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Sample records for fas fatty acid

  1. Strategies in megasynthase engineering – fatty acid synthases (FAS as model proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fischer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Megasynthases are large multienzyme proteins that produce a plethora of important natural compounds by catalyzing the successive condensation and modification of precursor units. Within the class of megasynthases, polyketide synthases (PKS are responsible for the production of a large spectrum of bioactive polyketides (PK, which have frequently found their way into therapeutic applications. Rational engineering approaches have been performed during the last 25 years that seek to employ the “assembly-line synthetic concept” of megasynthases in order to deliver new bioactive compounds. Here, we highlight PKS engineering strategies in the light of the newly emerging structural information on megasynthases, and argue that fatty acid synthases (FAS are and will be valuable objects for further developing this field.

  2. Distribution study of fatty acids (FAs) in sediments of Al-Kabeer Al-Shemali river estuary area using (HPLC) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasser, M.; Ali, B.; Ali, A.

    2010-01-01

    Samples of sediments from fife sites of Al-kabeer Al-shemali river estuary area were collected during the period (22/2/2007-7/11/2007). The samples were extracted to determine their content of Fatty acids qualitatively and quantitatively by using ( HPLC) technique for determination resources of organic matter in studied sediments . The total concentrations of (FAs) varied from (0.36-1245.5μg/g dry weight).The saturated fatty acids were dominated in all samples (12.1 - 100 %) of total fatty acids. The levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were tested percent (0-18 %) of total fatty acids except one sample from surficial sediments in St 3 during 8/8/2007 .while the concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were low (0 -21.6 %) of total fatty acids . We can use the saturated long chain fatty acid (C-22) as terrestrial biomarker. poly unsaturated fatty acid (C 1 8: 2ω6) as plankton biomarker and the Mono unsaturated fatty acid (C 1 8 : 1ω7) as bacterial biomarker.(author)

  3. Relations Between Serum Essential Fatty Acids, Cytokines (IL-6 & IL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between free radical generation, interleukins (IL-6 & IL-8), apoptotic marker soluble Fas (sFas), and the level of ... IL-6, IL-8 and sFas whereas serum fatty acid revealed that Linoleicacid (LA) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA) were significantly decreased in the studied cases .

  4. Contribution of fatty acids released from lipolysis of plasma triglycerides to total plasma fatty acid flux and tissue-specific fatty acid uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teusink, Bas; Voshol, Peter J.; Dahlmans, Vivian E. H.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Pijl, Hanno; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.

    2003-01-01

    There is controversy over the extent to which fatty acids (FAs) derived from plasma free FAs (FFAs) or from hydrolysis of plasma triglycerides (TGFAs) form communal or separate pools and what the contribution of each FA source is to cellular FA metabolism. Chylomicrons and lipid emulsions were

  5. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  6. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  7. Interaction between fatty acid and the elastin network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, van J.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction between salts of fatty acids (FAS) and elastin. Absorption of fatty acids in elastin may affect the elasticity of elastin-containing tissue. Such phenomena could, for instance, be of relevance for the understanding of the

  8. Fatty acid omega-oxidation as a rescue pathway for fatty acid oxidation disorders in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Komen, Jasper; Kemp, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) can be degraded via different mechanisms including alpha-, beta- and omega-oxidation. In humans, a range of different genetic diseases has been identified in which either mitochondrial FA beta-oxidation, peroxisomal FA beta-oxidation or FA alpha-oxidation is impaired. Treatment

  9. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  10. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also...

  11. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat- ... in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  12. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors isolated from Punica granatum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, He-Zhong [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Liang, Wen-Juan; Huang, Sheng-Zhuo; Dai, Hao-Fu; Wang, Peng-Cheng; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhaoyx1011@163.com [Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou (China); Fan, Hui-Jin; Ma, Xiao-Feng, E-mail: maxiaofeng@gucas.ac.cn [College of Life Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-05-15

    The aim of this work is the isolation of fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitors from the ethyl acetate extracts of fruit peels of Punica granatum L. Bioassay-guided chemical investigation of the fruit peels resulted in the isolation of seventeen compounds mainly including triterpenoids and phenolic compounds, from which one new oleanane-type triterpene (punicaone) along with fourteen known compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant. Seven isolates were evaluated for inhibitory activities of FAS and two compounds showed to be active. Particularly, flavogallonic acid exhibited strong FAS inhibitory activity with IC{sub 50} value of 10.3 {mu}mol L{sup -1}. (author)

  13. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors isolated from Punica granatum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, He-Zhong; Ma, Qing-Yun; Liang, Wen-Juan; Huang, Sheng-Zhuo; Dai, Hao-Fu; Wang, Peng-Cheng; Zhao, You-Xing; Fan, Hui-Jin; Ma, Xiao-Feng

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is the isolation of fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitors from the ethyl acetate extracts of fruit peels of Punica granatum L. Bioassay-guided chemical investigation of the fruit peels resulted in the isolation of seventeen compounds mainly including triterpenoids and phenolic compounds, from which one new oleanane-type triterpene (punicaone) along with fourteen known compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant. Seven isolates were evaluated for inhibitory activities of FAS and two compounds showed to be active. Particularly, flavogallonic acid exhibited strong FAS inhibitory activity with IC 50 value of 10.3 μmol L -1 . (author)

  14. Survey on the fatty acids profile of fluid goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pittau

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluid goat milk submitted to thermal treatment has interesting nutritional properties and a potential expanding market. The present study was aimed to conduct fatty acids profile characterisation of goat milk placed on market. Forty-nine fluid milk samples were collected: 12 pasteurised, 12 pasteurised at high temperature, 11 ultrahigh temperature (UHT whole milk and 14 UHT semi-skimmed milk. Milk samples were collected at retail level from 7 different companies and from different production batches. After extraction and methilation, fatty acids (FAs profile was determined on each sample using a gas chromatograph with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID with high-polarity capillary column. The concentration (g/100mL of saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, trans fatty acids (t-FAs, and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA was determined. N-6/n-3 ratio, atherogenic index (AI and thrombogenic index (TI were also assessed. Fluid goat milk lipid profile was characterised by SFAs (68.4% of total FAs, PUFAs (5.3%, MUFAs (21.3%, t-FAs (3.6% and CLA (0.8%. The most represented fatty acids were: 16:0 (24.5%, 9cis-18:1 (18.2%, 18:0 (9.6%, 14:0 (9.5%, 10:0 (9.3% and 12:0 (4.5%. Nutritional indices were 2.8-6.8 for n-6/n-3 ratio; 2.3-2.9 for AI; and 2.7-3.2 for TI. Milk produced by small scale plants, with no milk fat standardisation, showed greater differences in fatty acid profile as compared to industrial plants milk. Large scale production is characterised by commingled bulk tank milk of different origins and then is more homogeneous. The whole goat milk supply chain should be controlled to obtain milk with fatty acids of high nutritional value.

  15. Inhibition of fatty acid synthase prevents preadipocyte differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Bernhard; Rippmann, Joerg F.; Tadayyon, Moh; Hamilton, Bradford S.

    2005-01-01

    Inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS) reduces food intake in rodents. As adipose tissue expresses FAS, we sought to investigate the effect of reduced FAS activity on adipocyte differentiation. FAS activity was suppressed either pharmacologically or by siRNA during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Cerulenin (10 μM), triclosan (50 μM), and C75 (50 μM) reduced dramatically visible lipid droplet accumulation, while incorporation of [1- 14 C]acetate into lipids was reduced by 75%, 70%, and 90%, respectively. Additionally, the substances reduced FAS, CEBPα, and PPARγ mRNA by up to 85% compared to that of control differentiated cells. Transient transfection with FAS siRNA suppressed FAS mRNA and FAS activity, and this was accompanied by reduction of CEBPα and PPARγ mRNA levels, and complete prevention of lipid accumulation. CD36, a late marker of differentiation, was also reduced. Together, these results suggest that FAS generated signals may be essential to support preadipocyte differentiation

  16. Dietary fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Eccel Prates

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids (FAs can be classified into saturated (SFA, unsaturated (poly- or monounsaturated and trans FA. Recent studies have found that both the quantity and quality of dietary FAs may influence their role in metabolic pathways. Due to their chemical composition, some FAs play a major role in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. This is especially true for SFA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which include marine eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The proinflammatory effects of high SFA intake may increase the risk of atherosclerosis. On the other hand, dietary n-3 intake may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by decreasing atherosclerosis, inflammation, and thrombotic processes. The goal of this study was to review the current literature on the role of FA intake in the prevention and risk of cardiovascular disease.

  17. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  18. In Vivo Roles of Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Enzymes in Biosynthesis of Biotin and α-Lipoic Acid in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masato; Nagashima, Takashi; Nakamura, Eri; Kato, Ryosuke; Ohshita, Masakazu; Hayashi, Mikiro; Takeno, Seiki

    2017-10-01

    For fatty acid biosynthesis, Corynebacterium glutamicum uses two type I fatty acid synthases (FAS-I), FasA and FasB, in addition to acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACC) consisting of AccBC, AccD1, and AccE. The in vivo roles of the enzymes in supplying precursors for biotin and α-lipoic acid remain unclear. Here, we report genetic evidence demonstrating that the biosynthesis of these cofactors is linked to fatty acid biosynthesis through the FAS-I pathway. For this study, we used wild-type C. glutamicum and its derived biotin vitamer producer BFI-5, which was engineered to express Escherichia coli bioBF and Bacillus subtilis bioI Disruption of either fasA or fasB in strain BFI-5 led to decreased production of biotin vitamers, whereas its amplification contributed to increased production, with a larger impact of fasA in both cases. Double disruptions of fasA and fasB resulted in no biotin vitamer production. The acc genes showed a positive effect on production when amplified simultaneously. Augmented fatty acid biosynthesis was also reflected in pimelic acid production when carbon flow was blocked at the BioF reaction. These results indicate that carbon flow down the FAS-I pathway is destined for channeling into the biotin biosynthesis pathway, and that FasA in particular has a significant impact on precursor supply. In contrast, fasB disruption resulted in auxotrophy for lipoic acid or its precursor octanoic acid in both wild-type and BFI-5 strains. The phenotypes were fully complemented by plasmid-mediated expression of fasB but not fasA These results reveal that FasB plays a specific physiological role in lipoic acid biosynthesis in C. glutamicum IMPORTANCE For the de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids, C. glutamicum exceptionally uses a eukaryotic multifunctional type I fatty acid synthase (FAS-I) system comprising FasA and FasB, in contrast to most bacteria, such as E. coli and B. subtilis , which use an individual nonaggregating type II fatty acid synthase

  19. Fatty Acid Profiles of In Vitro Digested Processed Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Tunick

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Digestion of milkfat releases some long-chain (18-carbon fatty acids (FAs that can provide health benefits to the consumer, yet because they are found in small amounts and can be difficult to identify, there is limited information on the effects that common fluid milk processing may have on the digestibility of these FAs. This study provides FA profiles for raw and combinations of homogenized and/or heat-treated (high and ultra-high temperature pasteurization milk, before and after in vitro digestion, in order to determine the effects of processing on the digestibility of these healthy fatty acids. Use of a highly sensitive separation column resulted in improved FA profiles that showed that, when milk was subjected to both pasteurization and homogenization, the release of the 18-carbon FAs, oleic acid, linoleic acid (an omega-6 FA, rumenic acid (a conjugated linoleic acid, CLA, and linolenic acid (an omega-3 FA tended to be higher than with either pasteurization or homogenization, or with no treatment. Milk is noted for containing the omega-3 FAs and CLAs, which are associated with positive health benefits. Determining how processing factors may impact the components in milk will aid in understanding the release of healthy FAs when milk and dairy foods are consumed.

  20. Animal factors affecting fatty acid composition of cow milk fat: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , cow individuality, parity and stage of lactation) on fatty acid (FA) composition of milk fat. Genetic parameters affecting the composition of the FAs in milk are reviewed and the possibilities for altering milk fat composition are discussed.

  1. Metabolism of Very Long-Chain Fatty Acids: Genes and Pathophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Sassa, Takayuki; Kihara, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are highly diverse in terms of carbon (C) chain-length and number of double bonds. FAs with C>20 are called very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). VLCFAs are found not only as constituents of cellular lipids such as sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids but also as precursors of lipid mediators. Our understanding on the function of VLCFAs is growing in parallel with the identification of enzymes involved in VLCFA synthesis or degradation. A variety of inherited diseases, suc...

  2. Production of Medium Chain Fatty Acids by Yarrowia lipolytica: Combining Molecular Design and TALEN to Engineer the Fatty Acid Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigouin, Coraline; Gueroult, Marc; Croux, Christian; Dubois, Gwendoline; Borsenberger, Vinciane; Barbe, Sophie; Marty, Alain; Daboussi, Fayza; André, Isabelle; Bordes, Florence

    2017-10-20

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a promising organism for the production of lipids of biotechnological interest and particularly for biofuel. In this study, we engineered the key enzyme involved in lipid biosynthesis, the giant multifunctional fatty acid synthase (FAS), to shorten chain length of the synthesized fatty acids. Taking as starting point that the ketoacyl synthase (KS) domain of Yarrowia lipolytica FAS is directly involved in chain length specificity, we used molecular modeling to investigate molecular recognition of palmitic acid (C16 fatty acid) by the KS. This enabled to point out the key role of an isoleucine residue, I1220, from the fatty acid binding site, which could be targeted by mutagenesis. To address this challenge, TALEN (transcription activator-like effector nucleases)-based genome editing technology was applied for the first time to Yarrowia lipolytica and proved to be very efficient for inducing targeted genome modifications. Among the generated FAS mutants, those having a bulky aromatic amino acid residue in place of the native isoleucine at position 1220 led to a significant increase of myristic acid (C14) production compared to parental wild-type KS. Particularly, the best performing mutant, I1220W, accumulates C14 at a level of 11.6% total fatty acids. Overall, this work illustrates how a combination of molecular modeling and genome-editing technology can offer novel opportunities to rationally engineer complex systems for synthetic biology.

  3. Castor phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase facilitates efficient metabolism of hydroxy fatty acids in transgenic Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producing unusual fatty acids (FAs) in crop plants has been a long-standing goal of green chemistry. However, expression of the enzymes that catalyze the primary synthesis of these unusual FAs in transgenic plants typically results in low levels of the desired FA. For example, seed-specific expressi...

  4. Targeted metabolomics analysis reveals the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and fatty acids and amino acids profiles in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhipeng; Liu, Rui; Chou, Jing; Yu, Jiaying; Liu, Xiaowei; Sun, Changhao; Li, Ying; Liu, Liyan

    2018-07-15

    Maternal diet during pregnancy can influence offspring's health by affecting development and metabolism. This study aimed to analyze the influence of maternal folic acid (FA) supplementation on the metabolism of rat pups using targeted metabolomics. Twenty female rats were randomly assigned to a FA supplementation (FAS group, n = 10) or control group (n = 10), which were fed AIN93G diet with 2 or 10 mg/kg FA, respectively. We then measured amino acids and their derivatives, biogenic amines, and fatty acids in the female rats and their pups by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS-MS). In maternal rats, the significant changes of three metabolites (proline, γ-aminobutyric acid and esterified octadecatetraenoic acid, P acids (leucine, isoleucine, serine, proline) were obtained in FAS pups. Furthermore, there were the decreased esterified fatty acids (arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosatetraenoic acid) and free fatty acids (oleic acid, linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, octadecatetraenoic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and selacholeic acid) in FAS pups. Metabolic changes in the FAS pups were characterized by changes in fatty acids and amino acids. These results suggested that FA supplementation during pregnancy influenced amino acids and fatty acids metabolism in rat pups. This study provides new insights into the regulation of amino acids and fatty acids metabolism during early life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quick and sensitive determination of gene expression of fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... from fatty acid synthase (FAS) with a different glucose level in ... By using the following formula, this study was able to quantify the mRNA expression of ... hypertension, heart disease and diabetes. ... regulation of gene expression has emerged in recent ... stages of adipocyte meta-bolism are relatively well.

  6. The effect of breed on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-02-23

    Feb 23, 2015 ... FA, total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and n-6PUFA contents were observed in the subcutaneous adipose .... frozen at −20 ºC, pending FA analysis. Samples of the .... The synthesis and metabolism of FAs in the ruminant ...

  7. Polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids: Biomarkers for native and exotic mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezek, Tadej; Sverko, Ed; Ruddy, Martina D.; Zaruk, Donna; Capretta, Alfredo; Hebert, Craig E.; Fisk, Aaron T.; McGoldrick, Daryl J.; Newton, Teresa J.; Sutton, Trent M.; Koops, Marten A.; Muir, Andrew M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater organisms synthesize a wide variety of fatty acids (FAs); however, the ability to synthesize and/or subsequently modify a particular FA is not universal, making it possible to use certain FAs as biomarkers. Herein we document the occurrence of unusual FAs (polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids; PMI-FAs) in select freshwater organisms in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We did not detect PMI-FAs in: (a) natural seston from Lake Erie and Hamilton Harbor (Lake Ontario), (b) various species of laboratory-cultured algae including a green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), two cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Synechococystis sp.), two diatoms (Asterionella formosa, Diatoma elongatum) and a chrysophyte (Dinobryon cylindricum) or, (c) zooplankton (Daphnia spp., calanoid or cyclopoid copepods) from Lake Ontario, suggesting that PMI-FAs are not substantively incorporated into consumers at the phytoplankton–zooplankton interface. However, these unusual FAs comprised 4-6% of total fatty acids (on a dry tissue weight basis) of native fat mucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and plain pocketbook (L. cardium) mussels and in invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. bugensis) mussels. We were able to clearly partition Great Lakes' mussels into three separate groups (zebra, quagga, and native mussels) based solely on their PMI-FA profiles. We also provide evidence for the trophic transfer of PMI-FAs from mussels to various fishes in Lakes Ontario and Michigan, further underlining the potential usefulness of PMI-FAs for tracking the dietary contribution of mollusks in food web and contaminant-fate studies.

  8. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  9. Origin of fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    The appearance of fatty acids and membranes is one of the most important events of the prebiotic world because genesis of life required the compartmentalization of molecules. Membranes allowed cells to become enriched with molecules relevant for their evolution and gave rise to gradients convertible into energy. By virtue of their hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface, membranes developed certain enzymatic activities impossible in the aqueous phase. A prebiotic cell is an energy unit but it is also an information unit. It has a past, a present and a future. The biochemistry of fatty acids involves acetylCoA, malonylCoA and an enzyme, acyl synthetase, which joins both molecules. After substitution of the acetyl group in place of the carboxyl group of malonyl derivatives, the chain is reduced and dehydrated to crotonyl derivatives. These molecules can again react with malonylCoA to form unsaturated chain; they can also undergo a new reduction step to form butyryl derivatives which can react with malonylCoA to form a longer aliphatic chain. The formation of malonylCoA consumes ATP. The reduction step needs NADPH and proton. Dehydration requires structural information because the reduction product is chiral (D configuration). It is unlikely that these steps were possible in a prebiotic environment. Thus we have to understand how fatty acids could appear in the prebiotic era. This hypothesis about the origin of fatty acids is based on the chemistry of sulfonium ylides and sulfonium salts. The most well-known among these molecules are S-melthyl-methionine and S-adenosyl methionine. The simplest sulfonium cation is the trimethylsulfonium cation. Chemists have evidence that these products can produce olefin when they are heated or flashed with UV light in some conditions. I suggest that these volatile products can allow the formation of fatty acids chains in atmospheric phase with UV and temperature using methanol as starting material. Different synthetic pathways will be

  10. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K; Fuiman, Lee A

    2015-07-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 µatm) and under current control levels (400 µatm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Biological properties of nitro-fatty acids in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Pérez, Capilla; Padilla, María N; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Begara-Morales, Juan C; Valderrama, Raquel; Chaki, Mounira; Barroso, Juan B

    2018-03-27

    Nitro-fatty acids (NO 2 -FAs) are formed from the reaction between nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Knowledge concerning NO 2 -FAs has significantly increased within a few years ago and the beneficial actions of these species uncovered in animal systems have led to consider them as molecules with therapeutic potential. Based on their nature and structure, NO 2 -FAs have the ability to release nitric oxide (NO) in aqueous environments and the capacity to mediate post-translational modifications (PTM) by nitroalkylation. Recently, based on the potential of these NO-derived molecules in the animal field, the endogenous occurrence of nitrated-derivatives of linolenic acid (NO 2 -Ln) was assessed in plant species. Moreover and through RNA-seq technology, it was shown that NO 2 -Ln can induce a large set of heat-shock proteins (HSPs) and different antioxidant systems suggesting this molecule may launch antioxidant and defence responses in plants. Furthermore, the capacity of this nitro-fatty acid to release NO has also been demonstrated. In view of this background, here we offer an overview on the biological properties described for NO 2 -FAs in plants and the potential of these molecules to be considered new key intermediaries of NO metabolism in the plant field. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of diets containing hemp seeds or hemp cake on fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esnart Mukumbo

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... (seeds or cake) on milk production, fatty acid (FA) profile, and .... PUFAs, which are rich in two essential FAs, namely LA (18:2 n-6) and ALA. ...... Study on safety assessment and antioxidant function in serum of ... Dietary effect of silage type and combination with camelina seed on milk fatty acid profile.

  13. Comparison of yolk fatty acid content, blood and egg cholesterol of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    POO) and Kilka fish oil (KFO) on yolk fatty acid content, ratio of fatty acids (FAs), antibody titre, and blood and yolk cholesterol of laying hens. One hundred White Hy-Line 26-wk-old (W-36) hens were allotted to 6 dietary treatments containing 0, 1.5 ...

  14. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  15. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation......), atomic emission spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. For most environmental samples, chlorinated FAMEs must be enriched prior to GC. ELCD is a useful detection method for indicating halogenated FAMEs in the chromatograms, and tentative identification of the halogenated species can be obtained...

  16. 2-Hexadecynoic acid inhibits plasmodial FAS-II enzymes and arrests erythrocytic and liver stage Plasmodium infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Deniz; Sanabria, David; Lauinger, Ina L; Tarun, Alice; Herman, Rob; Perozzo, Remo; Zloh, Mire; Kappe, Stefan H; Brun, Reto; Carballeira, Néstor M

    2010-11-01

    Acetylenic fatty acids are known to display several biological activities, but their antimalarial activity has remained unexplored. In this study, we synthesized the 2-, 5-, 6-, and 9-hexadecynoic acids (HDAs) and evaluated their in vitro activity against erythrocytic (blood) stages of Plasmodium falciparum and liver stages of Plasmodium yoelii infections. Since the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (PfFAS-II) has recently been shown to be indispensable for liver stage malaria parasites, the inhibitory potential of the HDAs against multiple P. falciparum FAS-II (PfFAS-II) elongation enzymes was also evaluated. The highest antiplasmodial activity against blood stages of P. falciparum was displayed by 5-HDA (IC(50) value 6.6 μg/ml), whereas the 2-HDA was the only acid arresting the growth of liver stage P. yoelii infection, in both flow cytometric assay (IC(50) value 2-HDA 15.3 μg/ml, control drug atovaquone 2.5 ng/ml) and immunofluorescence analysis (IC(50) 2-HDA 4.88 μg/ml, control drug atovaquone 0.37 ng/ml). 2-HDA showed the best inhibitory activity against the PfFAS-II enzymes PfFabI and PfFabZ with IC(50) values of 0.38 and 0.58 μg/ml (IC(50) control drugs 14 and 30 ng/ml), respectively. Enzyme kinetics and molecular modeling studies revealed valuable insights into the binding mechanism of 2-HDA on the target enzymes. All HDAs showed in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC(50) values 3.7-31.7 μg/ml), Trypanosoma cruzi (only 2-HDA, IC(50) 20.2 μg/ml), and Leishmania donovani (IC(50) values 4.1-13.4 μg/ml) with generally low or no significant toxicity on mammalian cells. This is the first study to indicate therapeutic potential of HDAs against various parasitic protozoa. It also points out that the malarial liver stage growth inhibitory effect of the 2-HDA may be promoted via PfFAS-II enzymes. The lack of cytotoxicity, lipophilic nature, and calculated pharmacokinetic properties suggests that 2-HDA could be a useful compound to

  17. 2-Hexadecynoic Acid Inhibits Plasmodial FAS-II Enzymes and Arrest Erythrocytic and Liver Stage Plasmodium Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Deniz; Sanabria, David; Lauinger, Ina L.; Tarun, Alice; Herman, Rob; Perozzo, Remo; Zloh, Mire; Kappe, Stefan H.; Brun, Reto; Carballeira, Néstor M.

    2010-01-01

    Acetylenic fatty acids are known to display several biological activities, but their antimalarial activity has remained unexplored. In this study, we synthesized the 2-, 5-, 6-, and 9-hexadecynoic acids (HDAs) and evaluated their in vitro activity against erythrocytic (blood) stages of Plasmodium falciparum and liver stages of P. yoelii infections. Since the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (PfFAS-II) has recently been shown to be indispensable for liver stage malaria parasites, the inhibitory potential of the HDAs against multiple P. falciparum FAS-II (PfFAS-II) elongation enzymes was also evaluated. The highest antiplasmodial activity against blood stages of P. falciparum was displayed by 5-HDA (IC50 value 6.6. μg/ml), whereas the 2-HDA was the only acid arresting the growth of liver stage P. yoelii infection, in both flow cytometric assay (IC50 value 2-HDA 15.3 μg/ml, control drug atovaquone 2.5 ng/ml) and immunofluorescense analysis (IC50 2-HDA 4.88 μg/ml, control drug atovaquone 0.37 ng/ml). 2-HDA showed the best inhibitory against the PfFAS-II enzymes PfFabI and PfFabZ with IC50 values of 0.38 and 0.58 μg/ml (IC50 control drugs 14 and 30 ng/ml) respectively. Enzyme kinetics and molecular modeling studies revealed valuable insights into the binding mechanism of 2-HDA on the target enzymes. All HDAs showed in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC50 values 3.7–31.7 μg/ml), Trypanosoma cruzi (only 2-HDA, IC50 20.2 μg/ml), and Leishmania donovani (IC50 values 4.1–13.4 μg/ml) with generally low or no significant toxicity on mammalian cells. This is the first study to indicate therapeutic potential of HDAs against various parasitic protozoa. It also points out that the malarial liver stage growth inhibitory effect of the 2-HDA may be promoted via PfFAS-II enzymes. The lack of cytotoxicity, lipophilic nature and calculated pharmacokinetic properties suggest that 2-HDA could be a useful compound to study the interaction of fatty

  18. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 participates in the regulation of fatty acid synthase expression in colorectal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J N; Mahmoud, M A; Han, W F; Ripple, M; Pizer, E S

    2000-11-25

    Endogenous fatty acid synthesis has been observed in certain rapidly proliferating normal and neoplastic tissues. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors that regulate the expression of lipogenic genes including fatty acid synthase (FAS), the major biosynthetic enzyme for fatty acid synthesis. We have previously shown that SREBP-1, FAS, and Ki-67, a proliferation marker, colocalized in the crypts of the fetal gastrointestinal tract epithelium. This study sought to determine whether SREBP-1 participates in the regulation of proliferation-associated fatty acid synthesis in colorectal neoplasia. An immunohistochemical analysis of SREBP-1, FAS, and Ki-67 expression in 25 primary human colorectal carcinoma specimens showed colocalization in 22 of these. To elucidate a functional linkage between SREBP-1 activation and proliferation-associated FA synthesis, SREBP-1 and FAS content were assayed during the adaptive response of cultured HCT116 colon carcinoma cells to pharmacological inhibition of FA synthesis. Cerulenin and TOFA each inhibited the endogenous synthesis of fatty acids in a dose-dependent manner and each induced increases in both precursor and mature forms of SREBP-1. Subsequently, both the transcriptional activity of the FAS promoter in a luciferase reporter gene construct and the FAS expression increased. These results demonstrate that tumor cells recognize and respond to a deficiency in endogenous fatty acid synthesis by upregulating both SREBP-1 and FAS expression and support the model that SREBP-1 participates in the transcriptional regulation of lipogenic genes in colorectal neoplasia. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. Effects of butter high in ruminant trans and monounsaturated fatty acids on lipoproteins, incorporation of fatty acids into lipid classes, plasma C-reactive protein, oxidative stress, hemostatic variables, and insulin in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Raff, M.; Basu, S.

    2006-01-01

    observed. Conclusions: Butter high in ruminant trans and monounsaturated FAs resulted in significantly lower total and HDL cholesterol than did the control butter with higher amounts of saturated FAs. It may be that the differences were due to the greater content of monounsaturated FAs and the lesser...... content of saturated FAs in the butter rich in ruminant trans FAs, rather than to the content of vaccenic acid per se.......Background: Evidence suggests that ruminant trans fatty acids (FAs), such as vaccenic acid, do not increase the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, the effects of ruminant trans FAs on risk markers of IHD have been poorly investigated. Objective: The objective was to investigate...

  20. 7.5-Å cryo-em structure of the mycobacterial fatty acid synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Daniel; Ban, Nenad; Leibundgut, Marc

    2013-03-11

    The mycobacterial fatty acid synthase (FAS) complex is a giant 2.0-MDa α(6) homohexameric multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes synthesis of fatty acid precursors of mycolic acids, which are major components of the cell wall in Mycobacteria and play an important role in pathogenicity. Here, we present a three-dimensional reconstruction of the Mycobacterium smegmatis FAS complex at 7.5Å, highly homologous to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis multienzyme, by cryo-electron microscopy. Based on the obtained structural data, which allowed us to identify secondary-structure elements, and sequence homology with the fungal FAS, we generated an accurate architectural model of the complex. The FAS system from Mycobacteria resembles a minimized version of the fungal FAS with much larger openings in the reaction chambers. These architectural features of the mycobacterial FAS may be important for the interaction with mycolic acid processing and condensing enzymes that further modify the precursors produced by FAS and for autoactivation of the FAS complex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Methylated Fatty Acids from Heartwood and Bark of Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba, Picea abies, and Larix decidua: Effect of Strong Acid Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zidan Mohamed Salem

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methylated fatty acid (FA compounds in the heartwood and bark of some softwood species, specifically Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba, Picea abies, and Larix decidua, grown in the Czech Republic were evaluated. Strong H2SO4 was used for methylation of the lipids. The highest content of lipid was found in P. abies bark (40.132 mg/g o.d. sample, and the lowest content was in A. alba wood (11.027 mg/g o.d. sample. The highest concentration of FAs was observed in L. decidua bark. The highest percentages of FAs in wood of P. sylvestris were arachidic acid and oleic acid. In bark, the highest percentages of FAs were stearic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid. The FAs with the highest concentrations in A. alba wood were arachidic acid, palmitic acid, pentadecanoic acid, and margarinic, and those in bark were behenic acid, lignoceric acid, and arachidic acid. P. abies wood FAs showed arachidic acid, palmitic acid, and margarinic acid, and the bark contained lignoceric acid and arachidic acid. The FAs of L. decidua wood were arachidic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid, and in bark they were pentacosylic acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, lignoceric acid, arachidic acid, and behenic acid. The lack of typically dominant unsaturated fatty acids (e.g. 18:1, 18:2, compared to literature values were attributed to the application of strong acid for the hydrolysis.

  2. A human fatty acid synthase inhibitor binds β-ketoacyl reductase in the keto-substrate site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwicke, Mary Ann; Rendina, Alan R; Williams, Shawn P; Moore, Michael L; Wang, Liping; Krueger, Julie A; Plant, Ramona N; Totoritis, Rachel D; Zhang, Guofeng; Briand, Jacques; Burkhart, William A; Brown, Kristin K; Parrish, Cynthia A

    2014-09-01

    Human fatty acid synthase (hFAS) is a complex, multifunctional enzyme that is solely responsible for the de novo synthesis of long chain fatty acids. hFAS is highly expressed in a number of cancers, with low expression observed in most normal tissues. Although normal tissues tend to obtain fatty acids from the diet, tumor tissues rely on de novo fatty acid synthesis, making hFAS an attractive metabolic target for the treatment of cancer. We describe here the identification of GSK2194069, a potent and specific inhibitor of the β-ketoacyl reductase (KR) activity of hFAS; the characterization of its enzymatic and cellular mechanism of action; and its inhibition of human tumor cell growth. We also present the design of a new protein construct suitable for crystallography, which resulted in what is to our knowledge the first co-crystal structure of the human KR domain and includes a bound inhibitor.

  3. Engineering fatty acid biosynthesis in microalgae for sustainable biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatti, Jillian L; Michaud, Jennifer; Burkart, Michael D

    2013-06-01

    Microalgae are a promising feedstock for biodiesel and other liquid fuels due to their fast growth rate, high lipid yields, and ability to grow in a broad range of environments. However, many microalgae achieve maximal lipid yields only under stress conditions hindering growth and providing compositions not ideal for biofuel applications. Metabolic engineering of algal fatty acid biosynthesis promises to create strains capable of economically producing fungible and sustainable biofuels. The algal fatty acid biosynthetic pathway has been deduced by homology to bacterial and plant systems, and much of our understanding is gleaned from basic studies in these systems. However, successful engineering of lipid metabolism in algae will necessitate a thorough characterization of the algal fatty acid synthase (FAS) including protein-protein interactions and regulation. This review describes recent efforts to engineer fatty acid biosynthesis toward optimizing microalgae as a biodiesel feedstock. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of Aspergillus species based on fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Marcelo E; Santana, Djalva Maria N; Gatti, Mario Jorge; Direito, Gloria Maria; Cavaglieri, Lilia R; Rosa, Carlos Alberto R

    2008-09-01

    Cellular fatty acid (FA) composition was utilized as a taxonomic tool to discriminate between different Aspergillus species. Several of the tested species had the same FA composition and different relative FA concentrations. The most important FAs were palmitic acid (C16:0), estearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2), which represented 95% of Aspergillus FAs. Multivariate data analysis demonstrated that FA analysis is a useful tool for differentiating species belonging to genus Aspergillus. All the species analyzed showed significantly FA acid profiles (p < 0.001). Furthermore, it will be possible to distinguish among Aspergillus spp. in the Flavi Section. FA composition can serve as a useful tool for the identification of filamentous fungi.

  5. [Fatty acids in confectionery products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniewski, M; Mielniczuk, E; Jacórzyński, B; Pawlicka, M; Balas, J; Filipek, A; Górnicka, M

    2000-01-01

    The content of fat and fatty acids in 144 different confectionery products purchased on the market in Warsaw region during 1997-1999 have been investigated. In examined confectionery products considerable variability of both fat and fatty acids content have been found. The content of fat varied from 6.6% (coconut cookies) up to 40% (chocolate wafers). Saturated fatty acids were present in both cis and trans form. Especially trans fatty acids reach (above 50%) were fats extracted from nut wafers, coconuts wafers.

  6. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of a complete bacterial fatty-acid synthase type I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enderle, Mathias; McCarthy, Andrew; Paithankar, Karthik Shivaji; Grininger, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal type I fatty-acid synthases (FAS I) are evolutionarily connected, as bacterial FAS I is considered to be the ancestor of fungal FAS I. In this work, the production, crystallization and X-ray diffraction data analysis of a bacterial FAS I are reported. While a deep understanding of the fungal and mammalian multi-enzyme type I fatty-acid synthases (FAS I) has been achieved in recent years, the bacterial FAS I family, which is narrowly distributed within the Actinomycetales genera Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium and Nocardia, is still poorly understood. This is of particular relevance for two reasons: (i) although homologous to fungal FAS I, cryo-electron microscopic studies have shown that bacterial FAS I has unique structural and functional properties, and (ii) M. tuberculosis FAS I is a drug target for the therapeutic treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and therefore is of extraordinary importance as a drug target. Crystals of FAS I from C. efficiens, a homologue of M. tuberculosis FAS I, were produced and diffracted X-rays to about 4.5 Å resolution

  7. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of a complete bacterial fatty-acid synthase type I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enderle, Mathias [Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 15, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Max-Planck-Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried (Germany); McCarthy, Andrew [EMBL Grenoble, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble CEDEX 9 (France); Paithankar, Karthik Shivaji, E-mail: paithankar@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 15, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Grininger, Martin, E-mail: paithankar@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 15, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Max-Planck-Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried (Germany)

    2015-10-23

    Bacterial and fungal type I fatty-acid synthases (FAS I) are evolutionarily connected, as bacterial FAS I is considered to be the ancestor of fungal FAS I. In this work, the production, crystallization and X-ray diffraction data analysis of a bacterial FAS I are reported. While a deep understanding of the fungal and mammalian multi-enzyme type I fatty-acid synthases (FAS I) has been achieved in recent years, the bacterial FAS I family, which is narrowly distributed within the Actinomycetales genera Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium and Nocardia, is still poorly understood. This is of particular relevance for two reasons: (i) although homologous to fungal FAS I, cryo-electron microscopic studies have shown that bacterial FAS I has unique structural and functional properties, and (ii) M. tuberculosis FAS I is a drug target for the therapeutic treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and therefore is of extraordinary importance as a drug target. Crystals of FAS I from C. efficiens, a homologue of M. tuberculosis FAS I, were produced and diffracted X-rays to about 4.5 Å resolution.

  8. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  9. Expression of Vibrio harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase allows efficient entry of exogenous fatty acids into the Escherichia coli fatty acid and lipid A synthetic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanfang; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M; Campbell, John W; Chan, Chi Ho; Cronan, John E

    2010-02-02

    Although the Escherichia coli fatty acid synthesis (FAS) pathway is the best studied type II fatty acid synthesis system, a major experimental limitation has been the inability to feed intermediates into the pathway in vivo because exogenously supplied free fatty acids are not efficiently converted to the acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesters required by the pathway. We report that expression of Vibrio harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase (AasS), a soluble cytosolic enzyme that ligates free fatty acids to ACP to form acyl-ACPs, allows exogenous fatty acids to enter the E. coli fatty acid synthesis pathway. The free fatty acids are incorporated intact and can be elongated or directly incorporated into complex lipids by acyltransferases specific for acyl-ACPs. Moreover, expression of AasS strains and supplementation with the appropriate fatty acid restored growth to E. coli mutant strains that lack essential fatty acid synthesis enzymes. Thus, this strategy provides a new tool for circumventing the loss of enzymes essential for FAS function.

  10. Fatty acids linked to cardiovascular mortality are associated with risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven O. E. Ebbesson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although saturated fatty acids (FAs have been linked to cardiovascular mortality, it is not clear whether this outcome is attributable solely to their effects on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C or whether other risk factors are also associated with FAs. The Western Alaskan Native population, with its rapidly changing lifestyles, shift in diet from unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and dramatic increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD, presents an opportunity to elucidate any associations between specific FAs and known CVD risk factors. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that the specific FAs previously identified as related to CVD mortality are also associated with individual CVD risk factors. Methods: In this community-based, cross-sectional study, relative proportions of FAs in plasma and red blood cell membranes were compared with CVD risk factors in a sample of 758 men and women aged ≥35 years. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze relations between specific FAs and CVD risk factors (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index, fasting glucose and fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose and 2-hour insulin. Results: The specific saturated FAs previously identified as related to CVD mortality, the palmitic and myristic acids, were adversely associated with most CVD risk factors, whereas unsaturated linoleic acid (18:2n-6 and the marine n-3 FAs were not associated or were beneficially associated with CVD risk factors. Conclusions: The results suggest that CVD risk factors are more extensively affected by individual FAs than hitherto recognized, and that risk for CVD, MI and stroke can be reduced by reducing the intake of palmitate, myristic acid and simple carbohydrates and improved by greater intake of linoleic acid and marine n-3 FAs.

  11. Fatty acid synthase inhibition in human breast cancer cells leads to malonyl-CoA-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thupari, J N; Pinn, M L; Kuhajda, F P

    2001-07-13

    Inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS) induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo without toxicity to proliferating normal cells. We have previously shown that FAS inhibition causes a rapid increase in malonyl-CoA levels identifying malonyl-CoA as a potential trigger of apoptosis. In this study we further investigated the role of malonyl-CoA during FAS inhibition. We have found that: [i] inhibition of FAS with cerulenin causes carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) inhibition and fatty acid oxidation inhibition in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells likely mediated by elevation of malonyl-CoA; [ii] cerulenin cytotoxicity is due to the nonphysiological state of increased malonyl-CoA, decreased fatty acid oxidation, and decreased fatty acid synthesis; and [iii] the cytotoxic effect of cerulenin can be mimicked by simultaneous inhibition of CPT-1, with etomoxir, and fatty acid synthesis with TOFA, an acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) inhibitor. This study identifies CPT-1 and ACC as two new potential targets for cancer chemotherapy. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  12. Treatment of Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Fatty acid oxidation disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  13. Composition of fatty acids in the Varroa destructor mites and their hosts, Apis mellifera drone-prepupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata; Zalewski, Kazimierz; Raczkowski, Marek; Żółtowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acid (FA) profile of lipids extracted from the Varroa destructor parasitic mite and its host, drone-prepupae of Apis mellifera, was determined by gas chromatography (GC). The percentages of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were generally similar in parasites and their hosts. Fatty acids were arranged in the following descending order based on their content: MUFAs (ca. 52-55%), SFAs (ca. 41%) and PUFAs (ca. 3%). The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (46% in mites, 44% in prepupae) and palmitic acid (23% and 30%, respectively). Varroa parasites differed from their hosts in the quantity of individual FAs and in their FA profiles. Three PUFAs noted in the host were not observed in parasitic mites, whereas the presence of C21:0, C24:0 and C22:1 FAs was reported in mites, but not in drones.

  14. Determination of free fatty acids in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Marconi, Ombretta; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-15

    Free fatty acids (FFA) content of beer affects the ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Moreover, the presence of saturated FAs is related sometimes to gushing problems in beer. The aim of this research was to validate an analytical method for the determination of FFAs in beer. The extraction of FFAs in beer was achieved via Liquid-Liquid Cartridge Extraction (LLCE), the FFAs extract was purified by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE), methylated by boron trifluoride in methanol, and injected into GC-FID system. The performance criteria demonstrate that this method is suitable for the analysis of medium and long chain FFAs in beer. The proposed method was tested on four experimental beers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cadmium Alters the Concentration of Fatty Acids in THP-1 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowski, Tomasz; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Łukomska, Agnieszka; Drozd, Arleta; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2018-03-01

    Fatty acid composition of human immune cells influences their function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of known toxicant and immunomodulator, cadmium, at low concentrations on levels of selected fatty acids (FAs) in THP-1 macrophages. The differentiation of THP-1 monocytes into macrophages was achieved by administration of phorbol myristate acetate. Macrophages were incubated with various cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) solutions for 48 h at final concentrations of 5 nM, 20 nM, 200 nM, and 2 μM CdCl 2 . Fatty acids were extracted from samples according to the Folch method. The fatty acid levels were determined using gas chromatography. The following fatty acids were analyzed: long-chain saturated fatty acids (SFAs) palmitic acid and stearic acid, very long-chain saturated fatty acid (VLSFA) arachidic acid, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) palmitoleic acid, oleic acid and vaccenic acid, and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Treatment of macrophages with very low concentrations of cadmium (5-200 nM) resulted in significant reduction in the levels of arachidic, palmitoleic, oleic, vaccenic, and linoleic acids and significant increase in arachidonic acid levels (following exposure to 5 nM Cd), without significant reduction of palmitic and stearic acid levels. Treatment of macrophages with the highest tested cadmium concentration (2 μM) produced significant reduction in the levels of all examined FAs: SFAs, VLSFA, MUFAs, and PUFAs. In conclusion, cadmium at tested concentrations caused significant alterations in THP-1 macrophage fatty acid levels, disrupting their composition, which might dysregulate fatty acid/lipid metabolism thus affecting macrophage behavior and inflammatory state.

  16. Regulation of Connexin-Based Channels by Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puebla, Carlos; Retamal, Mauricio A.; Acuña, Rodrigo; Sáez, Juan C.

    2017-01-01

    In this mini-review, we briefly summarize the current knowledge about the effects of fatty acids (FAs) on connexin-based channels, as well as discuss the limited information about the impact FAs may have on pannexins (Panxs). FAs regulate diverse cellular functions, some of which are explained by changes in the activity of channels constituted by connexins (Cxs) or Panxs, which are known to play critical roles in maintaining the functional integrity of diverse organs and tissues. Cxs are transmembrane proteins that oligomerize into hexamers to form hemichannels (HCs), which in turn can assemble into dodecamers to form gap junction channels (GJCs). While GJCs communicate the cytoplasm of contacting cells, HCs serve as pathways for the exchange of ions and small molecules between the intra and extracellular milieu. Panxs, as well as Cx HCs, form channels at the plasma membrane that enable the interchange of molecules between the intra and extracellular spaces. Both Cx- and Panx-based channels are controlled by several post-translational modifications. However, the mechanism of action of FAs on these channels has not been described in detail. It has been shown however that FAs frequently decrease GJC-mediated cell-cell communication. The opposite effect also has been described for HC or Panx-dependent intercellular communication, where, the acute FA effect can be reversed upon washout. Additionally, changes in GJCs mediated by FAs have been associated with post-translational modifications (e.g., phosphorylation), and seem to be directly related to chemical properties of FAs (e.g., length of carbon chain and/or degree of saturation), but this possible link remains poorly understood. PMID:28174541

  17. Structure of the human beta-ketoacyl [ACP] synthase from the mitochondrial type II fatty acid synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Caspar Elo; Kragelund, Birthe B; von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny

    2007-01-01

    Two distinct ways of organizing fatty acid biosynthesis exist: the multifunctional type I fatty acid synthase (FAS) of mammals, fungi, and lower eukaryotes with activities residing on one or two polypeptides; and the dissociated type II FAS of prokaryotes, plastids, and mitochondria with individual...... activities encoded by discrete genes. The beta-ketoacyl [ACP] synthase (KAS) moiety of the mitochondrial FAS (mtKAS) is targeted by the antibiotic cerulenin and possibly by the other antibiotics inhibiting prokaryotic KASes: thiolactomycin, platensimycin, and the alpha-methylene butyrolactone, C75. The high...... degree of structural similarity between mitochondrial and prokaryotic KASes complicates development of novel antibiotics targeting prokaryotic KAS without affecting KAS domains of cytoplasmic FAS. KASes catalyze the C(2) fatty acid elongation reaction using either a Cys-His-His or Cys-His-Asn catalytic...

  18. Fatty acid composition of the pollen lipids of Cycas revoluta Thunb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, R.A.; Kuznetsova, E.I.; Pchelkin, V.P.; Zhukov, A.V.; Gorshkova, E.N.; Tsydendambaev, V.D.

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of total extractable and non extractable with chloroform lipids of C. revoluta pollen was determined. Among other minor FAs, unusual Δ5 polymethylene-interrupted FA, Δ5, 11-octadecadienoic acid was found. This FA was found in the seed lipids of C. revoluta earlier, but it was discovered for the first time in pollen lipids. [es

  19. Cloning, characterization and expression of Peking duck fatty acid synthase during adipocyte differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ding

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: We have successfully cloned and characterized Peking duck FAS. FAS was induced during adipocyte differentiation and by oleic acid treatment. These findings suggest that Peking duck FAS plays a similar role to mammalian FAS during adipocyte differentiation.

  20. Serum fatty acid profile in psoriasis and its comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myśliwiec, Hanna; Baran, Anna; Harasim-Symbor, Ewa; Myśliwiec, Piotr; Milewska, Anna Justyna; Chabowski, Adrian; Flisiak, Iwona

    2017-07-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is accompanied by metabolic disturbances and cardio-metabolic disorders. Fatty acids (FAs) might be a link between psoriasis and its comorbidity. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum concentrations of FAs and to investigate their association with the disease activity, markers of inflammation and possible involvement in psoriatic comorbidity: obesity, type 2 diabetes and hypertension. We measured 14 total serum fatty acids content and composition by gas-liquid chromatography and flame-ionization detector after direct in situ transesterification in 85 patients with exacerbated plaque psoriasis and in 32 healthy controls. FAs were grouped according to their biologic properties to saturated FA (SFA), unsaturated FA (UFA), monounsaturated FA (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated FA (n-3 PUFA) and n-6 PUFA. Generally, patients characteristic included: Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), Body Mass Index, inflammatory and biochemical markers, lipid profile and presence of psoriatic comorbidity. We have observed highly abnormal FAs pattern in psoriatic patients both with and without obesity compared to the control group. We have demonstrated association of PASI with low levels of circulating DHA, n-3 PUFA (p = 0.044 and p = 0.048, respectively) and high percent of MUFA (p = 0.024) in the non-obese psoriatic group. The SFA/UFA ratio increased with the duration of the disease (p = 0.03) in all psoriatic patients. These findings indicate abnormal FAs profile in psoriasis which may reflect metabolic disturbances and might play a role in the psoriatic comorbidity.

  1. Drosophila fatty acid taste signals through the PLC pathway in sugar-sensing neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Masek

    Full Text Available Taste is the primary sensory system for detecting food quality and palatability. Drosophila detects five distinct taste modalities that include sweet, bitter, salt, water, and the taste of carbonation. Of these, sweet-sensing neurons appear to have utility for the detection of nutritionally rich food while bitter-sensing neurons signal toxicity and confer repulsion. Growing evidence in mammals suggests that taste for fatty acids (FAs signals the presence of dietary lipids and promotes feeding. While flies appear to be attracted to fatty acids, the neural basis for fatty acid detection and attraction are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a range of FAs are detected by the fly gustatory system and elicit a robust feeding response. Flies lacking olfactory organs respond robustly to FAs, confirming that FA attraction is mediated through the gustatory system. Furthermore, flies detect FAs independent of pH, suggesting the molecular basis for FA taste is not due to acidity. We show that low and medium concentrations of FAs serve as an appetitive signal and they are detected exclusively through the same subset of neurons that sense appetitive sweet substances, including most sugars. In mammals, taste perception of sweet and bitter substances is dependent on phospholipase C (PLC signaling in specialized taste buds. We find that flies mutant for norpA, a Drosophila ortholog of PLC, fail to respond to FAs. Intriguingly, norpA mutants respond normally to other tastants, including sucrose and yeast. The defect of norpA mutants can be rescued by selectively restoring norpA expression in sweet-sensing neurons, corroborating that FAs signal through sweet-sensing neurons, and suggesting PLC signaling in the gustatory system is specifically involved in FA taste. Taken together, these findings reveal that PLC function in Drosophila sweet-sensing neurons is a conserved molecular signaling pathway that confers attraction to fatty acids.

  2. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and in... and their associated fatty acids manufactured from fats and oils derived from edible sources: Capric...

  3. Absolute versus relative measures of plasma fatty acids and health outcomes: example of phospholipid omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and all-cause mortality in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kyoko; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Ungerer, Jacobus P J; Smith, David D; Green, Adèle C

    2018-03-01

    In a well-characterised community-based prospective study, we aimed to systematically assess the differences in associations of plasma omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid (FA) status with all-cause mortality when plasma FA status is expressed in absolute concentrations versus relative levels. In a community sample of 564 women aged 25-75 years in Queensland, Australia, baseline plasma phospholipid FA levels were measured using gas chromatography. Specific FAs analysed were eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, total long-chain omega-3 FAs, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and total omega-6 FAs. Levels of each FA were expressed in absolute amounts (µg/mL) and relative levels (% of total FAs) and divided into thirds. Deaths were monitored for 17 years and hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals calculated to assess risk of death according to absolute versus relative plasma FA levels. In total 81 (14%) women died during follow-up. Agreement between absolute and relative measures of plasma FAs was higher in omega-3 than omega-6 FAs. The results of multivariate analyses for risk of all-cause mortality were generally similar with risk tending to inverse associations with plasma phospholipid omega-3 FAs and no association with omega-6 FAs. Sensitivity analyses examining effects of age and presence of serious medical conditions on risk of mortality did not alter findings. The directions and magnitude of associations with mortality of absolute versus relative FA levels were comparable. However, plasma FA expressed as absolute concentrations may be preferred for ease of comparison and since relative units can be deduced from absolute units.

  4. Effects of Chain Length and Degree of Unsaturation of Fatty Acids on Structure and in Vitro Digestibility of Starch-Protein-Fatty Acid Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mengge; Chao, Chen; Yu, Jinglin; Copeland, Les; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Shujun

    2018-02-28

    The effects of chain length and degree of unsaturation of fatty acids (FAs) on structure and in vitro digestibility of starch-protein-FA complexes were investigated in model systems. Studies with the rapid visco analyzer (RVA) showed that the formation of ternary complex resulted in higher viscosities than those of binary complex during the cooling and holding stages. The results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the structural differences for ternary complexes were much less than those for binary complexes. Starch-protein-FA complexes presented lower in vitro enzymatic digestibility compared with starch-FAs complexes. We conclude that shorter chain and lower unsaturation FAs favor the formation of ternary complexes but decrease the thermal stability of these complexes. FAs had a smaller effect on the ordered structures of ternary complexes than on those of binary complexes and little effect on enzymatic digestibility of both binary and ternary complexes.

  5. Fatty acid binding proteins have the potential to channel dietary fatty acids into enterocyte nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Adriana; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Canclini, Lucia; Silvarrey, Maria Cecilia; André, Michèle; Babin, Patrick J

    2016-02-01

    Intracellular lipid binding proteins, including fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) 1 and 2, are highly expressed in tissues involved in the active lipid metabolism. A zebrafish model was used to demonstrate differential expression levels of fabp1b.1, fabp1b.2, and fabp2 transcripts in liver, anterior intestine, and brain. Transcription levels of fabp1b.1 and fabp2 in the anterior intestine were upregulated after feeding and modulated according to diet formulation. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy immunodetection with gold particles localized these FABPs in the microvilli, cytosol, and nuclei of most enterocytes in the anterior intestinal mucosa. Nuclear localization was mostly in the interchromatin space outside the condensed chromatin clusters. Native PAGE binding assay of BODIPY-FL-labeled FAs demonstrated binding of BODIPY-FLC(12) but not BODIPY-FLC(5) to recombinant Fabp1b.1 and Fabp2. The binding of BODIPY-FLC(12) to Fabp1b.1 was fully displaced by oleic acid. In vivo experiments demonstrated, for the first time, that intestinal absorption of dietary BODIPY-FLC(12) was followed by colocalization of the labeled FA with Fabp1b and Fabp2 in the nuclei. These data suggest that dietary FAs complexed with FABPs are able to reach the enterocyte nucleus with the potential to modulate nuclear activity. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Fatty Acid Composition and Levels of Selected Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Four Commercial Important Freshwater Fish Species from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids (FAs particularly ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs play important role in human health. This study aimed to investigate the composition and levels of selected ω3 PUFAs in four commercial fish species, Nile perch (Lates niloticus, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Tilapia zillii, and dagaa (Rastrineobola argentea from Mwanza Gulf in Lake Victoria. The results indicated that 36 types of FAs with different saturation levels were detected. These FAs were dominated by docosahexaenoic (DHA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA, docosapentaenoic (DPA, and eicosatetraenoic acids. O. niloticus had the highest composition of FAs (34 compared to L. niloticus (27, T. zillii (26, and R. argentea (21. The levels of EPA differed significantly among the four commercial fish species (F=6.19,  P=0.001. The highest EPA levels were found in R. argentea followed by L. niloticus and O. niloticus and the lowest in T. zillii. The DPA levels showed no significant difference among the four fish species studied (F=0.652,  P=0.583. The study concluded that all four commercial species collected from Mwanza Gulf are good for human health, but R. argentea is the best for consumption because it contains higher levels of ω3 FAs, mainly EPA.

  7. Hepatic regeneration and functional recovery following partial liver resection in an experimental model of hepatic steatosis treated with omega-3 fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, H. A.; de Graaf, W.; Heger, M.; van Golen, R. F.; ten Kate, F. J. W.; Bennink, R.; van Gulik, T. M.

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) have been shown to reduce experimental hepatic steatosis and protect the liver from ischaemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of omega-3 FAs on regeneration of steatotic liver. Steatosis was induced in rats by a 3-week

  8. The multiple roles of Fatty Acid Handling Proteins in brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine SF Moullé

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipids are essential components of a living organism as energy source but also as constituent of the membrane lipid bilayer. In addition fatty acid (FA derivatives interact with many signaling pathways. FAs have amphipathic properties and therefore require being associated to protein for both transport and intracellular trafficking. Here we will focus on several fatty acid handling proteins, among which the fatty acid translocase/CD36 (FAT/CD36, members of fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs, and lipid chaperones fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs. A decade of extensive studies has helped decipher the mechanism of action of these proteins in peripheral tissue with high lipid metabolism. However, considerably less information is available regarding their role in the brain, despite the high lipid content of this tissue. This review will primarily focus on the recent studies that have highlighted the crucial role of lipid handling proteins in brain FA transport, neuronal differentiation and development, cognitive processes and brain diseases. Finally a special focus will be made on the recent studies that have revealed the role of FAT/CD36 in brain lipid sensing and nervous control of energy balance.

  9. Fatty acid profile and health lipid indices in the raw milk of ewes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    indoor or part-time grazing) of ewes and dietary supplementation with hemp seed (non-drug varieties of Cannabis sativa L.) on milk production and the composition of milk fatty acids (FAs). The experimental diets were constituted as a 2 x 2 factorial ...

  10. Formation of trans fatty acids during the frying of chicken fillet in corn oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meiyan; Yang, Ying; Nie, Shaoping; Xie, Mingyong; Chen, Feng; Luo, Pengju George

    2014-05-01

    To assess effects of heated edible oils on intake of trans fatty acids (TFAs); the formation of TFAs in cooking conditions was investigated by a frying system model, in which chicken fillet was fried in a commercial corn oil at 170 °C, for 12 frying cycles. The main TFAs detected in chicken fillet were trans C18:2 fatty acids (FAs) and trans C18:3 FAs, which exhibited no significant differences among the frying cycles. Besides, the content of trans C18:1 FAs were very low in all samples on different frying cycles. The intake of TFAs was estimated to be 0.06 g/100 g when chicken fillet fried in this process was consumed. These results suggest that an ordinary frying process upon a commercial corn oil has little impact on the daily TFAs intake.

