated α-linolenic acid, conjugated nonadecadienoic acid and conjugated eicosapentaenoic acid, to name but a few, have undergone experimental assessment. These studies have indicated many of these conjugated fatty acid isomers commonly possess anti-carcinogenic, anti-adipogenic, anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties, a number of which will be discussed in this review. The mechanisms through which these bioactivities are mediated have not yet been fully elucidated. However, existing evidence indicates that these fatty acids may play a role in modulating the expression of several oncogenes, cell cycle regulators, and genes associated with energy metabolism. Despite such bioactive potential, interest in these conjugated fatty acids has remained low relative to the CLA isomers. This may be partly attributed to the relatively recent emergence of these fatty acids as bioactives, but also due to a lack of awareness regarding sources from which they can be produced. In this review, we will also highlight the common sources of these conjugated fatty acids, including plants, algae, microbes and chemosynthesis.

  6. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates diversification in lepidopteran caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Naoko; Alborn, Hans T; Nakanishi, Tomoaki; Suckling, David M; Nishida, Ritsuo; Tumlinson, James H; Mori, Naoki

    2010-03-01

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in noctuid as well as sphingid caterpillar oral secretions; in particular, volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants. These induced volatiles, in turn, attract natural enemies of the caterpillars. In a previous study, we showed that N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine in larval Spodoptera litura plays an important role in nitrogen assimilation which might be an explanation for caterpillars synthesizing FACs despite an increased risk of attracting natural enemies. However, the presence of FACs in lepidopteran species outside these families of agricultural interest is not well known. We conducted FAC screening of 29 lepidopteran species, and found them in 19 of these species. Thus, FACs are commonly synthesized through a broad range of lepidopteran caterpillars. Since all FAC-containing species had N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine and/or N-linoleoyl-L-glutamine in common, and the evolutionarily earliest species among them had only these two FACs, these glutamine conjugates might be the evolutionarily older FACs. Furthermore, some species had glutamic acid conjugates, and some had hydroxylated FACs. Comparing the diversity of FACs with lepidopteran phylogeny indicates that glutamic acid conjugates can be synthesized by relatively primitive species, while hydroxylation of fatty acids is limited mostly to larger and more developed macrolepidopteran species.

  7. Modulating fatty acid oxidation in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionetti, Vincenzo; Stanley, William C; Recchia, Fabio A

    2011-05-01

    In the advanced stages of heart failure, many key enzymes involved in myocardial energy substrate metabolism display various degrees of down-regulation. The net effect of the altered metabolic phenotype consists of reduced cardiac fatty oxidation, increased glycolysis and glucose oxidation, and rigidity of the metabolic response to changes in workload. Is this metabolic shift an adaptive mechanism that protects the heart or a maladaptive process that accelerates structural and functional derangement? The question remains open; however, the metabolic remodelling of the failing heart has induced a number of investigators to test the hypothesis that pharmacological modulation of myocardial substrate utilization might prove therapeutically advantageous. The present review addresses the effects of indirect and direct modulators of fatty acid (FA) oxidation, which are the best pharmacological agents available to date for 'metabolic therapy' of failing hearts. Evidence for the efficacy of therapeutic strategies based on modulators of FA metabolism is mixed, pointing to the possibility that the molecular/biochemical alterations induced by these pharmacological agents are more complex than originally thought. Much remains to be understood; however, the beneficial effects of molecules such as perhexiline and trimetazidine in small clinical trials indicate that this promising therapeutic strategy is worthy of further pursuit.

  8. Relationship between Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Composition and Psychopathology in the Vienna Omega-3 Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Wan Kim

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FA levels and the severity of symptoms of individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR for psychosis. Subjects of the present study consisted of 80 neuroleptic-naïve UHR patients. Partial correlation coefficients were calculated between baseline erythrocyte membrane FA levels, measured by gas chromatography, and scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS after controlling for age, sex, smoking and cannabis use. Subjects were divided into three groups according to the predominance of positive or negative symptoms based on PANSS subscale scores; membrane FA levels in the three groups were then compared. More severe negative symptoms measured by PANSS were negatively correlated with two saturated FAs (myristic and margaric acids, one ω-9 monounsaturated FA (MUFA; nervonic acid, and one ω-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA; docosapentaenoic acid, and were positively correlated with two ω-9 MUFAs (eicosenoic and erucic acids and two ω-6 PUFAs (γ-linolenic and docosadienoic acids. More severe positive symptoms measured by PANSS were correlated only with nervonic acid. No associations were observed between FAs and MADRS scores. In subjects with predominant negative symptoms, the sum of the ω-9 MUFAs and the ω-6:ω-3 FA ratio were both significantly higher than in those with predominant positive symptoms, whereas the sum of ω-3 PUFAs was significantly lower. In conclusion, abnormalities in FA metabolism may contribute to the neurobiology of psychopathology in UHR individuals. In particular, membrane FA alterations may play a role in negative symptoms, which are primary psychopathological manifestations of schizophrenia-related disability.

  9. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester M Den Ruijter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term 3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated 3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated 3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (3 or sunflower oil (9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered 3-PUFAs. Plasma of 3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of 3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, 3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than 9 myocytes. In the 9 myocytes, but not in the 3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated 3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered 3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac 3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term 3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  10. Formation of Small Gas Phase Carbonyls from Heterogeneous Oxidation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S.; Zhao, R.; Lee, A.; Gao, S.; Abbatt, J.

    2011-12-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are emitted into the atmosphere from gas and diesel powered vehicles, cooking, plants, and marine biota. Field measurements have suggested that FAs, including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), could make up an important contribution to the organic fraction of atmospheric aerosols. Due to the existence of carbon-carbon double bonds in their molecules, PUFA are believed to be highly reactive towards atmospheric oxidants such as OH and NO3 radicals and ozone, which will contribute to aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei activity. Previous work from our group has shown that small carbonyls formed from the heterogeneous reaction of linoleic acid (LA) thin films with gas-phase O3. It is known that the formation of small carbonyls in the atmosphere is not only relevant to the atmospheric budget of volatile organic compounds but also to secondary organic aerosol formation. In the present study, using an online proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and off-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) we again investigated carbonyl formation from the same reaction system, i.e. the heterogeneous ozonolysis of LA film. In addition to the previously reported carbonyls, malondialdehyde (MDA), a source of reactive oxygen species that is mutagenic, has been identified as a product for the first time. Small dicarbonyls, e.g. glyoxal, are expected to be formed from the further oxidation of MDA. In this presentation, the gas-phase chemistry of MDA with OH radicals using a newly built Teflon chamber in our group will also be presented.

  11. Syntrophic degradation of fatty acids by methanogenic communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Worm, P.; Sousa, D.Z.; Alves, M.M.; Plugge, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    In methanogenic environments degradation of fatty acids is a key process in the conversion of organic matter to methane and carbon dioxide. For degradation of fatty acids with three or more carbon atoms syntrophic communities are required. This chapter describes the general features of syntrophic de

  12. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  13. Why do polyunsaturated fatty acids lower serum cholesterol?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Replacement of saturated by polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet may lower serum very low-density and low-density lipoprotein concentrations because the liver preferentially converts polyunsaturated fatty acids into ketone bodies instead of into very low-density lipoprotein triglycerides. Thus un

  14. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status of Dutch vegans and omnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Hettema, Y; Bemelmans, W J; Muskiet, F A

    2000-01-01

    We compared the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status of Dutch vegans and omnivores to investigate whether disparities can be explained by different diets and long chain PUFA (LCP) synthesis rates. Dietary intakes and fatty acid compositions of erythrocytes (RBC), platelets (PLT), plasma choleste

  15. Distillation of natural fatty acids and their chemical derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well over 1,000 different fatty acids are known which are natural components of fats, oils (triacylglycerols), and other related compounds. These fatty acids can have different alkyl chain lengths, 0-6 carbon-carbon double bonds possessing cis- or trans-geometry, and can contain a variety of functio...

  16. Volatile fatty acids production in ruminants and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    organic volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and microbial protein then become available to the ... short-chain fatty acids and lactate (Ritzhaupt et al.,. 1998a,b; Muller et al., 2002; .... staining for MCT4 was visualized in strata spinosum and basale. In the ...

  17. DETERGENCY OF THE 12 TO 18 CARBON SATURATED FATTY ACIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    saturated fatty acids ) were explored to determine the relationship of the detergencies of such systems to the physico-chemical nature (HLB, hydrophile...suggested that in such systems the chief action is van der Waals adsorption between hydr oxide mole ratio adducts of tridecyl alcohol are poor detergents of the saturated fatty acids .

  18. Lipase-mediated resolution of branched chain fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsman, N.W.J.T.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Padt, A. van der; Boom, R.M.; Riet, K. van 't; Groot, A.E. de

    2002-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are fatty acids substituted with alkyl groups. Many of them are chiral and therefore occur in two enantiomeric forms. This review describes their occurrence in Nature, their biosynthesis, their properties as flavours, and their enzymatic kinetic resolution. Many li

  19. An overview of the properties of fatty acid alkyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid alkyl esters of plant oils, especially in the form of methyl esters, have numerous applications with fuel use having received the most attention in recent times due to the potential high volume. Various properties imparted by neat fatty acid alkyl esters have been shown to influence fuel ...

  20. Chemical Sciences A comparative study of triglyceride and fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Triglyceride and fatty acid composition were determined for palm oils from three different ... Much of the variations occurred in triglycerides with two or more unsaturated fatty acids in their ...

  1. Increased brain fatty acid uptake in metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karmi, Anna; Iozzo, Patricia; Viljanen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it.......To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it....

  2. Alternative origins for omega-3 fatty acids in the diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenihan-Geels, Georgia; Bishop, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    Fish and seafood are important sources for LC PUFAs, EPA and DHA. These fatty acids may be synthesised in the body from short-chain fatty acids, including ALA; however, the enzymes involved in this pathway are considered inefficient. This means direct EPA and DHA sources are an important part of

  3. Fatty acid profile of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports the fatty acid profiles of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks for the production of bio-based fuels and chemicals. Lipids were extracted using hexane from oil-bearing seeds using a standard Soxhlet apparatus. Fatty acid profiles were measured using gas chromatography-flame ionization...

