WorldWideScience

Sample records for farming management systems

  1. Farm management systems and the Future Internet era

    Kaloxylos, A.; Eigenmann, R.; Teye, F.; Wolfert, J.

    2012-01-01

    Smart/precision farming systems are expected to play an important role in improving farming activities. During the past years, sophisticated farm management systems have emerged to replace outdated complex and monolithic farm systems and software tools. The latest trend is to enable these management

  2. Farm management information systems: A case study on a German multifunctional farm

    Husemann Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and easy to use Farm Management Information Systems (FMIS are of fundamental importance for a successful operational farm management. However, still today many farmers do not use FMISs for various reasons, like lack of knowledge and the complexity of many available FMISs. In particular for small to medium-sized farms and for multifunctional farms appropriate FMISs hardly exist. This paper aims on the deduction of a concrete FMIS from a general FMIS. The concrete FMIS has to focus on the needs of medium-sized and multifunctional farms. This means that the farmer has to be empowered to allocate the scarce resources of the farm. Therefore, we picked a German farm from the state North Rhine Westphalia as a case-study to apply a system analysis. The case study farm helps to identify and to analyze relevant material and information flows, production processes, and their interconnections and synergies.

  3. ON-FARM MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Aleksandra Jug

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The on-farm management systems under development in order to insure data collection, regular data processing needed on a farm as well as automatic data exchange between farm and computing centre. The core of information system presents relational database (RDBMS accompanied with tools developed in APIIS. A system analysis method has been done on two pig industrial units, on national selection program for swine in Slovenia, and compared with examples from other countries and species. Public domain software like PostgreSQL, Perl and Linux have been chosen for use on farms and can be replaced with commercial software like Oracle for more demanding central systems. The system contains at this stage applications for entering, managing, and viewing the data as well as transferring the information between local and central databases.

  4. uFarm: a smart farm management system based on RFID

    Kim, Hyoungsuk; Lee, Moonsup; Jung, Jonghyuk; Lee, Hyunwook; Kim, Taehyoun

    2007-12-01

    Recently, the livestock industry in Korea has been threatened by many challenges such as low productivity due to labor intensiveness, global competition compelled by the Free Trade Agreement (FTA), and emerging animal disease issues such as BSE or foot-and-mouth. In this paper, we propose a smart farm management system, called uFarm, which would come up with such challenges by automating farm management. First, we automate labor-intensive jobs using equipments based on sensors and actuators. The automation subsystem can be controlled by remote user through wireless network. Second, we provide real-time traceability of information on farm animals using the radio-frequency identification (RFID) method and embedded data server with network connectivity.

  5. Goat farming systems in Martinique: management and breeding strategies.

    Alexandre, G; Leimbacher, F; Maurice, O; Domarin, D; Naves, M; Mandonnet, N

    2009-04-01

    To be successful, initiatives to improve farmer's goat production should directly address the needs and objectives of the keepers while promoting rational use of local genetic resources. A survey was carried out to implement a genetic policy governing meat goat farming in Martinique (11,400 heads and 33,400 ha arable land). The questionnaire comprised a total of 27 items with 306 modalities, and included questions on farm structure, crop and animal productions, management of feeding, reproduction and health control. The sample consisted of 33 farmers with 644 ha and 2,680 goats (1,286 does and 52 bucks), 97% of does in the studied sample were crossbred, 56% of bucks were" imported" breeds (Boer or Anglo-Nubian). The number of goats per farm varied from 16 to 582. The feeding system was predominantly grazing, according to a rotation (55% of cases) or continuous grazing system (42%). On 62% of farms, the males remained with the females permanently, also 83% of farmers did not resort to methods of controlled-mating. The first criteria used for choosing animals (80 to 90% of answers) of both sex, were development and conformation. Assuming that adaptive together with productive traits are important in tropical zones, it is advisable to better define the maternal lineage of the local livestock (presently very sparse records), to improve reproduction management and culling strategies (poor and inadequate management practices do not support any genetic improvement programme), and to guide the farmers in their decisions by employing concerted interprofessional actions (choice of meat breed, market studies).

  6. Ecologically sound management: aspects of modern sustainable deer farming systems.

    Pearse, A J; Drew, K R

    1998-01-01

    Modern deer farming systems have become increasingly intensive allowing strategic feeding for production and genetic improvement programmes. Meeting feeding standards that account for changing nutritional demands related to seasonality and reproductive state is critical. As the industry matures there is a growing awareness of the balance between retaining natural behaviour in producing breeding stock on larger extensive holdings and intensification systems for performance in young stock. Stocking rates are critical determinants of success as land use and capability needs are matched with an increasing stratification of stock type and purpose. Food product safety and welfare considerations of farmed deer are being driven by consumer demands. Farm quality assurance and codes of practice are developing to ensure that deer farming meets and exceeds international expectations of land use and deer welfare in modern deer farming systems.

  7. The Effect of GST on Farm Management Information Systems and Business Management Skills

    Tony Lewis

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1989 New Zealand farmers were confronted by the introduction of a GST. Despite the short to medium term difficulties, many farmers have benefited from the experience. The introduction of the GST forced many New Zealand farmers to improve their record systems as they were required to submit more extensive and accurate information to comply with their new GST requirements. This increase in sophistication of their record systems also meant that farmers had a larger store of more accurate information available to support their farm business management decision-making. It is expected that the introduction of GST and PAYG reporting requirements in Australia is also acting as a catalyst in the evolution of dairy farm record systems and increase in dairy farmer’s store of business management skills. This paper reports the results of a survey that describes the characteristics of dairy farm management information systems and indicates the business management skills that dairy farmers perceive they need to acquire in the short term in order to improve their farm management information systems and comply with their GST requirements. Overall, the importance of bookkeeping/ accounting skills is strongly related to BAS. However, the results also show that as the level of sophistication of dairy farm record systems grows the demand for business skills shifts from accounting/ bookkeeping skills to computer and analytical skills.

  8. Farm Management: rethinking directions?

    Kemp, David R.; Girdwood, John; Parton, Kevin A.; Charry, Al A.

    2004-01-01

    Farms and farming are major contributors to the world economy, directly responsible for a large part of GDP. These achievements are not trivial and imply that farms are being managed in reasonably effective ways, else agricultural industries would not be sustained. However has the study of Farm Management within Australia made significant contributions to agriculture or lagged in the background. Is it contributing to better Farm Management or merely cataloguing what has happened? Is it leadin...

  9. European organic dairy farmers' preference for animal health management within the farm management system.

    van Soest, F J S; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-11-01

    The expertise and knowledge of veterinary advisors on improving animal health management is key towards a better herd health status. However, veterinary advisors are not always aware of the goals and priorities of dairy farmers. To dairy farmers animal health is only one aspect of farm management and resources may be allocated to other more preferred areas. Veterinary advisors may experience this as non-compliant with their advice. To explore the preferences of European Union (EU) organic dairy farmers for improved animal health management relative to other farm management areas an adaptive conjoint analysis (ACA) was performed. A total of 215 farmers participated originating from organic dairy farms in France (n = 70), Germany (n = 60), Spain (n = 28) and Sweden (n = 57). The management areas udder health and claw health represented animal health management whereas barn, calf and pasture management represented potential conflicting management areas. Results indicate that EU organic dairy farmers differ in their preferences for improved animal health management within the farming system. In general, improved calf management was the most preferred area and improved claw health management was found to be least preferred, the remaining areas were of intermediate interest. Cluster analyses on claw health measures and udder health measures resulted in respectively seven and nine distinct preference profiles. The results indicate a high degree of variation in farmers' preference, which cannot be explained by the typical herd characteristics. With the individual preferences revealed by ACA, a veterinary advisor can now find out whether his intended advice is directed at a favourable or unfavourable management area of the farmer. If the latter is the case the veterinarian should first create awareness of the problem to the farmer. Insights in individual farmers preferences will allow veterinary advisors to better understand why farmers were incompliant with their advice

  10. Is Farm Management Skill Persistent?

    Li, Xin; Paulson, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Farm management skills can affect farm managers' performance. In this article, farm management performance is analyzed based on yearly Illinois Farm Business Farm Management (FBFM) panel data across 6,760 farms from 1996 through 2011. Two out-of-sample measures of skill are used to analyze the ability of farm managers that consistently perform well over yearly and longer time horizons. Persistence tests show management skills are consistent and predictable. Results also suggest that the most ...

  11. Identifying key entry-points for strategic management of smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa using the dynamic farm-scale simulation model NUANCES-FARMSIM

    Wijk, van M.T.; Tittonell, P.A.; Rufino, M.C.; Herrero, M.; Pacini, C.; Ridder, de N.; Giller, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    African smallholder farming systems are complex, dynamic systems with many interacting biophysical subcomponents. In these systems the major inputs and outputs are managed by human agency ¿ the farmers. To analyse potential developmental pathways of smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa

  12. Assessing the sustainability of EU dairy farms with different management systems and husbandry practices

    Leach, Katharine; Gerrard, Catherine; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad

    on farm management practices collected in face to face interviews with farmers were entered and the tool then calculated a composite score for each of 11 separate “spurs” or dimensions contributing to sustainability. The results can be used to stimulate discussion between farmers and point to areas where......The EU funded SOLID project supports research which will contribute to the competitiveness of organic and low input dairy systems, and increase their sustainability. There are many aspects of the sustainability of dairy farms, relating to economic, environmental and social dimensions, and methods...... of animal husbandry can affect all of these. A UK spreadsheet based tool for rapid assessment of the whole farm was adapted for application on a range of organic and low input dairy farms across the EU. This tool was used to assess approximately ten organic dairy farms in each of four EU countries. Data...

  13. Hydrological and Farming System Impacts of Agricultural Water Management Interventions in North Gujarat

    Singh, O.P.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater over-exploitation is a common phenomenon in many arid and semi arid regions of the world. Within India, north Gujarat is one of such intensively exploited regions. Groundwater supports irrigated crop production and intensive dairy farming in the region. Well irrigation is critical to the region’s rural economy and livelihoods. The overall objective of the study was to examine the water demand management interventions on farming system, livelihood patterns, food and nutritional s...

  14. Aligning strategy and performance management systems : the case of the wind-farm industry

    Vieira, R.; O'Dwyer, B.; Schneider, R.

    This article presents a case study examining the problems and possibilities of performance management in a wind-farm company. Drawing on Ferreira and Otley’s recently developed performance management systems (PMSs) framework, the study demonstrates how the framework facilitates in-depth, holistic,

  15. Towards a New Information System for Farm Management: Changing the Accounting System for Better Environmental Reporting

    Bremmers, Harry J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper aims at confronting traditional (fiscal) reporting with the administrative requirements in modern farm management. It aims especially at formulating leading indicators for management and control with respect to environmental issues.

  16. Waste management of shrimp farms as starting point to develop integrated farming systems (case study: Kuwaru Coast, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    H.G. Saiya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intensive waste management is a solution to maintain an area of ecological harmony but still can produce economic benefits that are beneficial to social welfare. So in this research, waste of shrimp farms which was just processed by using zeolite, was treated again with a few treatments, i.e. simple filters, constructed wetlands, shell, fish and composting. Simple filters were composed of stone, gravel, coral, charcoal, sand and coconut fibers. Constructed wetland system used was hybrid type which combines type of horizontal flow and type of vertical flow. The shell used was Polymesoda erosa. The fish used was Tilapia. In the composting sediment activator, biang kompos was used with the composting time of one month. The results indicated that the system of simple filters, constructed wetlands, shells and fish proved to be quite effective to reduce levels of pollutants in wastewater and will be more effective if treatment was accompanied with a proper aeration. While, the sediment composted into fertilizer needed to be composted with a longer time than normal composting time. This was because the composted materials were derived from waste having a very low nutrient, so it took longer to restore nutrients. The results also indicated the potential of shrimp farm waste of PT. IBD to be processed into clean water and fertilizer. With the appropriate policies and strategies, this can lead to the development of an integrated farming system to support sustainable coastal ecologically, economically and socially.

  17. Assessment of Primary Production of Horticultural Safety Management Systems of Mushroom Farms in South Africa.

    Dzingirayi, Garikayi; Korsten, Lise

    2016-07-01

    Growing global consumer concern over food safety in the fresh produce industry requires producers to implement necessary quality assurance systems. Varying effectiveness has been noted in how countries and food companies interpret and implement food safety standards. A diagnostic instrument (DI) for global fresh produce industries was developed to measure the compliancy of companies with implemented food safety standards. The DI is made up of indicators and descriptive grids for context factors and control and assurance activities to measure food safety output. The instrument can be used in primary production to assess food safety performance. This study applied the DI to measure food safety standard compliancy of mushroom farming in South Africa. Ten farms representing almost half of the industry farms and more than 80% of production were independently assessed for their horticultural safety management system (HSMS) compliance via in-depth interviews with each farm's quality assurance personnel. The data were processed using Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and are represented in frequency tables. The diagnosis revealed that the mushroom farming industry had an average food safety output. The farms were implementing an average-toadvanced HSMS and operating in a medium-risk context. Insufficient performance areas in HSMSs included inadequate hazard analysis and analysis of control points, low specificity of pesticide assessment, and inadequate control of suppliers and incoming materials. Recommendations to the industry and current shortcomings are suggested for realization of an improved industry-wide food safety assurance system.

  18. Optimizing soil and water management in dryland farming systems in Cabo Verde

    Santos Baptista Costa, Dos I.

    2016-01-01

    “Optimizing Soil and Water Management in Dryland Farming Systems in Cabo Verde”

    Isaurinda Baptista

    Summary

    Soil and land degradation poses a great challenge for sustainable development worldwide and, in Cabo Verde, has strongly affected both

  19. Methodological Aspects of On-Farm Monitoring of Cropping Systems Management

    Luca Bechini

    Full Text Available To conduct agro-environmental assessments at field and farm scale, detailed management data of crop and animal production systems are needed. However, this type of data is only rarely collected by public administrations. In the period 2005-2006, we made an experience of on-farm monitoring of cropping systems management, within a larger project aimed at assessing sustainability of agricultural systems in Italian Parks. In this paper, we describe and discuss the steps taken to carry out periodic face-to-face interviews in farms in the Sud Milano Agricultural Park (northern Italy. The first step was the selection of seven farms, which we identified by applying cluster analysis at a large database describing 733 farms of the Park. After having identified the most relevant agro-environmental issues in the studied area, we established a list of simple but sound indicators to evaluate the effects of agricultural management on the environment. The criteria used to select the indicators were that they should: be calculated on easily available data, not be based on direct measurements, make a synthesis of different aspects of reality, and be easily calculated and understood. The indicators selected evaluate nutrient management, fossil energy use, pesticide toxicity, soil management, and economic performance. Subsequently, we designed a data model to store input data used to calculate the indicators (farm configuration, flows of materials and money through the farm gate, animals and their rations, history of crop cultivation, crop management. The data model that we obtained is relatively complex, but adequate to store and analyse the large amount of data acquired during the two-year project. A questionnaire was developed to fully comply with the indicators selected and the data model. The questionnaire was used to carry out approximately six interviews per farm each year, with an investment of time of 1-2 hours per interview. Appropriate double checks of

  20. FARM PERFORMANCE AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

    Li Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article emphasizes the strategic and operations aspects of managing a farm. In this article, farm management performance is analyzed based on yearly Illinois Farm Business Farm Management (FBFM panel data across 9,831 farms from 1996 through 2014. The alpha scores (or skill estimates for farm managers are analyzed to determine if most profitable farmers possess specific skills or knowledge against adverse events in a volatile environment. Farms are evaluated under different scenarios of management skill portfolios. Fundamental farm management basics are discussed in this study, including budgeting, production planning, financial analysis, financial management, investment analysis, and control management. We find substantial difference of farm management styles and performance efficiency in management skill portfolios. We also find evidence of most skilled farm managers are more efficient on both revenue side and costs side. The approaches used in this study also allow comparison among farms of different sizes and types. The activities of top farms can be replicated by poorer performers and the study provide a unique way for comparing the farm management styles and ability of most skilled farm managers to that of less skilled ones. The innovative method is framed by comparing business strategies and performance styles in the following aspects: production and operations planning, land management and control, and production costs evaluation. Farm managers will want to consult it as well to improve the effectiveness, objectivity, and success of their decisions.

  1. Agro-environmental evaluation of vineyard management using organic farming and integrated plant production systems

    FORGET, D.; LACOMBE, J.; DURAND, A.

    2009-01-01

    Organic farming is often considered to be the most environmentally-friendly crop management system, even if integrated production also aims at decreasing the impact of agriculture on the natural environment. In order to establish references for the agro-environmental evaluation of these two production systems in relation to grape growing, INRA carried out an initial study from 2001 to 2004 at the plot scale. This study focused on two grape varieties (Merlot N and Cabernet Sauvignon) in its Co...

  2. Where is Farm Management Going?

    Kemp, David R.; Girdwood, John; Parton, Kevin A.; Charry, Al A.

    2003-01-01

    Farms and farming are major contributors to the world economy, directly responsible for a large part of GDP. These achievements are not trivial and imply that farms are being managed in reasonably effective ways, else agricultural industries would not be sustained. However the study of Farm Management within Australia has been limited over recent decades. Is it contributing to better farm management or merely cataloguing what has happened? Is it leading or following? During that time there ha...

  3. Forage management to improve on-farm feed production, nitrogen fluxes and greenhouse gas emissions from dairy systems in a wet temperate region

    Doltra, J; Villar, A.; Moros, R

    2018-01-01

    characteristic forage systems according to field management based on grazing, zero-grazing, conserved forages and growth of maize. The semi-dynamic whole farm model FarmAC was used to characterize a model farm representing an average farm in each of the forage systems including field area and use, number of cows...

  4. Software configuration management plan, 241-AY and 241-AZ tank farm MICON automation system

    Hill, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    This document establishes a Computer Software Configuration Management Plan (CSCM) for controlling software for the MICON Distributed Control System (DCS) located at the 241-AY and 241-AZ Aging Waste Tank Farm facilities in the 200 East Area. The MICON DCS software controls and monitors the instrumentation and equipment associated with plant systems and processes. A CSCM identifies and defines the configuration items in a system (section 3.1), controls the release and change of these items throughout the system life cycle (section 3.2), records and reports the status of configuration items and change requests (section 3.3), and verifies the completeness and correctness of the items (section 3.4). All software development before initial release, or before software is baselined, is considered developmental. This plan does not apply to developmental software. This plan applies to software that has been baselined and released. The MICON software will monitor and control the related instrumentation and equipment of the 241-AY and 241-AZ Tank Farm ventilation systems. Eventually, this software may also assume the monitoring and control of the tank sludge washing equipment and other systems as they are brought on line. This plan applies to the System Cognizant Manager and MICON Cognizant Engineer (who is also referred to herein as the system administrator) responsible for the software/hardware and administration of the MICON system. This document also applies to any other organizations within Tank Farms which are currently active on the system including system cognizant engineers, nuclear operators, technicians, and control room supervisors

  5. Increasing productivity by matching farming system management and genotype in water-limited environments.

    Kirkegaard, J A; Hunt, J R

    2010-10-01

    Improvements in water productivity and yield arise from interactions between varieties (G) and their management (M). Most G×M interactions considered by breeders and physiologists focus on in-crop management (e.g. sowing time, plant density, N management). However, opportunities exist to capture more water and use it more effectively that involve judicious management of prior crops and fallows (e.g. crop sequence, weed control, residue management). The dry-land wheat production system of southern Australia, augmented by simulation studies, is used to demonstrate the relative impacts and interactions of a range of pre-crop and in-crop management decisions on water productivity. A specific case study reveals how a novel genetic trait, long coleoptiles that enable deeper sowing, can interact with different management options to increase the water-limited yield of wheat from 1.6 t ha(-1) to 4.5 t ha(-1), reflecting the experience of leading growers. Understanding such interactions will be necessary to capture benefits from new varieties within the farming systems of the future.

  6. Radium and uranium levels in vegetables grown using different farming management systems

    Lauria, D.C.; Ribeiro, F.C.A.; Conti, C.C.; Loureiro, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    Vegetables grown with phosphate fertilizer (conventional management), with bovine manure fertilization (organic management) and in a mineral nutrient solution (hydroponic) were analyzed and the concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra and 228 Ra in lettuce, carrots, and beans were compared. Lettuce from hydroponic farming system showed the lowest concentration of radionuclides 0.51 for 226 Ra, 0.55 for 228 Ra and 0.24 for 238 U (Bq kg -1 dry). Vegetables from organically and conventionally grown farming systems showed no differences in the concentration of radium and uranium. Relationships between uranium content in plants and exchangeable Ca and Mg in soil were found, whereas Ra in vegetables was inversely correlated to the cation exchange capacity of soil, leading to the assumption that by supplying carbonate and cations to soil, liming may cause an increase of U and a decrease of radium uptake by plants. The soil to plant transfer varied from 10 -4 to 10 -2 for 238 U and from 10 -2 to 10 -1 for 228 Ra

  7. Radium and uranium levels in vegetables grown using different farming management systems

    Lauria, D.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil)], E-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.br; Ribeiro, F.C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/CNEN), Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 200, Cidade Universitaria Recife, PE, CEP 50740-540 (Brazil); Conti, C.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil); Loureiro, F.A. [Estacao Experimental de Nova Friburgo, Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Pesagro (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    Vegetables grown with phosphate fertilizer (conventional management), with bovine manure fertilization (organic management) and in a mineral nutrient solution (hydroponic) were analyzed and the concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra in lettuce, carrots, and beans were compared. Lettuce from hydroponic farming system showed the lowest concentration of radionuclides 0.51 for {sup 226}Ra, 0.55 for {sup 228}Ra and 0.24 for {sup 238}U (Bq kg{sup -1} dry). Vegetables from organically and conventionally grown farming systems showed no differences in the concentration of radium and uranium. Relationships between uranium content in plants and exchangeable Ca and Mg in soil were found, whereas Ra in vegetables was inversely correlated to the cation exchange capacity of soil, leading to the assumption that by supplying carbonate and cations to soil, liming may cause an increase of U and a decrease of radium uptake by plants. The soil to plant transfer varied from 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -2} for {sup 238}U and from 10{sup -2} to 10{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra.

  8. Radium and uranium levels in vegetables grown using different farming management systems.

    Lauria, D C; Ribeiro, F C A; Conti, C C; Loureiro, F A

    2009-02-01

    Vegetables grown with phosphate fertilizer (conventional management), with bovine manure fertilization (organic management) and in a mineral nutrient solution (hydroponic) were analyzed and the concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra in lettuce, carrots, and beans were compared. Lettuce from hydroponic farming system showed the lowest concentration of radionuclides 0.51 for (226)Ra, 0.55 for (228)Ra and 0.24 for (238)U (Bq kg(-1) dry). Vegetables from organically and conventionally grown farming systems showed no differences in the concentration of radium and uranium. Relationships between uranium content in plants and exchangeable Ca and Mg in soil were found, whereas Ra in vegetables was inversely correlated to the cation exchange capacity of soil, leading to the assumption that by supplying carbonate and cations to soil, liming may cause an increase of U and a decrease of radium uptake by plants. The soil to plant transfer varied from 10(-4) to 10(-2) for (238)U and from 10(-2) to 10(-1) for (228)Ra.