  11. Unsaturated fatty acids protect trophoblast cells from saturated fatty acid-induced autophagy defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ye-Ji; Ahn, Hyo-Ju; Shin, Jongdae; Lee, Joon H; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Park, Hwan-Woo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2018-02-01

    Dysregulated serum fatty acids are associated with a lipotoxic placental environment, which contributes to increased pregnancy complications via altered trophoblast invasion. However, the role of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in trophoblastic autophagy has yet to be explored. Here, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure of saturated fatty acids interferes with the invasiveness of human extravillous trophoblasts. Saturated fatty acids (but not unsaturated fatty acids) inhibited the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes, resulting in the formation of intracellular protein aggregates. Furthermore, when the trophoblast cells were exposed to saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids counteracted the effects of saturated fatty acids by increasing degradation of autophagic vacuoles. Saturated fatty acids reduced the levels of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, while unsaturated fatty acids maintained their levels. In conclusion, saturated fatty acids induced decreased trophoblast invasion, of which autophagy dysfunction plays a major role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Short-Chain Fatty Acids Enhance the Lipid Accumulation of 3T3-L1 Cells by Modulating the Expression of Enzymes of Fatty Acid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haining; Li, Ran; Huang, Haiyong; Yao, Ru; Shen, Shengrong

    2018-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid are produced by fermentation by gut microbiota. In this paper, we investigate the effects of SCFA on 3T3-L1 cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The cells were treated with acetic acid, propionic acid, or butyric acid when cells were induced to differentiate into adipocytes. MTT assay was employed to detect the viability of 3T3-L1 cells. Oil Red O staining was used to visualize the lipid content in 3T3-L1 cells. A triglyceride assay kit was used to detect the triacylglycerol content in 3T3-L1 cells. qRT-PCR and Western blot were used to evaluate the expression of metabolic enzymes. MTT results showed that safe concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid were less than 6.4, 3.2, and 0.8 mM, respectively. Oil Red O staining and triacylglycerols detection results showed that treatment with acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid accelerated the 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. qRT-PCR and Western blot results showed that the expressions of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), fatty acid transporter protein 4 (FATP4), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were significantly increased by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid treatment during adipose differentiation (p fatty acid metabolism. © 2018 AOCS.

  13. Conjugated Fatty Acid Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 Δ9,11,13, lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 Δ9,12,15). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13cis) or α-eleostearic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13trans). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly α-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of α-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation. PMID:22451660

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids upregulate adult neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Beltz, Barbara S.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Benton, Jeannie L.; Sandeman, David C.

    2007-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play crucial roles in the development and function of the central nervous system. These components, which must be obtained from dietary sources, have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, the presence of omega-6 fatty acids may interfere with omega-3 fatty acid metabolism. The present study investigated whether changes in dietary ratios of omega-3:omega-6 fatty acids influence neurogenesis in the lobster (Homarus america...

  15. Targeted association mapping demonstrating the complex molecular genetics of fatty acid formation in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-hui; Reif, Jochen C; Ma, Yan-song; Hong, Hui-long; Liu, Zhang-xiong; Chang, Ru-zhen; Qiu, Li-juan

    2015-10-23

    The relative abundance of five dominant fatty acids (FAs) (palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) is a major factor determining seed quality in soybean. To clarify the currently poorly understood genetic architecture of FAs in soybean, targeted association analysis was conducted in 421 diverse accessions phenotyped in three environments and genotyped using 1536 pre-selected SNPs. The population of 421 soybean accessions displayed significant genetic variation for each FA. Analysis of the molecular data revealed three subpopulations, which reflected a trend depending on latitude of cultivation. A total of 37 significant (p seed quality of soybean with benefits for human health and for food processing.

  16. Fatty Acid and Proximate Composition of Bee Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer Kaplan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Palynological spectrum, proximate and fatty acid (FA composition of eight bee bread samples of different botanical origins were examined and significant variations were observed. The samples were all identified as monofloral, namely Castanea sativa (94.4 %, Trifolium spp. (85.6 %, Gossypium hirsutum (66.2 %, Citrus spp. (61.4 % and Helianthus annuus (45.4 %. Each had moisture content between 11.4 and 15.9 %, ash between 1.9 and 2.54 %, fat between 5.9 and 11.5 %, and protein between 14.8 and 24.3 %. A total of 37 FAs were determined with most abundant being (9Z,12Z,15Z-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic, (9Z,12Z-octadeca-9,12-dienoic, hexadecanoic, (Z-octadec-9-enoic, (Z-icos-11-enoic and octadecanoic acids. Among all, cotton bee bread contained the highest level of ω-3 FAs, i.e. 41.3 %. Unsaturated to saturated FA ratio ranged between 1.38 and 2.39, indicating that the bee bread can be a good source of unsaturated FAs.

  17. Comparison of two derivatization methods for the analysis of fatty acids and trans fatty acids in bakery products using gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimon, Jumat; Omar, Talal A; Salih, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Two different procedures for the methylation of fatty acids (FAs) and trans fatty acids (TFAs) in food fats were compared using gas chromatography (GC-FID). The base-catalyzed followed by an acid-catalyzed method (KOCH3/HCl) and the base-catalyzed followed by (trimethylsilyl)diazomethane (TMS-DM) method were used to prepare FA methyl esters (FAMEs) from lipids extracted from food products. In general, both methods were suitable for the determination of cis/trans FAs. The correlation coefficients (r) between the methods were relatively small (ranging from 0.86 to 0.99) and had a high level of agreement for the most abundant FAs. The significant differences (P = 0.05) can be observed for unsaturated FAs (UFAs), specifically for TFAs. The results from the KOCH3/HCl method showed the lowest recovery values (%R) and higher variation (from 84% to 112%), especially for UFAs. The TMS-DM method had higher R values, less variation (from 90% to 106%), and more balance between variation and %RSD values in intraday and interday measurements (less than 4% and 6%, resp.) than the KOCH3/HCl method, except for C12:0, C14:0, and C18:0. Nevertheless, the KOCH3/HCl method required shorter time and was less expensive than the TMS-DM method which is more convenient for an accurate and thorough analysis of rich cis/trans UFA samples.

  18. Comparison of Two Derivatization Methods for the Analysis of Fatty Acids and Trans Fatty Acids in Bakery Products Using Gas Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimon, Jumat; Omar, Talal A.; Salih, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Two different procedures for the methylation of fatty acids (FAs) and trans fatty acids (TFAs) in food fats were compared using gas chromatography (GC-FID). The base-catalyzed followed by an acid-catalyzed method (KOCH3/HCl) and the base-catalyzed followed by (trimethylsilyl)diazomethane (TMS–DM) method were used to prepare FA methyl esters (FAMEs) from lipids extracted from food products. In general, both methods were suitable for the determination of cis/trans FAs. The correlation coefficients (r) between the methods were relatively small (ranging from 0.86 to 0.99) and had a high level of agreement for the most abundant FAs. The significant differences (P = 0.05) can be observed for unsaturated FAs (UFAs), specifically for TFAs. The results from the KOCH3/HCl method showed the lowest recovery values (%R) and higher variation (from 84% to 112%), especially for UFAs. The TMS-DM method had higher R values, less variation (from 90% to 106%), and more balance between variation and %RSD values in intraday and interday measurements (less than 4% and 6%, resp.) than the KOCH3/HCl method, except for C12:0, C14:0, and C18:0. Nevertheless, the KOCH3/HCl method required shorter time and was less expensive than the TMS-DM method which is more convenient for an accurate and thorough analysis of rich cis/trans UFA samples. PMID:24719581

  19. Comparison of Two Derivatization Methods for the Analysis of Fatty Acids and Trans Fatty Acids in Bakery Products Using Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumat Salimon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different procedures for the methylation of fatty acids (FAs and trans fatty acids (TFAs in food fats were compared using gas chromatography (GC-FID. The base-catalyzed followed by an acid-catalyzed method (KOCH3/HCl and the base-catalyzed followed by (trimethylsilyldiazomethane (TMS–DM method were used to prepare FA methyl esters (FAMEs from lipids extracted from food products. In general, both methods were suitable for the determination of cis/trans FAs. The correlation coefficients (r between the methods were relatively small (ranging from 0.86 to 0.99 and had a high level of agreement for the most abundant FAs. The significant differences (P=0.05 can be observed for unsaturated FAs (UFAs, specifically for TFAs. The results from the KOCH3/HCl method showed the lowest recovery values (%R and higher variation (from 84% to 112%, especially for UFAs. The TMS-DM method had higher R values, less variation (from 90% to 106%, and more balance between variation and %RSD values in intraday and interday measurements (less than 4% and 6%, resp. than the KOCH3/HCl method, except for C12:0, C14:0, and C18:0. Nevertheless, the KOCH3/HCl method required shorter time and was less expensive than the TMS-DM method which is more convenient for an accurate and thorough analysis of rich cis/trans UFA samples.

  20. FACTS ABOUT TRANS FATTY ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Asgary

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fatty acids constitute the main class of lipids in the human diet, being found in nature mainly as glycerol esters that originate triacylglycerols. In the vegetal and animal kingdoms, fatty acids generally have cis unsaturations. In this form, the hydrogens bound to the double bond carbons are on the same side. In another possible configuration, called trans, the hydrogens are bound to un saturations, carbons on opposing sides. Fatty acids with one or more un saturations in the trans configuration are called trans fatty acids (TFAs.1-4      There are two major sources of TFA, those that come from ruminant animals and those that are industrially produced.      The majority of TFAs are found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, which contain 10–40% as TFA.5 Hydrogenation is based on the reaction of unsaturated fatty acids of either vegetable or marine oil in the presence of a catalyst, in general nickel. The objective is to increase the oxidative stability of oils by reduction of the concentration of more unsaturated fatty acids and changing their physical properties, thus extending their application. Hydrogenation depends mainly on oil temperature, hydrogen pressure, stirring speed, reaction time, and the catalyst type and concentration. According to the process conditions, hydrogenation is classified as either partial or total and either selective or nonselective.6 It has been estimated that dietary TFAs from partially hydrogenated oils may be responsible for between 30,000 and 100,000 premature coronary deaths per year in the United States.7      The concentration of TFA in meat and milk from ruminants (i.e., cattle, sheep, goats, etc. contain 3 to 8% of total fat.5 It is hypothesized that ruminant TFAs, or certain TFA isomers from ruminant sources, may confer some health benefits; however, since TFA from animal sources accompany saturated fatty acids (SFA, an increase in a single ruminant TFA in the diet is not

  1. New radiohalogenated alkenyl tellurium fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.C.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Kabalka, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids have diagnostic value as radiopharmaceutical tools in myocardial imaging. Some applications of these fatty acids are limited due to their natural metabolic degradation in vivo with subsequent washout of the radioactivity from the myocardium. The identification of structural features that will increase the myocardial residence time without decreasing the heart uptake of long-chain fatty acids is of interest. Fatty acids containing the tellurium heteroatom were the first modified fatty acids developed that show unique prolonged myocardial retention and low blood levels. Our detailed studies with radioiodinated vinyliodide substituted tellurium fatty acids demonstrate that heart uptake is a function of the tellurium position. New techniques of tellurium and organoborane chemistry have been developed for the synthesis of a variety of radioiodinated iodoalkenyl tellurium fatty acids. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Aspirin increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E.; Bharathi, Sivakama S.; Zhang, Yuxun; Stolz, Donna B.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse the mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 h incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders. - Highlights: • Aspirin increases mitochondrial—but inhibits peroxisomal—fatty acid oxidation. • Aspirin acetylates mitochondrial proteins including fatty acid oxidation enzymes. • SIRT3 does not influence the effect of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. • Increased fatty acid oxidation is likely due to altered mitochondrial morphology and respiration.

  3. Fatty acid uptake in normal human myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyska, K.; Meyer, W.; Stremmel, W.; Notohamiprodjo, G.; Minami, K.; Machulla, H.J.; Gleichmann, U.; Meyer, H.; Koerfer, R.

    1991-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein has been found in rat aortic endothelial cell membrane. It has been identified to be a 40-kDa protein that corresponds to a 40-kDa fatty acid binding protein with high affinity for a variety of long chain fatty acids isolated from rat heart myocytes. It is proposed that this endothelial membrane fatty acid binding protein might mediate the myocardial uptake of fatty acids. For evaluation of this hypothesis in vivo, influx kinetics of tracer-labeled fatty acids was examined in 15 normal subjects by scintigraphic techniques. Variation of the plasma fatty acid concentration and plasma perfusion rate has been achieved by modulation of nutrition state and exercise conditions. The clinical results suggest that the myocardial fatty acid influx rate is saturable by increasing fatty acid plasma concentration as well as by increasing plasma flow. For analysis of these data, functional relations describing fatty acid transport from plasma into myocardial tissue in the presence and absence of an unstirred layer were developed. The fitting of these relations to experimental data indicate that the free fatty acid influx into myocardial tissue reveals the criteria of a reaction on a capillary surface in the vicinity of flowing plasma but not of a reaction in extravascular space or in an unstirred layer and that the fatty acid influx into normal myocardium is a saturable process that is characterized by the quantity corresponding to the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, and the maximal velocity, Vmax, 0.24 ± 0.024 mumol/g and 0.37 ± 0.013 mumol/g(g.min), respectively. These data are compatible with a nondiffusional uptake process mediated by the initial interaction of fatty acids with the 40-kDa membrane fatty acid binding protein of cardiac endothelial cells

  4. The role of Omega-3 and Omega-9 fatty acids for the treatment of neuropathic pain after neurotrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Arriero, Iriana; Serrano-Muñoz, Diego; Gómez-Soriano, Julio; Goicoechea, Carlos; Taylor, Julian; Velasco, Ana; Ávila-Martín, Gerardo

    2017-09-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as docosaexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), mediate neuroactive effects in experimental models of traumatic peripheral nerve and spinal cord injury. Cellular mechanisms of PUFAs include reduced neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, enhanced neurotrophic support, and activation of cell survival pathways. Bioactive Omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid (OA) and 2-hydroxy oleic acid (2-OHOA), also show therapeutic effects in neurotrauma models. These FAs reduces noxious hyperreflexia and pain-related anxiety behavior following peripheral nerve injury and improves sensorimotor function following spinal cord injury (SCI), including facilitation of descending inhibitory antinociception. The relative safe profile of neuroactive fatty acids (FAs) holds promise for the future clinical development of these molecules as analgesic agents. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Lipid Therapy: Drugs Targeting Biomembranes edited by Pablo V. Escribá. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification and Quantification of Fatty Acids in T. viridissima, C. biguttulus, and C. brunneus by GC-MS

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    Alexander M. Wathne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid (FA profiles of the species Tettigonia viridissima, Chorthippus biguttulus, and Chorthippus brunneus were determined and quantitated. Extracted lipids were derivatized into FA methyl esters (FAMEs prior to analysis by GC-MS. A total of 37 different FAs were identified in T. viridissima, yielding a total FA content of 10.4 g/100 g of dry matter. The contents of saturated FAs, monounsaturated FAs, and polyunsaturated FAs were 31.1, 35.9, and 33.0%, respectively. Lipids from T. viridissima were also fractioned into neutral lipids, free fatty acids, and polar lipids by offline solid phase extraction. For C. brunneus and C. biguttulus, 33 FAs were identified, yielding a total FA content of 6.14 g/100 g of dry matter. SFAs, MUFAs, and PUFAs, respectively, constituted 32.7, 25.1, and 42.1% of the total FA content. The contents of MUFAs, PUFAs, n-3 FAs, and n-6 FAs of each species, and the n-6/n-3 ratio, were subsequently discussed.

  6. Oleic Acid and Hydroxytyrosol Inhibit Cholesterol and Fatty Acid Synthesis in C6 Glioma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Priore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the discovery of natural compounds capable of modulating nervous system function has revealed new perspectives for a healthier brain. Here, we investigated the effects of oleic acid (OA and hydroxytyrosol (HTyr, two important extra virgin olive oil compounds, on lipid synthesis in C6 glioma cells. OA and HTyr inhibited both de novo fatty acid and cholesterol syntheses without affecting cell viability. The inhibitory effect of the individual compounds was more pronounced if OA and HTyr were administered in combination. A reduction of polar lipid biosynthesis was also detected, while triglyceride synthesis was marginally affected. To clarify the lipid-lowering mechanism of these compounds, their effects on the activity of key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis (acetyl-CoA carboxylase-ACC and fatty acid synthase-FAS and cholesterologenesis (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase-HMGCR were investigated in situ by using digitonin-permeabilized C6 cells. ACC and HMGCR activities were especially reduced after 4 h of 25 μM OA and HTyr treatment. No change in FAS activity was observed. Inhibition of ACC and HMGCR activities is corroborated by the decrease of their mRNA abundance and protein level. Our results indicate a direct and rapid downregulatory effect of the two olive oil compounds on lipid synthesis in C6 cells.

  7. Role of fatty acids in Bacillus environmental adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Esther Diomande

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The large bacterial genus genus Bacillus is widely distributed in the environment and is able to colonize highly diverse niches. Some Bacillus species harbour pathogenic characteristics. The fatty acid (FA composition is among the essential criteria used to define Bacillus species. Some elements of the FA pattern composition are common to Bacillus species, whereas others are specific and can be categorized in relation to the ecological niches of the species. Bacillus species are able to modify their FA patterns to adapt to a wide range of environmental changes, including changes in the growth medium, temperature, food processing conditions, and pH. Like many other Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus strains display a well-defined FA synthesis II system that is equilibrated with a FA degradation pathway and regulated to efficiently respond to the needs of the cell. Like endogenous FAs, exogenous FAs may positively or negatively affect the survival of Bacillus vegetative cells and the spore germination ability in a given environment. Some of these exogenous FAs may provide a powerful strategy for preserving food against contamination by the Bacillus pathogenic strains responsible for foodborne illness.

  8. Fatty acid metabolism, energy expenditure and insulin resistance in muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nigel; Cooney, Gregory J; Kraegen, Edward W; Bruce, Clinton R

    2014-02-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are essential elements of all cells and have significant roles as energy substrates, components of cellular structure and signalling molecules. The storage of excess energy intake as fat in adipose tissue is an evolutionary advantage aimed at protecting against starvation, but in much of today's world, humans are faced with an unlimited availability of food, and the excessive accumulation of fat is now a major risk for human health, especially the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Since the first recognition of the association between fat accumulation, reduced insulin action and increased risk of T2D, several mechanisms have been proposed to link excess FA availability to reduced insulin action, with some of them being competing or contradictory. This review summarises the evidence for these mechanisms in the context of excess dietary FAs generating insulin resistance in muscle, the major tissue involved in insulin-stimulated disposal of blood glucose. It also outlines potential problems with models and measurements that may hinder as well as help improve our understanding of the links between FAs and insulin action.

  9. Fatty acid profiles from the plasma membrane and detergent resistant membranes of two plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Salazar, Laura; El Hafidi, Mohammed; Gutiérrez-Nájera, Nora; Noyola-Martínez, Liliana; González-Solís, Ariadna; Gavilanes-Ruíz, Marina

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to establish the composition of the plant plasma membrane in order to understand its organization and behavior under continually changing environments. Knowledge of the lipid phase, in particular the fatty acid (FA) complex repertoire, is important since FAs determine many of the physical-chemical membrane properties. FAs are constituents of the membrane glycerolipid and sphingolipid backbones and can also be linked to some sterols. In addition, FAs are components of complex lipids that can constitute membrane micro-domains, and the use of detergent-resistant membranes is a common approach to study their composition. The diversity and cellular allocation of the membrane lipids containing FAs are very diverse and the approaches to analyze them provide only general information. In this work, a detailed FA analysis was performed using highly purified plasma membranes from bean leaves and germinating maize embryos and their respective detergent-resistant membrane preparations. The analyses showed the presence of a significant amount of very long chain FAs (containing 28C, 30C and 32C), in both plasma membrane preparations from bean and maize, that have not been previously reported. Herein is demonstrated that a significant enrichment of very long chain saturated FAs and saturated FAs can occur in detergent-resistant membrane preparations, as compared to the plasma membranes from both plant species. Considering that a thorough analysis of FAs is rarely performed in purified plasma membranes and detergent-resistant membranes, this work provides qualitative and quantitative evidence on the contributions of the length and saturation of FAs to the organization of the plant plasma membrane and detergent-resistant membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Do fatty acids affect fetal programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaran, Seray; Besler, H Tanju

    2015-08-13

    In this study discussed the primary and regulatory roles of fatty acids, and investigated the affects of fatty acids on metabolic programming. Review of the literature was carried out on three electronic databases to assess the roles of fatty acids in metabolic programming. All abstracts and full-text articles were examined, and the most relevant articles were selected for screening and inclusion in this review. The mother's nutritional environment during fetal period has important effects on long term health. Fatty acids play a primary role in growth and development. Alterations in fatty acid intake in the fetal period may increase the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. Maternal fatty acid intakes during pregnancy and lactation are passed to the fetus and the newborn via the placenta and breast milk, respectively. Imbalances in fatty acid intake during the fetal period change the fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids, which can cause structural and functional problems in cells. Additionally, the metabolic and neuroendocrine environments of the fetus and the newborn play key roles in the regulation of energy balance. Imbalances in fatty acid intake during pregnancy and lactation may result in permanent changes in appetite control, neuroendocrine function and energy metabolism in the fetus, leading to metabolic programming. Further studies are needed to determine the role of fatty acid intake in metabolic programming.

  11. Fatty acid composition of fish species with different feeding habits from an Arctic Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, M I; Sushchik, N N; Glushchenko, L A; Zadelenov, V A; Rudchenko, A E; Dgebuadze, Y Y

    2017-05-01

    We compared the composition and content of fatty acids (FAs) in fish with different feeding habits (sardine (least) cisco Coregonus sardinella, goggle-eyed charr (pucheglazka) form of Salvelinus alpinus complex, humpback whitefish Coregonus pidschian, broad whitefish Coregonus nasus, boganid charr Salvelinus boganidae, and northern pike Esox lucius from an Arctic Lake. Feeding habits of the studied fish (planktivore, benthivore, or piscivore) significantly affected the composition of biomarker fatty acids and the ratio of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in their biomass. The hypothesis on a higher content of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the fish of higher trophic level (piscivores) when compared within the same taxonomic group (order Salmoniformes) was confirmed.

  12. Alterations in fatty acid metabolism in response to obesity surgery combined with dietary counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walle, P; Takkunen, M; Männistö, V; Vaittinen, M; Käkelä, P; Ågren, J; Schwab, U; Lindström, J; Tuomilehto, J; Uusitupa, M; Pihlajamäki, J

    2017-09-04

    The effects of obesity surgery on serum and adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) profile and FA metabolism may modify the risk of obesity-related diseases. We measured serum (n=122) and adipose tissue (n=24) FA composition and adipose tissue mRNA expression of genes regulating FA metabolism (n=100) in participants of the Kuopio Obesity Surgery Study (KOBS, age 47.2±8.7 years, BMI 44.6±6.0, 40 men, 82 women) before and one year after obesity surgery. As part of the surgery protocol, all the subjects were instructed to add sources of unsaturated fatty acids, such as rapeseed oil and fatty fish, into their diet. The results were compared with changes in serum FA composition in 122 subjects from the Finnish Diabetes Prevention study (DPS) (age 54.3±7.1 years, BMI 32.2±4.6, 28 men, 94 women). The proportion of saturated FAs decreased and the proportion of n-3 and n-6 FAs increased in serum triglycerides after obesity surgery (all Pobesity surgery in all lipid fractions (all Pobesity surgery and lifestyle intervention, except for the change in the absolute amounts of n-3 FAs between the two studies (P=0.044). Beneficial changes in serum and adipose tissue FAs after obesity surgery could be associated with changes in endogenous metabolism and diet.

  13. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in various macroalgal species from North Atlantic and tropical seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginneken, Vincent J T; Helsper, Johannes P F G; de Visser, Willem; van Keulen, Herman; Brandenburg, Willem A

    2011-06-22

    In this study the efficacy of using marine macroalgae as a source for polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with the prevention of inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders, was investigated. The fatty acid (FA) composition in lipids from seven sea weed species from the North Sea (Ulva lactuca, Chondrus crispus, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus serratus, Undaria pinnatifida, Palmaria palmata, Ascophyllum nodosum) and two from tropical seas (Caulerpa taxifolia, Sargassum natans) was determined using GCMS. Four independent replicates were taken from each seaweed species. Omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), were in the concentration range of 2-14 mg/g dry matter (DM), while total lipid content ranged from 7-45 mg/g DM. The n-9 FAs of the selected seaweeds accounted for 3%-56% of total FAs, n-6 FAs for 3%-32% and n-3 FAs for 8%-63%. Red and brown seaweeds contain arachidonic (C20:4, n-6) and/or eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA, C20:5, n-3), the latter being an important "fish" FA, as major PUFAs while in green seaweeds these values are low and mainly C16 FAs were found. A unique observation is the presence of another typical "fish" fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3) at ≈ 1 mg/g DM in S. natans. The n-6: n-3 ratio is in the range of 0.05-2.75 and in most cases below 1.0. Environmental effects on lipid-bound FA composition in seaweed species are discussed. Marine macroalgae form a good, durable and virtually inexhaustible source for polyunsaturated fatty acids with an (n-6) FA: (n-3) FA ratio of about 1.0. This ratio is recommended by the World Health Organization to be less than 10 in order to prevent inflammatory, cardiovascular and nervous system disorders. Some marine macroalgal species, like P. palmata, contain high proportions of the "fish fatty acid" eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, n-3), while in S. natans also docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3) was detected.

  14. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in various macroalgal species from north Atlantic and tropical seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Keulen Herman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study the efficacy of using marine macroalgae as a source for polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with the prevention of inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders, was investigated. Methods The fatty acid (FA composition in lipids from seven sea weed species from the North Sea (Ulva lactuca, Chondrus crispus, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus serratus, Undaria pinnatifida, Palmaria palmata, Ascophyllum nodosum and two from tropical seas (Caulerpa taxifolia, Sargassum natans was determined using GCMS. Four independent replicates were taken from each seaweed species. Results Omega-3 (n-3 and omega-6 (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, were in the concentration range of 2-14 mg/g dry matter (DM, while total lipid content ranged from 7-45 mg/g DM. The n-9 FAs of the selected seaweeds accounted for 3%-56% of total FAs, n-6 FAs for 3%-32% and n-3 FAs for 8%-63%. Red and brown seaweeds contain arachidonic (C20:4, n-6 and/or eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA, C20:5, n-3, the latter being an important "fish" FA, as major PUFAs while in green seaweeds these values are low and mainly C16 FAs were found. A unique observation is the presence of another typical "fish" fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3 at ≈ 1 mg/g DM in S. natans. The n-6: n-3 ratio is in the range of 0.05-2.75 and in most cases below 1.0. Environmental effects on lipid-bound FA composition in seaweed species are discussed. Conclusion Marine macroalgae form a good, durable and virtually inexhaustible source for polyunsaturated fatty acids with an (n-6 FA: (n-3 FA ratio of about 1.0. This ratio is recommended by the World Health Organization to be less than 10 in order to prevent inflammatory, cardiovascular and nervous system disorders. Some marine macroalgal species, like P. palmata, contain high proportions of the "fish fatty acid" eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, n-3, while in S. natans also docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C

  15. Unraveling fatty acid transport and activation mechanisms in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulermo, Rémi; Gamboa-Meléndez, Heber; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Thévenieau, France; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-01

    Fatty acid (FA) transport and activation have been extensively studied in the model yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae but have rarely been examined in oleaginous yeasts, such as Yarrowia lipolytica. Because the latter begins to be used in biodiesel production, understanding its FA transport and activation mechanisms is essential. We found that Y. lipolytica has FA transport and activation proteins similar to those of S. cerevisiae (Faa1p, Pxa1p, Pxa2p, Ant1p) but mechanism of FA peroxisomal transport and activation differs greatly with that of S. cerevisiae. While the ScPxa1p/ScPxa2p heterodimer is essential for growth on long-chain FAs, ΔYlpxa1 ΔYlpxa2 is not impaired for growth on FAs. Meanwhile, ScAnt1p and YlAnt1p are both essential for yeast growth on medium-chain FAs, suggesting they function similarly. Interestingly, we found that the ΔYlpxa1 ΔYlpxa2 ΔYlant1 mutant was unable to grow on short-, medium-, or long-chain FAs, suggesting that YlPxa1p, YlPxa2p, and YlAnt1p belong to two different FA degradation pathways. We also found that YlFaa1p is involved in FA storage in lipid bodies and that FA remobilization largely depended on YlFat1p, YlPxa1p and YlPxa2p. This study is the first to comprehensively examine FA intracellular transport and activation in oleaginous yeast. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Fatty acid synthesis by spinach chloroplasts, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Yasunori

    1975-01-01

    By incorporation of 3 H 2 O into the fatty acid chain in the presence of unlabelled precursor, we showed that fatty acids are synthesized from PGA, PEP and pyruvate by intact spinach chloroplasts in the light. 13 C-tracer experiments confirmed that 1-C of pyruvate is decarboxylated and 2-C is incorporated into fatty acids by the chloroplasts. The patterns of fatty acids synthesized from PGA and pyruvate were the same as that from acetate. The highest rate of fatty acid synthesis was reached at the physiological concentration of PGA (3 mM) and pyruvate (1 mM). These results indicate the operation of the following path in the chloroplasts in light: PGA→PEP→pyruvate→acetylCoA→fatty acids. Since citrate and OAA were much less active and malate and glyoxylate were inert as precursors for fatty acid synthesis, PEP or pyruvate carboxylation, citrate lyase reaction and malate synthetase reaction are not involved in the formation of acetylCoA and fatty acids. Since pyruvate was much more effective as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis than lactate, acetaldehyde or acetate, direct decarboxylation path is considered to be the primary path from pyruvate to acetylCoA. The insignificant effect of chloroplast-washing on fatty acid synthesis from PGA and pyruvate indicates that the glycolytic path from PGA to pyruvate is associated with the chloroplasts. Since pyruvate was more effectively incorporated into fatty acids than acetylCoA, it is unlikely that pyruvate decarboxylation to acetylCoA is due to mitochondria contaminating the chloroplast preparation. On the basis of measurements of 3 H 2 O incorporation in the light and dark, the activity of fatty acid synthesis in spincah leaves appears to be shared by the activities in chloroplasts (87%) and other organelles (13%). (author)

  17. Exogenous fatty acid metabolism in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiangwei; Rock, Charles O

    2017-10-01

    Bacterial type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII) is a target for novel antibiotic development. All bacteria encode for mechanisms to incorporate exogenous fatty acids, and some bacteria can use exogenous fatty acids to bypass FASII inhibition. Bacteria encode three different mechanisms for activating exogenous fatty acids for incorporation into phospholipid synthesis. Exogenous fatty acids are converted into acyl-CoA in Gammaproteobacteria such as E. coli. Acyl-CoA molecules constitute a separate pool from endogenously synthesized acyl-ACP. Acyl-CoA can be used for phospholipid synthesis or broken down by β-oxidation, but cannot be used for lipopolysaccharide synthesis. Exogenous fatty acids are converted into acyl-ACP in some Gram-negative bacteria. The resulting acyl-ACP undergoes the same fates as endogenously synthesized acyl-ACP. Exogenous fatty acids are converted into acyl-phosphates in Gram-positive bacteria, and can be used for phospholipid synthesis or become acyl-ACP. Only the order Lactobacillales can use exogenous fatty acids to bypass FASII inhibition. FASII shuts down completely in presence of exogenous fatty acids in Lactobacillales, allowing Lactobacillales to synthesize phospholipids entirely from exogenous fatty acids. Inhibition of FASII cannot be bypassed in other bacteria because FASII is only partially down-regulated in presence of exogenous fatty acid or FASII is required to synthesize essential metabolites such as β-hydroxyacyl-ACP. Certain selective pressures such as FASII inhibition or growth in biofilms can select for naturally occurring one step mutations that attenuate endogenous fatty acid synthesis. Although attempts have been made to estimate the natural prevalence of these mutants, culture-independent metagenomic methods would provide a better estimate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  18. Fatty acid metabolism: target for metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wakil, Salih J.; Abu-Elheiga, Lutfi A.

    2009-01-01

    Fatty acids are a major energy source and important constituents of membrane lipids, and they serve as cellular signaling molecules that play an important role in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome. Acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 (ACC1 and ACC2) catalyze the synthesis of malonyl-CoA, the substrate for fatty acid synthesis and the regulator of fatty acid oxidation. They are highly regulated and play important roles in the energy metabolism of fatty acids in animals, including humans. They...

  19. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Inhibition Increases Reduction Potential in Neuronal Cells under Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Brose

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we have reported a novel neuronal specific pathway for adaptation to hypoxia through increased fatty acid (FA biosynthesis (FAS followed by esterification into lipids. However, the biological role of this pathway under hypoxia remains to be elucidated. In the presented study, we have tested our hypothesis that activation of FAS maintains reduction potential and reduces lactoacidosis in neuronal cells under hypoxia. To address this hypothesis, we measured the effect of FAS inhibition on NADH2+/NAD+ and NADPH2+/NADP+ ratios, and lactic acid levels in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells exposed to normoxic and hypoxic conditions. FAS inhibitors, TOFA (inhibits Acetyl-CoA carboxylase and cerulenin (inhibits FA synthase, increased NADH2+/NAD+ and NADPH2+/NADP+ ratios under hypoxia. Further, FAS inhibition increased lactic acid under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and caused cytotoxicity under hypoxia but not normoxia. These results indicate that FA may serve as hydrogen acceptors under hypoxia, thus supporting oxidation reactions including anaerobic glycolysis. These findings may help to identify a radically different approach to attenuate hypoxia related pathophysiology in the nervous system including stroke.

  20. Investigation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression in hypothalamus of obese rats: Modulation by omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Maksoud, Sahar M; Hassanein, Sally I; Gohar, Neveen A; Attia, Saad M M; Gad, Mohamed Z

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was investigating the effect of omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression, using in vivo and in vitro models, to unravel the potential mechanisms of polyunsaturated fatty acids use in obesity. Twenty-nine Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups; lean controls fed normal chow diet for 14 weeks, obese controls fed 60% of their diet as saturated fats for 14 weeks, and ω-3 FAs-treated rats fed 60% saturated fat diet for 14 weeks with concomitant oral administration of 400 mg/kg/day ω-3 FAs, mainly docosahexaenoic acid and EPA, from week 12 to week 14. For the in vitro experiment, hypothalamic cells from six obese rats were cultured in the presence of different concentrations of ω-3 FAs to determine its direct effect on BDNF expression. In vivo results showed that obesity has negative effect on BDNF gene expression in rat hypothalamus that was reversed by administration of ω-3 FAs. Obese rats showed hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, normoinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperleptinemia. Treatment with ω-3 FAs showed significant decrease in serum total cholesterol and TAG. Also serum glucose level and HOMA index were decreased significantly. In vitro results demonstrated the increase in BDNF expression by ω-3 FAs in a dose-dependent manner. Obesity causes down-regulation of BDNF gene expression that can be reversed by ω-3 FAs treatment, making them an interesting treatment approach for obesity and metabolic disease.

  1. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Octopus vulgaris: Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterisation of a Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase and an Elongation of Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid 4 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Óscar; de Llanos, Rosa; Varó, Inmaculada; Hontoria, Francisco; Tocher, Douglas R; Puig, Sergi; Navarro, Juan C

    2017-03-21

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been acknowledged as essential nutrients for cephalopods but the specific PUFAs that satisfy the physiological requirements are unknown. To expand our previous investigations on characterisation of desaturases and elongases involved in the biosynthesis of PUFAs and hence determine the dietary PUFA requirements in cephalopods, this study aimed to investigate the roles that a stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd) and an elongation of very long-chain fatty acid 4 (Elovl4) protein play in the biosynthesis of essential fatty acids (FAs). Our results confirmed the Octopus vulgaris Scd is a ∆9 desaturase with relatively high affinity towards saturated FAs with ≥ C 18 chain lengths. Scd was unable to desaturate 20:1 n- 15 ( ∆5 20:1) suggesting that its role in the biosynthesis of non-methylene interrupted FAs (NMI FAs) is limited to the introduction of the first unsaturation at ∆9 position. Interestingly, the previously characterised ∆5 fatty acyl desaturase was indeed able to convert 20:1 n- 9 ( ∆11 20:1) to ∆5,11 20:2, an NMI FA previously detected in octopus nephridium. Additionally, Elovl4 was able to mediate the production of 24:5 n- 3 and thus can contribute to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthesis through the Sprecher pathway. Moreover, the octopus Elovl4 was confirmed to play a key role in the biosynthesis of very long-chain (>C 24 ) PUFAs.

  2. Fatty acids, mercury, and methylmercury bioaccessibility in salmon (Salmo salar) using an in vitro model: Effect of culinary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sara; Afonso, Cláudia; Cardoso, Carlos; Batista, Irineu; Chaveiro, Nádia; Nunes, Maria Leonor; Bandarra, Narcisa Maria

    2015-10-15

    The effect of culinary treatments on the fatty acid profile, mercury (Hg), and methylmercury (MeHg) levels of salmon was studied. The bioaccessibility of fatty acids, Hg, and MeHg in raw and grilled salmon was determined. The most intense thermal treatment (grilling) did not alter the relative fatty acid (FA) profile. There were bioaccessibility differences between FAs. To the authors' knowledge, for the first time, higher bioaccessibility of the long-chain FAs than the short- and medium-chain FAs was measured. Chemical interaction phenomena seemed to play a role. On the other hand, higher levels of unsaturation decreased bioaccessibility. Two main alternative hypotheses were put forward, either lower polarity led to higher incorporation of FAs with longer hydrophobic aliphatic chain and lower number of double bonds in the emulsion present in the bioaccessible fraction or enzymatic selectivity preferentially hydrolyzed some FAs on the basis of their structure or position in the triacylglycerol molecule. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fatty acid biosynthesis is involved in the production of hepatitis B virus particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Hitomi; Nio, Yasunori; Akahori, Yuichi; Kim, Sulyi; Watashi, Koichi; Wakita, Takaji; Hijikata, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) proliferates in hepatocytes after infection, but the host factors that contribute to the HBV lifecycle are poorly understood at the molecular level. We investigated whether fatty acid biosynthesis (FABS), which was recently reported to contribute to the genomic replication of hepatitis C virus, plays a role in HBV proliferation. We examined the effects of inhibitors of the enzymes in the FABS pathway on the HBV lifecycle by using recombinant HBV-producing cultured cells and found that the extracellular HBV DNA level, reflecting HBV particle production, was decreased by treatment with inhibitors suppressed the synthesis of long-chain saturated fatty acids with little cytotoxicity. The reduced HBV DNA level was reversed when palmitic acid, which is the product of fatty acid synthase (FAS) during FABS, was used simultaneously with the inhibitor. We also observed that the amount of intracellular HBV DNA in the cells was increased by FAS inhibitor treatment, suggesting that FABS is associated with HBV particle production but not its genome replication. This suggests that FABS might be a potent target for anti-HBV drug with a mode of action different from current HBV therapy. -- Highlights: •Inhibitors of ACC1 and FAS but not SCD1 decreased production of extracellular HBV DNA. •Products of FABS, long chain fatty acids, increased production of extracellular HBV DNA. •FAS inhibitor increased intracellular levels of HBV DNA and HBcAg. •FABS was suggested to contribute to HBV particle production without significant relation with secretory pathway of the cells.

  4. Fatty acid biosynthesis is involved in the production of hepatitis B virus particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Hitomi [Laboratory of Human Tumor Viruses, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaharacho, Shogoin, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoecho, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Nio, Yasunori, E-mail: yasunori.nio@takeda.com [Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Pharmaceutical Research Division, 26-1, Muraoka-Higashi 2-Chome, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 251-8555 (Japan); Akahori, Yuichi [Laboratory of Human Tumor Viruses, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaharacho, Shogoin, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoecho, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kim, Sulyi [Laboratory of Human Tumor Viruses, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaharacho, Shogoin, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Watashi, Koichi [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo 162-8640 (Japan); Department of Applied Biological Science, Tokyo University of Sciences, Noda 278-8510 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Wakita, Takaji [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo 162-8640 (Japan); Hijikata, Makoto, E-mail: mhijikat@virus.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Human Tumor Viruses, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaharacho, Shogoin, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoecho, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2016-06-17

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) proliferates in hepatocytes after infection, but the host factors that contribute to the HBV lifecycle are poorly understood at the molecular level. We investigated whether fatty acid biosynthesis (FABS), which was recently reported to contribute to the genomic replication of hepatitis C virus, plays a role in HBV proliferation. We examined the effects of inhibitors of the enzymes in the FABS pathway on the HBV lifecycle by using recombinant HBV-producing cultured cells and found that the extracellular HBV DNA level, reflecting HBV particle production, was decreased by treatment with inhibitors suppressed the synthesis of long-chain saturated fatty acids with little cytotoxicity. The reduced HBV DNA level was reversed when palmitic acid, which is the product of fatty acid synthase (FAS) during FABS, was used simultaneously with the inhibitor. We also observed that the amount of intracellular HBV DNA in the cells was increased by FAS inhibitor treatment, suggesting that FABS is associated with HBV particle production but not its genome replication. This suggests that FABS might be a potent target for anti-HBV drug with a mode of action different from current HBV therapy. -- Highlights: •Inhibitors of ACC1 and FAS but not SCD1 decreased production of extracellular HBV DNA. •Products of FABS, long chain fatty acids, increased production of extracellular HBV DNA. •FAS inhibitor increased intracellular levels of HBV DNA and HBcAg. •FABS was suggested to contribute to HBV particle production without significant relation with secretory pathway of the cells.

  5. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M; Erp van - Baart, M.A.; Anttolainen, M.; Becker, W.; Church, S.M.; Couet, C.; Hermann-Kunz, E.; Kesteloot, H.; Leth, T.; Martins, I.; Moreiras, O.; Moschandreas, J.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Rimestad, A.H.; Thorgeirsdottir, H.; Amelsvoort, J.M.M. van; Aro, A.; Kafatos, A.G.; Lanzmann-Petithory, D.; Poppel, G. van

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of

  6. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshof, K. F. A. M.; Erp-Baart, M. A. van; Anttolainen, M.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of...

  7. Differential effects of saturated versus unsaturated dietary fatty acids on weight gain and myocellular lipid profiles in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, S.; Vogel-van den Bosch, de H.M.; Wit, de N.J.W.; Schaart, G.; Beurden, van D.; Hesselink, M.; Meer, van der R.W.; Schrauwen, P.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:
    In conditions of continuous high-fat (HF) intake, the degree of saturation of the fatty acids (FAs) in the diet might have a crucial role in the onset of obesity and its metabolic complications. In particular, the FA composition of the diet might influence the storage form of lipids

  8. Metabolism of very long-chain Fatty acids: genes and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Takayuki; Kihara, Akio

    2014-02-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are highly diverse in terms of carbon (C) chain-length and number of double bonds. FAs with C>20 are called very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). VLCFAs are found not only as constituents of cellular lipids such as sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids but also as precursors of lipid mediators. Our understanding on the function of VLCFAs is growing in parallel with the identification of enzymes involved in VLCFA synthesis or degradation. A variety of inherited diseases, such as ichthyosis, macular degeneration, myopathy, mental retardation, and demyelination, are caused by mutations in the genes encoding VLCFA metabolizing enzymes. In this review, we describe mammalian VLCFAs by highlighting their tissue distribution and metabolic pathways, and we discuss responsible genes and enzymes with reference to their roles in pathophysiology.

  9. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Orsavova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs of fourteen vegetable oils—safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil—were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC. Saturated (SFA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%–20.0%, oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%–71.1% and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%–79%, respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%–695.7% ERDI, PUFAs (10.6%–786.8% ERDI, n-3 FAs (4.4%–117.1% ERDI and n-6 FAs (1.8%–959.2% ERDI, expressed in % ERDI of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (ERDI for total fat (ERDI—37.7 kJ/g. The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% ERDI for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD and cardiovascular diseases (CVD in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman’s correlations.

  10. Development of fatty acid biomarkers for the identification of wild and aquacultured sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhnyj, P. A.; Pivnenko, T. N.; Kovalev, N. N.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the fatty acids (FAs) of the organs and tissues of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were profiled in order to compare the FA composition of sea cucumber collected from natural habitat (wild) and cages (cultured). The differences in FA contents in dermomuscular tube, peripharyngeal annulus, gonad and intestine (with or without content) between the wild and the cultured were determined. The main fatty acids in all organs and tissues were 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7, 20:4n-6, 22:6n-3, 18:0, and 18:1n-7. The basically different FAs of body wall and digestive tube were 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-11. The ratio of saturated to mono- and polyunsaturated FAs in digestive tube was independent on inside content while there was a redistribution of the total amount of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. The comparison of FA composition of the wild and the cultured sea cucumber showed that 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7 and 18:1n-7 predominated the wild while 20:4n-6 predominated the cultured. The content of branched-chain fatty acids in the wild was 3%-4% and about 9% in the cultured. The possible FAs for identifying the wild and the cultured sea cucumbers were selected. It was suggested that the indexes such as the ratio of either (n-3:n-6) to (n-7:n-6) or (n-3) + (n-7) to (n-6) may serve as the biomarkers distinguishing the wild and the cultured sea cucumber.

  11. Nickel Inhibits Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W.; Brant, Kelly A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation—the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy—in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 hr), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  12. Phylogenomic reconstruction of archaeal fatty acid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibrova, Daria V.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    2014-01-01

    While certain archaea appear to synthesize and/or metabolize fatty acids, the respective pathways still remain obscure. By analyzing the genomic distribution of the key lipid-related enzymes, we were able to identify the likely components of the archaeal pathway of fatty acid metabolism, namely, a combination of the enzymes of bacterial-type β-oxidation of fatty acids (acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) with paralogs of the archaeal acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase, an enzyme of the mevalonate biosynthesis pathway. These three β-oxidation enzymes working in the reverse direction could potentially catalyze biosynthesis of fatty acids, with paralogs of acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase performing addition of C2 fragments. The presence in archaea of the genes for energy-transducing membrane enzyme complexes, such as cytochrome bc complex, cytochrome c oxidase, and diverse rhodopsins, was found to correlate with the presence of the proposed system of fatty acid biosynthesis. We speculate that because these membrane complexes functionally depend on fatty acid chains, their genes could have been acquired via lateral gene transfer from bacteria only by those archaea that already possessed a system of fatty acid biosynthesis. The proposed pathway of archaeal fatty acid metabolism operates in extreme conditions and therefore might be of interest in the context of biofuel production and other industrial applications. PMID:24818264

  13. Influence of fenofibrate treatment on triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides and fatty acids in fructose fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Thomas; Schaefer, Hans-Ludwig; Troetzmueller, Martin; Koefeler, Harald; Broenstrup, Mark; Konovalova, Tatiana; Schmitz, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Fenofibrate (FF) lowers plasma triglycerides via PPARα activation. Here, we analyzed lipidomic changes upon FF treatment of fructose fed rats. Three groups with 6 animals each were defined as control, fructose-fed and fructose-fed/FF treated. Male Wistar Unilever Rats were subjected to 10% fructose-feeding for 20 days. On day 14, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg p.o.) was initiated and maintained for 7 days. Lipid species in serum were analyzed using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS; LC-FT-MS, GC-MS) on days 0, 14 and 20 in all three groups. In addition, lipid levels in liver and intestine were determined. Short-chain TAGs increased in serum and liver upon fructose-feeding, while almost all TAG-species decreased under FF treatment. Long-chain unsaturated DAG-levels (36:1, 36:2, 36:4, 38:3, 38:4, 38:5) increased upon FF treatment in rat liver and decreased in rat serum. FAs, especially short-chain FAs (12:0, 14:0, 16:0) increased during fructose-challenge. VLDL secretion increased upon fructose-feeding and together with FA-levels decreased to control levels during FF treatment. Fructose challenge of de novo fatty acid synthesis through fatty acid synthase (FAS) may enhance the release of FAs ≤ 16:0 chain length, a process reversed by FF-mediated PPARα-activation.

  14. Influence of fenofibrate treatment on triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides and fatty acids in fructose fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kopf

    Full Text Available Fenofibrate (FF lowers plasma triglycerides via PPARα activation. Here, we analyzed lipidomic changes upon FF treatment of fructose fed rats. Three groups with 6 animals each were defined as control, fructose-fed and fructose-fed/FF treated. Male Wistar Unilever Rats were subjected to 10% fructose-feeding for 20 days. On day 14, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg p.o. was initiated and maintained for 7 days. Lipid species in serum were analyzed using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS; LC-FT-MS, GC-MS on days 0, 14 and 20 in all three groups. In addition, lipid levels in liver and intestine were determined. Short-chain TAGs increased in serum and liver upon fructose-feeding, while almost all TAG-species decreased under FF treatment. Long-chain unsaturated DAG-levels (36:1, 36:2, 36:4, 38:3, 38:4, 38:5 increased upon FF treatment in rat liver and decreased in rat serum. FAs, especially short-chain FAs (12:0, 14:0, 16:0 increased during fructose-challenge. VLDL secretion increased upon fructose-feeding and together with FA-levels decreased to control levels during FF treatment. Fructose challenge of de novo fatty acid synthesis through fatty acid synthase (FAS may enhance the release of FAs ≤ 16:0 chain length, a process reversed by FF-mediated PPARα-activation.

  15. Efficacy of fatty acid profile as a tool for screening feedstocks for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Bryan R.; Vaughn, Steven F.

    2012-01-01

    Fuel properties are largely dependent on the fatty acid (FA) composition of the feedstock from which biodiesel is prepared. Consequently, FA profile was employed as a screening tool for selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated FAs for further evaluation as biodiesel. Those feedstocks included ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima L.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), arugula (Eruca vesicaria L.), cress (Lepidium sativum L.), cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), Indian cress (Tropaeolum majus L.), shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris L.) and upland cress (Barbarea verna (Mill.) Asch.). Other selection criteria included saturated FA content, iodine value (IV), content of FAs containing twenty or more carbons and content of trienoic FAs. Anise oil satisfied all selection criteria and was therefore selected for further investigation. Arugula, cumin and upland cress oils were selected as antagonists to the selection criteria. Preparation of FA methyl esters (FAMEs, ≥ 92 wt % yield) following conventional alkaline-catalyzed methanolysis preceded fuel property determination. Of particular interest were oxidative stability and cold flow properties. Also measured were kinematic viscosity (40 °C), IV, acid value, free and total glycerol content, sulfur and phosphorous content, cetane number, energy content and lubricity. FAMEs prepared from anise oil yielded properties compliant with biodiesel standards ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 whereas the antagonists failed at least one specification contained within the standards. As a result, FA profile was an efficient predictor of compliance with biodiesel standards and is therefore recommended as a screening tool for investigation of alternative feedstocks. -- Highlights: ► Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared from several alternative feedstocks. ► Fatty acid composition was a principal factor influencing fuel properties. ► Oxidative stability and cold flow properties of biodiesel were examined in detail. ► Limits were developed

  16. Fatty acid binding proteins have the potential to channel dietary fatty acids into enterocyte nuclei[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Adriana; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Canclini, Lucia; Silvarrey, Maria Cecilia; André, Michèle; Babin, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular lipid binding proteins, including fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) 1 and 2, are highly expressed in tissues involved in the active lipid metabolism. A zebrafish model was used to demonstrate differential expression levels of fabp1b.1, fabp1b.2, and fabp2 transcripts in liver, anterior intestine, and brain. Transcription levels of fabp1b.1 and fabp2 in the anterior intestine were upregulated after feeding and modulated according to diet formulation. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy immunodetection with gold particles localized these FABPs in the microvilli, cytosol, and nuclei of most enterocytes in the anterior intestinal mucosa. Nuclear localization was mostly in the interchromatin space outside the condensed chromatin clusters. Native PAGE binding assay of BODIPY-FL-labeled FAs demonstrated binding of BODIPY-FLC12 but not BODIPY-FLC5 to recombinant Fabp1b.1 and Fabp2. The binding of BODIPY-FLC12 to Fabp1b.1 was fully displaced by oleic acid. In vivo experiments demonstrated, for the first time, that intestinal absorption of dietary BODIPY-FLC12 was followed by colocalization of the labeled FA with Fabp1b and Fabp2 in the nuclei. These data suggest that dietary FAs complexed with FABPs are able to reach the enterocyte nucleus with the potential to modulate nuclear activity. PMID:26658423

  17. Echium acanthocarpum hairy root cultures, a suitable system for polyunsaturated fatty acid studies and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravelo Ángel G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The therapeutic and health promoting role of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs from fish, i.e. eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3 are well known. These same benefits may however be shared by some of their precursors, the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, such as stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4 n-3. In order to obtain alternative sources for the large-scale production of PUFAs, new searches are being conducted focusing on higher plants oils which can contain these n-3 and n-6 C18 precursors, i.e. SDA and GLA (18:3n-6, γ-linolenic acid. Results The establishment of the novel Echium acanthocarpum hairy root cultures represents a powerful tool in order to research the accumulation and metabolism of fatty acids (FAs in a plant particularly rich in GLA and SDA. Furthermore, this study constitutes the first example of a Boraginaceae species hairy root induction and establishment for FA studies and production. The dominant PUFAs, 18:2n-6 (LA, linoleic acid and 18:3n-6 (GLA, accounted for about 50% of total FAs obtained, while the n-3 PUFAs, 18:3n-3 (ALA, α-linolenic acid and 18:4n-3 (SDA, represented approximately 5% of the total. Production of FAs did not parallel hairy root growth, and the optimal productivity was always associated with the highest biomass density during the culture period. Assuming a compromise between FA production and hairy root biomass, it was determined that sampling times 4 and 5 gave the most useful FA yields. Total lipid amounts were in general comparable between the different hairy root lines (29.75 and 60.95 mg/g DW, with the major lipid classes being triacylglycerols. The FAs were chiefly stored in the hairy roots with very minute amounts being released into the liquid nutrient medium. Conclusions The novel results presented here show the utility and high potential of E. acanthocarpum hairy roots. They are capable of biosynthesizing and accumulating a large

  18. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids... prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid...

  19. Exploitable Lipids and Fatty Acids in the Invasive Oyster Crassostrea gigas on the French Atlantic Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore Dagorn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic exploitation is one means to offset the cost of controlling invasive species, such as the introduced Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg on the French Atlantic coast. Total lipid and phospholipid (PL fatty acids (FAs and sterols were examined in an invasive population of C. gigas in Bourgneuf Bay, France, over four successive seasons, with a view to identify possible sources of exploitable substances. The total lipid level (% dry weight varied from 7.1% (winter to 8.6% (spring. Of this, PLs accounted for 28.1% (spring to 50.4% (winter. Phosphatidylcholine was the dominant PL throughout the year (up to 74% of total PLs in winter. Plasmalogens were identified throughout the year as a series of eleven dimethylacetals (DMAs with chain lengths between C16 and C20 (up to 14.5% of PL FAs + DMAs in winter. Thirty-seven FAs were identified in the PL FAs. Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3 EPA/7.53% to 14.5% and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA/5.51% to 9.5% were the dominant polyunsaturated FAs in all seasons. Two non-methylene-interrupted dienoic (NMID FAs were identified in all seasons: 7,13-docosadienoic and 7,15-docosadienoic acids, the latter being present at relatively high levels (up to 9.6% in winter. Twenty free sterols were identified, including cholesterol at 29.9% of the sterol mixture and about 33% of phytosterols. C. gigas tissues thus contained exploitable lipids for health benefits or as a potential source of high-quality commercial lecithin.

  20. Exploitable Lipids and Fatty Acids in the Invasive Oyster Crassostrea gigas on the French Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagorn, Flore; Couzinet-Mossion, Aurélie; Kendel, Melha; Beninger, Peter G.; Rabesaotra, Vony; Barnathan, Gilles; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane

    2016-01-01

    Economic exploitation is one means to offset the cost of controlling invasive species, such as the introduced Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) on the French Atlantic coast. Total lipid and phospholipid (PL) fatty acids (FAs) and sterols were examined in an invasive population of C. gigas in Bourgneuf Bay, France, over four successive seasons, with a view to identify possible sources of exploitable substances. The total lipid level (% dry weight) varied from 7.1% (winter) to 8.6% (spring). Of this, PLs accounted for 28.1% (spring) to 50.4% (winter). Phosphatidylcholine was the dominant PL throughout the year (up to 74% of total PLs in winter). Plasmalogens were identified throughout the year as a series of eleven dimethylacetals (DMAs) with chain lengths between C16 and C20 (up to 14.5% of PL FAs + DMAs in winter). Thirty-seven FAs were identified in the PL FAs. Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3 EPA/7.53% to 14.5%) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA/5.51% to 9.5%) were the dominant polyunsaturated FAs in all seasons. Two non-methylene-interrupted dienoic (NMID) FAs were identified in all seasons: 7,13-docosadienoic and 7,15-docosadienoic acids, the latter being present at relatively high levels (up to 9.6% in winter). Twenty free sterols were identified, including cholesterol at 29.9% of the sterol mixture and about 33% of phytosterols. C. gigas tissues thus contained exploitable lipids for health benefits or as a potential source of high-quality commercial lecithin. PMID:27231919

  1. Determination of fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacity of Mespilus germanica L. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Seçilmiş Canbay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacitiy of first cultured Mespilus germanica L. Methods: A total of 15 fruits were taken randomly from four directions of adult trees. Then the physical and chemical properties of first cultured medlar fruit (Istanbul/Turkey were measured by using refractometer, colorimeter, spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, respectivly. Results: In the fruit studied, the results showed that palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid were the most abundant fatty acids (FAs, and the main FA was palmitic acid [(35.35 ± 1.20%]. The percentage of linoleic acid and stearic acid in this fruit oil were (29.10 ± 1.70% and (8.53 ± 0.25%, respectively. As a result of the analysis, the total antioxidant capacity of medlar fruit was (1.1 ± 0.2 mmol trolox equivalents/L. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the concentrations of FAs and the antioxidantive capacity of first cultured Istanbul medlar fruits by using many tested methods. It is proved that in our daily life, medlar fruit plays a significant role with its nutrition and health effect.