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status of Dutch vegans and omnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Hettema, Y; Bemelmans, W J; Muskiet, F A

    2000-01-01

    We compared the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status of Dutch vegans and omnivores to investigate whether disparities can be explained by different diets and long chain PUFA (LCP) synthesis rates. Dietary intakes and fatty acid compositions of erythrocytes (RBC), platelets (PLT), plasma

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status of Dutch vegans and omnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Hettema, Y; Bemelmans, W J; Muskiet, F A

    2000-01-01

    We compared the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status of Dutch vegans and omnivores to investigate whether disparities can be explained by different diets and long chain PUFA (LCP) synthesis rates. Dietary intakes and fatty acid compositions of erythrocytes (RBC), platelets (PLT), plasma choleste

  6. Lipase-mediated resolution of branched chain fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsman, N.W.J.T.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Padt, A. van der; Boom, R.M.; Riet, K. van 't; Groot, A.E. de

    2002-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are fatty acids substituted with alkyl groups. Many of them are chiral and therefore occur in two enantiomeric forms. This review describes their occurrence in Nature, their biosynthesis, their properties as flavours, and their enzymatic kinetic resolution. Many li

  7. New phenstatin-fatty acid conjugates: synthesis and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinhui; Brown, David P; Wang, Yi-Jun; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2013-09-15

    New phenstatin-fatty acid conjugates have been synthesized and tested against the KB-3-1, H460, MCF-7 and HEK293 cell lines, with an increase in anti-proliferative activity being observed at the micro-molar level paralleling an increase in un-saturation in the fatty acid component.

  8. Seasonal changes on total fatty acid composition of carp (Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... the melting temperatures of ω3 fatty acids are lower than ω6 fatty acids ... caught, they were transported on ice to the laboratories, filleted and frozen. .... is essential in the diet to help prevent coronary heart disease by reducing ...

  9. Synthesis of fatty acid starch esters in supercritical carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muljana, Henky; van der Knoop, Sjoerd; Keijzer, Danielle; Picchioni, Francesco; Janssen, Leon P. B. M.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript describes an exploratory study on the synthesis of fatty acid/potato starch esters using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) as the solvent. The effects of process variables such as pressure (6-25 MPa), temperature (120-150 degrees C) and various basic catalysts and fatty acid der

  10. Analysis of fatty acid composition in human bone marrow aspirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshimaru, Ryota; Ishitani, Ken; Makita, Kazuya; Horiguchi, Fumi; Nozawa, Shiro

    2005-09-01

    In the present study, the fatty acid composition of bone marrow aspirates and serum phospholipids in nine patients with hematologic diseases was investigated, and the effect of fatty acids on osteoblast differentiation in ST2 cells was examined. The concentrations of oleic acid and palmitic acid were significantly higher in bone marrow aspirates than in serum phospholipids, but the concentrations of other fatty acids did not differ. The rate of alkaline phosphatase positive ST2 cells induced by BMP2 was significantly increased by oleic acid, but was unaffected by the presence or absence of palmitic acid. We conclude that the fatty acid composition of bone marrow aspirates differs from that of serum phospholipids. This difference may affect osteoblast differentiation in the bone marrow microenvironment.

  11. Obesogenic diets enriched in oleic acid vs saturated fatty acids differentially modify polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in liver and visceral adipose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging evidence indicates that the fatty acid composition of obesogenic diets impacts physiologic outcomes. Much attention is focused on the biologic effects of consuming monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) vs saturated fatty acids (SFA). We investigated the extent to which an obesogenic diet high ...

  12. 填饲对鹅肥肝脂肪酸合成酶基因mRNA表达的影响%Effect of Feeding Period on Expression of FAS mRNA in Fatty Liver of Goose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振春; 郭炫; 杨童奥; 梁国朋; 吴伟

    2012-01-01

    Landes geese were used as the materials to explore the expression rule ofFAS mRNA in fatty liver through real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR method during overfeeding weeks. Fluorescence quantitative PCR results showed that the expression of FAS gene revealed an obvious increase during pre-feeding fold and pro-feeding 1 week, feeding 2 weeks, feeding 3 weeks and feeding 4 weeks, which were 0.035, 0.128, 0.253, 0.876 fold and 1.009 fold enhancement, respectively. A positive genetic correlation between FAS mRNA expression in fatty liver tissue and feeding weeks was observed. These results suggested that FAS gene had a certain readjustment function during the developing process of fatty liver in goose and the process of body fat deposition. Thus, FAS is a regulation gene to promote fat deposit inside liver of goose, which provides valuable technical parameters for future studies of fatty liver.%以朗德鹅为对象,采用实时荧光定量PCR法研究不同填饲周龄脂肪酸合成酶基因(FAs基因)表达的规律性。结果显示,FAS基因相对表达量(FAS与β-actin基因表达量的比值)在填饲前、填饲1周、填饲2周、填饲3周和填饲4周相对表达量逐渐增高,分别为0.035、0.128、0.253、0.876、1.009,说明肥肝组织中FAS基因表达丰度与填饲期呈显著正相关,FAS基因在鹅肥肝形成过程及体脂沉积过程中具有一定的调控作用,为促进鹅肝内脂肪沉积的主要调控基因。

  13. Evaluating Changes in Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake after Receiving Personal FADS1 Genetic Information: A Randomized Nutrigenetic Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roke, Kaitlin; Walton, Kathryn; Klingel, Shannon L; Harnett, Amber; Subedi, Sanjeena; Haines, Jess; Mutch, David M

    2017-03-06

    Nutrigenetics research is anticipated to lay the foundation for personalized dietary recommendations; however, it remains unclear if providing individuals with their personal genetic information changes dietary behaviors. Our objective was to evaluate if providing information for a common variant in the fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) gene changed omega-3 fatty acid (FA) intake and blood levels in young female adults (18-25 years). Participants were randomized into Genetic (intervention) and Non-Genetic (control) groups, with measurements taken at Baseline and Final (12 weeks). Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was assessed using an omega-3 food frequency questionnaire. Red blood cell (RBC) FA content was quantified by gas chromatography. Implications of participation in a nutrigenetics study and awareness of omega-3 FAs were assessed with online questionnaires. Upon completion of the study, EPA and DHA intake increased significantly (p = 1.0 × 10(-4)) in all participants. This change was reflected by small increases in RBC %EPA. Participants in the Genetic group showed increased awareness of omega-3 terminology by the end of the study, reported that the dietary recommendations were more useful, and rated cost as a barrier to omega-3 consumption less often than those in the Non-Genetic group. Providing participants FADS1 genetic information did not appear to influence omega-3 intake during the 12 weeks, but did change perceptions and behaviors related to omega-3 FAs in this timeframe.

  14. Replacement of dietary saturated fatty acids by trans fatty acids lowers serum HDL cholesterol and impairs endothelial function in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de N.M.; Bots, M.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    We tested whether trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids had different effects on flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), a risk marker of coronary heart disease (CHD). Consumption of trans fatty acids is related to increased risk of CHD, probably through effects on lipoproteins. Trans fatty acids di

  15. Complex Pharmacology of Free Fatty Acid Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, Graeme; Shimpukade, Bharat; Ulven, Trond

    2017-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are historically the most successful family of drug targets. In recent times it has become clear that the pharmacology of these receptors is far more complex than previously imagined. Understanding of the pharmacological regulation of GPCRs now extends beyond...... pharmacology have shaped understanding of the complex pharmacology of receptors that recognize and are activated by nonesterified or "free" fatty acids (FFAs). The FFA family of receptors is a recently deorphanized set of GPCRs, the members of which are now receiving substantial interest as novel targets...... for the treatment of metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Further understanding of the complex pharmacology of these receptors will be critical to unlocking their ultimate therapeutic potential....

  16. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khankari, Nikhil K; Murff, Harvey J; Zeng, Chenjie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a common cancer worldwide with no established modifiable lifestyle factors to guide prevention. The associations between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and prostate cancer risk have been inconsistent. Using Mendelian randomisation, we evaluated associations...... between PUFAs and prostate cancer risk. METHODS: We used individual-level data from a consortium of 22 721 cases and 23 034 controls of European ancestry. Externally-weighted PUFA-specific polygenic risk scores (wPRSs), with explanatory variation ranging from 0.65 to 33.07%, were constructed and used...... to evaluate associations with prostate cancer risk per one standard deviation (s.d.) increase in genetically-predicted plasma PUFA levels using multivariable-adjusted unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: No overall association was observed between the genetically-predicted PUFAs evaluated in this study...

  17. Omega 3 fatty acids in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 LC-PUFAs are thought to be important for normal dopaminergic, glutamatergic and serotonergic neurotransmission. Depression is less prevalent in societies with high fish consumption, and depressed patients have significantly lower red blood cell ω-3 levels. Studies with ω-3 supplementation have led to controversial results. A significantly longer remission of bipolar symptomatology has been confirmed from a high-dose DHA and EPA mixture. Greater seafood consumption per capita has been connected with a lower prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders. Reduced levels of ω-6 and ω-3 PUFAs were found in patients with schizophrenia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175033 i br. 175022

  18. Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

    2013-01-01

    Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

  19. Important bioactive properties of omega-3 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Good health has been linked with healthy diet. N-3 fatty acids are required for proper functioning of many physiological systems. There is a large body of evidence documenting the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids with the first double bond at the third position from methyl-terminal on health benefits. Scientific evidence is accumulating to substantiate the role omega-3 fatty acids play in conditions such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and other diseases. The availability of n-3 fatty acids to various tissues is of major importance to health and depends on dietary intake for both normal development and in the prevention and management of chronic diseases.In this review we will summarize the biological properties of omega-3 fatty acids.

  20. Heterogeneity in limb fatty acid kinetics in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchetti, M; Olsen, D B; Saltin, B

    2005-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In order to test the hypothesis that disturbances in skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism with type 2 diabetes are not equally present in the upper and lower limbs, we studied fatty acid kinetics simultaneously across the arm and leg of type 2 diabetic patients (n=6) and matched...... control subjects (n=7) for 5 h under baseline conditions and during a 4-h hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. METHODS: Limb fatty acid kinetics was determined by means of continuous [U-(13)C]palmitate infusion and measurement of arteriovenous differences. RESULTS: The systemic palmitate rate...... in the dysregulation of skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism, with only the leg, but not the arm, showing an impairment of fatty acid kinetics at baseline and during a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp causing a physiological increase in insulin concentration....

  1. Trans-fatty acids and cardiovascular risk: does origin matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawczynski, Christine; Lorkowski, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Several studies have aimed to unravel the contribution of different types of dietary fatty acids to human health and disease. Investigations have consistently shown that high consumption of industrially produced trans-fatty acids from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils is harmful to human health, in particular cardiovascular health. Therefore, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced that partially hydrogenated oils are no longer 'generally recognized as safe', and trans-fatty acids are not permitted in the U.S. food supply. On the other hand, recent studies analyzing the association between circulating trans-fatty acids and disease have revealed that some ruminant-specific trans-fatty acids are associated with a reduction in incidence of disease. In this special report, we highlight recent findings and point out perspectives for future studies on this topic.