  9. Extension Activity Support System (EASY: A Web-Based Prototype for Facilitating Farm Management

    Christopher Pettit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to disparate advances in delivering spatial information to support agricultural extension activities, the Extension Activity Support System (EASY project was established to develop a vision statement and conceptual design for such a system based on a national needs assessment. Personnel from across Australia were consulted and a review of existing farm information/management software undertaken to ensure that any system that is eventually produced from the EASY vision will build on the strengths of existing efforts. This paper reports on the collaborative consultative process undertaken to create the EASY vision as well as the conceptual technical design and business models that could support a fully functional spatially enabled online system.

  10. Phosphorus management in cropping systems of the Paris Basin: From farm to regional scale.

    Le Noë, Julia; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    The sustainability of phosphorus (P) fertilization in cropping systems is an important issue because P resources on earth are limited and excess P in soils can lead to ecological damage such as eutrophication. Worldwide, there is an increasing interest in organic farming (OF) due to its good environmental performance. However, organic cropping systems are suspected of generating negative P budgets, which questions their ability to provide sustainable P management. The design of agricultural systems at a broader scale also largely influences the shape of the P cycle and the possibility of its recycling to cropland. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the relative influence of (i) OF versus conventional farming (CF) practices and (ii) the structure of agro-food systems at the regional scale, on P cycling and availability on cropland. For this purpose, we examined P budgets and soil P status of 14 organic and conventional cropping systems in commercial farms located in the Paris Basin. Available P was analyzed using two different methods: resin P and Olsen P. The results revealed no significant differences between CF and OF in available P stocks. Phosphorus budgets were always negative and significantly lower in CF systems, indicating that P was mined from soil reserves. In parallel, we estimated P budgets over cropland in all French regions for two distinct periods, 2004-2014 and 1970-1981, and showed that specialized intensive cropping systems in the Paris Basin led to a high, positive P budget in the latter period. However, this trend was reversed in the 2004-2014 period due to a sharp reduction of the mineral fertilizer application rate. The shift from very high P budgets to much lower and sometimes negative P budgets would not be a threat for agriculture due to the current high level of Olsen P in these regions, which was consistent with our measurements at the plot scale. Overall, these results suggest that OF would not lead to more P deficiency

  11. Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) occurrence and infestation behaviour as influenced by farm type, cropping systems and soil management practices

    Kabi, Samuel; Karungi, Jeninah; Sigsgaard, Lene

    2016-01-01

    into the trend. A biological monitoring study that covered 150 pineapple farms was conducted in 2012 and 2013. Farms were categorised under organic and conventional systems. Mealybug population densities (mealybugs/plant) were recorded in relation to seed bed types, cropping system and soil management practices......Occurrence of pineapple mealybug (Dysmicoccus brevipes) has been increasing at an alarming rate on pineapple in Uganda. The cause of the epidemic is unknown. This study was set out to establish whether prevailing cropping systems, production and management practices could provide an insight...... used on each farm. Mealybug population densities were lower in pineapple–banana intercrop system (27.8) than in a sole pineapple crop (81.8) across seasons. Earthed-up seed beds registered higher mealybug densities (84.1) than flat seed beds (31). Earthed-up seed beds created more favourable...

  12. A Catchment Systems Engineering (CSE) approach to managing intensively farmed land

    Jonczyk, Jennine; Quinn, Paul; Barber, Nicholas; Wilkinson, Mark; ODonnell, Greg

    2014-05-01

    Rural land management practices can have a significant impact on the hydrological and nutrient dynamics within a catchment which can dramatically alter the way it processes water, exacerbating nutrient losses from the system. A collaborative and holistic approach for managing potential conflicts between land management activity for food production alongside the aspiration to achieve good water quality and the need to make space for water can ensure the long-term sustainability of our agricultural catchments. Catchment System Engineering (CSE) is an interventionist approach to altering the catchment scale runoff regime through the manipulation of hydrological flow pathways throughout the catchment. By targeting hydrological flow pathways at source, such as overland flow, field drain and ditch function, a significant component of the runoff generation can be managed, greatly reducing erosive soil losses. Coupled with management of farm nutrients at source many runoff attenuation features or measures can be co-located to achieve benefits for water quality. Examples of community-led mitigation measures using the CSE approach will be presented from two catchments in Northumberland, Northern England, that demonstrate the generic framework for identification of multipurpose features that slow, store and filter runoff at strategic locations in the landscape. Measures include within-field barriers, edge of field traps and within-field sediment filters and sediment traps which demonstrate how sediment can be trapped locally (including silt and clay fractions) and be recovered for use back on the land. Deliverables from this CSE approach includes the reduction of downstream flood risk and capturing of sediment and associated nutrients. The CSE approach allows for a more natural flood and nutrient management approach which helps to restore vital catchment functions to re-establish a healthy catchment system.

  13. Communicating complexity: Integrated assessment of trade-offs concerning soil fertility management within African farming systems to support innovation and development

    Giller, K.E.; Tittonell, P.A.; Rufino, M.C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Zingore, S.; Mapfumo, P.; Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Herrero, M.; Chikowo, R.; Corbeels, M.; Rowe, E.C.; Baijukya, F.P.; Mwijage, A.; Smith, J.; Yeboah, E.; Burg, van der W.J.; Sanogo, O.; Misiko, M.; Ridder, de N.; Karanja, S.; Kaizzi, C.K.; K'ungu, J.; Mwale, M.; Nwaga, D.; Pacini, C.; Vanlauwe, B.

    2011-01-01

    African farming systems are highly heterogeneous: between agroecological and socioeconomic environments, in the wide variability in farmers’ resource endowments and in farm management. This means that single solutions (or ‘silver bullets’) for improving farm productivity do not exist. Yet to date

  14. A survey of dairy calf management practices among farms using manual and automated milk feeding systems in Canada.

    Medrano-Galarza, Catalina; LeBlanc, Stephen J; DeVries, Trevor J; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Rushen, Jeffrey; Marie de Passillé, Anne; Haley, Derek B

    2017-08-01

    Dairy calves in North America traditionally are housed individually and fed by manual milk feeding (MMF) systems with buckets or bottles. Automated milk feeders (AMF) allow for more natural milk feeding frequencies and volumes, and calves are usually housed in groups. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the prevalence of various milk-fed calf management and feeding practices and (2) compare these practices between dairy farms using MMF and AMF systems. A national online survey was performed from January to May 2015 to quantify management practices for the care of milk-fed dairy calves in Canada. A total of 670 responses were received (6% of all dairy farms in Canada). Among respondents, 16% used AMF and 84% used MMF. Seventy percent of the farms using AMF had freestall barns compared with only 48% of those using MMF. A greater proportion of AMF farms (30%) also had automatic milking systems (AMS) compared with MMF farms (8%). Among tiestall farms, a herd size of >80 milking cows was associated with having an AMF [odds ratio (OR) = 3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6-11.4]. For freestall or bedded-pack farms, a herd size of >80 milking cows (OR = 3.5; CI: 1.8-6.6), having an AMS (OR = 3.1; CI: 1.6-5.7), and use of cow brushes (OR = 3.1; CI: 1.3-6.9) were associated with having an AMF. Calves fed with AMS typically were housed in groups of 10 to 15, whereas almost 76% of the farms with MMF housed calves individually. Although both AMF and MMF farms fed similar amounts of milk in the first week of life (median = 6 L/d), the cumulative volume fed in the first 4 wk differed significantly, with a median of 231 versus 182 L for AMF and MMF, respectively. Median peak milk allowance was higher for AMF than for MMF (10 vs. 8 L/d, respectively). In summary, farms using AMF were larger, provided more milk to calves, and used more automation in general (i.e., in other areas of their operation). These data provide insights into calf-rearing practices across

  15. Adoption of Farm Management Systems for Cross Compliance - An empirical case in Germany.

    Knuth, Ulrike; Amjath-Babu, T S; Knierim, Andrea

    2018-08-15

    In Germany, Farm Management Systems (FMS) have been introduced as a support to farmers' compliance with environmental and other regulations, aiming at the increase of farm level performance and sustainable farming practices. Different kinds of FMS were developed and promulgated with various approaches, determined by each federal state's agricultural advisory system. Knowledge on the FMS' uptake and effectiveness has been lacking so far. The overall aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of the implementation process and selected outcomes of the policy-driven instrumental innovation of FMS. In particular, the objectives are i) to reveal how and with what success the introduction of FMS has been realised in Germany and ii) to analyse and discuss the FMS' adoption in the federal state of Brandenburg. For the first part of the study, we elaborate a situational analysis of the policy implementation through a desk study and expert interviews. In the second part, selected results from a farmers' survey in Brandenburg are presented and a switching regression model is developed to assess the factors responsible for the uptake of FMS and to understand the role of FMS in improving the confidence in complying with Cross Compliance regulations. We found a high degree of diversity among FMS developed in the different federal states. FMS adoption rates varied, but were generally low. Institutional environment seems to have a significant influence as the same FMS had very different adoption rates among federal states. For Brandenburg, our findings show that farmers' confidence to face CC check was increased by the adoption of FMS. However, counterfactual scenario analysis proved that especially farmers who did not adopt FMS would have benefitted most if they had adopted the tool. Our study shows that there is a need for systems supporting farmers in dealing with bureaucratic requirements. Future FMS should be easy to understand, adaptable to individual farmers' needs and be

  16. Farm-system modeling to evaluate environmental losses, profitability, and best management practice cost-effectiveness

    To meet Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load requirements for agricultural pollution, conservation districts and farmers are tasked with implementing best management practices (BMPs) that reduce farm losses of nutrients and sediment. The importance of the agricultural industry to the regional eco...

  17. Observing farming systems

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2012-01-01

    of analysis from individual farmers to communication and social relations. This is where Luhmann’s social systems theory can offer new insights. Firstly, it can help observe and understand the operational closure and system logic of a farming system and how this closure is produced and reproduced. Secondly...

  18. Challenges of agricultural monitoring: integration of the Open Farm Management Information System into GEOSS and Digital Earth

    Řezník, T.; Kepka, M.; Charvát, K.; Charvát, K., Jr.; Horáková, S.; Lukas, V.

    2016-04-01

    From a global perspective, agriculture is the single largest user of freshwater resources, each country using an average of 70% of all its surface water supplies. An essential proportion of agricultural water is recycled back to surface water and/or groundwater. Agriculture and water pollution is therefore the subject of (inter)national legislation, such as the Clean Water Act in the United States of America, the European Water Framework Directive, and the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution. Regular monitoring by means of sensor networks is needed in order to provide evidence of water pollution in agriculture. This paper describes the benefits of, and open issues stemming from, regular sensor monitoring provided by an Open Farm Management Information System. Emphasis is placed on descriptions of the processes and functionalities available to users, the underlying open data model, and definitions of open and lightweight application programming interfaces for the efficient management of collected (spatial) data. The presented Open Farm Management Information System has already been successfully registered under Phase 8 of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Architecture Implementation Pilot in order to support the wide variety of demands that are primarily aimed at agriculture pollution monitoring. The final part of the paper deals with the integration of the Open Farm Management Information System into the Digital Earth framework.

  19. Effects of 1992 farming systems on ground-water quality at the management systems evaluation area near Princeton, Minnesota

    Delin, G.N.; Landon, M.K.; Lamb, J.A.; Dowdy, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    The Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) program was a multiscale, interagency initiative to evaluate the effects of agricultural systems on water quality in the midwest corn belt. The primary objective of the Minnesota MSEA was to evaluate the effects of ridge-tillage practices in a corn and soybean farming system on ground-water quality. The 65-hectare Minnesota MSEA was located in the Anoka Sand Plain near the town of Princeton, Minnesota. Three fanning systems were evaluated: corn-soybean rotation with ridge-tillage (areas B and D), sweet corn-potato rotation (areas A and C), and field corn in consecutive years (continuous corn; area E). Water samples were collected four different times per year from a network of 22 multiport wells and 29 observation wells installed in the saturated zone beneath and adjacent to the cropped areas.

  20. Improving environmental management on small-scale farms: perspectives of extension educators and horse farm operators.

    Rebecca, Perry-Hill; Linda, Prokopy

    2015-01-01

    Although the number of small-scale farms is increasing in North America and Europe, few studies have been conducted to better understand environmental management in this sector. We investigate this issue by examining environmental management on horse farms from both the perspective of the "expert" extension educator and horse farm operator. We conducted a Delphi survey and follow-up interviews with extension educators in Indiana and Kentucky. We also conducted interviews and farm assessments with 15 horse farm operators in the two states. Our results suggest a disconnection between the perceptions of extension educators and horse farm operators. Extension educators believed that operators of small horse farms are unfamiliar with conservation practices and their environmental benefits and they found it difficult to target outreach to this audience. In the interviews with horse farm operators, we found that the majority were somewhat familiar with conservation practices like rotational grazing, soil testing, heavy use area protection, and manure composting. It was not common, however, for practices to be implemented to generally recognized standards. The horse farm respondents perceived these practices as interrelated parts of a system of farm management that has developed over time to best deal with the physical features of the property, needs of the horses, and available resources. Because conservation practices must be incorporated into a complex farm management system, traditional models of extension (i.e., diffusion of innovations) may be inappropriate for promoting better environmental management on horse farms.

  1. Kansas Farm and Ranch Management Project.

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    Thirty-four units of instruction are included in this core curriculum in farm management for postsecondary farm and ranch management programs. Units of instruction are divided into twelve instructional areas: (1) Introduction to Financial Management, (2) Farm Business Arrangement, (3) Credit Management, (4) Budgeting, (5) Record Keeping, (6)…

  2. The Balanced Scorecard as a Management Tool for Arable Farming

    Margit Paustian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Management requirements for crop farming are high and will rise in the future. Arable farms are challenged by volatile markets, growing administrative burdens, increasing operating costs and growing competition for land. Management skills have become much more important for farmers in recent years and this trend will continue in the future. There are numerous instruments like accounting software or crop field cards integrated in daily management practice, but there is a deficiency of a fully integrated management system to give an overview of all areas of the farming business. This gap can be closed by the management tool Balanced Scorecard (BSC that provides an overview of all production and management activities on a farm. Therefore, with the aim to transfer the BSC concept to crop farming, German farmers and agricultural advisors were surveyed to get insights into the success factors and key performance indicators in the four BSC perspectives they consider most relevant for the operational success of arable farms. By the use of a cluster analysis, three different farm types were identified according to their visions and strategies. For the three farm types the key performance indicators that the respondents considered most relevant for farm performance were figured out. Implementation of the BSC to crop farming can result in a big benefit for management practice. The BSC focuses vision and long-term strategy with the main goal to ensure consistency of the farm and increase farm performance.

  3. Systems Engineering Management Plan for Tank Farm Restoration and Safety Operations, Project W-314

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Systems Engineering Management Plan for Project W-314 has been prepared within the guidelines of HNF-SD-WM-SEMP-002, TWRS Systems Engineering Management Plan. The activities within this SEMP have been tailored, in accordance with the TWRS SEMP and DOE Order 430.1, Life Cycle Asset Management, to meet the needs of the project

  4. Optimal management of on-farm resources in small-scale dairy systems of Central Mexico: model development and evaluation.

    Castelán-Ortega, Octavio Alonso; Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Mould, Fergus L; Dorward, Peter; Rehman, Tahir; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo Armando

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates the available on-farm resources of five case studies typified as small-scale dairy systems in central Mexico. A comprehensive mixed-integer linear programming model was developed and applied to two case studies. The optimal plan suggested the following: (1) instruction and utilization of maize silage, (2) alfalfa hay making that added US$140/ha/cut to the total net income, (3) allocation of land to cultivated pastures in a ratio of 27:41(cultivated pastures/maize crop) rather than at the current 14:69, and dairy cattle should graze 12 h/day, (4) to avoid grazing of communal pastures because this activity represented an opportunity cost of family labor that reduced the farm net income, and (5) that the highest farm net income was obtained when liquid milk and yogurt sales were included in the optimal plan. In the context of small-scale dairy systems of central Mexico, the optimal plan would need to be implemented gradually to enable farmers to develop required skills and to change management strategies from reliance on forage and purchased concentrate to pasture-based and conserved forage systems.

  5. Implementation of a Wind Farm Turbine Control System with Short-Term Grid Faults Management

    Marra, Francesco; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    restrictions for the wind turbines behavior especially under grid faults. Wind turbines are requested to stay connected even during faults. These new requirements are challenging the control of the wind turbines and new control strategies are required to meet the target. This paper dealt...... with the implementation of a control strategy in order to stay connected under grid faults. The method aimed to ensure that a wind farm turbine remains connected and no electric power is delivered to the grid during the fault period. The overall system was modelled and simulated by using the software Matlab/Simulink.......The increased penetration of wind power in the grid has led to important technical barriers that limit the development, where the stability of the system plays a key issue. Grid operators in different countries are issuing new grid requirements, the so-called grid codes that impose more...

  6. Assessing the status of food safety management systems for fresh produce production in East Africa: evidence from certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda.

    Nanyunja, J; Jacxsens, L; Kirezieva, K; Kaaya, A N; Uyttendaele, M; Luning, P A

    2015-06-01

    The farms of fresh produce farmers are major sources of food contamination by microbiological organisms and chemical pesticides. In view of their choice for farming practices, producers are influenced by food safety requirements. This study analyzes the role of food safety standard certification toward the maturity of food safety management systems (FSMS) in the primary production of fresh produce. Kenya and Uganda are two East African countries that export green beans and hot peppers, respectively, to the European Union but have contrasting features in terms of agricultural practices and certification status. In the fresh produce chain, a diagnostic instrument for primary production was used to assess context factors, core control and assurance activities, and system output to measure the performance of FSMS for certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda. Overall, our findings show that in Uganda, noncertified hot pepper farms revealed only a "basic level of control and assurance" activities in their FSMS, which was not satisfactory, because no insight into potential pesticide microbial contamination was presented by these farmers. On the other hand, certified green bean farms in Kenya had an "average level of control and assurance," providing insight into the delivered food safety and quality by the farmers. Farm size did not impact the maturity level of FSMS. This study confirms the role played by food safety standard certification toward the maturity of FSMS implemented in developing countries and demonstrates the possibility of Ugandan farms to upgrade agricultural practices in the fresh produce sector.

  7. Analysis of Goat Farming on Integrated Farming System in Banyumas

    Hidayat, NN

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research were : 1) to find out the income generated from goat farming and its contribution to farmer income in several farming combination, 2) to find out the economic efficiency in goat farming with paddy and fish production, 3) to determine factors affecting level of production and income in different farming system, partially and aggregately, and 4) to determine the best combination of farming which generated maximum income. Household farmer survey method was performe...

  8. Livestock systems and farming styles in Eastern Italian Alps: an on-farm survey

    Maurizio Ramanzin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the relationships between livestock systems, landscape maintenance and farming styles in the Belluno Province, a mountainous area of the Eastern Italian Alps. A total of 65 farms were sampled on the basis of livestock category farmed and herd size. Farms were visited to collect information on technical and productive aspects, on landscape features of land managed, which was identified by aerial photographs and digitised in a GIS environment, and on the farmers’ background, attitudes and approach to farming. Six different livestock systems were identified: intensive beef cattle (2 farms; extensive beef cattle (12 farms; large sheep/goat farms (9 farms; small sheep/goat farms (6 farms; intensive dairy cattle (14 farms and extensive dairy cattle (22 farms. The intensive systems had larger herds, modern structures and equipment, and were strongly production oriented, whereas the extensive systems had smaller herds and productivity, with often traditional or obsolete structures and equipment, but showed a tendency to diversify production by means of on-farm cheese making and/or mixed farming of different livestock categories. The ability to maintain meadows and pastures was greater for the extensive systems, especially in steep areas, while the annual nitrogen output, estimated as kg N/ha, was lower. Data on the farmers’ background and attitudes were analysed with a non-hierarchical cluster procedure that clustered the farmers into 4 farming styles widely different in motivations to farming, innovative capability, and ability to diversify income sources and ensure farm economic viability. The farming styles were distributed across all livestock systems, indicating the lack of a linkage between the assignment of a farm to a livestock system and the way the farm is managed. This study demonstrates that in mountain areas variability of livestock systems may be high, and that they differ not only in production practices

  9. Use of a proactive herd management system in a dairy farm of northern italy: technical and economic results

    Stefania Leonardi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive and economic data were recorded before and one year after the installation of Herd Navigator™ in a dairy farm with AMS (Automatic Milking System located in a mountain area of Northern Italy. Number of days open reduced from 166 to 103 days, number of days between the first and second insemination decreased from 45 to 28 days, and days for identifying an abortion were 80 % less, from 31 to 6 days. The preliminary results highlight the usefulness of the proactive herd management system installed for the reproduction management. A basic economic model is proposed to evaluate the potential economic benefits coming from the introduction of this technology. The model considers the benefits deriving from the reduction of reproduction problems and, consequently, of days open. Considering the effects related to the above mentioned aspects in a case study involving 60 dairy cows, a return on investment over 5 years has been calculated.

  10. Farm Management Basic Core Curriculum. Kansas Postsecondary Farm and Ranch Management Project.

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    Thirty-five units of instruction are included in this core curriculum in farm management for postsecondary farm and ranch management programs. Units of instruction are divided into 12 instructional areas: (1) Introduction to Financial Management, (2) Farm Business Arrangement, (3) Credit Management, (4) Budgeting, (5) Recordkeeping, (6) Record…

  11. Implementation of an Integrated Information Management System for the US DOE Hanford Tank Farms Project

    Joyner, William Scott; Knight, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    In its role as the Tank Operations Contractor at the U.S. Department of Energy's site in Hanford, WA, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC is implementing an integrated document control and configuration management system. This system will combine equipment data with technical document data that currently resides in separate disconnected databases. The new system will provide integrated information, enabling users to more readily identify the documents that relate to a structure, system, or component and vice-versa. Additionally, the new system will automate engineering work processes through electronic workflows, and where practical and feasible provide integration with design authoring tools. Implementation of this system will improve configuration management of the technical baseline, increase work process efficiencies, support the efficient design of future large projects, and provide a platform for the efficient future turnover of technical baseline data and information

  12. Implementation of an Integrated Information Management System for the US DOE Hanford Tank Farms Project

    Joyner, William Scott; Knight, Mark A.

    2013-11-14

    In its role as the Tank Operations Contractor at the U.S. Department of Energy's site in Hanford, WA, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC is implementing an integrated document control and configuration management system. This system will combine equipment data with technical document data that currently resides in separate disconnected databases. The new system will provide integrated information, enabling users to more readily identify the documents that relate to a structure, system, or component and vice-versa. Additionally, the new system will automate engineering work processes through electronic workflows, and where practical and feasible provide integration with design authoring tools. Implementation of this system will improve configuration management of the technical baseline, increase work process efficiencies, support the efficient design of future large projects, and provide a platform for the efficient future turnover of technical baseline data and information.