  2. Radioiodinated fatty acids for cardiological diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machulla, H.-J.; Knust, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    The development of fatty acids labelled with iodine-123 is reviewed. The variety of methods for producing 123 I and introducing radioiodine into the molecule is discussed and the important points of the biochemical background are recalled with the aim of finding a broad application for 123 I-labelled fatty acids. The results of the pharmacokinetic studies and biochemical analysis are presented as they prove that both 17- 123 I-heptadecanoic acid (IHA) and 15-(rho- 123 I-phenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) exhibit analogous behaviour to that of the naturally occurring fatty acids. Clinical applications demonstrated two fields of importance: (i) applications solely for imaging the heart and (ii) assessment of myocardial turnover rates of fatty acids for functional diagnosis. Moreover, very recent studies show that the provision of information about prognosis of myocardial diseases and the applied cardiological therapy appear to be possible. (author)

  3. A subset of sweet-sensing neurons identified by IR56d are necessary and sufficient for fatty acid taste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Tauber

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fat represents a calorically potent food source that yields approximately twice the amount of energy as carbohydrates or proteins per unit of mass. The highly palatable taste of free fatty acids (FAs, one of the building blocks of fat, promotes food consumption, activates reward circuitry, and is thought to contribute to hedonic feeding underlying many metabolism-related disorders. Despite a role in the etiology of metabolic diseases, little is known about how dietary fats are detected by the gustatory system to promote feeding. Previously, we showed that a broad population of sugar-sensing taste neurons expressing Gustatory Receptor 64f (Gr64f is required for reflexive feeding responses to both FAs and sugars. Here, we report a genetic silencing screen to identify specific populations of taste neurons that mediate fatty acid (FA taste. We find neurons identified by expression of Ionotropic Receptor 56d (IR56d are necessary and sufficient for reflexive feeding response to FAs. Functional imaging reveals that IR56d-expressing neurons are responsive to short- and medium-chain FAs. Silencing IR56d neurons selectively abolishes FA taste, and their activation is sufficient to drive feeding responses. Analysis of co-expression with Gr64f identifies two subpopulations of IR56d-expressing neurons. While physiological imaging reveals that both populations are responsive to FAs, IR56d/Gr64f neurons are activated by medium-chain FAs and are sufficient for reflexive feeding response to FAs. Moreover, flies can discriminate between sugar and FAs in an aversive taste memory assay, indicating that FA taste is a unique modality in Drosophila. Taken together, these findings localize FA taste within the Drosophila gustatory center and provide an opportunity to investigate discrimination between different categories of appetitive tastants.

  4. A subset of sweet-sensing neurons identified by IR56d are necessary and sufficient for fatty acid taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, John M; Brown, Elizabeth B; Li, Yuanyuan; Yurgel, Maria E; Masek, Pavel; Keene, Alex C

    2017-11-01

    Fat represents a calorically potent food source that yields approximately twice the amount of energy as carbohydrates or proteins per unit of mass. The highly palatable taste of free fatty acids (FAs), one of the building blocks of fat, promotes food consumption, activates reward circuitry, and is thought to contribute to hedonic feeding underlying many metabolism-related disorders. Despite a role in the etiology of metabolic diseases, little is known about how dietary fats are detected by the gustatory system to promote feeding. Previously, we showed that a broad population of sugar-sensing taste neurons expressing Gustatory Receptor 64f (Gr64f) is required for reflexive feeding responses to both FAs and sugars. Here, we report a genetic silencing screen to identify specific populations of taste neurons that mediate fatty acid (FA) taste. We find neurons identified by expression of Ionotropic Receptor 56d (IR56d) are necessary and sufficient for reflexive feeding response to FAs. Functional imaging reveals that IR56d-expressing neurons are responsive to short- and medium-chain FAs. Silencing IR56d neurons selectively abolishes FA taste, and their activation is sufficient to drive feeding responses. Analysis of co-expression with Gr64f identifies two subpopulations of IR56d-expressing neurons. While physiological imaging reveals that both populations are responsive to FAs, IR56d/Gr64f neurons are activated by medium-chain FAs and are sufficient for reflexive feeding response to FAs. Moreover, flies can discriminate between sugar and FAs in an aversive taste memory assay, indicating that FA taste is a unique modality in Drosophila. Taken together, these findings localize FA taste within the Drosophila gustatory center and provide an opportunity to investigate discrimination between different categories of appetitive tastants.

  5. Intensive lifestyle intervention provides rapid reduction of serum fatty acid levels in women with severe obesity without lowering omega?3 to unhealthy levels?

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, C.; Andersen, J. R.; V?ge, V.; Rajalahti, T.; Mj?s, S. A.; Kvalheim, O. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Serum fatty acid (FA) levels were monitored in women with severe obesity during intensive lifestyle intervention. At baseline, total FA levels and most individual FAs were elevated compared to a matching cohort of normal and overweight women (healthy controls). After 3 weeks of intensive lifestyle intervention, total level was only 11?12% higher than in the healthy controls and with almost all FAs being significantly lower than at baseline, but with levels of omega?3 being similar to ...

  6. Potent Inhibitory Effect of Chinese Dietary Spices on Fatty Acid Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bing; Liang, Yan; Sun, Xuebing; Liu, Xiaoxin; Tian, Weixi; Ma, Xiaofeng

    2015-09-01

    Dietary spices have been adopted in cooking since ancient times to enhance flavor and also as food preservatives and disease remedies. In China, the use of spices and other aromatic plants as food flavoring is an integral part of dietary behavior, but relatively little is known about their functions. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) has been recognized as a remedy target, and its inhibitors might be applied in disease treatment. The present work was designed to assess the inhibitory activities on FAS of spices extracts in Chinese menu. The in vitro inhibitory activities on FAS of 22 extracts of spices were assessed by spectrophotometrically monitoring oxidation of NADPH at 340 nm. Results showed that 20 spices extracts (90.9 %) exhibited inhibitory activities on FAS, with half inhibition concentration (IC(50)) values ranging from 1.72 to 810.7 μg/ml. Among them, seven spices showed strong inhibitory effect with IC(50) values lower than 10 μg/ml. These findings suggest that a large proportion of the dietary spices studied possess promising inhibitory activities on FAS, and subsequently might be applied in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related human diseases.

  7. Retinoic acid morpholine amide (RAMA) inhibits expression of Fas ligand through EP1 receptor in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Xuan; Du, Shi-Yu; Wang, Yun-Ting; Zhao, Hong-Chuan; Zhang, Yan-Li; Yao, Li

    2016-01-01

    Among the members of tumour necrosis factor family Fas ligand on binding to its receptor strongly induces apoptosis of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). Thus, FasL acts as an inhibitor of anti-tumour immune response. The present study demonstrates that retinoic acid morpholine amide (RAMA) significantly suppresses FasL expression in colon cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The suppression of FasL mRNA and proteins was significant at a concentration of 30 μM after 48 h in CLT85 and HT26 colon cancer cells. There was around 2.6- and 3.2-fold decrease in FasL mRNA after incubation with 30 μM of RAMA in CLT85 cells and HT26 cells, respectively. The results from Western blot showed a decrease in FasL mRNA and protein expression in both CLT85 and HT26 cells after suppression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and COX-1 by RNAi. However, when COX-2-specific silencer RNA (siCOX-2)- and siCOX-1-treated CLT85 and HT26 cells were exposed to RAMA, inhibition of FasL expression was further suppressed. The siCOX-2-treated CLT85 and HT26 cells on exposure to RAMA showed ∼87 and ∼54 % reduction in FasL mRNA, respectively. Co-culture of Jurkat T cells with RAMA-treated HT26 and CLT85 cells decreased the viability of Jurkat T cells by only 2 and 4.3 %, respectively, compared to 19.5 and 37.3 % in control HT26 and CLT85 cells. The results from real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblotting showed that suppression of EP1 prevented RAMA-induced FasL suppression in CLT85 cells at both the mRNA and protein levels. Thus, RAMA can be a potent therapeutic agent for the treatment of colon tumours.

  8. Fatty acid synthase inhibition triggers apoptosis during S phase in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weibo; Simpson, P Jeanette; McFadden, Jill M; Townsend, Craig A; Medghalchi, Susan M; Vadlamudi, Aravinda; Pinn, Michael L; Ronnett, Gabriele V; Kuhajda, Francis P

    2003-11-01

    C75, an inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FAS), induces apoptosis in cultured human cancer cells. Its proposed mechanism of action linked high levels of malonyl-CoA after FAS inhibition to potential downstream effects including inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) with resultant inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. Recent data has shown that C75 directly stimulates CPT-1 increasing fatty acid oxidation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells despite inhibitory concentrations of malonyl-CoA. In light of these findings, we have studied fatty acid metabolism in MCF7 human breast cancer cells to elucidate the mechanism of action of C75. We now report that: (a) in the setting of increased fatty acid oxidation, C75 inhibits fatty acid synthesis; (b) C273, a reduced form of C75, is unable to inhibit fatty acid synthesis and is nontoxic to MCF7 cells; (c) C75 and 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA), an inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, both cause a significant reduction of fatty acid incorporation into phosphatidylcholine, the major membrane phospholipid, within 2 h; (d) pulse chase studies with [(14)C]acetate labeling of membrane lipids show that both C75 and TOFA accelerate the decay of (14)C-labeled lipid from membranes within 2 h; (e) C75 also promotes a 2-3-fold increase in oxidation of membrane lipids within 2 h; and (f) because interference with phospholipid synthesis during S phase is known to trigger apoptosis in cycling cells, we performed double-labeled terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated nick end labeling and BrdUrd analysis with both TOFA and C75. C75 triggered apoptosis during S phase, whereas TOFA did not. Moreover, application of TOFA 2 h before C75 blocked the C75 induced apoptosis, whereas etomoxir did not. Taken together these data indicate that FAS inhibition and its downstream inhibition of phospholipid production is a necessary part of the mechanism of action of C75. CPT-1 stimulation does not likely play a role in the

  9. 1-11C-acetate as a PET radiopharmaceutical for imaging fatty acid synthase expression in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vāvere, Amy L; Kridel, Steven J; Wheeler, Frances B; Lewis, Jason S

    2008-02-01

    Although it is accepted that the metabolic fate of 1-(11)C-acetate is different in tumors than in myocardial tissue because of different clearance patterns, the exact pathway has not been fully elucidated. For decades, fatty acid synthesis has been quantified in vitro by the incubation of cells with (14)C-acetate. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) has been found to be overexpressed in prostate carcinomas, as well as other cancers, and it is possible that imaging with 1-(11)C-acetate could be a marker for its expression. In vitro and in vivo uptake experiments in prostate tumor models with 1-(11)C-acetate were performed both with and without blocking of fatty acid synthesis with either C75, an inhibitor of FAS, or 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA), an inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). FAS levels were measured by Western blot and immunohistochemical techniques for comparison. In vitro studies in 3 different prostate tumor models (PC-3, LNCaP, and 22Rv1) demonstrated blocking of 1-(11)C-acetate accumulation after treatment with both C75 and TOFA. This was further shown in vivo in PC-3 and LNCaP tumor-bearing mice after a single treatment with C75. A positive correlation between 1-(11)C-acetate uptake into the solid tumors and FAS expression levels was found. Extensive involvement of the fatty acid synthesis pathway in 1-(11)C-acetate uptake in prostate tumors was confirmed, leading to a possible marker for FAS expression in vivo by noninvasive PET.

  10. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Razor Clam Sinonovacula constricta: Characterization of Δ5 and Δ6 Fatty Acid Desaturases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Zhaoshou; Xu, Jilin; Liao, Kai; Li, Shuang; Chen, Shubing; Yan, Xiaojun

    2018-05-09

    To investigate the endogenous long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthetic ability in Sinonovacula constricta, fatty acid desaturases (Fads) of this bivalve, namely, Scfad5a, Scfad5b, and Scfad6, were cloned and characterized in the current study. Meanwhile, the tissue distributions of S. constricta Fads and fatty acids (FAs) were examined. Heterologous expression in yeasts confirmed that Scfad5a and Scfad5b were both Δ5 Fads, while Scfad6 was a Δ6 Fad. However, compared with Fads in other organisms, the desaturation activities of S. constricta Fads were relatively low (especially for Scfad6), indicating an adaptation to living conditions. S. constricta Fads were expressed in all tissues examined, and particularly high expressions were found in intestine and gonad. Moreover, FAs were differently distributed among tissues, which might be correlated with their corresponding physiological roles. Taken together, the results provided an insight into LC-PUFA biosynthesis in S. constricta. Notably, Scfad6 was the first functionally characterized Δ6 Fad in marine molluscs to date.

  11. Acute coronary syndrome patients with depression have low blood cell membrane omega-3 fatty acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Alpesh A; Menon, Rishi A; Reid, Kimberly J; Harris, William S; Spertus, John A

    2008-10-01

    To determine the extent to which levels of membrane eicosapentaenoic (EPA)+docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) (the omega-3 index) were associated with depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Depression is associated with worse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in patients with ACS. Reduced levels of blood cell membrane omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs), an emerging risk factor for both CV disease and depression, may help to explain the link between depression and adverse CV outcomes. We measured membrane FA composition in 759 patients with confirmed ACS. The analysis included not only EPA and DHA but also the n-6 FAs linoleic and arachidonic acids (LA and AA). Depressive symptoms were measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ). Multivariable linear regression was used to adjust for demographic and clinical characteristics. There was a significant inverse relationship between the n-3 index and depressive symptoms (PHQ) in the fully adjusted model (p = .034). For every 4.54% point rise in the n-3 index, there was a 1-point decline in depressive symptoms. In contrast to the n-3 FAs, membrane levels of the n-6 FAs LA and AA were not different between depressed and nondepressed ACS patients. We found an inverse relationship between the n-3 index and the prevalence of depressive symptoms in patients with ACS. Therefore, this study supports the hypothesis that reduced n-3 FA tissue levels are a common and potentially modifiable link between depression and adverse CV outcomes.

  12. In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Three Fatty Acids from Royal Jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Fan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trans-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-H2DA, 10-hydroxydecanoic acid (10-HDAA, and sebacic acid (SEA are the three major fatty acids in royal jelly (RJ. Previous studies have revealed several pharmacological activities of 10-H2DA and 10-HDAA, although the anti-inflammatory effects and underlying mechanisms by which SEA acts are poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated and compared the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of these RJ fatty acids in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results showed that 10-H2DA, 10-HDAA, and SEA had potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the release of the major inflammatory-mediators, nitric oxide, and interleukin-10, and only SEA decreased TNF-α production. Several key inflammatory genes have also been modulated by these RJ fatty acids, with 10-H2DA showing distinct modulating effects as compared to the other two FAs. Furthermore, we found that these three FAs regulated several proteins involved in MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Taken together, these findings provide additional references for using RJ against inflammatory diseases.

  13. Introduction to fatty acids and lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdge, Graham C; Calder, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the structure, function and metabolism of fatty acids and lipids that are of particular importance in the context of parenteral nutrition. Lipids are a heterogeneous group of molecules that share the common property of hydrophobicity. Lipids range in structure from simple short hydrocarbon chains to more complex molecules, including triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sterols and their esters. Lipids within each class may differ structurally. Fatty acids are common components of complex lipids, and these differ according to chain length and the presence, number and position of double bonds in the hydrocarbon chain. Structural variation among complex lipids and among fatty acids gives rise to functional differences that result in different impacts upon metabolism and upon cell and tissue responses. Fatty acids and complex lipids exhibit a variety of structural variations that influence their metabolism and their functional effects. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Fatty Acid Binding Proteins in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jett, Marti

    2000-01-01

    We have shown that there is a distinct pattern of fatty acid binding protein (FAEP) expression in prostate cancer vs normal cells and that finding has be confirmed in patient samples of biopsy specimens...

  15. Fatty acid synthesis by spinach chloroplasts, 2. The path from PGA to fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Yasunori [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of General Education

    1975-02-01

    By incorporation of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O into the fatty acid chain in the presence of unlabelled precursor, we showed that fatty acids are synthesized from PGA, PEP and pyruvate by intact spinach chloroplasts in the light. /sup 13/C-tracer experiments confirmed that 1-C of pyruvate is decarboxylated and 2-C is incorporated into fatty acids by the chloroplasts. The patterns of fatty acids synthesized from PGA and pyruvate were the same as that from acetate. The highest rate of fatty acid synthesis was reached at the physiological concentration of PGA (3 mM) and pyruvate (1 mM). These results indicate the operation of the following path in the chloroplasts in light: PGA..-->..PEP..-->..pyruvate..-->..acetylCoA..-->..fatty acids. Since citrate and OAA were much less active and malate and glyoxylate were inert as precursors for fatty acid synthesis, PEP or pyruvate carboxylation, citrate lyase reaction and malate synthetase reaction are not involved in the formation of acetylCoA and fatty acids. Since pyruvate was much more effective as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis than lactate, acetaldehyde or acetate, direct decarboxylation path is considered to be the primary path from pyruvate to acetylCoA. The insignificant effect of chloroplast-washing on fatty acid synthesis from PGA and pyruvate indicates that the glycolytic path from PGA to pyruvate is associated with the chloroplasts. Since pyruvate was more effectively incorporated into fatty acids than acetylCoA, it is unlikely that pyruvate decarboxylation to acetylCoA is due to mitochondria contaminating the chloroplast preparation. On the basis of measurements of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O incorporation in the light and dark, the activity of fatty acid synthesis in spincah leaves appears to be shared by the activities in chloroplasts (87%) and other organelles (13%).

  16. Changes in Sediment Fatty Acid Composition during Passage through the Gut of Deposit Feeding Holothurians: Holothuria atra (Jaeger, 1883 and Holothuria leucospilota (Brandt, 1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosper L. Mfilinge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS, foregut (FG, midgut (MG, hindgut (HG, and faecal pellets (FPs indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H. atra and H. leucospilota. Saturated fatty acids (SAFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, and branched fatty acids (BrFAs were significantly higher in FG than in AS, suggesting that both species selectively ingested nutrient rich particles. Significant reduction of SAFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and BrFAs occurred in MD and HD, with complete elimination of most PUFAs in FPs. A decrease in PUFAs 20:5ω3, 18:4ω3, 22:5ω3, 22:6ω3, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, 18:3ω6, odd-numbered BrFAs, and MUFA 18:1ω7 indicated that algal detritus and bacteria were important part of diet. These results have implications for the fate of specific dietary FAs, especially ω3 and ω6, and the contribution holothurian FPs make to the FA composition of coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems.

  17. Changes in Sediment Fatty Acid Composition during Passage through the Gut of Deposit Feeding Holothurians: Holothuria atra (Jaeger, 1883) and Holothuria leucospilota (Brandt, 1835)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA) composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS), foregut (FG), midgut (MG), hindgut (HG), and faecal pellets (FPs) indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H. atra and H. leucospilota. Saturated fatty acids (SAFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and branched fatty acids (BrFAs) were significantly higher in FG than in AS, suggesting that both species selectively ingested nutrient rich particles. Significant reduction of SAFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and BrFAs occurred in MD and HD, with complete elimination of most PUFAs in FPs. A decrease in PUFAs 20:5ω3, 18:4ω3, 22:5ω3, 22:6ω3, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, 18:3ω6, odd-numbered BrFAs, and MUFA 18:1ω7 indicated that algal detritus and bacteria were important part of diet. These results have implications for the fate of specific dietary FAs, especially ω3 and ω6, and the contribution holothurian FPs make to the FA composition of coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. PMID:27042355

  18. Novel fatty acid methyl esters from the actinomycete Micromonospora aurantiaca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Hilke; Riclea, Ramona

    2011-01-01

    Summary The volatiles released by Micromonospora aurantiaca were collected by means of a closed-loop stripping apparatus (CLSA) and analysed by GC–MS. The headspace extracts contained more than 90 compounds from different classes. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) comprised the major compound class including saturated unbranched, monomethyl and dimethyl branched FAMEs in diverse structural variants: Unbranched, α-branched, γ-branched, (ω−1)-branched, (ω−2)-branched, α- and (ω−1)-branched, γ- and (ω−1)-branched, γ- and (ω−2)-branched, and γ- and (ω−3)-branched FAMEs. FAMEs of the last three types have not been described from natural sources before. The structures for all FAMEs have been suggested based on their mass spectra and on a retention index increment system and verified by the synthesis of key reference compounds. In addition, the structures of two FAMEs, methyl 4,8-dimethyldodecanoate and the ethyl-branched compound methyl 8-ethyl-4-methyldodecanoate were deduced from their mass spectra. Feeding experiments with isotopically labelled [2H10]leucine, [2H10]isoleucine, [2H8]valine, [2H5]sodium propionate, and [methyl-2H3]methionine demonstrated that the responsible fatty acid synthase (FAS) can use different branched and unbranched starter units and is able to incorporate methylmalonyl-CoA elongation units for internal methyl branches in various chain positions, while the methyl ester function is derived from S-adenosyl methionine (SAM). PMID:22238549

  19. Synthesis of new fatty acids amides from aminolysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Carolina R.; Montes D'Oca, Caroline da Ros; Duarte, Rodrigo da C.; Kurz, Marcia H.S.; Primel, Ednei G.; Clementin, Rosilene M.; Villarreyes, Joaquin Ariel M.; Montes D'Oca, Marcelo G.

    2010-01-01

    Recent biochemical and pharmacological studies have led to the characterization of different fatty acid amides as a new family of biologically active lipids. Here, we describe the synthesis of new amides from C16:0, 18:0, 18:1 and 18:1, OH fatty acids (FFA) families with cyclic and acyclic amines and demonstrate for the first time that these compounds produce cytotoxic effects. Application of this method to the synthesis of fatty acid amides was performed using the esters aminolysis as a key step and various carboxylic amides were prepared in good yield from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). (author)

  20. Fatty Acid Composition of Meat from Ruminants, with Special Emphasis on trans Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Ovesen, L.; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition was determined in 39 samples of beef, 20 samples of veal, and 34 samples of lamb, representative of the supply of ruminant meat in Denmark. Five cuts of beef and veal and three cuts of lamb with increasing fat content were selected, and analysis of the fatty acid methyl...... esters was performed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) on a polar 50-m capillary column CP Sil 88 with flame-ionization detection. Lamb had the highest content of saturated fatty acids (52.8 +/- 1.8 g/100 g fatty acids), higher than beef and veal (45.3 +/- 3.1 and 45.4 +/- 0.8 g/100 g fatty acids......, respectively). Cis monounsaturated fatty acids were 49.2 +/- 3.1, 44.9 +/- 1.8, and 37.7 +/- 1.7, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 3.3 +/- 0.7, 5.8 +/- 2.0, and 5.0 +/- 0.1 g/100 g fatty acids in beef, veal, and lamb, respectively. Beef contained 2.1 +/- 0.8 g trans C-18:1 per 100 g fatty acids, about half...

  1. Evaluation of highly polar ionic liquid gas chromatographic column for the determination of the fatty acids in milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmonte, Pierluigi; Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Kramer, John K G; Mossoba, Magdi M; Sidisky, Len; Tyburczy, Cynthia; Rader, Jeanne I

    2012-04-13

    The SLB-IL111, a new ionic liquid capillary column for gas chromatography available from Supelco Inc., was recently shown to provide enhanced separation of unsaturated geometric and positional isomers of fatty acid (FAs) when it was compared to cyanopropylsiloxane (CPS) columns currently recommended for the analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). A 200 m SLB-IL111 capillary column, operated under a combined temperature and eluent flow gradient, was successfully used to resolve most of the FAs contained in milk fat in a single 80 min chromatographic separation. The selected chromatographic conditions provided a balanced, simultaneous separation of short-chain (from 4:0), long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and most of the unsaturated FA positional/geometric isomers contained in milk fat. Among the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), these conditions separated t11-18:1 and t10-18:1 FAs, the two most abundant trans fatty acids (t-FA) contained in most dairy products. These t-FAs reportedly have different biological activities. The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers commonly found in dairy products were separated from each other, including t7,c9-18:2 from c9,t11-18:2, which eliminated the need for their complementary silver ion HPLC analysis. The application of the SLB-IL111 column provided a complementary elution profile of FAMEs to those obtained by CPS columns, allowing for a more comprehensive FA analysis of total milk fat. The FAMEs were identified by the use of available reference materials, previously synthesized and characterized reference mixtures, and prior separations of the milk fat FAMEs by silver ion chromatography based on the number/geometry of double bonds. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auestad, N.

    1988-01-01

    Astrocytes were derived from cortex of two-day-old rat brain and grown in primary culture to confluence. The metabolism of the fatty acids, octanoate and palmitate, to CO 2 in oxidative respiration and to the formation of ketone bodies was examined by radiolabeled tracer methodology. The net production of acetoacetate was also determined by measurement of its mass. The enzymes in the ketogenic pathway were examined by measuring enzymic activity and/or by immunoblot analyses. Labeled CO 2 and labeled ketone bodies were produced from the oxidation of fatty acids labeled at carboxy- and ω-terminal carbons, indicating that fatty acids were oxidized by β-oxidation. The results from the radiolabeled tracer studies also indicated that a substantial proportion of the ω-terminal 4-carbon unit of the fatty acids bypassed the β-ketothiolase step of the β-oxidation pathway. The [ 14 C]acetoacetate formed from the [1- 14 C]labeled fatty acids, obligated to pass through the acetyl-CoA pool, contained 50% of the label at carbon 3 and 50% at carbon 1. In contrast, the [ 14 C]acetoacetate formed from the (ω-1)labeled fatty acids contained 90% of the label at carbon 3 and 10% at carbon 1

  3. Determination of the seasonal changes on total fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total fatty acid compositions and seasonal variations of Oncorhynchus mykiss in Ivriz Dam Lake, Turkey were investigated using gas chromatographic method. A total of 38 different fatty acids were determined in the fatty acid composition of rainbow trout. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found to be higher than ...

  4. n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids differentially modulate prostaglandin E secretion but not markers of lipogenesis in adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxton Arnold M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A dramatic rise in the incidence of obesity in the U.S. has accelerated the search for interventions that may impact this epidemic. One recently recognized target for such intervention is adipose tissue, which secretes a variety of bioactive substances including prostaglandins. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 has been shown to decrease lipolysis in adipocytes, but limited studies have explored alternative mechanisms by which PGE2 might impact obesity, such as adipogenesis or lipogenesis. Studies conducted on ApcMin/+ mice indicated that selective inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX-2 enzyme led to significant reductions in fatty acid synthase (FAS activity in adipose tissue suggesting lipogenic effects of PGE2. To further investigate whether these lipid mediators directly regulate lipogenesis, we used 3T3-L1 adipocytes to determine the impact of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and celecoxib on PGE2 formation and FAS used as a lipogenic marker. Both arachidonic acid (AA and EPA dose-dependently increased PGE secretion from adipocytes. AA was expectedly more potent and exhibiting at 150 uM dose a 5-fold increase in PGE2 secretion over EPA. Despite higher secretion of PGE by EPA and AA compared to control, neither PUFA significantly altered FAS activity. By contrast both AA and EPA significantly decreased FAS mRNA levels. Addition of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, significantly decreased PGE2 secretion (p 2 and celecoxib further decreased the FAS activity compared to PGE2 alone or untreated controls. In conclusion, EPA-mediated inhibition of AA metabolism did not significantly alter FAS activity while both AA and EPA significantly decreased FAS mRNA expression. COX-2 inhibition significantly decreased PGE2 production resulting in a decrease in FAS activity and expression that was not reversed with the addition of exogenous PGE2, suggesting an additional mechanism that is independent of COX-2.

  5. Transfer of omega-3 fatty acids across the blood-brain barrier after dietary supplementation with a docosahexaenoic acid-rich omega-3 fatty acid preparation in patients with Alzheimer's disease: the OmegAD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund Levi, Y; Vedin, I; Cederholm, T; Basun, H; Faxén Irving, G; Eriksdotter, M; Hjorth, E; Schultzberg, M; Vessby, B; Wahlund, L-O; Salem, N; Palmblad, J

    2014-04-01

    Little is known about the transfer of essential fatty acids (FAs) across the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) in adulthood. In this study, we investigated whether oral supplementation with omega-3 (n-3) FAs would change the FA profile of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A total of 33 patients (18 receiving the n-3 FA supplement and 15 receiving placebo) were included in the study. These patients were participants in the double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized OmegAD study in which 204 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) received 2.3 g n-3 FA [high in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] or placebo daily for 6 months. CSF FA levels were related to changes in plasma FA and to CSF biomarkers of AD and inflammation. At 6 months, the n-3 FA supplement group displayed significant increases in CSF (and plasma) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), DHA and total n-3 FA levels (P acid were strongly correlated, in contrast to those of DHA. Changes in DHA levels in CSF were inversely correlated with CSF levels of total and phosphorylated tau, and directly correlated with soluble interleukin-1 receptor type II. Thus, the more DHA increased in CSF, the greater the change in CSF AD/inflammatory biomarkers. Oral supplementation with n-3 FAs conferred changes in the n-3 FA profile in CSF, suggesting transfer of these FAs across the BBB in adults. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  6. Exposure to DEHP decreased four fatty acid levels in plasma of prepartum mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Yumi; Khalequzzaman, Md.; Jia, Xiaofang; Wang, Dong; Naito, Hisao; Ito, Yuki; Kamijima, Michihiro; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Nakajima, Tamie

    2013-01-01

    Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) decreased the plasma triglyceride in prepartum mice. To identify the fatty acid (FA) species involved and to understand the underlying mechanisms, pregnant Sv/129 wild-type (mPPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-null (Pparα-null) and humanized PPARα (hPPARα) mice were treated with diets containing 0%, 0.01%, 0.05% or 0.1% DEHP. Dams were dissected on gestational day 18 together with fetuses, and on postnatal day 2 together with newborns. n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated, saturated, and monounsaturated FAs in maternal plasma and in liver of wild-type offspring, and representative enzymes for FA desaturation and elongation in maternal liver, were measured. The plasma levels of linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid were higher in the pregnant control mPPARa mice than in Ppara-null and hPPARa mice. DEHP exposure significantly decreased the levels of these four FAs only in pregnant mPPARα mice. Plasma levels of many FAs were higher in pregnant mice than in postpartum ones in a genotype-independent manner, while it was lower in the livers of fetuses than pups. DEHP exposure slightly increased hepatic arachidonic acid, α-linolenic acid, palmitoleic acid and oleic acid in fetuses, but not in pups. However, DEHP exposure did not clearly influence FA desaturase 1 and 2 nor elongase 2 and 5 expressions in the liver of all maternal mice. Taken together, the levels of plasma four FAs with shorter carbon chains were higher in pregnant mPPARα mice than in other genotypes, and DEHP exposure decreased these specific FA concentrations only in mPPARα mice, similarly to triglyceride levels

  7. Curcumin improves alcoholic fatty liver by inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chang; Ma, Jingfan; Zhong, Qionghong; Zhao, Mengyuan; Hu, Tianxing; Chen, Tong; Qiu, Longxin; Wen, Longping

    2017-08-01

    Alcoholic fatty liver is a threat to human health. It has been long known that abstinence from alcohol is the most effective therapy, other effective therapies are not available for the treatment in humans. Curcumin has a great potential for anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation, but the effect on metabolic reconstruction remains little known. Here we performed metabolomic analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and explored ethanol pathogenic insight as well as curcumin action pattern. We identified seventy-one metabolites in mouse liver. Carbohydrates and lipids were characteristic categories. Pathway analysis results revealed that ethanol-induced pathways including biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid biosynthesis and pentose and glucuronate interconversions were suppressed by curcumin. Additionally, ethanol enhanced galactose metabolism and pentose phosphate pathway. Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism and pyruvate metabolism were inhibited in mice fed ethanol diet plus curcumin. Stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were disease biomarkers and therapical biomarkers. These results reflect the landscape of hepatic metabolism regulation. Our findings illustrate ethanol pathological pathway and metabolic mechanism of curcumin therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Scintigraphy with radioiodinated free fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis several clinical and animal experimental studies of free fatty acids labeled with radioiodine are discussed. These radiolabeled fatty acids are used for cardiac imaging. Besides, the elimination rate of the radioactivity from the myocardium, as observed during a scintigraphic study, is correlated with fatty acid metabolism. Uptake and distribution of I-heptadecanoic acid (I-HDA) and I-phenylpentadecanoic acid (I-PPA) are compared with those of thallium-201 (Tl-201) in the normal and ischemic canine myocardium. For determination of the elimination rate (expressed in terms of halftime values) of the radioactivity from the myocardium, regions of interest have to be drawn over a scintigram. A method is described resulting in more reliable demarcation of normal and abnormal regions within the scintigram. (Auth.)

  9. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-[ 14 C]palmitate to 14 CO 2 and total [ 14 C]acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO 2 and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 μM). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 μM and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine

  10. Dietary fatty acids and membrane protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M G

    1990-02-01

    In recent years, there has been growing public awareness of the potential health benefits of dietary fatty acids, and of the distinction between the effects of the omega6 and omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that are concentrated in vegetable and fish oils, respectively. A part of the biologic effectiveness of the two families of polyunsaturated fatty acids resides in their relative roles as precursors of the eicosanoids. However, we are also beginning to appreciate that as the major components of the hydrophobic core of the membrane bilayer, they can interact with and directly influence the functioning of select integral membrane proteins. Among the most important of these are the enzymes, receptors, and ion channels that are situated in the plasma membrane of the cell, since they carry out the communication and homeostatic processes that are necessary for normal cell function. This review examines current information regarding the effects of diet-induced changes in plasma membrane fatty acid composition on several specific enzymes (adenylate cyclase, 5'-nucleotidase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) and cell-surface receptors (opiate, adrenergic, insulin). Dietary manipulation studies have demonstrated a sensitivity of each to a fatty acid environment that is variably dependent on the nature of the fatty acid(s) and/or source of the membrane. The molecular mechanisms appear to involve fatty acid-dependent effects on protein conformation, on the "fluidity" and/or thickness of the membrane, or on protein synthesis. Together, the results of these studies reinforce the concept that dietary fats have the potential to regulate physiologic function and to further our understanding of how this occurs at a membrane level.

  11. Electrophilic nitro-fatty acids suppress allergic contact dermatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, A R; Carey, C D; Killeen, M E; Diaz-Perez, J A; Salvatore, S R; Schopfer, F J; Freeman, B A; Falo, L D

    2017-04-01

    Reactions between nitric oxide (NO), nitrite (NO2-), and unsaturated fatty acids give rise to electrophilic nitro-fatty acids (NO 2 -FAs), such as nitro oleic acid (OA-NO 2 ) and nitro linoleic acid (LNO 2 ). Endogenous electrophilic fatty acids (EFAs) mediate anti-inflammatory responses by modulating metabolic and inflammatory signal transduction reactions. Hence, there is considerable interest in employing NO 2 -FAs and other EFAs for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory disorders. Thus, we sought to determine whether OA-NO 2 , an exemplary nitro-fatty acid, has the capacity to inhibit cutaneous inflammation. We evaluated the effect of OA-NO 2 on allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) using an established model of contact hypersensitivity in C57Bl/6 mice utilizing 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene as the hapten. We found that subcutaneous (SC) OA-NO 2 injections administered 18 h prior to sensitization and elicitation suppresses ACD in both preventative and therapeutic models. In vivo SC OA-NO 2 significantly inhibits pathways that lead to inflammatory cell infiltration and the production of inflammatory cytokines in the skin. Moreover, OA-NO 2 is capable of enhancing regulatory T-cell activity. Thus, OA-NO 2 treatment results in anti-inflammatory effects capable of inhibiting ACD by inducing immunosuppressive responses. Overall, these results support the development of OA-NO 2 as a promising therapeutic for ACD and provides new insights into the role of electrophilic fatty acids in the control of cutaneous immune responses potentially relevant to a broad range of allergic and inflammatory skin diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Nitro-fatty acid pharmacokinetics in the adipose tissue compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzari, Marco; Khoo, Nicholas K H; Woodcock, Steven R; Jorkasky, Diane K; Li, Lihua; Schopfer, Francisco J; Freeman, Bruce A

    2017-02-01

    Electrophilic nitro-FAs (NO 2 -FAs) promote adaptive and anti-inflammatory cell signaling responses as a result of an electrophilic character that supports posttranslational protein modifications. A unique pharmacokinetic profile is expected for NO 2 -FAs because of an ability to undergo reversible reactions including Michael addition with cysteine-containing proteins and esterification into complex lipids. Herein, we report via quantitative whole-body autoradiography analysis of rats gavaged with radiolabeled 10-nitro-[ 14 C]oleic acid, preferential accumulation in adipose tissue over 2 weeks. To better define the metabolism and incorporation of NO 2 -FAs and their metabolites in adipose tissue lipids, adipocyte cultures were supplemented with 10-nitro-oleic acid (10-NO 2 -OA), nitro-stearic acid, nitro-conjugated linoleic acid, and nitro-linolenic acid. Then, quantitative HPLC-MS/MS analysis was performed on adipocyte neutral and polar lipid fractions, both before and after acid hydrolysis of esterified FAs. NO 2 -FAs preferentially incorporated in monoacyl- and diacylglycerides, while reduced metabolites were highly enriched in triacylglycerides. This differential distribution profile was confirmed in vivo in the adipose tissue of NO 2 -OA-treated mice. This pattern of NO 2 -FA deposition lends new insight into the unique pharmacokinetics and pharmacologic actions that could be expected for this chemically-reactive class of endogenous signaling mediators and synthetic drug candidates. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Effects of varying levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid composition and prostanoid synthesis in pregnant rats. Four groups consisting of seven rats per group of non pregnant rats were fed diets with either a very low n-6:n-3 ratio of 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil ...

  14. Automatic identification approach for high-performance liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring fatty acid global profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Cai; Hu, Ting; Jia, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Jin-Lan

    2015-08-18

    Fatty acids (FAs) are a group of lipid molecules that are essential to organisms. As potential biomarkers for different diseases, FAs have attracted increasing attention from both biological researchers and the pharmaceutical industry. A sensitive and accurate method for globally profiling and identifying FAs is required for biomarker discovery. The high selectivity and sensitivity of high-performance liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring (HPLC-MRM) gives it great potential to fulfill the need to identify FAs from complicated matrices. This paper developed a new approach for global FA profiling and identification for HPLC-MRM FA data mining. Mathematical models for identifying FAs were simulated using the isotope-induced retention time (RT) shift (IRS) and peak area ratios between parallel isotope peaks for a series of FA standards. The FA structures were predicated using another model based on the RT and molecular weight. Fully automated FA identification software was coded using the Qt platform based on these mathematical models. Different samples were used to verify the software. A high identification efficiency (greater than 75%) was observed when 96 FA species were identified in plasma. This FAs identification strategy promises to accelerate FA research and applications.

  15. Modular Regiospecific Synthesis of Nitrated Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hock, Katharina J.; Grimmer, Jennifer; Göbel, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous nitrated fatty acids are an important class of signaling molecules. Herein a modular route for the efficient and regiospecific preparation of nitrooleic acids as well as various analogues is described. The approach is based on a simple set of alkyl halides as common building blocks...

  16. Imaging with 123I labelled fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudczak, R.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the clinical results obtained with radioiodinated aromatic and aliphatic fatty acids. The radiopharmaceuticals were 123 I labelled p-phenylpentadecanoic (p-IPPA) and 123 I labelled heptadecanoic acid (HDA). The possibility to evaluate the myocardial metabolic function in man noninvasively add a complementary diagnostic tool in the clinical follow-up of patients with heart disease. (Auth.)

  17. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    ) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement......The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2...

  18. The effect of n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios on broiler breeder performance, hatchability, fatty acid profile and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibjoo, A; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A; Zaghari, M

    2018-04-20

    This experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary omega6 (n-6) to omega3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) ratios on performance and reproduction of broiler breeders. In experiment 1, 400 females and 40 males (30 week age) of Ross 308 broiler breeder (20 females and two males in each pen) were randomly assigned to one of the four diets with n-6/n-3 FA ratios of 4, 6, 8 and 16 (control). As a measure of hatchability, fertility of eggs and general incubation traits, 1,200 eggs (60 eggs from each pen) were collected and incubated for 21 days and embryo liver and brain fatty acid profile in 14 and 21 days were determined. In experiment 2, 48 males (three males in each pen) randomly assigned to one of the four diets with n-6/n-3 FA ratios of 4, 6, 8 and 16 (control). Semen was collected twice weekly, and semen volume, spermatozoa concentration and motility and alive and dead spermatozoa were estimated. Egg production and egg mass were decreased by n-6/n-3 FA ratios of 4:1 and 6:1 (p n-3 of egg yolk, semen, testis and liver and brain of embryo and day-old chicken were increased while concentration of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosatetraenoic acid of mentioned tissues were decreased by increasing n-6/n-3 FA ratios (p > .05). In conclusion, absolute amount of n-3 and n-6 FAs in broiler breeder diet may be more important than n-6/n-3 FA ratios and to consider reproductive and performance traits of breeders, it is necessary to supply higher levels of n-3 and n-6 FA with respect to n-6/n-3 FA ratios. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Associations of fatty acids in cerebrospinal fluid with peripheral glucose concentrations and energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Jumpertz

    Full Text Available Rodent experiments have emphasized a role of central fatty acid (FA species, such as oleic acid, in regulating peripheral glucose and energy metabolism. Thus, we hypothesized that central FAs are related to peripheral glucose regulation and energy expenditure in humans. To test this we measured FA species profiles in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma of 32 individuals who stayed in our clinical inpatient unit for 6 days. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and glucose regulation by an oral glucose test (OGTT followed by measurements of 24 hour (24EE and sleep energy expenditure (SLEEP as well as respiratory quotient (RQ in a respiratory chamber. CSF was obtained via lumbar punctures; FA concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. As expected, FA concentrations were higher in plasma compared to CSF. Individuals with high concentrations of CSF very-long-chain saturated FAs had lower rates of SLEEP. In the plasma moderate associations of these FAs with higher 24EE were observed. Moreover, CSF monounsaturated long-chain FA (palmitoleic and oleic acid concentrations were associated with lower RQs and lower glucose area under the curve during the OGTT. Thus, FAs in the CSF strongly correlated with peripheral metabolic traits. These physiological parameters were most specific to long-chain monounsaturated (C16:1, C18:1 and very-long-chain saturated (C24:0, C26:0 FAs.Together with previous animal experiments these initial cross-sectional human data indicate that central FA species are linked to peripheral glucose and energy homeostasis.

  20. Fatty acid oxidation in skeletal and cardiac muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatz, J.F.C.

    1983-01-01

    The biochemical investigations described in this thesis deal with two aspects of fatty acid oxidation in muscle: a comparison of the use of cell-free and cellular systems for oxidation measurements, and studies on the assay and the role of the fatty acid binding protein in fatty acid metabolism. The fatty acid oxidation rates are determined radiochemically by the sum of 14 CO 2 and 14 C-labeled acid-soluble products formed during oxidation of [ 14 C]-fatty acids. A radiochemical procedure for the assay of fatty acid binding by proteins is described. (Auth.)

  1. Unusual fatty acid substitution in lipids and lipopolysaccharides of Helicobacter pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Geis, G; Leying, H; Suerbaum, S; Opferkuch, W

    1990-01-01

    Cellular fatty acids, phospholipid fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharide fatty acids of four strains of Helicobacter pylori were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The presence of myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid, beta-hydroxypalmitic acid, and beta-hydroxystearic acid was confirmed. In phospholipids, myristic acid and 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid were the major fatty acids. Hydroxy fatty acids and unsaturated fatt...

  2. Dietary fatty acids and lipoproteins on progression of age-related macular degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, S.; Naranjo, M.C.; Bermúdez, B.; López, S.; Abia, R.; Muriana, F.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a medical condition of central loss vision and blindness. Numerous studies have revealed that changes on certain dietary fatty acids (FAs) could have useful for AMD management. This review summarizes the effects of dietary omega-3 long-chain PUFAs, MUFAs, and SFAs, and lipoproteins on AMD. Findings are consistent with the beneficial role of dietary omega-3 long-chain PUFAs, while the effects of dietary MUFAs and SFAs appeared to be ambiguous with respect to the possible protection from MUFAs and to the possible adverse impact from SFAs on AMD. Some of the pathological mechanisms associated with lipoproteins on AMD share those observed previously in cardiovascular diseases. It was also noticed that the effects of FAs in the diet and lipoprotein on AMD could be modulated by genetic variants. From a population health perspective, the findings of this review are in favour of omega-3 long-chain FAs recommendations in a preventive and therapeutic regimen to attain lower AMD occurrence and progression rates. Additional long-term and short-term nutrigenomic studies are required to clearly establish the role and the relevance of interaction of dietary FAs, lipoproteins, and genes in the genesis and progression of AMD. [es

  3. Dietary fatty acids and lipoproteins on progression of age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Montserrat-de la Paz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a medical condition of central loss vision and blindness. Numerous studies have revealed that changes on certain dietary fatty acids (FAs could have useful for AMD management. This review summarizes the effects of dietary omega-3 long-chain PUFAs, MUFAs, and SFAs, and lipoproteins on AMD. Findings are consistent with the beneficial role of dietary omega-3 long-chain PUFAs, while the effects of dietary MUFAs and SFAs appeared to be ambiguous with respect to the possible protection from MUFAs and to the possible adverse impact from SFAs on AMD. Some of the pathological mechanisms associated with lipoproteins on AMD share those observed previously in cardiovascular diseases. It was also noticed that the effects of FAs in the diet and lipoprotein on AMD could be modulated by genetic variants. From a population health perspective, the findings of this review are in favour of omega-3 long-chain FAs recommendations in a preventive and therapeutic regimen to attain lower AMD occurrence and progression rates. Additional long-term and short-term nutrigenomic studies are required to clearly establish the role and the relevance of interaction of dietary FAs, lipoproteins, and genes in the genesis and progression of AMD.

  4. Chain-modified radioiodinated fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Several carbon chain manipulations have been studied in terms of their effects on myocardial activity levels and residence time. The manipulations examined included: chain length, chain branching, chain unsaturation, and carbon-iodine bond stabilization. It was found that chain length affects myocardial activity levels for both straight-chain alkyl acids and branched chain alkyl and aryl acids. Similar results have been reported for the straight-chain aryl acids. Generally, the longer chain lengths correlated with higher myocardial activity levels and longer residence times. This behavior is attributed to storage as triglycerides. Branched chain acids are designed to be anti-metabolites but only the aryl β-methyl acids possessed the expected time course of constant or very slowly decreasing activity levels. The alkyl β-methyl acids underwent rapid deiodination - a process apparently independent of β-oxidation. Inhibition of β-oxidation by incorporation of carbon-carbon double and triple bonds was studied. Deiodination of ω-iodo alkyl fatty acids prevented an assessment of suicide inhibition using an unsaturated alkynoic acid. Stabilization of the carbon-iodine bond by attachment of iodine to a vinylic or aryl carbon was studied. The low myocardial values and high blood values observed for an eleven carbon ω-iodo vinylic fatty acid were not encouraging but ω-iodo aryl fatty acids appear to avoid the problems of rapid deiodination. (Auth.)

  5. Features of fatty acid synthesis in higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, M [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of General Education; Nakamura, Y

    1975-07-01

    In the biosynthesis of fatty acid in the presence of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O, /sup 3/H is incorporated into the hydrocarbon chain of the fatty acid. The features in the fatty acid synthesis of higher plants were investigated by applying /sup 3/H/sub 2/O method to the measurement of the ability of spinach leaves synthesizing fatty acid. Sucrose, acetate, pyruvate, PGA, PEP, OAA, citrate, etc. were employed as the substrates of fatty acid synthesis to trace the process of synthesis of each fatty acid. The demand of various cofactors related to the ability of spinach chloroplast fatty acid synthesizing was also examined. Light dependence of the fatty acid synthesis of chloroplast as well as the influences of N,N'-dicyclohexyl carbodiimide, carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy phenyl hydrazone and NH/sub 4/Cl were discussed. The results were compared with the reports on the fatty acid synthesis of avocado pear, castor bean, etc.

  6. Probing fatty acid metabolism in bacteria, cyanobacteria, green microalgae and diatoms with natural and unnatural fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beld, Joris; Abbriano, Raffaela; Finzel, Kara; Hildebrand, Mark; Burkart, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fatty acid synthases are responsible for the biosynthesis of fatty acids in an iterative process, extending the fatty acid by two carbon units every cycle. Thus, odd numbered fatty acids are rarely found in nature. We tested whether representatives of diverse microbial phyla have the ability to incorporate odd-chain fatty acids as substrates for their fatty acid synthases and their downstream enzymes. We fed various odd and short chain fatty acids to the bacterium Escherichia coli, cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Major differences were observed, specifically in the ability among species to incorporate and elongate short chain fatty acids. We demonstrate that E. coli, C. reinhardtii, and T. pseudonana can produce longer fatty acid products from short chain precursors (C3 and C5), while Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 lacks this ability. However, Synechocystis can incorporate and elongate longer chain fatty acids due to acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasS) activity, and knockout of this protein eliminates the ability to incorporate these fatty acids. In addition, expression of a characterized AasS from Vibrio harveyii confers a similar capability to E. coli. The ability to desaturate exogenously added fatty acids was only observed in Synechocystis and C. reinhardtii. We further probed fatty acid metabolism of these organisms by feeding desaturase inhibitors to test the specificity of long-chain fatty acid desaturases. In particular, supplementation with thia fatty acids can alter fatty acid profiles based on the location of the sulfur in the chain. We show that coupling sensitive gas chromatography mass spectrometry to supplementation of unnatural fatty acids can reveal major differences between fatty acid metabolism in various organisms. Often unnatural fatty acids have antibacterial or even therapeutic properties. Feeding of short

  7. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) fatty acid synthase complex: enoyl-[acyl carrier protein]-reductase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Thuillier, Irene; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Garcés, Rafael; von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Enoyl-[acyl carrier protein]-reductases from sunflower. A major factor contributing to the amount of fatty acids in plant oils are the first steps of their synthesis. The intraplastidic fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in plants is catalysed by type II fatty acid synthase (FAS). The last step in each elongation cycle is carried out by the enoyl-[ACP]-reductase, which reduces the dehydrated product of β-hydroxyacyl-[ACP] dehydrase using NADPH or NADH. To determine the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds, two enoyl-[ACP]-reductase genes have been identified and cloned from developing seeds with 75 % identity: HaENR1 (GenBank HM021137) and HaENR2 (HM021138). The two genes belong to the ENRA and ENRB families in dicotyledons, respectively. The genetic duplication most likely originated after the separation of di- and monocotyledons. RT-qPCR revealed distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. Highest expression of HaENR1 was in roots, stems and developing cotyledons whereas that of H a ENR2 was in leaves and early stages of seed development. Genomic DNA gel blot analyses suggest that both are single-copy genes. In vivo activity of the ENR enzymes was tested by complementation experiments with the JP1111 fabI(ts) E. coli strain. Both enzymes were functional demonstrating that they interacted with the bacterial FAS components. That different fatty acid profiles resulted infers that the two Helianthus proteins have different structures, substrate specificities and/or reaction rates. The latter possibility was confirmed by in vitro analysis with affinity-purified heterologous-expressed enzymes that reduced the crotonyl-CoA substrate using NADH with different V max.

  8. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

  9. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Günç Ergönül

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2. Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids.

  10. Lipids and fatty acids in roasted chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, S A; Visentainer, J V; Matsushita, M; Souza, N E

    1999-09-01

    Total lipids from meat portions of breast, thigh, wing, side and back with and without skin from 10 roasted chickens were extracted with chloroform and methanol and gravimetrically determined, and their fatty acids were analysed as methyl esters by gaseous chromatography, using a flame ionization detector and capillary column. The main fatty acids found were: C16:0, C18:1 omega 9, and C18:2 omega 6. The average ratio observed between PUFA/SFA was of 0.98, mainly due to the great concentration of the C18:2 omega 6 fatty acid, with an average of 26.75%. Regarding to the lipids content, the skinless breast showed the lowest content, 0.78 g/100 g, while the back with skin was the one with the highest content, 12.13 g/100 g except for the pure skin, with 26.54 grams of lipids by 100 grams.

  11. [Study on the seasonal variations of the active components in Acer truncatum leaves and the inhibitory ability on fatty acid synthase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuan-Jie; Ye, Yan-Bin; Gao, Wen; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Ying-Xia

    2010-11-01

    To study the dynamic variations of the contents of total polyphenols, flvonoids and chlorogenic acid from Acer truncatum leaves in different months, and their inhibitory activities on fatty acid synthase. Spectrophotometry was used to determine the contents of total polyphenols, flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in extracts and the extracts' inhibitory effects were also investigated. All Leaves picked from May to November have inhibitory effect. But the contents of polyphenols in leaves of July appeared to be higher than other months', and consequently exhibited stronger inhibition against FAS. A positive correlation between the content of polyphenols in leaves extract and the inhibitory efficacy on FAS could be established.

  12. Dietary fat source affects metabolism of fatty acids in pigs as evaluated by altered expression of lipogenic genes in liver and adipose tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duran-Montge, P; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about pig gene expressions related to dietary fatty acids (FAs) and most work have been conducted in rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate how dietary fats regulate fat metabolism of pigs in different tissues. Fifty-six crossbred gilts (62 ± 5.2 kg BW) were fed one of ...

  13. In silico investigation of lavandulyl flavonoids for the development of potent fatty acid synthase-inhibitory prototypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Joonseok; Liu, Haining; Park, Hyun Bong; Ferreira, Daneel; Jeong, Gil-Saeng; Hamann, Mark T; Doerksen, Robert J; Na, MinKyun

    2017-01-01

    Inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS) is regarded as a sensible therapeutic strategy for the development of optimal anti-cancer agents. Flavonoids exhibit potent anti-neoplastic properties. The MeOH extract of Sophora flavescens was subjected to chromatographic analyses such as VLC and HPLC for the purification of active flavonoids. The DP4 chemical-shift analysis protocol was employed to investigate the elusive chirality of the lavandulyl moiety of the purified polyphenols. Induced Fit docking protocols and per-residue analyses were utilized to scrutinize structural prerequisites for hampering FAS activity. The FAS-inhibitory activity of the purified flavonoids was assessed via the incorporation of [ 3 H] acetyl-CoA into palmitate. Six flavonoids, including lavandulyl flavanones, were purified and evaluated for FAS inhibition. The lavandulyl flavanone sophoraflavanone G (2) exhibited the highest potency (IC 50 of 6.7±0.2μM), which was more potent than the positive controls. Extensive molecular docking studies revealed the structural requirements for blocking FAS. Per-residue interaction analysis demonstrated that the lavandulyl functional group in the active flavonoids (1-3 and 5) significantly contributed to increasing their binding affinity towards the target enzyme. This research suggests a basis for the in silico design of a lavandulyl flavonoid-based architecture showing anti-cancer effects via enhancement of the binding potential to FAS. FAS inhibition by flavonoids and their derivatives may offer significant potential as an approach to lower the risk of various cancer diseases and related fatalities. In silico technologies with available FAS crystal structures may be of significant use in optimizing preliminary leads. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fish, n-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular diseases in women of reproductive age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Mortensen, Erik L

    2012-01-01

    was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (adjusted hazard ratio for women in lowest versus highest LCn3FA intake group: 1.91 [95% CI: 1.26-2.90]). Restricting the sample to women who had consistently reported similar frequencies of fish intake across 3 different dietary assessment......Previous studies have indicated a protective effect of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3FAs) against cardiovascular disease; however, women are underrepresented in cardiovascular research. The aim of this study was to explore the association between intake of LCn3FAs and the risk...... of cardiovascular disease in a large prospective cohort of young women (mean age at baseline: 29.9 years [range: 15.7-46.9]). Exposure information on 48 627 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort was linked to the Danish National Patients Registry for information on events of hypertensive, cerebrovascular...

  15. Fatty acid profiles among the Inuit of Nunavik: current status and temporal change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proust, Françoise; Lucas, Michel; Dewailly, Eric

    2014-05-01

    The Inuit undergo substantial changes in their lifestyle, but few data exist on how these changes occur in biomarkers, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Here, we report data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 among 861 representative Nunavik Inuit adults, in whom FAs were measured in red blood cells (RBCs). FAs were also measured in plasma phospholipids (n=452) to assess temporal trend by comparing plasma PUFAs measured in 1992. Food intakes were estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. In 2004, marine food intake was 84±4g/d (±SEM). Adjusted-mean of RBC omega-3 was significantly higher, and omega-6 lower, in older age groups (PtrendInuit adults still have high RBC omega-3, but show signs of nutritional transition - as indicated by lower omega-3 and higher trans-fats in RBCs of young compared to older. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Danish trans-fatty acids ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2017-01-01

    In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled the crea......In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled...