  2. Essential fatty acids as functional components of foods- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Narinder; Chugh, Vishal; Gupta, Anil K

    2014-10-01

    During the recent decades, awareness towards the role of essential fatty acids in human health and disease prevention has been unremittingly increasing among people. Fish, fish oils and some vegetable oils are rich sources of essential fatty acids. Many studies have positively correlated essential fatty acids with reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, infant development, cancer prevention, optimal brain and vision functioning, arthritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and neurological/neuropsychiatric disorders. Beneficial effects may be mediated through several different mechanisms, including alteration in cell membrane composition, gene expression or eicosanoid production. However, the mechanisms whereby essential fatty acids affect gene expression are complex and involve multiple processes. Further understanding of the molecular aspects of essential fatty acids will be the key to devising novel approaches to the treatment and prevention of many diseases.

  3. Fatty acids as modulators of neutrophil recruitment, function and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Hosana G; Takeo Sato, Fabio; Curi, Rui; Vinolo, Marco A R

    2016-08-15

    Neutrophils are well-known to act in the destruction of invading microorganisms. They have also been implicated in the activation of other immune cells including B- and T-lymphocytes and in the resolution of inflammation and tissue regeneration. Neutrophils are produced in the bone marrow and released into the circulation from where they migrate to tissues to perform their effector functions. Neutrophils are in constant contact with fatty acids that can modulate their function, activation and fate (survival or cell death) through different mechanisms. In this review, the effects of fatty acids pertaining to five classes, namely, long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCSFAs), short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and omega-3 (n-3), omega-6 (n-6) and omega-9 (n-9) unsaturated fatty acids, on neutrophils and the relevance of these effects for disease development are discussed.

  4. Early Growth Response1and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression is Altered in Tumor Adjacent Prostate Tissue and Indicates Field Cancerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna C.; Trujillo, Kristina A.; Phillips, Genevieve K.; Fleet, Trisha M.; Murton, Jaclyn K.; Severns, Virginia; Shah, Satyan K.; Davis, Michael S.; Smith, Anthony Y.; Griffith, Jeffrey K.; Fischer, Edgar G.; Bisoffi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Field cancerization denotes the occurrence of molecular alterations in histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumors. In prostate cancer, identification of field cancerization has several potential clinical applications. However, prostate field cancerization remains ill defined. Our previous work has shown up-regulated mRNA of the transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR-1) and the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) in tissues adjacent to prostate cancer. METHODS Immunofluorescence data were analyzed quantitatively by spectral imaging and linear unmixing to determine the protein expression levels of EGR-1 and FAS in human cancerous, histologically normal adjacent, and disease-free prostate tissues. RESULTS EGR-1 expression was elevated in both structurally intact tumor adjacent (1.6× on average) and in tumor (3.0× on average) tissues compared to disease-free tissues. In addition, the ratio of cytoplasmic versus nuclear EGR-1 expression was elevated in both tumor adjacent and tumor tissues. Similarly, FAS expression was elevated in both tumor adjacent (2.7× on average) and in tumor (2.5× on average) compared to disease-free tissues. CONCLUSIONS EGR-1 and FAS expression is similarly deregulated in tumor and structurally intact adjacent prostate tissues and defines field cancerization. In cases with high suspicion of prostate cancer but negative biopsy, identification of field cancerization could help clinicians target areas for repeat biopsy. Field cancerization at surgical margins on prostatectomy specimen should also be looked at as a predictor of cancer recurrence. EGR-1 and FAS could also serve as molecular targets for chemoprevention. PMID:22127986

  5. Determination of the Authenticity of Dairy Products on the Basis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols Content using GC Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Na-Kyeong; Yang, Cheul-Young; Moon, Kyong-Whan; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    Milk fat is an important food component, and plays a significant role in the economics, functional nutrition, and chemical properties of dairy products. Dairy products also contain nutritional resources and essential fatty acids (FAs). Because of the increasing demand for dairy products, milk fat is a common target in economic fraud. Specifically, milk fat is often replaced with cheaper or readily available vegetable oils or animal fats. In this study, a method for the discrimination of milk fat was developed, using FAs profiles, and triacylglycerols (TGs) profiles. A total of 11 samples were evaluated: four milk fats (MK), four vegetable oils (VG), two pork lards (PL), and one beef tallow (BT). Gas chromathgraphy analysis were performed, to monitor the FAs content and TGs composition in MK, VG, PL, and BT. The result showed that qualitative determination of the MK of samples adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats was possible by a visual comparision of FAs, using C14:0, C16:0, C18:1n9c, C18:0, and C18:2n6c, and of TGs, using C36, C38, C40, C50, C52, and C54 profiles. Overall, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the use of FAs and TGs in the detection of adulterated milk fat, and accordingly characterize the samples by the adulterant oil source, and level of adulteration. Also, based on this preliminary investigation, the usefulness of this approach could be tested for other oils in the future.

  6. Determination of the Authenticity of Dairy Products on the Basis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols Content using GC Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheul-Young; Moon, Kyong-Whan

    2014-01-01

    Milk fat is an important food component, and plays a significant role in the economics, functional nutrition, and chemical properties of dairy products. Dairy products also contain nutritional resources and essential fatty acids (FAs). Because of the increasing demand for dairy products, milk fat is a common target in economic fraud. Specifically, milk fat is often replaced with cheaper or readily available vegetable oils or animal fats. In this study, a method for the discrimination of milk fat was developed, using FAs profiles, and triacylglycerols (TGs) profiles. A total of 11 samples were evaluated: four milk fats (MK), four vegetable oils (VG), two pork lards (PL), and one beef tallow (BT). Gas chromathgraphy analysis were performed, to monitor the FAs content and TGs composition in MK, VG, PL, and BT. The result showed that qualitative determination of the MK of samples adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats was possible by a visual comparision of FAs, using C14:0, C16:0, C18:1n9c, C18:0, and C18:2n6c, and of TGs, using C36, C38, C40, C50, C52, and C54 profiles. Overall, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the use of FAs and TGs in the detection of adulterated milk fat, and accordingly characterize the samples by the adulterant oil source, and level of adulteration. Also, based on this preliminary investigation, the usefulness of this approach could be tested for other oils in the future. PMID:26761172

  7. Diversity of fatty acid composition of symbiotic dinoflagellates in corals: evidence for the transfer of host PUFAs to the symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbs, Andrey B; Yakovleva, Irina M; Dautova, Tatiana N; Bui, Long H; Jones, Paul

    2014-05-01

    High diversity of fatty acid (FA) composition of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates of the Symbiodinium group (zooxanthellae) isolated from different cnidarian groups has been found. To explain this diversity, FA composition of the total lipids of pure symbiont fractions (SF) and host cell tissue fractions (HF) isolated from one hydrocoral, two soft coral, and seven hard coral species inhabiting the shallow waters of the South China Sea (Vietnam) were compared. Symbiodinium phylogenetic clade designation for each SF was also determined, however, the relationship between the clade designation and FA composition of Symbiodinium was not found. The profiles of marker polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) of symbionts (18:4n-3, 18:5n-3, 20:5n-3) did not depend on taxonomic designation of the host and reflected only a specimen-specific diversity of the SF lipids. Several FAs such as 20:0, C24 PUFAs, 22:5n-6, and 18:2n-7 concentrated in HF lipids but were also found in SF lipids. For ten cnidarian species studied, the principal components analysis of total FAs (27 variables) of the symbiotic fractions was performed. The clear division of the symbiotic dinoflagellates according to the host systematic identity was found on a subclass level. This division was mainly caused by the FAs specific for the host lipids of each cnidarian subclasses such as hard corals, soft corals, and hydrocorals. Thus, the coral hosts affect the FA profile of their symbionts and cause the diversity of FA composition of Symbiodinium. The transfer of FAs from the coral host to their symbiotic dinoflagellates and modulation of PUFA biosynthesis in symbionts by the host are considered as possible reasons of the diversity studied.

  8. Nature of the elements transporting long-chain fatty acids through the red cell membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Inge Norby; Bojesen, Eigil

    1998-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, red cell membrane, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport......Docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, red cell membrane, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport...

  9. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited information about nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.. The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fatty acid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained 17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggs contained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.

  10. Fatty acid chemistry of Atrichum undulatum and Hypnum andoi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Boris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of the moss species Atrichum undulatum (Hedw. P. Beauv. (Polytrichaceae and Hypnum andoi A.J.E. Sm. (Hypnaceae collected in winter time were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS as a contribution to their chemistry. Eight fatty acids were identified in the chloroform/methanol extract 1:1 of A. undulatum (linoleic acid 26.80%, palmitic acid 22.17%, α-linolenic acid 20.50%, oleic acid 18.49%, arachidonic acid 6.21%, stearic acid 3.34%, cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid 1.52% and behenic acid 1.01%, while six fatty acids were found in the same type of extract of H. andoi (palmitic acid 63.48%, erucic acid 12.38%, stearic acid 8.08%, behenic acid 6.26%, lignoceric acid 5.16% and arachidic acid 4.64%. According to this study, the moss A. undulatum can be considered as a good source of both essential fatty acids for humans (linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid during the winter.

  11. Modification of diet fatty acid composition change the fatty acid composition of rabbit meat:

    OpenAIRE

    Tatjana PIRMAN; Trebušak, Tina; Levart, Alenka

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of linseed oil supplementation on the performance and fatty acid composition of rabbit leg muscle and adipose tissue. Two experiments were done. First experiment: twelvemale SIKA rabbits, divided in two groups, control (n = 4; commercial diet) and the linseed (n = 8; commercial diet with 9% of linseed oil sprayed onto the pellets). Second experiment: twenty-four (12 male and 12 female) SIKArabbits, divided in two groups, palm fat (n = 12;...

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?

    OpenAIRE

    Sieswerda Lee E; Seguin Jennifer; Ross Brian M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determi...

  13. Fatty acids, lipid mediators, and T-cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Anja J; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Toes, René E M; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea

    2014-01-01

    Research toward the mechanisms underlying obesity-linked complications has intensified during the last years. As a consequence, it has become clear that metabolism and immunity are intimately linked. Free fatty acids and other lipids acquired in excess by current feeding patterns have been proposed to mediate this link due to their immune modulatory capacity. The functional differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, in combination with their dietary intake are believed to modulate the outcome of immune responses. Moreover, unsaturated fatty acids can be oxidized in a tightly regulated and specific manner to generate either potent pro-inflammatory or pro-resolving lipid mediators. These oxidative derivatives of fatty acids have received detailed attention during the last years, as they have proven to have strong immune modulatory capacity, even in pM ranges. Both fatty acids and oxidized fatty acids have been studied especially in relation to macrophage and T-cells functions. In this review, we propose to focus on the effect of fatty acids and their oxidative derivatives on T-cells, as it is an active area of research during the past 5 years. The effect of fatty acids and their derivatives on activation and proliferation of T-cells, as well as the delicate balance between stimulation and lipotoxicity will be discussed. Moreover, the receptors involved in the interaction between free fatty acids and their derivatives with T-cells will be summarized. Finally, the mechanisms involved in modulation of T-cells by fatty acids will be addressed, including cellular signaling and metabolism of T-cells. The in vitro results will be placed in context of in vivo studies both in humans and mice. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the immune modulatory function of lipids on T-cells and will point out novel directions for future research.