  13. Configuration management plan for waste tank farms and the 242-A evaporator of tank waste remediation system

    Laney, T.

    1994-01-01

    The configuration management architecture presented in this Configuration Management Plan is based on the functional model established by DOE-STD-1073-93, ''Guide for Operational Configuration Management Program.'' The DOE Standard defines the configuration management program by the five basic program elements of ''program management,'' ''design requirements,'' ''document control,'' ''change control,'' and ''assessments,'' and the two adjunct recovery programs of ''design reconstitution,'' and ''material condition and aging management.'' The CM model of five elements and two adjunct programs strengthen the necessary technical and administrative control to establish and maintain a consistent technical relationship among the requirements, physical configuration, and documentation. Although the DOE Standard was originally developed for the operational phase of nuclear facilities, this plan has the flexibility to be adapted and applied to all life-cycle phases of both nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. The configuration management criteria presented in this plan endorses the DOE Standard and has been tailored specifically to address the technical relationship of requirements, physical configuration, and documentation during the full life cycle of the Waste Tank Farms and 242-A Evaporator of Tank Waste Remediation System

  14. Evolution of farm management, nitrogen efficiency and economic performance on Dutch dairy farms reducing external inputs

    Groot, J.C.J.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Lantinga, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of the statutory Mineral Accounting System (MINAS) in the Netherlands in the period 1998¿2003 required large reductions in nutrient inputs of dairy farms. Patterns in farm management adjustments throughout 6 years and their effectiveness in terms of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE)

  15. Soil management practices under organic farming

    Aly, Adel; Chami Ziad, Al; Hamdy, Atef

    2015-04-01

    Organic farming methods combine scientific knowledge of ecology and modern technology with traditional farming practices based on naturally occurring biological processes. Soil building practices such as crop rotations, intercropping, symbiotic associations, cover crops, organic fertilizers and minimum tillage are central to organic practices. Those practices encourage soil formation and structure and creating more stable systems. In farm nutrient and energy cycling is increased and the retentive abilities of the soil for nutrients and water are enhanced. Such management techniques also play an important role in soil erosion control. The length of time that the soil is exposed to erosive forces is decreased, soil biodiversity is increased, and nutrient losses are reduced, helping to maintain and enhance soil productivity. Organic farming as systematized and certifiable approach for agriculture, there is no surprise that it faces some challenges among both farmers and public sector. This can be clearly demonstrated particularly in the absence of the essential conditions needed to implement successfully the soil management practices like green manure and composting to improve soil fertility including crop rotation, cover cropping and reduced tillage. Those issues beside others will be fully discussed highlighting their beneficial impact on the environmental soil characteristics. Keywords: soil fertility, organic matter, plant nutrition

  16. Farm Typology in the Berambadi Watershed (India: Farming Systems Are Determined by Farm Size and Access to Groundwater

    Marion Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ production decisions and agricultural practices directly and indirectly influence the quantity and quality of natural resources, some being depleted common resources such as groundwater. Representing farming systems while accounting for their flexibility is needed to evaluate targeted, regional water management policies. Farmers’ decisions regarding investing in irrigation and adopting cropping systems are inherently dynamic and must adapt to changes in climate and agronomic, economic and social, and institutional, conditions. To represent this diversity, we developed a typology of Indian farmers from a survey of 684 farms in Berambadi, an agricultural watershed in southern India (state of Karnataka. The survey provided information on farm structure, the cropping system and farm practices, water management for irrigation, and economic performances of the farm. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis (Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering were used to analyze relationships between observed factors and establish the farm typology. We identified three main types of farms: (1 large diversified and productivist farms; (2 small and marginal rainfed farms, and (3 small irrigated marketing farms. This typology represents the heterogeneity of farms in the Berambadi watershed.

  17. A questionnaire survey of the management and use of anthelmintics in cattle and antelope in mixed farming systems in Zimbabwe

    O. Madzingira

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the management of mixed farming of cattle and antelope and use of anthelmintics was conducted on eleven farms between August and December 1999 by a self-administered questionnaire. Seventeen antelope species ranging from grey duikers (Sylvicapra grimmia to eland (Taurotragus oryx occurred on the farms. Impala (Aepyceros melampus was the most abundant antelope on the farms. Seventy-five per cent of the antelope species on the farms were grazers and mixed feeders and shared grazing with cattle. Most farmers (n =8 did not consider the stocking density for cattle and antelope as an important management factor. Fifty-four per cent of the farmers (n = 6 routinely dewormed both cattle and antelopes. Albendazole and fenbendazole were the most commonly used drugs for deworming cattle (72.7 % and antelope species (54.5 %. The deworming of antelope was carried out during the dry season, using albendazole-, fenbendazole-and rafoxanide-medicated supplementary feed blocks. Doramectin injections were given to antelopes on two farms. Cattle were dewormed preventively and according to the general body condition of the animal. Few farmers (n = 4 followed the recommended deworming programme for cattle in Zimbabwe and only one farmer followed a specified dosing programme for game. However, results from the survey on the deworming of game indicate that farmers perceived helminth infections in antelope to be important.

  18. Towards a ‘systems’ approach for guiding agricultural environmental management: a South African case study of a small-scale maize farming system

    Musvoto, Constansia D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available environmental management intervention points in an agricultural system, illustrated through a case study of a small-scale maize farming system in South Africa. A review of documented information on the ecological, socio-political and economic components...

  19. Piggerywaste management and profitability of pig farming in Imo ...

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Piggery waste management systems in the study area were identified and described, the farm profitability ... Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, operating net returns and benefit cost ratio.

  20. Analysis of Goat Farming on Integrated Farming System in Banyumas

    NN Hidayat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research were : 1 to find out the income generated from goat farming and its contribution to farmer income in several farming combination, 2 to find out the economic efficiency in goat farming with paddy and fish production, 3 to determine factors affecting level of production and income in different farming system, partially and aggregately, and 4 to determine the best combination of farming which generated maximum income. Household farmer survey method was performed to conduct this research. Farming model chosen in this research was partial and average aggregate. Cobb-Douglas function were chosen to predict functional relationship. Result stated from this research were : 1 goat farming has a significant contribution in integrated farming system, 2 integrated farming (goat and paddy, goat and fish, and goat, fish and paddy in Banyumas district was economically efficient. 3 partially, factor affecting production level in goat farming was number of goat owned (P<0.01, factor affecting paddy production were urea application and number of land owned (P<0.01, TSP application (P<0.05 and man power (P<0.10. Furthermore, factor affecting fish farming were feed, breed and number of land owned (P<0.01; 4 aggregately, factor affecting integrated farming I were urea application and number of land owned (P<0.01, feed and number of land owned (P<0.01, number of goat owned (P<0.10 integrated farming II, where as in integrated farming III were number of paddy land area and breed (P<0.01 also number of goat owned (P<0.10; 5 integrated farming III (goat, paddy and fish farming gave the highest profit, which gave Rp 6.219.283,81 with relatively high efficiency. Therefore, goat farming could be an alternative solution to be developed in integrated farming and could be combined with other farming activities such as paddy and fish farming. (Animal Production 9(2: 105-110 (2007 Key Words : Goat, income, economic efficiency, survey, contribution

  1. Evolution of livestock farming systems and landscape changes

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last fifty years, the rural landscape of vast areas, historically modelled by livestock farming, has experienced radical changes. The marginalisation of traditional farming systems resulted in a shift towards intensive systems in the more favourable areas, and in the abandoning of farming in the less favourable areas. Consequences of these trends are numerous: intensification and abandoning concurred in determining the disappearance of traditional architectural styles and in disrupting the historical links between local landscape, way of farming, and variety of products; intensification of farming caused local excesses of nutrients releases and/or land degradation; abandoning has permitted an extensive natural reforestation, which in turn has greatly modified the aesthetic value and biodiversity richness of landscape. Research for a sustainable “livestock farming landscape” will need the ability to integrate a systemic and geographic description of the interactions of farming systems with landscape quality and biodiversity with the definition of consequent technologies and farm management options.

  2. Assessing sustainability of low-external-input farm management systems with the nutrient monitoring approach: a case study in Kenya

    Jager, de A.; Onduru, D.; Wijk, van M.S.; Vlaming, J.; Gachini, G.N.

    2001-01-01

    In the search for Integrated Nutrient Management practices in response to the widely observed soil fertility decline in Sub-Saharan Africa, the potential of low-external-input and organic farming remains to be systematically examined. The nutrient monitoring concept was used to assess the impact of

  3. Steps towards food web management on farms

    Smeding, F.W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is the report of four years of research on the functional group composition of the animal community in relation to farm and ecological infrastructure (E.I.) management on organic arable farms. The results are mainly based on abundance data of ground dwelling arthropods obtained

  4. Comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions between Two Dairy Farm Systems (Conventional vs. Organic Management) in New Hampshire Using the Manure DNDC Biogeochemical Model

    Dorich, C.; Contosta, A.; Li, C.; Brito, A.; Varner, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture contributes 20 to 25 % of the total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. These agricultural emissions are primarily in the form of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) with these GHG accounting for roughly 40 and 80 % of the total anthropogenic emissions of CH4 and N2O, respectively. Due to varied management and the complexities of agricultural ecosystems, it is difficult to estimate these CH4 and N2O emissions. The IPCC emission factors can be used to yield rough estimates of CH4 and N2O emissions but they are often based on limited data. Accurate modeling validated by measurements is needed in order to identify potential mitigation areas, reduce GHG emissions from agriculture, and improve sustainability of farming practices. The biogeochemical model Manure DNDC was validated using measurements from two dairy farms in New Hampshire, USA in order to quantify GHG emissions under different management systems. One organic and one conventional dairy farm operated by the University of New Hampshire's Agriculture Experiment Station were utilized as the study sites for validation of Manure DNDC. Compilation of management records started in 2011 to provide model inputs. Model results were then compared to field collected samples of soil carbon and nitrogen, above-ground biomass, and GHG fluxes. Fluxes were measured in crop, animal, housing, and waste management sites on the farms in order to examine the entire farm ecosystem and test the validity of the model. Fluxes were measured by static flux chambers, with enteric fermentation measurements being conducted by the SF6 tracer test as well as a new method called Greenfeeder. Our preliminary GHG flux analysis suggests higher emissions than predicted by IPCC emission factors and equations. Results suggest that emissions from manure management is a key concern at the conventional dairy farm while bedded housing at the organic dairy produced large quantities of GHG.

  5. Method for Analyzing Trade-offs in Biomass Management in Smallholder Farming Systems Based on Mass Balance: A Case Study in Tajikistan's Foothills

    Sebastian Ruppen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In smallholder farming systems, especially in mountainous areas, households face trade-offs between meeting short-term human needs and ensuring long-term soil productivity. Improved biomass management can help break the downward spiral of overexploitation of natural resources, land degradation, and productivity decline, and support more sustainable use of marginal land. Mixed crop/livestock systems are often carefully balanced to minimize risks. Thus, when planning interventions, profound systems knowledge is crucial. However, the data required for system characterization are often scarce, and original field studies are thus necessary. The aim of this research, a case study in Tajikistan, was to improve systems understanding of the biomass cycle in crop/livestock systems in order to quantify the obstacles to the spread of sustainable land management technologies to farming households. It aimed to establish a database and methods of rapid data collection to quantify the stocks and flows of biomass, with a focus on mass balances, and to evaluate smallholders’ biomass management options and trade-offs. Data collection included household interviews, secondary literature, and reference data sets from global sources. Trade-off analysis focused on household-level self-supply of food, fodder, and fuel by farmers with different sizes of smallholdings, and their potential for on-farm recycling of organic matter. Results indicate that food self-supply by small and medium smallholders is insufficient and fodder sources are scarce. Fodder scarcity means that application of crop byproducts to soils is unlikely. Animal dung is largely used as fuel. Firewood needs exceed on-farm wood production, leading to deforestation. The approach presented facilitates an understanding of current and potential agricultural land interventions in the crop/livestock farming systems prevailing in mountainous areas.

  6. On-farm research in Western Siberia: Potential of adapted management practices for sustainable intensification of crop production systems

    Kühling, Insa; Trautz, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Western Siberia is of global significance in terms of agricultural production, carbon sequestration and biodiversity preservation. Abandonment of arable land and changes in the use of permanent grasslands were triggered by the dissolution of the Soviet Union in and the following collapse of the state farm system. The peatlands, forests and steppe soils of Western Siberia are one of the most important carbon sinks worldwide. These carbon stocks are, if deteriorated, an important source of radiative forcing even in comparison to anthropogenic emissions. This situation is aggravated by recent and future developments in agricultural land use in the southern part of Western Siberia, in particular in Tyumen province. The increase of drought risk caused by climate change will led to more challenges in these water-limited agricultural production systems. The German-Russian interdisciplinary research project "SASCHA" aims to provide sustainable land management practices to cope with these far-reaching changes for Tyumen province. In particular, on farm scale agricultural strategies are being developed for increased efficiencies in crop production systems. Therefore a 3-factorial field trial with different tillage and seeding operations was installed with spring wheat on 10 ha under practical conditions in 2013. Within all combinations of tillage (no-till/conventional), seed rate (usual/reduced) and seed depth (usual/shallower) various soil parameters as well as plant development and yield components were intensively monitored during the growing seasons. Results after 2-years show significant impacts of the tillage operation on soil moisture and soil temperature. Also a higher trend in nitrogen mineralization could be observed without tillage. Plant development in terms of phenological growth stages took place simultaneously in all variants. Under no-till regime we measured slightly higher grain yields and significant advantages in protein yields. In conjunction with

  7. Farm management in mixed crop-livestock systems in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    Abegaz Yimer, A.

    2005-01-01

    Key Words: nutrient dynamics, fertility management, feed availability and quality and livestock production, Northern Highlands of EthiopiaIn the Northern Highlands of Ethiopiaone of the

  8. Ships as future floating farm systems?

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2018-04-03

    Environmental and agriculture challenges such as severe drought, desertification, sprawling cities and shrinking arable lands in large regions in the world compel us to think about alternative and sustainable farming systems. Ongoing projects to build floating cities in the sea suggest that building specific ships for farming purposes (as farming ships or farming boats) would also be attainable to introduce new farming surfaces and boost food production worldwide to cope with food insecurity issues.

  9. Dairy cattle management, health and welfare in smallholder farms: An organic farming perspective

    Odhong, Charles; Wahome, Raphael; Vaarst, Mette

    2015-01-01

    livestock production practices as specified by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements and the East Africa Organic Product Standard. A longitudinal study of 24 farms was conducted to document and assess management practices and their potential effect on animal health and welfare......Organic production principles aim at achieving good animal health and welfare of livestock. The objective of the present study was to investigate animal management, health and welfare in smallholder dairy farms in Kenya, Africa, and to be able to give recommendations which can guide organic...... type, aspects of the housing system, farm characteristics, and management routines. The average herd size was 3.15 in Kiambu and 3.91 in Kajiado, with all the cows’ zero-grazed. Seventy five percent of the cubicles were small (less than 2.50m2). Many of the farmers sprayed their animals weekly (47...

  10. An integrated modelling framework to aid smallholder farming system management in the Olifants River Basin, South Africa

    Magombeyi, M. S.; Taigbenu, A. E.

    Computerised integrated models from science contribute to better informed and holistic assessments of multifaceted policies and technologies than individual models. This view has led to considerable effort being devoted to developing integrated models to support decision-making under integrated water resources management (IWRM). Nevertheless, an appraisal of previous and ongoing efforts to develop such decision support systems shows considerable deficiencies in attempts to address the hydro-socio-economic effects on livelihoods. To date, no universal standard integration method or framework is in use. For the existing integrated models, their application failures have pointed to the lack of stakeholder participation. In an endeavour to close this gap, development and application of a seasonal time-step integrated model with prediction capability is presented in this paper. This model couples existing hydrology, agronomy and socio-economic models with feedbacks to link livelihoods of resource-constrained smallholder farmers to water resources at catchment level in the semi-arid Olifants subbasin in South Africa. These three models, prior to coupling, were calibrated and validated using observed data and participation of local stakeholders. All the models gave good representation of the study conditions, as indicated by the statistical indicators. The integrated model is of general applicability, hence can be extended to other catchments. The impacts of untied ridges, planting basins and supplemental irrigation were compared to conventional rainfed tillage under maize crop production and for different farm typologies. Over the 20 years of simulation, the predicted benefit of untied ridges and planting basins versus conventional rainfed tillage on surface runoff (Mm 3/year) reduction was 14.3% and 19.8%, respectively, and about 41-46% sediment yield (t/year) reduction in the catchment. Under supplemental irrigation, maize yield improved by up to 500% from the long

  11. Prototyping and farm system modelling - Partners on the road towards more sustainable farm systems?

    Sterk, B.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Leeuwis, C.; Wijnands, F.G.

    2007-01-01

    Farm system modelling and prototyping are two research methods proposed to enhance the process of developing sustainable farm systems. Farm system models provide means to formalize, expand and refine expert knowledge and to integrate this with scientific agro-ecological knowledge at the farm level.

  12. Fish farm management practices in Nigeria | Omitoyin | African ...

    Fish farming can contribute significantly to national food security; alleviate malnutrition and poverty. However, its potential is yet to be fully tapped. Higher productivity in fish farming can be achieved through proper farm management. No matter how well constructed a fish farm is, without adequate management the farmer ...

  13. Management of investment processes on Finnish farms

    T. MATTILA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural change in agriculture means a continuous need for investing in farm production. It is essential for the sustainable operations and the economy of the farm that such investments are successful. In this research, different stages of the investment process of farms were studied as well as the use of information and the success perceived during the investment process. The study was carried out with mail surveys and telephone interviews on the Finnish Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN farms. The most challenging investments were in animal husbandry buildings and, as to these investments, the comparison of alternatives was the most challenging stage. For most investments, the planning phase was considered more challenging than the implementation. Before making the decision, farmers acquired information from many sources, of which the opinion of the main customer and the experiences of fellow farmers were the most valued. Some of the products considered were so new on the market that it was not easy to get adequate information and, furthermore, the information given by suppliers was not always accurate. Decision-making was supported by calculations, but qualitative factors had a dominating role. Large basic decisions were made relatively quickly, while details needed a longer time to process. In general, farm managers were satisfied with their investments. Improvements in work quality and quantity were especially mentioned and generally qualitative factors were the ones first in mind when evaluating the successfulness of the investment.;

  14. Development of an appropriate resource information system to support agricultural management at farm enterprise level : a prototype design for a decision support system in Moghan Agro-industrial Complex, Iran

    Sharifi, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis describes development of and experimentation with a prototype of an appropriate resource information system that improves decision making processes in farm management The system includes a geographic information system with a powerful process model that forms a decision support

  15. Comparison of Management Styles in Organic and Conventional Farming with Respect to Disruptive External Influences. The Case of Organic Dairy Farming and Conventional Horticulture in the Netherlands

    Blom, M.; Gremmen, H.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional Dutch farming systems are constantly improving their technology to withstand disruptive external influences, while organic farming tends to focus on methods that stress conservation of natural and nonrenewable resources. We hypothesize that management styles to withstand disruptive

  16. Evaluation of wildlife management through organic farming

    Topping, Christopher John

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming has often been suggested as a way of increasing biodiversity in agricultural landscapes, but literature reports a variable success. The drivers in play are multi-factorial and include the particular species groups under consideration, the precise form of organic management, the la...

  17. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION

    The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and

  18. Grazing management for Nordic organic dairy farming

    Kuusela, Eeva

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify limiting factors and to develop adjusted grazing management for Nordic organic dairy farming conditions. The focus was to combine the aspects of plant, animal and organic production, as they are all involved in organic dairy pastures.

  19. A Financial Analysis Program That Will PASS the Farm Manager “Interest Testâ€

    Wilson, Christine; Bernard, Freddie; Boehlje, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses a farm financial analysis program, along with four features of the program that have facilitated its use by farm managers. The four features that appear to increase farm manager interest in the program are Performancebased, Accrual-adjusted income statement, System of financial analysis, and Simple to use. We illustrate this program with application to a farm firm case study.

  20. Identification of farmer characteristics and farm strategies explaining changes in environmental management and environmental and economic performance of dairy farms

    Ondersteijn, C.J.M.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    In 1998, the Mineral Accounting System (MINAS) was introduced in The Netherlands. MINAS penalises farms with a levy if the farm nutrient surpluses exceed a certain threshold. The threshold is strict, meaning that most farmers need to change their environmental management and performance to avoid

  1. Risk Management Education for Kentucky Farm Women

    Jennifer L. Hunter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how an agricultural and farm risk management education program, known as Annie’s Project, was adapted from a midwestern focus to meet the diversity of Kentucky agriculture and shares the results of a longer-term evaluation of the Kentucky program. The Annie’s Project program is geared specifically to the needs of farm women. The program adaption process, which began in late 2006, is detailed from inception through pilot testing to the full launch of the program. Over a four year period, the Kentucky Annie’s Project program reached 425 farm women in 41 of Kentucky’s 120 counties. The evaluation draws on the results of a questionnaire mailed to program participants 18 months to 5 years after programming. Participants reported statistically significant gains in all topical areas representing agricultural risk management education, including production, human resources, marketing, legal, and financial. Key actions which occurred as a result of participating in the program included increasing confidence in management abilities, reviewing personal/farm insurances policies, developing a network of peers and professionals, and using financial statements.

  2. Configuration Management Plan for the Tank Farm Contractor

    WEIR, W.R.

    2000-04-21

    The Configuration Management Plan for the Tank Farm Contractor describes configuration management the contractor uses to manage and integrate its technical baseline with the programmatic and functional operations to perform work. The Configuration Management Plan for the Tank Farm Contractor supports the management of the project baseline by providing the mechanisms to identify, document, and control the technical characteristics of the products, processes, and structures, systems, and components (SSC). This plan is one of the tools used to identify and provide controls for the technical baseline of the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC). The configuration management plan is listed in the management process documents for TFC as depicted in Attachment 1, TFC Document Structure. The configuration management plan is an integrated approach for control of technical, schedule, cost, and administrative processes necessary to manage the mission of the TFC. Configuration management encompasses the five functional elements of: (1) configuration management administration, (2) configuration identification, (3) configuration status accounting, (4) change control, and (5 ) configuration management assessments.