  17. Fatty acids in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel M Alikunhi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los ácidos grasos se han utilizado con éxito para estudiar la transferencia de materia orgánica en las redes alimentarias costeras y estuarinas. Para delinear las interacciones tróficas en las redes, se analizaron perfiles de ácidos grasos en las especies de microbios (Azotobacter vinelandii y Lactobacillus xylosus, camarones (Metapenaeus monoceros y Macrobrachium rosenbergii y peces (Mugil cephalus, que están asociadas con la descomposición de las hojas de dos especies de mangle, Rhizophora apiculata y Avicennia marina. Los ácidos grasos, con excepción de los de cadena larga, exhiben cambios durante la descomposición de las hojas de mangle, con una reducción de los ácidos grasos saturados y un aumento de los monoinsaturados. Los ácidos grasos ramificados están ausentes en las hojas de mangle sin descomponer, pero presentes de manera significativa en las hojas descompuestas, en camarones y peces, representando una fuente importante para ellos. Esto revela que los microbios son productores dominantes que contribuyen significativamente con los peces y camarones en el ecosistema de manglar. Este trabajo demuestra que los marcadores biológicos de los ácidos grasos son una herramienta eficaz para la identificación de las interacciones tróficas entre los productores dominantes y consumidores en este manglar.Fatty acids have been successfully used to trace the transfer of organic matter in coastal and estuarine food webs. To delineate these web connections, fatty acid profiles were analyzed in species of microbes (Azotobacter vinelandii, and Lactobacillus xylosus, prawns (Metapenaeus monoceros and Macrobrachium rosenbergii and finfish (Mugil cephalus, that are associated with decomposing leaves of two mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina. The fatty acids, except long chain fatty acids, exhibit changes during decomposition of mangrove leaves with a reduction of saturated fatty acids and an increase of

  18. Ruminant and industrially produced trans fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    % of the fatty acids in trans form compared to the content in ruminant fat which generally does not exceed 6%. In Western Europe, including Scandinavia, the average daily intake of IP-TFA has decreased during the recent decade due to societal pressure and a legislative ban, whereas the intake of RP-TFA has......Fatty acids of trans configuration in our food come from two different sources - industrially produced partially hydrogenated fat (IP-TFA) used in frying oils, margarines, spreads, and in bakery products, and ruminant fat in dairy and meat products (RP-TFA). The first source may contain up to 60...

  19. Prevalent mutations in fatty acid oxidation disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, N; Andresen, B S; Bross, P

    2000-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The mutational spectrum in a given disease-associated gene is often comprised of a large number of different mutations, of which a single or a few are present in a large proportion of diseased individuals. Such prevalent mutations are known in four genes of the fatty acid oxidation...... of the disease in question and determination of the carrier frequency in the general population may help in elucidating the penetrance of the genotype. This is exemplified in disorders of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation....

  20. Fatty acid composition of forage herb species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, D.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Cone, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy......, Phleum pratense) were sown in a cutting trial. The chemical composition and concentration of fatty acids (FA) of individual species were determined during the growing season. Concentrations of crude protein and FA were generally higher in the herbs than in timothy. C. intybus had the highest nutritive...

  1. Biological study of some labeled C16 fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riche, F.; Mathieu, J.P.; Busquet, G.; Vidal, M.; Comet, M.; Pernin, C. (C.H.R.U. de Grenoble, 38 - La Tronche (France)); Godart, J.; Benabed, A. (Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, 38 - Grenoble (France)); Bardy, A. (C.E.A.-ORIS, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of myocardial, blood, liver and kidney activity is studied in mice after I.V. injection of some labelled C16 fatty acids. With ..omega.. iodo fatty acids, the presence or absence of a double bond and the character Z or E have no influence on the tissue activity. The presence of a triple bond decreases the fixation, modifies the intramyocardial metabolism of the fatty acid and accelerates the rate of decrease of myocardial activity. ..omega.. bromo fatty acid have the same maximal fixation as ..omega.. iodo fatty acid but a more rapid decrease of myocardial activity. ..cap alpha.. iodo fatty acid has a very low myocardial fixation.

  2. Biological study of some labeled C16 fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riche, F.; Mathieu, J.P.; Busquet, G.; Vidal, M.; Comet, M.; Pernin, C.; Godart, J.; Benabed, A.; Bardy, A.

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of myocardial, blood, liver and kidney activity is studied in mice after I.V. injection of some labelled C16 fatty acids. With ω iodo fatty acids, the presence or absence of a double bond and the character Z or E have no influence on the tissue activity. The presence of a triple bond decreases the fixation, modifies the intramyocardial metabolism of the fatty acid and accelerates the rate of decrease of myocardial activity. ω bromo fatty acid have the same maximal fixation as ω iodo fatty acid but a more rapid decrease of myocardial activity. α iodo fatty acid has a very low myocardial fixation [fr

  3. Fatty acid composition of Swedish bakery products, with emphasis on trans-fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, Sofia; Becker, Wulf; Wretling, Sören; Öhrvik, Veronica; Mattisson, Irene

    2015-05-15

    Trans-fatty acids (TFA) have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, by affecting blood lipids and inflammation factors. Current nutrition recommendations emphasise a limitation of dietary TFA intake. The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acid composition in sweet bakery products, with emphasis on TFA, on the Swedish market and compare fatty acid composition over time. Products were sampled in 2001, 2006 and 2007 and analysed for fatty acid composition by using GC. Mean TFA levels were 0.7% in 2007 and 5.9% in 2001 of total fatty acids. In 1995-97, mean TFA level was 14.3%. In 2007, 3 of 41 products had TFA levels above 2% of total fatty acids. TFA content had decreased in this product category, while the proportion of saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids had increased, mostly through increased levels of 16:0 and 18:2 n-6, respectively. The total fat content remained largely unchanged. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Frictional response of fatty acids on steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Rashmi R; Biswas, S K

    2009-05-15

    Self-assembled monolayers of fatty acids were formed on stainless steel by room-temperature solution deposition. The acids are covalently bound to the surface as carboxylate in a bidentate manner. To explore the effect of saturation in the carbon backbone on friction in sliding tribology, we study the response of saturated stearic acid (SA) and unsaturated linoleic acid (LA) as self-assembled monolayers using lateral force microscopy and nanotribometry and when the molecules are dispersed in hexadecane, using pin-on-disc tribometry. Over a very wide range (10 MPa-2.5 GPa) of contact pressures it is consistently demonstrated that the unsaturated linoleic acid molecules yield friction which is significantly lower than that of the saturated stearic acid. It is argued, using density functional theory predictions and XPS of slid track, that when the molecular backbone of unsaturated fatty acids are tilted and pressed strongly by a probe, in tribological contact, the high charge density of the double bond region of the backbone allows coupling with the steel substrate. The interaction yields a low friction carboxylate soap film on the substrate. The saturated fatty acid does not show this effect.

  5. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid...

  6. The clinical relevance of omega-3 fatty acids in the management of hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, James; Anzalone, Deborah; Hilleman, Daniel; Catini, Julia

    2016-07-22

    Hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides > 150 mg/dL) affects ~25 % of the United States (US) population and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥ 500 mg/dL) is also a risk factor for pancreatitis. Three omega-3 fatty acid (OM3FA) prescription formulations are approved in the US for the treatment of adults with severe hypertriglyceridemia: (1) OM3FA ethyl esters (OM3EE), a mixture of OM3FA ethyl esters, primarily eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (Lovaza®, Omtryg™, and generics); (2) icosapent ethyl (IPE), EPA ethyl esters (Vascepa®); and (3) omega-3 carboxylic acids (OM3CA), a mixture of OM3FAs in free fatty acid form, primarily EPA, DHA, and docosapentaenoic acid (Epanova®). At approved doses, all formulations substantially reduce triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein levels. DHA-containing formulations may also increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, this is not accompanied by increased non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which is thought to provide a better indication of cardiovascular risk in this patient population. Proposed mechanisms of action of OM3FAs include inhibition of diacylglycerol acyltransferase, increased plasma lipoprotein lipase activity, decreased hepatic lipogenesis, and increased hepatic β-oxidation. OM3CA bioavailability (area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to the last measurable concentration) is up to 4-fold greater than that of OM3FA ethyl esters, and unlike ethyl esters, the absorption of OM3CA is not dependent on pancreatic lipase hydrolysis. All three formulations are well tolerated (the most common adverse events are gastrointestinal) and demonstrate a lack of drug-drug interactions with other lipid-lowering drugs, such as statins and fibrates. OM3FAs appear to be an effective treatment option for patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia.

  7. Profiling of Fatty Acids Composition in Suet Oil Based on GC–EI-qMS and Chemometrics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid (FA composition of suet oil (SO was measured by precolumn methylesterification (PME optimized using a Box–Behnken design (BBD and gas chromatography/electron ionization-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC–EI-qMS. A spectral library (NIST 08 and standard compounds were used to identify FAs in SO representing 90.89% of the total peak area. The ten most abundant FAs were derivatized into FA methyl esters (FAMEs and quantified by GC–EI-qMS; the correlation coefficient of each FAME was 0.999 and the lowest concentration quantified was 0.01 μg/mL. The range of recovery of the FAMEs was 82.1%–98.7% (relative standard deviation 2.2%–6.8%. The limits of quantification (LOQ were 1.25–5.95 μg/L. The number of carbon atoms in the FAs identified ranged from 12 to 20; hexadecanoic and octadecanoic acids were the most abundant. Eighteen samples of SO purchased from Qinghai, Anhui and Jiangsu provinces of China were categorized into three groups by principal component analysis (PCA according to the contents of the most abundant FAs. The results showed SOs samples were rich in FAs with significantly different profiles from different origins. The method described here can be used for quality control and SO differentiation on the basis of the FA profile.

  8. Inhibition of carnitine-acyl transferase I by oxfenicine studied in vivo with [11C]-labeled fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angsten, Gertrud; Valind, Sven; Takalo, Reijo; Neu, Henrik; Meurling, Staffan; Langstroem, Bengt

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Anesthetized pigs were studied with [ 11 C]-labeled fatty acids (FAs) with carbon chain length ranging from 8 to 16 carbon atoms, during control conditions and during inhibition of carnitine-palmitoyl transferase I (CPT I) with oxfenicine. The myocardial uptake of [ 11 C]-FAs from blood was measured together with the relative distribution of [ 11 C]-acyl-CoA between rapid mitochondrial oxidation and incorporation into slow turnover lipid pools in the heart. Results: During baseline conditions, the fractional oxidative utilization of palmitate was almost as high as that of carnitine-independent short-chain FAs, unless the carnitine shuttle was inhibited by high levels of lactate. Inhibition of CPT I almost completely blocked the oxidative pathway for palmitic acid and reduced the fractional oxidative utilization, while the rate of oxidative metabolism of acyl-CoA was unaffected. Conclusions: [ 11 C]-Labeled FAs allow rapid oxidation to be well separated from esterification into slow turnover lipid pools in the heart of anaesthetized pigs. The fractional oxidative utilization of [ 11 C]-palmitate serves well to characterize, in vivo, the carnitine-dependent transfer of long-chain FAs

  9. Inhibition of carnitine-acyl transferase I by oxfenicine studied in vivo with [{sup 11}C]-labeled fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angsten, Gertrud [Department of Pediatric Surgery, University Children' s Hospital, S-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden)]. E-mail: gertrud.angsten@surgsci.uu.se; Valind, Sven [Uppsala University PET Centre, Uppsala University, S-751 05 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Clinical Physiology, University Hospital, S-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Takalo, Reijo [Uppsala University PET Centre, Uppsala University, S-751 05 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Clinical Physiology, University Hospital, S-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Neu, Henrik [Uppsala University PET Centre, Uppsala University, S-751 05 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Organic Chemistry, Uppsala University, S-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); Meurling, Staffan [Department of Pediatric Surgery, University Children' s Hospital, S-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Langstroem, Bengt [Uppsala University PET Centre, Uppsala University, S-751 05 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Organic Chemistry, Uppsala University, S-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Methods: Anesthetized pigs were studied with [{sup 11}C]-labeled fatty acids (FAs) with carbon chain length ranging from 8 to 16 carbon atoms, during control conditions and during inhibition of carnitine-palmitoyl transferase I (CPT I) with oxfenicine. The myocardial uptake of [{sup 11}C]-FAs from blood was measured together with the relative distribution of [{sup 11}C]-acyl-CoA between rapid mitochondrial oxidation and incorporation into slow turnover lipid pools in the heart. Results: During baseline conditions, the fractional oxidative utilization of palmitate was almost as high as that of carnitine-independent short-chain FAs, unless the carnitine shuttle was inhibited by high levels of lactate. Inhibition of CPT I almost completely blocked the oxidative pathway for palmitic acid and reduced the fractional oxidative utilization, while the rate of oxidative metabolism of acyl-CoA was unaffected. Conclusions: [{sup 11}C]-Labeled FAs allow rapid oxidation to be well separated from esterification into slow turnover lipid pools in the heart of anaesthetized pigs. The fractional oxidative utilization of [{sup 11}C]-palmitate serves well to characterize, in vivo, the carnitine-dependent transfer of long-chain FAs.

  10. Profiling of Fatty Acids Composition in Suet Oil Based on GC–EI-qMS and Chemometrics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Jia, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition of suet oil (SO) was measured by precolumn methylesterification (PME) optimized using a Box–Behnken design (BBD) and gas chromatography/electron ionization-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC–EI-qMS). A spectral library (NIST 08) and standard compounds were used to identify FAs in SO representing 90.89% of the total peak area. The ten most abundant FAs were derivatized into FA methyl esters (FAMEs) and quantified by GC–EI-qMS; the correlation coefficient of each FAME was 0.999 and the lowest concentration quantified was 0.01 μg/mL. The range of recovery of the FAMEs was 82.1%–98.7% (relative standard deviation 2.2%–6.8%). The limits of quantification (LOQ) were 1.25–5.95 μg/L. The number of carbon atoms in the FAs identified ranged from 12 to 20; hexadecanoic and octadecanoic acids were the most abundant. Eighteen samples of SO purchased from Qinghai, Anhui and Jiangsu provinces of China were categorized into three groups by principal component analysis (PCA) according to the contents of the most abundant FAs. The results showed SOs samples were rich in FAs with significantly different profiles from different origins. The method described here can be used for quality control and SO differentiation on the basis of the FA profile. PMID:25636032

  11. Prospective evaluation of trans-fatty acid intake and colorectal cancer risk in the Iowa Women’s Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Limburg, Paul J.; Liu-Mares, Wen; Vierkant, Robert A.; Wang, Alice H.; Harnack, Lisa; Flood, Andrew P.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Cerhan, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Concerns regarding the safety of dietary trans-fatty acids (tFAs) have generated recent public interest, scientific discussion and legislative action. Although most widely recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, associations between tFA intake and incident cancer have also been proposed. With respect to colorectal cancer (CRC), existing observational data remain limited and inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted a prospective evaluation of tFA intake and CRC risk, overall and b...

  12. Blood omega-3 and trans fatty acids in middle-aged acute coronary syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William S; Reid, Kimberly J; Sands, Scott A; Spertus, John A

    2007-01-15

    We tested the hypothesis that lower blood omega-3 (omega-3) fatty acids (FAs) and/or higher trans FAs are associated with the risk of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Higher levels of omega-3 FA have been associated with decreased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, their association with ACS risk is unclear. Although higher self-reported intakes of trans FAs have been linked to increased coronary risk, the association between blood levels of trans FA and ACS risk is also unknown. We analyzed the FA composition of whole blood from 94 subjects with ACS and 94 age-, gender-, and race-matched controls. Omega-3 and trans FA associations with ACS were assessed using multivariable models after adjusting for smoking status, alcohol use, diabetes, body mass index, serum lipids, and history of myocardial infarction or revascularization. Subjects' mean age was 47 years, 54% were men, and 80% were Caucasian. Whole blood long-chain omega-3 FA (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] plus docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) content was 29% lower in patients than in controls (1.7 +/- 0.9% vs 2.4 +/- 1.4%, p ACS, but higher blood trans FA content is not. Blood EPA + DHA may serve as a new, modifiable risk factor for ACS.

  13. Dietary Fatty Acids and Predementia Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Solfrizzi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of epidemiological evidence suggests that elevated saturated fatty acids (SFA could have negative effects on age-related cognitive decline (ARCD. Furthermore, a reduction of risk for cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment (MCI has been found in population samples with elevated fish consumption, and high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, particularly n-3 PUFA. However, recent findings from clinical trials with n-3 PUFA supplementation showed efficacy on depressive symptoms in non–Vapolipoprotein E (APOE ε4 carriers, and on cognitive symptoms only in very mild Alzheimer's disease (AD subgroups, MCI patients, and cognitively unimpaired non-APOE ε4 carriers. These data, together with epidemiological evidence, support the idea that n-3 PUFA may play a role in maintaining adequate cognitive functioning in predementia syndromes, but not when the AD process has already taken over. Therefore, at present, no definitive dietary recommendations on fish and unsaturated fatty acids consumption, or lower intake of saturated fat, in relation to the risk for dementia and cognitive decline are possible.

  14. Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, R.J.; Sparace, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis from [1- 14 C]acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 μM acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl 2 , 1 mM each of the MnCl 2 and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO 3 , and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 μg/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO 3 , divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg 2+ and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor

  15. Fatty Acid Content of Indonesian Aquatic Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI PRARTONO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available High utilization of fossil fuel increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and results in global warming phenomenon. These things establish the world's thought to look for the other alternative energy that can reduce the use of fossil fuel even to be replaced by the substitute. Recently, Indonesia has been doing the research of microalgae as a feedstock of an alternative biofuel. Fatty acid content that microalgae have is also high to produce biofuel. The steps used in this research is a 7 days cultivation, harvesting, extraction using hexane, and fatty acid identification using Gas Chromatography of microalgae species. Fatty acid component in some species such as Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Nannochloropsis sp., and Isochrysis sp. is between 0.21-29.5%; 0.11-25.16%; 0.30-42.32%; 2.06-37.63%, respectively, based on dry weight calculation. The high content of fatty acid in some species of microalgae showed the potential to be the feedstock of producing biofuel in overcoming the limited utilization from petroleum (fossil fuel presently.

  16. Complex Pharmacology of Free Fatty Acid Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, Graeme; Shimpukade, Bharat; Ulven, Trond

    2017-01-01

    pharmacology have shaped understanding of the complex pharmacology of receptors that recognize and are activated by nonesterified or "free" fatty acids (FFAs). The FFA family of receptors is a recently deorphanized set of GPCRs, the members of which are now receiving substantial interest as novel targets...

  17. Determination of Fatty Acid in Asparagus by Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra HAJRULAI-MUSLIU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus contain a lot of macronutrients and micronutrients including folate, dietary fibre (soluble and insoluble and phenolic compounds. Also asparagus is a good source of unsaturated linoleic and linolenic fatty acids which are precursors for Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA and Docosahexanoic acid (DHA. Unsaturated fatty acids have important biological effects and they have important role in human health. The objective of this study was to analyze fatty acid composition of asparagus as a potential source of linoleic and linolenic acid - a precursor for EPA and DHA. For this reason we analyzed fifty seven samples of asparagus collected from the local market. We used AOAC 996.06 method and analyses were performed with gas chromatograph with flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The highest concentration of fatty acid in the asparagus was linoleic acid (C18:2n6 which content in asparagus is 25.620±1.0%. Also, asparagus is good source of -linolenic fatty acid (C18:3n3 and content of this fatty acid in asparagus is 8.840±0.3%. The omega-6 to omega-3 (n6/n3 ratio in asparagus was 3.19. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs were higher than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, and from saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid was most frequent with 24.324±1.0%. From our study we can conclude that asparagus is very good source of unsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and linolenic fatty acids.

  18. Volatile fatty acids production in ruminants and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    organic volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and microbial protein then become available to the host. .... BE, Drewes LR (2003). Molecular features, regulation and ... Dynamics of ruminal volatile fatty acids in black and white bulls before and after feeding ...

  19. Biocatalytic acylation of carbohydrates with fatty acids from palm fatty acid distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyaso, Thanongsak; H-Kittikun, Aran; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2006-05-01

    Palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD) are by-products of the palm oil refining process. Their use as the source of fatty acids, mainly palmitate, for the biocatalytic synthesis of carbohydrate fatty acid esters was investigated. Esters could be prepared in high yields from unmodified acyl donors and non-activated free fatty acids obtained from PFAD with an immobilized Candida antarctica lipase preparation. Acetone was found as a compatible non-toxic solvent, which gave the highest conversion yields in a heterogeneous reaction system without the complete solubilization of the sugars. Glucose, fructose, and other acyl acceptors could be employed for an ester synthesis with PFAD. The synthesis of glucose palmitate was optimized with regard to the water activity of the reaction mixture, the reaction temperature, and the enzyme concentration. The ester was obtained with 76% yield from glucose and PFAD after reaction for 74 h with 150 U ml(-1) immobilized lipase at 40 degrees C in acetone.

  20. Fatty acid composition of human milk and infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Delaš

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate fatty acid composition of membrane lipids is necessary for structure and function of the developing nervous system. Rapid synthesis of brain tissue occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the early postnatal weeks. This synthesis of brain structure involves the formation of complex lipids, many of which contain significant quantities of essential fatty acids and their higher homologs. This study was undertaken to elucidate how fatty acid compositions of available diets for infants meet the requirements for essential fatty acids. Samples of infant formulas, present on the market, as well as milk samples obtained from breast feeding mothers, were extracted by chloroform : methanol mixtures in order to obtain total lipids. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and fatty acid composition was revealed by gas chromatography. Special interest was directed to the content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results have shown that infant formulas, designed to substitute mothers’ breast milk, contain medium chain fatty acids (C 10:0, C 12:0, along with the other saturated fatty acids, in the amounts acceptable for infants’ energy consumption. Although linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6 was present at the level expected to cover needs for essential fatty acids, most of the tested products did not contain sufficient amounts of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, despite the fact that these fatty acids are necessary for undisturbed brain development, ignoring the strong recommendations that they should be used as a supplement in infants’ food.

  1. Unsaturated fatty acids in the diet of inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    KONHEFROVÁ, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The thesis with the name "Unsaturated fatty acids in the diet of inpatients" is divided into a theoretical and a research parts. The theoretical part is focused on sorting out lipids and the recommended daily dosing. Next there are described the chemical structure of fatty acids and basic differences between saturated (SFA) and unsaturated (trans and cis) fatty acids. The biggest part of the theory is formed by the unsaturated fatty acids, their characteristics, food source and their effect o...

  2. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, up to and including the decaglycerol esters, may be safely used in food in...

  3. Effect of altitude on fatty acid composition in Turkish hazelnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the change of fatty acid composition in Delisava, Yomra, Sivri and Karayaglı Turkish hazelnut varieties with altitude. Fatty acid composition were determined by gas chromatography (GC) equiped with flame ionisation detector (FID) after obtained fatty acid methyl esters from crude ...

  4. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a... contains ammonium or calcium salts of volatile fatty acids and shall conform to the following...

  5. [CONTENT OF TRANS FATTY ACIDS IN FOOD PRODUCTS IN SPAIN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo de Dios, Teresa; Dal Re Saavedra, M Ángeles; Villar Villalba, Carmen; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón

    2015-09-01

    trans fatty acids are associated to several health disorders, as ischemic heart disease or diabetes mellitus. to assess the content of trans fatty acids in products in Spain, and the percentage of trans fatty acids respecting total fatty acids. 443 food products were acquired in Spain, and they were classified into groups. The content in fatty acids was analyzed using gas chromatography. Estimates of central tendency and variability of the content of trans fatty acids in each food group were computed (in g of trans fatty acids/100 g of product). The percentage of trans fatty acids respecting total fatty acids was calculated in each group. 443 products were grouped into 42 groups. Median of trans fatty acids was less than 0.55 g / 100 g of product in all groups except one. 83 % of groups had less than 2 % of trans fatty acids, and 71 % of groups had less than 1 %. the content of trans fatty acids in Spain is low, and it currently doesn't play a public health problem. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissu...

  7. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in multiple sclerosis patients and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with increased dietary intake of saturated fatty acids. For many years it has been suspected that this disease might be associated with an imbalance between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. We determined erythrocyte membrane fatty acids levels in Hot ...

  8. G-protein-coupled receptors for free fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, Graeme; Ulven, Trond; Murdoch, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    of these receptors. However, ongoing clinical trials of agonists of free fatty acid receptor 1 suggest that this receptor and other receptors for free fatty acids may provide a successful strategy for controlling hyperglycaemia and providing novel approaches to treat diabetes. Receptors responsive to free fatty acid...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  10. Changes over time in muscle fatty acid composition of Malaysian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Key words: Fatty acid, lipid, muscle, Malaysian mahseer, Tor tambroides. INTRODUCTION. The content of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. (n-3 PUFAs) differentiates fish from the other food products. These fatty acids are important beneficial nutrients for the prevention of human coronary disease,.

  11. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty acid...

  12. A Review of the Metabolic Origins of Milk Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria COZMA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat and its fatty acid profile are important determinants of the technological, sensorial, and nutritional properties of milk and dairy products. The two major processes contributing to the presence of fatty acids in ruminant milk are the mammary lipogenesis and the lipid metabolism in the rumen. Among fatty acids, 4:0 to 12:0, almost all 14:0 and about a half of 16:0 in milk fat derive from de novo synthesis within the mammary gland. De novo synthesis utilizes as precursors acetate and butyrate produced through carbohydrates ruminal fermentation and involves acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase as key enzymes. The rest of 16:0 and all of the long-chain fatty acids derive from mammary uptake of circulating lipoproteins and nonesterified fatty acids that originate from digestive absorption of lipids and body fat mobilization. Further, long-chain fatty acids as well as medium-chain fatty acids entering the mammary gland can be desaturated via Δ-9 desaturase, an enzyme that acts by adding a cis-9-double bond on the fatty acid chain. Moreover, ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids results in the formation of numerous fatty acids available for incorporation into milk fat. Ruminal biohydrogenation is performed by rumen microbial population as a means of protection against the toxic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Within the rumen microorganisms, bacteria are principally responsible for ruminal biohydrogenation when compared to protozoa and anaerobic fungi.

  13. Inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthesis Induces Apoptosis of Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Koji; Suzuki, Kenta; Sawamoto, Junpei; Tokizawa, Yuma; Iwase, Yumiko; Yumita, Nagahiko; Ikeda, Toshihiko

    2016-09-01

    Cancer cells tend to have a high requirement for lipids, including fatty acids, cholesterol and triglyceride, because of their rapid proliferative rate compared to normal cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of inhibition of lipid synthesis on the proliferation and viability of human pancreatic cancer cells. Of the inhibitors of lipid synthesis that were tested, 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA), which is an inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and the fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitors cerulenin and irgasan, significantly suppressed the proliferation of MiaPaCa-2 and AsPC-1 cells. Treatment of MiaPaCa-2 cells with these inhibitors significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells. In addition, TOFA increased caspase-3 activity and induced cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in MiaPaCa-2 cells. Moreover, addition of palmitate to MiaPaCa-2 cells treated with TOFA rescued cells from apoptotic cell death. These results suggest that TOFA induces apoptosis via depletion of fatty acids and that, among the various aspects of lipid metabolism, inhibition of fatty acid synthesis may be a notable target for the treatment of human pancreatic cancer cells. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Fatty Acid Mixtures from Nigella sativa Protects PC12 Cells from Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis Induced by Doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hosseinzadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatty acids (FAs, the key structural elements of dietary lipids, are notable in the nutritional value of plants. Black cumin, a popular anti-inflammatory and antioxidant food seasoning, contains nonpolar constituents such as FAs. Methods: Seeds were extracted using hexane and their cytoprotective activity was assessed against doxorubicin (DOX-mediated oxidative stress and apoptosis in PC12 cell line. Results: In spite of the cellular death induced by DOX toward PC12 cells, bioassay-guided purification showed that pretreatment with FAs mixtures (24h attenuated DOX-mediated apoptosis, which could be attributed to the inhibited caspase 3 activity and enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential. Palmitic acid, caprylic acid and oleic acid each 1/3 in the mixture, also suppressed DOX-induced ROS generation. Conclusion: Our observation indicated that the subtoxic concentration of FAs from Nigella sativa could effectively protect the cells against oxidative stress, due to their antioxidant activity, and could be regarded as a dietary supplement.

  15. Simultaneous analysis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids present in pequi fruits by capillary electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M. de Castro Barra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, an alternative method has been proposed for simultaneous analysis of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE using indirect detection. The background electrolyte (BGE used for the analysis of these fatty acids (FAs consisted of 15.0 mmol L−1 NaH2PO4/Na2HPO4 at pH 6.86, 4.0 mmol L−1 SDBS, 8.3 mmol L−1 Brij 35, 45% v/v acetonitrile (can, and 2.1% n-octanol. The FAs quantification of FAs was performed using a response factor approach, which provided a high analytical throughput for the real sample. The CZE method, which was applied successfully for the analysis of pequi pulp, has advantages such as short analysis time, absence of lipid fraction extraction and derivatization steps, and no significant difference in the 95% confidence intervals for FA quantification results, compared to the gas chromatography official method (AOCS Ce 1h-05.

  16. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khankari, Nikhil K; Murff, Harvey J; Zeng, Chenjie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a common cancer worldwide with no established modifiable lifestyle factors to guide prevention. The associations between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and prostate cancer risk have been inconsistent. Using Mendelian randomisation, we evaluated associations...... and prostate cancer risk. However, risk reductions were observed for short-chain PUFAs, linoleic (ORLA=0.95, 95%CI=0.92, 0.98) and α-linolenic acids (ORALA=0.96, 95%CI=0.93, 0.98), among men ...-chain PUFAs (i.e., arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosapentaenoic acids), increased risks were observed among men

  17. Dietary effects on fatty acid metabolism of common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csengeri, I

    1996-01-01

    The paper summarises experimental data demonstrating effects of various dietary factors exerting changes in the fatty acid composition and fatty acid metabolism of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Among the dietary factors (1) supplementary feeding in fish ponds, (2) absence of essential fatty acids (EFA) in the diet, (3) starvation, and (4) ration level were studied. It was concluded that supplementary feeding in carp rearing ponds is frequently excessive in the Hungarian carp culture practice, inducing slight EFA-deficiency and enhancing de novo fatty acid synthesis. This latter caused enlarged fat depots with high oleic acid contents in the fish organs and tissues. EFA-deficient diets enhanced the synthesis of oleic acid except when high rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis was suppressed by dietary fatty acids. Feeding EFA-deficient diets caused gradual decrease in the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and gradual increase in that of Mead's acid: 20:3(n-9), an indicator of the EFA-deficiency. At prolonged starvation, polyunsaturated fatty acids of the structural lipids were somehow protected and mainly oleic acid was utilised for energy production. At high ration levels, excessive exogenous polyunsaturates were decomposed, and probably converted to oleic acid or energy. Starvation subsequent to the feeding the fish at various ration levels, reflected adaptive changes in the fatty acid metabolism: Below and above the ration level required for the most efficient feed utilisation for growth, decomposition processes of the fatty acid metabolism were accelerated.

  18. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid amide (erucamide) using fatty acid and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Neeraj Praphulla; Singh, R P

    2007-01-01

    Ammonolysis of fatty acids to the corresponding fatty acid amides is efficiently catalysed by Candida antartica lipase (Novozym 435). In the present paper lipase-catalysed synthesis of erucamide by ammonolysis of erucic acid and urea in organic solvent medium was studied and optimal conditions for fatty amides synthesis were established. In this process erucic acid gave 88.74 % pure erucamide after 48 hour and 250 rpm at 60 degrees C with 1:4 molar ratio of erucic acid and urea, the organic solvent media is 50 ml tert-butyl alcohol (2-methyl-2-propanol). This process for synthesis is economical as we used urea in place of ammonia or other amidation reactant at atmospheric pressure. The amount of catalyst used is 3 %.

  19. Identification of fatty acids and fatty acid amides in human meibomian gland secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Kelly K; Ham, Bryan M; Nichols, Jason J; Ziegler, Corrie; Green-Church, Kari B

    2007-01-01

    The complex superficial lipid layer of the tear film functions to prevent evaporation and maintain tear stability. Although classes of lipids found in the tear film have been reported, individual lipid species are currently being studied with more sophisticated. The purpose of this work was to show the identification of fatty acids and the fatty acid amides in human meibomian gland secretions by using electrospray mass spectrometry. methods. Human meibomian gland secretions (meibum) were analyzed by electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (positive- and negative-ion mode). Accurate mass determination and collision-induced dissociation of meibum, and lipid standards were used to identify lipid species. Mass analysis of meibum in an acidic chloroform-methanol solution in positive-ion mode revealed a mass peak of m/z 282.3, which was identified as the protonated molecule of oleamide [C(18)H(35)NO+H](+). The high-resolution mass analysis of the m/z 282.2788 peak (oleamide) demonstrated a mass accuracy of 3.2 parts per million (ppm). Collision-induced dissociation of this species from meibum, compared with an oleamide standard, confirmed its identification. Myristic, palmitic, stearic, and oleic free fatty acids were identified in a similar manner, as were the other fatty acid amides (myristamide, palmitamide, stearamide, and erucamide). The findings indicate that oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide), an endogenous fatty acid primary amide, is a predominant component of meibum when examined by electrospray mass spectrometry. The novel finding of oleamide and other members of the fatty acid amide family in the tear film could lead to additional insights into the role of fatty acid amide activity in human biological systems and may indicate a new function for this lipid class of molecules in ocular surface signaling and/or in the maintenance of the complex tear film.

  20. Ala54Thr fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2 polymorphism in recurrent depression: associations with fatty acid concentrations and waist circumference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel J T Mocking

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fatty acid (FA-alterations may mediate the mutual association between Major Depressive Disorder (MDD and cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, etiology of observed FA-alterations in MDD and CVD remains largely unclear. An interesting candidate may be a mutation in the fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2-gene, because it regulates dietary FA-uptake. Therefore, we aimed to test the hypotheses that in MDD-patients the FABP2 Ala54Thr-polymorphism would be (I more prevalent than in sex- and age-matched controls, (II associated with observed alterations in FA-metabolism, and (III associated with CVD-risk factor waist circumference. METHODS: We measured concentrations of 29 different erythrocyte FAs, FABP2-genotype, and waist circumference in recurrent MDD-patients and matched never-depressed controls. RESULTS: FABP2-genotype distribution did not significantly differ between the 137 MDD-patients and 73 matched controls. However, patients with the Ala54Thr-polymorphism had (I higher concentrations of especially eicosadienoic acid (C20:2ω6; P=.009 and other 20-carbon FAs, and associated (II lower waist circumference (P=.019. In addition, FABP2-genotype effects on waist circumference in patients seemed (I mediated by its effect on C20:2ω6, and (II different from controls. CONCLUSIONS: Although Ala54Thr-polymorphism distribution was not associated with recurrent MDD, our results indicate that FABP2 may play a role in the explanation of observed FA-alterations in MDD. For Ala54Thr-polymorphism patients, potentially adaptive conversion of increased bioavailable dietary precursors into eicosadienoic acid instead of arachidonic acid might be related to a low waist circumference. Because this is the first investigation of these associations, replication is warranted, preferably by nutrigenetic studies applying lipidomics and detailed dietary assessment.

  1. Composition of physiologically important fatty acids in great tits differs between urban and rural populations on a seasonal basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin N Andersson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids (FA have crucial functions in animals, affecting e.g. inflammatory responses, thermoregulation, and cell membrane fluidity. Diet and ambient temperature affect animals’ FA composition, which, in turn, may influence these physiological processes. Great tits (Parus major −common in both urban and rural habitats− are mainly granivorous during winter and insectivorous during summer. These diets show pronounced differences in FA composition. Such variation has context-dependent effects on physiology, because the thermal environment, food availability, and levels of pro-inflammatory environmental stressors differ between urban and rural areas. Thus, we investigated how great tit plasma FA composition varied between urban and rural habitats and across seasons. Eight FAs differed between urban and rural birds. Among these, arachidonic acid (omega (ω-6 polyunsaturated FA with thermoregulatory and pro-inflammatory properties was more abundant in urban than rural birds in winter, whereas ω-3 FAs with anti-inflammatory properties were more abundant in rural birds. The difference in pro- and anti-inflammatory FAs suggest that the negative health effects that urban birds suffer from being exposed to higher levels of pollutants might be enhanced by an elevated inflammatory response. Eight FAs differed between winter and summer birds. This variation reflected the diet change: FAs common in seeds, e.g. oleic- and linoleic acid, were present in higher amounts in winter birds, whereas ω-3 polyunsaturated FAs that are common in caterpillars were more abundant in summer birds. Overall, a larger seasonal variation was seen among the urban birds. This study is the first to reveal a difference in FA composition between urban and rural populations for all animals studied to date. Future experiments should unravel the physiological implications of this variation, and ultimately, link its effects to fitness of animals with different physiological and

  2. Fatty acid composition of ostrich (Struthio camelus abdominal adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Belichovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of foods has a great impact on nutrition and health. Therefore, thе determination and knowledge of the fatty acid composition of food is very important for nutrition. Due to the high nutritional characteristics of ostrich meat and its products, the research determining their quality is of topical interest. The aim of the present investigation was the determination of fatty acid composition of ostrich adipose tissue. The content of fatty acids was determined according to AOAC Official Methods of Analysis and determination was performed using a gas chromatograph with a flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The results are expressed as a percentage of the total content of fatty acids. The method was validated and whereupon the following parameters were determined: linearity, precision, recovery, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The repeatability was within of 0.99 to 2.15%, reproducibility from 2.01 to 4.57%, while recovery ranged from 94.89 to 101.03%. According to these results, this method is accurate and precise and can be used for analysis of fatty acids in foods. It was concluded that the content of saturated fatty acids (SFA accounted 34.75%, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA 38.37%, of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 26.88%, of total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA 65.25% and of desirable fatty acids (DFA (total unsaturated + stearic acid 70.37% of the analysed samples. The ratio polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids accounted 0.77. The most present fatty acid is the oleic (C18:1n9c with 28.31%, followed by palmitic (C16:0 with 27.12% and linoleic (C18:2n6c acid with 25.08%. Other fatty acids are contained in significantly lower quantities.

  3. Nitro-fatty acids in plant signaling: New key mediators of nitric oxide metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capilla Mata-Pérez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in animal systems have shown that NO can interact with fatty acids to generate nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FAs. They are the product of the reaction between reactive nitrogen species and unsaturated fatty acids, and are considered novel mediators of cell signaling based mainly on a proven anti-inflammatory response. Although these signaling mediators have been described widely in animal systems, NO2-FAs have scarcely been studied in plants. Preliminary data have revealed the endogenous presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FAs in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO, which appear to be contributing to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet. Importantly, new findings have displayed the endogenous occurrence of nitro-linolenic acid (NO2-Ln in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the modulation of NO2-Ln levels throughout this plant's development. Furthermore, a transcriptomic analysis by RNA-seq technology established a clear signaling role for this molecule, demonstrating that NO2-Ln was involved in plant-defense response against different abiotic-stress conditions, mainly by inducing the chaperone network and supporting a conserved mechanism of action in both animal and plant defense processes. Thus, NO2-Ln levels significantly rose under several abiotic-stress conditions, highlighting the strong signaling role of these molecules in the plant-protection mechanism. Finally, the potential of NO2-Ln as a NO donor has recently been described both in vitro and in vivo. Jointly, this ability gives NO2-Ln the potential to act as a signaling molecule by the direct release of NO, due to its capacity to induce different changes mediated by NO or NO-related molecules such as nitration and S-nitrosylation, or by the electrophilic capacity of these molecules through a nitroalkylation mechanism. Here, we describe the current state of the art regarding the advances performed in the field of NO2-FAs in plants and their

  4. Amino and fatty acid dynamics of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vanessa M; Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Paula, José R; Couto, Ana; Bandarra, Narcisa; Anacleto, Patrícia; Marques, António; Rosa, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The oceans are becoming warmer, and the higher temperatures are expected to have a major impact on marine life at different levels of biological organization, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Thus, we hypothesize that the future warmer scenarios (here +3 °C) will affect the biochemical composition (amino acid - AA, and fatty acid-FA) of octopod (Octopus vulgaris) embryos and recently-hatched pelagic paralarvae. The main essential amino acids found in octopus embryos were arginine, leucine and lysine; while aspartic and glutamic acids, and taurine were the main non-essential amino acids. Palmitic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were the main FAs found in octopus tissues. Relevant ontogenetic changes were observed, namely a steep decrease in the content of many AAs, and a selective retention of FAs, thus evidencing the protein-based metabolism of these cephalopods. Temperature per si did not elicit significant changes in the overall FA composition, but was responsible for a significant decrease in the content of several AAs, indicating increased embryonic consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fatty acids composition of 10 microalgal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thidarat Noiraksar

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of 10 species of microalgae was determined at the exponential phase and the stationary phase. The microalgae consist of two species of diatoms, Bacillariophyceae, (Nitzschia cf. ovalis, Thalassiosira sp. five species of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae (Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorophyceae, (Dictyosphaerium pulchellum, Stichococcus sp., Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus falcatus and three species of blue green microalgae, Cyanophyceae (Anacystis sp., Synechococcus sp., Synechocystis sp..Medium for culture diatoms and green microalgae was F/2, and BG-11 media was used for Cyanophyceae. The microalgae were cultured beneath light intensity 143 μEm-2s-1, light: dark illustration 12:12 hrs., temperature 28ºC, and salinities 8-30 psu. The microalgae were harvested for analyzing fatty acid by centrivugal machine at 3500 rpm. for 5 min. at temperature 20ºC and stored at -80ºC prior to analysis.Fatty acids composition of microalgae differed from species to species. The majority fatty acids composition of diatoms at the exponential phase and the stationary phase were C16:1n-7 (17.12-31.47% and 28.22-42.02%, C16:0 (13.25-19.61% and 18.83-20.67%, C20:5 n-3 (16.65-26.67% and 11.32-23.68% respectively. The principle fatty acids composition of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae, Tetraselmis sp. were C18:3n-3 (16.17-16.67%, C16:0 (15.33-17.45%, C18:1n-9 (12.25-15.43%, C18:2n-6 (9.66-19.97%. The fatty acids composition of green microalgae, Chlorophyceae, were C18:3 n-3 (20.02-26.49% and 15.35- 30.63%, C16:0 (5.76-17.61% and 11.41-20.03%, C18:2n-6 (4.67-17.54% and 7.48-20.61% respectively. The major amounts of fatty acids content of blue green microalgae were C16:1n-7 (9.28-34.91% and 34.48- 35.04%, C14:0 (13.34-25.96% and 26.69-28.24%, C16:0 (5.89-29.15% and 5.70-16.81% except for Anacystis sp.which had a high amount of C18:3 n-3 (23.18-27.98% but low amount of C14:0 (3.66-4.98%.Bacillariophyceae contained the highest amount of highly unsaturated

  6. Laser signals' nonlinear change in fatty acids

    CERN Document Server

    Ghelmez-Dumitru, M; Piscureanu, M; Sterian, A

    2003-01-01

    Previous works showed that thin layers of fatty acids and fatty acid-cholesterol mixtures behaved as optical liquid crystals, even at low incident laser power. The paper presents an experimental and computer study of laser signals, emergent from such samples, in presence of fluctuations. The optical emergent laser beams' features at different incident parameters were experimentally determined for different type (c.w. and pulsed) lasers, as for example helium-neon and Nd sup 3 sup + glass lasers. The results were correlated with the amount of cholesterol in mixtures and with their response in external electric field. These measurements are in all cases affected by fluctuations. We developed some computer-based procedures, by using the TableCurve3D from Jandel Scientific software and equations Runge-Kutta in MATLAB for taking into account these fluctuations.

  7. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  8. Simultaneous shifts in elemental stoichiometry and fatty acids of Emiliania huxleyi in response to environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Rong; Ismar, Stefanie M. H.; Sommer, Ulrich; Zhao, Meixun

    2018-02-01

    Climate-driven changes in environmental conditions have significant and complex effects on marine ecosystems. Variability in phytoplankton elements and biochemicals can be important for global ocean biogeochemistry and ecological functions, while there is currently limited understanding on how elements and biochemicals respond to the changing environments in key coccolithophore species such as Emiliania huxleyi. We investigated responses of elemental stoichiometry and fatty acids (FAs) in a strain of E. huxleyi under three temperatures (12, 18 and 24 °C), three N : P supply ratios (molar ratios 10:1, 24:1 and 63:1) and two pCO2 levels (560 and 2400 µatm). Overall, C : N : P stoichiometry showed the most pronounced response to N : P supply ratios, with high ratios of particulate organic carbon vs. particulate organic nitrogen (POC : PON) and low ratios of PON vs. particulate organic phosphorus (PON : POP) in low-N media, and high POC : POP and PON : POP in low-P media. The ratio of particulate inorganic carbon vs. POC (PIC : POC) and polyunsaturated fatty acid proportions strongly responded to temperature and pCO2, both being lower under high pCO2 and higher with warming. We observed synergistic interactions between warming and nutrient deficiency (and high pCO2) on elemental cellular contents and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) proportion in most cases, indicating the enhanced effect of warming under nutrient deficiency (and high pCO2). Our results suggest differential sensitivity of elements and FAs to the changes in temperature, nutrient availability and pCO2 in E. huxleyi, which is to some extent unique compared to non-calcifying algal classes. Thus, simultaneous changes of elements and FAs should be considered when predicting future roles of E. huxleyi in the biotic-mediated connection between biogeochemical cycles, ecological functions and climate change.

  9. Succinct synthesis of saturated hydroxy fatty acids and

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Mads Holmgaard; Jenkins, Laura; Dunlop, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Saturated hydroxy fatty acids make up a class of underexplored lipids with potentially interesting biological activities. We report a succinct and general synthetic route to saturated hydroxy fatty acids hydroxylated at position 6 or higher, and exemplify this with the synthesis of hydroxylauric ...... acids. All regioisomers of hydroxylauric acids were tested on free fatty acid receptors FFA1, FFA4 and GPR84. The results show that the introduction of a hydroxy group and its position have a high impact on receptor activity....

  10. Essential fatty acids and lipid mediators. Endocannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caramia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1929 Burr and Burr discovered the essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3. Since then, researchers have shown a growing interest in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA as precursors of “lipid mediator” molecules, often with opposing effects, prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, lipossines, resolvines, protectines, maresins that regulate immunity, platelet aggregation, inflammation, etc. They showed that the balance between omega-3 and omega-6 acids has a profound influence on all the body’s inflammatory responses and a raised level of PUFA omega-3 in tissue correlate with a reduced incidence of degenerative cardiovascular disease, some mental illnesses such as depression, and neuro-degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s. The CYP-catalyzed epoxidation and hydroxylation of arachidonic acid (AA were established recently as the so-called third branch of AGE cascade. Cytochrome P450 (CYP epoxygenases convert AA to four epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET regioisomers, that produce vascular relaxation anti-inflammatory effects on blood vessels and in the kidney, promote angiogenesis, and protect ischemic myocardium and brain. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are accessible to CYP enzymes in the same way as AA. Metabolites derived from EPA include epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EETR and hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids (19- and 20-HEPE, whereas DHA include epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids (21- and 22-HDoHE. For many of the CYP isoforms, the n-3 PUFAs are the preferred substrates and the available data suggest that some of the vasculo- and cardioprotective effects attributed to dietary n-3 PUFAs may be mediated by CYP-dependent metabolites of EPA and DHA. From AA derives also endocannabinoids like anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, capable of mimicking the pharmacological actions of the active principle of Cannabis sativa preparations such as

  11. Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in antrhropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns...... in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. Methods 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate...... the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WCBMI), adjusting for confounders. Results 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men...

  12. Fatty acid effects on fibroblast cholesterol synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shireman, R.B.; Muth, J.; Lopez, C.

    1987-01-01

    Two cell lines of normal (CRL 1475, GM5565) and of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) (CM 486,488) fibroblasts were preincubated with medium containing the growth factor ITS, 2.5 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA, or 35.2 μmol/ml of these fatty acids complexed with 2.5 mg BSA/ml: stearic (18:0), caprylic (8:0), oleic (18:1;9), linoleic (18:2;9,12), linolenic (18:3;9,12,15), docosahexaenoic (22:6;4,7,10,13,16,19)(DHA) or eicosapentaenoic (20:5;5,8,11,14,17)(EPA). After 20 h, cells were incubated for 2 h with 0.2 μCi [ 14 C]acetate/ml. Cells were hydrolyzed; an aliquot was quantitated for radioactivity and protein. After saponification and extraction with hexane, radioactivity in the aqueous and organic phases was determined. The FH cells always incorporated 30-90% more acetate/mg protein than normal cells but the pattern of the fatty acid effects was similar in both types. When the values were normalized to 1 for the BSA-only group, cells with ITS had the greatest [ 14 C]acetate incorporation (1.45) followed by the caprylic group (1.14). Cells incubated with 18:3, 20:6 or 22:6 incorporated about the same amount as BSA-only. Those preincubated with 18:2, 18:1, 18:0 showed the least acetate incorporation (0.87, 0.59 and 0.52, respectively). The percentage of total 14 C counts which extracted into hexane was much greater in FH cells; however, these values varied with the fatty acid, e.g., 1.31(18:0) and 0.84(8:0) relative to 1

  13. Essential fatty acid deficiency in surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, J A; Caldwell, M D; Meng, H C

    1977-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition may protect patients unable to eat from malnutrition almost indefinitely. If fat is not also given EFAD will occur. This outlines a prospective study of 28 surgical patients on total intravenous fat-free nutrition to determine the developmental course of EFAD and the response to therapy. Twenty-eight patients ranging from newborn to 66 years receiving parenteral nutrition without fat had regular determinations of the composition of total plasma fatty acids and the triene/tetraene ratio using gas liquid chromatography. Physical signs of EFAD were looked for also. Patients found to have evidence of EFAD were treated with 10% Intralipid. Topical safflower oil was used in three infants. Total plasma fatty acid composition was restudied following therapy. In general, infants on fat-free intravenous nutrition developed biochemical EFAD within two weeks, but dermatitis took longer to become evident. Older individuals took over four weeks to develop a diagnostic triene/tetraene ratio (greater than 0.4; range 0.4 to 3.75). Therapeutic correction of biochemical EFAD took 7 to 10 days but dermatitis took longer to correct. Cutaneous application of safflower oil alleviated the cutaneous manifestations but did not correct the triene/tetraene ratio of total plasma fatty acids. These studies indicate that surgical patients who are unable to eat for two to four weeks, depending upon age and expected fat stores, should receive fat as a part of their intravenous regimen. Images Fig. 7. PMID:404973

  14. ω-3 Fatty acids reverse lipotoxity through induction of autophagy in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Xu, Chengfu; Yan, Tianlian; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Youming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ω-3 fatty acids on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease concerning hepatocyte lipid accumulation as well as apoptosis induced by free fatty acids (FFAs) and to explore the underlying mechanism involving autophagy. Hepatocytes were incubated with a mixture of free fatty acids (FFAs) to mimic in vitro lipotoxicity in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, presented by lipid accumulation and cellular apoptosis. Chemical inhibitor or inducer of autophagy and genetic deficit cells, as well as ω-3 fatty acids were used as intervention. The autophagic role of ω-3 fatty acids was investigated using Western blot and immunofluorescence. The underlying mechanism of ω-3 fatty acids involving autophagy was preliminarily explored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. FFAs induce lipid accumulation and apoptosis in hepatocytes. Inhibition or genetic defect of autophagy increases lipid accumulation induced by FFA, whereas induction acts inversely. ω-3 Fatty acids reduced lipid accumulation and inhibited apoptosis induced by FFA. ω-3 Fatty acids induced autophagy by downregulating stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression in hepatocytes. ω-3 Fatty acids exert protective effects on hepatocytes against lipotoxicity through induction of autophagy, as demonstrated by inhibition of lipid accumulation and apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of mRNA expression of genes related to fatty acids synthesis in goose fatty liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxia Xiang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of overfeeding on mRNA expression levels of genes involved in lipogenesis, in order to understand the mechanism of hepatic stea - tosis in the goose. Using Landes geese (Anser anser and Sichuan White geese (Anser cygnoides as experimental animals, we quantified the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-α (ACCα and fatty acid synthase (FAS, and of two transcription factors, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins- 1 (SREBP-1 and carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR, and measured the lipid and triglyceride (TG content in the liver and the plasma level of glucose, insulin and TG. Our results indicated that compared to the control group, the overfeeding induced an increase of the lipid and TG content in the liver and also of the plasma insulin and TG concentration in both breeds. However, the plasma glucose level decreased after overfeeding in the Sichuan White goose, and there was no evident change in the Landes goose. Lastly, the mRNA expression of ACCα, FAS, SREBP-1 and ChREBP in the overfed group was lower than in the control group in both breeds. We concluded that the lipogenesis pathway plays a role in overfeeding- induced hepatic steatosis and that the decreased mRNA level of related genes may be the indicator of hepatic steatosis.

  16. TRIGLYCERIDES, ATHEROSCLEROSIS, AND CARDIOVASCULAR OUTCOME STUDIES: FOCUS ON OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelsman, Yehuda; Shapiro, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    To provide an overview of the roles of triglycerides and triglyceride-lowering agents in atherosclerosis in the context of cardiovascular outcomes studies. We reviewed the published literature as well as ClinicalTrials.gov entries for ongoing studies. Despite improved atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) outcomes with statin therapy, residual risk remains. Epidemiologic data and recent genetic insights provide compelling evidence that triglycerides are in the causal pathway for the development of atherosclerosis, thereby renewing interest in targeting triglycerides to improve ASCVD outcomes. Fibrates, niacin, and omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs) are three classes of triglyceride-lowering drugs. Outcome studies with triglyceride-lowering agents have been inconsistent. With regard to OM3FAs, the JELIS study showed that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) significantly reduced major coronary events in statin-treated hypercholesterolemic patients. Regarding other agents, extended-release niacin and fenofibrate are no longer recommended as statin add-on therapy (by some guidelines, though not all) because of the lack of convincing evidence from outcome studies. Notably, subgroup analyses from the outcome studies have generated the hypothesis that triglyceride lowering may provide benefit in statin-treated patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia. Two ongoing OM3FA outcome studies (REDUCE-IT and STRENGTH) are testing this hypothesis in high-risk, statin-treated patients with triglyceride levels of 200 to 500 mg/dL. There is consistent evidence that triglycerides are in the causal pathway of atherosclerosis but inconsistent evidence from cardiovascular outcomes studies as to whether triglyceride-lowering agents reduce cardiovascular risk. Ongoing outcomes studies will determine the role of triglyceride lowering in statin-treated patients with high-dose prescription OM3FAs in terms of improved ASCVD outcomes. AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists

  17. Fatty acid profiles of some Fabaceae seed oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fatty acid profiles of six seed oils of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family are reported and discussed. These are the seed oils of Centrosema pubescens, Clitoria ternatea, Crotalaria mucronata, Macroptilium lathyroides, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Senna alata. The most common fatty acid in the fatty a...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of fatty...

  19. Effect of cottonseed and canola seed on unsaturated fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    student

    biohydrogenation in the rumen and showed that the type of dietary fat has a marked impact on lipid ... Keywords: Extruded oil seed, fatty acid, lamb plasma, liver, Mehraban lambs ..... Effects of diets low in fat or essential fatty acids on the fatty ... Review: Erythrocyte membrane: structure, function, and pathophysiology. Vet.

  20. What health professionals should know about omega-3 fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western diets are often deficient in n-3 fatty acids because of an insufficient intake of cold water oily fish. The main n-3 fatty acids in fatty fish are ... To date, no formally accepted dietary reference intakes for EPA and DHA exist, while international intake recommendations differ widely. Supplementation is an easy and ...

  1. Inventory of Fatty Acid Desaturases in the Pennate Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina-Juana Dolch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The diatom Phaeodactylum is rich in very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Fatty acid (FA synthesis, elongation, and desaturation have been studied in depth in plants including Arabidopsis, but for secondary endosymbionts the full picture remains unclear. FAs are synthesized up to a chain length of 18 carbons inside chloroplasts, where they can be incorporated into glycerolipids. They are also exported to the ER for phospho- and betaine lipid syntheses. Elongation of FAs up to 22 carbons occurs in the ER. PUFAs can be reimported into plastids to serve as precursors for glycerolipids. In both organelles, FA desaturases are present, introducing double bonds between carbon atoms and giving rise to a variety of molecular species. In addition to the four desaturases characterized in Phaeodactylum (FAD2, FAD6, PtD5, PtD6, we identified eight putative desaturase genes. Combining subcellular localization predictions and comparisons with desaturases from other organisms like Arabidopsis, we propose a scheme at the whole cell level, including features that are likely specific to secondary endosymbionts.

  2. Analysis of non-esterified fatty acids in human samples by solid-phase-extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Thomas; Schmitz, Gerd

    2013-11-01

    The determination of the fatty acid (FA) profile of lipid classes is essential for lipidomic analysis. We recently developed a GC/MS-method for the analysis of the FA profile of total FAs, i.e. the totality of bound and unbound FAs, in any given biological sample (TOFAs). Here, we present a method for the analysis of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) in biological samples, i.e. the fraction that is present as extractable free fatty acids. Lipid extraction is performed according to Dole using 80/20 2-propanol/n-hexane (v/v), with 0.1% H2SO4. The fatty acid-species composition of this NEFA-fraction is determined as FAME after derivatization with our GC/MS-method on a BPX column (Shimadzu). Validation of the NEFA-method presented was performed in human plasma samples. The validated method has been used with human plasma, cells and tissues, as well as mammalian body fluids and tissue samples. The newly developed solid-phase-extraction (SPE)-GC-MS method allows the rapid separation of the NEFA-fraction from a neutral lipid extract of plasma samples. As a major advantage compared to G-FID-methods, GC-MS allows the use of stable isotope labeled fatty acid precursors to monitor fatty acid metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fatty acid modulated human serum albumin binding of the β-carboline alkaloids norharmane and harmane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domonkos, Celesztina; Fitos, Ilona; Visy, Júlia; Zsila, Ferenc

    2013-12-02

    Harmane and norharmane are representative members of the large group of natural β-carboline alkaloids featured with diverse pharmacological activities. In blood, these agents are transported by human serum albumin (HSA) which has a profound impact on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of many therapeutic drugs and xenobiotics. By combination of various spectroscopic methods, the present contribution is aimed to elucidate how nonesterified fatty acids (FAs), the primary endogenous ligands of HSA, affect the binding properties of harmane and norharmane. Analysis of induced circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopic data indicates the inclusion of the neutral form of both molecules into the binding pocket of subdomain IIIA, which hosts two FA binding sites, too. The induced CD and UV absorption spectra of harmane and norharmane exhibit peculiar changes upon addition of FAs, suggesting the formation of ternary complexes in which the lipid ligands significantly alter the binding mode of the alkaloids via cooperative allosteric mechanism. To our knowledge, it is the first instance of the demonstration of drug-FA cobinding at site IIIA. In line with these results, molecular docking calculations showed two distinct binding positions of norharmane within subdomain IIIA. The profound increase in the affinity constants of β-carbolines estimated in the presence of FAs predicts that the unbound, pharmacologically active serum fraction of these compounds strongly depends on the actual lipid binding profile of HSA.