  14. Fatty Acids, Lipid Mediators, and T-Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Anja J.; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Toes, René E. M.; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea

    2014-01-01

    Research toward the mechanisms underlying obesity-linked complications has intensified during the last years. As a consequence, it has become clear that metabolism and immunity are intimately linked. Free fatty acids and other lipids acquired in excess by current feeding patterns have been proposed to mediate this link due to their immune modulatory capacity. The functional differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, in combination with their dietary intake are believed to modulate the outcome of immune responses. Moreover, unsaturated fatty acids can be oxidized in a tightly regulated and specific manner to generate either potent pro-inflammatory or pro-resolving lipid mediators. These oxidative derivatives of fatty acids have received detailed attention during the last years, as they have proven to have strong immune modulatory capacity, even in pM ranges. Both fatty acids and oxidized fatty acids have been studied especially in relation to macrophage and T-cells functions. In this review, we propose to focus on the effect of fatty acids and their oxidative derivatives on T-cells, as it is an active area of research during the past 5 years. The effect of fatty acids and their derivatives on activation and proliferation of T-cells, as well as the delicate balance between stimulation and lipotoxicity will be discussed. Moreover, the receptors involved in the interaction between free fatty acids and their derivatives with T-cells will be summarized. Finally, the mechanisms involved in modulation of T-cells by fatty acids will be addressed, including cellular signaling and metabolism of T-cells. The in vitro results will be placed in context of in vivo studies both in humans and mice. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the immune modulatory function of lipids on T-cells and will point out novel directions for future research. PMID:25352844

  15. Inhibition of in vitro cholesterol synthesis by fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, M; Endo, A

    1976-01-18

    Inhibitory effect of 44 species of fatty acids on cholesterol synthesis has been examined with a rat liver enzyme system. In the case of saturated fatty acids, the inhibitory activity increased with chain length to a maximum at 11 to 14 carbons, after which activity decreased rapidly. The inhibition increased with the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids. Introduction of a hydroxy group at the alpha-position of fatty acids abolished the inhibition, while the inhibition was enhanced by the presence of a hydroxy group located in an intermediate position of the chain. Branched chain fatty acids having a methyl group at the terminal showed much higher activity than the corresponding saturated straight chain fatty acids with the same number of carbons. With respect to the mechanism for inhibition, tridecanoate was found to inhibit acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase specifically without affecting the other reaction steps in the cholesterol synthetic pathway. The highly unsaturated fatty acids, arachidonate and linoleate, were specific inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA synthase. On the other hand, ricinoleate (hydroxy acid) and phytanate (branched-chain acid) diminished the conversion of mevalonate to sterols by inhibiting a step or steps between squalene and lanosterol.

  16. Effects of Fatty Acid Inclusion in a DMPC Bilayer Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Møller, Martin S.

    2009-01-01

    Free fatty acids in biomembranes have been proposed to be a central component in several cellular control and regulatory mechanisms. To elucidate some fundamental elements underlying this, we have applied molecular dynamics simulations and experimental density measurements to study the molecular...... packing and structure of oleic acid (HOA) and stearic acid (HSA) in fluid bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). The experimental data show a small but consistent positive excess volume for fatty acid concentrations below 10 mol %. At higher concentrations the fatty acids mix ideally...... with fluid DMPC. The simulations, which were benchmarked against the densitometric data, revealed interesting differences in the structure and location of the fatty acids depending on their protonation status. Thus, the protonated (uncharged) acid is located rather deeply in the membrane with an average...

  17. Arsenic-containing hydrocarbons and arsenic-containing fatty acids: Transfer across and presystemic metabolism in the Caco-2 intestinal barrier model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sören; Raber, Georg; Ebert, Franziska; Taleshi, Mojtaba S; Francesconi, Kevin A; Schwerdtle, Tanja

    2015-10-01

    Arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHCs) and arsenic-containing fatty acids (AsFAs) represent two classes of arsenolipids occurring naturally in marine food. Toxicological data are yet scarce and an assessment regarding the risk to human health has not been possible. Here, we investigated the transfer and presystemic metabolism of five arsenolipids in an intestinal barrier model. Three AsHCs and two AsFAs were applied to the Caco-2 intestinal barrier model. Thereby, the short-chain AsHCs reached up to 50% permeability. Transport is likely to occur via passive diffusion. The AsFAs showed lower intestinal bioavailability, but respective permeabilities were still two to five times higher as compared to arsenobetaine or arsenosugars. Interestingly, AsFAs were effectively biotransformed while passing the in vitro intestinal barrier, whereas AsHCs were transported to the blood-facing compartment essentially unchanged. AsFAs can be presystemically metabolised and the amount of transferred arsenic is lower than that for AsHCs. In contrast, AsHCs are likely to be highly intestinally bioavailable to humans. Since AsHCs exert strong toxicity in vitro and in vivo, toxicity studies with experimental animals as well as a human exposure assessment are needed to assess the risk to human health related to the presence of AsHCs in seafood. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The central administration of C75, a fatty acid synthase inhibitor, activates sympathetic outflow and thermogenesis in interscapular brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassolla, Priscila; Uchoa, Ernane Torres; Mansur Machado, Frederico Sander; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; Rissato Garófalo, Maria Antonieta; de Almeida Brito, Nilton; Kagohara Elias, Lucila Leico; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; do Carmo Kettelhut, Isis; Carvalho Navegantes, Luiz Carlos

    2013-12-01

    The present work investigated the participation of interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT), which is an important site for thermogenesis, in the anti-obesity effects of C75, a synthetic inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FAS). We report that a single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of C75 induced hypophagia and weight loss in fasted male Wistar rats. Furthermore, C75 induced a rapid increase in core body temperature and an increase in heat dissipation. In parallel, C75 stimulated IBAT thermogenesis, which was evidenced by a marked increase in the IBAT temperature that preceded the rise in the core body temperature and an increase in the mRNA levels of uncoupling protein-1. As with C75, an i.c.v. injection of cerulenin, a natural FAS inhibitor, increased the core body and IBAT temperatures. The sympathetic IBAT denervation attenuated all of the thermoregulatory effects of FAS inhibitors as well as the C75 effect on weight loss and hypophagia. C75 induced the expression of Fos in the paraventricular nucleus, preoptic area, dorsomedial nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, and raphé pallidus, all of which support a central role of FAS in regulating IBAT thermogenesis. These data indicate a role for IBAT in the increase in body temperature and hypophagia that is induced by FAS inhibitors and suggest new mechanisms explaining the weight loss induced by these compounds.

  19. Expression of a novel 90-kDa protein, Lsd90, involved in the metabolism of very long-chain fatty acid-containing phospholipids in a mitosis-defective fission yeast mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Kazuaki; Nakagawa, Miyuki; Satoh, Masayuki; Saitoh, Shigeaki; Dohmae, Naoshi; Harada, Ayako; Satoh, Noriko; Karasawa, Ken; Takio, Koji; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro; Inoue, Keizo

    2008-03-01

    The fission yeast lsd1/fas2 strain carries a temperature-sensitive mutation of the fatty-acid-synthase alpha-subunit, exhibiting an aberrant mitosis lsd phenotype, with accumulation of very-long-chain fatty-acid-containing phospholipid (VLCFA-PL). A novel 90-kDa protein, Lsd90 (SPBC16E9.16c), was found to be newly expressed in small particle-like structures in lsd1/fas2 cells under restrictive conditions. Two mismatches leading to a double frame shift were found between the sequences of the lsd90(+) gene registered in the genomic database and the sequences determined experimentally at the amino acid, cDNA and genomic DNA levels. Unexpectedly, overexpression and disruption of the lsd90(+) gene in either lsd1/fas2 or wild-type cells did not affect either cell growth or expression of the lsd phenotype. The amounts of VLCFA-PL that accumulated in lsd90-overexpressing lsd1/fas2 cells were significantly lower than those in lsd1/fas2 cells, suggesting the involvement of Lsd90 in the metabolism of VLCFA-PL.

  20. Analysis of mixtures of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yilan; Chen, Ting; Yang, Maohua; Wang, Caixia; Huo, Weiyan; Yan, Daojiang; Chen, Jinjin; Zhou, Jiemin; Xing, Jianmin

    2014-01-03

    Microbial production of fatty acids and fatty alcohols has attracted increasing concerns because of energy crisis and environmental impact of fossil fuels. Therefore, simple and efficient methods for the extraction and quantification of these compounds become necessary. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection (HPLC-RID) method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in these samples. The optimum chromatographic conditions are C18 column eluted with methanol:water:acetic acid (90:9.9:0.1, v/v/v); column temperature, 26°C; flow rate, 1.0mL/min. Calibration curves of all selected analytes showed good linearity (r(2)≥0.9989). The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the 10 compounds were less than 4.46% and 5.38%, respectively, which indicated that the method had good repeatability and precision. Besides, a method for simultaneous extraction of fatty acids and fatty alcohols from fermentation broth was optimized by orthogonal design. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: solvent, ethyl acetate; solvent to sample ratio, 0.5:1; rotation speed, 2min at 260rpm; extraction temperature, 10°C. This study provides simple and fast methods to simultaneously extract and quantify fatty acids and fatty alcohols for the first time. It will be useful for the study of microbial production of these products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman (Samanea saman) are reported. The oils were analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. The most prominent fatty acid in both oils is linoleic acid (30-40%), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid for A. lebbeck and ol...

  2. Differentiation of Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus by gas chromatographic whole-cell fatty acid analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, D.; Heitefuss, S; Seifert, H S

    1991-01-01

    Three strains of Bacillus anthracis and seven strains of Bacillus cereus were grown on complex medium and on synthetic medium. Gas chromatographic analysis of whole-cell fatty acids of strains grown on complex medium gave nearly identical fatty acid patterns. Fatty acid patterns of strains grown on synthetic medium showed a high content of branched-chain fatty acids. Significant differences between the fatty acid patterns of the two species were found. Odd iso/anteiso fatty acid ratios were a...