  3. Configuration Management Plan for the Tank Farm Contractor

    WEIR, W.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Configuration Management Plan for the Tank Farm Contractor describes configuration management the contractor uses to manage and integrate its technical baseline with the programmatic and functional operations to perform work. The Configuration Management Plan for the Tank Farm Contractor supports the management of the project baseline by providing the mechanisms to identify, document, and control the technical characteristics of the products, processes, and structures, systems, and components (SSC). This plan is one of the tools used to identify and provide controls for the technical baseline of the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC). The configuration management plan is listed in the management process documents for TFC as depicted in Attachment 1, TFC Document Structure. The configuration management plan is an integrated approach for control of technical, schedule, cost, and administrative processes necessary to manage the mission of the TFC. Configuration management encompasses the five functional elements of: (1) configuration management administration, (2) configuration identification, (3) configuration status accounting, (4) change control, and (5 ) configuration management assessments

  4. Participatory farm management adaptations to reduce environmental impact on commercial pilot dairy farms in the Netherlands

    Oenema, J.; Keulen, van H.; Schils, R.L.M.; Aarts, H.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Regulations in the Netherlands with respect to nutrient use force dairy farmers to improve nutrient management at the whole-farm level. On experimental farm ‘De Marke’, a coherent set of simple measures at farm level has been implemented, which has resulted in a drastic reduction in input of

  5. A road to food? : efficacy of nutrient management options targeted to heterogeneous soilscapes in the Teso farming system, Uganda

    Ebanyat, P.

    2009-01-01

    Key words: Land use change; Heterogeneity in soil fertility; Targeting; Integrated soil fertility management; Nutrient use efficiencies; Rehabilitation of degraded fields; Fertiliser requirements, Finger millet; QUEFTS model; Smallholder systems; sub-Saharan Africa.

    Poor soil fertility

  6. Climate change adaptation strategies: Water resources management options for smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa

    Ngigi, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record This report describes a study that evaluated water management systems and their potential to address water scarcity problems in sub-Saharan Africa. Stress on water availability induced by climate change is negatively affecting smallholders causing crop productivity to decline. This study also notes that political and financial support of these small-scale water management systems is very important for sustainability. These researchers argue that there needs to be a Blu...

  7. Automatic milking systems, farm size, and milk production.

    Rotz, C A; Coiner, C U; Soder, K J

    2003-12-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) offer relief from the demanding routine of milking. Although many AMS are in use in Europe and a few are used in the United States, the potential benefit for American farms is uncertain. A farm-simulation model was used to determine the long-term, whole-farm effect of implementing AMS on farm sizes of 30 to 270 cows. Highest farm net return to management and unpaid factors was when AMS were used at maximal milking capacity. Adding stalls to increase milking frequency and possibly increase production generally did not improve net return. Compared with new traditional milking systems, the greatest potential economic benefit was a single-stall AMS on a farm size of 60 cows at a moderate milk production level (8600 kg/cow). On other farm sizes using single-stall type robotic units, losses in annual net return of 0 dollars to 300 dollars/cow were projected, with the greatest losses on larger farms and at high milk production (10,900 kg/cow). Systems with one robot serving multiple stalls provided a greater net return than single-stall systems, and this net return was competitive with traditional parlors for 50- to 130-cow farm sizes. The potential benefit of AMS was improved by 100 dollars/cow per year if the AMS increased production an additional 5%. A 20% reduction in initial equipment cost or doubling milking labor cost also improved annual net return of an AMS by up to 100 dollars/cow. Annual net return was reduced by 110 dollars/cow, though, if the economic life of the AMS was reduced by 3 yr for a more rapid depreciation than that normally used with traditional milking systems. Thus, under current assumptions, the economic return for an AMS was similar to that of new parlor systems on smaller farms when the milking capacity of the AMS was well matched to herd size and milk production level.

  8. Smallholder tree farming systems for livelihood enhancement and carbon storage

    Roshetko, James Michael

    Smallholder agroforestry (tree farming) systems are prominent components of ‘trees outside the forest’. The hypothesis of this thesis is that smallholder tree-farming systems are viable agricultural and natural resources management systems that contribute significantly to global environmental goals...... and local economic objectives. The thesis supports the hypothesis by reviewing global and Asian trends of deforestation, human population growth, and demand for forest and tree products. The potential of smallholders’ treebased systems to expand regional forest resources, produce forest products...... development of smallholder systems, how genetic diversity of smallholder systems supports adaptation to climate change, and the capacity of smallholder systems to simultaneously produce marketable timber and agricultural crops....

  9. Importance of whole-farm risk management in agriculture

    Huirne, R.B.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Risk management is an increasingly important topic. At the farm level, it received little attention in Europe. Research indicates that whole-farm riskmanagement approaches, that is approaches in which multiple risks and farm activities are considered simultaneously, seem more efficient than `single

  10. The effect of organic farming systems on species diversity

    Leksono, Amin Setyo

    2017-11-01

    Organic farming systems have been well known to support the diversity of a wide range of taxa, including microorganisms, arable flora, invertebrates, birds, and mammals, which benefit from organic management leading to increases in abundance and/or species richness. The objective of this paper is to review the effect of organic farming on species diversity reported in several articles and compare this with the current study in Gondanglegi, Malang. A review of several studies showed that organic farming systems have been reported to increase species diversity, including that of mammals, birds, arthropods, vascular plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The researchers about arthropod groups consisted of carabid beetles, butterflies, wasps, predators, and bees. Agricultural landscape, habitat type, farming system, landscape composition and connectivity all contribute to explaining species biodiversity and richness. Moreover, based on current and relevant studies, the results showed that the application of refugia blocks has increased arthropod diversity and composition.

  11. Exploring the multifunctional role of farming systems

    Hermansen, John Erik; Noe, Egon; Halberg, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Public expectations of farming practices are changing from a demand for environmentally "sustainable farming practices" to farming making an "enhanced contribution to the development of the rural areas", the so-called multifunctionality. Based on our research model of including farmers...... in the development of eco-friendly farming systems, we propose that the achievement of these changed expectations could be facilitated through an appropriate research and development initiative in several European regions. Key elements in such a project sould include: (i) the establishment of platforms for dialogue...... makers and administrators, grassroots movements and research staff. It is expected that such a coordinated research initiative can revitalize the contribution of farming to rural development and yield important insight to be used by the individual farmer in coping with future challenges....

  12. Energy balance in olive oil farms: comparison of organic and conventional farming systems.

    Moreno, Marta M.; Meco, Ramón; Moreno, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The viability of an agricultural production system not only depends on the crop yields, but especially on the efficient use of available resources. However, the current agricultural systems depend heavily on non-renewable energy consumption in the form of fertilizers, fossil fuels, pesticides and machinery. In developed countries, the economic profitability of different productive systems is dependent on the granting of subsidies of diverse origin that affect both production factors (or inputs) and the final product (or output). Leaving such external aids, energy balance analysis reveals the real and most efficient form of management for each agroclimatic region, and is also directly related to the economic activity and the environmental state. In this work we compare the energy balance resulting from organic and conventional olive oil farms under the semi-arid conditions of Central Spain. The results indicate that the mean energy supplied to the organic farms was sensitively lower (about 30%) in comparison with the conventional management, and these differences were more pronounced for the biggest farms (> 15 ha). Mean energy outputs were about 20% lower in the organic system, although organic small farms (ratio scarcely reached 25%. Human labor item only represented a very small amount of the total energy input in both cases (less than 1%). As conclusions, both management systems were efficient from an energy point of view. The value of the organic production should be focused on the environmental benefits it provides, which are not usually considered in the conventional management on not valuing the damage it produces to the environment. Organic farming would improve the energy efficiency in these environmental conditions, offering a sustainable production with minimal inputs.

  13. Exploration of agro-ecological options for improving maize-based farming systems in Costa Chica, Guerrero, Mexico

    Flores Sanchez, D.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: farm diagnosis, farming systems, soil degradation, intercropping, maize, roselle, legumes, nutrient management, vermicompost, crop residues, decomposition, explorations. In the Costa Chica, a region of Southwest Mexico, farming systems are organized in smallholder units. The dominant cropping systems are based on maize (Zea mays L.), either as monocrop or intercropped with roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Continuous cropping, and unbalanced fertilizer management systems with an...

  14. Labour Management on Contemporary Kenyan Cut Flower Farms

    Riisgaard, Lone; Gibbon, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the labour management system applied since around 2005 on farms accounting for the bulk of the output of the Kenyan cut flower sector, and provides an analysis of the foundations of this system. Using categories drawn from convention theory, this system is characterized...... in terms of specific approaches to hiring, training and promotion; labour retention; work organization and worker deployment; payment systems and supervision, as well as to collective bargaining. In convention theory terms, the combination of approaches identified in Kenya embodies a mixture of ‘industrial...

  15. Farm Management in Organic and Conventional Dairy Production Systems Based on Pasture in Southern Brazil and Its Consequences on Production and Milk Quality

    Kuhnen, Shirley; Stibuski, Rudinei Butka; Honorato, Luciana Aparecida; Pinheiro Machado Filho, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This study provides the characteristics of the conventional high input (C-HI), conventional low input (C-LI), and organic low input (O-LI) pasture-based production systems used in Southern Brazil, and its consequences on production and milk quality. C-HI farms had larger farms and herds, annual pasture with higher inputs and milk yield, whereas O-LI had smaller farms and herds, perennial pastures with lowest input and milk yields; C-LI was in between. O-LI farms may contribute to eco-system services, but low milk yield is a major concern. Hygienic and microbiological milk quality was poor for all farms and needs to be improved. Abstract Pasture-based dairy production is used widely on family dairy farms in Southern Brazil. This study investigates conventional high input (C-HI), conventional low input (C-LI), and organic low input (O-LI) pasture-based systems and their effects on quantity and quality of the milk produced. We conducted technical site visits and interviews monthly over one year on 24 family farms (n = 8 per type). C-HI farms had the greatest total area (28.9 ha), greatest percentage of area with annual pasture (38.7%), largest number of lactating animals (26.2) and greatest milk yield per cow (22.8 kg·day−1). O-LI farms had the largest perennial pasture area (52.3%), with the greatest botanical richness during all seasons. Area of perennial pasture was positively correlated with number of species consumed by the animals (R2 = 0.74). Milk from O-LI farms had higher levels of fat and total solids only during the winter. Hygienic and microbiological quality of the milk was poor for all farms and need to be improved. C-HI farms had high milk yield related to high input, C-LI had intermediate characteristics and O-LI utilized a year round perennial pasture as a strategy to diminish the use of supplements in animal diets, which is an important aspect in ensuring production sustainability. PMID:26479369

  16. 76 FR 34985 - Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board Meeting

    2011-06-15

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the...

  17. Comparing technical efficiency of farms with an automatic milking system and a conventional milking system.

    Steeneveld, W; Tauer, L W; Hogeveen, H; Oude Lansink, A G J M

    2012-12-01

    Changing from a conventional milking system (CMS) to an automatic milking system (AMS) necessitates a new management approach and a corresponding change in labor tasks. Together with labor savings, AMS farms have been found to have higher capital costs, primarily because of higher maintenance costs and depreciation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that AMS farms differ from CMS farms in capital:labor ratio and possibly their technical efficiency, at least during a transition learning period. The current study used actual farm accounting data from dairy farms in the Netherlands with an AMS and a CMS to investigate the empirical substitution of capital for labor in the AMS farms and to determine if the technical efficiency of the AMS farms differed from the CMS farms. The technical efficiency estimates were obtained with data envelopment analysis. The 63 AMS farms and the 337 CMS farms in the data set did not differ in general farm characteristics such as the number of cows, number of hectares, and the amount of milk quota. Farms with AMS have significantly higher capital costs (€12.71 per 100 kg of milk) than CMS farms (€10.10 per 100 kg of milk). Total labor costs and net outputs were not significantly different between AMS and CMS farms. A clear substitution of capital for labor with the adoption of an AMS could not be observed. Although the AMS farms have a slightly lower technical efficiency (0.76) than the CMS farms (0.78), a significant difference in these estimates was not observed. This indicates that the farms were not different in their ability to use inputs (capital, labor, cows, and land) to produce outputs (total farm revenues). The technical efficiency of farms invested in an AMS in 2008 or earlier was not different from the farms invested in 2009 or 2010, indicating that a learning effect during the transition period was not observed. The results indicate that the economic performance of AMS and CMS farms are similar. What these results show is that

  18. Assessment of herd management on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    Stiglbauer, K E; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Richert, R; Schukken, Y H; Ruegg, P L; Gamroth, M

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate management characteristics on organic and similarly sized conventional dairy farms located in New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon. Data from 192 organic farms (ORG), 64 conventional nongrazing farms (CON-NG), and 36 conventional grazing farms (CON-GR) were collected during farm visits and were size-matched and analyzed. The average lactation number of animals on ORG and CON-GR farms was 2.6 lactations, which was greater than that on CON-NG farms (2.3 lactations). A greater percentage of first-lactation heifers were found on conventional farms than on ORG farms. Facilities used by adult animals, including housing and milking facilities, did not differ among the grazing systems. Cattle on conventional farms were fed approximately twice as much grain as cattle on ORG farms and had greater milk production. Little difference was found for the average reported somatic cell count and standard plate count, suggesting that milk quality is not dependent on grazing system. Milking procedures were similar across all 3 grazing systems, indicating that an industry standard now exists for milking and that milk quality problems will need to be addressed with other management problems in mind. Although some disease prevention measures were commonly utilized on ORG farms, such as keeping a closed herd and having a written record of treatments administered to the animals, the use of outside support and vaccinations were found to be less prevalent on organic farms than on conventional farms. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Combining Organic and Mineral Fertilizers for Integrated Soil Fertility Management in Smallholder Farming Systems of Kenya: Explorations Using the Crop-Soil Model FIELD

    Tittonell, P.A.; Corbeels, M.; Wijk, van M.T.; Vanlauwe, B.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) technologies for African smallholders should consider (i) within-farm soil heterogeneity; (ii) long-term dynamics and variability; (iii) manure quality and availability; (iv) access to fertilizers; and (v) competing uses for crop residues. We used the

  20. Nutrient management strategies on Dutch dairy farms: an empirical analysis

    Ondersteijn, C.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Key Words: MINAS; nitrogen surplus; phosphate surplus; nutrient efficiency; nutrient productivity; financial consequences; strategic management; perceived environmental uncertainty; nutrient management planning; dairy farming; The Netherlands.

    Agricultural nutrients are a

  1. 12 CFR 615.5182 - Interest rate risk management by associations and other Farm Credit System institutions other...

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate risk management by associations... OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Risk Assessment and Management § 615.5182 Interest rate risk management by... shall comply with the requirements of §§ 615.5180 and 615.5181. The interest rate risk management...

  2. 12 CFR 1400.1 - Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation. 1400.1 Section 1400.1 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Organization and Functions § 1400.1 Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation. The Farm Credit...

  3. A Wind Farm Electrical Systems Evaluation with EeFarm-II

    Pierik, J.; Axelsson, U.; Eriksson, E.; Salomonsson, D.; Bauer, P.; Czech, B.

    2010-01-01

    EeFarm-II is used to evaluate 13 different electrical systems for a 200 MW wind farm with a 100 km connection to shore. The evaluation is based on component manufacturer data of 2009. AC systems are compared to systems with DC connections inside the wind farm and DC connection to shore. Two options

  4. SUSTAINABLE FARMS: INTEGRATION OF AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS

    Manolo Muñoz-Espinosa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The inappropriate use of agrochemicals and technologies in farming systems can cause an accelerated deterioration of agricultural and soil pollution. Thus, agriculture and livestock are becoming an environmental problem in the world, which implies the need to assess the efficiency of agricultural production systems related to sustainability. The traditional peasant system is apparently unsustainable, while farm with an integral production approach have better opportunities for development over time as they tend to sustainability. This type of farms incorporate productive alternatives that improve as a whole, the system and the livelihood of the peasants. The trends towards sustainability of farms are mainly due to a better land use. As well as, implementing systems adapted to each soil and production type to ensure profitability and persistence, achieving the highest possible agricultural productivity. The urgency to produce food for a growing population is almost a paradigm that reinforces the imperative for maximum yield per unit area, and creates a vision of the rural world aimed at increasing profit at the expense of the attributes and core values of livelihood in rural areas. It can be concluded that the integrated farming articulate various subsystems, which working together could allow higher sustainability of agricultural production practices, environmentally friendly, safeguarding the food sovereignty of the population and improving the quality of life of farmers

  5. Assessment of Farming Systems for Sustainability of Farming Activities in the Mazandaran Province

    H. Moumenihelali

    2016-03-01

    criteria were identified as sustainability criteria for agricultural activities in the province along with Cooperative, Commercial and Peasant alternatives as the dominant farming system in the present study. Consequently, the identification of the most suitable farming system for sustainable agricultural activities in the province serves as the main objective of this research. Materials and Methods: The study adopted an applied survey approach to conduct the study in 2014 in Mazandaran. The statistical population comprised of all professionals and experts working in the field of sustainability aspects and farming systems with a deep understanding and sufficient information on the issue being selected through purposive and snowball sampling summing up to 15 subjects. A questionnaire was used to collect data. In order to determine the face and content validities, the professors’ and specialists’ comments were taken into account and to estimate the reliability, the inconsistency rate was used. To achieve the main objective, the analytic hierarchy process technique by considering 5 criteria and 33 sub-criteria on three farming types (cooperative, commercial and peasant were used. The Expert Choice software 2000 was applied for data analysis. It should be noted that the analytic hierarchy process is a multi-criteria decision-making approach being based on paired comparison which enables managers and policymakers to review various scenarios. Likewise, it is sought to consider the experts’ opinions from the most central units involved instead of focusing on the number of decision-makers. Results and Discussion: Based on the results and considering criteria prioritization reveal the fact that the ecological,policy, social dimensions compared with the economic and technical criteria remain more imperative. Therefore, the ecological, political and social dimensions are the most important aspects of agricultural activities sustainability in the province. Hence, it can be

  6. Sustainable agriculture: how to make it work? : a modeling approach to support management of a mixed ecological farm

    Wolfert, S.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: sustainable agriculture; organic farming; whole farm management; decision support; farming systems research; designing; modeling; beta-gamma integration

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to develop a model that helps

  7. Optimization-based power management of hybrid power systems with applications in advanced hybrid electric vehicles and wind farms with battery storage

    Borhan, Hoseinali

    Modern hybrid electric vehicles and many stationary renewable power generation systems combine multiple power generating and energy storage devices to achieve an overall system-level efficiency and flexibility which is higher than their individual components. The power or energy management control, "brain" of these "hybrid" systems, determines adaptively and based on the power demand the power split between multiple subsystems and plays a critical role in overall system-level efficiency. This dissertation proposes that a receding horizon optimal control (aka Model Predictive Control) approach can be a natural and systematic framework for formulating this type of power management controls. More importantly the dissertation develops new results based on the classical theory of optimal control that allow solving the resulting optimal control problem in real-time, in spite of the complexities that arise due to several system nonlinearities and constraints. The dissertation focus is on two classes of hybrid systems: hybrid electric vehicles in the first part and wind farms with battery storage in the second part. The first part of the dissertation proposes and fully develops a real-time optimization-based power management strategy for hybrid electric vehicles. Current industry practice uses rule-based control techniques with "else-then-if" logic and look-up maps and tables in the power management of production hybrid vehicles. These algorithms are not guaranteed to result in the best possible fuel economy and there exists a gap between their performance and a minimum possible fuel economy benchmark. Furthermore, considerable time and effort are spent calibrating the control system in the vehicle development phase, and there is little flexibility in real-time handling of constraints and re-optimization of the system operation in the event of changing operating conditions and varying parameters. In addition, a proliferation of different powertrain configurations may

  8. Nutrient management in farms in conversion to organic

    Kolbe, Hartmut

    2008-01-01

    This report, adapted for Saxony, serves converting farmers supported by local advisors as a guideline for a balanced nutrient management at farm level. Essentials of nutrient supply and management measures to consider during the conversion are described to guarantee a successful farming with a naturally based nutrient management. Especially for the conversion phase it is recommended to calculate nitrogen balance after each crop rotation with the help of advisors. This report shows the me...

  9. Management practices associated with the carriage of Yersinia enterocolitica in pigs at farm level.

    Vilar, María J; Virtanen, Sonja; Heinonen, Mari; Korkeala, Hannu

    2013-07-01

    Pigs are the most important reservoir of Yersinia enterocolitica infections in humans. Knowledge of farm management practices that contribute to the transmission of this bacterial species in pigs is essential to understand how to control this foodborne pathogen in food production. The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica, and other results obtained from an age trend analysis were used to estimate the on-farm risk of transmission of specific management practices for this pathogen in 30 pig farms in Finland. Log-linear analysis revealed that rearing pigs in pens without or with sparse amounts of bedding and buying piglets from more than one farm were the variables that contribute most to the occurrence of Y. enterocolitica. The study also found that using an all-in/all-out management system and supplying water of municipal origin were factors that might reduce the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica, and therefore the risk of transmission of Y. enterocolitica in pig farms.

  10. The prospects for whole-farm risk management

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Whole-farm risk management approaches, i.e. approaches in which multiple risks and farm activities are considered simultaneously, seem more efficient than ‘single risk and commodity strategies’. This paper first discusses the results of a questionnaire survey among livestock and arable farmers in

  11. The effects of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence and the current internal parasite control measures employed on Irish dairy farms.

    Selemetas, Nikolaos; Phelan, Paul; O'Kiely, Padraig; de Waal, Theo

    2015-01-30

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is responsible for major production losses in cattle farms. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence on Irish dairy farms and to document the current control measures against parasitic diseases. In total, 369 dairy farms throughout Ireland were sampled from October to December 2013, each providing a single bulk tank milk (BTM) sample for liver fluke antibody-detection ELISA testing and completing a questionnaire on their farm management. The analysis of samples showed that cows on 78% (n=288) of dairy farms had been exposed to liver fluke. There was a difference (P0.05) between positive and negative farms in (a) the grazing of dry cows together with replacement cows, (b) whether or not grazed grassland was mowed for conservation, (c) the type of drinking water provision system, (d) spreading of cattle manure on grassland or (e) for grazing season length (GSL; mean=262.5 days). Also, there were differences (Pmanagement practices between Irish farms with dairy herds exposed or not exposed to liver fluke and stressed the need of fine-scale mapping of the disease patterns even at farm level to increase the accuracy of risk models. Also, comprehensive advice and professional support services to farmers on appropriate farm management practices are very important for an effective anthelmintic control strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Differences in characteristics between suicide cases of farm managers compared to those of farm labourers in Queensland, Australia.

    Arnautovska, Urska; McPhedran, Samara; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Farmers constitute an occupation group at a heightened suicide risk compared to the general population. To date, research has tried to explain this peculiarity by identifying suicide risk factors that are common to the whole of the farming population. There are, however, indications that risk factors may be different for different sub-populations of farmers, such as younger/older farmers or farm managers/farm labourers. This study compared the characteristics of suicides by farm managers and farm labourers, while controlling for the effect of age. A review of two datasets, the Queensland Suicide Register and the National Coroners Information System, was conducted in which a total of 78 cases of farm managers and 69 cases of farm labourers were identified as a suicide during 2000-2009, Queensland, Australia. The main outcome measures included various demographic characteristics, circumstances related to death, health and mental health variables, and history of stressful life events. The two groups differed in marital status, living arrangements, ethnicity, physical and mental illness, alcohol and drug abuse, contact with a health professional prior to death, and specific life events such as relationship breakdown and recent/pending unemployment. The majority of these differences were not statistically significant once age was accounted for. However, differences in psychiatric variables and experience of a recent/pending unemployment remained significant. This study contributes towards better understanding of suicide among farmers in different job positions, and highlights the need for tailored suicide prevention initiatives that consider a combination of age- and job-specific suicide risk and protective factors among farmers.