  4. Dynamic regulation of fatty acid pools for improved production of fatty alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teixeira, Paulo Goncalves; Ferreira, Raphael; Zhou, Yongjin J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In vivo production of fatty acid-derived chemicals in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires strategies to increase the intracellular supply of either acyl-CoA or free fatty acids (FFAs), since their cytosolic concentrations are quite low in a natural state for this organism. Deletion...... of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase genes FAA1 and FAA4 is an effective and straightforward way to disable re-activation of fatty acids and drastically increase FFA levels. However, this strategy causes FFA over-accumulation and consequential release to the extracellular medium, which results in a significant...... faa4 Delta strain constitutively expressing a carboxylic acid reductase from Mycobacterium marinum (MmCAR) and an endogenous alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh5) for in vivo production of fatty alcohols from FFAs. We observed production of fatty acids and fatty alcohols with different rates leading to high...

  5. Fe-Catalyzed Oxidative Cleavage of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spannring, P.

    2013-01-01

    The oxidative cleavage of unsaturated fatty acids into aldehydes or carboxylic acids gives access to valuable products. The products can be used as chemical building blocks, as emulsifiers or in the paint or polymer industry. Ozonolysis is applied industrially to cleave the fatty acid oleic acid

  6. Caveolar fatty acids and acylation of caveolin-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Cai

    Full Text Available Caveolae are cholesterol and sphingolipids rich subcellular domains on plasma membrane. Caveolae contain a variety of signaling proteins which provide platforms for signaling transduction. In addition to enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids, caveolae also contain a variety of fatty acids. It has been well-established that acylation of protein plays a pivotal role in subcellular location including targeting to caveolae. However, the fatty acid compositions of caveolae and the type of acylation of caveolar proteins remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the fatty acids in caveolae and caveolin-1 bound fatty acids.Caveolae were isolated from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells. The caveolar fatty acids were extracted with Folch reagent, methyl esterificated with BF3, and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS. The caveolin-1 bound fatty acids were immunoprecipitated by anti-caveolin-1 IgG and analyzed with GC/MS.In contrast to the whole CHO cell lysate which contained a variety of fatty acids, caveolae mainly contained three types of fatty acids, 0.48 µg palmitic acid, 0.61 µg stearic acid and 0.83 µg oleic acid/caveolae preparation/5 × 10(7 cells. Unexpectedly, GC/MS analysis indicated that caveolin-1 was not acylated by myristic acid; instead, it was acylated by palmitic acid and stearic acid.Caveolae contained a special set of fatty acids, highly enriched with saturated fatty acids, and caveolin-1 was acylated by palmitic acid and stearic acid. The unique fatty acid compositions of caveolae and acylation of caveolin-1 may be important for caveolae formation and for maintaining the function of caveolae.

  7. Fatty acid composition and amino acid profile of two freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate, fatty and amino acids composition of two commercially important freshwater fish species Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia zillii. purchased from local fishermen in two landing sites in Lagos State, Nigeria were determined. Live specimens of C. gariepinus were purchased while samples of T. zillii were stored in ...

  8. Intake of specific fatty acids and fat alters growth, health, and titers following vaccination in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselburn, K M; O'Diam, K M; Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L; Daniels, K M

    2013-09-01

    Typical fatty acid profiles of milk and milk replacer (MR) differ. Calf MR in the United States are made from animal fat, which are low in short- and medium-chain fatty acids and linolenic acid. Two 56-d trials compared a control MR containing 27% crude protein and formulated with 3 fat and fatty acid compositions. The 3 MR treatments were (1) only animal fat totaling 17% fat (CON), (2) animal fat supplemented with butyrate, medium-chain fatty acids, and linolenic acid using a commercial product (1.25% NeoTec4 MR; Provimi North America, Brookville, OH) totaling 17% fat (fatty acid-supplemented; FA-S), and (3) milk fat totaling 33% fat (MF). The MR were fed at 660 g of dry matter from d 0 to 42 and weaned. Starter (20% crude protein) and water were fed ad libitum for 56 d. Trial 1 utilized Holstein calves (24 female, 24 male) during summer months and trial 2 utilized Holstein calves (48 male) during fall months. Calves (41±1 kg of initial body weight; 2 to 3d of age) were sourced from a single farm and housed in a naturally ventilated nursery without added heat. Calves were in individual pens with straw bedding. Calf was the experimental unit. Data for each trial were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a 3 (MR treatment) × 2 (sex) factorial arrangement of treatments in trial 1 with repeated measures and as a completely randomized design with 3 MR treatments in trial 2 with repeated measures. Preplanned contrast statements of treatments CON versus FA-S and CON versus MF were used to separate means. We found no interactions of MR treatment by sex. Calf average daily gain, hip width change, and feed efficiency differed (CONFA-S). Titers to bovine respiratory parainfluenza-3 and bovine virus diarrhea type 1 (vaccinations to these pathogens were on d 7 and 28) in serum samples taken on d 49 and 56 differed (CONFA-S; CONFA-S; CON>MF). Calves fed FA-S and MF had improved growth and feed efficiency compared with calves fed CON, whereas calves fed FA-S also

  9. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a... a fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject to reporting...

  10. Probing the interaction of brain fatty acid binding protein (B-FABP with model membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Dyszy

    Full Text Available Brain fatty acid-binding protein (B-FABP interacts with biological membranes and delivers polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs via a collisional mechanism. The binding of FAs in the protein and the interaction with membranes involve a motif called "portal region", formed by two small α-helices, A1 and A2, connected by a loop. We used a combination of site-directed mutagenesis and electron spin resonance to probe the changes in the protein and in the membrane model induced by their interaction. Spin labeled B-FABP mutants and lipidic spin probes incorporated into a membrane model confirmed that B-FABP interacts with micelles through the portal region and led to structural changes in the protein as well in the micelles. These changes were greater in the presence of LPG when compared to the LPC models. ESR spectra of B-FABP labeled mutants showed the presence of two groups of residues that responded to the presence of micelles in opposite ways. In the presence of lysophospholipids, group I of residues, whose side chains point outwards from the contact region between the helices, had their mobility decreased in an environment of lower polarity when compared to the same residues in solution. The second group, composed by residues with side chains situated at the interface between the α-helices, experienced an increase in mobility in the presence of the model membranes. These modifications in the ESR spectra of B-FABP mutants are compatible with a less ordered structure of the portal region inner residues (group II that is likely to facilitate the delivery of FAs to target membranes. On the other hand, residues in group I and micelle components have their mobilities decreased probably as a result of the formation of a collisional complex. Our results bring new insights for the understanding of the gating and delivery mechanisms of FABPs.

  11. Is fatty acid composition of human bone marrow significant to bone health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Ana María; Rodríguez, J Pablo

    2017-12-16

    The bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is a conserved component of the marrow microenvironment, providing storage and release of energy and stabilizing the marrow extent. Also, it is recognized both the amount and quality of BMAT are relevant to preserve the functional relationships between BMAT, bone, and blood cell production. In this article we ponder the information supporting the tenet that the quality of BMAT is relevant to bone health. In the human adult the distribution of BMAT is heterogeneous over the entire skeleton, and both BMAT accumulation and bone loss come about with aging in healthy populations. But some pathological conditions which increase BMAT formation lead to bone impairment and fragility. Analysis in vivo of the relative content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in BMAT indicates site-related bone marrow fat composition and an association between increased unsaturation index (UI) and bone health. With aging some impairment ensues in the regulation of bone marrow cells and systemic signals leading to local chronic inflammation. Most of the bone loss diseases which evolve altered BMAT composition have as common factors aging and/or chronic inflammation. Both saturated and unsaturated FAs originate lipid species which are active mediators in the inflammation process. Increased free saturated FAs may lead to lipotoxicity of bone marrow cells. The pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory or resolving actions of compounds derived from long chain poly unsaturated FAs (PUFA) on bone cells is varied, and depending on the metabolism of the parent n:3 or n:6 PUFAs series. Taking together the evidence substantiate that marrow adipocyte function is fundamental for an efficient link between systemic and marrow fatty acids to accomplish specific energy or regulatory needs of skeletal and marrow cells. Further, they reveal marrow requirements of PUFAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fatty Acid-Based Monomers as Styrene Replacements for Liquid Molding Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    fatty acid length and unsaturation level on resin and polymer properties. Fig. 2. The addition of fatty acids ( oleic acid ) to glycidyl methacylate to...the synthetic route used to form the methacrylated fatty acids (MFA). The carboxylic acid of fatty acids undergoes a simple addition reaction with... form methacrylated fatty acid monomer

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids and dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Greg M.; Ma, Qiu-Lan; Frautschy, Sally A.

    2014-01-01

    More than a dozen epidemiological studies have reported that reduced levels or intake of omega-3 fatty acids or fish consumption is associated with increased risk for age-related cognitive decline or dementia such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increased dietary consumption or blood levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) appear protective for AD and other dementia in multiple epidemiological studies; however, three studies suggest that the ApoE4 genotype limits protection. DHA is broadly neuroprotective via multiple mechanisms that include neuroprotective DHA metabolites, reduced arachidonic acid metabolites, and increased trophic factors or downstream trophic signal transduction. DHA is also protective against several risk factors for dementia including head trauma, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. DHA is specifically protective against AD via additional mechanisms: It limits the production and accumulation of the amyloid β peptide toxin that is widely believed to drive the disease; and it also suppresses several signal transduction pathways induced by Aβ, including two major kinases that phosphorylate the microtubule associated protein tau and promote neurofibrillary tangle pathology. Based on the epidemiological and basic research data, expert panels have recommended the need for clinical trials with omega-3 fatty acids, notably DHA, for the prevention or treatment of age-related cognitive decline—with a focus on the most prevalent cause, AD. Clinical trials are underway to prevent and treat AD. Results to-date suggest that DHA may be more effective if it is begun early or used in conjunction with antioxidants. PMID:19523795

  14. Differential transcriptional modulation of duplicated fatty acid-binding protein genes by dietary fatty acids in zebrafish (Danio rerio: evidence for subfunctionalization or neofunctionalization of duplicated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denovan-Wright Eileen M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Duplication-Degeneration-Complementation (DDC model, subfunctionalization and neofunctionalization have been proposed as important processes driving the retention of duplicated genes in the genome. These processes are thought to occur by gain or loss of regulatory elements in the promoters of duplicated genes. We tested the DDC model by determining the transcriptional induction of fatty acid-binding proteins (Fabps genes by dietary fatty acids (FAs in zebrafish. We chose zebrafish for this study for two reasons: extensive bioinformatics resources are available for zebrafish at zfin.org and zebrafish contains many duplicated genes owing to a whole genome duplication event that occurred early in the ray-finned fish lineage approximately 230-400 million years ago. Adult zebrafish were fed diets containing either fish oil (12% lipid, rich in highly unsaturated fatty acid, sunflower oil (12% lipid, rich in linoleic acid, linseed oil (12% lipid, rich in linolenic acid, or low fat (4% lipid, low fat diet for 10 weeks. FA profiles and the steady-state levels of fabp mRNA and heterogeneous nuclear RNA in intestine, liver, muscle and brain of zebrafish were determined. Result FA profiles assayed by gas chromatography differed in the intestine, brain, muscle and liver depending on diet. The steady-state level of mRNA for three sets of duplicated genes, fabp1a/fabp1b.1/fabp1b.2, fabp7a/fabp7b, and fabp11a/fabp11b, was determined by reverse transcription, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. In brain, the steady-state level of fabp7b mRNAs was induced in fish fed the linoleic acid-rich diet; in intestine, the transcript level of fabp1b.1 and fabp7b were elevated in fish fed the linolenic acid-rich diet; in liver, the level of fabp7a mRNAs was elevated in fish fed the low fat diet; and in muscle, the level of fabp7a and fabp11a mRNAs were elevated in fish fed the linolenic acid-rich or the low fat diets. In all cases

  15. Radiolytic products of irradiated authentic fatty acids and triacylglycerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.-S.; Lee, Jeong-Min; Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Hyun-Pa; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2004-01-01

    Radiolytic products of authentic fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) and triacylglycerides (tripalmitin, tristearin, triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin) were determined. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from the saturated fatty acids were higher than the unsaturated fatty acids. Authentic fatty acids were mainly decomposed in the α-carbon position and C n-1 hydrocarbons occurred in higher than C n-2 hydrocarbons. Concentrations of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from the saturated fatty acids were lower than the unsaturated fatty acids. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from tripalmitin and tristearin were not a significant change compared with triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin. For all triacylglycerides except triolein, C n-1 hydrocarbons were higher than C n-2 hydrocarbons. Radioproduction rates of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from tripalmitin and tristearin were higher than triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin

  16. An engineered fatty acid synthase combined with a carboxylic acid reductase enables de novo production of 1-octanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henritzi, Sandra; Fischer, Manuel; Grininger, Martin; Oreb, Mislav; Boles, Eckhard

    2018-01-01

    The ideal biofuel should not only be a regenerative fuel from renewable feedstocks, but should also be compatible with the existing fuel distribution infrastructure and with normal car engines. As the so-called drop-in biofuel, the fatty alcohol 1-octanol has been described as a valuable substitute for diesel and jet fuels and has already been produced fermentatively from sugars in small amounts with engineered bacteria via reduction of thioesterase-mediated premature release of octanoic acid from fatty acid synthase or via a reversal of the β-oxidation pathway. The previously engineered short-chain acyl-CoA producing yeast Fas1 R1834K /Fas2 fatty acid synthase variant was expressed together with carboxylic acid reductase from Mycobacterium marinum and phosphopantetheinyl transferase Sfp from Bacillus subtilis in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Δfas1 Δfas2 Δfaa2 mutant strain. With the involvement of endogenous thioesterases, alcohol dehydrogenases, and aldehyde reductases, the synthesized octanoyl-CoA was converted to 1-octanol up to a titer of 26.0 mg L -1 in a 72-h fermentation. The additional accumulation of 90 mg L -1 octanoic acid in the medium indicated a bottleneck in 1-octanol production. When octanoic acid was supplied externally to the yeast cells, it could be efficiently converted to 1-octanol indicating that re-uptake of octanoic acid across the plasma membrane is not limiting. Additional overexpression of aldehyde reductase Ahr from Escherichia coli nearly completely prevented accumulation of octanoic acid and increased 1-octanol titers up to 49.5 mg L -1 . However, in growth tests concentrations even lower than 50.0 mg L -1 turned out to be inhibitory to yeast growth. In situ extraction in a two-phase fermentation with dodecane as second phase did not improve growth, indicating that 1-octanol acts inhibitive before secretion. Furthermore, 1-octanol production was even reduced, which results from extraction of the intermediate octanoic acid to

  17. Cellular fatty acids and aldehydes of oral Eubacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, U; Sato, M; Tsuchiya, H; Namikawa, I

    1995-02-01

    The cellular fatty acids and aldehydes of oral Eubacterium species were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. E. brachy and E. lentum contained mainly branched-chain fatty acids, whereas the others contained straight-chain acids. E. brachy, E. lentum, E. yurii ssp. yurii, E. yurii spp. margaretiae, E. limosum, E. plauti and E. aerofaciens also contained aldehydes with even carbon numbers. In addition to species-specific components, the compositional ratios of fatty acids and aldehydes characterized each individual species. The 10 species tested were divided into 5 groups by the principal component analysis. Cellular fatty acids and aldehydes would be chemical markers for interspecies differentiation of oral Eubacterium.

  18. Effects of rice bran on performance, egg quality, oxidative status, yolk fatty acid composition, and fatty acid metabolism-related gene expression in laying ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, D; Lin, Y C; Chen, W; Wang, S; Xia, W G; Fouad, A M; Zheng, C T

    2015-12-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effects of different dietary levels of rice bran (RB) in laying duck diets on performance, egg quality, oxidation status, egg yolk fatty acid composition, and hepatic expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes. Longyan females (1080) with similar BW at 19 wk of age were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments, each consisting of 6 replicates of 30 birds. The basal diet (I) was a typical corn-soybean ration while the experimental diets (II to VI) substituted RB for corn and wheat bran and a small reduction of soybean meal. The level of substitution in diets (II to VI) was 6%, 12%, 18%, 24%, and 30%, respectively. The experiment lasted for 12 wks. Average egg weight and daily egg mass decreased linearly as the level of RB inclusion increased (Pegg yolk linearly decreased with increasing RB, and many of the key polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), like C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3, linearly increased (Pegg yolk cholesterol or triglyceride content (P>0.05). In conclusion, the current study suggests that ducks from 19 to 31 wk could be fed diets with up to about 18% RB without effect on the number of eggs produced, egg quality, and oxidative status. Increasing amounts of RB linearly increased egg yolk concentrations of key fatty acids like C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 and decreased the hepatic abundance of FAS and SREBP-1 transcripts. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Metabolomics of dietary fatty acid restriction in patients with phenylketonuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Mütze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA. Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6-C18 in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re- absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6 a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B(2 and thromboxane B(3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta

  20. Metabolomics of Dietary Fatty Acid Restriction in Patients with Phenylketonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mütze, Ulrike; Beblo, Skadi; Kortz, Linda; Matthies, Claudia; Koletzko, Berthold; Bruegel, Mathias; Rohde, Carmen; Thiery, Joachim; Kiess, Wieland; Ceglarek, Uta

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. Methodology/Principal Findings 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6–C18) in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re-) absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6) a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 and thromboxane B3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. Conclusion/Significance Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta-oxidation. No functional

  1. Fatty Acids Profile of Intramuscular Fat in Light Lambs Traditionally and Artificially Reared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan MARGETÍN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of 40 carcasses of light lambs of the synthetic population of Slovak Dairy sheep from (a artificial rearing (AR and (b traditional rearing (TR was assessed on the basis of fatty acids profile of intramuscular fat (IMF. Lambs from AR in comparison with TR were of lower quality as assessed on the basis of fatty acids (FAs profile. The content of conjugated linolic acid (CLA in the fat of TR lambs was severalfold higher (0.749 vs. 0.193 g.100g-1 FAME, P<0.001 than in AR lambs. Similarly, the content of trans-vaccenic (TVA, á-linolenic (ALA, rumenic (RA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA was in TR lambs significantly higher (P<0.001 than in AR lambs (0.955 vs. 0.111; 0.715 vs. 0.251; 0.672 vs. 0.148; 0.352 vs. 0.061; 0.252 vs. 0.079 g.100g-1 FAME. In contrary, the content of linoleic acid (LA, the ratio of LA/ALA and n-6/n-3 in AR lambs was higher than in TR lambs (9.07 vs. 4.81 g.100 g-1 FAME; 39.11 vs. 6.80; 14.56 vs. 3.25, P<0.001. In TR lambs the content of n-3 PUFA and BCFA was significantly higher (P<0.001 than in AR lambs (2.08 vs. 0.84 and 1.95 vs. 0.45. The value of thrombogenic index was higher in AR lambs in comparison with TR lambs (1.44 vs. 1.31; P<0.05. Significant differences between FAs of IMF of ram lambs and ewe lambs were observed only in the case of arachidonic acid (P<0.05.

  2. C75, a fatty acid synthase inhibitor, modulates AMP-activated protein kinase to alter neuronal energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landree, Leslie E; Hanlon, Andrea L; Strong, David W; Rumbaugh, Gavin; Miller, Ian M; Thupari, Jagan N; Connolly, Erin C; Huganir, Richard L; Richardson, Christine; Witters, Lee A; Kuhajda, Francis P; Ronnett, Gabriele V

    2004-01-30

    C75, a synthetic inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FAS), is hypothesized to alter the metabolism of neurons in the hypothalamus that regulate feeding behavior to contribute to the decreased food intake and profound weight loss seen with C75 treatment. In the present study, we characterize the suitability of primary cultures of cortical neurons for studies designed to investigate the consequences of C75 treatment and the alteration of fatty acid metabolism in neurons. We demonstrate that in primary cortical neurons, C75 inhibits FAS activity and stimulates carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), consistent with its effects in peripheral tissues. C75 alters neuronal ATP levels and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. Neuronal ATP levels are affected in a biphasic manner with C75 treatment, decreasing initially, followed by a prolonged increase above control levels. Cerulenin, a FAS inhibitor, causes a similar biphasic change in ATP levels, although levels do not exceed control. C75 and cerulenin modulate AMPK phosphorylation and activity. TOFA, an inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, increases ATP levels, but does not affect AMPK activity. Several downstream pathways are affected by C75 treatment, including glucose metabolism and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation. These data demonstrate that C75 modulates the levels of energy intermediates, thus, affecting the energy sensor AMPK. Similar effects in hypothalamic neurons could form the basis for the effects of C75 on feeding behavior.

  3. Dietary fatty acid metabolism in prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Christophe; Carpentier, André C

    2017-02-01

    Experimental evidences are strong for a role of long-chain saturated fatty acids in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Ectopic accretion of triglycerides in lean organs is a characteristic of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes and has been linked to end-organ complications. The contribution of disordered dietary fatty acid (DFA) metabolism to lean organ overexposure and lipotoxicity is still unclear, however. DFA metabolism is very complex and very difficult to study in vivo in humans. We have recently developed a novel imaging method using PET with oral administration of 14-R,S-F-fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) to quantify organ-specific DFA partitioning. Our studies thus far confirmed impaired storage of DFA per volume of fat mass in abdominal adipose tissues of individuals with prediabetes. They also highlighted the increased channeling of DFA toward the heart, associated with subclinical reduction in cardiac systolic and diastolic function in individuals with prediabetes. In the present review, we summarize previous work on DFA metabolism in healthy and prediabetic states and discuss these in the light of our novel findings using PET imaging of DFA metabolism. We herein provide an integrated view of abnormal organ-specific DFA partitioning in prediabetes in humans.

  4. Identification of characteristic fatty acids to quantify triacylglycerols in microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peili eShen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid profiles of lipids from microalgae are unique. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are generally enriched in polar lipids, whereas saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids constitute the majority of fatty acids in triacylglycerols (TAG. Each species has characteristic fatty acids, and their content is positively or negatively correlated with TAGs. The marine oleaginous diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was used as the paradigm to determine the quantitative relationship between TAG and characteristic fatty acid content. Fatty acid profiles and TAG content of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were determined in a time course. C16:0/C16:1 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3 were identified as characteristic fatty acids in TAGs and polar lipids, respectively. The percentage of those characteristic fatty acids in total fatty acids had a significant linear relationship with TAG content and thus the correlation coefficient presenting r2 were 0.96, 0.94 and 0.97 respectively. The fatty acid-based method for TAG quantification could also be applied to other microalgae such as Nannochloropsis oceanica in which the r2 of C16:0, EPA were 0.94, 0.97 respectively and Chlorella pyrenoidosa, whose r2 value correspondingly between C18:1, C18:3 and TAG content were 0.91, 0.99 as well. This characteristic fatty acid-based method provided a distinct way to quantify TAGs in microalgae, by which TAGs could be measured precisely by immediate transesterification from wet biomass rather than using conventional methods. This procedure simplified the operation and required smaller samples than conventional methods.

  5. Metabolism of fatty acids in rat brain in microsomal membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeberhard, E.E.; Gan-Elepano, M.; Mead, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Using a technique in which substrate fatty acids are incorporated into microsomal membranes followd by comparison of their rates of desaturation or elongation with those of exogenous added fatty acids it has been found that the desaturation rate is more rapid for the membrane-bound substrate than for the added fatty acid. Moreover, the product of the membrane-bound substrate is incorporated into membrane phospholipid whereas the product of the exogenous substrate is found in di- and triacyl glycerols and in free fatty acids as well. These and other findings point to a normal sequence of reaction of membrane liqids with membrane-bound substrates involving transfer of fatty acid from phospholipid to the coupled enzyme systems without ready equilibration with the free fatty acid pool

  6. Feedlot lamb meat fatty acids profile characterization employing gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Cruz-Gonzalez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fat is an important constituent in diet, not only as an energy source, but for its essential fatty acids associated to fats in foods, considering that some polyunsaturated fatty acids like linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic cannot be synthesized by superior animals like humans. Scientific evidence show that the fatty acids ingest can affect the thrombotic tendency, cardiac rhythm, endothelial function systematic inflammation, insulin sensibility and oxidative stress. Samples from 21 ovine crossbreds from Pelibuey, Blackbelly, Dorper and Katahadin (40 kg average weight feed with corn based balanced diets were taken from loin area 18 h after refrigeration. Saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were analyzed by gas chromatography. Results in this work showed that the healthy fatty acids levels are higher as compared to saturated fatty acids levels, indicating that this meat can influence consumer’s buying choice decision regarded to their health.

  7. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in...

  8. Fatty-acid profiles of white muscle and liver in stream-maturing steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from early migration to kelt emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Zachary L.; Moffitt, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    The profiles of specific fatty acids (FA) in white muscle and liver of fasting steelhead troutOncorhynchus mykiss were evaluated at three periods during their prespawning migration and at kelt emigration in the Snake–Columbia River of Washington, Oregon and Idaho, to improve the understanding of energy change. Twenty-seven FAs were identified; depletion of 10 of these was positively correlated in liver and white muscle of prespawning O. mykiss. To observe relative changes in FA content more accurately over sampling intervals, the lipid fraction of tissues was used to normalize the quantity of individual FA to an equivalent tissue wet mass. Saturated and monounsaturated FAs were depleted between upstream migration in September and kelt emigration in June, whereas polyunsaturated FAs were more conserved. Liver was depleted of FAs more rapidly than muscle. Three FAs were detected across all sampling intervals: 16:0, 18:1 and 22:6n3, which are probably structurally important to membranes. When structurally important FAs of O. mykiss are depleted to provide energy, physiological performance and survival may be affected.

  9. Composition and variation of fatty acids among groundnut cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) contain approximately 44-56% oil made up of fatty acids. Oleic and linoleic acids comprise about 80% of fatty acids in groundnuts. Groundnuts with >80% oleic are beneficial health-wise and also improve groundnut quality, flavour, and extended shelf-life, which is beneficial to traders.

  10. Physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of star fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... refractive index (1.421), acid value (0.68), free fatty acid (0.84), iodine value (140.50 ... The fatty acid profiles were revealed using Gas Chromatography Mass ... The outcome of this study showed that Averrohoa carambola seed oil may find wider industrial application and ...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid... substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and P-90-1985...

  12. Composition of fatty acids in selected vegetable oils

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Frančáková; Eva Ivanišová; Štefan Dráb; Tomáš Krajčovič; Marián Tokár; Ján Mareček; Janette Musilová

    2015-01-01

    Plant oils and fats are important and necessary components of the human nutrition. They are energy source and also contain fatty acids - compounds essential for human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional quality of selected plant oil - olive, rapeseed, pumpkin, flax and sesame; based on fatty acid composition in these oils. Fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA, SFA) were analyzed chromatography using system Agilent 6890 GC, injector multimode, detector FID. The highest c...

  13. Effect of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Holmer, G.; Lund, Pia

    2005-01-01

    interesterified test fats with equal amounts of palmitic acid ( P fat), stearic acid (S fat), trans-18: 1 isomers (T fat), oleic acid (O fat), or linoleic acid (L fat) were tested. Subjects: A total of 16 healthy, normolipidaemic males ( age 23 +/- 2 y) were recruited. Interventions: The participants ingested fat......Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of trans-18: 1 isomers compared to other fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols ( TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL. Design: A randomised crossover experiment where five......-rich test meals ( 1 g fat per kg body weight) and the fatty acid profiles of chylomicron and VLDL TAG were followed for 8 h. Results: The postprandial fatty acid composition of chylomicron TAG resembled that of the ingested fats. The fatty acids in chylomicron TAG were randomly distributed among the three...

  14. Effects of varying levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-20

    Dec 20, 2010 ... omega 3 (n-3), omega 6 (n-6) and omega 9 (n-9) fatty acids and are essential in the ... the maintenance of different physiological functions. (Aaes-Jorgensen .... was easier to recognize each one of these cellular types. Mating.

  15. Relationship between fatty acid delivery and fatty acid oxidation during strenuous exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, J. A.; Coyle, E. F.; Sidossis, L. S.; Zhang, X. J.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the extent to which decreased plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration contributes to the relatively low rates of fat oxidation during high-intensity exercise, we studied FFA metabolism in six endurance-trained cyclists during 20-30 min of exercise [85% of maximal O2 uptake (VO2max)].

  16. Ruminal fatty acid metabolism : altering rumen biohydrolgenation to improve milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional guidelines promote a reduced intake of saturated fatty acids (FA) and increased intake of unsaturated FA by humans. Milk and dairy products contain a high proportion of saturated FA caused by extensive alterations of dietary lipids in the rumen through the processes of lipolysis and

  17. Inhibition of fatty acid mobilization by arterial free fatty acid concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J; Bülow, J; Nielsen, N E

    1986-01-01

    Subcutaneous, inguinal adipose tissue from dogs was perfused with blood in which the free fatty acid (FFA) concentration was varied corresponding to FFA/albumin molar ratios between 1 and 6. Otherwise the composition of the perfusate was kept constant. In order to stimulate lipolysis, isoprenaline...

  18. Effect of α-linolenic acid and DHA intake on lipogenesis and gene expression involved in fatty acid metabolism in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tonnac, A; Labussière, E; Vincent, A; Mourot, J

    2016-07-01

    The regulation of lipogenesis mechanisms related to consumption of n-3 PUFA is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to find out whether α-linolenic acid (ALA) or DHA uptake can have an effect on activities and gene expressions of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism in the liver, subcutaneous adipose tissue and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of growing-finishing pigs. Six groups of ten pigs received one of six experimental diets supplemented with rapeseed oil in the control diet, extruded linseed, microalgae or a mixture of both to implement different levels of ALA and DHA with the same content in total n-3. Results were analysed for linear and quadratic effects of DHA intake. The results showed that activities of malic enzyme (ME) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) decreased linearly in the liver with dietary DHA. Although the expression of the genes of these enzymes and their activities were poorly correlated, ME and FAS expressions also decreased linearly with DHA intake. The intake of DHA down-regulates the expressions of other genes involved in fatty acid (FA) metabolism in some tissues of pigs, such as fatty acid desaturase 2 and sterol-regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 in the liver and 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductase 2 in the LD muscle. FA oxidation in the LD muscle and FA synthesis decreased in the liver with increasing amount of dietary DHA, whereas a retroconversion of DHA into EPA seems to be set up in this last tissue.

  19. Novel signature fatty acid profile of the giant manta ray suggests reliance on an uncharacterised mesopelagic food source low in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Katherine B; Guerrero, Michel; Marshall, Andrea D; Richardson, Anthony J; Bennett, Mike B; Couturier, Lydie I E

    2018-01-01

    Traditionally, large planktivorous elasmobranchs have been thought to predominantly feed on surface zooplankton during daytime hours. However, the recent application of molecular methods to examine long-term assimilated diets, has revealed that these species likely gain the majority from deeper or demersal sources. Signature fatty acid analysis (FA) of muscle tissue was used to examine the assimilated diet of the giant manta ray Mobula birostris, and then compared with surface zooplankton that was collected during feeding and non-feeding events at two aggregation sites off mainland Ecuador. The FA profiles of M. birostris and surface zooplankton were markedly different apart from similar proportions of arachidonic acid, which suggests daytime surface zooplankton may comprise a small amount of dietary intake for M. birostris. The FA profile of M. birostris muscle was found to be depleted in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and instead comprised high proportions of 18:1ω9 isomers. While 18:1ω9 isomers are not explicitly considered dietary FAs, they are commonly found in high proportions in deep-sea organisms, including elasmobranch species. Overall, the FA profile of M. birostris suggests a diet that is mesopelagic in origin, but many mesopelagic zooplankton species also vertically migrate, staying deep during the day and moving to shallower waters at night. Here, signature FA analysis is unable to resolve the depth at which these putative dietary items were consumed and how availability of this prey may drive distribution and movements of this large filter-feeder.

  20. Novel signature fatty acid profile of the giant manta ray suggests reliance on an uncharacterised mesopelagic food source low in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine B Burgess

    Full Text Available Traditionally, large planktivorous elasmobranchs have been thought to predominantly feed on surface zooplankton during daytime hours. However, the recent application of molecular methods to examine long-term assimilated diets, has revealed that these species likely gain the majority from deeper or demersal sources. Signature fatty acid analysis (FA of muscle tissue was used to examine the assimilated diet of the giant manta ray Mobula birostris, and then compared with surface zooplankton that was collected during feeding and non-feeding events at two aggregation sites off mainland Ecuador. The FA profiles of M. birostris and surface zooplankton were markedly different apart from similar proportions of arachidonic acid, which suggests daytime surface zooplankton may comprise a small amount of dietary intake for M. birostris. The FA profile of M. birostris muscle was found to be depleted in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and instead comprised high proportions of 18:1ω9 isomers. While 18:1ω9 isomers are not explicitly considered dietary FAs, they are commonly found in high proportions in deep-sea organisms, including elasmobranch species. Overall, the FA profile of M. birostris suggests a diet that is mesopelagic in origin, but many mesopelagic zooplankton species also vertically migrate, staying deep during the day and moving to shallower waters at night. Here, signature FA analysis is unable to resolve the depth at which these putative dietary items were consumed and how availability of this prey may drive distribution and movements of this large filter-feeder.

  1. Acylation of cellular proteins with endogenously synthesized fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, D.; Glaser, L.

    1986-01-01

    A number of cellular proteins contain covalently bound fatty acids. Previous studies have identified myristic acid and palmitic acid covalently linked to protein, the former usually attached to proteins by an amide linkage and the latter by ester or thio ester linkages. While in a few instances specific proteins have been isolated from cells and their fatty acid composition has been determined, the most frequent approach to the identification of protein-linked fatty acids is to biosynthetically label proteins with fatty acids added to intact cells. This procedure introduces possible bias in that only a selected fraction of proteins may be labeled, and it is not known whether the radioactive fatty acid linked to the protein is identical with that which is attached to the protein when the fatty acid is derived from endogenous sources. We have examined the distribution of protein-bound fatty acid following labeling with [ 3 H]acetate, a general precursor of all fatty acids, using BC 3 H1 cells (a mouse muscle cell line) and A431 cells (a human epidermoid carcinoma). Myristate, palmitate, and stearate account for essentially all of the fatty acids linked to protein following labeling with [ 3 H]acetate, but at least 30% of the protein-bound palmitate in these cells was present in amide linkage. In BC3H1 cells, exogenous palmitate becomes covalently bound to protein such that less than 10% of the fatty acid is present in amide linkage. These data are compatible with multiple protein acylating activities specific for acceptor protein fatty acid chain length and linkage

  2. Liquid biofuel production from volatile fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.

    2010-03-19

    The production of renewable fuels and chemicals reduces the dependency on fossil fuels and limits the increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere only if a sustainable feedstock and an energy efficient process are used. The thesis assesses the possibility to use municipal and industrial waste as biomass feedstock to have little of no competition with food production, and to save greenhouse gasses emissions. Waste is a complex substrate with a diverse composition and high water content. It can be homogenized without losing its initial energy value by anaerobic conversion to volatile fatty acids (VFA). Using VFA gives the opportunity to process cheap and abundantly present biomass residues to a fuel and chemical instead of sugar containing crops or vegetable oil. This thesis describes the feasibility to convert VFA to compounds with a higher energy content using mixed culture fermentations by eliminating of oxygen and/or increasing the carbon and hydrogen content. At high hydrogen pressure, protons and electrons release via the reduction of organic products such as VFA becomes thermodynamically more attractive. Three VFA reduction reactions were studied: hydrogenation to an alcohol with (1) hydrogen and (2) an electrode as electron donor, and (3) by chain elongation with hydrogen and ethanol. Based on concentration, production rate and efficiency, elongation of acetate with hydrogen and/or ethanol was the best technique to convert VFA into a fuel. In a CSTR (Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor), 10.5 g L{sup -1} caproic acid and 0.48 g L{sup -1} caprylic acid were produced with ethanol and/or hydrogen at a specific MCFA (medium-chain fatty acids) production activity of 2.9 g caproate and 0.09 g caprylate per gram VSS d{sup -1} (volatile suspended solids). The products were selectively removed by calcium precipitation and solvent extraction with ethyl hexanoate and petroleum ether. Microbial characterization revealed that the microbial populations were stable and

  3. Malonyl-coenzyme-A is a potential mediator of cytotoxicity induced by fatty-acid synthase inhibition in human breast cancer cells and xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizer, E S; Thupari, J; Han, W F; Pinn, M L; Chrest, F J; Frehywot, G L; Townsend, C A; Kuhajda, F P

    2000-01-15

    A biologically aggressive subset of human breast cancers and other malignancies is characterized by elevated fatty-acid synthase (FAS) enzyme expression, elevated fatty acid (FA) synthesis, and selective sensitivity to pharmacological inhibition of FAS activity by cerulenin or the novel compound C75. In this study, inhibition of FA synthesis at the physiologically regulated step of carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA by 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA) was not cytotoxic to breast cancer cells in clonogenic assays. FAS inhibitors induced a rapid increase in intracellular malonyl-CoA to several fold above control levels, whereas TOFA reduced intracellular malonyl-CoA by 60%. Simultaneous exposure of breast cancer cells to TOFA and an FAS inhibitor resulted in significantly reduced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Subcutaneous xenografts of MCF7 breast cancer cells in nude mice treated with C75 showed FA synthesis inhibition, apoptosis, and inhibition of tumor growth to less than 1/8 of control volumes, without comparable toxicity in normal tissues. The data suggest that differences in intermediary metabolism render tumor cells susceptible to toxic fluxes in malonyl-CoA, both in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Training affects muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Wu, B J; Willer, Mette

    2001-01-01

    on the muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans. Seven male subjects performed endurance training of the knee extensors of one leg for 4 wk. The other leg served as a control. Before, after 4 days, and after 4 wk, muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. After 4 wk......, the phospholipid fatty acid contents of oleic acid 18:1(n-9) and docosahexaenoic acid 22:6(n-3) were significantly higher in the trained (10.9 +/- 0.5% and 3.2 +/- 0.4% of total fatty acids, respectively) than the untrained leg (8.8 +/- 0.5% and 2.6 +/- 0.4%, P fatty acids...... was significantly lower in the trained (11.1 +/- 0.9) than the untrained leg (13.1 +/- 1.2, P fatty acid composition. Citrate synthase activity was increased by 17% in the trained compared with the untrained leg (P

  5. Effects of fatty acid activation on photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Qianqian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Direct conversion of solar energy and carbon dioxide to drop in fuel molecules in a single biological system can be achieved from fatty acid-based biofuels such as fatty alcohols and alkanes. These molecules have similar properties to fossil fuels but can be produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Results Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strains containing either overexpression or deletion of the slr1609 gene, which encodes an acyl-ACP synthetase (AAS, have been constructed. The complete segregation and deletion in all mutant strains was confirmed by PCR analysis. Blocking fatty acid activation by deleting slr1609 gene in wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 led to a doubling of the amount of free fatty acids and a decrease of alkane production by up to 90 percent. Overexpression of slr1609 gene in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 had no effect on the production of either free fatty acids or alkanes. Overexpression or deletion of slr1609 gene in the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strain with the capability of making fatty alcohols by genetically introducing fatty acyl-CoA reductase respectively enhanced or reduced fatty alcohol production by 60 percent. Conclusions Fatty acid activation functionalized by the slr1609 gene is metabolically crucial for biosynthesis of fatty acid derivatives in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. It is necessary but not sufficient for efficient production of alkanes. Fatty alcohol production can be significantly improved by the overexpression of slr1609 gene.

  6. Direct infusion electrospray ionization–ion mobility–mass spectrometry for comparative profiling of fatty acids based on stable isotope labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Jiapeng, E-mail: jpleng@126.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Guan, Qing [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC), Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Sun, Tuanqi, E-mail: tuanqisun@163.com [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC), Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wang, Haoyang [National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032 (China); Cui, Jianlan; Liu, Qinghao [Department of Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Zhang, Zhixu; Zhang, Manyu [Agilent Technologies China Co., Ltd, Shanghai 200080 (China); Guo, Yinlong, E-mail: ylguo@sioc.ac.cn [National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2015-08-05

    A rapid method for fatty acids (FAs) comparative profiling based on carboxyl-specific stable isotope labeling (SIL) and direct infusion electrospray ionization–ion mobility–mass spectrometry (ESI–IM–MS) is established. The design of the method takes advantage of the three-dimensional characteristics of IM–MS including drift time, m/z and ion intensity, for comparison of d0-/d6-2,4-dimethoxy-6-piperazin-1-yl pyrimidine (DMPP)-labeled FAs. In particular, without chromatographic separation, the method allowed direct FAs profiling in complex samples due to the advantageous priority of DMPP in signal enhancement as well as the extra resolution that IM–MS offered. Additionally, the d0-/d6-DMPP-labeled FAs showed expected features, including very similar drift times, 6 Da mass deviations, specific reporter ions, similar MS responses, and adherence to the drift time rule regarding the influence of carbon chain length and unsaturation on relative drift times. Therefore, the introduction of isotope analogs minimized the matrix effect and variations in quantification and ensured accurate identification of non-targeted FAs by those typical features. Peak intensity ratios between d0-/d6-DMPP-labeled ions were subsequently used in relative quantification for the detected FAs. The established strategy has been applied successfully in the rapid profiling of trace free FAs between normal and cancerous human thyroid tissues. Sixteen free FAs were found with the increased level with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) compared to the normal tissue samples. The integrated SIL technique and ESI–IM–MS are expected to serve as an alternative tool for high-throughput analysis of FAs in complex samples. - Highlights: • A novel method based on IM–MS and SIL was developed for FAs comparative profiling. • Without LC separation, the method allowed direct infusion profiling of FAs in complex samples. • Both of the efficiency and accuracy for FAs analyses

  7. Abundance and distribution of fatty acids within the walls of an active deep-sea sulfide chimney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiwei; Zhou, Huaiyang; Peng, Xiaotong; Fu, Meiyan; Chen, Zhiqiang; Yao, Huiqiang

    2011-04-01

    Abundance and distribution of total fatty acids (TFAs) were examined along the physicochemical gradient within an active hydrothermal chimney collected from the Main Endeavour segment of Juan de Fuca Ridge. Approximately 27 fatty acids are identified with a chain-length ranging from C12 to C22. From the exterior to the interior of the chimney walls, the total concentrations of TFAs (∑ TFAs) show a trend of evident decrease. The observed compositions of TFAs are rich in bacterial biomarkers especially monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and minor branched and cyclopropyl FAs. On the basis of the species-specific FAs and bacterial 16SrRNA gene analysis (Li et al., unpublished data), sulfur-based metabolism appears to be the essential metabolic process in the chimney. Furthermore, the sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) are identified as a basic component of microbial communities at the exterior of the hydrothermal chimney, and its proportion shows an inward decrease while the sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) have an inverse distribution.

  8. PPAR/RXR Regulation of Fatty Acid Metabolism and Fatty Acid -Hydroxylase (CYP4 Isozymes: Implications for Prevention of Lipotoxicity in Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Hardwick

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver disease is a common lipid metabolism disorder influenced by the combination of individual genetic makeup, drug exposure, and life-style choices that are frequently associated with metabolic syndrome, which encompasses obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistant diabetes. Common to obesity related dyslipidemia is the excessive storage of hepatic fatty acids (steatosis, due to a decrease in mitochondria -oxidation with an increase in both peroxisomal -oxidation, and microsomal -oxidation of fatty acids through peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs. How steatosis increases PPAR activated gene expression of fatty acid transport proteins, peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid -oxidation and -oxidation of fatty acids genes regardless of whether dietary fatty acids are polyunsaturated (PUFA, monounsaturated (MUFA, or saturated (SFA may be determined by the interplay of PPARs and HNF4 with the fatty acid transport proteins L-FABP and ACBP. In hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis, the -oxidation cytochrome P450 CYP4A gene expression is increased even with reduced hepatic levels of PPAR. Although numerous studies have suggested the role ethanol-inducible CYP2E1 in contributing to increased oxidative stress, Cyp2e1-null mice still develop steatohepatitis with a dramatic increase in CYP4A gene expression. This strongly implies that CYP4A fatty acid -hydroxylase P450s may play an important role in the development of steatohepatitis. In this review and tutorial, we briefly describe how fatty acids are partitioned by fatty acid transport proteins to either anabolic or catabolic pathways regulated by PPARs, and we explore how medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA CYP4A and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA CYP4F -hydroxylase genes are regulated in fatty liver. We finally propose a hypothesis that increased CYP4A expression with a decrease in CYP4F genes may promote the progression of steatosis to

  9. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Murzina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes.

  10. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rahim aydin

    Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was reported to increase the levels of saturated fatty ... Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary CLA on the fatty acid ..... silver ion-high performance liquid chromatography.

  11. The development of radioiodinated fatty acids for myocardial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Since free fatty acids are the principal energy source for the normally oxygenated myocardium, the use of iodine-123-labeled fatty acid analogues is an attractive approach for myocardial imaging. Interest in the use of these substances results from divergent fatty acid metabolic pathways in ischemic (triglyceride storage) versus normoxic tissue (β-oxidative clearance), following flow-dependent delivery. Iodine-123-labeled fatty acids may offer a unique opportunity to identity myocardial viability using single photon emission tomography. The development of structurally-modified fatty acids became of interest because of the relatively long acquisition periods required for SPECT. The significant time required by early generation single- or dual-head SPECT systems for data acquisition requires minimal redistribution during the acquisition period to ensure accurate evaluation of the regional fatty acid distribution pattern after re-construction. Research has focussed on the evaluation of structural modifications which can be introduced into the fatty acid chain which would inhibit the subsequent β-oxidative catabolism which normally results in rapid myocardial clearance. Introduction of a methyl group in position-3 of the fatty acid carbon chain has been shown to significantly delay myocardial clearance and iodine-123-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3- R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is a new tracer based on this strategy

  12. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl

    2000-01-01

    The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(lll)/O-2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid......-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate fatty acids were oxidized in the presence...... in the formation of protein carbonyls, These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues...

  13. Sources and Bioactive Properties of Conjugated Dietary Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Alan A; Ross, Paul R; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The group of conjugated fatty acids known as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been extensively studied with regard to their bioactive potential in treating some of the most prominent human health malignancies. However, CLA isomers are not the only group of potentially bioactive conjugated fatty acids currently undergoing study. In this regard, isomers of conjugated α-linolenic acid, conjugated nonadecadienoic acid and conjugated eicosapentaenoic acid, to name but a few, have undergone experimental assessment. These studies have indicated many of these conjugated fatty acid isomers commonly possess anti-carcinogenic, anti-adipogenic, anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties, a number of which will be discussed in this review. The mechanisms through which these bioactivities are mediated have not yet been fully elucidated. However, existing evidence indicates that these fatty acids may play a role in modulating the expression of several oncogenes, cell cycle regulators, and genes associated with energy metabolism. Despite such bioactive potential, interest in these conjugated fatty acids has remained low relative to the CLA isomers. This may be partly attributed to the relatively recent emergence of these fatty acids as bioactives, but also due to a lack of awareness regarding sources from which they can be produced. In this review, we will also highlight the common sources of these conjugated fatty acids, including plants, algae, microbes and chemosynthesis.

  14. Fatty Acid Profiles of , and Muscles and Serum in Kacang Goats Supplemented with Inorganic Selenium and Iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Aghwan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fat and fatty acids in muscle and adipose tissues are among the major factors influencing meat quality particularly nutritional value and palatability. The present study was carried out to examine the effects of supplementing inorganic selenium (Se, iodine (I and a combination of both on fatty acid compositions in serum, and supraspinatus (SS, longissimus lumborum (LL, and semitendinosus (ST muscles in goats. Twenty-four, 7 to 8 months old, Kacang male goats with a mean live weight of 22.00±1.17 kg were individually and randomly assigned into four groups of six animals each for 100 d of feeding prior to slaughter. The animals were offered the same concentrate (basal diet as 1% of body weight with ad libitum amount of fresh guinea grass. The four groups were as follows: T1 (control - basal diet without supplementation; T2 - basal diet with 0.6 mg Se/kg DM; T3 - basal diet with 0.6 mg I/kg DM; T4 - basal diet with combination of 0.6 mg Se/kg DM and 0.6 mg I/kg DM. The major fatty acids (FAs detected in the serum were palmitic (C16:0, stearic (C18:0, oleic (C18:1n9 and linoleic (C18:2n-6, while the major FAs in the selected muscles were C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n9 acids. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA detected in muscles and serum were (CI8:2n-6, linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, and arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6. No significant differences (p>0.05 were observed in the concentration of total saturated fatty acids (SFA among the four groups. PUFA concentrations in the goats supplemented with Se (T2 were significantly higher (p<0.05 than the goats of the control group (T1. The PUFA: SFA ratio was significantly higher in the animals supplemented with dietary Se (T2 than those of control ones (T1. It is concluded that dietary supplementation of inorganic Se increased the unsaturated fatty acids in muscle. The supplementation of iodine with or without Se had negligible effects on muscle fatty acid content of Kacang crossbred male goats.

  15. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester M Den Ruijter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term 3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated 3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated 3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (3 or sunflower oil (9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered 3-PUFAs. Plasma of 3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of 3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, 3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than 9 myocytes. In the 9 myocytes, but not in the 3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated 3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered 3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac 3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term 3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  16. Naturally occurring and process-induced trans fatty acids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHOKRI

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... Key words: Trans-fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid, butter oil. INTRODUCTION ... important role in determining risk of coronary heart diseases (CHD) than ... performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) grade, supplied by.

  17. Oil hyphae of endolithic lichens and their fatty acid composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushnir, E; Tietz, A; Galun, M

    1978-01-01

    The structure of medullary oil hyphae of twelve endolithic lichen species, belonging to different taxa and colonizing different habitats, was examined by light and electron microscopy. The chemical composition of lipids isolated from the oil hyphae and from two corresponding mycobionts grown in culture was determined. The oil hyphae of the various species appeared in different forms and contained large amounts of lipid in the form of oil globules. The hyphae of mycobionts isolated from two of the endoliths and grown in culture also contained large amounts of lipids. Triacylglycerol was the predominant lipid component in all the organisms examined. Hexadecanoic acid was the main saturated fatty acid; octadecenoic acid and octadecdienoic acid the predominant unsaturated fatty acids. Tetradecanoic, hexadecenoic, octadecanoic and octadectrienoic acids were also detected. The fatty acid distribution pattern appeared unaffected by the nature of substrate and climatic conditions. There is a certain similarity in the fatty acid composition in related species. 9 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Relationship between concentration of health important groups of fatty acids and components and technological properties in cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Groups of fatty acids (FAs in milk fat can have positive and negative impact on consumer health. Profile of FAs could be influenced by dairy cow nutrition, breed, milk yield level et cetera. The question is what relationships the FAs could have to quality of milk products? Relationships between FAs and their groups to selected milk indicators were studied in Czech Fleckvieh and Holstein cows (64 bulk milk samples. There were 8 herds in 2-year investigation during winter and summer season. The relationship of saturated FAs (SAFA; 66.22% was significant only to lactose (L content (0.290; P < 0.05. The relationships of monounsaturated FAs (MUFA; 29.21% to milk indicators (MIs were in­si­gni­fi­cant (P > 0.05. The relationships of polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA, beneficial for consumer health; 4.53% to MIs were narrower: fat (T, 0.321; P < 0.05; lactose (L, 0.458; P < 0.01; milk alcohol stability (AL, 0.447; P < 0.01; titration acidity (SH, 0.342; P < 0.01; cheese curd quality (KV, 0.427; P < 0.01; milk fermentationability (JSH, 0.529; P < 0.001, streptococci count in yoghurt (Strepto, 0.316; P < 0.05; total count of noble bacteria in yoghurt (CPMUK, 0.314; P < 0.05; streptococci/lactobacilly ratio (StreptoLacto, 0.356; P < 0.01. The relationships of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; markedly beneficial for health; 0.68% to MIs were: T (0.379; P < 0.01; L (–0.542; P < 0.001; AL (0.266; P < 0.05; KV (0.411; P < 0.01; Strepto (0.260; P < 0.05; StreptoLacto (0.270; P < 0.05. The higher CLA levels were connected in this way with: higher fat content; lower lactose content; lower alcohol stability; lower streptococci count in yoghurt; lower streptococci/lactobacilly ratio in yoghurt. The PUFA and CLA representation decreased with L increase. Simultaneously some technological milk properties such as alcohol sta­bi­li­ty and fermentationability were slightly improved.

  19. What health professionals should know about omega-3 fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the aim of this article is to equip health .... of EPA and DHA into the red blood cell membrane fatty acids (a 160% increase ... non-significant changes between plasma EPA and DHA for fish oil. (864 mg .... displayed higher CD levels than the vegetable oils.30 ... analysis, on the n-3 fatty acid content of supplements.

  20. Fatty Acid Composition of the Aerial Parts of Some Centaurea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the fatty acid composition of six Centaurea species, viz, Centaurea behen, C. saligna, C. depressa, C. urvillei subsp. urvillei, C. urvillei subsp. hayekiana and C. aggregata subsp. aggregata, from Elaz.., Turkey. Methods: Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of the oil extracts of four Centaurea species were ...

  1. Associations of erythrocyte fatty acid patterns with insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Synergistic and/or additive effects on cardiometabolic risk may be missed by examining individual fatty acids (FA). A pattern analysis may be a more useful approach. As well, it remains unclear whether erythrocyte fatty acid composition relates to insulin resistance among Hispanic/Latino...

  2. Alternative origins for omega-3 fatty acids in the diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenihan-Geels, Georgia; Bishop, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    Fish and seafood are important sources for LC PUFAs, EPA and DHA. These fatty acids may be synthesised in the body from short-chain fatty acids, including ALA; however, the enzymes involved in this pathway are considered inefficient. This means direct EPA and DHA sources are an important part of

  3. Fatty acid amides from freshwater green alga Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembitsky, V M; Shkrob, I; Rozentsvet, O A

    2000-08-01

    Freshwater green algae Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum growing in the Ural Mountains were examined for their fatty acid amides using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eight fatty acid amides were identified by GC-MS. (Z)-9-octadecenamide was found to be the major component (2.26%).

  4. GC – MS Characterization of Degutted White Grubs' Fatty Acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatty acids composition of white grubs examined by GC- MS identified 19 different fatty acids; 11 saturated, 7 monoene and a cyclopropaneoctanoate. The identified ones are Methyl tetradecanoate (C14:0), Methyl dodecanoate (C12:0), Methyl cis – 9 - octadecenote (C18:1), Methyl(7E) – 7 – hexadecenoate (C16:1), Methyl ...

  5. Isolation of fucoxanthin and fatty acids analysis of Padina australis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fucoxanthin has been successfully isolated from species of Malaysian brown seaweed, namely Padina australis. The purity of the fucoxanthin is >98% as indicated by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. This seaweed also contains a considerable amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Thirteen fatty acids were ...

  6. Lipid profile and levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids especially omega-3 is projected to be way below the recommended intake in Kenya. Thus, there is need to find other sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). This study screened for the lipid profile and levels of omega-3 PUFAs in jackfruit and explored the variation in lipid ...

  7. Alternative Production of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters from Triglycerides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The catalysts activity was tested in thermocatalytic cracking of triglyceride; a direct conversion process for fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel). The SZ1 not only exhibited higher conversion of triglycerides but higher fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) yields of approximately 59% after 3h as compared to SZ2 (32%). In addition ...

  8. Cellular fatty acid composition of marine-derived fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Shridhar, M.P.D.; DeSouza, L.; Naik, C.G.

    . The fatty acids specific to the above mentioned fungi can be used as biomarkers for taxonomic purposes. High concentrations of C18 PUFAs (18:2 n-6 and 18:1 n-9) together with relatively high concentrations of saturated fatty acids like palmitic (16...

  9. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status of Dutch vegans and omnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Hettema, Y; Bemelmans, W J; Muskiet, F A

    We compared the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status of Dutch vegans and omnivores to investigate whether disparities can be explained by different diets and long chain PUFA (LCP) synthesis rates. Dietary intakes and fatty acid compositions of erythrocytes (RBC), platelets (PLT), plasma

  10. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status of Dutch vegans and omnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Hettema, Y; Bemelmans, W J; Muskiet, F A

    2000-01-01

    We compared the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status of Dutch vegans and omnivores to investigate whether disparities can be explained by different diets and long chain PUFA (LCP) synthesis rates. Dietary intakes and fatty acid compositions of erythrocytes (RBC), platelets (PLT), plasma

  11. Neonatal fatty acid status and cardiometabolic health at 9 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seggers, Jorien; Kikkert, Hedwig K.; de Jong, Corina; Decsi, Tamas; Boehm, Gunther; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Background: Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status is associated with risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. We previously demonstrated no effect of LCPUFA supplementation after birth on BP and anthropometrics. Little is known about the association between fatty acid status at

  12. Increased brain fatty acid uptake in metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karmi, Anna; Iozzo, Patricia; Viljanen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it.......To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it....