  3. Fatty acid metabolism studies of human epidermal cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo, C L; Dunham, W R

    1993-12-01

    Adult human epidermal keratinocytes grow rapidly in medium that is essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient. In this medium they exhibit decreased amounts of the fatty acids, 18:2, 20:3, 20:4, and contain increased amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids. [14C]- and [3H]acetate and radiolabeled fatty acids, 16:0, 18:2, and 20:4 were used to study the fatty acid metabolism of these cells. Label from acetate appeared in 14- to 20-carbon fatty acids, both saturated and monounsaturated. No label was seen in the essential fatty acid 18:2, 18:3, and 20:4. Radiolabel from [9, 10-3H]palmitic acid (16:0) was detected in 16:0, 16:1, 18:0, and 18:1. [14C]linoleic acid (18:2) was converted to 18:3, 20:2, 20:3, and 20:4, demonstrating delta 6 and delta 5 desaturase activity in keratinocytes. Label from acetate, 16:0, or 18:2 was found mostly in the cellular phospholipids while only one third of the label from [14C]arachidonic was found in the phospholipids. [14C]acetate and [14C]18:2 time course data were used to construct a model of the metabolism of these reactants, using coupled, first-order differential equations. The data show that EFA-deficient keratinocytes metabolize fatty acids using pathways previously found in liver; they suggest the positioning of 18:2 desaturase and 18:3 elongase near the plasma membrane; they indicate that for the synthesis of nonessential fatty acids the formation of 18:0 from 16:0 is the rate-determining step; and they show that the conversion of 18:2 to 20:3 is rapid. These experiments demonstrate a method to study lipid enzyme kinetics in living cells.

  4. Fatty acid composition of membrane bilayers: importance of diet polyunsaturated fat balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Sarah K; Else, Paul L; Atkins, Taleitha A; Hulbert, A J

    2012-05-01

    In one of the most extensive analyses to date we show that the balance of diet n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is the most important determinant of membrane composition in the rat under 'normal' conditions. Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of twelve moderate-fat diets (25% of total energy) for 8weeks. Diets differed only in fatty acid (FA) profiles, with saturate (SFA) content ranging 8-88% of total FAs, monounsaturate (MUFA) 6-65%, total PUFA 4-81%, n-6 PUFA 3-70% and n-3 PUFA 1-70%. Diet PUFA included only essential FAs 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. Balance between n-3 and n-6 PUFA is defined as the PUFA balance (n-3 PUFA as % of total PUFA) and ranged 1-86% in the diets. FA composition was measured for brain, heart, liver, skeletal muscle, erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids, as well as adipose tissue and plasma triglycerides. The conformer-regulator model was used (slope=1 indicates membrane composition completely conforming to diet). Extensive changes in diet SFA, MUFA and PUFA had minimal effect on membranes (average slopes 0.01, 0.07, 0.07 respectively), but considerable influence on adipose tissue and plasma triglycerides (average slopes 0.27, 0.53, 0.47 respectively). Diet balance between n-3 and n-6 PUFA had a biphasic influence on membrane composition. When n-3 PUFAdiet (average slope 0.95), while diet PUFA balance>10% had little influence (average slope 0.19). The modern human diet has an average PUFA balance ~10% and this will likely have significant health implications.

  5. Omega3 Fatty Acids Intake Versus Diclofenac in Osteoarthritis Induced in Experimental rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. El-Seweidy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Osteoarthritis(OAis a degenerative joint disease, characterized by abnormal remodeling pattern of joints driven by inflammatory mediators within the affected joints. Its symptoms are many like pain, stiffness,and decreased function. Objective:The present study mainly focused on the anti-inflammatory effect of omega 3 fatty acids (F.As versus diclofenac, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in OA induced in rats Design: Intraarticular injection of monosodiumiodoacetate(MIA 24.6 mg/kg in 0.6 ml saline was used to induce OA. Diclofenac and omega-3 F. These were administered orally, daily for 21 days and after 24 hours of OA induction.Results:Osteoarthritis induction resulted in an increase in serum levels of IL-6(479.5%,TNF-α(545.5%, and CRP(754.2% along with IL-10 level decrease(70.3% as compared to normal group. Diclofenac intake demonstrated significant increase of IL-6 (24.9%,CRP (88.6%,and TNF-α(25.2% compared to the OA control group. Omega 3 FAs intake showed significant reduction in inflammatory markers along with IL-10 increase, in comparison toOA group.Both treatment demonstrated a significant increase in TIMP2 along with decreased MMP2 and MPO in comparison with OA control.Positive correlation of IL-6 with MPO(r = 0.7,P=0.002, and negative one with IL-10(r = 0.9,p<0.0001 and TIMP2 (r = -0.5,p<0.008 was observed.Interleukin-10 was negatively correlated with MMP2(r = -0.5, p<0.007 and MPO (r=-0.8,p<0.0001.Conclusion:Data derived from biochemical and histopathological results, indicated that omega3 FAs may be expressed as a natural anti-inflammatory agent of a significant potential in OA with evident remarkable effect.

  6. Regulation of hepatic gene expression by saturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallim, T; Salter, A M

    2010-01-01

    Diets rich in saturated fatty acids have long been associated with increased plasma cholesterol concentrations and hence increased risk of cardiovascular disease. More recently, they have also been suggested to promote the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. While there is now considerable evidence to suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids exert many of their effects through regulating the activity of transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator activated receptors, sterol regulatory binding proteins (SREBPs) and liver X receptor, our understanding of how saturated fatty acids act is still limited. Here we review the potential mechanisms whereby saturated fatty acids modulate hepatic lipid metabolism thereby impacting on the synthesis, storage and secretion of lipids. Evidence is presented that their effects are, at least partly, mediated through modulation of the activity of the SREBP family of transcription factors.

  7. Conjugated linoleic acid enhances glutathione synthesis and attenuates pathological signs in MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamo, Paolo; Luongo, Diomira; Maurano, Francesco; Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Stefanile, Rosita; Rossi, Mauro

    2006-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a naturally occurring peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) ligand, exhibits proapoptotic, immunomodulatory, and anticancer properties. In this study, we examined the biological effects of CLA administration in the MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr) mouse, an animal model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We found that CLA exerted apparently opposed activities in in vitro experiments, depending on its concentration: 100 microM CLA downregulated IFN gamma synthesis and cell proliferation of splenocytes, in association with apoptosis induction and a decrease of intracellular thiols (GSH + GSSG), whereas 25 microM CLA did not significantly influence cell proliferation but enhanced the expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and intracellular GSH concentration. Interestingly, the antiproliferative effect at 100 microM was not inhibited by the PPAR gamma antagonist GW9662. In vivo, CLA administration drastically reduced SLE signs (splenomegaly, autoantibodies, and cytokine synthesis), a condition paralleled by the enhancement of GCLC expression and intracellular GSH content. Moreover, CLA administration significantly downregulated nuclear factor kappaB activity independent of PPAR gamma activation and apoptosis induction. In conclusion, enhanced GSH content and GCLC expression in CLA-treated mice suggest a novel biochemical mechanism underlying its immunomodulatory activity and the beneficial effects on murine SLE signs.

  8. Dynamic regulation of fatty acid pools for improved production of fatty alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Paulo Gonçalves; Ferreira, Raphael; Zhou, Yongjin J; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-03-15

    In vivo production of fatty acid-derived chemicals in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires strategies to increase the intracellular supply of either acyl-CoA or free fatty acids (FFAs), since their cytosolic concentrations are quite low in a natural state for this organism. Deletion of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase genes FAA1 and FAA4 is an effective and straightforward way to disable re-activation of fatty acids and drastically increase FFA levels. However, this strategy causes FFA over-accumulation and consequential release to the extracellular medium, which results in a significant loss of precursors that compromises the process yield. In the present study, we aimed for dynamic expression of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase gene FAA1 to regulate FFA and acyl-CoA pools in order to improve fatty alcohol production yields. We analyzed the metabolite dynamics of a faa1Δ faa4Δ strain constitutively expressing a carboxylic acid reductase from Mycobacterium marinum (MmCAR) and an endogenous alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh5) for in vivo production of fatty alcohols from FFAs. We observed production of fatty acids and fatty alcohols with different rates leading to high levels of FFAs not being converted to the final product. To address the issue, we expressed the MmCAR + Adh5 pathway together with a fatty acyl-CoA reductase from Marinobacter aquaeolei to enable fatty alcohol production simultaneously from FFA and acyl-CoA, respectively. Then, we expressed FAA1 under the control of different promoters in order to balance FFA and acyl-CoA interconversion rates and to achieve optimal levels for conversion to fatty alcohols. Expressing FAA1 under control of the HXT1 promoter led to an increased accumulation of fatty alcohols per OD600 up to 41% while FFA levels were decreased by 63% compared with the control strain. Fine-tuning and dynamic regulation of key metabolic steps can be used to improve cell factories when the rates of downstream reactions are limiting. This avoids loss of

  9. The Role for Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Molfino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimal nutrition is one of the most important determinants of healthier ageing, reducing the risk of disability, maintaining mental and physical functions, and thus preserving and ensuring a better quality of life. Dietary intake and nutrient absorption decline with age, thus increasing the risk of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality. Specific nutrients, particularly long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, might have the potential of preventing and reducing co-morbidities in older adults. Omega-3 PUFAs are able to modulate inflammation, hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and hypertension. Different mechanisms contribute to these effects, including conditioning cell membrane function and composition, eicosanoid production, and gene expression. The present review analyzes the influence of omega-3 PUFAs status and intake on brain function, cardiovascular system, immune function, muscle performance and bone health in older adults. Omega-3 FAs may have substantial benefits in reducing the risk of cognitive decline in older people. The available data encourage higher intakes of omega-3 PUFAs in the diet or via specific supplements. More studies are needed to confirm the role of omega-3 FAs in maintaining bone health and preventing the loss of muscle mass and function associated with ageing. In summary, omega-3 PUFAs are now identified as potential key nutrients, safe and effective in the treatment and prevention of several negative consequences of ageing.