  13. Yield gaps in Dutch arable farming systems

    Nunes Vieira da Silva, Joao; Reidsma, Pytrik; Ittersum, van Martin K.

    2017-01-01

    Arable farming systems in the Netherlands are characterized by crop rotations in which potato, sugar beet, spring onion, winter wheat and spring barley are the most important crops. The objectives of this study were to decompose crop yield gaps within such rotations into efficiency, resource and

  14. A Wind Farm Electrical Systems Evaluation with EeFarm-II

    Jan Pierik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available EeFarm-II is used to evaluate 13 different electrical systems for a 200 MW wind farm with a 100 km connection to shore. The evaluation is based on component manufacturer data of 2009. AC systems are compared to systems with DC connections inside the wind farm and DC connection to shore. Two options have the best performance for this wind farm size and distance: the AC system and the system with a DC connection to shore. EeFarm-II is a user friendly computer program for wind farm electrical and economic evaluation. It has been built as a Simulink Library in the graphical interface of Matlab-Simulink. EeFarm-II contains models of wind turbines, generators, transformers, AC cables, inductors, nodes, splitters, PWM converters, thyristor converters, DC cables, choppers and statcoms.

  15. CleverFarm - A superSCADA system for wind farms

    Juhl, A.; Hansen, K.G.; Giebhardt, J.

    2004-01-01

    The CleverFarm project started out to build an integrated monitoring system for wind farms, where all information would be available and could be used across the wind farm for maintenance and component health assessments. This would enable wind farmoperators to prioritise their efforts, since the...

  16. A SURVEY OF FARM TRACTOR MANAGEMENT IN ZAMFARA STATE

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... farm tractor, maintenance, management, mechanization, survey study. 1. Introduction ... demand for agricultural operations, there is an ever .... 3rd Ed., AVI Publishing. Company, Inc., Westport, Connecticut, 1978. 8. Apollos ...

  17. TRACKING FARM MANAGEMENT PRACTICES WITH REMOTE SENSING

    J. P. Stals

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Earth observation (EO data is effective in monitoring agricultural cropping activity over large areas. An example of such an application is the GeoTerraImage crop type classification for the South African Crop Estimates Committee (CEC. The satellite based classification of crop types in South Africa provides a large scale, spatial and historical record of agricultural practices in the main crop growing areas. The results from these classifications provides data for the analysis of trends over time, in order to extract valuable information that can aid decision making in the agricultural sector. Crop cultivation practices change over time as farmers adapt to demand, exchange rate and new technology. Through the use of remote sensing, grain crop types have been identified at field level since 2008, providing a historical data set of cropping activity for the three most important grain producing provinces of Mpumalanga, Freestate and North West province in South Africa. This historical information allows the analysis of farm management practices to identify changes and trends in crop rotation and irrigation practices. Analysis of crop type classification over time highlighted practices such as: frequency of cultivation of the same crop on a field, intensified cultivation on centre pivot irrigated fields with double cropping of a winter grain followed by a summer grain in the same year and increasing cultivation of certain types of crops over time such as soyabeans. All these practices can be analysed in a quantitative spatial and temporal manner through the use of the remote sensing based crop type classifications.

  18. Effects of farming systems on ground-water quality at the management systems evaluation area near Princeton, Minnesota, 1991-95

    Landon, M.K.; Delin, G.N.; Lamb, J.A.; Anderson, J.L.; Dowdy, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water quality in an unconfined sand and gravel aquifer was monitored during 1991-95 at the Minnesota Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) near Princeton, Minnesota. The objectives of the study were to:

  19. Production Flexibility in Extensive Beef Farming Systems

    Laura Astigarraga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the flexibility of production allowed by extensive production conditions faced with variations in the environment, i.e., market variations and climatic fluctuations, of Limousin beef systems. The study used a case-based methodology in which seven beef farms with less than 1 LU/ha were chosen. Data collection was based on three interviews using a semistructured questionnaire and on the analysis of productive and economic results over a 15-year period (1991-2005. The main evolution of these farms is related to a rise in work productivity associated with an increase in herd size. Herd increase was made possible by enlarging the area, the margin of intensification being limited in these regions. To take advantage of the enlarged land area, females were reared for fattening or for reproduction instead of selling them at weaning. The Limousin female provides a wide product mix because of its plasticity, as has been studied by several researchers. This mix flexibility is achieved by delaying product differentiation, a form of production flexibility that can reduce the risk of under-producing or over-producing varied product configurations. On the other hand, calves sold to the Italian market after weaning are generic products, associated with a flexible production process to overcome fluctuations in forage availability due to climatic variations. The introduction of maize silage for feeding acts as an alternative route, actual and potential, through the system to overcome unexpected forage shortage from natural grasslands as a result of droughts. The study shows that extensive farming systems have developed types of flexibility to match different factors of uncertainty from the environment. Finally, the issue of farm system performance is thus not so much a question of whether a farm is fit at a specific moment in time, but whether it transforms into a less or more sustainable orientation.

  20. Not so ‘invisible’: A Qualitative Case Study Exploring Gender Relations and Farm Management Software

    Dale Carolyn Mackrell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative case study explored farm management practices by women cotton growers who used computer-based information systems, most particularly the agricultural farm management software, CottonLOGIC, within the Australian cotton industry. This study found that, although gender differences and inequalities persist in rural parts of the region, the agency of women cotton growers ensures not only a sustainable future for themselves and their families, but also for the broader cotton industry as a whole. The use of farm management software by women cotton farmers was informed by Connell’s theoretical framework of gender relations (2002. The findings suggested that, women’s active participation in family farm partnerships and their acquisition of technological skills through the use of farm management software like CottonLOGIC, meant that all cotton growers benefit through the feminizing of specific farm management practices in family farm enterprises. This, therefore, has significant implications for developing the cotton industry into a truly sustainable entity.

  1. Adding a soil fertility dimension to the global farming systems approach, with cases from Africa

    Smaling, E.M.A.; Dixon, J.

    2006-01-01

    The global farming systems (GFS) approach is extended by adding a soil fertility and nutrient management dimension for Africa's forest-based, maize mixed, cereal¿root crop mixed, and agro-pastoral millet/sorghum farming systems. Use is made of sustainable livelihood concepts, translated into farmer

  2. Exploration of agro-ecological options for improving maize-based farming systems in Costa Chica, Guerrero, Mexico

    Flores Sanchez, D.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: farm diagnosis, farming systems, soil degradation, intercropping, maize, roselle, legumes, nutrient management, vermicompost, crop residues, decomposition, explorations.

    In the Costa Chica, a region of Southwest Mexico, farming systems are organized in

  3. Farm Management Support on Cloud Computing Platform: A System for Cropland Monitoring Using Multi-Source Remotely Sensed Data

    Coburn, C. A.; Qin, Y.; Zhang, J.; Staenz, K.

    2015-12-01

    Food security is one of the most pressing issues facing humankind. Recent estimates predict that over one billion people don't have enough food to meet their basic nutritional needs. The ability of remote sensing tools to monitor and model crop production and predict crop yield is essential for providing governments and farmers with vital information to ensure food security. Google Earth Engine (GEE) is a cloud computing platform, which integrates storage and processing algorithms for massive remotely sensed imagery and vector data sets. By providing the capabilities of storing and analyzing the data sets, it provides an ideal platform for the development of advanced analytic tools for extracting key variables used in regional and national food security systems. With the high performance computing and storing capabilities of GEE, a cloud-computing based system for near real-time crop land monitoring was developed using multi-source remotely sensed data over large areas. The system is able to process and visualize the MODIS time series NDVI profile in conjunction with Landsat 8 image segmentation for crop monitoring. With multi-temporal Landsat 8 imagery, the crop fields are extracted using the image segmentation algorithm developed by Baatz et al.[1]. The MODIS time series NDVI data are modeled by TIMESAT [2], a software package developed for analyzing time series of satellite data. The seasonality of MODIS time series data, for example, the start date of the growing season, length of growing season, and NDVI peak at a field-level are obtained for evaluating the crop-growth conditions. The system fuses MODIS time series NDVI data and Landsat 8 imagery to provide information of near real-time crop-growth conditions through the visualization of MODIS NDVI time series and comparison of multi-year NDVI profiles. Stakeholders, i.e., farmers and government officers, are able to obtain crop-growth information at crop-field level online. This unique utilization of GEE in

  4. Ecosystem Services in Biologically Diversified versus Conventional Farming Systems: Benefits, Externalities, and Trade-Offs

    Claire Kremen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that biological diversification across ecological, spatial, and temporal scales maintains and regenerates the ecosystem services that provide critical inputs - such as maintenance of soil quality, nitrogen fixation, pollination, and pest control - to agriculture. Agrobiodiversity is sustained by diversified farming practices and it also supplies multiple ecosystem services to agriculture, thus reducing environmental externalities and the need for off-farm inputs. We reviewed the literature that compares biologically diversified farming systems with conventional farming systems, and we examined 12 ecosystem services: biodiversity; soil quality; nutrient management; water-holding capacity; control of weeds, diseases, and pests; pollination services; carbon sequestration; energy efficiency and reduction of warming potential; resistance and resilience to climate change; and crop productivity. We found that compared with conventional farming systems, diversified farming systems support substantially greater biodiversity, soil quality, carbon sequestration, and water-holding capacity in surface soils, energy-use efficiency, and resistance and resilience to climate change. Relative to conventional monocultures, diversified farming systems also enhance control of weeds, diseases, and arthropod pests and they increase pollination services; however, available evidence suggests that these practices may often be insufficient to control pests and diseases or provide sufficient pollination. Significantly less public funding has been applied to agroecological research and the improvement of diversified farming systems than to conventional systems. Despite this lack of support, diversified farming systems have only somewhat reduced mean crop productivity relative to conventional farming systems, but they produce far fewer environmental and social harms. We recommend that more research and crop breeding be conducted to improve diversified farming

  5. Life cycle management on Swiss fruit farms. Relating environmental and income indicators for apple-growing

    Mouron, Patrik; Scholz, Roland W.; Weber, Olaf [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH, Department of Environmental Sciences, Institute for Human-Environment Systems, ETH Zentrum, HAD, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Nemecek, Thomas [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station of Agroecology and Agriculture, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-06-25

    Integrated fruit production (IFP) has been practiced in Switzerland on a large scale basis since the late 1980s, with the aim of improving sustainable farming. The guidelines of IFP emphasise an ecosystem approach that is based on scientific knowledge about self-regulatory mechanisms at the tree and orchard level. Empirical studies at the farm level are rare. An understanding of the relationship between income and environmental impacts at the farm level is a prerequisite for devising a robust system for orchard portfolio management. An income analysis based on full cost principle and environmental life cycle assessment were applied to 445 annual data sets of apple orchards, recorded on 12 specialised fruit farms over a period of 4 years. The main result was that environmental impacts such as ecotoxicity, eutrophication and non-renewable energy use did not necessarily increase when farms increased their income. A higher input level of pesticides, fertilisers and machinery did not lead to increased yields and receipts. In contrast, the choice of apple cultivars and high investment in pre-harvest labour hours were significantly correlated with high eco-efficiency and high farm income. The results of this study were summarised in a pyramid-shaped management model, providing key issues of successful orchard farming and attributing management rules to master them. The management pyramid indicates that cognitive competences such as distributional, conditional and non-linear thinking are crucial when knowledge from tree and orchard management is integrated at the farm level. A main recommendation is that more attention should be paid to improving management competence in order to contribute to sustainable farming. (author)

  6. Farm structure or farm management: effective ways to reduce nutrient surpluses on dairy farms and their financial impacts

    Ondersteijn, C.J.M.; Beldman, A.C.G.; Daatselaar, C.H.G.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    .To control and prevent nutrient pollution from agricultural non-point sources, the Dutch government introduced the Mineral Accounting System (MINAS), a nutrient bookkeeping system which taxes farms with nutrient surpluses exceeding safe threshold values. Since the levies can be severe it is

  7. Evaluation of wildlife management through organic farming

    Topping, Christopher John

    2011-01-01

    for six common agricultural wildlife species. ALMaSS outputs can be expressed as a simple index of relative change in abundance and distribution, allowing easy comparison between scenarios. Results indicate that organic farming generally had a beneficial effect, but the degree was variable with all...

  8. Energy management and energy autonomy of French farms: status and perspectives of action for public authorities

    2005-01-01

    This report aims at giving the present state of knowledge about possible energy savings and renewable energy production in farms, and at proposing a hierarchy of actions and measures for a better energy management and energy autonomy in French farms. As far as knowledge is concerned, the authors discuss an assessment of agriculture energy consumption in France, analyse energy costs in farms, discuss the assessment of the global energy consumption by farms, and propose a first estimate of possible energy savings. Actions leading to energy savings or renewable energy production concern various aspects: the production system, agricultural techniques, crops, use of pure vegetal oil, biogas, solar heater, solar drying, buildings, greenhouses, biomass boilers, vegetal oil cogeneration, photovoltaic energy, wind energy. Key actions are identified which concern nitrogen management, wood energy, biogas, energy management, use of cereals for heating, and so on

  9. Phytoestrogens and Their Metabolites in Bulk-Tank Milk: Effects of Farm Management and Season

    Adler, Steffen A; Purup, Stig; Hansen-Møller, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Phytoestrogens have structures similar to endogenous steroids and may induce or inhibit the response of hormone receptors. The objectives of the present study were to compare the effects of long-term vs. short-term grassland management in organic and conventional dairy production systems, compare...... organic and conventional production systems and assess seasonal variation on phytoestrogen concentrations in bulk-tank milk. The concentrations of phytoestrogens were analyzed in bulk-tank milk sampled three times in two subsequent years from 28 dairy farms: Fourteen organic (ORG) dairy farms with either...... short-term or long-term grassland management were paired with 14 conventional (CON) farms with respect to grassland management. Grassland management varied in terms of time since establishment. Short-term grassland management (SG) was defined as establishment or reseeding every fourth year or more often...

  10. An Analysis of Profitability Factors for Selected Farming Types in the Minnesota Vocational Agriculture Farm Management Education Program.

    Kleene, Marvin

    1980-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the impact profitability factors have on farm labor earnings for farms enrolled in the Minnesota Vocational Agriculture Farm Management Education Program. The most important predictors of labor earnings were size of business, gross return per cropped acre, and index return per $100 of feed fed. (LRA)

  11. Farm Business Management Analysis: Adjusting the Farm Business to Increase Profit. Unit III. Volume 15, Number 3. Instructor's Guide.

    Denker, Robert; And Others

    Designed primarily for Missouri vocational agricultural instructors participating in the Farm Business Management Analysis Program, this instructor's guide, consisting of 10 lessons, deals with adjusting a farm business to increase profits. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons: law and the farm family, planning income tax…

  12. Economic consequences of investing in sensor systems on dairy farms

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of investment in sensor systems on productivity change, using farm accounting data. Farm accounting data for the years 2008–2013 was available for 217 Dutch dairy farms. In addition, information was available on the adoption of sensor systems

  13. Wind farm - A power source in future power systems

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    wind turbines and wind farms, and then introduces the wind power development and wind farms. An optimization platform for designing electrical systems of offshore wind farms is briefed. The major issues related to the grid connection requirements and the operation of wind turbines/farms in power......The paper describes modern wind power systems, introduces the issues of large penetration of wind power into power systems, and discusses the possible methods of making wind turbines/farms act as a power source, like conventional power plants in power systems. Firstly, the paper describes modern...... systems are illustrated....

  14. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2008-01-01

      The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production.......  Further, there is little knowledge about the plant nutrient value of animal manure, and about technologies for environmentally-friendly manure management. This lack of knowledge enhances the risk of polluting the environment by inappropriate use of livestock manure and is also a potential risk...... for transferring pathogens between livestock and from livestock to humans (zoonoses). The objective of this article is to describe manure management at livestock farms in Vietnam. The focus is on presenting the most typical farming concepts, manure management on these farms, environmental and hygienic risks...

  15. Game farming as a supplementary farming activity in the Karoo ...

    Game farming as a supplementary farming activity in the Karoo. ... Veld management in a game farming situation poses problems due to the ineffectiveness of rotational grazing systems. Simplification of natural ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. Limits of effective nutrient management in dairy farming: analyses of experimental farm De Marke

    Verloop, K.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: nutrient management, dairy, prototyping, organic matter, soil fertility, nitrogen, phosphor.

    Intensive dairy production in the Netherlands is associated with high farm nutrient (N and P) inputs and high losses to the environment. The Dutch government and the dairy sector

  17. The effect of dairy farm management regime on swallow (Hirundo rustica) abundance in the Netherlands

    Lubbe, S.K.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To identify differences in Swallow abundance between organically and conventionally managed dairy farms, by examining three factors: farm buildings, food availability and farmer attitudes to Swallows. Methods Organic and conventional dairy farm holdings were compared in pairwise fashion. On

  18. Weed species diversity in organic and integrated farming systems

    Magdalena Jastrzębska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phytosociological data were collected in 1994–1996 in plots (relevés at the Research Station for Organic Farming and Conservation Breeding of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Popielno included in a large-area experiment conducted according to the concept and method proposed by Prof. S. Nawrocki. In a four-field crop rotation (root crops – spring barley undersown with red clover and grasses – red clover/grass mixture – winter triticale, each field was divided into two management units, organic and integrated. Data were collected in relevés by the Braun-Blanquet method, each year at the peak of the growing season. Weed abundance (% cover in cultivated fields and the number of weed species (species richness in crops were determined, which provided a basis for calculating the Shannon-Wiener indices of species diversity and evenness, and the Rényi profiles. The qualitative (species and quantitative structure of weed communities was compared using the Sørensen index. A total of 115 weed taxa (species, subspecies and varieties were identified in the examined agro-phytocenoses. Echinochloa crus-galli, Chenopodium album, Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Thlaspi arvense and Stellaria media were the most abundant. Weed infestation was slightly higher in the organic farming system than in the integrated system. Organic farming contributed to higher weed species diversity in root crops, red clover/grass mixtures and winter triticale. Weed species richness was reduced in red clover/grass stands, while root crops and – to a lesser degree – spring barley undersown with red clover and grasses decreased weed species diversity. The species composition and in particular the quantitative structure of weeds were affected by crop species and cultivation regime rather than by the farming system. Weed communities of crops grown under organic and integrated farming systems were more similar with regard to species composition

  19. Comparisons of management practices and farm design on Australian commercial layer and meat chicken farms: Cage, barn and free range.

    Scott, Angela Bullanday; Singh, Mini; Toribio, Jenny-Ann; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; Barnes, Belinda; Glass, Kathryn; Moloney, Barbara; Lee, Amanda; Groves, Peter

    2017-01-01

    There are few published studies describing the unique management practices, farm design and housing characteristics of commercial meat chicken and layer farms in Australia. In particular, there has been a large expansion of free range poultry production in Australia in recent years, but limited information about this enterprise exists. This study aimed to describe features of Australian commercial chicken farms, with particular interest in free range farms, by conducting on-farm interviews of 25 free range layer farms, nine cage layer farms, nine barn layer farms, six free range meat chicken farms and 15 barn meat chicken farms in the Sydney basin bioregion and South East Queensland. Comparisons between the different enterprises (cage, barn and free range) were explored, including stocking densities, depopulation procedures, environmental control methods and sources of information for farmers. Additional information collected for free range farms include range size, range characteristics and range access. The median number of chickens per shed was greatest in free range meat chicken farms (31,058), followed by barn meat chicken (20,817), free range layer (10,713), barn layer (9,300) and cage layer farms (9,000). Sheds had cooling pads and tunnel ventilation in just over half of both barn and free range meat chicken farms (53%, n = 8) and was least common in free range layer farms (16%, n = 4). Range access in free range meat chicken farms was from sunrise to dark in the majority (93%, n = 14) of free range meat chicken farms. Over half of free range layer farms (56%, n = 14) granted range access at a set time each morning; most commonly between 9:00 to 10.00am (86%, n = 12), and chickens were placed back inside sheds when it was dusk.

  20. Wind Turbine Converter Control Interaction with Complex Wind Farm Systems

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    . The same wind turbine converter control strategy is evaluated in two different wind farms. It is emphasised that the grid-side converter controller should be characterised by sufficient harmonic/noise rejection and adjusted depending on wind farms to which it is connected. Various stability indices......This study presents wind turbine converter stability analysis of wind farms in frequency domain. The interaction between the wind turbine control system and the wind farm structure in wind farms is deeply investigated. Two wind farms (i.e. Horns Rev II and Karnice) are taken into consideration...... in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability...

  1. Agro-ecological system analysis (AESA) and farm plannning

    Vaarst, Mette; Nalunga, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Organic agriculture is based on knowledge, insight and whole farm approaches. The farming system must work for each farmer family. Crop rotation cycles must be based on planning ahead, sometimes more than 2 years, so that different elements of the farm can work together. Intercropping must be bas...

  2. Life cycle assessment of manure management and nutrient recycling from a Chinese pig farm.

    Luo, Yiming; Stichnothe, Heinz; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Huaitalla, Roxana Mendoza; Xu, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Driven by the growing numbers of intensified pig farms around cities in China, there are problems of nutrient surplus and shortage of arable land for utilising the manure. Hence, sustainable livestock systems with effective manure management are needed. The objective of this study is to compare the existing manure treatment of a typical pig farm in Beijing area (separate collection of faeces; 'Gan qing fen' system) with an alternative system and to identify the nutrients flow of the whole farm in order to quantify environmental burdens and to estimate the arable land required for sustainable nutrients recycling. Life cycle assessment is used for this purpose. Acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP) and global warming potential (GWP) are analysed in detail; the functional unit is the annual production of the pig farm. The results show that the cropland area demand for sustainable land application of the effluent can be reduced from 238 to 139 ha with the alternative system. It is possible to transfer 29% of total nitrogen, 87% of phosphorus, 34% of potassium and 75% of magnesium to the compost, and to reduce the total AP, EP and GWP of manure management on the farm by 64.1%, 96.7% and 22%, respectively, compared with the current system. Besides an effective manure management system, a full inventory of the regional nutrients flow is needed for sustainable development of livestock systems around big cities in China.

  3. Environmental Implications of Eco-Labeling for Rice Farming Systems

    Solhee Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change have forced countries to strengthen regulations, standards, and certifications related to greenhouse gas emissions. Various policies targeting farm products, such as carbon labeling and the Environmentally-Friendly Agricultural Product Certification (EFAPC for agricultural products, have been implemented in South Korea to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the agricultural sector. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implications of the various certification systems for rice farming, including organic farming, non-pesticide farming, and low-pesticide farming. For this study, we constructed a life cycle inventory (LCI of rice farming systems including conventional, low-pesticide, non-pesticide, and organic farming systems in South Korea. Finally, we compared international farming systems in South Korea, the U.S., and the EU. The rice farming systems with eco-labeling certifications have reduced the environmental impacts. The environmental impacts of rice farming by country were highest in the U.S. (100.0, followed by the EU (53.7, and Korea’s conventional (48.6, low-pesticide (35.8, non-pesticide (28.9, and organic (16.7 farming practices. These results may be useful in proliferating and improving the methodology to evaluate eco-labeling and carbon labeling systems.