  13. SYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACID ETHYL ESTER FROM CHICKEN FAT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    synthesis of fatty acid ethyl ester from chicken fat waste using ZnO/SiO fatty acid ethyl ester ... obtained in the range of 56−88%and a second order quadratic polynomial regression model that established the ... Transesterification is a chemical.

  14. Dietary fatty acids modulate associations between genetic variants and circulating fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes: meta-analysis of nine studies in the CHARGE consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scope: Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. We evaluated i...

  15. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles and relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors in Cree (Eeyouch of Northern Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Proust

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs from fish are known modulators of cardiometabolic risk factors. Objective: To examine fatty acids (FAs status and the relationship between n-3 LC-PUFA and cardiometabolic risk factors in Cree participants. Design: We analyzed data from a cross-sectional study (n=829 conducted in Cree adults (aged 18–74 years from 7 communities of the James Bay territory of Quebec (Canada in 2005–2009. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, clinical and anthropometric data were collected. FAs were quantified in red blood cells (RBCs under fasting conditions. Results: A total of 89% of the participants were overweight (with 69% obesity, 33% had hypertriglyceridemia, 44% had low plasma HDL-c and 77% had fasting plasma insulin ≥90 pmol/l. Total n-3 PUFAs accounted for 6% of total FAs and were higher among older participants, while n-6 PUFAs accounted for 31% of total FAs and were higher among younger participants. According to the adjusted multiple linear regression models, n-3 LC-PUFA was associated (p<0.05 with higher total cholesterol, LDL-c and apo B-100, and was also associated (p<0.05 with lower blood glucose. Conclusion: Overall, this study showed that n-3 LC-PUFA levels measured in the RBCs of the Cree adults are relatively low and tend towards lower levels among youth. These levels might be insufficient to offset the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors.

  16. Nature of the elements transporting long-chain fatty acids through the red cell membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Inge Norby; Bojesen, Eigil

    1998-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, red cell membrane, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport......Docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, red cell membrane, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport...

  17. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited information about nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.. The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fatty acid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained 17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggs contained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.

  18. Production of extracellular fatty acid using engineered Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As an alternative for economic biodiesel production, the microbial production of extracellular fatty acid from renewable resources is receiving more concerns recently, since the separation of fatty acid from microorganism cells is normally involved in a series of energy-intensive steps. Many attempts have been made to construct fatty acid producing strains by targeting genes in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, while few studies focused on the cultivation process and the mass transfer kinetics. Results In this study, both strain improvements and cultivation process strategies were applied to increase extracellular fatty acid production by engineered Escherichia coli. Our results showed overexpressing ‘TesA and the deletion of fadL in E. coli BL21 (DE3 improved extracellular fatty acid production, while deletion of fadD didn’t strengthen the extracellular fatty acid production for an undetermined mechanism. Moreover, the cultivation process controls contributed greatly to extracellular fatty acid production with respect to titer, cell growth and productivity by adjusting the temperature, adding ampicillin and employing on-line extraction. Under optimal conditions, the E. coli strain (pACY-‘tesA-ΔfadL produced 4.8 g L−1 extracellular fatty acid, with the specific productivity of 0.02 g h−1 g−1dry cell mass, and the yield of 4.4% on glucose, while the ratios of cell-associated fatty acid versus extracellular fatty acid were kept below 0.5 after 15 h of cultivation. The fatty acids included C12:1, C12:0, C14:1, C14:0, C16:1, C16:0, C18:1, C18:0. The composition was dominated by C14 and C16 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Using the strain pACY-‘tesA, similar results appeared under the same culture conditions and the titer was also much higher than that ever reported previously, which suggested that the supposedly superior strain did not necessarily perform best for the efficient production of desired

  19. Heterogeneity in limb fatty acid kinetics in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchetti, M; Olsen, D B; Saltin, B

    2005-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In order to test the hypothesis that disturbances in skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism with type 2 diabetes are not equally present in the upper and lower limbs, we studied fatty acid kinetics simultaneously across the arm and leg of type 2 diabetic patients (n=6) and matched...... control subjects (n=7) for 5 h under baseline conditions and during a 4-h hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. METHODS: Limb fatty acid kinetics was determined by means of continuous [U-(13)C]palmitate infusion and measurement of arteriovenous differences. RESULTS: The systemic palmitate rate...... in the dysregulation of skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism, with only the leg, but not the arm, showing an impairment of fatty acid kinetics at baseline and during a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp causing a physiological increase in insulin concentration....

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification for fatty acid alkyl esters production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voll, Fernando A.P.; Silva, Camila da; Rossi, Carla C.R.S.; Guirardello, Reginaldo; Castilhos, Fernanda de; Oliveira, J. Vladimir; Cardozo-Filho, Lucio

    2011-01-01

    The development of renewable energy source alternatives has become a planet need because of the unavoidable fossil fuel scarcity and for that reason biodiesel production has attracted growing interest over the last decade. The reaction yield for obtaining fatty acid alkyl esters varies significantly according to the operating conditions such as temperature and the feed reactants ratio and thus investigation of the thermodynamics involved in such reactional systems may afford important knowledge on the effects of process variables on biodiesel production. The present work reports a thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification reaction at low pressure. For this purpose, Gibbs free energy minimization was employed with UNIFAC and modified Wilson thermodynamic models through a nonlinear programming model implementation. The methodology employed is shown to reproduce the most relevant investigations involving experimental studies and thermodynamic analysis.

  1. Fatty Acids, Lipid Mediators, and T-Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Anja J.; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Toes, René E. M.; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea

    2014-01-01

    Research toward the mechanisms underlying obesity-linked complications has intensified during the last years. As a consequence, it has become clear that metabolism and immunity are intimately linked. Free fatty acids and other lipids acquired in excess by current feeding patterns have been proposed to mediate this link due to their immune modulatory capacity. The functional differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, in combination with their dietary intake are believed to modulate the outcome of immune responses. Moreover, unsaturated fatty acids can be oxidized in a tightly regulated and specific manner to generate either potent pro-inflammatory or pro-resolving lipid mediators. These oxidative derivatives of fatty acids have received detailed attention during the last years, as they have proven to have strong immune modulatory capacity, even in pM ranges. Both fatty acids and oxidized fatty acids have been studied especially in relation to macrophage and T-cells functions. In this review, we propose to focus on the effect of fatty acids and their oxidative derivatives on T-cells, as it is an active area of research during the past 5 years. The effect of fatty acids and their derivatives on activation and proliferation of T-cells, as well as the delicate balance between stimulation and lipotoxicity will be discussed. Moreover, the receptors involved in the interaction between free fatty acids and their derivatives with T-cells will be summarized. Finally, the mechanisms involved in modulation of T-cells by fatty acids will be addressed, including cellular signaling and metabolism of T-cells. The in vitro results will be placed in context of in vivo studies both in humans and mice. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the immune modulatory function of lipids on T-cells and will point out novel directions for future research. PMID:25352844

  2. Evaluating Changes in Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake after Receiving Personal FADS1 Genetic Information: A Randomized Nutrigenetic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roke, Kaitlin; Walton, Kathryn; Klingel, Shannon L.; Harnett, Amber; Subedi, Sanjeena; Haines, Jess; Mutch, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Nutrigenetics research is anticipated to lay the foundation for personalized dietary recommendations; however, it remains unclear if providing individuals with their personal genetic information changes dietary behaviors. Our objective was to evaluate if providing information for a common variant in the fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) gene changed omega-3 fatty acid (FA) intake and blood levels in young female adults (18–25 years). Participants were randomized into Genetic (intervention) and Non-Genetic (control) groups, with measurements taken at Baseline and Final (12 weeks). Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was assessed using an omega-3 food frequency questionnaire. Red blood cell (RBC) FA content was quantified by gas chromatography. Implications of participation in a nutrigenetics study and awareness of omega-3 FAs were assessed with online questionnaires. Upon completion of the study, EPA and DHA intake increased significantly (p = 1.0 × 10−4) in all participants. This change was reflected by small increases in RBC %EPA. Participants in the Genetic group showed increased awareness of omega-3 terminology by the end of the study, reported that the dietary recommendations were more useful, and rated cost as a barrier to omega-3 consumption less often than those in the Non-Genetic group. Providing participants FADS1 genetic information did not appear to influence omega-3 intake during the 12 weeks, but did change perceptions and behaviors related to omega-3 FAs in this timeframe. PMID:28272299

  3. Evaluating Changes in Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake after Receiving Personal FADS1 Genetic Information: A Randomized Nutrigenetic Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin Roke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrigenetics research is anticipated to lay the foundation for personalized dietary recommendations; however, it remains unclear if providing individuals with their personal genetic information changes dietary behaviors. Our objective was to evaluate if providing information for a common variant in the fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1 gene changed omega-3 fatty acid (FA intake and blood levels in young female adults (18–25 years. Participants were randomized into Genetic (intervention and Non-Genetic (control groups, with measurements taken at Baseline and Final (12 weeks. Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA was assessed using an omega-3 food frequency questionnaire. Red blood cell (RBC FA content was quantified by gas chromatography. Implications of participation in a nutrigenetics study and awareness of omega-3 FAs were assessed with online questionnaires. Upon completion of the study, EPA and DHA intake increased significantly (p = 1.0 × 10−4 in all participants. This change was reflected by small increases in RBC %EPA. Participants in the Genetic group showed increased awareness of omega-3 terminology by the end of the study, reported that the dietary recommendations were more useful, and rated cost as a barrier to omega-3 consumption less often than those in the Non-Genetic group. Providing participants FADS1 genetic information did not appear to influence omega-3 intake during the 12 weeks, but did change perceptions and behaviors related to omega-3 FAs in this timeframe.

  4. Effects of Fatty Acid Inclusion in a DMPC Bilayer Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Møller, Martin S.

    2009-01-01

    Free fatty acids in biomembranes have been proposed to be a central component in several cellular control and regulatory mechanisms. To elucidate some fundamental elements underlying this, we have applied molecular dynamics simulations and experimental density measurements to study the molecular...... packing and structure of oleic acid (HOA) and stearic acid (HSA) in fluid bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). The experimental data show a small but consistent positive excess volume for fatty acid concentrations below 10 mol %. At higher concentrations the fatty acids mix ideally...... with fluid DMPC. The simulations, which were benchmarked against the densitometric data, revealed interesting differences in the structure and location of the fatty acids depending on their protonation status. Thus, the protonated (uncharged) acid is located rather deeply in the membrane with an average...

  5. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman (Samanea saman) are reported. The oils were analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. The most prominent fatty acid in both oils is linoleic acid (30-40%), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid for A. lebbeck and ol...

  6. Identification and quantification of intermediates of unsaturated fatty acid metabolism in plasma of patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onkenhout, W.; Venizelos, V.; van der Poel, P. F.; van den Heuvel, M. P.; Poorthuis, B. J.

    1995-01-01

    The free fatty acid and total fatty acid profiles in plasma of nine patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency, two with very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency and two with mild-type multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MAD-m) deficiency, were analyzed by gas

  7. Interactive effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition on fatty acid molecular and isotope composition of above- and belowground tree biomass and forest soil fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griepentrog, Marco; Eglinton, Timothy I; Hagedorn, Frank; Schmidt, Michael W I; Wiesenberg, Guido L B

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and reactive nitrogen (N) concentrations have been increasing due to human activities and impact the global carbon (C) cycle by affecting plant photosynthesis and decomposition processes in soil. Large amounts of C are stored in plants and soils, but the mechanisms behind the stabilization of plant- and microbial-derived organic matter (OM) in soils are still under debate and it is not clear how N deposition affects soil OM dynamics. Here, we studied the effects of 4 years of elevated (13C-depleted) CO2 and N deposition in forest ecosystems established in open-top chambers on composition and turnover of fatty acids (FAs) in plants and soils. FAs served as biomarkers for plant- and microbial-derived OM in soil density fractions. We analyzed above- and belowground plant biomass of beech and spruce trees as well as soil density fractions for the total organic C and FA molecular and isotope (δ13C) composition. FAs did not accumulate relative to total organic C in fine mineral fractions, showing that FAs are not effectively stabilized by association with soil minerals. The δ13C values of FAs in plant biomass increased under high N deposition. However, the N effect was only apparent under elevated CO2 suggesting a N limitation of the system. In soil fractions, only isotope compositions of short-chain FAs (C16+18) were affected. Fractions of 'new' (experimental-derived) FAs were calculated using isotope depletion in elevated CO2 plots and decreased from free light to fine mineral fractions. 'New' FAs were higher in short-chain compared to long-chain FAs (C20-30), indicating a faster turnover of short-chain compared to long-chain FAs. Increased N deposition did not significantly affect the quantity of 'new' FAs in soil fractions, but showed a tendency of increased amounts of 'old' (pre-experimental) C suggesting that decomposition of 'old' C is retarded by high N inputs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Fatty acids labelled in the. omega. -position with iodine isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, J.P.; Busquet, G.; Comet, M. (Universite Scientifique et Medicale de Grenoble, 38 - La Tronche (France)); Riche, F.; Vidal, M. (Laboratoire d' Etudes Dynamiques et Structurales de la Selectivite, 38 - Grenoble (France)); Coornaert, S.; Bardy, A. (CEA, Centre de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Godart, J. (Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, 38 - Grenoble (France))

    1982-01-01

    The synthesis of saturated acetylenic and olefinic (Z or E) ..omega..-iodinated fatty acids has been carried out and their labelling with iodine-131 or 123 by exchange I/sup -/, *I/sup -/ has been studied. The influence of several parameters -water and fatty acid concentrations, specific activity, labelling solution acidity, iodine carrier presence- on this exchange reaction has been noted, enabling experimental conditions to be defined that produce labelling yields of greater than 95%. These results should lead to widespread clinical use of iodine labelled fatty acids.

  9. Synthesis and antituberculosis activity of new fatty acid amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Oca, Caroline Da Ros Montes; Coelho, Tatiane; Marinho, Tamara Germani; Hack, Carolina Rosa Lopes; Duarte, Rodrigo da Costa; da Silva, Pedro Almeida; D'Oca, Marcelo Gonçalves Montes

    2010-09-01

    This work reports the synthesis of new fatty acid amides from C16:0, 18:0, 18:1, 18:1 (OH), and 18:2 fatty acids families with cyclic and acyclic amines and demonstrate for the first time the activity of these compounds as antituberculosis agents against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Rv, M. tuberculosis rifampicin resistance (ATCC 35338), and M. tuberculosis isoniazid resistance (ATCC 35822). The fatty acid amides derivate from ricinoleic acid were the most potent one among a series of tested compounds, with a MIC 6.25 microg/mL for resistance strains. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antioxidant and cyclooxygenase activities of fatty acids found in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Geneive E; Momin, Rafikali A; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Dewitt, David L

    2002-04-10

    Several commercially available C-8 to C-24 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (1-29) were assayed for cyclooxygenase-I (COX-I) and cyclooxygenase-II (COX-II) inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Among the saturated fatty acids tested at 60 microg mL(-1), there was an increase in antioxidant activity with increasing chain length from octanoic acid to myristic acid (C-8-C-14) and a decrease thereafter. All unsaturated fatty acids tested at 60 microg mL(-1) showed good antioxidant activity except for undecylenic acid (12), cis-5-dodecenoic acid (13), and nervonic acid (29). The highest inhibitory activities among the saturated fatty acids tested on cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-I and COX-II were observed for decanoic acid to lauric acid (3-5) at 100 microg mL(-1). Similarly, among the unsaturated fatty acids tested, the highest activities were observed for cis-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid (25) and cis-13,16-docosadienoic acid (27) at 100 microg mL(-1).

  11. Mechanisms of fatty acid synthesis in marine fungus-like protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunxuan; Wang, Guangyi

    2015-10-01

    Thraustochytrids are unicellular fungus-like protists and are well known for their ability to produce interesting nutraceutical compounds. Significant efforts have been made to improve their efficient production of important fatty acids (FAs), mostly by optimizing fermentation conditions and selecting highly productive thraustochytrid strains. Furthermore, noticeable improvements have been made in understanding the mechanism of FA biosynthesis, allowing for a better understanding of how thraustochytrids assemble these unique metabolites and how their biosynthesis is coupled with other related pathways. This review summarizes recent achievements on two major FA biosynthesis pathways, the standard pathway and the polyketide synthase pathway, and detail features of individual enzymes involved in FA biosynthesis, biotechnological advances in pathway engineering and enzyme characterization, and the discovery of other pathways that affect the efficiency of FA accumulation. Perspectives of biotechnological potential application of thraustochytrids are also discussed.

  12. Fresh meat quality of pigs fed diets with different fatty acid profiles and supplemented with red wine solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThree groups of pigs were fed three different diets, namely a diet rich in saturated fatty acids (palm oil-based, PO, a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-rich diet (corn oil-based, CO, and a PUFA-rich diet (corn oil-based supplemented with red wine solids (RWS, which was added to the diet (CO+RWS in order to assess the protective effect on the oxidative status of the pork meat. The addition of corn oil favourably modulates the FAs profile of the backfat, and to a lesser extent of the intramuscular fat of semimembranosus muscle, without causing adverse effects on the meat quality or on its oxidative stability. Moreover, these parameters were not affected by the addition of the RWS in the CO+RWS diet.

  13. Unusual odd-chain and trans-octadecenoic fatty acids in tissues of feral European beaver (Castorfiber), Eurasian badger (Melesmeles) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutesprocyonoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martysiak-Zurowska, Dorota; Zalewski, Kazimierz; Kamieniarz, Robert

    2009-06-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of depot adipose tissues in the raccoon dog (Nyctereutesprocyonoides) and the European beaver (Castorfiber) differs from that reported for the lipids of other monogastric animals, especially with regard to the presence of trans-octadecenoic acids. The concentrations of pentadecanoic acid 15:0 (PA) and heptadecanoic acid 17:0 (HA) in the lipids of the tested animals ranged from 0.23 to 0.79% and from 0.33 to 2.35% of total FAs, respectively. The total content of their monounsaturated cis isomers varied from 0.12 to 2.75% for pentadecanoic acid (c-PA) and from 0.38 to 2.45% for heptadecanoic acid (c-HA). It is interesting that the tissues of European beavers and raccoon dogs contained also trans isomers of octadecenoic acid C18:1 (t-OA) including vaccenic acid C18:1,11t (VA), typical of ruminants. The presence of FAs with an uneven number of carbon atoms and trans-octadecenoic acids in depot adipose tissue is indicative of the process of hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid) in the digestive tract. The tissues of badgers also contained t-OA (from below 0.05% in the liver to 0.44% in the kidneys), but no VA was found.

  14. Comparison of free fatty acid content of human milk from Taiwanese mothers and infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chih-Kuang; Yeung, Chun-Yan; Jim, Wai-Tim; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Wang, Tuen-Jen; Huang, Sung-Fa; Liu, Hsuan-Liang

    2013-12-01

    Few studies on the free fatty acid (FFA) content of milk from non-Caucasian mothers have been published. We compared the FFA concentrations in human milk (HM) from Taiwanese mothers of preterm (PTHM) and full-term infants (FTHM) and in infant formula (IF). Thirty-eight HM samples were collected from 23 healthy lactating mothers and 15 mothers who gave birth prematurely (range 29-35 weeks, mean 33 weeks). The regular formula and preterm infant formula (PTIF) for three brands of powdered IF were also evaluated. Milk samples were extracted and methylated for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Reference values for individual FFAs in breast milk from Taiwanese mothers were determined. The mean total FFAs were significantly higher in IF (21,554 μmol/L) and PTIF (19,836 μmol/L) than in FTHM (8,540 μmol/L) and PTHM (9,259 μmol/L) (p milk (43.1% for FTHM, 42.8% for PTHM, 45.5% for IF and 45.3% for PTIF). Monounsaturated FAs were significantly higher in IF and PTIF (42.6% and 43.9%) than in FTHM and PTHM (37.7% and 39.5%), and polyunsaturated FAs in FTHM and PTHM (20% and 18.2%) were higher than in IF and PTIF (11.9% and 10.9%). HM had a more desirable linoleic acid/α-linolenic acid ratio than IF. No significant differences in individual FFAs in FTHM were observed among three lactating periods. FFA levels in HM from Taiwanese mothers are in agreement with results for different geographically distinct populations. Nevertheless, the FFA content in IF did not meet well with HM, particularly, the excess additives of saturated and monounsaturated FAs, and the shortage of polyunsaturated FAs. The effect of variations in FFA content in IF on future unfavorable outcomes such as obesity, atopic syndrome, and less optimal infant neurodevelopment should be further investigated. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited informationabout nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition offatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp..The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids,total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography(HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fattyacid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggscontained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.Keywords: Amino acids, carotenoid total, fatty acid, flying fish egg, α-tocopherol

  16. Separation of fatty acid methyl esters by GC-online hydrogenation × GC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmonte, Pierluigi; Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Rader, Jeanne I

    2013-02-05

    The separation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) provided by a 200 m × 0.25 mm SLB-IL111 capillary column is enhanced by adding a second dimension of separation ((2)D) in a GC × GC design. Rather than employing two GC columns of different polarities or using different elution temperatures, the separation in the two-dimensional space is achieved by altering the chemical structure of selected analytes between the two dimensions of separation. A capillary tube coated with palladium is added between the first dimension of separation ((1)D) column and the cryogenic modulator, providing the reduction of unsaturated FAMEs to their fully saturated forms. The (2)D separation is achieved using a 2.5 m × 0.10 mm SLB-IL111 capillary column and separates FAMEs based solely on their carbon skeleton. The two-dimensional separation can be easily interpreted based on the principle that all the saturated FAMEs lie on a straight diagonal line bisecting the separation plane, while the FAMEs with the same carbon skeleton but differing in the number, geometric configuration or position of double bonds lie on lines parallel to the (1)D time axis. This technique allows the separation of trans fatty acids (FAs) and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) in a single experiment and eliminates the overlap between PUFAs with different chain lengths. To our knowledge, this the first example of GC × GC in which a chemical change is instituted between the two dimensions to alter the relative retentions of components and identify unsaturated FAMEs.

  17. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L. Lindshield

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g, individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g, and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g. Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  18. Bacterial fatty acid metabolism in modern antibiotic discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiangwei; Rock, Charles O

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial fatty acid synthesis is essential for many pathogens and different from the mammalian counterpart. These features make bacterial fatty acid synthesis a desirable target for antibiotic discovery. The structural divergence of the conserved enzymes and the presence of different isozymes catalyzing the same reactions in the pathway make bacterial fatty acid synthesis a narrow spectrum target rather than the traditional broad spectrum target. Furthermore, bacterial fatty acid synthesis inhibitors are single-targeting, rather than multi-targeting like traditional monotherapeutic, broad-spectrum antibiotics. The single-targeting nature of bacterial fatty acid synthesis inhibitors makes overcoming fast-developing, target-based resistance a necessary consideration for antibiotic development. Target-based resistance can be overcome through multi-targeting inhibitors, a cocktail of single-targeting inhibitors, or by making the single targeting inhibitor sufficiently high affinity through a pathogen selective approach such that target-based mutants are still susceptible to therapeutic concentrations of drug. Many of the pathogens requiring new antibiotic treatment options encode for essential bacterial fatty acid synthesis enzymes. This review will evaluate the most promising targets in bacterial fatty acid metabolism for antibiotic therapeutics development and review the potential and challenges in advancing each of these targets to the clinic and circumventing target-based resistance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Lipids edited by Russell E. Bishop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Omega3 Fatty Acids Intake Versus Diclofenac in Osteoarthritis Induced in Experimental rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. El-Seweidy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Osteoarthritis(OAis a degenerative joint disease, characterized by abnormal remodeling pattern of joints driven by inflammatory mediators within the affected joints. Its symptoms are many like pain, stiffness,and decreased function. Objective:The present study mainly focused on the anti-inflammatory effect of omega 3 fatty acids (F.As versus diclofenac, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in OA induced in rats Design: Intraarticular injection of monosodiumiodoacetate(MIA 24.6 mg/kg in 0.6 ml saline was used to induce OA. Diclofenac and omega-3 F. These were administered orally, daily for 21 days and after 24 hours of OA induction.Results:Osteoarthritis induction resulted in an increase in serum levels of IL-6(479.5%,TNF-α(545.5%, and CRP(754.2% along with IL-10 level decrease(70.3% as compared to normal group. Diclofenac intake demonstrated significant increase of IL-6 (24.9%,CRP (88.6%,and TNF-α(25.2% compared to the OA control group. Omega 3 FAs intake showed significant reduction in inflammatory markers along with IL-10 increase, in comparison toOA group.Both treatment demonstrated a significant increase in TIMP2 along with decreased MMP2 and MPO in comparison with OA control.Positive correlation of IL-6 with MPO(r = 0.7,P=0.002, and negative one with IL-10(r = 0.9,p<0.0001 and TIMP2 (r = -0.5,p<0.008 was observed.Interleukin-10 was negatively correlated with MMP2(r = -0.5, p<0.007 and MPO (r=-0.8,p<0.0001.Conclusion:Data derived from biochemical and histopathological results, indicated that omega3 FAs may be expressed as a natural anti-inflammatory agent of a significant potential in OA with evident remarkable effect.

  20. Resveratrol suppresses growth of cancer stem-like cells by inhibiting fatty acid synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Puspa R; Okuda, Hiroshi; Watabe, Misako; Pai, Sudha K; Liu, Wen; Kobayashi, Aya; Xing, Fei; Fukuda, Koji; Hirota, Shigeru; Sugai, Tamotsu; Wakabayashi, Go; Koeda, Keisuke; Kashiwaba, Masahiro; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Chiba, Toshimi; Endo, Masaki; Fujioka, Tomoaki; Tanji, Susumu; Mo, Yin-Yuan; Cao, Deliang; Wilber, Andrew C; Watabe, Kounosuke

    2011-11-01

    Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic compound and has been shown to exhibit cardio-protective as well as anti-neoplastic effects on various types of cancers. However, the exact mechanism of its anti-tumor effect is not clearly defined. Resveratrol has been shown to have strong hypolipidemic effect on normal adipocytes and as hyper-lipogenesis is a hallmark of cancer cell physiology, the effect of resveratrol on lipid synthesis in cancer stem-like cells (CD24(-)/CD44(+)/ESA(+)) that were isolated from both ER+ and ER- breast cancer cell lines was examined. The authors found that resveratrol significantly reduced the cell viability and mammosphere formation followed by inducing apoptosis in cancer stem-like cells. This inhibitory effect of resveratrol is accompanied by a significant reduction in lipid synthesis which is caused by the down-regulation of the fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene followed by up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes, DAPK2 and BNIP3. The activation of apoptotic pathway in the cancer stem-like cells was suppressed by TOFA and by Fumonisin B1, suggesting that resveratrol-induced apoptosis is indeed through the modulation of FAS-mediated cell survival signaling. Importantly, resveratrol was able to significantly suppress the growth of cancer stem-like cells in an animal model of xenograft without showing apparental toxicity. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that resveratrol is capable of inducing apoptosis in the cancer stem-like cells through suppression of lipogenesis by modulating FAS expression, which highlights a novel mechanism of anti-tumor effect of resveratrol.

  1. The effect of interesterification on the bioavailability of fatty acids in structured lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán, M; Villalón, M J; Ortíz, M E; Nieto, S; Bouchon, P

    2013-08-15

    Fatty acid (FA) profile is a critical factor in the nutritional properties of fats, but, stereochemistry may also play a fundamental role in the rate and extent to which FAs are absorbed and become available. To better understand this phenomenon, we evaluated the bioavailability of FAs in linseed-oil and palm-stearin blends compared to their interesterified mix, using a sn-1,3 stereospecific lipase, to determine if there was any difference in terms of FA availability when using this technology. Test meals were fed through an intragastric feeding tube on Sprague-Dawley male rats after 18 h fasting. Postprandial blood samples were collected after meal or physiological serum (control) administration and the FA profile of plasma lipids was determined. Results showed that modification of the melting profile through interesterification, without altering the bioavailability determined by sn-2 stereochemistry, could delay lipid absorption at the beginning, but had no effect on total lipid absorption. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The Role for Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Molfino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimal nutrition is one of the most important determinants of healthier ageing, reducing the risk of disability, maintaining mental and physical functions, and thus preserving and ensuring a better quality of life. Dietary intake and nutrient absorption decline with age, thus increasing the risk of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality. Specific nutrients, particularly long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, might have the potential of preventing and reducing co-morbidities in older adults. Omega-3 PUFAs are able to modulate inflammation, hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and hypertension. Different mechanisms contribute to these effects, including conditioning cell membrane function and composition, eicosanoid production, and gene expression. The present review analyzes the influence of omega-3 PUFAs status and intake on brain function, cardiovascular system, immune function, muscle performance and bone health in older adults. Omega-3 FAs may have substantial benefits in reducing the risk of cognitive decline in older people. The available data encourage higher intakes of omega-3 PUFAs in the diet or via specific supplements. More studies are needed to confirm the role of omega-3 FAs in maintaining bone health and preventing the loss of muscle mass and function associated with ageing. In summary, omega-3 PUFAs are now identified as potential key nutrients, safe and effective in the treatment and prevention of several negative consequences of ageing.

  3. The role for dietary omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfino, Alessio; Gioia, Gianfranco; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2014-10-03

    Optimal nutrition is one of the most important determinants of healthier ageing, reducing the risk of disability, maintaining mental and physical functions, and thus preserving and ensuring a better quality of life. Dietary intake and nutrient absorption decline with age, thus increasing the risk of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality. Specific nutrients, particularly long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), might have the potential of preventing and reducing co-morbidities in older adults. Omega-3 PUFAs are able to modulate inflammation, hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and hypertension. Different mechanisms contribute to these effects, including conditioning cell membrane function and composition, eicosanoid production, and gene expression. The present review analyzes the influence of omega-3 PUFAs status and intake on brain function, cardiovascular system, immune function, muscle performance and bone health in older adults. Omega-3 FAs may have substantial benefits in reducing the risk of cognitive decline in older people. The available data encourage higher intakes of omega-3 PUFAs in the diet or via specific supplements. More studies are needed to confirm the role of omega-3 FAs in maintaining bone health and preventing the loss of muscle mass and function associated with ageing. In summary, omega-3 PUFAs are now identified as potential key nutrients, safe and effective in the treatment and prevention of several negative consequences of ageing.

  4. Dietary fatty acids modulate associations between genetic variants and circulating fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes: meta-analysis of 9 studies in the CHARGE consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caren E.; Follis, Jack L.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Foy, Millennia; Wu, Jason H.Y.; Ma, Yiyi; Tanaka, Toshiko; Manichakul, Ani W.; Wu, Hongyu; Chu, Audrey Y.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Fornage, Myriam; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Ferruci, Luigi; da Chen, Yii-Der I; Rich, Stephen S.; Djoussé, Luc; Ridker, Paul M.; Tang, Weihong; McKnight, Barbara; Tsai, Michael Y.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rotter, Jerome I.; Hu, Frank B.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Arnett, Donna K.; King, Irena B.; Sun, Qi; Wang, Lu; Lumley, Thomas; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Siscovick, David S; Ordovás, José M.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.

    2015-01-01

    Scope Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. Objective We evaluated interactions between genetic variants and fatty acid intakes for circulating alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Methods and Results We conducted meta-analyses (N to 11,668) evaluating interactions between dietary fatty acids and genetic variants (rs174538 and rs174548 in FADS1 (fatty acid desaturase 1), rs7435 in AGPAT3 (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate), rs4985167 in PDXDC1 (pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain-containing 1), rs780094 in GCKR (glucokinase regulatory protein) and rs3734398 in ELOVL2 (fatty acid elongase 2)). Stratification by measurement compartment (plasma vs. erthyrocyte) revealed compartment-specific interactions between FADS1 rs174538 and rs174548 and dietary ALA and linoleic acid for DHA and DPA. Conclusion Our findings reinforce earlier reports that genetically-based differences in circulating fatty acids may be partially due to differences in the conversion of fatty acid precursors. Further, fatty acids measurement compartment may modify gene-diet relationships, and considering compartment may improve the detection of gene-fatty acids interactions for circulating fatty acid outcomes. PMID:25626431

  5. Homogeneously catalysed hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouthamer, B.; Vlugter, J.C.

    1965-01-01

    The use of copper and cadmium oxides or soaps as catalysts for the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty alcohols has been investigated. It is shown that copper soaps homogeneously activate hydrogen. When copper and cadmium oxides are used as catalysts, they react with the

  6. Esterification free fatty acid in palm fatty acid distillate using sulfonated rice husk ash catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Arif; Sutrisno, Bachrun

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia, as one of the biggest palm oil producers and exporters in the world, is producing large amounts of low-grade oil such as Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) from palm oil industries. The use of PFAD can reduce the cost of biodiesel production significantly, which makes PFAD a highly potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, the esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) on PFAD was studied using rice husk ash (RHA) as heterogeneous catalyst. The rice husk ash catalyst was synthesized by sulfonation using concentrated sulfuric acid. The RHA catalyst were characterized by using different techniques, such as porosity analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, total number of acid sites and elemental analysis. The effects of the molar ratio of methanol to PFAD (1-10%), the molar ratio of methanol to PFAD (4:1-10:1), and the reaction temperature (40-60°C) were studied for the conversion of FFA to optimize the reaction conditions. The results showed that the optimal conditions were an methanol to PFAD molar ratio of 10:1, the catalyst amount of 10 wt% of PFAD, and reaction temperature of 60°C.

  7. Simultaneous shifts in elemental stoichiometry and fatty acids of Emiliania huxleyi in response to environmental changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate-driven changes in environmental conditions have significant and complex effects on marine ecosystems. Variability in phytoplankton elements and biochemicals can be important for global ocean biogeochemistry and ecological functions, while there is currently limited understanding on how elements and biochemicals respond to the changing environments in key coccolithophore species such as Emiliania huxleyi. We investigated responses of elemental stoichiometry and fatty acids (FAs in a strain of E. huxleyi under three temperatures (12, 18 and 24 °C, three N : P supply ratios (molar ratios 10:1, 24:1 and 63:1 and two pCO2 levels (560 and 2400 µatm. Overall, C : N : P stoichiometry showed the most pronounced response to N : P supply ratios, with high ratios of particulate organic carbon vs. particulate organic nitrogen (POC : PON and low ratios of PON vs. particulate organic phosphorus (PON : POP in low-N media, and high POC : POP and PON : POP in low-P media. The ratio of particulate inorganic carbon vs. POC (PIC : POC and polyunsaturated fatty acid proportions strongly responded to temperature and pCO2, both being lower under high pCO2 and higher with warming. We observed synergistic interactions between warming and nutrient deficiency (and high pCO2 on elemental cellular contents and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA proportion in most cases, indicating the enhanced effect of warming under nutrient deficiency (and high pCO2. Our results suggest differential sensitivity of elements and FAs to the changes in temperature, nutrient availability and pCO2 in E. huxleyi, which is to some extent unique compared to non-calcifying algal classes. Thus, simultaneous changes of elements and FAs should be considered when predicting future roles of E. huxleyi in the biotic-mediated connection between biogeochemical cycles, ecological functions and climate change.

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Could Alleviate the Risks of Traumatic Brain Injury – A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathy R. Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is an acquired brain trauma that occurs when any sudden trauma/injury causes damage to the brain. TBI is characterized by tissue damage and imbalance in the cerebral blood flow and metabolism. It has been established through laboratory experiments that the dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs could reduce the oxidative stress developed in brain due to TBI. The inclusion of omega-3 FA in diet could normalize the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and thus, it could restore the survival of neuronal cells. BDNF improves the synaptic transmission by regulating synapsin 1 and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP response element binding protein. The brain tissue analysis of TBI models supplemented with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs showed significantly reduced lipid peroxidation, nucleic acid and protein oxidation, thereby promoting neuronal and glial cell survival. Thus, omega-3 FA intake could be considered as a therapeutic option to reduce the secondary neuronal damages initiated by TBI.

  9. Interaction of Dietary Fatty Acids with Tumour Necrosis Factor Family Cytokines during Colon Inflammation and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straková, Nicol; Vaculová, Alena Hyršlová; Tylichová, Zuzana; Šafaříková, Barbora; Kozubík, Alois

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal homeostasis is precisely regulated by a number of endogenous regulatory molecules but significantly influenced by dietary compounds. Malfunction of this system may result in chronic inflammation and cancer. Dietary essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and short-chain fatty acid butyrate produced from fibre display anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Both compounds were shown to modulate the production and activities of TNF family cytokines. Cytokines from the TNF family (TNF-α, TRAIL, and FasL) have potent inflammatory activities and can also regulate apoptosis, which plays an important role in cancer development. The results of our own research showed enhancement of apoptosis in colon cancer cells by a combination of either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or butyrate with TNF family cytokines, especially by promotion of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and modulation of NFκB activity. This review is focused mainly on the interaction of dietary PUFAs and butyrate with these cytokines during colon inflammation and cancer development. We summarised recent knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in such effects and outcomes for intestinal cell behaviour and pathologies. Finally, the possible application for the prevention and therapy of colon inflammation and cancer is also outlined. PMID:24876678

  10. Lipid droplets induced by secreted phospholipase A2 and unsaturated fatty acids protect breast cancer cells from nutrient and lipotoxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarc, Eva; Kump, Ana; Malavašič, Petra; Eichmann, Thomas O; Zimmermann, Robert; Petan, Toni

    2018-03-01

    Cancer cells driven by the Ras oncogene scavenge unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) from their environment to counter nutrient stress. The human group X secreted phospholipase A 2 (hGX sPLA 2 ) releases FAs from membrane phospholipids, stimulates lipid droplet (LD) biogenesis in Ras-driven triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells and enables their survival during starvation. Here we examined the role of LDs, induced by hGX sPLA 2 and unsaturated FAs, in protection of TNBC cells against nutrient stress. We found that hGX sPLA 2 releases a mixture of unsaturated FAs, including ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), from TNBC cells. Starvation-induced breakdown of LDs induced by low micromolar concentrations of unsaturated FAs, including PUFAs, was associated with protection from cell death. Interestingly, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) contributed to LD breakdown during starvation, but it was not required for the pro-survival effects of hGX sPLA 2 and unsaturated FAs. High micromolar concentrations of PUFAs, but not OA, induced oxidative stress-dependent cell death in TNBC cells. Inhibition of triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis suppressed LD biogenesis and potentiated PUFA-induced cell damage. On the contrary, stimulation of LD biogenesis by hGX sPLA 2 and suppression of LD breakdown by ATGL depletion reduced PUFA-induced oxidative stress and cell death. Finally, lipidomic analyses revealed that sequestration of PUFAs in LDs by sPLA 2 -induced TAG remodelling and retention of PUFAs in LDs by inhibition of ATGL-mediated TAG lipolysis protect from PUFA lipotoxicity. LDs are thus antioxidant and pro-survival organelles that guard TNBC cells against nutrient and lipotoxic stress and emerge as attractive targets for novel therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolically engineered cells for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to the construction and engineering of cells, more particularly microorganisms for producing PUFAs with four or more double bonds from non-fatty acid substrates through heterologous expression of an oxygen requiring pathway. The invention especially involves...... improvement of the PUFA content in the host organism through fermentation optimization, e.g. decreasing the temperature and/or designing an optimal medium, or through improving the flux towards fatty acids by metabolic engineering, e.g. through over-expression of fatty acid synthases, over-expression of other...

  12. Fatty acid composition of meat of Sarda suckling lamb

    OpenAIRE

    Manca, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of dietary fat has an important role in human nutrition because can help to reduce the risk of appearance of some diseases. In this work fatty acid profile of meat of Sarda suckling lamb was studied in order to improve meat fat quality in relation to human health. Aim of this thesis was firstly to assess the effect of different management systems, indoor vs. outdoor, on fatty acid profile of meat of Sarda suckling lamb. Lambs which followed their mother on pasture h...

  13. Antiproliferative activity of synthetic fatty acid amides from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Daiane S; Piovesan, Luciana A; D'Oca, Caroline R Montes; Hack, Carolina R Lopes; Treptow, Tamara G M; Rodrigues, Marieli O; Vendramini-Costa, Débora B; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T G; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; D'Oca, Marcelo G Montes

    2015-01-15

    In the work, the in vitro antiproliferative activity of a series of synthetic fatty acid amides were investigated in seven cancer cell lines. The study revealed that most of the compounds showed antiproliferative activity against tested tumor cell lines, mainly on human glioma cells (U251) and human ovarian cancer cells with a multiple drug-resistant phenotype (NCI-ADR/RES). In addition, the fatty methyl benzylamide derived from ricinoleic acid (with the fatty acid obtained from castor oil, a renewable resource) showed a high selectivity with potent growth inhibition and cell death for the glioma cell line-the most aggressive CNS cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biosynthesis, degradation, and pharmacological importance of the fatty acid amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Emma K.; Merkler, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The identification of two biologically active fatty acid amides, N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and oleamide, has generated a great deal of excitement and stimulated considerable research. However, anandamide and oleamide are merely the best-known and best-understood members of a much larger family of biologically-occurring fatty acid amides. In this review, we will outline which fatty acid amides have been isolated from mammalian sources, detail what is known about how these molecules are made and degraded in vivo, and highlight their potential for the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:18598910

  15. Dietary supplementation of finishing pigs with the docosahexaenoic acid-rich microalgae, Aurantiochytrium limacinum: effects on performance, carcass characteristics and tissue fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Colm A; Morlacchini, Mauro; Keegan, Jason D; Fusconi, Giorgio

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich microalgae, Aurantiochytrium limacinum (AURA) on pig performance, carcass traits, and the fatty acid composition of pork Longissimus lumborum (LL) and backfat. A total of 144 Pig Improvement Company (PIC)×Goland finishing pigs (72 females and 72 castrated males) of mean weight 117.1 (±13.1) kg were blocked by sex and body weight and provided with 0% or 1% AURA in isonutritive and isocaloric diets. A total of 24 pens provided 12 replicates per treatment. Animals were weighed on day 0 and 28 with feed and water intake recorded per pen. After 31 days supplementation (28 days of study and 3 days until the slaughtering date) three animals per pen (n = 72) were slaughtered and the LL and backfat thickness, lean meat content and dressing percentage were recorded for the carcasses. The fatty acid (FA) profile of the LL and backfat was established by direct FA methyl ester synthesis. No differences were observed for any performance parameters or carcass traits. Supplementation with AURA resulted in significant changes to the FA profiles of both the LL and backfat with male and female pigs responding differently to supplementation in terms of particular FAs. Overall, pork LL samples had significantly higher eicosapentaenoic acid (p<0.001) and DHA concentrations (p<0.001), and higher omega-3 (n-3) FAs (p<0.001), as well as an increased omega3:omega6 (n-3:n-6) ratio (p = 0.001). For backfat, supplementation resulted in significantly higher amounts of DHA (p<0.001) and n-3 FAs (p<0.001). These results indicate that dietary supplementation with 1% AURA over a 31 day period can increase the FA composition of pork LL and backfat, specifically the DHA, with no major impact on growth performance and carcass traits.

  16. Docosahexaenoic Acid-Derived Fatty Acid Esters of Hydroxy Fatty Acids (FAHFAs) With Anti-inflammatory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuda, Ondrej; Brezinova, Marie; Rombaldova, Martina; Slavikova, Barbora; Posta, Martin; Beier, Petr; Janovska, Petra; Veleba, Jiri; Kopecky, Jan; Kudova, Eva; Pelikanova, Terezie; Kopecky, Jan

    2016-09-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex organ with both metabolic and endocrine functions. Dysregulation of all of these functions of WAT, together with low-grade inflammation of the tissue in obese individuals, contributes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of marine origin play an important role in the resolution of inflammation and exert beneficial metabolic effects. Using experiments in mice and overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes, we elucidated the structures of novel members of fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids-lipokines derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and linoleic acid, which were present in serum and WAT after n-3 PUFA supplementation. These compounds contained DHA esterified to 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HLA) or 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (HDHA), termed 9-DHAHLA, 13-DHAHLA, and 14-DHAHDHA, and were synthesized by adipocytes at concentrations comparable to those of protectins and resolvins derived from DHA in WAT. 13-DHAHLA exerted anti-inflammatory and proresolving properties while reducing macrophage activation by lipopolysaccharides and enhancing the phagocytosis of zymosan particles. Our results document the existence of novel lipid mediators, which are involved in the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects attributed to n-3 PUFAs, in both mice and humans. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  17. Physicochemical properties and analysis of Malaysian palm fatty acid distilled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumaah, Majd Ahmed; Yusoff, Mohamad Firdaus Mohamad; Salimon, Jumat

    2018-04-01

    Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) is cheap and valuable byproduct of edible oil processing industries. This study was carried out to determine the physicochemical properties of Malaysian palm fatty acid distilled (PFAD). The physicochemical properties showed that the free fatty acid (FFA %), acid value, iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter, hydroxyl value, specific gravity at 28°C, moisture content, viscosity at 40°C and colour at 28°C values were 87.04± 0.1 %, 190.6± 1 mg/g, 53.3±0.2 mg/g, 210.37±0.8 mg/g, 1.5±0.1%, 47±0.2 mg/g, 0.87 g/ml, 0.63 %, 30 cSt and yellowish respectively. Gas chromatography (GC) was used to determine the fatty acid (FA) composition in PFAD. The fatty acids were found to be comprised mostly with 48.9 % palmitic acid (C16:0), 37.4 % oleic acid (C18:1), 9.7 % linoleic acid (C18:2), 2.7 % stearic acid (C18:0) and 1.1 % myristic acid (C14:0). The analysis of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has resulted with 99.2 % of FFA, while diacylglycerol and monoacylglycerol were 0.69 and 0.062 % respectively.

  18. Thai jute seed oil: a potential polyunsaturated fatty acid source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitree Suttajit

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined lipid and fatty acid compositions of different varieties of jute (Po-kra-jao, Corchorus olitorius L. seed grown in Thailand. Four different jute seeds (Nonn-Soong, Keaw-Yai, Cuba and Khonkaen harvested from northeastern Thailand were ground, their lipid was extracted with chloroform: methanol (2:1, v/v, and lipid composition was determined by Iatroscan (TLC/FID. Fatty acid composition was analyzed using GLC with standard methods. Triacylglycerol was a predominant lipid in jute seed oil, ranging from 70% to 74%, and other two minor components were phytosterol (12% to 28% and diacylglycerol (0% to 9%. The ratio of saturates: monounsaturates: polyunsaturates, was approximately 2: 3: 4. Most predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA was linoleic acid (18:2n-6, accounting for 40-67% of total fatty acid. Nonn-Soong had the highest amount of PUFA (67.7%, followed by Khonkaen (44.53%, Keaw-Yai (41.14%, and Cuba (40.19%. Another PUFA found was α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, accounting for about 1% of total fatty acid. The results indicated that jute seed oil was a potential edible PUFA source. The oils obtained from different kinds of jute seeds had significantly different lipid and fatty acid compositions.

  19. Specific fatty acids as metabolic modulators in the dairy cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.A. Pires

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent developments on the utilization of specific fatty acids to modulate bovine energy metabolism, with emphasis on the periparturient dairy cow. A number of experiments have assessed the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on bovine hepatic energy metabolism using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment of hepatocytes with specific fatty acids altered energy metabolism in vitro. For example, linolenic acid seemed to decrease hepatocyte triacylglycerol accumulation. This effect was confirmed in vivo, using parenteral infusions of emulsions derived from different fat sources to feed-restricted non-lactating cows. Additionally, polyunsaturated fatty acids can increase whole body response to insulin, potentially enhancing antilipolytic effects of insulin and muscle protein anabolism in the bovine. There is limited literature on the effects of feeding fat sources rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as fish oil and linseed oil, on metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. Available research has yielded conflicting results which need further clarification. On the other hand, specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid consistently induce milk fat depression and are able to decrease energy export in milk by periparturient dairy cows. Nonetheless, research is still needed to assess whether these effects will ultimately benefit productivity and health status of periparturient dairy cows. Limitations of available methods to protect fatty acids from ruminal biohydrogenation are also addressed.

  20. Topical electrophilic nitro-fatty acids potentiate cutaneous inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Alicia R; Carey, Cara D; Killeen, Meaghan E; Salvatore, Sonia R; Ferris, Laura K; Freeman, Bruce A; Schopfer, Francisco J; Falo, Louis D

    2018-02-01

    Endogenous electrophilic fatty acids mediate anti-inflammatory responses by modulating metabolic and inflammatory signal transduction and gene expression. Nitro-fatty acids and other electrophilic fatty acids may thus be useful for the prevention and treatment of immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory skin disorders. In this regard, subcutaneous (SC) injections of nitro oleic acid (OA-NO 2 ), an exemplary nitro-fatty acid, inhibit skin inflammation in a model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Given the nitration of unsaturated fatty acids during metabolic and inflammatory processes and the growing use of fatty acids in topical formulations, we sought to further study the effect of nitro-fatty acids on cutaneous inflammation. To accomplish this, the effect of topically applied OA-NO 2 on skin inflammation was evaluated using established murine models of contact hypersensitivity (CHS). In contrast to the effects of subcutaneously injected OA-NO 2 , topical OA-NO 2 potentiated hapten-dependent inflammation inducing a sustained neutrophil-dependent inflammatory response characterized by psoriasiform histological features, increased angiogenesis, and an inflammatory infiltrate that included neutrophils, inflammatory monocytes, and γδ T cells. Consistent with these results, HPLC-MS/MS analysis of skin from psoriasis patients displayed a 56% increase in nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-NO 2 ) levels in lesional skin compared to non-lesional skin. These results suggest that nitro-fatty acids in the skin microenvironment are products of cutaneous inflammatory responses and, in high local concentrations, may exacerbate inflammatory skin diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of Omega 3 Fatty Acids Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma-Induced Hepatic and Brain Dysfunctions in Gamma Irradiated Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gharib, M.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a deadly disease that has touched the lives of many people in the world today. Omega 3 essential fatty acids (ω-3 FAs); found in high concentrations in fish oil, claim a plethora of health benefits. The present study aimed to evaluate the role of ω-3 FAs supplementation either alone or combined with fractionated γ-radiation exposure against Ehrlich solid tumor-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, biochemical alterations and histopathological changes in the liver, brain and tumor tissues of Albino mice. ω-3 FAs were orally administered via gavages to mice for a period of 30 consecutive days at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight. On the 7th day of experiment, mice were subcutaneously transplanted in the neck region with 0.2 ml of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells for solid tumor induction and on the 17th and 25th days, mice were exposed to a fractionated whole body γ-radiation (0.5 Gy/week for two weeks). The results of the present work showed that Ehrlich carcinoma (EC) and/or γ-irradiation led to systemic inflammation (elevated TNF-α, TLC and CRP levels), hepatic oxidative stress (elevated TBARs level, decreased GSH, GSH-Px, CAT and SOD levels) and biochemical alterations in liver (elevated AST, ALT, ALP and LDH activities) and brain (dopamine, EP,NE and serotonin levels) tissues. On the other hand, ω-3 FAs supplementation to the experimentally irradiated EC-bearing mice, significantly reduced tumor size, depressed the concentrations of inflammatory markers, reduced oxidative stress and also ameliorated the biochemical alterations in liver and brain tissues. Histopathological examinations showed that treatment with ω-3 FAs recorded great destruction of tumor tissue, great disappearance of metastatic EC cells from the liver tissue and normal appearance in cerebrum and cerebellum of brain tissue layers in EC-bearing mice. Combined treatment of EC-bearing mice with ω-3 FAs and γ-irradiation showed necrotic cells and remnant tumor cells in tumor

  2. Structural and binding properties of two paralogous fatty acid binding proteins of Taenia solium metacestode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fatty acid (FA binding proteins (FABPs of helminths are implicated in acquisition and utilization of host-derived hydrophobic substances, as well as in signaling and cellular interactions. We previously demonstrated that secretory hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs of Taenia solium metacestode (TsM, a causative agent of neurocysticercosis (NC, shuttle FAs in the surrounding host tissues and inwardly transport the FAs across the parasite syncytial membrane. However, the protein molecules responsible for the intracellular trafficking and assimilation of FAs have remained elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated two novel TsMFABP genes (TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2, which encoded 133- and 136-amino acid polypeptides with predicted molecular masses of 14.3 and 14.8 kDa, respectively. They shared 45% sequence identity with each other and 15-95% with other related-members. Homology modeling demonstrated a characteristic β-barrel composed of 10 anti-parallel β-strands and two α-helices. TsMFABP2 harbored two additional loops between β-strands two and three, and β-strands six and seven, respectively. TsMFABP1 was secreted into cyst fluid and surrounding environments, whereas TsMFABP2 was intracellularly confined. Partially purified native proteins migrated to 15 kDa with different isoelectric points of 9.2 (TsMFABP1 and 8.4 (TsMFABP2. Both native and recombinant proteins bound to 11-([5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl]aminoundecannoic acid, dansyl-DL-α-amino-caprylic acid, cis-parinaric acid and retinol, which were competitively inhibited by oleic acid. TsMFABP1 exhibited high affinity toward FA analogs. TsMFABPs showed weak binding activity to retinol, but TsMFABP2 showed relatively high affinity. Isolation of two distinct genes from an individual genome strongly suggested their paralogous nature. Abundant expression of TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2 in the canal region of worm matched well with the histological distributions

  3. Fatty Acids, Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Arner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although elevated free fatty acid (FFA levels in obesity have been considered to be of importance for insulin resistance, a recent meta-analysis suggested normal FFA levels in obese subjects. We investigated fasting circulating FFA and glycerol levels in a large cohort of non-obese and obese subjects. Methods: Subjects recruited for a study on obesity genetics were investigated in the morning after an overnight fast (n = 3,888. Serum FFA (n = 3,306, plasma glycerol (n = 3,776, and insulin sensitivity index (HOMA-IR,n = 3,469 were determined. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and insulin resistance as HOMA-IR ≥ 2.21. Results: In obese subjects, circulating FFA and glycerol levels were higher than in non-obese individuals (by 26% and 47%, respectively; both p Conclusion: Circulating FFA and glycerol levels are markedly elevated in obesity but only marginally influenced by insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Whether these differences persist during diurnal variations in circulating FFA/glycerol, remains to be established.

  4. Placental fatty acid transport in maternal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, I; Parisi, F; Berti, C; Mandò, C; Desoye, G

    2012-12-01

    Pregestational obesity is a significant risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Maternal obesity is associated with a specific proinflammatory, endocrine and metabolic phenotype that may lead to higher supply of nutrients to the feto-placental unit and to excessive fetal fat accumulation. In particular, obesity may influence placental fatty acid (FA) transport in several ways, leading to increased diffusion driving force across the placenta, and to altered placental development, size and exchange surface area. Animal models show that maternal obesity is associated with increased expression of specific FA carriers and inflammatory signaling molecules in placental cotyledonary tissue, resulting in enhanced lipid transfer across the placenta, dislipidemia, fat accumulation and possibly altered development in fetuses. Cell culture experiments confirmed that inflammatory molecules, adipokines and FA, all significantly altered in obesity, are important regulators of placental lipid exchange. Expression studies in placentas of obese-diabetic women found a significant increase in FA binding protein-4 expression and in cellular triglyceride content, resulting in increased triglyceride cord blood concentrations. The expression and activity of carriers involved in placental lipid transport are influenced by the endocrine, inflammatory and metabolic milieu of obesity, and further studies are needed to elucidate the strong association between maternal obesity and fetal overgrowth.

  5. A microfluidic device for the automated derivatization of free fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Cindy T; Roper, Michael G

    2012-02-21

    Free fatty acid (FFA) compositions are examined in feedstock for biodiesel production, as source-specific markers in soil, and because of their role in cellular signaling. However, sample preparation of FFAs for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis can be time and labor intensive. Therefore, to increase sample preparation throughput, a glass microfluidic device was developed to automate derivatization of FFAs to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). FFAs were delivered to one input of the device and methanolic-HCl was delivered to a second input. FAME products were produced as the reagents traversed a 29 μL reaction channel held at 55 °C. A Design of Experiment protocol was used to determine the combination of derivatization time (T(der)) and ratio of methanolic-HCl:FFA (R(der)) that maximized the derivatization efficiencies of tridecanoic acid and stearic acid to their methyl ester forms. The combination of T(der) = 0.8 min and R(der) = 4.9 that produced optimal derivatization conditions for both FFAs within a 5 min total sample preparation time was determined. This combination of T(der) and R(der) was used to derivatize 12 FFAs with a range of derivatization efficiencies from 18% to 93% with efficiencies of 61% for tridecanoic acid and 84% for stearic acid. As compared to a conventional macroscale derivatization of FFA to FAME, the microfluidic device decreased the volume of methanolic-HCl and FFA by 20- and 1300-fold, respectively. The developed microfluidic device can be used for automated preparation of FAMEs to analyze the FFA compositions of volume-limited samples.