  10. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation in the immature swine heart in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajimoto, Masaki; O' Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-09-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supports infants and children with severe cardiopulmonary compromise. Nutritional support for these children includes provision of medium- and long-chain fatty acids (FAs). However, ECMO induces a stress response, which could limit the capacity for FA oxidation. Metabolic impairment could induce new or exacerbate existing myocardial dysfunction. Using a clinically relevant piglet model, we tested the hypothesis that ECMO maintains the myocardial capacity for FA oxidation and preserves myocardial energy state. Provision of 13-Carbon labeled medium-chain FA (octanoate), longchain free FAs (LCFAs), and lactate into systemic circulation showed that ECMO promoted relative increases in myocardial LCFA oxidation while inhibiting lactate oxidation. Loading of these labeled substrates at high dose into the left coronary artery demonstrated metabolic flexibility as the heart preferentially oxidized octanoate. ECMO preserved this octanoate metabolic response, but also promoted LCFA oxidation and inhibited lactate utilization. Rapid upregulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4) protein appeared to participate in this metabolic shift during ECMO. ECMO also increased relative flux from lactate to alanine further supporting the role for pyruvate dehydrogenase inhibition by PDK4. High dose substrate loading during ECMO also elevated the myocardial energy state indexed by phosphocreatine to ATP ratio. ECMO promotes LCFA oxidation in immature hearts, while maintaining myocardial energy state. These data support the appropriateness of FA provision during ECMO support for the immature heart.

  11. [Treatment of hypertriglyceridemia with omega-3 fatty acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Toru; Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) have important biologic functions, including effects on membranes, eicosanoid metabolism, and gene transcription. Studies indicate that the use of EPA and DHA lowered triglyceride levels, which is accomplished by decreasing the production of hepatic triglycerides and increasing the clearance of plasma triglycerides. Recent clinical studies showed that intake of omega-3 fatty acids reduced cardiovascular events. In addition, combination therapy with omega-3 fatty acids and a statin is a safe and effective way to improve lipid levels and cardiovascular prognosis beyond the benefits provided by statin therapy alone. Our focus is to review the potential mechanisms by which these fatty acids reduce cardiovascular disease risk.

  12. Identification of fatty acids in canine seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, R; Inostroza, K; Risopatrón, J; Sanchez, R; Sepúlveda, N

    2014-03-01

    Seminal plasma contains various biochemical components associated with sperm function. However, there is limited information regarding the fatty acid composition of seminal plasma and their effect on sperm. The aim of this study was to identify the fatty acid content in canine seminal plasma using gas chromatography. Twelve ejaculates were studied, the seminal plasma was obtained by centrifugation and then the lipids were extracted, methylated and analysed by chromatography. The total lipids in the seminal plasma were 2.5 ± 0.3%, corresponding to 85% saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 15% unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). The greatest proportions of SFA were palmitic acid (30.4%), stearic acid (23.4%) and myristic acid (5.3%) and of UFA oleic acid (9.0%). Therefore, the protocols and techniques used enabled the identification of 18 different fatty acids in canine seminal plasma, which constitutes a good method to evaluate and quantify the fatty acid profile in this species. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. [Fatty acid content of sausages manufactured in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo de Vizcarrondo, C; Martín, E

    1997-06-01

    The moisture and lipid content as well as the fatty acid composition of sausages were determined. Lipids were extracted and purified with a mixture of cloroform/methanol 2:1. Fatty acids in the lipid extract were methylated with 4% sulfuric acid/methanol solution and later were separated as methyl esters by gas liquid cromatography (GLC). Sausages presented a lipid content between 7.10% for canned sausages and 35.23% for the cocktail type. Most of the fatty acids were monounsatured with oleic acid as the major component with values between 42.54% for ham sausage and 48.83% for francfort type. Satured fatty acids followed, with palmitic acid as the major component in a range between 21.46% and 26.59% for bologna and Polaca sausage respectively. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were present in less quantities with concentration of linoleic acid between 8.5% (cotto salami type) and 12.60% (cocktail type). Turkey and poultry sausages presented a higher content of polyunsaturated and less saturated fatty acids than the other types of sausages studied.

  14. Traditional food in Serbia: Sources, recipes and fatty acids profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Tamara B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional foods play a major role in traditions of different cultures and regions for thousands of years while preparation methods of traditional foods are part of the folklore of a country or a region. This paper presents recipes and fatty acid profiles of selected commonly consumed traditional foods in Serbia. The obtained fatty acid composition data are used for making conclusions about meals which are commonly consumed in Serbia. Traditional Serbian dairy products, cheese and kajmak, contained 70% SFAs (mostly palmitic acid. Commonly used meal in Serbian cuisine, prebranac, also contained palmitic acid and oleic acid (38.67% and 35.58% respectively, while linoleic acid was presented with 17.34%, similarly to vanilice. Ajvar, frequently used as a salad, is rich in linoleic acid (49.12% but less rich in palmitic acid. Trans fatty acids were found in very small amounts in all foods.

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Could Alleviate the Risks of Traumatic Brain Injury – A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathy R. Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is an acquired brain trauma that occurs when any sudden trauma/injury causes damage to the brain. TBI is characterized by tissue damage and imbalance in the cerebral blood flow and metabolism. It has been established through laboratory experiments that the dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs could reduce the oxidative stress developed in brain due to TBI. The inclusion of omega-3 FA in diet could normalize the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and thus, it could restore the survival of neuronal cells. BDNF improves the synaptic transmission by regulating synapsin 1 and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP response element binding protein. The brain tissue analysis of TBI models supplemented with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs showed significantly reduced lipid peroxidation, nucleic acid and protein oxidation, thereby promoting neuronal and glial cell survival. Thus, omega-3 FA intake could be considered as a therapeutic option to reduce the secondary neuronal damages initiated by TBI.

  16. Interaction of dietary fatty acids with tumour necrosis factor family cytokines during colon inflammation and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmanová, Jiřina; Straková, Nicol; Vaculová, Alena Hyršlová; Tylichová, Zuzana; Safaříková, Barbora; Skender, Belma; Kozubík, Alois

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal homeostasis is precisely regulated by a number of endogenous regulatory molecules but significantly influenced by dietary compounds. Malfunction of this system may result in chronic inflammation and cancer. Dietary essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and short-chain fatty acid butyrate produced from fibre display anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Both compounds were shown to modulate the production and activities of TNF family cytokines. Cytokines from the TNF family (TNF- α, TRAIL, and FasL) have potent inflammatory activities and can also regulate apoptosis, which plays an important role in cancer development. The results of our own research showed enhancement of apoptosis in colon cancer cells by a combination of either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or butyrate with TNF family cytokines, especially by promotion of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and modulation of NF κ B activity. This review is focused mainly on the interaction of dietary PUFAs and butyrate with these cytokines during colon inflammation and cancer development. We summarised recent knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in such effects and outcomes for intestinal cell behaviour and pathologies. Finally, the possible application for the prevention and therapy of colon inflammation and cancer is also outlined.

  17. Interaction of Dietary Fatty Acids with Tumour Necrosis Factor Family Cytokines during Colon Inflammation and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiřina Hofmanová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal homeostasis is precisely regulated by a number of endogenous regulatory molecules but significantly influenced by dietary compounds. Malfunction of this system may result in chronic inflammation and cancer. Dietary essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and short-chain fatty acid butyrate produced from fibre display anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Both compounds were shown to modulate the production and activities of TNF family cytokines. Cytokines from the TNF family (TNF-α, TRAIL, and FasL have potent inflammatory activities and can also regulate apoptosis, which plays an important role in cancer development. The results of our own research showed enhancement of apoptosis in colon cancer cells by a combination of either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA or butyrate with TNF family cytokines, especially by promotion of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and modulation of NFκB activity. This review is focused mainly on the interaction of dietary PUFAs and butyrate with these cytokines during colon inflammation and cancer development. We summarised recent knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in such effects and outcomes for intestinal cell behaviour and pathologies. Finally, the possible application for the prevention and therapy of colon inflammation and cancer is also outlined.

  18. Plasma concentrations of trans fatty acids in persons with type 2 diabetes between September 2002 and April 200412345

    OpenAIRE

    Schwenke, Dawn C.; Foreyt, John P.; Edgar R Miller; Reeves, Rebecca S.; Vitolins, Mara Z.

    2013-01-01

    Background: transFatty acids (TFAs) increase cardiovascular disease risk. TFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the food supply may be declining with reciprocal increases in cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs).

  19. Molecular recognition of nitrated fatty acids by PPAR[gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Martynowski, Dariusz; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva T.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Baker, Paul R.S.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Xu, H. Eric (Pitt); (Michigan); (Van Andel); (Morehouse-MED)

    2010-03-08

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation, and it is activated by oxidized and nitrated fatty acids. Here we report the crystal structure of the PPAR{gamma} ligand binding domain bound to nitrated linoleic acid, a potent endogenous ligand of PPAR{gamma}. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis of PPAR{gamma} discrimination of various naturally occurring fatty acid derivatives.

  20. Characterization of Enzymes Involved in Fatty Acid Elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-11

    dihydroxyacetone reductase involved in phosphatidic acid biosynthesis [111]. Therefore, altered glycerophospholipid metabolism, along with reduced...in Mammals Increases with Muscle n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Content. PLoS ONE, 2006. 1: p. e65. 143. Cole, G.M., Lim, G.P., Yang, F., Teter, B...2007 Title of Dissertation: "Characterization of Enzymes Involved in Fatty Acid Elongation" APPROVAL SHEET Ernest Maynard, P .D. Department of

  1. The role and mechanism of fatty acids in gallstones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo-Dong Wu; Kazuhisa Uchiyama; Ying Fan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cholelithiasis is a common entity in China, but its etiology and pathogenesis have not been fully elucidated. Pigment stones of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct still form a high proportion in China, while they are rare in Europeans. To date, reports on fatty acids in stones remain few. We analyzed the quantity of fatty acids in different stones from Chinese and Japanese cases and discussed the role and mechanism of fatty acids in the formation of pigment stones. METHODS: Clinical data from 18 Chinese and 37 Japanese patients with different types of stones were analyzed using the procedure for extracting fatty acids from gallstones and high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The total fatty acid and free fatty acid contents of pigment stones were markedly higher than those in black or cholesterol stones. The ratio of free saturated to free unsaturated fatty acids was highest in intrahepatic and less in extrahepatic pigment stones, which were signiifcantly different from the other two kinds of stones. CONCLUSIONS: This indicates that phospholipase participates in the course of pigment stone formation. The action of phospholipase A1 is more important than phospholipase A2.