  4. CleverFarm - A SuperSCADA system for wind farms

    Giebel, G [ed.; Juhl, A; Gram Hansen, K; Biebhardt, J [and others

    2004-08-01

    The CleverFarm project started out to build an integrated monitoring system for wind farms, where all information would be available and could be used across the wind farm for maintenance and component health assessments. This would enable wind farm operators to prioritise their efforts, since they have a good view of the farm status from home. A large emphasis was placed on the integration of condition monitoring approaches in the central system, enabling estimates of the remaining lifetime of components, especially in the nacelle. During the 3,5 years of the project, software and hardware was developed and installed in two wind farms in Denmark and Germany. The connected hardware included two different condition monitoring systems based on vibration sensors from Gram&Juhl and ISET, plus a camera system developed by Overspeed. Additionally, short-term predictions of the wind farm output were delivered by DMI and Risoes Prediktor system throughout the period of the project. All these diverse information sources are integrated through a web interface based on Java Server Pages. The software was developed in Java, and is delivered as so-called CleverBeans. The main part of the software is open-sourced. The report contains the experiences and results of a one-year experimental period. This report is a slightly edited version of the final publishable report to the EU Commission as part of the requirements of the CleverFarm project.

  5. On-farm impact of cattle slurry manure management on biological soil quality

    Goede, de R.G.M.; Brussaard, L.; Akkermans, A.D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of dairy cattle slurry management on soil biota, soil respiration and nitrogen (N) mineralization were evaluated in a farm trial across 12 farms and a field experiment on 2 farms located in a dairy farming area in the north of the Netherlands. The slurry management consisted of slit

  6. Feeding strategies and manure management for cost-effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms in Wisconsin.

    Dutreuil, M; Wattiaux, M; Hardie, C A; Cabrera, V E

    2014-09-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy farms are a major concern. Our objectives were to assess the effect of mitigation strategies on GHG emissions and net return to management on 3 distinct farm production systems of Wisconsin. A survey was conducted on 27 conventional farms, 30 grazing farms, and 69 organic farms. The data collected were used to characterize 3 feeding systems scaled to the average farm (85 cows and 127ha). The Integrated Farm System Model was used to simulate the economic and environmental impacts of altering feeding and manure management in those 3 farms. Results showed that incorporation of grazing practices for lactating cows in the conventional farm led to a 27.6% decrease in total GHG emissions [-0.16kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2eq)/kg of energy corrected milk (ECM)] and a 29.3% increase in net return to management (+$7,005/yr) when milk production was assumed constant. For the grazing and organic farms, decreasing the forage-to-concentrate ratio in the diet decreased GHG emissions when milk production was increased by 5 or 10%. The 5% increase in milk production was not sufficient to maintain the net return; however, the 10% increase in milk production increased net return in the organic farm but not on the grazing farm. A 13.7% decrease in GHG emissions (-0.08kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) was observed on the conventional farm when incorporating manure the day of application and adding a 12-mo covered storage unit. However, those same changes led to a 6.1% (+0.04kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) and a 6.9% (+0.06kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) increase in GHG emissions in the grazing and the organic farms, respectively. For the 3 farms, manure management changes led to a decrease in net return to management. Simulation results suggested that the same feeding and manure management mitigation strategies led to different outcomes depending on the farm system, and furthermore, effective mitigation strategies were used to reduce GHG emissions while maintaining

  7. Using a whole farm model to determine the impacts of mating management on the profitability of pasture-based dairy farms.

    Beukes, P C; Burke, C R; Levy, G; Tiddy, R M

    2010-08-01

    An approach to assessing likely impacts of altering reproductive performance on productivity and profitability in pasture-based dairy farms is described. The basis is the development of a whole farm model (WFM) that simulates the entire farm system and holistically links multiple physical performance factors to profitability. The WFM consists of a framework that links a mechanistic cow model, a pasture model, a crop model, management policies and climate. It simulates individual cows and paddocks, and runs on a day time-step. The WFM was upgraded to include reproductive modeling capability using reference tables and empirical equations describing published relationships between cow factors, physiology and mating management. It predicts reproductive status at any time point for individual cows within a modeled herd. The performance of six commercial pasture-based dairy farms was simulated for the period of 12 months beginning 1 June 2005 (05/06 year) to evaluate the accuracy of the model by comparison with actual outcomes. The model predicted most key performance indicators within an acceptable range of error (residualprofitability of changes in farm "set-up" (farm conditions at the start of the farming year on 1 June) and mating management from 05/06 to 06/07 year. Among the six farms simulated, the 4-week calving rate emerged as an important set-up factor influencing profitability, while reproductive performance during natural bull mating was identified as an area with the greatest opportunity for improvement. The WFM presents utility to explore alternative management strategies to predict likely outcomes to proposed changes to a pasture-based farm system. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tank farm instrumentation and data acquisition/management upgrade plan

    Scaief, C.C. III.

    1994-01-01

    This plan provides the strategy, implementation, and schedule for upgrading tank farm instrumentation, data acquisition and data management. The focus is on surveillance parameters to verify and maintain tank safety. The criteria do not necessarily constitute mandatory requirements but are based upon engineering judgement and best available information. Schedules reflect preliminary funding for FY95. For out years they are best engineering judgment

  9. VALUE ENGINEERING ANALYSIS APPRAISAL FOR FARM MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF PISTACHIO FARM

    A. Mostafaeipour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Value engineering (VE has been effectively applied in many different areas. The results have been very encouraging, and many companies accept VE not only as a tool to reduce costs, but also to improve the quality of their produce and streamline their systems. This paper attempts to highlight the application of VE in agriculture, as in pistachio tree farms in Iran. It is found that by implementing VE, unnecessary cultivation costs are lowered. Many of the other factors that lead to the inefficient use of resources could be resolved. In this study, the province of Yazd Iran was studied. Unfortunately there are cases of mismanagement and problems in agriculture management; and the problems must be resolved to make the system of pistachio growing more efficient. The prime objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of value engineering and highlight its application in pistachio farms. The results suggest that it is essential to use Indian Neem pesticide, because it is economically feasible and environmentally friendly to pistachio trees.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Waarde-Ingenieurswese (WI word reeds doeltreffend toegepas op verskeie gebiede. Die resultate is sodanig bemoedigend dat maatskappye WI aanvaar as ‘n hulpmiddel vir kosteverlaging sowel as vir die verbetering van kwaliteit van opbrengs en stroombelyning van prosesse. Die artikel poog om die toepassing van WI op die landbou van Iran na vore te bring. Dit toon dat onnodige verbouingskoste verlaag word met die implementering van WI. Talle ander faktore wat ook bydra tot ondoeltreffende gebruik van hulpbronne word ook deur WI aangespreek. Die Yazd-provinsie van Iran word in die artikel bestudeer. Ten einde die verbouingsproses van pistasieneute meer doeltreffend te maak moet wanbestuur en probleme van landboubestuur aangespreek word. Die hoofdoelwit van die artikel is om die konsep van WI bekend te stel en die toepassing daarvan op pistasieboerderye uit te lig

  10. AN EVALUATION OF RISK MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR DAIRY FARMS

    Bosch, Darrell J.; Johnson, Christian J.

    1992-01-01

    Variability in feed prices and crop yields are important sources of risk to dairy farmers. A simulation model of a representative dairy farm was used to evaluate crop insurance and hedging as risk management strategies. These strategies lowered expected net returns but also reduced risk. The preferred set of strategies at lower levels of risk aversion included hedging and crop insurance, although a base scenario in which no risk management strategies were employed was also efficient. The pref...

  11. Risk management strategies on small-scale commercial farms in three zobatat of Eritrea

    MA Mohammed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study the perceptions of small-scale commercial farmers in Eritrea of the importance of various risk responses are ascertained and analysed to gain insight into their risk-management strategies.  Data were elicited through a survey of 186 small-scale commercial farmers conducted in three zobatat (regions of Eritrea. Factor Analysis is used to investigate heterogeneity in sample farmers’ responses.  Results indicate that relatively more important risk responses include the use of internal and external sources of information, on-farm and off-farm diversification, choice of production system and product marketing arrangements. Farmers’ perceptions of risk responses vary according to farm type, geographical location, farm and farmer characteristics, as well as the existence of enterprise specific risk responses (e.g. livestock insurance and differences in the marketing regulations of various agricultural products.

  12. The farming system component of European agricultural landscapes

    Andersen, Erling

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural landscapes are the outcome of combined natural and human factors over time. This paper explores the scope of perceiving the agricultural landscapes of the European Union (EU) as distinct patterns of farming systems and landscape elements in homogeneous biophysical and administrative...... landscapes evolve from the praxis of the farmers and takes into account the scale, intensity and specialisation of the agricultural production. From farming system design point of view, the approach can be used to integrate the landscape in the design process. From a policy point of view, the approach offers...... endowments. The focus is on the farming systems component of the agricultural landscapes by applying a typology to the sample farms of the Farm Accountancy Data Network and scaling up the results to the landscape level for the territory of the EU. The farming system approach emphasises that agricultural...

  13. Effects of cattle and manure management on the nutrient economy of mixed farms in East Africa: A scenario study

    Snijders, P.J.M.; Meer, van der, H.G.; Onduru, D.D.; Ebanyat, P.; Ergano, K.; Zake, J.Y.K.; Wouters, A.P.; Gachimbi, L.N.; Keulen, van, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores effects of animal and manure management in a dairy unit on the nutrient economy of crop-livestock farms in East Africa. For this purpose, 8 cattle management scenarios have been developed based on farming systems in Mbeere, Kenya (extensive), Wakiso, Uganda (semi-intensive) and Kibichoi, Kenya (intensive). Three baseline scenarios represent present-day cattle management; five improved scenarios use the same dairy breeds but have improved nutrition, using younger grass, mor...

  14. Management practices for male calves on Canadian dairy farms.

    Renaud, D L; Duffield, T F; LeBlanc, S J; Haley, D B; Kelton, D F

    2017-08-01

    Morbidity, mortality, and antimicrobial use and resistance are major concerns in the rearing of male dairy calves, so information to support disease prevention is important. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to describe management practices associated with the care of male calves during their first days of life on Canadian dairy farms. A survey was completed by dairy producers across Canada between March 1 and April 30, 2015. The survey included 192 questions covering producer background, farm characteristics, biosecurity practices, disease prevalence, calf health, animal welfare, lameness, milking hygiene, reproduction, and Internet and social media use. A total of 1,025 surveys were completed online, by telephone, or by mail, representing 9% of all dairy farms in Canada. Five percent of respondents (n = 49) answered that they had euthanized at least 1 male calf at birth in the previous year, and blunt force trauma was commonly used in these cases. The majority of respondents always fed colostrum to male calves; however, 9% (n = 80) did not always feed colostrum. Almost 40% (n = 418) of respondents reported always dipping the navels of male calves, 12% (n = 123) vaccinated male calves, and 17% (n = 180) did not provide the same quantity of feed to male calves as heifer calves. The care of male calves differed greatly depending on the geographical region of the respondents. However, some regional effects may be confounded by economic conditions and the logistics of marketing male dairy calves in different parts of the country. Herd size was another important variable in many aspects of the management of male calves on dairy farms. Larger herd sizes were more likely to use an appropriate method of euthanasia at birth but were less likely to always feed colostrum to their male calves or feed them the same as female calves. Familiarity with the Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Dairy Cattle (National Farm Animal Care Council) by respondents

  15. Farming System Evolution and Adaptive Capacity: Insights for Adaptation Support

    Jami L. Dixon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of climate impacts on agriculture and adaptation often provide current or future assessments, ignoring the historical contexts farming systems are situated within. We investigate how historical trends have influenced farming system adaptive capacity in Uganda using data from household surveys, semi-structured interviews, focus-group discussions and observations. By comparing two farming systems, we note three major findings: (1 similar trends in farming system evolution have had differential impacts on the diversity of farming systems; (2 trends have contributed to the erosion of informal social and cultural institutions and an increasing dependence on formal institutions; and (3 trade-offs between components of adaptive capacity are made at the farm-scale, thus influencing farming system adaptive capacity. To identify the actual impacts of future climate change and variability, it is important to recognize the dynamic nature of adaptation. In practice, areas identified for further adaptation support include: shift away from one-size-fits-all approach the identification and integration of appropriate modern farming method; a greater focus on building inclusive formal and informal institutions; and a more nuanced understanding regarding the roles and decision-making processes of influential, but external, actors. More research is needed to understand farm-scale trade-offs and the resulting impacts across spatial and temporal scales.

  16. Coffee farming and soil management in Rwanda

    Nzeyimana, I.; Hartemink, A.E.; Graaff, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is the cornerstone of Rwanda's economy. The authors review how the sector has changed and specifically what soil management practices are now being implemented to enhance coffee production. Coffee covers around 2.3% of total cultivated arable land, and is grown mainly by smallholder

  17. Antibiotic use by farmers to control mastitis as influenced by health advice and dairy farming systems.

    Poizat, A; Bonnet-Beaugrand, F; Rault, A; Fourichon, C; Bareille, N

    2017-10-01

    Mastitis is a bacterial disease common in dairy farms. Although knowledge about mastitis and its optimal technical management and treatment is now available, some dairy farmers still use antibiotics in inappropriate ways. Antibiotic use by farmers can be influenced by personal restraints and motivations, but it can be assumed that external drivers are also influential. The main purpose of this article is thus to analyse the choices of antibiotic and alternative medicine use for mastitis treatment and investigate the possible influence of two unexplored external drivers in dairy farms: (i) the health advice offered to farmers by farm advisors and veterinarians, (ii) the dairy farming system, as defined by combining the market valuation chosen for the milk, the level of intensification, and the perceived pressure related to investments. Research was based on 51 individual semi-structured interviews with farmers and their corresponding veterinarians and farm advisors. Based on verbatim, the use of antibiotics and alternative medicine by farmers for mastitis treatment, the vet-farmers interactions, and the dairy farming systems are described. The advisory relationships between farmers and farm advisors and between farmers and veterinarians influenced the implementation of selective dry cow therapy, but had very little effect on the use of alternative medicines by farmers, who were more willing to experiment alternative medicines than their advisors. The dairy farming system had very little influence on antibiotic use: some misuse of antibiotics was found whatever the farming system. Systematic dry cow therapy was also a widespread habit in all dairy farming systems except organic. The use of alternative medicine was common in all farming systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Multiscale Effects of Management, Environmental Conditions, and Land Use on Nitrate Leaching in Dairy Farms

    Oenema, J.; Burgers, S.L.G.E.; Verloop, J.; Hooijboer, A.; Boumans, L.; Berge, ten H.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrate leaching in intensive grassland- and silage maize-based dairy farming systems on sandy soil is a main environmental concern. Here, statistical relationships are presented between management practices and environmental conditions and nitrate concentration in shallow groundwater (0.8 m depth)

  19. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: breeding programmes.

    Rydhmer, L; Gourdine, J L; de Greef, K; Bonneau, M

    2014-12-01

    The sustainability of breeding activities in 15 pig farming systems in five European countries was evaluated. One conventional and two differentiated systems per country were studied. The Conventional systems were the standard systems in their countries. The differentiated systems were of three categories: Adapted Conventional with focus on animal welfare, meat quality or environment (five systems); Traditional with local breeds in small-scale production (three systems) and Organic (two systems). Data were collected with a questionnaire from nine breeding organisations providing animals and semen to the studied farming systems and from, on average, five farmers per farming system. The sustainability assessment of breeding activities was performed in four dimensions. The first dimension described whether the market for the product was well defined, and whether the breeding goal reflected the farming system and the farmers' demands. The second dimension described recording and selection procedures, together with genetic change in traits that were important in the system. The third dimension described genetic variation, both within and between pig breeds. The fourth dimension described the management of the breeding organisation, including communication, transparency, and technical and human resources. The results show substantial differences in the sustainability of breeding activities, both between farming systems within the same category and between different categories of farming systems. The breeding activities are assessed to be more sustainable for conventional systems than for differentiated systems in three of the four dimensions. In most differentiated farming systems, breeding goals are not related to the system, as these systems use the same genetic material as conventional systems. The breeds used in Traditional farming systems are important for genetic biodiversity, but the small scale of these systems renders them vulnerable. It is hoped that, by

  20. Electrical system studies for the grid connection of wind farms

    Arp, K.; Hanson, J.; Hopp, S.; Zimmermann, W.

    2007-01-01

    Wind power is gaining momentum in the world's energy balance. Several issues have to be addressed whenever power-generating devices are connected to the grid. The paper describes studies needed to evaluate the influence of wind farms on the connected transmission system and how faults in the system impact on induction generators in a wind farm. Some generalized results of studies for an offshore wind farm in the North Sea and a Bulgarian wind farm show how studies can influence the layout of the internal network and the electrical equipment. (authors)

  1. A Simulation Software for the Analysis of Cropping Systems in Livestock Farms

    Tommaso Maggiore

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulation models can support quantitative and integrated analyses of agricultural systems. In this paper we describe VA.TE., a computer program developed to support the preparation and evaluation of nitrogen fertilising plans for livestock farms in the Lombardy region (northern Italy. The program integrates the cropping systems simulation model CropSyst with several regional agricultural databases, and provides the users with a simple framework for applying the model and interpreting results. VA.TE. makes good use of available data, integrating into a single relational database existing information about soils, climate, farms, animal breeds, crops and crop managements, and providing estimates of missing input variables. A simulation engine manages the entire simulation process: choice of farms to be simulated, model parameterisation, creation of model inputs, simulation of scenarios and analysis of model outputs. The program permits to apply at farm scale a model originally designed for the lower scale of homogeneous land parcel. It manages alternative simulation scenarios for each farm, helping to identify solutions to combine low nitrate losses and satisfactory crop yields. Example simulation results for three farms located on different soils and having varying levels of nitrogen surplus show that the integrated system (model + database can manage various simulations automatically, and that strategies to improve N management can be refined by analysing the simulated amounts and temporal patterns of nitrogen leaching.We conclude by discussing the issues regarding the integration of existing regional databases with simulation models.

  2. A Simulation Software for the Analysis of Cropping Systems in Livestock Farms

    Luca Bechini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Simulation models can support quantitative and integrated analyses of agricultural systems. In this paper we describe VA.TE., a computer program developed to support the preparation and evaluation of nitrogen fertilising plans for livestock farms in the Lombardy region (northern Italy. The program integrates the cropping systems simulation model CropSyst with several regional agricultural databases, and provides the users with a simple framework for applying the model and interpreting results. VA.TE. makes good use of available data, integrating into a single relational database existing information about soils, climate, farms, animal breeds, crops and crop managements, and providing estimates of missing input variables. A simulation engine manages the entire simulation process: choice of farms to be simulated, model parameterisation, creation of model inputs, simulation of scenarios and analysis of model outputs. The program permits to apply at farm scale a model originally designed for the lower scale of homogeneous land parcel. It manages alternative simulation scenarios for each farm, helping to identify solutions to combine low nitrate losses and satisfactory crop yields. Example simulation results for three farms located on different soils and having varying levels of nitrogen surplus show that the integrated system (model + database can manage various simulations automatically, and that strategies to improve N management can be refined by analysing the simulated amounts and temporal patterns of nitrogen leaching.We conclude by discussing the issues regarding the integration of existing regional databases with simulation models.

  3. Transfer of Biogas Technology to Support Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Systems in Indonesia

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya

    Mixed crop and livestock (MCL) farming systems has been applied for many years to manage the limited resources owned by smallholder farmers. This farming practice is considered as the best practice to cultivate the limited resources by adopting an integrated life cycle approach within crop...... and livestock production. However, within this farming system, some externalities may appear because of the untreated livestock waste which may pollute air and the surrounding water environment at the farm. This may also affect greenhouse gas emission that potentially contributes to an increase of global...... such as reduction of air and water pollution and gas emission caused by manure. However, despite its multiple benefits, the biogas technology transfer is facing a slow rate of diffusion in most farm households in developing countries. This phenomenon calls for identification of reasons in order to develop solutions...

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhiza and their effect on the soil structure in farms with agroecological and intensive management

    Juan David Lozano Sánchez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi help to reduce the damage caused by erosion and maintain soil structure through the production of mycelium and adhering substances. This study evaluated the structural stability; estimated the diversity and density of mycorrhizal spores present in three systems of soil (eroded, forest and coffee plantations in the rural area of Dagua, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The systems evaluated were classified as farms with intensive or agroecological management. There were 25 morphospecies of mycorrhiza grouped in 13 genera, being Glomus and Entrophospora the most representative. The mean index values of mean weight (DPM and geometric (DGM diameters and diversity of mycorrhizal spores were statistically higher in farms with agroecological management than in farms with intensive management. The aggregate stability analysis revealed that eroded soils have significantly lower stability than forest and crop soils. A statistically significant correlation was found between diversity (r = 0.579 and spore density (r = 0.66 regarding DGM, and DPM with Shannon diversity (r = 0.54. Differences in practices, use and soil management affect mycorrhizal diversity found on farms and its effect such as particle aggregation agent generates remarkable changes in the stability and soil structure of evaluated areas. It is concluded, that agroecological management tends to favour both mycorrhizae and the structure of soils.

  5. A decision support system for strategic planning on pig farms

    Backus, Ge B.C.; Timmer, G. Th.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Eidman, V.R.; Vos, F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reported on a decision support system (DSS) for strategic planning on pig farms. The DSS was based . on a stochastic simulation model of investment decisions (ISM). ISM described a farm with one loan and one building using 23 variables. The simulation model calculated the results of a strategic plan for an individual pig farm over a time horizon of a maximum of 20 years for a given scenario. For six distinct replacement strategies, regression metamodels were specified to describe t...