  6. Carnitine transport and fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Nicola; Frigeni, Marta; Pasquali, Marzia

    2016-10-01

    Carnitine is essential for the transfer of long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane for subsequent β-oxidation. It can be synthesized by the body or assumed with the diet from meat and dairy products. Defects in carnitine biosynthesis do not routinely result in low plasma carnitine levels. Carnitine is accumulated by the cells and retained by kidneys using OCTN2, a high affinity organic cation transporter specific for carnitine. Defects in the OCTN2 carnitine transporter results in autosomal recessive primary carnitine deficiency characterized by decreased intracellular carnitine accumulation, increased losses of carnitine in the urine, and low serum carnitine levels. Patients can present early in life with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and hepatic encephalopathy, or later in life with skeletal and cardiac myopathy or sudden death from cardiac arrhythmia, usually triggered by fasting or catabolic state. This disease responds to oral carnitine that, in pharmacological doses, enters cells using the amino acid transporter B(0,+). Primary carnitine deficiency can be suspected from the clinical presentation or identified by low levels of free carnitine (C0) in the newborn screening. Some adult patients have been diagnosed following the birth of an unaffected child with very low carnitine levels in the newborn screening. The diagnosis is confirmed by measuring low carnitine uptake in the patients' fibroblasts or by DNA sequencing of the SLC22A5 gene encoding the OCTN2 carnitine transporter. Some mutations are specific for certain ethnic backgrounds, but the majority are private and identified only in individual families. Although the genotype usually does not correlate with metabolic or cardiac involvement in primary carnitine deficiency, patients presenting as adults tend to have at least one missense mutation retaining residual activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler

  7. Co-expression analysis identifies CRC and AP1 the regulator of Arabidopsis fatty acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xinxin; Yin, Linlin; Xue, Hongwei

    2012-07-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) play crucial rules in signal transduction and plant development, however, the regulation of FA metabolism is still poorly understood. To study the relevant regulatory network, fifty-eight FA biosynthesis genes including de novo synthases, desaturases and elongases were selected as "guide genes" to construct the co-expression network. Calculation of the correlation between all Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) genes with each guide gene by Arabidopsis co-expression dating mining tools (ACT) identifies 797 candidate FA-correlated genes. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of these co-expressed genes showed they are tightly correlated to photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism, and function in many processes. Interestingly, 63 transcription factors (TFs) were identified as candidate FA biosynthesis regulators and 8 TF families are enriched. Two TF genes, CRC and AP1, both correlating with 8 FA guide genes, were further characterized. Analyses of the ap1 and crc mutant showed the altered total FA composition of mature seeds. The contents of palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid and eicosadienoic acid are decreased, whereas that of oleic acid is increased in ap1 and crc seeds, which is consistent with the qRT-PCR analysis revealing the suppressed expression of the corresponding guide genes. In addition, yeast one-hybrid analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that CRC can bind to the promoter regions of KCS7 and KCS15, indicating that CRC may directly regulate FA biosynthesis. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Heuvel, John P

    2012-01-01

    Diets rich in ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) such as alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid are associated with decreased incidence and severity of several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. At least some of the beneficial effects of these dietary fatty acids are via metabolites such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, and resolvins. The effects of ω3-PUFAs are in contrast to those of fatty acids with virtually identical structures, such as the ω6-PUFAs linoleic acid and arachidonic acid, and their corresponding metabolites. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss both the nutrigenomics (nutrient-gene interactions) and nutrigenetics (genetic variation in nutrition) of dietary fatty acids with a focus on the ω3-PUFAs (Gebauer et al., 2007(1)). Important in the biological response for these fatty acids or their metabolites are cognate receptors that are able to regulate gene expression and coordinately affect metabolic or signaling pathways associated with CVD and cancer. Four nuclear receptor (NR) subfamilies will be emphasized as receptors that respond to dietary and endogenous ligands: (1) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, (2) retinoid X receptors, (3) liver X receptors, and (4) farnesoid X receptor. In addition to the different responses elicited by varying structures of fatty acids, responses may vary because of genetic variation in enzymes that metabolize ω3- and ω6 fatty acids or that respond to them. In particular, polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturases and the aforementioned NRs contribute to the complexity of nutritional effects seen with ω3-PUFAs. Following a brief introduction to the health benefits of ω3-PUFAs, the regulation of gene expression by these dietary fatty acids via NRs will be characterized. Subsequently, the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key enzymes involved in the metabolism and response to ω3-PUFAs will

  9. Omega-6 and trans fatty acids in blood cell membranes: a risk factor for acute coronary syndromes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Robert C; Harris, William S; Reid, Kimberly J; Spertus, John A

    2008-12-01

    Although fatty acid intake has been associated with risk of coronary disease events, the association between blood omega-6 and trans fatty acids (FAs) at the time of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is unknown. The relationship of blood FA composition to ACS was analyzed in 768 incident cases and 768 controls (matched on age, sex, and race). Compared to controls, ACS cases' blood cell membrane content of linoleic acid was 13% lower (P 3 times the odds for being a case (odds ratio [OR] 3.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.63-4.17). The relationship of arachidonic acid to ACS was U shaped; compared to the first quartile of arachidonic acid, the ORs for case status in the second, third, and fourth quartiles were 0.73 (95% CI 0.47-1.13), 0.65 (95% CI 0.41-1.04), and 2.32 (95% CI 1.39-3.90), respectively. The OR for a 1-SD increase in trans oleic acid was 1.24 (95% CI 1.06-1.45), and for trans-trans linoleic acid, 1.1 (95% CI 0.93-1.30). All associations were independent of membrane omega-3 FA content. High blood levels of linoleic acid but low levels of trans oleic acid are inversely associated with ACS. The relationship of arachidonic acid to ACS appears more complex.

  10. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can......-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children...... gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids......; not to formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha...

  11. Trienoic fatty acids and plant tolerance of temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Routaboul Jean-Marc

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The biophysical reactions of light harvesting and electron transport during photosynthesis take place in a uniquely constructed bilayer, the thylakoid. In all photosynthetic eukaryotes, the complement of atypical glycerolipid molecules that form the foundation of this membrane are characterised by sugar head-groups and a very high level of unsaturation in the fatty acids that occupy the central portion of the thylakoid bilayer. alpha-linolenic (18:3 or a combination of 18:3 and hexadecatrienoic (16:3 acids typically account for approximately two-thirds of all thylakoid membrane fatty acids and over 90% of the fatty acids of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol, the major thylakoid lipid [1, 2]. The occurrence of trienoic fatty acids as a major component of the thylakoid membrane is especially remarkable since these fatty acids form highly reactive targets for active oxygen species and free radicals, which are often the by-products of oxygenic photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is one of the most temperature-sensitive functions of plant [3, 4]. There remains a widespread belief that these trienoic fatty acids might have some crucial role in plants to be of such universal occurrence, especially in photosynthesis tolerance of temperature [5].

  12. Fatty acids are required for epidermal permeability barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao-Qiang, M; Elias, P M; Feingold, K R

    1993-08-01

    The permeability barrier is mediated by a mixture of ceramides, sterols, and free fatty acids arranged as extracellular lamellar bilayers in the stratum corneum. Whereas prior studies have shown that cholesterol and ceramides are required for normal barrier function, definitive evidence for the importance of nonessential fatty acids is not available. To determine whether epidermal fatty acid synthesis also is required for barrier homeostasis, we applied 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furancarboxylic acid (TOFA), an inhibitor of acetyl CoA carboxylase, after disruption of the barrier by acetone or tape stripping. TOFA inhibits epidermal fatty acid by approximately 50% and significantly delays barrier recovery. Moreover, coadministration of palmitate with TOFA normalizes barrier recovery, indicating that the delay is due to a deficiency in bulk fatty acids. Furthermore, TOFA treatment also delays the return of lipids to the stratum corneum and results in abnormalities in the structure of lamellar bodies, the organelle which delivers lipid to the stratum corneum. In addition, the organization of secreted lamellar body material into lamellar bilayers within the stratum corneum interstices is disrupted by TOFA treatment. Finally, these abnormalities in lamellar body and stratum corneum membrane structure are corrected by coapplication of palmitate with TOFA. These results demonstrate a requirement for bulk fatty acids in barrier homeostasis. Thus, inhibiting the epidermal synthesis of any of the three key lipids that form the extracellular, lipid-enriched membranes of the stratum corneum results in an impairment in barrier homeostasis.

  13. Composition of fatty acids in selected vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Frančáková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant oils and fats are important and necessary components of the human nutrition. They are energy source and also contain fatty acids - compounds essential for human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional quality of selected plant oil - olive, rapeseed, pumpkin, flax and sesame; based on fatty acid composition in these oils. Fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA, SFA were analyzed chromatography using system Agilent 6890 GC, injector multimode, detector FID. The highest content of saturated fatty acids was observed in pumpkinseed oil (19.07%, the lowest content was found in rapeseed oil (7.03%, with low level of palmitic and stearic acids and high level of behenic acid (0.32% among the evaluated oils. The highest content of linoleic acid was determined in pumpkinseed (46.40% and sesame oil (40.49%; in these samples was also found lowest content of α-linolenic acid. These oils have important antioxidant properties and are not subject to oxidation. The richest source of linolenic acid was flaxseed oil which, which is therefore more difficult to preserve and process in food industry. In olive oil was confirmed that belongs to the group of oils with a predominantly monosaturated oleic acid (more than 70% and a small amount of polysaturated fatty acid. The most commonly used rapeseed oil belongs to the group of oils with the medium content of linolenic acid (8.76%; this oil also showed a high content of linoleic acid (20.24%. The group of these essentially fatty acids showed a suitable ratio ∑n3/n6 in the rapessed oil (0.44.

  14. Mapping QTL for fatty acid composition that segregates between the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping QTL for fatty acid composition that segregates between the Japanese Black and Limousin cattle breeds (Short communication). NOM Tshipuliso, LJ Alexander, TW Geary, VM Snelling, DC Rule, JE Koltes, BE Mote, MD MacNeil ...

  15. Echinococcus granulosus fatty acid binding proteins subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2016-05-01

    Two fatty acid binding proteins, EgFABP1 and EgFABP2, were isolated from the parasitic platyhelminth Echinococcus granulosus. These proteins bind fatty acids and have particular relevance in flatworms since de novo fatty acids synthesis is absent. Therefore platyhelminthes depend on the capture and intracellular distribution of host's lipids and fatty acid binding proteins could participate in lipid distribution. To elucidate EgFABP's roles, we investigated their intracellular distribution in the larval stage by a proteomic approach. Our results demonstrated the presence of EgFABP1 isoforms in cytosolic, nuclear, mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, suggesting that these molecules could be involved in several cellular processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fatty acids changes of baby food fat by γ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aflaki, F.; Matloubi, H.; Ahmadi, M. A. A.

    2005-01-01

    There is a mutual protection when mixtures of components irradiated together, so experimental investigation is necessary for determination of the effects that actually occur in different class of nutrients in formulated foods. This work is concerned with the effect of γ irradiated on fatty acids content of a formulated baby food fat and the results is compared with changes of fatty acids in irradiated whole foods. Irradiation was performed with a gamma cell (Co-60) at dose levels of 0.5, 1.5, 6, 10, 30, 45 kGy at room temperature and in the presence of air. The samples were analyzed immediately after irradiation by high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that destruction of fatty acids in this formulated food is reasonably less than fatty acids of whole foods fat

  17. The effect of breed on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-02-23

    Agilent Auto Analyzer 7683 B series, Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, Calif, USA) into ..... laboratory facilities and financial support. ... supplementation on fatty acid composition and gene expression in adipose tissue of growing ...

  18. Fatty acid methyl esters production: chemical process variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Narváez Rincón

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of fatty acid methyl esters as basic oleochemicals over fatty acids, the seventies world energy crisis and the use of those oleochemicals as fuels, have increased research interest on fats and oils trans-esterification. In this document, a review about basic aspects, uses, process variables and problems associated to the production process of fatty acid methyl esters is presented. A global view of recent researches, most of them focused in finding a new catalyst with same activity as the alcohol-soluble hydroxides (NaOH, KOH, and suitable to be used in transforming fats and oils with high levels of free fatty acids and water avoiding separation problems and reducing process costs, is also discussed.

  19. Comparison of fatty acid profile of wild and farm reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lingam

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... brooders for broodstock diet formulation. Paramaraj Balamurugan. 1 ... Of these, saturated fatty acids dominate over the mono- unsaturated (MUFA) ..... and formation of central nervous system in embryo (Cavalli et al., 1999).

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders, from the biochemical rationale for their use to the growing body of data supporting their clinical efficacy.

  1. AMPK-independent pathways regulate skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dzamko, Nicolas; Schertzer, Jonathan D.; Ryall, James G.

    2008-01-01

    The activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphorylation/inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) is believed to be the principal pathway regulating fatty acid oxidation. However, during exercise AMPK activity and ACC Ser-221 phosphorylation does not always correlate...... with rates of fatty acid oxidation. To address this issue we have investigated the requirement for skeletal muscle AMPK in controlling aminoimidazole-4-carboxymide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and contraction-stimulated fatty acid oxidation utilizing transgenic mice expressing a muscle-specific kinase...... dead (KD) AMPK alpha2. In wild-type (WT) mice, AICAR and contraction increased AMPK alpha2 and alpha1 activities, the phosphorylation of ACC2 and rates of fatty acid oxidation while tending to reduce malonyl-CoA levels. Despite no activation of AMPK in KD mice, ACC2 phosphorylation was maintained...

  2. Age and haplotype variations within FADS1 interact and associate with alterations in fatty acid composition in human male cortical brain tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Freemantle

    Full Text Available Fatty acids (FA play an integral role in brain function and alterations have been implicated in a variety of complex neurological disorders. Several recent genomic studies have highlighted genetic variability in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS1/2/3 gene cluster as an important contributor to FA alterations in serum lipids as well as measures of FA desaturase index estimated by ratios of relevant FAs. The contribution to alterations of FAs within the brain by local synthesis is still a matter of debate. Thus, the impact of genetic variants in FADS genes on gene expression and brain FA levels is an important avenue to investigate.Analyses were performed on brain tissue from prefrontal cortex Brodmann area 47 (BA47 of 61 male subjects of French Canadian ancestry ranging in age from young adulthood to middle age (18-58 years old, with the exception of one teenager (15 years old. Haplotype tagging SNPs were selected using the publicly available HapMap genotyping dataset in conjunction with Haploview. DNA sequencing was performed by the Sanger method and gene expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. FAs in brain tissue were analysed by gas chromatography. Variants in the FADS1 gene region were sequenced and analyzed for their influence on both FADS gene expression and FAs in brain tissue.Our results suggest an association of the minor haplotype with alteration in estimated fatty acid desaturase activity. Analysis of the impact of DNA variants on expression and alternative transcripts of FADS1 and FADS2, however, showed no differences. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between haplotype and age on certain brain FA levels.This study suggests that genetic variability in the FADS genes cluster, previously shown to be implicated in alterations in peripheral FA levels, may also affect FA composition in brain tissue, but not likely by local synthesis.

  3. Interleukin-6 and Cyclooxygenase-2 downregulation by fatty-acid fractions of Ranunculus constantinopolitanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostok, Sabreen F; Ezzeddine, Rima A; Homaidan, Fadia R; Al-Saghir, Jamal A; Salloum, Ralph G; Saliba, Najat A; Talhouk, Rabih S

    2009-11-16

    Medicinal plants represent alternative means for the treatment of several chronic diseases, including inflammation. The genus Ranunculus, a representative of the Ranunculaceae family, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiviral, antibacterial, antiparasitic and antifungal activities, possibly due to the presence of anemonin and other. Different studies have shown the occurrence of unusual fatty acids (FAs) in Ranunculaceae; however, their therapeutic role has not been investigated. The purpose of this study is to characterize potential anti-inflammatory bioactivities in Ranunculus constantinopolitanus D'Urv., traditionally used in Eastern Mediterranean folk medicine. The aerial part of R. constantinopolitanus was subjected to methanol (MeOH) extraction and solvent fractionation. The bioactive fraction (I.2) was further fractionated using column chromatography, and the biologically active subfraction (Y2+3) was identified using infrared (IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of I.2 and Y2+3 on cell viability were studied in mouse mammary epithelial SCp2 cells using trypan blue exclusion method. To study the anti-inflammatory activities of I.2 and Y2+3, their ability to reduce interleukin (IL)-6 levels was assessed in endotoxin (ET)-stimulated SCp2 cells using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, the ability of Y2+3 to reduce cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression was studied in IL-1-treated mouse intestinal epithelial Mode-K cells via western blotting. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK), Tukey HSD, two-sample t-test and Dunnett t-tests for multiple comparisons. The chloroform fraction (I.2) derived from crude MeOH extract of the plant, in addition to Y2+3, a FA mix isolated from this fraction and containing palmitic acid, C18:2 and C18:1 isomers and stearic acid (1:5:8:1 ratio), reduced ET-induced IL-6

  4. Interleukin-6 and Cyclooxygenase-2 downregulation by fatty-acid fractions of Ranunculus constantinopolitanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Saghir Jamal A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plants represent alternative means for the treatment of several chronic diseases, including inflammation. The genus Ranunculus, a representative of the Ranunculaceae family, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiviral, antibacterial, antiparasitic and antifungal activities, possibly due to the presence of anemonin and other. Different studies have shown the occurrence of unusual fatty acids (FAs in Ranunculaceae; however, their therapeutic role has not been investigated. The purpose of this study is to characterize potential anti-inflammatory bioactivities in Ranunculus constantinopolitanus D'Urv., traditionally used in Eastern Mediterranean folk medicine. Methods The aerial part of R. constantinopolitanus was subjected to methanol (MeOH extraction and solvent fractionation. The bioactive fraction (I.2 was further fractionated using column chromatography, and the biologically active subfraction (Y2+3 was identified using infrared (IR spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The effects of I.2 and Y2+3 on cell viability were studied in mouse mammary epithelial SCp2 cells using trypan blue exclusion method. To study the anti-inflammatory activities of I.2 and Y2+3, their ability to reduce interleukin (IL-6 levels was assessed in endotoxin (ET-stimulated SCp2 cells using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. In addition, the ability of Y2+3 to reduce cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression was studied in IL-1-treated mouse intestinal epithelial Mode-K cells via western blotting. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK, Tukey HSD, two-sample t-test and Dunnett t-tests for multiple comparisons. Results The chloroform fraction (I.2 derived from crude MeOH extract of the plant, in addition to Y2+3, a FA mix isolated from this fraction and containing palmitic acid, C18:2 and C18:1 isomers and stearic acid

  5. Fatty Acid and Transcript Profiling in Developing Seeds of Three Brassica napus Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petkova Mariana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid levels and gene expression profiles for selected genes associated with the synthesis of fatty acids (FA, triacylglycerol, and oil body proteins were examined in three oilseed rape (Brassica napus cultivars that have utility for cultivar development in our spring canola breeding program. The seed oil content of Bronowski, Q2, and Westar was 39.0, 40.1, and 40.6%, respectively at 40 days after flowering (DAF. During the 20 to 40 day period of seed development, cultivars had varying levels of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic, eicosenoic, and erucic acid. In general, the percentage of each FA was similar among the cultivars during seed development. However, the level of oleic acid was lower and the levels of eicosenoic acid and erucic acid were higher in Bronowski than in Q2 and Westar seeds; linoleic acid also tended to be lower in Bronowski. Gene expression among the cultivars was similar from 10 to 40 DAF. The few exceptions were that expression of KAS1 and SAD were higher in Westar and Q2 than in Bronowski at 25 DAF, SAD was highest in Q2, intermediate in Westar, and lowest in Bronowski at 35 DAF, FAD2 was higher in Q2 than in Bronowski at 35 DAF, FAD3 was higher in Q2 than in Bronowski at 15 DAF and Q2 and Westar at 25 and 30 DAF, and FAE1 was higher in Westar and Q2 than in Bronowski at 30 DAF. Correlation analysis for gene expression against DAF for each genotype supported a common trend in gene expression among the three cultivars with gene expression tending to decrease over time; except for LPAAT, which tended to increase. The correlation between the level of FAs and expression of genes by genotype indicated no general trend; rather correlations seem to depend on the genotype.

  6. Functional alteration of breast muscle fatty acid profile by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast muscle fatty acid (FA) profile was studied in broiler chickens fed at different levels of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratios in 4 treatment groups; very high level of n-6:n-3 ratios (VH), high level of n-6:n-3 ratios (H), low level of n-6:n-3 ratios (L), very low level of n-6:n-3 ratios (VL) and control, respectively.

  7. Physicochemical characterization and fatty acid content of 'venadillo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From physicochemical oil evaluations, an oil density of 0.9099 mg∙ml-1 at 28°C; a refraction index of 1.4740 at 20°C; a saponification index of 159.55 mg KOH∙g-1; a peroxide index of 0.739 meq O2∙kg-1, and 0.367% free fatty acid content were shown. From chromatographic oil evaluations, eight fatty acids were identified ...

  8. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for Prostate Cancer. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    acetyl- cholinesterase inhibitors have been developed, many with femtomolar binding affinities (7). This body of literature also confirms that the...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-1-0204 TITLE: Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for...May 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Revised Final 3. DATES COVERED 01 May 2009-30 Apr 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for

  9. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    compounds. For example, numerous classes of acetyl- cholinesterase inhibitors have been developed, m any with fe mtomolar binding affinities (7). This...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-1-0204 TITLE: Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for...CONTRACT NUMBER Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0204 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  10. Effects of commercial enrichment products on fatty acid components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... 3050 (ZB) and Spresso (ZC) on fatty acid compositions in rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) which were intensively ... docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the ratio of n–3/n–6 in enriched rotifers groups were higher (p < 0.05). The level of ...... acid profiles and bacterial load in cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis ...

  11. Omega-6 fatty acid biomarkers and incident type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Jason H.Y.; Marklund, Matti; Imamura, Fumiaki; Tintle, Nathan; Ardisson Korat, Andres V.; Goede, de Janette; Zhou, Xia; Yang, Wei Sin; Oliveira Otto, de Marcia C.; Kröger, Janine; Qureshi, Waqas; Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Bassett, Julie K.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Lankinen, Maria; Murphy, Rachel A.; Rajaobelina, Kalina; Gobbo, Del Liana C.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Kalsbeek, Anya; Veenstra, Jenna; Luo, Juhua; Hu, Frank B.; Lin, Hung Ju; Siscovick, David S.; Boeing, Heiner; Chen, Tzu An; Steffen, Brian; Steffen, Lyn M.; Hodge, Allison; Eriksdottir, Gudny; Smith, Albert V.; Gudnason, Vilmunder; Harris, Tamara B.; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; Berr, Claudine; Helmer, Catherine; Samieri, Cecilia; Laakso, Markku; Tsai, Michael Y.; Giles, Graham G.; Nurmi, Tarja; Wagenknecht, Lynne; Schulze, Matthias B.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Chien, Kuo Liong; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Sun, Qi; Harris, William S.; Lind, Lars; Ärnlöv, Johan; Riserus, Ulf; Micha, Renata; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2017-01-01

    Background: The metabolic effects of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) remain contentious, and little evidence is available regarding their potential role in primary prevention of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the associations of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid biomarkers with

  12. Protective effects of glycyrrhizic acid against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue; Duan, Xingping; Wang, Changyuan; Liu, Zhihao; Sun, Pengyuan; Huo, Xiaokui; Ma, Xiaodong; Sun, Huijun; Liu, Kexin; Meng, Qiang

    2017-07-05

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a predictive factor of death from many diseases. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a natural triterpene glycoside, on NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice, and further to elucidate the mechanisms underlying GA protection. GA treatment significantly reduced the relative liver weight, serum ALT, AST activities, levels of serum lipid, blood glucose and insulin. GA suppressed lipid accumulation in liver. Further mechanism investigation indicated that GA reduced hepatic lipogenesis via downregulating SREBP-1c, FAS and SCD1 expression, increased fatty acids β-oxidation via an increase in PPARα, CPT1α and ACADS, and promoted triglyceride metabolism through inducing LPL activity. Furthermore, GA reduced gluconeogenesis through repressing PEPCK and G6Pase, and increased glycogen synthesis through an induction in gene expression of PDase and GSK3β. In addition, GA increased insulin sensitivity through upregulating phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IRS-2. In conclusion, GA produces protective effect against NAFLD, due to regulation of genes involved in lipid, glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional analysis of free fatty acid receptor GPR120 in human eosinophils: implications in metabolic homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Yasunori; Ueki, Shigeharu; Takeda, Masahide; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Tamaki, Mami; Moritoki, Yuki; Oyamada, Hajime; Itoga, Masamichi; Kayaba, Hiroyuki; Omokawa, Ayumi; Hirokawa, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that eosinophils play an important role in metabolic homeostasis through Th2 cytokine production. GPR120 (FFA4) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for long-chain fatty acids that functions as a regulator of physiological energy metabolism. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether human eosinophils express GPR120 and, if present, whether it possesses a functional capacity on eosinophils. Eosinophils isolated from peripheral venous blood expressed GPR120 at both the mRNA and protein levels. Stimulation with a synthetic GPR120 agonist, GW9508, induced rapid down-regulation of cell surface expression of GPR120, suggesting ligand-dependent receptor internalization. Although GPR120 activation did not induce eosinophil chemotactic response and degranulation, we found that GW9508 inhibited eosinophil spontaneous apoptosis and Fas receptor expression. The anti-apoptotic effect was attenuated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors and was associated with inhibition of caspase-3 activity. Eosinophil response investigated using ELISpot assay indicated that stimulation with a GPR120 agonist induced IL-4 secretion. These findings demonstrate the novel functional properties of fatty acid sensor GPR120 on human eosinophils and indicate the previously unrecognized link between nutrient metabolism and the immune system.

  14. Importance of medium chain fatty acids in animal nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltić, B.; Starčević, M.; Đorđević, J.; Mrdović, B.; Marković, R.

    2017-09-01

    Fats in animal and human nutrition are a common subject of research. These studies most often pay attention to particular fat groups (saturated, unsaturated, polyunsaturated fats or fats grouped by the length of their fatty acid chains into short, medium or long chain fatty acids). Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have two main sources: milk and coconut oil. To date, research has shown these acids have positive effects on health, production, feed digestibility and lower body and muscle fats in broilers and swine. MCFAs possess antibacterial, anticoccidial and antiviral effects. Also, it has been proven that these acids act synergistically if they are used together with organic acids, essential oils, or probiotics. Nowadays, commercial MCFA products are available for use in animal nutrition as feed additives.

  15. Fatty acid analysis of Erwinia amylovora from Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Ivanović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated method of fatty acid analysis was used to identify and study heterogeneity of 41 Erwinia amylovora strains, originating from 8 plant species grown in 13 locations in Serbia and one in Montenegro. All strains contained 14:0 3OH fatty acid,characteristic for the “amylovora” group. According to fatty acid composition 39 strains were identified as E. amylovora as the first choice from the database. Due to their specific fatty acid composition, two strains were identified as E. amylovora, but as a second choice. Fatty acid analysis also showed that E. amylovora population from Serbia could be differentiated in three groups, designated in this study as α, β and γ. All strains originating from central or south Serbia, as well as four strains from north Serbia clustered into group α. Group β and γ contained only strains isolated in northern Serbia (Vojvodina. The results show that E. amylovora population in this area is heterogeneous and indicate pathogen introduction from different directions. Fatty acid analysis enabled identificationat species level, as well as new insights of heterogeneity of E. amylovora population.

  16. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intake and risk of skin photoaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Latreille

    Full Text Available Intake of monounsaturated fatty acids has been reported to reduce oxidative stress, insulin resistance and related inflammatory processes and may thus protect from skin photoaging. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the risk of photoaging, monounsaturated fatty acids intake and the sources of monounsaturated fatty acids.A cross sectional study was conducted within the framework of the SUVIMAX cohort. The survey included 1264 women and 1655 men aged between 45 and 60 years old. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intakes were estimated by dietary source through at least ten 24-h diet records completed during the first 2.5 years of the follow-up period. Severity of facial skin photoaging was graded by trained investigators at baseline during a clinical examination using a 6-grade scale illustrated by photographs. A lower risk of severe photoaging was associated with higher intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids from olive oil in both sexes. Strikingly, no association was found with intake of monounsaturated fatty acids from animal sources whether from dairy products, meat or processed meat.These findings support the beneficial effect of dietary olive oil or healthy diet habits associated with olive oil consumption on the severity of facial photoaging.

  17. The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio: health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simopoulos Artemis P.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, Western diets are characterized by a higher omega-6 and a lower omega-3 fatty acid intake, whereas during the Paleolithic period when human’s genetic profile was established, there was a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Their balance is an important determinant for brain development and in decreasing the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and other autoimmune and possibly neurodegenerative diseases. Both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids influence gene expression. Because of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in their metabolic pathways, blood levels of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are determined by both endogenous metabolism and dietary intake making the need of balanced dietary intake essential for health and disease prevention. Whether an omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 3:1 to 4:1 could prevent the pathogenesis of many diseases induced by today’s Western diets (AFSSA, 2010, a target of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment, and genetics. A target of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment and genetics. A balanced ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is important for health and in the prevention of CHD and possibly other chronic diseases.

  18. Omega-3 free fatty acids for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastelein, John J P; Maki, Kevin C; Susekov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms.......Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms....

  19. CD36 mediates both cellular uptake of very long chain fatty acids and their intestinal absorption in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drover, Victor A; Nguyen, David V; Bastie, Claire C; Darlington, Yolanda F; Abumrad, Nada A; Pessin, Jeffrey E; London, Erwin; Sahoo, Daisy; Phillips, Michael C

    2008-05-09

    The intestine has an extraordinary capacity for fatty acid (FA) absorption. Numerous candidates for a protein-mediated mechanism of dietary FA absorption have been proposed, but firm evidence for this process has remained elusive. Here we show that the scavenger receptor CD36 is required both for the uptake of very long chain FAs (VLCFAs) in cultured cells and the absorption of dietary VLCFAs in mice. We found that the fraction of CD36-dependent saturated fatty acid association/absorption in these model systems is proportional to the FA chain length and specific for fatty acids and fatty alcohols containing very long saturated acyl chains. Moreover, intestinal VLCFA absorption is completely abolished in CD36-null mice fed a high fat diet, illustrating that the predominant mechanism for VLCFA absorption is CD36-dependent. Together, these findings represent the first direct evidence for protein-facilitated FA absorption in the intestine and identify a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases characterized by elevated VLCFA levels.

  20. Tailored fatty acid synthesis via dynamic control of fatty acid elongation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torella, JP; Ford, TJ; Kim, SN; Chen, AM; Way, JC; Silver, PA

    2013-07-09

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs, 4-12 carbons) are valuable as precursors to industrial chemicals and biofuels, but are not canonical products of microbial fatty acid synthesis. We engineered microbial production of the full range of even-and odd-chain-length MCFAs and found that MCFA production is limited by rapid, irreversible elongation of their acyl-ACP precursors. To address this limitation, we programmed an essential ketoacyl synthase to degrade in response to a chemical inducer, thereby slowing acyl-ACP elongation and redirecting flux from phospholipid synthesis to MCFA production. Our results show that induced protein degradation can be used to dynamically alter metabolic flux, and thereby increase the yield of a desired compound. The strategy reported herein should be widely useful in a range of metabolic engineering applications in which essential enzymes divert flux away from a desired product, as well as in the production of polyketides, bioplastics, and other recursively synthesized hydrocarbons for which chain-length control is desired.

  1. Tailored fatty acid synthesis via dynamic control of fatty acid elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torella, Joseph P.; Ford, Tyler J.; Kim, Scott N.; Chen, Amanda M.; Way, Jeffrey C.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs, 4–12 carbons) are valuable as precursors to industrial chemicals and biofuels, but are not canonical products of microbial fatty acid synthesis. We engineered microbial production of the full range of even- and odd-chain–length MCFAs and found that MCFA production is limited by rapid, irreversible elongation of their acyl-ACP precursors. To address this limitation, we programmed an essential ketoacyl synthase to degrade in response to a chemical inducer, thereby slowing acyl-ACP elongation and redirecting flux from phospholipid synthesis to MCFA production. Our results show that induced protein degradation can be used to dynamically alter metabolic flux, and thereby increase the yield of a desired compound. The strategy reported herein should be widely useful in a range of metabolic engineering applications in which essential enzymes divert flux away from a desired product, as well as in the production of polyketides, bioplastics, and other recursively synthesized hydrocarbons for which chain-length control is desired. PMID:23798438

  2. Determining the fatty acid composition in plasma and tissues as fatty acid methyl esters using gas chromatography – a comparison of different derivatization and extraction procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Annika I; Müller, Maike; Willenberg, Ina; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2014-12-01

    Analysis of the fatty acid (FA) composition in biological samples is commonly carried out using gas liquid chromatography (GC) after transesterification to volatile FA methyl esters (FAME). We compared the efficacy of six frequently used protocols for derivatization of different lipid classes as well as for plasma and tissue samples. Transesterification with trimethylsulfonium hydroxide (TMSH) led to insufficient derivatization efficacies for polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA, ester (CE) as well as triacylglycerols (TGs). In contrast, methanolic hydrochloric acid (HCl) as well as a combination of BF3 with methanolic sodium hydroxide (NaOH+BF3) were suitable for the derivatization of FFAs, polar lipids, TGs, and CEs (derivatization rate >80% for all tested lipids). Regarding plasma samples, all methods led to an overall similar relative FA pattern. However, significant differences were observed, for example, for the relative amount of EPA+DHA (n3-index). Absolute FA plasma concentrations differed considerably among the methods, with low yields for KOH and BF3. We also demonstrate that lipid extraction with tert-butyl methyl ether/methanol (MTBE/MeOH) is as efficient as the classical method according to Bligh and Dyer, making it possible to replace (environmentally) toxic chloroform.We conclude that HCl-catalyzed derivatization in combination with MeOH/MTBE extraction is the most appropriate among the methods tested for the analysis of FA concentrations and FA pattern in small biological samples. A detailed protocol for the analysis of plasma and tissues is included in this article.

  3. Pro-inflammatory fatty acid profile and colorectal cancer risk: A Mendelian randomisation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Wilson, Sebastian; Sud, Amit; Law, Philip J; Palin, Kimmo; Tuupanen, Sari; Gylfe, Alexandra; Hänninen, Ulrika A; Cajuso, Tatiana; Tanskanen, Tomas; Kondelin, Johanna; Kaasinen, Eevi; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Eriksson, Johan G; Rissanen, Harri; Knekt, Paul; Pukkala, Eero; Jousilahti, Pekka; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Palotie, Aarno; Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Lepistö, Anna; Böhm, Jan; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Al-Tassan, Nada A; Palles, Claire; Farrington, Susan M; Timofeeva, Maria N; Meyer, Brian F; Wakil, Salma M; Campbell, Harry; Smith, Christopher G; Idziaszczyk, Shelley; Maughan, Timothy S; Fisher, David; Kerr, Rachel; Kerr, David; Passarelli, Michael N; Figueiredo, Jane C; Buchanan, Daniel D; Win, Aung K; Hopper, John L; Jenkins, Mark A; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly A; Gallinger, Steven; Conti, David; Schumacher, Fred; Casey, Graham; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Cheadle, Jeremy P; Tomlinson, Ian P; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Houlston, Richard S

    2017-10-01

    While dietary fat has been established as a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), associations between fatty acids (FAs) and CRC have been inconsistent. Using Mendelian randomisation (MR), we sought to evaluate associations between polyunsaturated (PUFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and saturated FAs (SFAs) and CRC risk. We analysed genotype data on 9254 CRC cases and 18,386 controls of European ancestry. Externally weighted polygenic risk scores were generated and used to evaluate associations with CRC per one standard deviation increase in genetically defined plasma FA levels. Risk reduction was observed for oleic and palmitoleic MUFAs (OR OA  = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.65-0.92, P = 3.9 × 10 -3 ; OR POA  = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.15-0.84, P = 0.018). PUFAs linoleic and arachidonic acid had negative and positive associations with CRC respectively (OR LA  = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.93-0.98, P = 3.7 × 10 -4 ; OR AA  = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.07, P = 1.7 × 10 -4 ). The SFA stearic acid was associated with increased CRC risk (OR SA  = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.01-1.35, P = 0.041). Results from our analysis are broadly consistent with a pro-inflammatory FA profile having a detrimental effect in terms of CRC risk. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, EPA and DHA, on hematological malignancies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloudizargari, Milad; Mortaz, Esmaeil; Asghari, Mohammad Hossein; Adcock, Ian M; Redegeld, Frank A; Garssen, Johan

    2018-02-20

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have well established anti-cancer properties. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are among this biologically active family of macromolecules for which various anti-cancer effects have been explained. These PUFAs have a high safety profile and can induce apoptosis and inhibit growth of cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo , following a partially selective manner. They also increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents by increasing the sensitivity of different cell lines to specific anti-neoplastic drugs. Various mechanisms have been proposed for the anti-cancer effects of these omega-3 PUFAs; however, the exact mechanisms still remain unknown. While numerous studies have investigated the effects of DHA and EPA on solid tumors and the responsible mechanisms, there is no consensus regarding the effects and mechanisms of action of these two FAs in hematological malignancies. Here, we performed a systematic review of the beneficial effects of EPA and DHA on hematological cell lines as well as the findings of related in vivo studies and clinical trials. We summarize the key underlying mechanisms and the therapeutic potential of these PUFAs in the treatment of hematological cancers. Differential expression of apoptosis-regulating genes and Glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gp-x4), varying abilities of different cancerous and healthy cells to metabolize EPA into its more active metabolites and to uptake PUFAS are among the major factors that determine the sensitivity of cells to DHA and EPA. Considering the abundance of data on the safety of these FAs and their proven anti-cancer effects in hematological cell lines and the lack of related human studies, further research is warranted to find ways of exploiting the anticancer effects of DHA and EPA in clinical settings both in isolation and in combination with other therapeutic regimens.

  5. Validation of the omega-3 fatty acid intake measured by a web-based food frequency questionnaire against omega-3 fatty acids in red blood cells in men with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, J; Moreel, X; Labonté, M-È; Léger, C; Caron, A; Julien, P; Lamarche, B; Fradet, V

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a web-based self-administered food frequency questionnaire (web-FFQ) to assess the omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids (FAs) intake of men affected with prostate cancer (PCa) against a biomarker. The study presented herein is a sub-study from a phase II clinical trial. Enrolled patients afflicted with PCa were included in the sub-study analysis if the FA profiles from the red blood cell (RBC) membranes and FA intakes at baseline were both determined at the time of the data analysis (n=60). Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to estimate the correlations between FA intakes and their proportions in the RBC membranes. Intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were highly correlated with their respective proportions in the RBC membranes (both rs=0.593, Pstudies carried out in men with PCa.

  6. Fatty acid synthesis in Escherichia coli and its applications towards the production of fatty acid based biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The idea of renewable and regenerative resources has inspired research for more than a hundred years. Ideally, the only spent energy will replenish itself, like plant material, sunlight, thermal energy or wind. Biodiesel or ethanol are examples, since their production relies mainly on plant material. However, it has become apparent that crop derived biofuels will not be sufficient to satisfy future energy demands. Thus, especially in the last decade a lot of research has focused on the production of next generation biofuels. A major subject of these investigations has been the microbial fatty acid biosynthesis with the aim to produce fatty acids or derivatives for substitution of diesel. As an industrially important organism and with the best studied microbial fatty acid biosynthesis, Escherichia coli has been chosen as producer in many of these studies and several reviews have been published in the fields of E. coli fatty acid biosynthesis or biofuels. However, most reviews discuss only one of these topics in detail, despite the fact, that a profound understanding of the involved enzymes and their regulation is necessary for efficient genetic engineering of the entire pathway. The first part of this review aims at summarizing the knowledge about fatty acid biosynthesis of E. coli and its regulation, and it provides the connection towards the production of fatty acids and related biofuels. The second part gives an overview about the achievements by genetic engineering of the fatty acid biosynthesis towards the production of next generation biofuels. Finally, the actual importance and potential of fatty acid-based biofuels will be discussed. PMID:24405789

  7. Enhancing Fatty Acid Production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an Animal Feed Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Seung Kyou; Joo, Young-Chul; Kang, Dae Hee; Shin, Sang Kyu; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Woo, Han Min; Um, Youngsoon; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2017-12-20

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used for edible purposes, such as human food or as an animal feed supplement. Fatty acids are also beneficial as feed supplements, but S. cerevisiae produces small amounts of fatty acids. In this study, we enhanced fatty acid production of S. cerevisiae by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase, thioesterase, and malic enzyme associated with fatty acid metabolism. The enhanced strain pAMT showed 2.4-fold higher fatty acids than the wild-type strain. To further increase the fatty acids, various nitrogen sources were analyzed and calcium nitrate was selected as an optimal nitrogen source for fatty acid production. By concentration optimization, 672 mg/L of fatty acids was produced, which was 4.7-fold higher than wild-type strain. These results complement the low level fatty acid production and make it possible to obtain the benefits of fatty acids as an animal feed supplement while, simultaneously, maintaining the advantages of S. cerevisiae.

  8. Angiopoietin-like 4 mediates PPAR delta effect on lipoprotein lipase-dependent fatty acid uptake but not on beta-oxidation in myotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius R Robciuc

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR delta is an important regulator of fatty acid (FA metabolism. Angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4, a multifunctional protein, is one of the major targets of PPAR delta in skeletal muscle cells. Here we investigated the regulation of Angptl4 and its role in mediating PPAR delta functions using human, rat and mouse myotubes. Expression of Angptl4 was upregulated during myotubes differentiation and by oleic acid, insulin and PPAR delta agonist GW501516. Treatment with GW501516 or Angptl4 overexpression inhibited both lipoprotein lipase (LPL activity and LPL-dependent uptake of FAs whereas uptake of BSA-bound FAs was not affected by either treatment. Activation of retinoic X receptor (RXR, PPAR delta functional partner, using bexarotene upregulated Angptl4 expression and inhibited LPL activity in a PPAR delta dependent fashion. Silencing of Angptl4 blocked the effect of GW501516 and bexarotene on LPL activity. Treatment with GW501516 but not Angptl4 overexpression significantly increased palmitate oxidation. Furthermore, Angptl4 overexpression did not affect the capacity of GW501516 to increase palmitate oxidation. Basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis and glucose oxidation were not significantly modulated by Angptl4 overexpression. Our findings suggest that FAs-PPARdelta/RXR-Angptl4 axis controls the LPL-dependent uptake of FAs in myotubes, whereas the effect of PPAR delta activation on beta-oxidation is independent of Angptl4.

  9. Effect of impaired fatty acid oxidation on myocardial kinetics of 11C- and 123I-labelled fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.

    1986-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with palmitate 11 C and single photon imaging with terminally radioiodinated fatty acid analogues (FFA 123 I) were evaluated for the noninvasive assessment of regional myocardial fatty acid metabolism during ischaemia. Decreased uptake of tracer and delayed clearance of activity in the ischaemic myocardium were reported for both 11 C- and 123 I-labelled compounds. However, since during ischaemia both myocardial blood flow and oxidative metabolism are reduced concomitantly, either factor can be responsible for the changes observed. Experimental preparations in which fatty acid metabolism can be modified independently of flow are helpful for the characterization of the relationship between metabolism and myocardial kinetics of labelled fatty acids. Results obtained during flow-independent inhibition of fatty acid oxidation include the following observations: - In dogs with controlled coronary perfusion the rate of clearance of palmitate 11 C-activity is decreased during diminished delivery of oxygen, regardless of whether myocardial perfusion is concomitantly reduced or not. - In isolated rabbit hearts perfused at normal flow, the extraction of FFA 123 I is decreased during hypoxia. - During pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid oxidation the deiodination of FFA 123 I is markedly reduced in rat hearts in vivo and in vitro. (orig.)

  10. Fatty acid biosynthesis VII. Substrate control of chain-length of products synthesised by rat liver fatty acid synthetase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Carey, E.M.; Dils, R.

    1970-01-01

    - 1. Gas-liquid and paper chromatography have been used to determine the chain-lengths of fatty acids synthesised by purified rat liver fatty acid synthetase from [1-14C]acetyl-CoA, [1,3-14C2]malonyl-CoA and from [1-14C]acetyl-CoA plus partially purified rat liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase. - 2....... A wide range (C4:0–C18:0) of fatty acids was synthesised and the proportions were modified by substrate concentrations in the same manner as for purified rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase. - 3. The relative amount of radioactivity incorporated from added acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA depended...... of long-chain fatty acids was synthesised from carboxylated acetyl-CoA than from added malonyl-CoA. - 5. It is suggested that acetyl-CoA carboxylase may carboxylate acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase....

  11. Improved zeolite regeneration processes for preparing saturated branched-chain fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrierite zeolite solid is an excellent catalyst for the skeletal isomerization of unsaturated linear-chain fatty acids (i.e., oleic acid) to unsaturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., iso-oleic acid) follow by hydrogenation to give saturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., isostearic acid). ...

  12. Essential fatty acid deficiency in patients with severe fat malabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle B; Christensen, Michael Søberg; Høy, Carl-Erik

    1997-01-01

    Essential fatty acid deficiency is commonly described in patients receiving parenteral nutrition, but the occurrence in patients with severe fat malabsorption not receiving parenteral nutrition is uncertain. One hundred twelve patients were grouped according to their degree of fat malabsorption......: group 1, 50% (n = 15). Fecal fat was measured by the method of Van de Kamer the last 2 of 5 d of a 75-g fat diet. Serum fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction were measured by gas-liquid chromatography after separation...... by thin-layer chromatography and expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids. The concentration of linoleic acid in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 21.7%, 19.4%, 16.4%, and 13.4% respectively (P acid in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 0.4%, 0.4%, 0.3% and 0.3%, respectively...

  13. Dietary Alfalfa and Calcium Salts of Long-Chain Fatty Acids Alter Protein Utilization, Microbial Populations, and Plasma Fatty Acid Profile in Holstein Freemartin Heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Qiu, Qinghua; Shao, Taoqi; Niu, Wenjing; Xia, Chuanqi; Wang, Haibo; Li, Qianwen; Gao, Zhibiao; Yu, Zhantao; Su, Huawei; Cao, Binghai

    2017-12-20

    This study presented the effects of alfalfa and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CSFA) on feed intake, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial community, plasma biochemical parameters, and fatty acid profile in Holstein freemartin heifers. Eight Holstein freemartin heifers were randomly divided into a 4 × 4 Latin Square experiment with 2 × 2 factorial diets, with or without alfalfa or CSFA. Dietary supplementation of CSFA significantly increased the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, organic matter, and significantly reduced N retention (P fatty acids in the plasma, which was expressed in reducing saturated fatty acid (ΣSFA) ratio and C14-C17 fatty acids proportion except C16:0 (P fatty acid (ΣPUFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (ΣUFA) (P fatty acids in plasma. Alfalfa and CSFA had mutual interaction effect on fat digestion and plasma triglycerides.

  14. Biooxidation of fatty acid distillates to dibasic acids by a mutant of Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Sarbani; Nandi, Sumit; Ghosh, Santinath

    2006-01-01

    Fatty acid distillates (FADs) produced during physical refining of vegetable oil contains large amount of free fatty acid. A mutant of Candida tropicalis (M20) obtained after several stages of UV mutation are utilized to produce dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) from the fatty acid distillates of rice bran, soybean, coconut, palm kernel and palm oil. Initially, fermentation study was carried out in shake flasks for 144 h. Products were isolated and identified by GLC analysis. Finally, fermentation was carried out in a 2 L jar fermenter, which yielded 62 g/L and 48 g/L of total dibasic acids from rice bran oil fatty acid distillate and coconut oil fatty acid distillate respectively. FADs can be effectively utilized to produce DCAs of various chain lengths by biooxidation process.

  15. Associations between omega-3 fatty acids and 25(OH)D and psychological distress among Inuit in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogli, Hans-Ragnar; Geoffroy, Dominique; Weiler, Hope A; Tell, Grethe S; Kirmayer, Laurence J; Egeland, Grace M

    2017-01-01

    Inuit in Canada have experienced dietary changes over recent generations, but how this relates to psychological distress has not been investigated. To evaluate how nutritional biomarkers are related to psychological distress. A total of 36 communities in northern Canada participated in the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey (2007-2008). Of 2796 households, 1901 (68%) participated; 1699 Inuit adults gave blood samples for biomarker analysis and answered the Kessler 6-item psychological distress questionnaire (K6). Biomarkers included n-3 fatty acids and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). The K6 screens for psychological distress over the last 30 days with six items scored on a 4-point scale. A total score of 13 or more indicates serious psychological distress (SPD). Logistic regression models were used to investigate any associations between SPD and biomarkers while controlling for age, gender, marital status, days spent out on the land, feeling of being alone, income and smoking. The 30-day SPD prevalence was 11.2%, with women below 30 years having the highest and men 50 years and more having the lowest SPD prevalence at 16.1% and 2.6%, respectively. SPD was associated with being female, younger age, not being married or with a common-law partner, spending few days out on the land, feelings of being alone, smoking and low income. Low levels of both 25(OH)D and long-chain n-3 FAs were associated with higher odds for SPD in both unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models. In this cross-sectional analysis, low levels of 25(OH)D and long-chain n-3 FAs were associated with higher odds ratios for SPD, which highlights the potential impact of traditional foods on mental health and wellbeing. Cultural practices are also important for mental health and it may be that the biomarkers serve as proxies for cultural activities related to food collection, sharing and consumption that increase both biomarker levels and psychological well-being. n-3 FAs: omega-3

  16. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and linoleic:linolenic acid ratio on polyunsaturated fatty acid status in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, M; Ahn, D U; Sell, J L

    2000-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the ratio of linoleic:linolenic acid on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status. Thirty-two 31-wk-old White Leghorn hens were randomly assigned to four diets containing 8.2% soy oil, 4.1% soy oil + 2.5% CLA (4.1% CLA source), 4.1% flax oil + 2.5% CLA, or 4.1% soy oil + 4.1% flax oil. Hens were fed the diets for 3 wk before eggs and tissues were collected for the study. Lipids were extracted from egg yolk and tissues, classes of egg yolk lipids were separated, and fatty acid concentrations of total lipids, triglyceride, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids and non-CLA polyunsaturated fatty acids were reduced after CLA feeding. The amount of arachidonic acid was decreased after CLA feeding in linoleic acid- and linolenic acid-rich diets, but amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were increased in the linolenic-rich diet, indicating that the synthesis or deposition of long-chain n-3 fatty acids was accelerated after CLA feeding. The increased docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid contents in lipid may be compensation for the decreased arachidonic acid content. Dietary supplementation of linoleic acid increased n-6 fatty acid levels in lipids, whereas linolenic acid increased n-3 fatty acid levels. Results also suggest that CLA might not be elongated to synthesize long-chain fatty acids in significant amounts. The effect of CLA in reducing the level of n-6 fatty acids and promoting the level of n-3 fatty acids could be related to the biological effects of CLA.

  17. Occurrence of fatty acid short-chain-alkyl esters in fruits of Celastraceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, Roman A; Zhukov, Anatoly V; Pchelkin, Vasily P; Vereshchagin, Andrei G; Tsydendambaev, Vladimir D

    2013-06-01

    Small amounts of a mixture of fatty acid short-chain-alkyl esters (FASCAEs) were obtained from the fruits of twelve plant species of Celastraceae family, and in five of them the FASCAEs were present not only in the arils but also in the seeds. These mixtures contained 32 individual FASCAE species, which formed four separate fractions, viz. FA methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, and butyl esters (FAMEs, FAEEs, FAIPEs, and FABEs, resp.). The FASCAE acyl components included the residues of 16 individual C₁₄-C₂₄ saturated, mono-, di-, and trienoic FAs. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids, and, in some cases, also α-linolenic acid predominated in FAMEs and FAEEs, while myristic acid was predominant in FAIPEs. It can be suggested that, in the fruit arils of some plant species, FAMEs and FAEEs were formed at the expense of a same FA pool characteristic of a given species and were strongly different from FAIPEs and FABEs esters regarding the mechanism of their biosynthesis. However, as a whole, the qualitative and quantitative composition of various FASCAE fractions, as well as their FA composition, varied considerably depending on various factors. Therefore, separate FASCAE fractions seem to be synthesized from different FA pools other than those used for triacylglycerol formation. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  18. Association between very long chain fatty acids in the meibomian gland and dry eye resulting from n-3 fatty acid deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hideko; Harauma, Akiko; Takimoto, Mao; Moriguchi, Toru

    2015-06-01

    In our previously study, we reported lower tear volume in with an n-3 fatty acid deficient mice and that the docosahexaenoic acid and total n-3 fatty acid levels in these mice are significantly reduced in the meibomian gland, which secretes an oily tear product. Furthermore, we noted very long chain fatty acids (≥25 carbons) in the meibomian gland. To verify the detailed mechanism of the low tear volume in the n-3 fatty acid-deficient mice, we identified the very long chain fatty acids in the meibomian gland, measured the fatty acid composition in the tear product. Very long chain fatty acids were found to exist as monoesters. In particular, very long chain fatty acids with 25-29 carbons existed for the most part as iso or anteiso branched-chain fatty acids. n-3 fatty acid deficiency was decreased the amount of meibum secretion from meibomian gland without change of fatty acid composition. These results suggest that the n-3 fatty acid deficiency causes the enhancement of evaporation of tear film by reducing oily tear secretion along with the decrease of meibomian gland function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of water temperature on the growth and fatty acid profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Ye, Zhi; Tian, Xiangli

    2016-08-01

    The present study determined the changes in the fatty acid (FA) profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in response to the varied water temperature. Sea cucumbers with similar size (4.02±0.11g) were cultured for 8 weeks at 14°C, 18°C, 22°C and 26°C, respectively. At the end of the experiment, the specific growth rate (SGR) and the profiles of FAs in neutral lipids and phospholipids of the juvenile sea cucumbers cultured at different temperatures were determined. The SGRs of the sea cucumbers cultured at 26°C significantly decreased 46.3% compared to thos cultured at 18°C. Regression analysis showed that the SGR-temperature (T) relationship can be expressed as SGR=-0.0073T(2)+0.255T -1.0231 (R(2)=0.9936) and the highest SGR was predicted at 17.5°C. For the neutral lipids, the sum of saturated FAs (SFAs), monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) or polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) of the sea cucumbers that were cultured at the water temperature from 18°C-26°C did not change significantly, indicating the insensitivity of FA profiles for the neutral lipids of sea cucumbers in response to increasing water temperature. For phospholipids, the sum of PUFAs in the sea cucumbers dramatically decreased with the gradually increased water temperature. The sum of SFAs and MUFAs of sea cucumbers, however, increased with the gradually elevated water temperature. In particular, the contents of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the phospholipids of the sea cucumbers decreased 37.2% and 26.1%, respectively, when the water temperature increased from 14°C to 26°C. In summary, the sea cucumbers A. japonicus can regulate the FA compositions, especially the contents of EPA and DHA, in the phospholipids so as to adapt to varied water temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficient production of free fatty acids from soybean meal carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Thakker, Chandresh; Liu, Ping; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-11-01

    Conversion of biomass feedstock to chemicals and fuels has attracted increasing attention recently. Soybean meal, containing significant quantities of carbohydrates, is an inexpensive renewable feedstock. Glucose, galactose, and fructose can be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of soluble carbohydrates of soybean meal. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are valuable molecules that can be used as precursors for the production of fuels and other value-added chemicals. In this study, free fatty acids were produced by mutant Escherichia coli strains with plasmid pXZ18Z (carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) and (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase) using individual sugars, sugar mixtures, and enzymatic hydrolyzed soybean meal extract. For individual sugar fermentations, strain ML211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) )/pXZ18Z showed the best performance, which produced 4.22, 3.79, 3.49 g/L free fatty acids on glucose, fructose, and galactose, respectively. While the strain ML211/pXZ18Z performed the best with individual sugars, however, for sugar mixture fermentation, the triple mutant strain XZK211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) ptsG(-) )/pXZ18Z with an additional deletion of ptsG encoding the glucose-specific transporter, functioned the best due to relieved catabolite repression. This strain produced approximately 3.18 g/L of fatty acids with a yield of 0.22 g fatty acids/g total sugar. Maximum free fatty acids production of 2.78 g/L with a high yield of 0.21 g/g was achieved using soybean meal extract hydrolysate. The results suggested that soybean meal carbohydrates after enzymatic treatment could serve as an inexpensive feedstock for the efficient production of free fatty acids. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitor Platensimycin Improves Insulin Resistance without Inducing Liver Steatosis in Mice and Monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheo B Singh

    Full Text Available Platensimycin (PTM is a natural antibiotic produced by Streptomyces platensis that selectively inhibits bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthase (FAS without affecting synthesis of other lipids. Recently, we reported that oral administration of PTM in mouse models (db/db and db/+ with high de novo lipogenesis (DNL tone inhibited DNL and enhanced glucose oxidation, which in turn led to net reduction of liver triglycerides (TG, reduced ambient glucose, and improved insulin sensitivity. The present study was conducted to explore translatability and the therapeutic potential of FAS inhibition for the treatment of diabetes in humans.We tested PTM in animal models with different DNL tones, i.e. intrinsic synthesis rates, which vary among species and are regulated by nutritional and disease states, and confirmed glucose-lowering efficacy of PTM in lean NHPs with quantitation of liver lipid by MRS imaging. To understand the direct effect of PTM on liver metabolism, we performed ex vivo liver perfusion study to compare FAS inhibitor and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1 inhibitor.The efficacy of PTM is generally reproduced in preclinical models with DNL tones comparable to humans, including lean and established diet-induced obese (eDIO mice as well as non-human primates (NHPs. Similar effects of PTM on DNL reduction were observed in lean and type 2 diabetic rhesus and lean cynomolgus monkeys after acute and chronic treatment of PTM. Mechanistically, PTM lowers plasma glucose in part by enhancing hepatic glucose uptake and glycolysis. Teglicar, a CPT1 inhibitor, has similar effects on glucose uptake and glycolysis. In sharp contrast, Teglicar but not PTM significantly increased hepatic TG production, thus caused liver steatosis in eDIO mice.These findings demonstrate unique properties of PTM and provide proof-of-concept of FAS inhibition having potential utility for the treatment of diabetes and related metabolic disorders.