  2. Kinetics of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert H; Mundi, Manpreet S; Vlazny, Danielle T; Smailovic, Almira; Muthusamy, Kalpana; Almandoz, Jaime P; Singh, Ekta; Jensen, Michael D; Miles, John M

    2013-03-01

    Plasma free fatty acid (FFA) kinetics in humans are often measured with only one tracer. In study 1, healthy volunteers received infusions of [U-¹³C]linoleate, [U-¹³C]oleate, and [U-¹³C]palmitate during continuous feeding with liquid meals low (n = 12) and high (n = 5) in palmitate and containing three labeled fatty acids to measure FFA appearance and fractional spillover of lipoprotein lipase-generated fatty acids. Study 2 used an intravenous lipid emulsion to increase FFA concentrations during infusion of linoleate and palmitate tracers. In study 1, there were no differences in spillover of the three fatty acids for the low-palmitate meal, but linoleate spillover was greater than oleate or palmitate for the high-palmitate meal. In studies 1 and 2, clearance was significantly greater for linoleate than for the other FFAs. There was a negative correlation between clearance and concentration for each fatty acid in the two studies. In study 1, concentration and spillover correlated positively for oleate and palmitate but negatively for linoleate. In conclusion, linoleate spillover is greater than that of other fatty acids under some circumstances. Linoleate clearance is greater than that of palmitate or oleate, indicating a need for caution when using a single FFA to infer the behavior of all fatty acids.

  3. Structural Equation Modeling for Analyzing Erythrocyte Fatty Acids in Framingham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James V. Pottala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that several types of erythrocyte fatty acids (i.e., omega-3, omega-6, and trans are associated with risk for cardiovascular diseases. However, there are complex metabolic and dietary relations among fatty acids, which induce correlations that are typically ignored when using them as risk predictors. A latent variable approach could summarize these complex relations into a few latent variable scores for use in statistical models. Twenty-two red blood cell (RBC fatty acids were measured in Framingham (N = 3196. The correlation matrix of the fatty acids was modeled using structural equation modeling; the model was tested for goodness-of-fit and gender invariance. Thirteen fatty acids were summarized by three latent variables, and gender invariance was rejected so separate models were developed for men and women. A score was developed for the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA latent variable, which explained about 30% of the variance in the data. The PUFA score included loadings in opposing directions among three omega-3 and three omega-6 fatty acids, and incorporated the biosynthetic and dietary relations among them. Whether the PUFA factor score can improve the performance of risk prediction in cardiovascular diseases remains to be tested.

  4. Regional uptake of meal fatty acids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Michael D; Sarr, Michael G; Dumesic, Daniel A; Southorn, Peter A; Levine, James A

    2003-12-01

    Two protocols were performed to study meal fatty acid metabolism. In protocol 1, 14 patients scheduled for elective intra-abdominal surgery (11 undergoing bariatric surgery for severe obesity) consumed a meal containing [3H]triolein in the evening before surgery. This allowed us to measure adipose tissue lipid specific activity (SA) in mesenteric and omental, deep and superficial abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. Intra-abdominal adipose tissue lipid SA was greater than subcutaneous lipid SA. There were no significant differences between mesenteric and omental or between deep and superficial abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. In protocol 2, meal fatty acid oxidation and uptake into subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue ([3H]triolein) were measured in six normal, healthy volunteers. Meal fatty acid oxidation (3H2O generation) plus that remaining in plasma ( approximately 1%) plus uptake into upper body subcutaneous, lower body subcutaneous, and visceral fat allowed us to account for 98 +/- 6% of meal fatty acids 24 h after meal ingestion. We conclude that omental fat is a good surrogate for visceral fat and that abdominal subcutaneous fat depots are comparable with regard to meal fatty acid metabolic studies. Using [3H]triolein, we were able to account for virtually 100% of meal fatty acids 24 h after meal ingestion. These results support the meal fatty acid tracer model as a way to study the metabolic fate of dietary fat.

  5. Fatty acids in cardiovascular health and disease: a comprehensive update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Seth J; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Willett, Walter C; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Rudel, Lawrence L; Maki, Kevin C; Whelan, Jay; Ramsden, Christopher E; Block, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    Research dating back to the 1950s reported an association between the consumption of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and risk of coronary heart disease. Recent epidemiological evidence, however, challenges these findings. It is well accepted that the consumption of SFAs increases low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), whereas carbohydrates, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) do not. High-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C increases with SFA intake. Among individuals who are insulin resistant, a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet typically has an adverse effect on lipid profiles (in addition to decreasing HDL-C, it also increases triglyceride and LDL particle concentrations). Consequently, a moderate fat diet in which unsaturated fatty acids replace SFAs and carbohydrates are not augmented is advised to lower LDL-C; compared with a low-fat diet, a moderate-fat diet will lower triglycerides and increase HDL-C. Now, there is some new evidence that is questioning the health benefits of even MUFAs and PUFAs. In addition, in a few recent studies investigators have also failed to demonstrate expected cardiovascular benefits of marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids. To clarify the clinical pros and cons of dietary fats, the National Lipid Association held a fatty acid symposium at the 2011 National Lipid Association Scientific Sessions. During these sessions, the science regarding the effects of different fatty acid classes on coronary heart disease risk was reviewed.

  6. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L. Lindshield

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g, individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g, and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g. Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  7. Toxicity of fatty acid salts to German and American cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, R W; Koehler, P G; Pereira, R M

    2008-08-01

    The toxicity of fatty acid salts to German, Blattella germanica (L.), and American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), was evaluated. Potassium and sodium laurate caused up to 95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Even-numbered potassium fatty acid salts, C8-C18 were assessed for toxicity at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% concentrations by a 30-s immersion of cockroaches. The more soluble of the fatty acid salts at 2% concentration caused 65-95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Potassium oleate, C18, was most toxic to both German (LC50 = 0.36%) and American (LC50 = 0.17%) cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions on a substrate were tested by placing cockroaches in contact with treated floor tiles immediately after application (wet) or after the solutions had dried. Sodium laurate and potassium caprate caused mortality of German (62 +/- 17.4 and 58 +/- 12.6%, respectively) and American cockroaches (52 +/- 18.5 and 28 +/- 4.9%, respectively) on wet tiles, whereas potassium oleate caused mortality of German cockroaches (67 +/- 14.1%) only. Dry fatty acids caused no mortality among exposed cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions can be effective in killing German and American cockroaches but only when insects are thoroughly wetted with 1-2% fatty acid salt solutions.

  8. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-13

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  9. Short communication: Association of milk fatty acids with early lactation hyperketonemia and elevated concentration of nonesterified fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Lock, A L; Overton, T R; McArt, J A A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of our study was to extend the limited research available on the association between concentrations of milk fatty acids and elevated nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in early lactation dairy cattle. Measurement of milk fatty acids for detection of cows in excessive negative energy balance has the potential to be incorporated in routine in-line monitoring systems. Blood samples were taken from 84 cows in second or greater lactation 3 times per week between 3 to 14 d in milk. Cows were characterized as hyperketonemic (HYK) if blood BHB concentration was ≥1.2mmol/L at least once and characterized as having elevated concentrations of NEFA (NEFAH) if serum NEFA concentration was ≥1mmol/L at least once. Composition of colostrum and milk fatty acids at wk 2 postpartum was used to investigate the potential diagnostic value of individual fatty acids and fatty acid ratios for the correct classification of cows with NEFA and BHB concentrations above these thresholds, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify thresholds of fatty acid concentration and fatty acid ratios when ROC area under the curve was ≥0.70. Correct classification rate (CCR, %) was calculated as {[(number of true positives + number of true negatives)/total number tested] × 100}. None of the colostrum fatty acids yielded a sufficiently high area under the curve in ROC analysis for the association with HYK and NEFAH. The following fatty acids and fatty acid ratios were identified for an association with NEFAH (threshold, CCR): C15:0 (≤0.65g/100g, 68.3%); cis-9 C16:1 (≥1.85g/100g, 70.7%); cis-9 C18:1 (≥26g/100g, 69.5%), cis-9 C18:1 to C15:0 ratio (≥45, 69.5%); cis-9 C16:1 to C15:0 (≥2.50, 73.2%). Several fatty acids were associated with HYK (threshold, CCR): C6:0 (≤1.68g/100g, 80.5%), C8:0 (≤0.80g/100g, 80.5%), C10:0 (≤1.6g/100g, 79.3%); C12:0 (≤1.42g/100g, 82.9%); C14:0 (≤6.10g/100g, 84

  10. Esterification free fatty acid in palm fatty acid distillate using sulfonated rice husk ash catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Arif; Sutrisno, Bachrun

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia, as one of the biggest palm oil producers and exporters in the world, is producing large amounts of low-grade oil such as Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) from palm oil industries. The use of PFAD can reduce the cost of biodiesel production significantly, which makes PFAD a highly potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, the esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) on PFAD was studied using rice husk ash (RHA) as heterogeneous catalyst. The rice husk ash catalyst was synthesized by sulfonation using concentrated sulfuric acid. The RHA catalyst were characterized by using different techniques, such as porosity analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, total number of acid sites and elemental analysis. The effects of the molar ratio of methanol to PFAD (1-10%), the molar ratio of methanol to PFAD (4:1-10:1), and the reaction temperature (40-60°C) were studied for the conversion of FFA to optimize the reaction conditions. The results showed that the optimal conditions were an methanol to PFAD molar ratio of 10:1, the catalyst amount of 10 wt% of PFAD, and reaction temperature of 60°C.

  11. Quantification of primary fatty acid amides in commercial tallow and tallow fatty acid methyl esters by HPLC-APCI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Tobias; Mittelbach, Martin

    2005-04-01

    Primary fatty acid amides are a group of biologically highly active compounds which were already identified in nature. Here, these substances were determined in tallow and tallow fatty acid methyl esters for the first time. As tallow is growing in importance as an oleochemical feedstock for the soap manufacturing, the surfactant as well as the biodiesel industry, the amounts of primary fatty acid amides have to be considered. As these compounds are insoluble in tallow as well as in the corresponding product e.g. tallow fatty acid methyl esters, filter plugging can occur. For the quantification in these matrices a purification step and a LC-APCI-MS method were developed. Although quantification of these compounds can be performed by GC-MS, the presented approach omitted any derivatization and increased the sensitivity by two orders of magnitude. Internal standard calibration using heptadecanoic acid amide and validation of the method yielded a limit of detection of 18.5 fmol and recoveries for the tallow and fatty acid methyl ester matrices of 93% and 95%, respectively. A group of commercially available samples were investigated for their content of fatty acid amides resulting in an amount of up to 0.54%m/m (g per 100 g) in tallow and up to 0.16%m/m (g per 100 g) in fatty acid methyl esters.

  12. Dietary fatty acids modulate associations between genetic variants and circulating fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes: meta-analysis of 9 studies in the CHARGE consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caren E.; Follis, Jack L.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Foy, Millennia; Wu, Jason H.Y.; Ma, Yiyi; Tanaka, Toshiko; Manichakul, Ani W.; Wu, Hongyu; Chu, Audrey Y.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Fornage, Myriam; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Ferruci, Luigi; da Chen, Yii-Der I; Rich, Stephen S.; Djoussé, Luc; Ridker, Paul M.; Tang, Weihong; McKnight, Barbara; Tsai, Michael Y.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rotter, Jerome I.; Hu, Frank B.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Arnett, Donna K.; King, Irena B.; Sun, Qi; Wang, Lu; Lumley, Thomas; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Siscovick, David S; Ordovás, José M.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.