  6. Reliability centered maintenance pilot system implementation 241-AP-tank farm primary ventilation system final report

    MOORE TL

    2001-01-01

    When the Hanford Site Tank Farms' mission was safe storage of radioactive waste in underground storage tanks, maintenance activities focused on time-based preventive maintenance. Tank Farms' new mission to deliver waste to a vitrification plant where the waste will be processed into a form suitable for permanent storage requires a more efficient and proactive approach to maintenance. Systems must be maintained to ensure that they are operational and available to support waste feed delivery on schedule with a minimum of unplanned outages. This report describes the Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) pilot system that was implemented in the 241-AP Tank Farm Primary Ventilation System under PI-ORP-009 of the contract between the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection and CH2M HILL Hanford Group Inc. (CHG). The RCM analytical techniques focus on monitoring the condition of operating systems to predict equipment failures so that maintenance activities can be completed in time to prevent or mitigate unplanned equipment outages. This approach allows maintenance activities to be managed with minimal impact on plant operations. The pilot demonstration provided an opportunity for CHG staff-training in RCM principles and tailoring of the RCM approach to the Hanford Tank Farms' unique needs. This report details the implementation of RCM on a pilot system in Tank Farms

  7. Weeds and ground-dwelling predators′ response to two different weed management systems in glyphosate-tolerant cotton: A farm-scale study

    Farinós, Gema P.; Gómez, Pablo; Gutiérrez, Elena; Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Escorial, María Concepción; Ortego, Félix; Chueca, María Cristina; Castañera, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    The use of glyphosate, as a post-emergence broad-spectrum herbicide in genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant (GT) cotton, supposes a big change in weed management programs with respect to a conventional regime. Thus, alterations in arable flora and arthropod fauna must be considered when evaluating their potential impacts. A 3-year farm-scale study was conducted in a 2-ha GT cotton crop, in southern Spain, to compare the effects of conventional and glyphosate herbicide regimes on weed abundance and diversity and their consequences for ground-dwelling predators. Surveys reveal that weed density was relatively low within all treatments with a few dominant species, with significantly higher weed densities and modifications of the floristic composition in glyphosate-treated plots that led to an increase in the abundance of Portulaca oleracea and to a reduction in plant diversity. The activity-density of the main predatory arthropod taxa (spiders, ground beetles, rove beetles and earwigs) varied among years, but no significant differences were obtained between conventional and glyphosate herbicide regimes. However, significant differences between treatments were obtained for ground beetles species richness and diversity, being higher under the glyphosate herbicide regime, and a positive correlation with weed density could be established for both parameters. The implications of these findings to weed control in GT cotton are discussed. PMID:29351549

  8. Weeds and ground-dwelling predators' response to two different weed management systems in glyphosate-tolerant cotton: A farm-scale study.

    García-Ruiz, Esteban; Loureiro, Íñigo; Farinós, Gema P; Gómez, Pablo; Gutiérrez, Elena; Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Escorial, María Concepción; Ortego, Félix; Chueca, María Cristina; Castañera, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    The use of glyphosate, as a post-emergence broad-spectrum herbicide in genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant (GT) cotton, supposes a big change in weed management programs with respect to a conventional regime. Thus, alterations in arable flora and arthropod fauna must be considered when evaluating their potential impacts. A 3-year farm-scale study was conducted in a 2-ha GT cotton crop, in southern Spain, to compare the effects of conventional and glyphosate herbicide regimes on weed abundance and diversity and their consequences for ground-dwelling predators. Surveys reveal that weed density was relatively low within all treatments with a few dominant species, with significantly higher weed densities and modifications of the floristic composition in glyphosate-treated plots that led to an increase in the abundance of Portulaca oleracea and to a reduction in plant diversity. The activity-density of the main predatory arthropod taxa (spiders, ground beetles, rove beetles and earwigs) varied among years, but no significant differences were obtained between conventional and glyphosate herbicide regimes. However, significant differences between treatments were obtained for ground beetles species richness and diversity, being higher under the glyphosate herbicide regime, and a positive correlation with weed density could be established for both parameters. The implications of these findings to weed control in GT cotton are discussed.

  9. An Indicator-Based Framework to Evaluate Sustainability of Farming Systems: Review of Applications in Tuscany

    Concetta Vazzana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability at the farm level. Policymakers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This study proposes an indicator-based framework to evaluate sustainability of farming systems. Main features of the indicators’ framework are the relevance given to different spatial scales (farm, site and field, production and pedo-climatic factors, and a holistic view of the agro-ecosystem. The framework has been conceived to tackle different purposes ranging from detailed scientific analyses to farm-level management systems and cross-compliance. Agro-environmental indicators can be calculated, simulated with models or directly measured with different levels of detail proportionally to the aims of the evaluation exercise. The framework is organised in a number of environmental and production systems and sub-systems. For each system environmental critical points are identified with corresponding agro-environmental indicators and processing methods. A review of applications of the framework in Tuscany, Italy, since 1991 is presented. Applications range from prototyping farming systems, to integrated farm ecological-economic modelling, comparisons between organic, integrated and conventional farming systems, farm eco-management voluntary audit schemes and cross-compliance. Strengths and weaknesses of the framework are discussed against generic requirements of information systems and operational issues.

  10. Multiscale effects of management, environmental conditions, and land use on nitrate leaching in dairy farms.

    Oenema, Jouke; Burgers, Saskia; Verloop, Koos; Hooijboer, Arno; Boumans, Leo; ten Berge, Hein

    2010-01-01

    Nitrate leaching in intensive grassland- and silage maize-based dairy farming systems on sandy soil is a main environmental concern. Here, statistical relationships are presented between management practices and environmental conditions and nitrate concentration in shallow groundwater (0.8 m depth) at farm, field, and point scales in The Netherlands, based on data collected in a participatory approach over a 7-yr period at one experimental and eight pilot commercial dairy farms on sandy soil. Farm milk production ranged from 10 to 24 Mg ha(-1). Soil and hydrological characteristics were derived from surveys and weather conditions from meteorological stations. Statistical analyses were performed with multiple regression models. Mean nitrate concentration at farm scale decreased from 79 mg L(-1) in 1999 to 63 in 2006, with average nitrate concentration in groundwater decreasing under grassland but increasing under maize land over the monitoring period. The effects of management practices on nitrate concentration varied with spatial scale. At farm scale, nitrogen surplus, grazing intensity, and the relative areas of grassland and maize land significantly contributed to explaining the variance in nitrate concentration in groundwater. Mean nitrate concentration was negatively correlated to the concentration of dissolved organic carbon in the shallow groundwater. At field scale, management practices and soil, hydrological, and climatic conditions significantly contributed to explaining the variance in nitrate concentration in groundwater under grassland and maize land. We conclude that, on these intensive dairy farms, additional measures are needed to comply with the European Union water quality standard in groundwater of 50 mg nitrate L(-1). The most promising measures are omitting fertilization of catch crops and reducing fertilization levels of first-year maize in the rotation.

  11. Whole farm management to reduce nutrient losses from dairy farms: a simulation study

    Rotz, C.A.; Oenema, J.; Keulen, van H.

    2003-01-01

    Whole farm simulation provides a tool for evaluating the impact of nutrient conservation technologies and strategies on dairy farms. A farm simulation model was verified by simulating the production and nutrient flows of the De Marke experimental dairy farm in the Netherlands. Technology such as a

  12. Gaming as an Instrument of Farm Management Education-A Development and Evaluation.

    Schneeberger, Kenneth Clifford

    A study of the Oklahoma Farm Management Decision Exercise was made to explore and appraise ways of teaching farm management. A general computer model was developed which allowed the administrator flexibility in teaching, accommodated any size of farm and any set of feasible crop and livestock activities, and identified superior strategies for the…

  13. Manual for prototyping integrated and ecological arable farming systems (I/EAFS) in interaction with pilot farms

    Vereijken, P.

    1999-01-01

    A manual for prototyping Integrated and Ecological Arable Farming Systems (I/EAFS) in interaction with pilot farms is presented. It concerns a comprehensive and consistent approach of 5 steps. Step 1 is establishing a hierarchy of objectives considering the shortcomings of current farming systems in

  14. Simulation of interaction between wind farm and power system

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Janosi, L.

    2002-01-01

    A dynamic model of the wind farm Hagesholm has been implemented in the dedicated power system simulation program DIgSILENT. The wind farm con- sists of six 2MW NM2000/72 wind turbines from NEG-Micon. The model has been verified using simultaneous powerquality measurements on the 10 kV terminals...

  15. Whole Farm Management to Reduce Nutrient Losses From Dairy Farms: A Simulation Study

    Rotz, C.A.; Oenema, J.; Keulen, van, H.

    2006-01-01

    Whole-farm simulation provides a tool for evaluating long-term impacts of nutrient conservation technologies and strategies on dairy farms. A farm simulation model was verified to predict the production and nutrient flows of the De Marke experimental dairy farm in the Netherlands. On this farm, technologies such as a low ammonia emission barn floor, enclosed manure storage, manure injection into the soil, and intraseeding of a grass cover crop on corn land were used to reduce nitrogen loss an...

  16. Overall Optimization for Offshore Wind Farm Electrical System

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Cong

    2017-01-01

    Based on particle swarm optimization (PSO), an optimization platform for offshore wind farm electrical system (OWFES) is proposed in this paper, where the main components of an offshore wind farm and key technical constraints are considered as input parameters. The offshore wind farm electrical...... system is optimized in accordance with initial investment by considering three aspects: the number and siting of offshore substations (OS), the cable connection layout of both collection system (CS) and transmission system (TS) as well as the selection of electrical components in terms of voltage level...... that save 3.01% total cost compared with the industrial layout, and can be a useful tool for OWFES design and evaluation....

  17. Cattle management practices and milk production on mixed smallholder organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    Nalubwama, S; Kabi, F; Vaarst, M

    2016-01-01

    A longitudinal study to assess animal management practices and milk production was conducted for a period of 12 months on 30 smallholder farms keeping dairy cattle and certified organic pineapple production in Luwero and Kayunga districts, based on questionnaire and on-farm collected data. Farm...... sizes were 9.3 ± 6.7 acres in tethering system and 4.3 ± 2.6 acres in zero-grazing. Fifty-four percent of the zero-grazing herds had animal housing facilities. All farmers in tethering system kept cows on earthen floors and calves without bedding. Hygiene level in existing farms was low. Majority...... of calves were fed once a day by restricted suckling (77 %). Seventy-four percent of tethered cows were only fed on natural grass, while cows under zero-grazing system had a more diversified diet but with 82 % feeding mainly Napier grass. Most farms (87 %) used bulls for breeding. Milk production was higher...

  18. Building student capacity to lead sustainability transitions in the food system through farm-based authentic research modules in sustainability sciences (FARMS

    Selena Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Undergraduate courses provide valuable opportunities to train and empower students with the knowledge, skills, and motivation to advance society in more sustainable directions. This article emphasizes the value of bridging primary scientific research with undergraduate education through the presentation of an integrated experiential learning and primary research model called Farm-based Authentic Research Modules in Sustainability Sciences (FARMS. FARMS are collaboratively designed with agricultural stakeholders through a community needs assessment on pressing food system issues and opportunities with the objective for faculty and students to jointly identify evidence-based management solutions. We illustrate the implementation of FARMS in an undergraduate course in Ecological Agriculture at Dartmouth College, NH where students assessed various agroecological solutions for managing plant vitality, weeds, soil quality, pests, pollinators, and biodiversity at the Dartmouth Organic Farm. Student reflections indicate that the FARMS course component was beneficial for understanding agroecological theories and concepts while also motivating involvement in sustainability sciences despite the challenges of primary research. Educator reflections noted that the FARMS pedagogical approach facilitated achieving course objectives to develop students’ ability for systems thinking, critical thinking, and interdisciplinarity while fostering students’ collaboration skills and overall motivation for creating change. Adopting the FARMS model should enable faculty in the sustainability sciences to serve as bridges between the learning, practicing, and scientific communities while supporting educational programming at student and community farms. Ultimately, it is expected that the implementation of FARMS will increase student capacity and prepare the next generation of leaders to address complex challenges of the food system using an evidence-based approach.

  19. A Survey of Reproductive Management Strategies on US Commercial Dairy Farms

    Olynk, Nicole J.; Wolf, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    Reproductive performance on the dairy farm affects the dairy’s profit because it directly affects milk production, the availability of replacements, the amounts of voluntary and involuntary culling, breeding costs, and costs associated with veterinary care (Britt, 1985). Reproductive management programs selected for implementation differ across farms due to varying on-farm costs, such as labor costs, opportunity costs of management and labor, as well as facilities, farm goals and values, and ...

  20. Effects of switching between production systems in dairy farming

    Antonio Alvarez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing intensification of dairy farming in Europe has sparked an interest in studying the economic consequences of this process. However, empirically classifying farms as extensive or intensive is not a straightforward task. In recent papers, Latent Class Models (LCM have been used to avoid an ad-hoc split of the sample into intensive and extensive dairy farms. A limitation of current specifications of LCM is that they do not allow farms to switch between different productive systems over time. This feature of the model is at odds with the process of intensification of the European dairy industry in recent decades. We allow for changes of production system over time by estimating a single LCM model but splitting the original panel into two periods, and find that the probability of using the intensive technology increases over time. Our estimation proposal opens up the possibility of studying the effects of intensification not only across farms but also over time.

  1. Multi-time scale energy management of wind farms based on comprehensive evaluation technology

    Xu, Y. P.; Huang, Y. H.; Liu, Z. J.; Wang, Y. F.; Li, Z. Y.; Guo, L.

    2017-11-01

    A novel energy management of wind farms is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a novel comprehensive evaluation system is proposed to quantify economic properties of each wind farm to make the energy management more economical and reasonable. Then, a combination of multi time-scale schedule method is proposed to develop a novel energy management. The day-ahead schedule optimizes unit commitment of thermal power generators. The intraday schedule is established to optimize power generation plan for all thermal power generating units, hydroelectric generating sets and wind power plants. At last, the power generation plan can be timely revised in the process of on-line schedule. The paper concludes with simulations conducted on a real provincial integrated energy system in northeast China. Simulation results have validated the proposed model and corresponding solving algorithms.

  2. The Task Manager for the LHCb On-Line Farm

    Bonifazi, F; Carbone, A; Galli, D; Gregori, D; Marconi, U; Peco, G; Vagnoni, V

    2004-01-01

    The Task Manager is a utility to start, stop and list processes on the on-line farm. Each process started by the Task Manager has a string environment variable set, named UTGID (User defined unique Thread Group Identifier) which allows to identify the process. The Task Manager uses the UTGID to list the running processes and to identify the processes to be stopped. It has also the ability to start a process using a particular user name and to set the scheduler type and the priority for the process itself. The Task Manager package includes a Linux DIM server (tmSrv), four Linux command line DIM clients (tmStart, tmLs, tmKill and tmStop) and a JCOP (Joint Control Project) PVSS client.

  3. Optimising biological N2 fixation by legumes in farming systems

    Hardarson, Gudni; Atkins, Craig

    2001-01-01

    Whether grown as pulses for grain, as green manure, as pastures or as the tree components of agro-forestry systems, the value of leguminous crops lies in their ability to fix atmospheric N 2 , so reducing the use of expensive fertiliser N and enhancing soil fertility. N 2 fixing legumes provide the basis for developing sustainable farming systems that incorporate integrated nutrient management. By exploiting the stable nitrogen isotope 15 N, it has been possible to reliably measure rates of N 2 fixation in a wide range of agro-ecological field situations involving many leguminous species. The accumulated data demonstrate that there is a wealth of genetic diversity among legumes and their Rhizobium symbionts which can be used to enhance N 2 fixation. Practical agronomic and microbiological means to maximise N inputs by legumes have also been identified. (author)

  4. Stakeholder co-development of farm level nutrient management software

    Buckley, Cathal; Mechan, Sarah; Macken-Walsh, Aine; Heanue, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    Over the last number of decades intensification in the use nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in agricultural production has lead to excessive accumulations of these nutrients in soils, groundwaters and surface water bodies (Sutton et al., 2011). According to the European Environment Agency (2012) despite some progress diffuse pollution from agriculture is still significant in more than 40% of Europe's water bodies in rivers and coastal waters, and in one third of the water bodies in lakes and transitional waters. Recently it was estimated that approximately 29% of monitored river channel length is polluted to some degree across the Republic of Ireland. Agricultural sources were suspected in 47 per cent of cases (EPA, 2012). Farm level management practices to reduce nutrient transfers from agricultural land to watercourses can be divided into source reduction and source interception approaches (Ribaudo et al., 2001). Source interception approaches involve capturing nutrients post mobilisation through policy instruments such as riparian buffer zones or wetlands. Conversely, the source reduction approach is preventative in nature and promotes strict management of nutrient at farm and field level to reduce risk of mobilisation in the first instance. This has the potential to deliver a double dividend of reduced nutrient loss to the wider ecosystem while maximising economic return to agricultural production at the field and farm levels. Adoption and use of nutrient management plans among farmers is far from the norm. This research engages key farmer and extension stakeholders to explore how current nutrient management planning software and outputs should be developed to make it more user friendly and usable in a practical way. An open innovation technology co-development approach was adopted to investigate what is demanded by the end users - farm advisors and farmers. Open innovation is a knowledge management strategy that uses the input of stakeholders to improve

  5. Development of a farm-firm modelling system for evaluation of herbaceous energy crops

    English, B.C.; Alexander, R.R.; Loewen, K.H.; Coady, S.A.; Cole, G.V.; Goodman, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    A complete analysis is performed to simulate biomass production incorporated into a realistic whole farm situation, including or replacing a typical crop mix. Representative farms are constructed to accommodate such simulation. Four management systems are simulated for each firm, with each simulation depicting a different crop mix and/or use of different farming technologies and production methods. The first simulation was a base farm plan in which the operator would maintain the historical crop mix for the area, participate in all price support programs, and not participate in either a conservative reserve or a biomass production program. In the second simulation, the operator would again maintain the historical crop mix, would not participate in a conservation reserve or biomass production program, and would be ineligible to participate in any price support system. The third simulation introduced the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and included participation in all price support programs. The fourth simulation introduced a biomass crop production enterprise (switchgrass) as an alternative to enrolling highly erodible cropland in the CRP and allowed participation in price support programs. Simulations were made for three farms, two in West Tennessee and on in South Georgia. Results indicate that erosion is likely to be reduced more by the diversion of cropland to permanent vegetative cover on farms similar to the more highly erodible West Tennessee farms than on the less erodible Tift County, Georgia farm. Equivalent reductions in erosion rates result from entering highly erodible cropland in the CRP and from production of switchgrass as a biomass energy crop. Both switchgrass and CRP farm plans result in decreased net returns from the base plan, although the biomass farm plans are, in general, more profitable than the CRP plans

  6. Phytoestrogens and Their Metabolites in Bulk-Tank Milk: Effects of Farm Management and Season

    Adler, Steffen A.; Purup, Stig; Hansen-Møller, Jens; Thuen, Erling; Steinshamn, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    Phytoestrogens have structures similar to endogenous steroids and may induce or inhibit the response of hormone receptors. The objectives of the present study were to compare the effects of long-term vs. short-term grassland management in organic and conventional dairy production systems, compare organic and conventional production systems and assess seasonal variation on phytoestrogen concentrations in bulk-tank milk. The concentrations of phytoestrogens were analyzed in bulk-tank milk sampled three times in two subsequent years from 28 dairy farms: Fourteen organic (ORG) dairy farms with either short-term or long-term grassland management were paired with 14 conventional (CON) farms with respect to grassland management. Grassland management varied in terms of time since establishment. Short-term grassland management (SG) was defined as establishment or reseeding every fourth year or more often, and long-term grassland management (LG) was defined as less frequent establishment or reseeding. The proportion of red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) in the herbage was positively correlated with milk concentrations of the mammalian isoflavone equol. Therefore, organically produced bulk-tank milk contained more equol than conventionally produced milk, and milk from ORG-SG farms had more equol than milk from ORG-LG farms. Milk produced during the indoor-feeding periods had more equol than milk produced during the outdoor feeding period, because pastures contained less red clover than fields intended for silage production. Organically produced milk had also higher concentrations of the mammalian lignan enterolactone, but in contrast to equol, concentrations increased in the outdoor-feeding periods compared to the indoor-feeding periods. There were no indications of fertility problems on ORG-SG farms who had the highest red clover proportions in the herbage. This study shows that production system, grassland management, and season affect milk concentrations of phytoestrogens

  7. Phytoestrogens and their metabolites in bulk-tank milk: effects of farm management and season.

    Steffen A Adler

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens have structures similar to endogenous steroids and may induce or inhibit the response of hormone receptors. The objectives of the present study were to compare the effects of long-term vs. short-term grassland management in organic and conventional dairy production systems, compare organic and conventional production systems and assess seasonal variation on phytoestrogen concentrations in bulk-tank milk. The concentrations of phytoestrogens were analyzed in bulk-tank milk sampled three times in two subsequent years from 28 dairy farms: Fourteen organic (ORG dairy farms with either short-term or long-term grassland management were paired with 14 conventional (CON farms with respect to grassland management. Grassland management varied in terms of time since establishment. Short-term grassland management (SG was defined as establishment or reseeding every fourth year or more often, and long-term grassland management (LG was defined as less frequent establishment or reseeding. The proportion of red clover (Trifolium pretense L. in the herbage was positively correlated with milk concentrations of the mammalian isoflavone equol. Therefore, organically produced bulk-tank milk contained more equol than conventionally produced milk, and milk from ORG-SG farms had more equol than milk from ORG-LG farms. Milk produced during the indoor-feeding periods had more equol than milk produced during the outdoor feeding period, because pastures contained less red clover than fields intended for silage production. Organically produced milk had also higher concentrations of the mammalian lignan enterolactone, but in contrast to equol, concentrations increased in the outdoor-feeding periods compared to the indoor-feeding periods. There were no indications of fertility problems on ORG-SG farms who had the highest red clover proportions in the herbage. This study shows that production system, grassland management, and season affect milk concentrations of

  8. Farmers’ managerial thinking and management process effectiveness as factors of financial success on Finnish dairy farms

    Heikki Mäkinen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to analyze how farmers’ managerial thinking and management process effectiveness contribute to profitability of farming. A structural equation model of these two elements of management capacity and financial performance was applied on survey data and bookkeeping results from 117 dairy farms. The model explained one-fourth of the varying profitability of sample farms. The results show that farmers’ managerial thinking is connected to farm profitability, but management process effectiveness is not. It was concluded that it is essential for good performance that the farmer has a clear vision of developing farming with business and investment plans. Successful farmers also have a firm confidence in their managerial skills, a strong emphasis on instrumental and intrinsic values, and a high appreciation of farming as occupation. They also see the farm as an entrepreneurial business unit and intend to follow the corresponding principles of management.

  9. Cassava and soil fertility in intensifying smallholder farming systems of East Africa

    Fermont, van A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Cost-benefits, Crop management, Farming systems, Fertilizer, Food security, Generalizations, Income, Labour, Land pressure, Niche, Rainfall, Sub-Saharan Africa, System analysis, Yield gap.
    Cassava is an important crop in Africa. This thesis focuses on cassava production in the mid

  10. Collaboration, Automation, and Information Management at Hanford High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Tank Farms

    Aurah, Mirwaise Y.; Roberts, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), operator of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Tank Farms at the Hanford Site, is taking an over 20-year leap in technology, replacing systems that were monitored with clipboards and obsolete computer systems, as well as solving major operations and maintenance hurdles in the area of process automation and information management. While WRPS is fully compliant with procedures and regulations, the current systems are not integrated and do not share data efficiently, hampering how information is obtained and managed

  11. Centralized configuration system for a large scale farm of network booted computers

    Ballestrero, S.; Brasolin, F.; Dârlea, G.-L.; Dumitru, I.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Twomey, M. S.; Vâlsan, M. L.; Zaytsev, A.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition online farm is composed of nearly 3,000 computing nodes, with various configurations, functions and requirements. Maintaining such a cluster is a big challenge from the computer administration point of view, thus various tools have been adopted by the System Administration team to help manage the farm efficiently. In particular, a custom central configuration system, ConfDBv2, was developed for the overall farm management. The majority of the systems are network booted, and are running an operating system image provided by a Local File Server (LFS) via the local area network (LAN). This method guarantees the uniformity of the system and allows, in case of issues, very fast recovery of the local disks which could be used as scratch area. It also provides greater flexibility as the nodes can be reconfigured and restarted with a different operating system in a very timely manner. A user-friendly web interface offers a quick overview of the current farm configuration and status, allowing changes to be applied on selected subsets or on the whole farm in an efficient and consistent manner. Also, various actions that would otherwise be time consuming and error prone can be quickly and safely executed. We describe the design, functionality and performance of this system and its web-based interface, including its integration with other CERN and ATLAS databases and with the monitoring infrastructure.