  2. Effect of intravenous omega-3 fatty acid infusion and hemodialysis on fatty acid composition of free fatty acids and phospholipids in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Trine; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Toft, Egon; Aardestrup, Inge; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Schmidt, Erik B

    2011-01-01

    Patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) have been reported to have decreased levels of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in plasma and cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ω-3 PUFAs administered intravenously during HD, as well as the effect of HD treatment, on the fatty acid composition of plasma free fatty acids (FFAs), plasma phospholipids, and platelet phospholipids. Forty-four HD patients were randomized to groups receiving either a single dose of a lipid emulsion containing 4.1 g of ω-3 PUFAs or placebo (saline) administered intravenously during HD. Blood was drawn immediately before (baseline) and after (4 hours) HD and before the next HD session (48 hours). Fatty acid composition was measured using gas chromatography. The increase in ω-3 FFAs was greater in the ω-3 PUFA group compared with the placebo group, whereas the increase in total FFAs was similar between the 2 groups. In the ω-3 PUFA group, ω-3 PUFAs in plasma phospholipids were higher after 48 hours than at baseline, and in platelet phospholipids, ω-3 PUFAs increased after 4 hours. In the placebo group, no changes were observed in ω-3 PUFAs in plasma and platelet phospholipids. Intravenous ω-3 PUFAs administered during HD caused a transient selective increase in ω-3 FFA concentration. Furthermore, ω-3 PUFAs were rapidly incorporated into platelets, and the content of ω-3 PUFAs in plasma phospholipids increased after 48 hours.

  3. Oxygen uptake during the γ-irradiation of fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, M.M.K.; Moore, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation-induced oxidation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in aqueous solutions has been estimated by measurement of the continuous uptake of oxygen using an oxygen electrode. Chain reactions, initiated by HO radicals, are easily identified to be occurring in the case of unsaturated fatty acids. Other mild oxidation agents, namely (SCN)2 -anion radicals, Br 2 - anion radicals and N 3 -anion radicals, are also found to be capable of oxidizing the polyunsaturated fatty acids. Evidence is presented the O 2- anion radicals may also initiate peroxidation. The oxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids is dependent on dose rate, fatty acid concentration, temperature and the presence of antioxidant and other protective agents. Kinetic studies of the reaction of (SCN)2 - anion radicals and Br 2 - anion radicals with linoleic and linolenic acids have been carried out using pulse radiolysis. The bimolecular rate constants for both radical species with the lipids are approx 10 7 mol-? 1 dm 3 s -1 , below their critical micelle concentrations, and decrease at higher concentrations due to micelle formation. (author)

  4. An assessment of the fatty acid composition of horse-meat available at the retail level in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaunzaran, Xabier; Lavín, Paz; Barron, Luis J R; Mantecón, Angel R; Kramer, John K G; Aldai, Noelia

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the fatty acid composition of horse-meat available at the retail market in northern Spain. Horse steaks (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle; n=82) were purchased from butcher-shops and large grocery stores throughout six northern regions of Spain in two different seasons. Fat content differed significantly among regions (1.12 to 2.77%). Samples with higher intramuscular fat content presented the highest percentages of total monounsaturated fatty acids and the lowest contents of dimethylacetal and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), while the opposite was found in the leanest samples. A high variability was observed in the muscle and subcutaneous n-3 PUFA content. Overall, total n-3 PUFA content ranged between 1.17% and 18.9% in muscle fat and between 1.52% and 27.9% in backfat. Interestingly, almost 5% of surveyed loins from horse carcasses (4 out of 82) contained over 300mg of linolenic acid per 100g of meat which could have been marketed as a "source" of n-3 FAs according to Commission Regulation (EU) No 116/2010. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Triiodothyronine activates lactate oxidation without impairing fatty acid oxidation and improves weaning from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R; Xu, Chun; Kajimoto, Hidemi; Isern, Nancy G; Portman, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides a rescue for children with severe cardiac failure. It has previously been shown that triiodothyronine (T3) improves cardiac function by modulating pyruvate oxidation during weaning. This study focused on fatty acid (FA) metabolism modulated by T3 for weaning from ECMO after cardiac injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nineteen immature piglets (9.1-15.3 kg) were separated into 3 groups with ECMO (6.5 h) and wean: normal circulation (Group-C); transient coronary occlusion (10 min) for ischemia-reperfusion (IR) followed by ECMO (Group-IR); and IR with T3 supplementation (Group-IR-T3). 13-Carbon ((13)C)-labeled lactate, medium-chain and long-chain FAs, was infused as oxidative substrates. Substrate fractional contribution (FC) to the citric acid cycle was analyzed by(13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance. ECMO depressed circulating T3 levels to 40% of the baseline at 4 h and were restored in Group-IR-T3. Group-IR decreased cardiac power, which was not fully restorable and 2 pigs were lost because of weaning failure. Group-IR also depressed FC-lactate, while the excellent contractile function and energy efficiency in Group-IR-T3 occurred along with a marked FC-lactate increase and [adenosine triphosphate]/[adenosine diphosphate] without either decreasing FC-FAs or elevating myocardial oxygen consumption over Group-C or -IR. T3 releases inhibition of lactate oxidation following IR injury without impairing FA oxidation. These findings indicate that T3 depression during ECMO is maladaptive, and that restoring levels improves metabolic flux and enhances contractile function during weaning.

  6. Free and Bound Fatty-Acids and Hydroxy Fatty-Acids in the Living and Decomposing Eelgrass Zostera-Marina L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Leeuw, J.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Nienhuis, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    Very early diagenetic processes of free, esterified and amide or glycosidically bound fatty acids and hydroxy fatty acids present in well documented samples of living and decomposing eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) were investigated. Free and esterified fatty acids decreased significantly over a period

  7. Association of whole blood n-6 fatty acids with stunting in 2-to-6-year-old Northern Ghanaian children: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Adjepong

    Full Text Available In Northern Ghana, 33% of children are stunted due to economic disparities. Dietary fatty acids (FA are critical for growth, but whether blood FA levels are adequate in Ghanaian children is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the association between whole blood FAs and growth parameters in Northern Ghanaian children 2-6 years of age. A drop of blood was collected on an antioxidant treated card and analyzed for FA composition. Weight and height were measured and z-scores were calculated. Relationships between FAs and growth parameters were analyzed by Spearman correlations, linear regressions, and factor analysis. Of the 307 children who participated, 29.7% were stunted and 8% were essential FA deficient (triene/tetraene ratio>0.02. Essential FA did not differ between stunted and non-stunted children and was not associated with height-for-age z-score (HAZ or weight-for-age z-score (WAZ. In hemoglobin adjusted regression models, both HAZ and WAZ were positively associated with arachidonic acid (p≤0.01, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, p≤0.05, docosatetraenoic acid (p≤0.01 and the ratio of DGLA/linoleic acid (p≤0.01. These data add to the growing body of evidence indicating n-6 FAs are critical in childhood linear growth. Our findings provide new insights into the health status of an understudied Northern Ghanaian population.

  8. Radioiodinated free fatty acids; can we measure myocardial metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, F.C.; Eenige, M.J. van; Duwel, C.M.B.; Roos, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of radioiodinated free fatty acids for ''metabolic imaging'', the kinetics and distribution pattern of metabolites of heptadecanoic acid I 131 (HDA I 131) were studied in canine myocardium throughout metabolic interventions. In control dogs and in dogs during glucose/insulin and sodium lactate infusion, biopsy specimens were taken during a go-min period after HDA I 131 administration and analyzed. Clearly distinct patterns of distribution and elimination were seen during the metabolic interventions, indicating the usefulness of iodinated fatty acids for metabolic studies. (orig.)

  9. Fatty acid composition of the cypselae of two endemic Centaurea species (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaćković Peđa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of cypselae of two endemic species from Macedonia, Centaurea galicicae and C. tomorosii, is analysed for the first time, using GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In the cypselae of C. galicicae, 11 fatty acids were identified, palmitic (hexadecanoic acid (32.5% being the most dominant. Other fatty acids were elaidic [(E-octadec-9-enoic] acid (13.9%, stearic (octadecanoic acid (12.8% and linoleic [(9Z,12Z-9,12-octadecadienoic] acid (10.6%. Of the 11 identified fatty acids, seven were saturated fatty acids, which represented 41.5% of total fatty acids, while unsaturated fatty acids altogether constituted 58.5%. In the cypselae of C. tomorosii, five fatty acids were identified. The major fatty acid was linolelaidic [(9E,12E-octadeca- 9,12-dienoic] acid (48.8%. The second most dominant fatty acid was oleic [(9Z-octadec-9-enoic] acid (34.2%. Thus, unsaturated fatty acids were present with 83%. The other three fatty acids identified were saturated fatty acids, which represented 17% of total fatty acids. As a minor fatty acid, levulinic (4-oxopentanoic acid was determined in both C. galicicae and C. tomorosii (0.3% and 3.2%, respectively. The obtained results differ from published data on dominant fatty acids in the cypselae of other species belonging to the same section as the species investigated in the present paper (section Arenariae, subgenus Acrolophus, genus Centaurea. They also, differ from published data referable to other genera belonging to the same tribe (Cardueae. The general chemotaxonomic significance of fatty acids is discussed.

  10. Total lipid accumulation and fatty acid profiles of microalga Spirulina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient limitation in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus increased lipid accumulation under depleted growth in Spirulina strains. Nitrogen limitation was found more effective than phosphorus in accumulating lipid. The fatty acid profile was variable: palmitic (48%), linolenic (21%) and linoleic acids (15%) were the most ...

  11. Continuous Cultivation of Photosynthetic Bacteria for Fatty Acids Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Ji-Hye; Hwang, Yuhoon

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we introduced a novel approach for microbial fatty acids (FA) production. Photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides KD131, were cultivated in a continuous-flow, stirred-tank reactor (CFSTR) at various substrate (lactate) concentrations.At hydraulic retention time (HRT)....... sphaeroides was around 35% of dry cell weight, mainly composed of vaccenic acid (C18:1, omega-7)....

  12. Fatty Acid Profile and Physicochemical Properties of Landolphia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methyl esters of the inherent fatty acids were generated by transmethylation while the physicochemical properties of the NL was determined by official methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Results: The acid, iodine, saponification and peroxide values were 2.81 ± 0.01 mg KOH/g, 67.26 ± 1.05.

  13. Synergistic effects of squalene and polyunsaturated fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-16

    Apr 16, 2007 ... (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA,. C22:6n-3) present in ... is secreted in human serum, where it protects the skin from ultraviolet radiation ..... Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oils and cardiovascular disease. Mol.

  14. Fatty acids profile of pulp and nuts of Brazilian fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso da Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and nuts from the North and Northeast regions of Brazil were collected to determine the fatty acid profile of their oils. The species studied were Brazil (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Mucajá (Couma rigida M., Inajá (Maximiliana maripa D., Jenipapo (Genipa Americana L., and Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L. nuts. Fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Brazil nut major fatty acid was 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid, and Buriti nut had approximately 23 times more 18:3n-3 than the pulp. Mucajá nut presented high content of 12:0 (lauric acid and 16:0 (palmitic acid, and Mucajá pulp showed significant levels of 18:2n-6 (linoleic acid. Considering the PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid sum values, almost all fruits and nuts analyzed presented very high levels of these compounds. Regarding n-6/n-3 ratio, only Brazil Nut, Buriti Nut, Inajá pulp, and Jenipapo pulp corresponded to the desired profile. These Brazilian fruits and nuts could be of potential interest due to their high nutritive value and lipid content.

  15. Oral omega-3 fatty acids treatment in computer vision syndrome related dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Rahul; Kumar, Prachi; Phogat, Hemant; Kaur, Avinash; Kumar, Manjushri

    2015-06-01

    To assess the efficacy of dietary consumption of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FAs) on dry eye symptoms, Schirmer test, tear film break up time (TBUT) and conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) in patients with computer vision syndrome. Interventional, randomized, double blind, multi-centric study. Four hundred and seventy eight symptomatic patients using computers for more than 3h per day for minimum 1 year were randomized into two groups: 220 patients received two capsules of omega-3 fatty acids each containing 180mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 120mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) daily (O3FA group) and 236 patients received two capsules of a placebo containing olive oil daily for 3 months (placebo group). The primary outcome measure was improvement in dry eye symptoms and secondary outcome measures were improvement in Nelson grade and an increase in Schirmer and TBUT scores at 3 months. In the placebo group, before dietary intervention, the mean symptom score, Schirmer, TBUT and CIC scores were 7.5±2, 19.9±4.7mm, 11.5±2s and 1±0.9 respectively, and 3 months later were 6.8±2.2, 20.5±4.7mm, 12±2.2s and 0.9±0.9 respectively. In the O3FA group, these values were 8.0±2.6, 20.1±4.2mm, 11.7±1.6s and 1.2±0.8 before dietary intervention and 3.9±2.2, 21.4±4mm, 15±1.7s, 0.5±0.6 after 3 months of intervention, respectively. This study demonstrates the beneficial effect of orally administered O3FAs in alleviating dry eye symptoms, decreasing tear evaporation rate and improving Nelson grade in patients suffering from computer vision syndrome related dry eye. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Free Fatty Acids Profiles Are Related to Gut Microbiota Signatures and Short-Chain Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodríguez-Carrio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence highlights the relevance of free fatty acids (FFA for human health, and their role in the cross talk between the metabolic status and immune system. Altered serum FFA profiles are related to several metabolic conditions, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have highlighted the link between gut microbiota and host metabolism. However, although most of the studies have focused on different clinical conditions, evidence on the role of these mediators in healthy populations is lacking. Therefore, we have addressed the analysis of the relationship among gut microbial populations, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA production, FFA levels, and immune mediators (IFNγ, IL-6, and MCP-1 in 101 human adults from the general Spanish population. Levels of selected microbial groups, representing the major phylogenetic types present in the human intestinal microbiota, were determined by quantitative PCR. Our results showed that the intestinal abundance of Akkermansia was the main predictor of total FFA serum levels, displaying a negative association with total FFA and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Similarly, an altered FFA profile, identified by cluster analysis, was related to imbalanced levels of Akkermansia and Lactobacillus as well as increased fecal SCFA, enhanced IL-6 serum levels, and higher prevalence of subclinical metabolic alterations. Although no differences in nutritional intakes were observed, divergent patterns in the associations between nutrient intakes with intestinal microbial populations and SCFA were denoted. Overall, these findings provide new insights on the gut microbiota–host lipid metabolism axis and its potential relevance for human health, where FFA and SCFA seem to play an important role.

  17. Functional properties and fatty acids profile of different beans varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Rando, Rossana; Ravenda, Pietro; Dugo, Giacomo; Di Bella, Giuseppa

    2016-10-01

    Dried seeds of four varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris, three of Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata and two of Vigna angularis grown and marketed in Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast were analysed for fatty acids content. In oils from seeds of P. vulgaris, the main fatty acids were linolenic (34.7-41.5%) and linoleic (30.7-40.3%), followed by palmitic (10.7-16.8%). The first three aforementioned fatty acids in the lipid fraction of V. unguiculata varieties were 28.4, 28.7 and 26.2%, respectively; while in V. angularis varieties, main fatty acids were linoleic (36.4-39.1%) and palmitic (26.9-33.3%), followed by linolenic (17.9-22.2%). Statistical analyses indicate that botanical species play a rule in bean fatty acids distribution, while the same was not verified for geographical origin. Furthermore, the atherogenic index (AI) and the thrombogenic index (TI) were investigated for health and nutritional information. The results showed that these wide spread legumes have functional features to human health.

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Jeromson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle.

  19. Kinetics of fatty acid binding ability of glycated human serum albumin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    1-anilino-8-naphtharene sulphonic acid; diabetes, dissociation constant; fatty acids binding; fluorescence displacement ... thought to play an important role in the complications of ..... concentration of serum fatty acid level in type 2 diabetes,.

  20. Positional specificity of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in phosphatidic acid from rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Possmayer, F.; Scherphof, G.L.; Dubbelman, T.M.A.R.; Golde, L.M.G. van; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1969-01-01

    1. 1. The relative incorporation of a number of radioactive fatty acids into the different glycerolipids of rat liver microsomes has been investigated. 2. 2. Studies on the distribution of the radioactivity incorporated into phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidic acid

  1. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid composition of different tissues and yolk lipids in pigeons. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... Eight established breeding pairs per group were fed either a commercially pelleted pigeon diet mixed with 0.5% safflower oil (SFO) or 0.5% CLA for 12 weeks. For fatty ...

  2. N-3 fatty acids reduced trans fatty acids retention and increased docosahexaenoic acid levels in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavandera, Jimena Verónica; Saín, Juliana; Fariña, Ana Clara; Bernal, Claudio Adrián; González, Marcela Aída

    2017-09-01

    The levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) are critical for the normal structure and function of the brain. Trans fatty acids (TFA) and the source of the dietary fatty acids (FA) interfere with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TFA supplementation in diets containing different proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA on the brain FA profile, including the retention of TFA, LC-PUFA levels, and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios. These parameters were also investigated in the liver, considering that LC-PUFA are mainly bioconverted from their dietary precursors in this tissue and transported by serum to the brain. Also, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) gene expressions were evaluated. Male CF1 mice were fed (16 weeks) diets containing different oils (olive, corn, and rapeseed) with distinct proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA (55.2/17.2/0.7, 32.0/51.3/0.9, and 61.1/18.4/8.6), respectively, substituted or not with 0.75% of TFA. FA composition of the brain, liver, and serum was assessed by gas chromatography. TFA were incorporated into, and therefore retained in the brain, liver, and serum. However, the magnitude of retention was dependent on the tissue and type of isomer. In the brain, total TFA retention was lower than 1% in all diets. Dietary n-3 PUFA decreased TFA retention and increased DHA accretion in the brain. The results underscore the importance of the type of dietary FA on the retention of TFA in the brain and also on the changes of the FA profile.

  3. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump, Donald B.; Depner, Christopher M.; Tripathy, Sasmita

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on Greenland Inuits in the 1970s and subsequent human studies have established an inverse relationship between the ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids [C20–22 ω 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)], blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA, and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). C20–22 ω 3 PUFA have pleiotropic effects on cell function and regulate multiple pathways controlling blood lipids, inflammatory factors, and cellular events in cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. The hypolipemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic properties of these fatty acids confer cardioprotection. Accordingly, national heart associations and government agencies have recommended increased consumption of fatty fish or ω 3 PUFA supplements to prevent CVD. In addition to fatty fish, sources of ω 3 PUFA are available from plants, algae, and yeast. A key question examined in this review is whether nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA are as effective as fatty fish-derived C20–22 ω 3 PUFA at managing risk factors linked to CVD. We focused on ω 3 PUFA metabolism and the capacity of ω 3 PUFA supplements to regulate key cellular events linked to CVD. The outcome of our analysis reveals that nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA vary in their capacity to regulate blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA and CVD risk factors. PMID:22904344

  4. Role of 3-Hydroxy Fatty Acid-Induced Hepatic Lipotoxicity in Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Kumar Natarajan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP, a catastrophic illness for both the mother and the unborn offspring, develops in the last trimester of pregnancy with significant maternal and perinatal mortality. AFLP is also recognized as an obstetric and medical emergency. Maternal AFLP is highly associated with a fetal homozygous mutation (1528G>C in the gene that encodes for mitochondrial long-chain hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD. The mutation in LCHAD results in the accumulation of 3-hydroxy fatty acids, such as 3-hydroxy myristic acid, 3-hydroxy palmitic acid and 3-hydroxy dicarboxylic acid in the placenta, which are then shunted to the maternal circulation leading to the development of acute liver injury observed in patients with AFLP. In this review, we will discuss the mechanistic role of increased 3-hydroxy fatty acid in causing lipotoxicity to the liver and in inducing oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatocyte lipoapoptosis. Further, we also review the role of 3-hydroxy fatty acids in causing placental damage, pancreatic islet β-cell glucolipotoxicity, brain damage, and retinal epithelial cells lipoapoptosis in patients with LCHAD deficiency.

  5. Role of 3-Hydroxy Fatty Acid-Induced Hepatic Lipotoxicity in Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibdah, Jamal A.

    2018-01-01

    Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP), a catastrophic illness for both the mother and the unborn offspring, develops in the last trimester of pregnancy with significant maternal and perinatal mortality. AFLP is also recognized as an obstetric and medical emergency. Maternal AFLP is highly associated with a fetal homozygous mutation (1528G>C) in the gene that encodes for mitochondrial long-chain hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD). The mutation in LCHAD results in the accumulation of 3-hydroxy fatty acids, such as 3-hydroxy myristic acid, 3-hydroxy palmitic acid and 3-hydroxy dicarboxylic acid in the placenta, which are then shunted to the maternal circulation leading to the development of acute liver injury observed in patients with AFLP. In this review, we will discuss the mechanistic role of increased 3-hydroxy fatty acid in causing lipotoxicity to the liver and in inducing oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatocyte lipoapoptosis. Further, we also review the role of 3-hydroxy fatty acids in causing placental damage, pancreatic islet β-cell glucolipotoxicity, brain damage, and retinal epithelial cells lipoapoptosis in patients with LCHAD deficiency. PMID:29361796

  6. Fatty acids and astaxanthin composition of two edible native Mexican crayfish Cambarellus (C.) montezumae and Procambarus (M.) bouvieri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coral-Hinostroza, G.; Diaz-Martinez, M.; Huberman, A.; Silencio-Barrita, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    The content and composition of the fatty acids (F As) and astaxanthin (AST) in the edible forms of crayfish: the whole animal of Cambarellus (C.) montezumae, and the tail meat (TM) of Procambarus (M.) bouvieri were determined by GC and HPLC. The exoskeleton (EXK) of P. (M.) bouvieri was also studied. Unsaturated FAs, and mostly oleic acid (C18:1 n-9), were predominant in both edible forms. The contents of the polyunsaturated eicosapentaenoic (C20:5 n-3, EPA), arachidonic (C20:4 n-6, ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA), were higher in the TM of P. (M.) bouvieri than in the complete C. (C.) montezumae (p 79.50%). AST esters were enriched with saturated FAs in C. (C.) montezumae and with PUFAs in EXK of P. (M.) bouvieri. We conclude that both C. (C.) montezumae and the TM of P. (M.) bouvieri are traditional foods rich in n-3 PUFAs and C. (C.) montezumae in AST. The EXK of P. (M.) bouvieri is a rich potential source of AST, n-3 PUFAs, and the combination AST-DHA. [es

  7. A multicentre, double-masked, randomized, controlled trial assessing the effect of oral supplementation of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on a conjunctival inflammatory marker in dry eye patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Baudouin, Christophe; Aragona, Pasquale; Rolando, Maurizio; Labetoulle, Marc; Pisella, Pierre Jean; Barabino, Stefano; Siou-Mermet, Raphaele; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine

    2011-11-01

    To determine whether oral supplementation with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids can reduce conjunctival epithelium expression of the inflammatory marker human leucocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) in patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). This 3-month, double-masked, parallel-group, controlled study was conducted in nine centres, in France and Italy. Eligible adult patients with mild to moderate DES were randomized to receive a placebo containing medium-chain triglycerides or treatment supplement containing omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, vitamins and zinc. Treatment regimen was three capsules daily. Impression cytology (IC) was performed at baseline and at month 3 to assess the percentage of cells expressing HLA-DR and to evaluate fluorescence intensity, an alternate measure of HLA-DR. Dry eye symptoms and objective signs were also evaluated. Analyses were performed on the full analysis set (FAS) and per-protocol set (PPS). In total, 138 patients were randomized; 121 patients with available IC were included in the FAS, and of these, 106 patients had no major protocol deviations (PPS). In the PPS, there was a significant reduction in the percentage of HLA-DR-positive cells in the fatty acids group (p = 0.021). Expression of HLA-DR as measured by fluorescence intensity quantification was also significantly reduced in the fatty acids group [FAS (p = 0.041); PPS (p = 0.017)]. No significant difference was found for the signs and symptoms, but there was a tendency for improvement in patients receiving the fatty acids treatment. This study demonstrates that supplementation with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids can reduce expression of HLA-DR conjunctival inflammatory marker and may help improve DES symptoms. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  8. 2-Alkynoic fatty acids inhibit topoisomerase IB from Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballeira, Néstor M; Cartagena, Michelle; Sanabria, David; Tasdemir, Deniz; Prada, Christopher F; Reguera, Rosa M; Balaña-Fouce, Rafael

    2012-10-01

    2-Alkynoic fatty acids display antimycobacterial, antifungal, and pesticidal activities but their antiprotozoal activity has received little attention. In this work we synthesized the 2-octadecynoic acid (2-ODA), 2-hexadecynoic acid (2-HDA), and 2-tetradecynoic acid (2-TDA) and show that 2-ODA is the best inhibitor of the Leishmania donovani DNA topoisomerase IB enzyme (LdTopIB) with an EC(50)=5.3±0.7μM. The potency of LdTopIB inhibition follows the trend 2-ODA>2-HDA>2-TDA, indicating that the effectiveness of inhibition depends on the fatty acid carbon chain length. All of the studied 2-alkynoic fatty acids were less potent inhibitors of the human topoisomerase IB enzyme (hTopIB) as compared to LdTopIB. 2-ODA also displayed in vitro activity against Leishmania donovani (IC(50)=11.0μM), but it was less effective against other protozoa, Trypanosoma cruzi (IC(50)=48.1μM) and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC(50)=64.5μM). The antiprotozoal activity of the 2-alkynoic fatty acids, in general, followed the trend 2-ODA>2-HDA>2-TDA. The experimental information gathered so far indicates that 2-ODA is a promising antileishmanial compound. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibition of rotavirus replication by downregulation of fatty acid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Eleanor R; Cheung, Winsome; Richards, James E; Lever, Andrew; Desselberger, Ulrich

    2013-06-01

    Recently the recruitment of lipid droplets (LDs) to sites of rotavirus (RV) replication was reported. LDs are polymorphic organelles that store triacylglycerols, cholesterol and cholesterol esters. The neutral fats are derived from palmitoyl-CoA, synthesized via the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. RV-infected cells were treated with chemical inhibitors of the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, and the effects on viral replication kinetics were assessed. Treatment with compound C75, an inhibitor of the fatty acid synthase enzyme complex (FASN), reduced RV infectivity 3.2-fold (P = 0.07) and modestly reduced viral RNA synthesis (1.2-fold). Acting earlier in the fatty acid synthesis pathway, TOFA [5-(Tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid] inhibits the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1). TOFA reduced the infectivity of progeny RV 31-fold and viral RNA production 6-fold. The effect of TOFA on RV infectivity and RNA replication was dose-dependent, and infectivity was reduced by administering TOFA up to 4 h post-infection. Co-treatment of RV-infected cells with C75 and TOFA synergistically reduced viral infectivity. Knockdown by siRNA of FASN and ACC1 produced findings similar to those observed by inhibiting these proteins with the chemical compounds. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis using a range of approaches uniformly had a more marked impact on viral infectivity than on viral RNA yield, inferring a role for LDs in virus assembly and/or egress. Specific inhibitors of fatty acid metabolism may help pinpoint the critical structural and biochemical features of LDs that are essential for RV replication, and facilitate the development of antiviral therapies.

  10. Higher fatty acids in Chlorella vulgaris (pyrenoidosa): Content of indivudual acids and use of the algae for the preparation of higher fatty acids - 14C(G)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matucha, M.

    1975-01-01

    A survey of data on the occurrence of higher fatty acids in the lipids of C h l o r e l l a v u l g a r i s (pyrenoidosa) is presented with a view to the biosynthetical preparation of fatty acids- 14 C(G). (author)

  11. Simultaneous analysis of plasma free fatty acids and their 3-hydroxy analogs in fatty acid beta-oxidation disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, C. G.; Dorland, L.; Holwerda, U.; de Almeida, I. T.; Poll-The, B. T.; Jakobs, C.; Duran, M.

    1998-01-01

    We present a new derivatization procedure for the simultaneous gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of free fatty acids and 3-hydroxyfatty acids in plasma. Derivatization of target compounds involved trifluoroacetylation of hydroxyl groups and tert-butyldimethylsilylation of the carboxyl

  12. Is the fatty acid composition of Daphnia galeata determined by the fatty acid composition of the ingested diet?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weers, P.M.M.; Siewertsen, K.; Gulati, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    1. The fatty acid (FA) composition of Daphnia galeata and their algal food was analysed and showed many similarities, however, some significant differences were also found in the relative abundance of the FA C16:4 omega 3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Their relative abundances were much lower in

  13. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan Moharana, Tushar; Byreddy, Avinesh R; Puri, Munish; Barrow, Colin; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2016-01-01

    Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1), which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL), as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids.

  14. Variability in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm and hybrids for fatty acid profile of oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Naresh

    2011-12-28

    Coconut oil, the main product of coconut fruit, is the richest source of glycerol and lauric acid and hence is called lauric oil. This paper reports the fatty acid profile of oil from 60 Talls, 14 Dwarfs, and 34 hybrids. These include collections from 13 countries covering a large coconut-growing area of the world, apart from the indigenous ones. Capillary gas chromatography analysis of oil indicated a wider variation for the fatty acid profile than earlier reported. Apart from this, for the first time other fatty acids such as behenic and lignoceric acids were detected. Oil from cultivars and hybrids of coconut has significantly differed, particularly for commercially important fatty acids such as lauric acid and unsaturated fatty acids. However, coconut oil seems to have a conserved fatty acid profile, mainly because of low unsaturated fatty acids, indicating the possibility of grouping cultivars on the basis of their fatty acid profiles. The cluster analysis based on fatty acid profile indicated grouping together of geographically and typically closely related cultivars. Cultivars with high concentrations of specific fatty acids can be of potential use for industrial exploitation, whereas those with high concentrations of short- and medium-chain fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids are more suitable for human consumption. Cultivars and hybrids with high and low values for each of the fatty acids are also identified.

  15. Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawat Richa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA have been found in certain gymnosperms, Malvales, Litchi and other Sapindales. The presence of their unique strained ring structures confers physical and chemical properties characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids with the oxidative stability displayed by saturated fatty acids making them of considerable industrial interest. While cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPE are well-known inhibitors of fatty acid desaturation in animals, CPE can also inhibit the stearoyl-CoA desaturase and interfere with the maturation and reproduction of some insect species suggesting that in addition to their traditional role as storage lipids, CPE can contribute to the protection of plants from herbivory. Results Three genes encoding cyclopropane synthase homologues GhCPS1, GhCPS2 and GhCPS3 were identified in cotton. Determination of gene transcript abundance revealed differences among the expression of GhCPS1, 2 and 3 showing high, intermediate and low levels, respectively, of transcripts in roots and stems; whereas GhCPS1 and 2 are both expressed at low levels in seeds. Analyses of fatty acid composition in different tissues indicate that the expression patterns of GhCPS1 and 2 correlate with cyclic fatty acid (CFA distribution. Deletion of the N-terminal oxidase domain lowered GhCPS's ability to produce cyclopropane fatty acid by approximately 70%. GhCPS1 and 2, but not 3 resulted in the production of cyclopropane fatty acids upon heterologous expression in yeast, tobacco BY2 cell and Arabidopsis seed. Conclusions In cotton GhCPS1 and 2 gene expression correlates with the total CFA content in roots, stems and seeds. That GhCPS1 and 2 are expressed at a similar level in seed suggests both of them can be considered potential targets for gene silencing to reduce undesirable seed CPE accumulation. Because GhCPS1 is more active in yeast than the published Sterculia CPS and shows similar activity when expressed in model

  16. Citrulline and Nonessential Amino Acids Prevent Fructose-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Prasanthi; Beutheu, Stéphanie; Ventura, Gabrielle; Nubret, Esther; Sarfati, Gilles; Bergheim, Ina; De Bandt, Jean-Pascal

    2015-10-01

    Fructose induces nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Citrulline (Cit) may exert a beneficial effect on steatosis. We compared the effects of Cit and an isonitrogenous mixture of nonessential amino acids (NEAAs) on fructose-induced NAFLD. Twenty-two male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups (n = 4-6) to receive for 8 wk a 60% fructose diet, either alone or supplemented with Cit (1 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)), or an isonitrogenous amount of NEAAs, or the same NEAA-supplemented diet with starch and maltodextrin instead of fructose (controls). Nutritional and metabolic status, liver function, and expression of genes of hepatic lipid metabolism were determined. Compared with controls, fructose led to NAFLD with significantly higher visceral fat mass (128%), lower lean body mass (-7%), insulin resistance (135%), increased plasma triglycerides (TGs; 67%), and altered plasma amino acid concentrations with decreased Arg bioavailability (-27%). This was corrected by both NEAA and Cit supplementation. Fructose caused a 2-fold increase in the gene expression of fatty acid synthase (Fas) and 70% and 90% decreases in that of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1a and microsomal TG transfer protein via a nearly 10-fold higher gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (Srebp1c) and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (Chrebp), and a 90% lower gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Ppara). NEAA or Cit supplementation led to a Ppara gene expression similar to controls and decreased those of Srebp1c and Chrebp in the liver by 50-60%. Only Cit led to Fas gene expression and Arg bioavailability similar to controls. In our rat model, Cit and NEAAs effectively prevented fructose-induced NAFLD. On the basis of literature data and our findings, we propose that NEAAs may exert their effects specifically on the liver, whereas Cit presumably acts at both the hepatic and whole-body level, in part via improved

  17. The effect of chronic exposure to fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, J.; Gregersen, S.; Kruhøffer, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Fatty acids affect insulin secretion of pancreatic beta-cells. Investigating gene expression profiles may help to characterize the underlying mechanism. INS-1 cells were cultured with palmitate (0, 50, and 200 microM) for up to 44 d. Insulin secretion and expressions of 8740 genes were studied. We...... 44, respectively. Genes involved in fatty acid oxidation were up-regulated, whereas those involved in glycolysis were down-regulated with 200 microM palmitate. A suppression of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substate-2 gene expression was found on d 44 in cells cultured at 200 microM palmitate....... In conclusion, chronic exposure to low palmitate alters insulin secretion as well as gene expression. The number of genes that changed expression was palmitate dose and exposure time dependent. Randle's fatty acid-glucose cycle seems to be operative on the gene transcription level. A modification of expression...

  18. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-13

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  19. Dietary fatty acids linking postprandial metabolic response and chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Almudena; Varela, Lourdes M; Bermudez, Beatriz; Lopez, Sergio; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diseases are by far one of the main causes of mortality in the world. One of the current global recommendations to counteract disability and premature death resulting from chronic diseases is to decrease the consumption of energy-dense high-fat diets, particularly those rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA). The most effective replacement for SFA in terms of risk factor outcomes for chronic disease are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The biochemical basis for healthy benefits of such a dietary pattern has been widely evaluated under fasting conditions. However, the increasing amount of data available from multiple studies suggest that the postprandial state, i.e., "the period that comprises and follows a meal", plays an important, yet underappreciated, role in the genesis of numerous pathological conditions. In this review, the potential of MUFA, PUFA, and SFA to postprandially affect selected metabolic abnormalities related to chronic diseases is discussed.

  20. Three new fatty acid esters from the mushroom Boletus pseudocalopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2012-06-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of a MeOH extract of the Korean wild mushroom Boletus pseudocalopus resulted in the identification of three new fatty acid esters, named calopusins A-C (1-3), along with two known fatty acid methyl esters (4-5). These new compounds are structurally unique fatty acid esters with a 2,3-butanediol moiety. Their structures were elucidated through 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data and GC-MS analysis as well as a modified Mosher's method. The new compounds 1-3 showed significant inhibitory activity against the proliferation of the tested cancer cell lines with IC(50) values in the range 2.77-12.51 μM.

  1. Regulation and limitations to fatty acid oxidation during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jacob; Kiens, Bente

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acids (FA) as fuel for energy utilization during exercise originate from different sources: FA transported in the circulation either bound to albumin or as triacylglycerol (TG) carried by very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and FA from lipolysis of muscle TG stores (IMTG). Despite a high...... rate of energy expenditure during high intensity exercise the total fatty acid oxidation is suppressed to below that observed during moderate intensity exercise. Although this has been known for many years, the mechanisms behind this phenomenon are still not fully elucidated. A failure of adipose...... tissue to deliver sufficient fatty acids to exercising muscle has been proposed, but evidence is emerging that factors within the muscle might be of more importance. The high rate of glycolysis during high intensity exercise might be the "driving force" via the increased production of acetyl CoA which...

  2. Marine lipids and the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Müllertz, Anette

    2015-01-01

    of omega-3 fatty acids has been reported to be affected by several factors; among the important factors were the digestion and absorption processes of omega-3 containing lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Both lipid structures and food structures can affect the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids....... In vitro studies provided a mechanistic understanding on the varied bioavailability caused by different lipid structures, the lower relative bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from FAEE formulation was closely related to the slower digestion rate of FAEE. Microencapsulated fish oil has often been used...... as a food additive because of its better chemical stability; studies showed that microencapsulation did not affect the bioavailability significantly. Even though food structures also affect the digestion and absorption of omega-3 containing lipids, several studies have shown that long-term intake of fish...

  3. A method for measuring fatty acid oxidation in C. elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Ida Coordt; Rødkær, Steven Vestergaard; Fredens, Julius

    2012-01-01

    The nematode C. elegans has during the past decade proven to be a valuable model organism to identify and examine molecular mechanisms regulating lipid storage and metabolism. While the primary approach has been to identify genes and pathways conferring alterations in lipid accumulation, only a few...... recent studies have recognized the central role of fatty acid degradation in cellular lipid homeostasis. In the present study, we show how complete oxidation of fatty acids can be determined in live C. elegans by examining oxidation of tritium-labeled fatty acids to tritiated H2O that can be measured......, the present methodology can be used to delineate the role of specific genes and pathways in the regulation of β-oxidation in C. elegans....

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acids effect on serum triglycerides concentration in presence of metabolic syndrome components. The Alaska-Siberia Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan C.; Ebbesson, Sven O E; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Tejero, M Elizabeth; Voruganti, V. Saroja; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2009-01-01

    Serum fatty acids (FA) have wide effects on metabolism: Serum saturated fatty acids (SFA) increase triglyceride (TG) levels in plasma while polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduce them. Traditionally, Eskimos have a high consumption of omega -3 fatty acids (ω–3 FA), but the westernization of their food habits have increased their dietary SFAs, partly reflected in their serum concentrations. We studied the joint effect of serum SFAs and PUFAs on circulating levels of TG in the presence of metabolic syndrome components. We included 212 men and 240 women (age 47.9±15.7 y, BMI 26.9±5.3) from four villages located in Alaska for a cross sectional study. Generalized linear models were employed to build surface responses of TG as in functions of SFAs and PUFAs measured in blood samples adjusting by sex, BMI and village. The effects of individual FAs were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis and partial correlations (r) were calculated. The most important predictors for TG levels were glucose tolerance (r = 0.116, p = 0.018) and BMI (r = 0.42, pstructure. The long chain ω-3, even in presence of high levels of SF, was associated with lower triglyceride levels. Eicosapentanoic acid (20:5ω3) had the strongest effect against palmitic acid on TG. The total FA showed moderate association with levels of TG, while SFA was positively associated, and large chain PUFA negatively. The westernized dietary habits among Eskimos are likely to change their metabolic profile and increase comorbidities related to metabolic disease. PMID:19766268

  5. Fatty acid compositions of triglycerides and free fatty acids in sebum depend on amount of triglycerides, and do not differ in presence or absence of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Narifumi; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Numata, Shigeki; Matsusue, Miyuki; Mashima, Yasuo; Miyawaki, Masaaki; Yamada, Shunji; Yagami, Akiko; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2014-12-01

    To clarify the influence of the fatty acid composition of sebum in acne vulgaris, we investigated the amounts and fatty acid compositions of triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA), and the amounts of cutaneous superficial Propionibacterium acnes in acne patients and healthy subjects. The foreheads of 18 female patients, 10 male patients, 10 healthy females and 10 healthy males were studied in a Japanese population. There were significant differences in the amounts of sebum, TG and cutaneous superficial P. acnes, as well as the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA between acne patients and healthy subjects in females. Their fatty acid compositions were correlated with the amount of TG with or without acne. It was clarified that the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA depended on the amount of TG, and there were no differences in the fatty acid composition in the presence and absence of acne. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  6. Expression of a fatty acid-binding protein in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, H.

    1991-06-01

    The unicellular eukaryotic microorganism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transformed with a plasmid containing a cDNA fragment encoding bovine heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP C ) under the control of the inducible yeast GAL10 promoter, expressed FABP during growth on galactose. The maximum level of immunoreactive FABP, identical in size and isoelectric point to native protein, was reached after approximately 16 hours of induction. In contrast, transcription of the gene was induced within half an hour. Both, protein and mRNA were unstable and degraded within 1 h after repression of transcription. Analysis of subcellular fractions showed that FABP was exclusively associated with the cytosol. FABP expressed in yeast cells was functional as was demonstrated by its capacity to bind long chain fatty acids in an in vitro assay. Growth of all transformants on galactose as the carbon source showed no phenotype at temperatures up to 37 deg C, but the growth of FABP-expressing cells at 37 deg C was significantly retarded. Among the biochemical effects of FABP expression on lipid metabolism is a marked reduction of chain elongation and desaturation of exogenously added 14 C-palmitic acid. This effect is most pronounced in triacylglycerols and phospholipids when cells grow at 30 deg C and 37 deg C, respectively. In an in vitro assay determining the desaturation of palmitoyl CoA by microsomal membranes cytosol with or without exo- or endogenous FABP showed the same stimulation of the reaction. The desaturation of exogenously added 14 C-stearic acid, the pattern of unlabelled fatty acids (saturated vs. unsaturated) and the distribution of exogenously added radioactive fatty acids (palmitic, stearic or oleic acid) among lipid classes was not significantly affected. Using high concentrations (1 mM) the uptake of fatty acids was first stimulated and then inhibited when FABP was expressed. (author)

  7. Bezafibrate in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine; Madsen, Karen Lindhardt; Preisler, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether bezafibrate increases fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and lowers heart rate (HR) during exercise in patients with carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) II and very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiencies. METHODS: This was a 3-month, randomized, double......, triglyceride, and free fatty acid concentrations; however, there were no changes in palmitate oxidation, FAO, or HR during exercise. CONCLUSION: Bezafibrate does not improve clinical symptoms or FAO during exercise in patients with CPT II and VLCAD deficiencies. These findings indicate that previous in vitro...

  8. Saturated and trans-fatty acids in UK takeaway food

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Ian Glynn; Blackham, Toni; Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Taylor, Catherine; Ashton, Matthew; Stevenson, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans-fatty acid (TFA) contents of popular takeaway foods in the UK (including English, pizza, Chinese, Indian and kebab cuisine). Samples of meals were analyzed by an accredited public analyst laboratory for SFA and TFA. The meals were highly variable for SFA and TFA. English and Pizza meals had the highest median amount of SFA with 35.7 g/meal; Kebab meals were high in TFA with up to 5.2 g/meal. When compared to UK dieta...

  9. Fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissues of organic and conventional Blanca Andaluza suckling kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De la Vega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the preservation of autochthonous breeds such as the Blanca Andaluza goat (meat breed, raised under grazing-based management, has recently increased among Spanish farmers. A study of the possibilities of transformation to organic production needs to analyze the quality of their products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid (FA composition of muscle and adipose tissues of Blanca Andaluza goat kids under organic and conventional grazing–based management system. Twenty-four twin kids (12 males, 12 females were selected from each system. The FA profile was determined in the longissimus thoracis muscle, kidney and pelvic fat. The percentages of C17:0, C17:1, C20:1, C20:4 n-6, C22:2 and several n-3 FAs were higher in organic meat; C12:0, C18:1 trans-11, CLA and C20:5 n-3 were lower in organic meat. The fat depots from the conventional kids showed lower percentages of C12:0, C14:0, C15:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:3 n-3 and atherogenicity index, and higher percentage of C18:0. In the pelvic fat, the conventional kids displayed lower percentages of C16:0, C18:2 n-6 cis, PUFA, n-3 and n-6 FAs, and greater percentages of C18:1 n-9 cis and MUFA. The conventional kids displayed a major n6:n3 ratio in the kidney fat. No gender differences were observed. Significant differences were found only in some FA percentages of muscle and adipose tissues of suckling kids raised in organic and conventional livestock production systems, and due to this reason conventional grazing–based management farms could easily be transformed into organic production.

  10. Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Modulate Mammary Gland Composition and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadge, Saraswoti; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Sharp, John Graham; McGuire, Timothy R; Klassen, Lynell W; Black, Paul N; DiRusso, Concetta C; Talmadge, James E

    2018-03-25

    Studies in rodents have shown that dietary modifications as mammary glands (MG) develop, regulates susceptibility to mammary tumor initiation. However, the effects of dietary PUFA composition on MGs in adult life, remains poorly understood. This study investigated morphological alterations and inflammatory microenvironments in the MGs of adult mice fed isocaloric and isolipidic liquid diets with varying compositions of omega (ω)-6 and long-chain (Lc)-ω3FA that were pair-fed. Despite similar consumption levels of the diets, mice fed the ω-3 diet had significantly lower body-weight gains, and abdominal-fat and mammary fat pad (MFP) weights. Fatty acid analysis showed significantly higher levels of Lc-ω-3FAs in the MFPs of mice on the ω-3 diet, while in the MFPs from the ω-6 group, Lc-ω-3FAs were undetectable. Our study revealed that MGs from ω-3 group had a significantly lower ductal end-point density, branching density, an absence of ductal sprouts, a thinner ductal stroma, fewer proliferating epithelial cells and a lower transcription levels of estrogen receptor 1 and amphiregulin. An analysis of the MFP and abdominal-fat showed significantly smaller adipocytes in the ω-3 group, which was accompanied by lower transcription levels of leptin, IGF1, and IGF1R. Further, MFPs from the ω-3 group had significantly decreased numbers and sizes of crown-like-structures (CLS), F4/80+ macrophages and decreased expression of proinflammatory mediators including Ptgs2, IL6, CCL2, TNFα, NFκB, and IFNγ. Together, these results support dietary Lc-ω-3FA regulation of MG structure and density and adipose tissue inflammation with the potential for dietary Lc-ω-3FA to decrease the risk of mammary gland tumor formation.

  11. Reciprocal effects of 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid on fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, D A; Chatzidakis, C; Kasziba, E; Cook, G A

    1985-10-01

    Under certain incubation conditions 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA) stimulated the oxidation of palmitate by hepatocytes, as observed by others. A decrease in malonyl-CoA concentration accompanied the stimulation of oxidation. Under other conditions, however, TOFA inhibited fatty acid oxidation. The observed effects of TOFA depended on the TOFA and fatty acid concentrations, the cell concentration, the time of TOFA addition relative to the addition of fatty acid, and the nutritional state of the animal (fed or starved). The data indicate that only under limited incubation conditions may TOFA be used as an inhibitor of fatty acid synthesis without inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. When rat liver mitochondria were preincubated with TOFA, ketogenesis from palmitate was slightly inhibited (up to 20%) at TOFA concentrations that were less than that of CoA, but the inhibition became almost complete (up to 90%) when TOFA was greater than or equal to the CoA concentration. TOFA had only slight or no inhibitory effects on the oxidation of palmitoyl-CoA, palmitoyl(-)carnitine, or butyrate. Since TOFA can be converted to TOFyl-CoA, the data suggest that the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation from palmitate results from the decreased availability of CoA for extramitochondrial activation of fatty acids. These data, along with previous data of others, indicate that inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by CoA sequestration is a common mechanism of a group of carboxylic acid inhibitors. A general caution is appropriate with regard to the interpretation of results when using TOFA in studies of fatty acid oxidation.

  12. Mutant fatty acid desaturase and methods for directed mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanklin, John [Shoreham, NY; Whittle, Edward J [Greenport, NY

    2008-01-29

    The present invention relates to methods for producing fatty acid desaturase mutants having a substantially increased activity towards substrates with fewer than 18 carbon atom chains relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon chain length specificity, the sequences encoding the desaturases and to the desaturases that are produced by the methods. The present invention further relates to a method for altering a function of a protein, including a fatty acid desaturase, through directed mutagenesis involving identifying candidate amino acid residues, producing a library of mutants of the protein by simultaneously randomizing all amino acid candidates, and selecting for mutants which exhibit the desired alteration of function. Candidate amino acids are identified by a combination of methods. Enzymatic, binding, structural and other functions of proteins can be altered by the method.

  13. Metabolism of dietary fatty alcohol, fatty acid, and wax ester in carp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankura, Mitsumasa; Kayama, Mitsu; Iijima, Noriaki.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids in various tissues of the carp, Cyprinus carpio were analyzed. The fates of force-fed [1- 14 C]palmitic acids, [1- 14 C]cetyl alcohol, and oleyl[1- 14 C]linoleate, were compared with those given in vitro experiments. Major lipid classes in all except adipose tissue were found to be polar lipids (phospholipids) and triacylglycerols. The major fatty acids in nearly all the tissues were 16 : 0, 18 : 1, 18 : 2, and 22 : 6. Although the radioactivity incorporation into wax esters from [1- 14 C]palmitic acid and [1- 14 C]cetyl alcohol for various tissue homogenates was quite high, in vivo incorporation of these labelled compounds into wax esters was very low and radioactivity was distributed mainly in the lipids of muscle, skin, hepatopancreas, intestine, and gill. Almost all the radioactivity in various tissues was present in phospatidylcholine and triacylglycerols. Most of the oleyl[1- 14 C]linoleate was easily hydrolyzed by various tissue homogenates. Force-fed oleyl[1- 14 C]linoleate was hydrolyzed in the intestine and then transported to other tissues, such as muscle, kin, gill, and hepatopancreas. Moreover, released radioactivity from oleyl[1- 14 C]linoleate was present in mainly phosphatidylcholine and triacylglycerols. Radioactivity was also detected in wax esters in plasma. Certain amounts for fatty acids released from [1- 14 C]triolein in the hepatopancreas homogenates were incorporated into wax esters; this was stimulated by the addition of oleyl alcohol. The present results indicate extensive hydrolysis of wax ester to possibly occur in the intestine and certain portions of the fatty alcohol moiety to be resterfied. The portions may be oxidized to fatty acids and which subsequently behave as dietary fatty acids. (author) 50 ref

  14. Heterologous Reconstitution of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hee Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstitution of nonnative, very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLC-PUFA biosynthetic pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana was undertaken. The introduction of three primary biosynthetic activities to cells requires the stable coexpression of multiple proteins within the same cell. Herein, we report that C22 VLC-PUFAs were synthesized from C18 precursors by reactions catalyzed by Δ6-desaturase, an ELOVL5-like enzyme involved in VLC-PUFA elongation, and Δ5-desaturase. Coexpression of the corresponding genes (McD6DES, AsELOVL5, and PtD5DES under the control of the seed-specific vicilin promoter resulted in production of docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n-3 and docosatetraenoic acid (22:4 n-6 as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3 and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6 in Arabidopsis seeds. The contributions of the transgenic enzymes and endogenous fatty acid metabolism were determined. Specifically, the reasonable synthesis of omega-3 stearidonic acid (18:4 n-3 could be a useful tool to obtain a sustainable system for the production of omega-3 fatty acids in seeds of a transgenic T3 line 63-1. The results indicated that coexpression of the three proteins was stable. Therefore, this study suggests that metabolic engineering of oilseed crops to produce VLC-PUFAs is feasible.

  15. Homocysteine regulates fatty acid and lipid metabolism in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visram, Myriam; Radulovic, Maja; Steiner, Sabine; Malanovic, Nermina; Eichmann, Thomas O; Wolinski, Heimo; Rechberger, Gerald N; Tehlivets, Oksana

    2018-04-13

    S -Adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (AdoHcy hydrolase; Sah1 in yeast/AHCY in mammals) degrades AdoHcy, a by-product and strong product inhibitor of S -adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet)-dependent methylation reactions, to adenosine and homocysteine (Hcy). This reaction is reversible, so any elevation of Hcy levels, such as in hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), drives the formation of AdoHcy, with detrimental consequences for cellular methylation reactions. HHcy, a pathological condition linked to cardiovascular and neurological disorders, as well as fatty liver among others, is associated with a deregulation of lipid metabolism. Here, we developed a yeast model of HHcy to identify mechanisms that dysregulate lipid metabolism. Hcy supplementation to wildtype cells up-regulated cellular fatty acid and triacylglycerol content and induced a shift in fatty acid composition, similar to changes observed in mutants lacking Sah1. Expression of the irreversible bacterial pathway for AdoHcy degradation in yeast allowed us to dissect the impact of AdoHcy accumulation on lipid metabolism from the impact of elevated Hcy. Expression of this pathway fully suppressed the growth deficit of sah1 mutants as well as the deregulation of lipid metabolism in both the sah1 mutant and Hcy-exposed wildtype, showing that AdoHcy accumulation mediates the deregulation of lipid metabolism in response to elevated Hcy in yeast. Furthermore, Hcy supplementation in yeast led to increased resistance to cerulenin, an inhibitor of fatty acid synthase, as well as to a concomitant decline of condensing enzymes involved in very long-chain fatty acid synthesis, in line with the observed shift in fatty acid content and composition. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food in...

  17. Separation of free fatty acids from high free fatty acid crude palm oil using short-path distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japir, Abd Al-Wali; Salimon, Jumat; Derawi, Darfizzi; Bahadi, Murad; Yusop, Muhammad Rahimi

    2016-11-01

    The separation of free fatty acids (FFAs) was done by using short-path distillation (SPD). The separation parameters was at their boiling points, a feed amount of 2.3 mL/min, an operating pressure of 10 Torr, a condenser temperature of 60°C, and a rotor speed of 300 rpm. The physicochemical characteristics of oil before and after SPD were determined. The results showed that FFA % of 8.7 ± 0.3 and 0.9 ± 0.1 %, iodine value of 53.1 ± 0.4 and 52.7 ± 0.5 g I2/100 g, hydroxyl value of 32.5 ± 0.6 and 13.9 ± 1.1 mg KOH/g, unsaponifiable value of 0.31 ± 0.01 and 0.20 ± 0.15%, moisture content of 0.31 ± 0.01 and 0.24 ± 0.01 % for high free fatty acid crude palm oil before and after distillation, respectively. Gas chromatography (GC) results showed that the major fatty acids in crude palm oil (CPO) were palmitic acid (44.4% - 45%) followed by oleic acid (39.6% - 39.8%). In general, high free fatty acid crude palm oil after molecular distillation (HFFA-CPOAM) showed admirably physicochemical properties.

  18. Binding of acyl CoA by fatty acid binding protein and the effect on fatty acid activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrier, R.E.; Manson, C.R.; Brecher, P.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of purified rat liver and heart fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) to bind oleoyl CoA and modulate acyl CoA synthesis by microsomal membranes was investigated. Using binding assays employing either Lipidex 1000 or multilamellar liposomes to sequester unbound ligand, rat liver but not rat heart FABP was shown to bind radiolabeled acyl CoA. Binding studies suggest that liver FABP has a single binding site for acyl CoA which is separate from the two binding sites for fatty acids. Experiments were then performed to determine how binding may influence acyl CoA metabolism by liver microsomes or heart sarcoplasmic reticulum. Using liposomes as fatty acid donors, liver FABP stimulated acyl CoA production whereas heart FABP did not stimulate production over control values. 14 C-Fatty acid-FABP complexes were prepared, incubated with membranes and acyl CoA synthetase activity was determined. Up to 70% of the fatty acid could be converted to acyl CoA in the presence of liver FABP but in the presence of heart FABP, only 45% of the fatty acid was converted. The amount of product formed was not changed by additional membrane, enzyme cofactor, or incubation time. Liver but not heart FABP bound the acyl CoA formed and removed it from the membranes. These studies suggest that liver FABP can increase the amount of acyl CoA by binding this ligand thereby removing it from the membrane and possibly aiding transport within the cell

  19. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilan Xue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3, which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells. Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

  20. Binding of acyl CoA by fatty acid binding protein and the effect on fatty acid activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrier, R.E.; Manson, C.R.; Brecher, P.

    1987-05-01

    The ability of purified rat liver and heart fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) to bind oleoyl CoA and modulate acyl CoA synthesis by microsomal membranes was investigated. Using binding assays employing either Lipidex 1000 or multilamellar liposomes to sequester unbound ligand, rat liver but not rat heart FABP was shown to bind radiolabeled acyl CoA. Binding studies suggest that liver FABP has a single binding site for acyl CoA which is separate from the two binding sites for fatty acids. Experiments were then performed to determine how binding may influence acyl CoA metabolism by liver microsomes or heart sarcoplasmic reticulum. Using liposomes as fatty acid donors, liver FABP stimulated acyl CoA production whereas heart FABP did not stimulate production over control values. /sup 14/C-Fatty acid-FABP complexes were prepared, incubated with membranes and acyl CoA synthetase activity was determined. Up to 70% of the fatty acid could be converted to acyl CoA in the presence of liver FABP but in the presence of heart FABP, only 45% of the fatty acid was converted. The amount of product formed was not changed by additional membrane, enzyme cofactor, or incubation time. Liver but not heart FABP bound the acyl CoA formed and removed it from the membranes. These studies suggest that liver FABP can increase the amount of acyl CoA by binding this ligand thereby removing it from the membrane and possibly aiding transport within the cell.

  1. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Meilan; Ge, Yinlin; Zhang, Jinyu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China); Wang, Qing [Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China); Hou, Lin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China)

    2012-09-14

    Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

  2. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Meilan; Ge, Yinlin; Zhang, Jinyu; Wang, Qing; Hou, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings

  3. Transformation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids/Esters to Corresponding Keto Fatty Acids/Esters by Aerobic Oxidation with Pd(II)/Lewis Acid Catalyst.