    2015-01-01

    Scope Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. Objective We evaluated interactions between genetic variants and fatty acid intakes for circulating alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Methods and Results We conducted meta-analyses (N to 11,668) evaluating interactions between dietary fatty acids and genetic variants (rs174538 and rs174548 in FADS1 (fatty acid desaturase 1), rs7435 in AGPAT3 (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate), rs4985167 in PDXDC1 (pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain-containing 1), rs780094 in GCKR (glucokinase regulatory protein) and rs3734398 in ELOVL2 (fatty acid elongase 2)). Stratification by measurement compartment (plasma vs. erthyrocyte) revealed compartment-specific interactions between FADS1 rs174538 and rs174548 and dietary ALA and linoleic acid for DHA and DPA. Conclusion Our findings reinforce earlier reports that genetically-based differences in circulating fatty acids may be partially due to differences in the conversion of fatty acid precursors. Further, fatty acids measurement compartment may modify gene-diet relationships, and considering compartment may improve the detection of gene-fatty acids interactions for circulating fatty acid outcomes. PMID:25626431

  13. Fatty Acid Structure and Degradation Analysis in Fingerprint Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleik, Stefanie; Spengler, Bernhard; Schäfer, Thomas; Urbach, Dieter; Luhn, Steven; Kirsch, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    GC-MS investigations were carried out to elucidate the aging behavior of unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues and to identify their degradation products in aged samples. For this purpose, a new sample preparation technique for fingerprint residues was developed that allows producing N-methyl- N-trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) derivatives of the analyzed unsaturated fatty acids and their degradation products. MSTFA derivatization catalyzed by iodotrimethylsilane enables the reliable identification of aldehydes and oxoacids as characteristic MSTFA derivatives in GCMS. The obtained results elucidate the degradation pathway of unsaturated fatty acids. Our study of aged fingerprint residues reveals that decanal is the main degradation product of the observed unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, oxoacids with different chain lengths are detected as specific degradation products of the unsaturated fatty acids. The detection of the degradation products and their chain length is a simple and effective method to determine the double bond position in unsaturated compounds. We can show that the hexadecenoic and octadecenoic acids found in fingerprint residues are not the pervasive fatty acids Δ9-hexadecenoic (palmitoleic acid) and Δ9-octadecenoic (oleic acid) acid but Δ6-hexadecenoic acid (sapienic acid) and Δ8-octadecenoic acid. The present study focuses on the structure identification of human sebum-specific unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues based on the identification of their degradation products. These results are discussed for further investigations and method developments for age determination of fingerprints, which is still a tremendous challenge because of several factors affecting the aging behavior of individual compounds in fingerprints.

  14. Structural and binding properties of two paralogous fatty acid binding proteins of Taenia solium metacestode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fatty acid (FA binding proteins (FABPs of helminths are implicated in acquisition and utilization of host-derived hydrophobic substances, as well as in signaling and cellular interactions. We previously demonstrated that secretory hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs of Taenia solium metacestode (TsM, a causative agent of neurocysticercosis (NC, shuttle FAs in the surrounding host tissues and inwardly transport the FAs across the parasite syncytial membrane. However, the protein molecules responsible for the intracellular trafficking and assimilation of FAs have remained elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated two novel TsMFABP genes (TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2, which encoded 133- and 136-amino acid polypeptides with predicted molecular masses of 14.3 and 14.8 kDa, respectively. They shared 45% sequence identity with each other and 15-95% with other related-members. Homology modeling demonstrated a characteristic β-barrel composed of 10 anti-parallel β-strands and two α-helices. TsMFABP2 harbored two additional loops between β-strands two and three, and β-strands six and seven, respectively. TsMFABP1 was secreted into cyst fluid and surrounding environments, whereas TsMFABP2 was intracellularly confined. Partially purified native proteins migrated to 15 kDa with different isoelectric points of 9.2 (TsMFABP1 and 8.4 (TsMFABP2. Both native and recombinant proteins bound to 11-([5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl]aminoundecannoic acid, dansyl-DL-α-amino-caprylic acid, cis-parinaric acid and retinol, which were competitively inhibited by oleic acid. TsMFABP1 exhibited high affinity toward FA analogs. TsMFABPs showed weak binding activity to retinol, but TsMFABP2 showed relatively high affinity. Isolation of two distinct genes from an individual genome strongly suggested their paralogous nature. Abundant expression of TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2 in the canal region of worm matched well with the histological distributions

  15. Structural and Binding Properties of Two Paralogous Fatty Acid Binding Proteins of Taenia solium Metacestode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun-Jong; Shin, Joo-Ho; Diaz-Camacho, Sylvia Paz; Nawa, Yukifumi; Kang, Insug; Kong, Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Background Fatty acid (FA) binding proteins (FABPs) of helminths are implicated in acquisition and utilization of host-derived hydrophobic substances, as well as in signaling and cellular interactions. We previously demonstrated that secretory hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs) of Taenia solium metacestode (TsM), a causative agent of neurocysticercosis (NC), shuttle FAs in the surrounding host tissues and inwardly transport the FAs across the parasite syncytial membrane. However, the protein molecules responsible for the intracellular trafficking and assimilation of FAs have remained elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings We isolated two novel TsMFABP genes (TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2), which encoded 133- and 136-amino acid polypeptides with predicted molecular masses of 14.3 and 14.8 kDa, respectively. They shared 45% sequence identity with each other and 15–95% with other related-members. Homology modeling demonstrated a characteristic β-barrel composed of 10 anti-parallel β-strands and two α-helices. TsMFABP2 harbored two additional loops between β-strands two and three, and β-strands six and seven, respectively. TsMFABP1 was secreted into cyst fluid and surrounding environments, whereas TsMFABP2 was intracellularly confined. Partially purified native proteins migrated to 15 kDa with different isoelectric points of 9.2 (TsMFABP1) and 8.4 (TsMFABP2). Both native and recombinant proteins bound to 11-([5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl]amino)undecannoic acid, dansyl-DL-α-amino-caprylic acid, cis-parinaric acid and retinol, which were competitively inhibited by oleic acid. TsMFABP1 exhibited high affinity toward FA analogs. TsMFABPs showed weak binding activity to retinol, but TsMFABP2 showed relatively high affinity. Isolation of two distinct genes from an individual genome strongly suggested their paralogous nature. Abundant expression of TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2 in the canal region of worm matched well with the histological distributions of lipids

  16. Capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection for the determination of cis/trans isomers of octadec-9-enoic acid and other long chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yong Foo; Saad, Bahruddin; Makahleh, Ahmad

    2013-05-17

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE)-capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) method for the simultaneous separation of eleven underivatized fatty acids (FAs), namely, lauric, myristic, tridecanoic (internal standard), pentadecanoic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, elaidic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidic acids is described. The separation was carried out in normal polarity mode at 20 °C, 30 kV and using hydrodynamic injection (50 mbar for 1 s). The separation was achieved in a bare fused-silica capillary (70 cm × 75 μm i.d.) using a background electrolyte of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (~6 mM) and heptakis-(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (~8 mM) dissolved in a mixture of Na2HPO4/KH2PO4 (5 mM, pH 7.4):ACN:MeOH:n-octanol (3:4:2.5:0.5, v/v/v/v). C(4)D parameters were set at fixed amplitude of 100 V and frequency of 1000 kHz. The developed method was validated. Calibration curves of the ten FAs were well correlated (r(2)>0.99) within the range of 5-250 μg mL(-1) for lauric acid, and 3-250 μg mL(-1) for the other FAs. The method was simple and sensitive with detection limits (S/N=3) of 0.9-1.9 μg mL(-1) and good relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day for migration times and peak areas (≤9.7%) were achieved. The method was applied to the determination of FAs in margarine samples. The proposed method offers distinct advantages over the GC and HPLC methods, especially in terms of simplicity (without derivatization) and sensitivity.

  17. Interaction of fatty acid genotype and diet on changes in colonic fatty acids in a Mediterranean diet intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porenta, Shannon R; Ko, Yi-An; Gruber, Stephen B; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Baylin, Ana; Ren, Jianwei; Djuric, Zora

    2013-11-01

    A Mediterranean diet increases intakes of n-3 and n-9 fatty acids and lowers intake of n-6 fatty acids. This can impact colon cancer risk as n-6 fatty acids are metabolized to proinflammatory eicosanoids. The purpose of this study was to evaluate interactions of polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genes, FADS1 and FADS2, and changes in diet on fatty acid concentrations in serum and colon. A total of 108 individuals at increased risk of colon cancer were randomized to either a Mediterranean or a Healthy Eating diet. Fatty acids were measured in both serum and colonic mucosa at baseline and after six months. Each individual was genotyped for four single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster. Linear regression was used to evaluate the effects of diet, genotype, and the diet by genotype interaction on fatty acid concentrations in serum and colon. Genetic variation in the FADS genes was strongly associated with baseline serum arachidonic acid (n-6) but serum eicosapentaenoic acid (n-3) and colonic fatty acid concentrations were not significantly associated with genotype. After intervention, there was a significant diet by genotype interaction for arachidonic acid concentrations in colon. Subjects who had all major alleles for FADS1/2 and were following a Mediterranean diet had 16% lower arachidonic acid concentrations in the colon after six months of intervention than subjects following the Healthy Eating diet. These results indicate that FADS genotype could modify the effects of changes in dietary fat intakes on arachidonic acid concentrations in the colon.

  18. Capillary Electrophoresis in the Analysis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Hancu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to inventory the main electrophoretic methods for identification and quantitative determination of fatty acids from different biological matrices. Critical analysis of electrophoretic methods reported in the literature show that the determination of polyunsaturated fatty acids can be made by: capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic chromatography and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography using different detection systems such as ultraviolet diode array detection, laser induced fluorescence or mass – spectrometry. Capillary electrophoresis is a fast, low-cost technique used for polyunsaturated fatty acids analysis although their determination is mostly based on gas chromatography.

  19. Antiproliferative activity of synthetic fatty acid amides from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Daiane S; Piovesan, Luciana A; D'Oca, Caroline R Montes; Hack, Carolina R Lopes; Treptow, Tamara G M; Rodrigues, Marieli O; Vendramini-Costa, Débora B; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T G; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; D'Oca, Marcelo G Montes

    2015-01-15

    In the work, the in vitro antiproliferative activity of a series of synthetic fatty acid amides were investigated in seven cancer cell lines. The study revealed that most of the compounds showed antiproliferative activity against te