  12. Ammonia emission model for whole farm evaluation of dairy production systems.

    Rotz, C Alan; Montes, Felipe; Hafner, Sasha D; Heber, Albert J; Grant, Richard H

    2014-07-01

    Ammonia (NH) emissions vary considerably among farms as influenced by climate and management. Because emission measurement is difficult and expensive, process-based models provide an alternative for estimating whole farm emissions. A model that simulates the processes of NH formation, speciation, aqueous-gas partitioning, and mass transfer was developed and incorporated in a whole farm simulation model (the Integrated Farm System Model). Farm sources included manure on the floor of the housing facility, manure in storage (if used), field-applied manure, and deposits on pasture (if grazing is used). In a comprehensive evaluation of the model, simulated daily, seasonal, and annual emissions compared well with data measured over 2 yr for five free stall barns and two manure storages on dairy farms in the eastern United States. In a further comparison with published data, simulated and measured barn emissions were similar over differing barn designs, protein feeding levels, and seasons of the year. Simulated emissions from manure storage were also highly correlated with published emission data across locations, seasons, and different storage covers. For field applied manure, the range in simulated annual emissions normally bounded reported mean values for different manure dry matter contents and application methods. Emissions from pastures measured in northern Europe across seasons and fertilization levels were also represented well by the model. After this evaluation, simulations of a representative dairy farm in Pennsylvania illustrated the effects of animal housing and manure management on whole farm emissions and their interactions with greenhouse gas emissions, nitrate leaching, production costs, and farm profitability. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Mastitis on an Experimental Farm with Two Herds, One Managed Organically, the other Conventionally

    Thatcher, A; Petrovski, K; Holmes, C; Dowson, K; Kelly, T; McLeod, K

    2008-01-01

    Mastitis in two herds managed as a comparison between organic and conventional dairy farming systems was monitored for 4 years utilising regular bacterial culture of milk samples, individual and bulk somatic cell counts and observation by farm staff. The objective was to develop strategies for the control of mastitis in organic cows without the use of antibiotics. The herds showed differences in clinical mastitis incidence, subclinical mastitis prevalence and bulk milk somatic cell count. Des...

  14. Impacts of Nutrition and Feeding Programs on Farmers’ Management Decisions Affecting the Success of Dairy Farms with Culture Breed Cattle

    Yavuz Topcu; Mehmet Toparlak; Muhlis Macit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate all the factors determining the milk production and yield decisions with regard to the nutrition and feeding programs affecting the integrated management strategies on the success of the dairy farms with culture breed cattle under the pasture-based and indoor barn-based production systems. For these aims, data obtained from the individual interviews conducted at the dairy farms with 100 culture breed cattle were used for Principal Component and Multiple Reg...

  15. Nitrogen cycling in organic farming systems with rotational grass-clover and arable crops

    Berntsen, Jørgen; Grant, Ruth; Olesen, Jørgen E.

    2006-01-01

    Organic farming is considered an effective means of reducing nitrogen losses compared with more intensive conventional farming systems. However, under certain conditions, organic farming may also be susceptible to large nitrogen (N) losses. This i especially the case for organic .....

  16. Sustainability evaluation of different systems for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) farming based on emergy theory

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang

    2015-06-01

    Emergy analysis is effective for analyzing ecological economic systems. However, the accuracy of the approach is affected by the diversity of economic level, meteorological and hydrological parameters in different regions. The present study evaluated the economic benefits, environmental impact, and sustainability of indoor, semi-intensive and extensive farming systems of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) in the same region. The results showed that A. japonicus indoor farming system was high in input and output (yield) whereas pond extensive farming system was low in input and output. The output/input ratio of indoor farming system was lower than that of pond extensive farming system, and the output/input ratio of semi-intensive farming system fell in between them. The environmental loading ratio of A. japonicus extensive farming system was lower than that of indoor farming system. In addition, the emergy yield and emergy exchange ratios, and emergy sustainability and emergy indexes for sustainable development were higher in extensive farming system than those in indoor farming system. These results indicated that the current extensive farming system exerted fewer negative influences on the environment, made more efficient use of available resources, and met more sustainable development requirements than the indoor farming system. A. japonicus farming systems showed more emergy benefits than fish farming systems. The pond farming systems of A. japonicus exploited more free local environmental resources for production, caused less potential pressure on the local environment, and achieved higher sustainability than indoor farming system.

  17. Mastitis occurrence and constraints to mastitis control in smallholder dairy farming systems in Uganda

    Byarugaba, D. K.; Nakavuma, J. L.; Vaarst, Mette

    2008-01-01

    was administered to 60 farmers to collect data regarding their farm circumstances and management of their farms and the risk factors to mastitis. Quarter milk samples were collected from the milking cows and screened for mastitis using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). The milk samples were cultured...... for isolation of pathogens and assessment of their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. A total of 172 milking cows were sampled corresponding to 688-quarter milk samples. The prevalence of CMT-positive cows was 61.3%, of which sub-clinical mastitis was 60.7%. The levels of hygiene on most of the farms......A study was conducted in the district of Jinja in Uganda to explore the pattern of mastitis including the occurrence of antibiotic resistant mastitis pathogens and to understand the constraints that limit effective control of mastitis in smallholder dairy farming systems.  A questionnaire...

  18. PERFORMANCES COMPARISON BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL PIG FARMING SYSTEMS IN MANOKWARI, WEST PAPUA PROVINCE INDONESIA

    Desni Triana Ruli Saragih

    2015-10-01

    were no differences in household members, experience, average pig owned, working hours, selling period, litter size and number of farrowing. There are nine point of pig farming improvement that should be done to sustain pig farming systems in Manokwari Papua. Education may be improved by provide informal and skillful education. Pig ownership should be increased. Working hours must be increased. Pig keeping in the pens should be done by farmers. Managing pigs with additional time is important so that pigs will be maintained well. Litter sizes both in urban and rural are low, therefore further improvements are needed. Recording pig productivities must be done by every farmer. (Key words: Arfak pig farmers, Pig performance, Rural pig farming, Urban pig farming

  19. Generation management using batteries in wind farms: Economical and technical analysis for Spain

    Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L.; Dominguez-Navarro, Jose A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an hourly management method for energy generated in grid-connected wind farms using battery storage (Wind-Batteries systems). The method proposed is analysed technically and economically. Electricity generation in wind farms does not usually coincide with the electrical demand curve. If the wind-power penetration becomes high in the Spanish electrical grid, energy management will become necessary for some wind farms. A method is proposed in this paper to adjust the generation curve to the demand curve by storing electrical energy in batteries during off-peak hours (low demand) and selling stored energy to the grid during peak hours (high demand). With the results obtained and reported in this paper, for a Wind-Batteries system to be economically as profitable as a Wind-Only system, the selling price of the energy provided by the batteries during peak hours should be between 22 and 66 c Euro /kWh, depending on the technology and cost of the batteries. Comparison with flexible thermal generation has been performed. Additionally, the results are compared with those obtained if using hydrogen (Wind-Hydrogen system, which uses an electrolyser, hydrogen tank, and fuel cell instead of batteries), concluding that the Wind-Batteries system is both economically and energetically far more suitable

  20. Comparison of alternative offshore wind farms and HVDC systems

    Bruns, M. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Lilje, P.; Poeller, M. [DIgSILENT GmbH, Gomaringen (Germany); Basteck, A. [Voith Turbo Wind GmbH und Co. KG, Crailsheim (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper investigates the stability of offshore wind farms connected to the main power system via HVDC systems. Wind farms consisting of different ratios of directly connected synchronous machines and doubly-fed induction machines are considered. In addition, both conventional LCC- and VSC-type HVDC systems are considered. Furthermore, different control strategies are considered. Furthermore, different control strategies are considered for the VSC-based system, including constant frequency control and frequency regulation. The stability analysis is done by means of time-domain simulation. The maximum and minimum ratio of the two wind turbine technologies is found for each of the different HVDC systems. (orig.)

  1. Animal Production Performance and Herd Management in Suckling Farms on Réunion Island

    J.P. Choisis

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In Réunion, because of the insularity and the small size of farms, improving cattle farm productivity involves increas­ing technical management aspects. To analyze relationships between herd management practices and animal perform­ances, a survey was conducted in ten suckling farms, located in the Highlands, from 1999 to 2002. Three sets of 4, 8 and 3 variables, respectively, were thus extracted from the moni­toring database: animal performances (calving interval, fertil­ity rate, body weight at standard age, live meat production, farmers’ practices (grazing time per hectare and paddock, time interval between two passages, paddock size, stocking rate, feed complementation of weaned animals and lactating cows, culling rate, and environment (rainfall, herbage production, body condition score of cows. An analysis of co-inertia was carried out on the first two tables to analyze relationships between animal production performances and practices. A significant correlation was observed between the two tables. The results of the co-inertia analysis were interpreted for each farm. Beyond specific constraints, they revealed proximities between farms and herd management based on various strat­egies, which were relevant with the observed performances. A STATICO analysis was performed to assess relationships between performance parameters and environment parameters for the four studied years. It revealed that there was a stable costructure between the environment and performance tables. This suggests that practices had a highly structuring effect on animal production and that some system adjustments miti­gated the climate effects.

  2. Manure management practices on biogas and non-biogas pig farms in developing countries - using livestock farms in Vietnam as an example

    Cu, T. T. T.; Cuong, P. H.; Hang, L. T.

    2012-01-01

    This survey was carried out to study animal manure management on livestock farms with biogas technology (biogas farms) and without (non-biogas farms) in the areas surrounding the Vietnamese cities Hanoi and Hue. The objective of the study was to assess the contribution of biogas production...... to a better environment as well as to recognize the problems with livestock manure management on small-scale farms. On all the farms included in the study more than one manure management technology was used, i.e. composting, separation of manure, biogas production and discharge of liquid manure to recipients...... such as public sewers or ponds. On biogas farms, most of the manure collected was used for bio-digestion. The farmers used the fermented manure (digestate) as a source of nutrients for crops, but on more than 50% of the interviewed biogas farms digestate was discharged to the environment. On non-biogas farms...

  3. Combined analysis of climate, technological and price changes on future arable farming systems in Europe

    Wolf, J.; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Kros, J.; Webber, H.; Zhao, G.; Britz, W.; Reinds, G.J.; Ewert, F.; Vries, de W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we compare the relative importance of climate change to technological, management, price and policy changes on European arable farming systems. This required linking four models: the SIMPLACE crop growth modelling framework to calculate future yields under climate change for arable

  4. Decision support for mastitis on farms with an automatic milking system

    Steeneveld, W.

    2010-01-01

    For an optimal mastitis management on farms with an automatic milking system (AMS), two individual cow decisions are important. First, there is a need for decision support on which mastitis alerts have the highest priority for visual checking for clinical mastitis (CM). In essence, all cows with

  5. Soil quality improvement under an ecologically based farming system in northwest Missouri

    Ecologically based farming conserves and improves the soil resource and protects environmental quality by using organic or natural resources without application of synthetic chemicals. Soil quality assessment indicates the ability of management systems to optimize soil productivity and to maintain i...

  6. Soil microbiome is more heterogeneous in organic than in conventional farming system

    Lupatini, Manoeli; Korthals, Gerard W.; de Hollander, Mattias; Janssens, Thierry K.S.; Kuramae, Eiko E.

    2017-01-01

    Organic farming system and sustainable management of soil pathogens aim at reducing the use of agricultural chemicals in order to improve ecosystem health. Despite the essential role of microbial communities in agro-ecosystems, we still have limited understanding of the complex response of microbial

  7. Carbon footprint from dairy farming system

    Della Riva, A.; Kristensen, Troels; De Marchi1, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of milk production at farm gate considering two dairy cattle breeds, Holstein Friesian (HF) and Jersey (JE). Using Italian inventory data the emissions of CO2eq per kg ECM for dairy herds of HF and JE breed were estimated. The res......Aim of the present study was to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of milk production at farm gate considering two dairy cattle breeds, Holstein Friesian (HF) and Jersey (JE). Using Italian inventory data the emissions of CO2eq per kg ECM for dairy herds of HF and JE breed were estimated....... The results show 0.80 kg CO2eq/kg ECM in JE herd, while 0.96 kg CO2eq/kg ECM in HF herd. The main differences were due to the level of dry matter intake, milk yield and fertility traits. Indeed, JE herd showed a lower milk yield than HF herd, a lower DMI and better fertility, determining less production...

  8. Comparison of three distinct management strategies for pig slurry applied to three groups of farms

    Dauden, A.; Teresa, M.; Siegler, C.; Bescos, B.; Burton, C.

    2009-01-01

    Poor management of pig slurry can lead to the contamination of the soil, water and air, which is mostly of the result of sur-plus nutrients. Such environmental impact from pig farming are common in areas with intensive livestock farming. The projects primary objectives is to demonstrate at farm scale the application of the three main manure management technologies deployed within structured local schemes to minimize the environmental impact. (Author)

  9. Transient stability risk assessment of power systems incorporating wind farms

    Miao, Lu; Fang, Jiakun; Wen, Jinyu

    2013-01-01

    fed induction generator has been established. Wind penetration variation and multiple stochastic factors of power systems have been considered. The process of transient stability risk assessment based on the Monte Carlo method has been described and a comprehensive risk indicator has been proposed......Large-scale wind farm integration has brought several aspects of challenges to the transient stability of power systems. This paper focuses on the research of the transient stability of power systems incorporating with wind farms by utilizing risk assessment methods. The detailed model of double....... An investigation has been conducted into an improved 10-generator 39-bus system with a wind farm incorporated to verify the validity and feasibility of the risk assessment method proposed....

  10. Towards an inventory of methane emissions from manure management that is responsive to changes on Canadian farms

    VanderZaag, A C; Evans, L; Vergé, X P C; Desjardins, R L; MacDonald, J D

    2013-01-01

    Methane emissions from manure management represent an important mitigation opportunity, yet emission quantification methods remain crude and do not contain adequate detail to capture changes in agricultural practices that may influence emissions. Using the Canadian emission inventory methodology as an example, this letter explores three key aspects for improving emission quantification: (i) obtaining emission measurements to improve and validate emission model estimates, (ii) obtaining more useful activity data, and (iii) developing a methane emission model that uses the available farm management activity data. In Canada, national surveys to collect manure management data have been inconsistent and not designed to provide quantitative data. Thus, the inventory has not been able to accurately capture changes in management systems even between manure stored as solid versus liquid. To address this, we re-analyzed four farm management surveys from the past decade and quantified the significant change in manure management which can be linked to the annual agricultural survey to create a continuous time series. In the dairy industry of one province, for example, the percentage of manure stored as liquid increased by 300% between 1991 and 2006, which greatly affects the methane emission estimates. Methane emissions are greatest from liquid manure, but vary by an order of magnitude depending on how the liquid manure is managed. Even if more complete activity data are collected on manure storage systems, default Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidance does not adequately capture the impacts of management decisions to reflect variation among farms and regions in inventory calculations. We propose a model that stays within the IPCC framework but would be more responsive to farm management by generating a matrix of methane conversion factors (MCFs) that account for key factors known to affect methane emissions: temperature, retention time and inoculum. This

  11. Goat farm management and Brucella serological test among goat keepers and livestock officers, 2011-2012, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, southern Thailand.

    Te-Chaniyom, Thanidtha; Geater, Alan F; Kongkaew, Wandee; Chethanond, Usa; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2016-12-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease particularly affecting goats, emerged in Thailand in 2003, resulting in both an occupational hazard for goat keepers and livestock officers, and production losses. Farm management practices have been identified as risk factors associated with Brucella sero-positivity in many studies. Our finding in this study should be considered in order to strengthen the system of biosecurity control in farm animals as one health approach. The objectives of the study were to describe the distribution of potential risk factors by types of goat farms and to document the prevalence of human Brucella sero-positivity among goat keepers and livestock officers in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to December 2012. The study population included three types of goat farms: standard, community enterprise and private goat farms that were located in Nakhon Si Thammmarat Province in southern Thailand. Information on whether the farm had any Brucella sero-positivity goats since 2011 was retrieved from the local livestock office records. Information on farming management was also traced back to 2011. Field researchers collected information from goat keepers of the selected farms using a structured questionnaire. Goat keepers on all farms pre-identified (January to June 2012) as having had at least one positive goat were considered to have been exposed. Goat keepers on a random sample of farms having all goats with negative results were considered to be unexposed. Venous blood samples were collected from goat keepers exposed and unexposed and from livestock officers and the samples were tested by IgG ELISA. Statistical analysis was done under the complex survey design in R software. Fourteen standard farms, 66 community enterprise farms and 68 private farms participated in the study; 82.4% (122/148) used public pasture and 53.4% (79/148) shared breeder goats with other farms. Farm management practices corresponding

  12. Farm nitrogen balances in six European landscapes as an indicator for nitrogen losses and basis for improved management

    Dalgaard, T.; Bienkowski, J. F.; Bleeker, A.; Dragosits, U.; Drouet, J. L.; Durand, P.; Frumau, A.; Hutchings, N. J.; Kedziora, A.; Magliulo, V.; Olesen, J. E.; Theobald, M. R.; Maury, O.; Akkal, N.; Cellier, P.

    2012-12-01

    Improved management of nitrogen (N) in agriculture is necessary to achieve a sustainable balance between the production of food and other biomass, and the unwanted effects of N on water pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity deterioration and human health. To analyse farm N-losses and the complex interactions within farming systems, efficient methods for identifying emissions hotspots and evaluating mitigation measures are therefore needed. The present paper aims to fill this gap at the farm and landscape scales. Six agricultural landscapes in Poland (PL), the Netherlands (NL), France (FR), Italy (IT), Scotland (UK) and Denmark (DK) were studied, and a common method was developed for undertaking farm inventories and the derivation of farm N balances, N surpluses and for evaluating uncertainty for the 222 farms and 11 440 ha of farmland included in the study. In all landscapes, a large variation in the farm N surplus was found, and thereby a large potential for reductions. The highest average N surpluses were found in the most livestock-intensive landscapes of IT, FR, and NL; on average 202 ± 28, 179 ± 63 and 178 ± 20 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively. All landscapes showed hotspots, especially from livestock farms, including a special UK case with large-scale landless poultry farming. Overall, the average N surplus from the land-based UK farms dominated by extensive sheep and cattle grazing was only 31 ± 10 kg N ha-1 yr-1, but was similar to the N surplus of PL and DK (122 ± 20 and 146 ± 55 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively) when landless poultry farming was included. We found farm N balances to be a useful indicator for N losses and the potential for improving N management. Significant correlations to N surplus were found, both with ammonia air concentrations and nitrate concentrations in soils and groundwater, measured during the period of N management data collection in the landscapes from 2007-2009. This indicates that farm N surpluses may be used as an

  13. Farm nitrogen balances in six European landscapes as an indicator for nitrogen losses and basis for improved management

    T. Dalgaard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Improved management of nitrogen (N in agriculture is necessary to achieve a sustainable balance between the production of food and other biomass, and the unwanted effects of N on water pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity deterioration and human health. To analyse farm N-losses and the complex interactions within farming systems, efficient methods for identifying emissions hotspots and evaluating mitigation measures are therefore needed. The present paper aims to fill this gap at the farm and landscape scales. Six agricultural landscapes in Poland (PL, the Netherlands (NL, France (FR, Italy (IT, Scotland (UK and Denmark (DK were studied, and a common method was developed for undertaking farm inventories and the derivation of farm N balances, N surpluses and for evaluating uncertainty for the 222 farms and 11 440 ha of farmland included in the study.

    In all landscapes, a large variation in the farm N surplus was found, and thereby a large potential for reductions. The highest average N surpluses were found in the most livestock-intensive landscapes of IT, FR, and NL; on average 202 ± 28, 179 ± 63 and 178 ± 20 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively. All landscapes showed hotspots, especially from livestock farms, including a special UK case with large-scale landless poultry farming. Overall, the average N surplus from the land-based UK farms dominated by extensive sheep and cattle grazing was only 31 ± 10 kg N ha−1 yr−1, but was similar to the N surplus of PL and DK (122 ± 20 and 146 ± 55 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively when landless poultry farming was included.

    We found farm N balances to be a useful indicator for N losses and the potential for improving N management. Significant correlations to N surplus were found, both with ammonia air concentrations and nitrate concentrations in soils and groundwater, measured during the period of N

  14. Farm Management and Leadership. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in farm management and leadership: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with farm management. SMAT materials can…

  15. The Analysis of Potato Farming Systems in Chencha, Ethiopia

    Dersseh, Waga Mazengia; Gebresilase, Yenenesh Tadesse; Schulte, R.P.O.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    A household survey was conducted for mixed farming systems in Chencha, Ethiopia. Goals of the survey were to establish a baseline for the current production system, to quantify the variation in input and output, and to identify constraints hindering expansion of potato production. Descriptive

  16. Risk perception and management in smallholder dairy farming in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    Gebreegziabher, K.; Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies on smallholder dairy farmers' risk perceptions and management strategies have still received little attention in agricultural research of developing countries. This study focuses on farmers' risk perception and management strategies of smallholder dairy farms in urban and

  17. Co-development of climate smart flooded rice farming systems

    de Neergaard, Andreas; Stoumann Jensen, Lars; Ly, Proyuth; Pandey, Arjun; Duong Vu, Quynh; Tariq, Azeem; Islam, Syed; van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Sander, Bjoern Ole; de Tourdonnet, Stephane; Van Mai, Trinh; Wassmann, Reiner

    2017-04-01

    -field trial in Vietnam, pre-planting and early season drainage was tested in spring and summer rice, under individual and community water management regimes, and at 2 straw application levels. Pre-season drainage was difficult for farmers to implement, due to the short duration of fallow between cropping seasons. Early season drainage was most effective in lowering methane emissions at both straw application levels. Unsurprisingly, the well-managed drainage control (community system) was significantly more effective in mitigating emissions, than the individually water management. Surveys among farming communities in Philippines, subject to agricultural campaigns on alternate-wetting-and-drying showed higher adoption among farmers who actively pumped water to their fields, compared to gravity-fed water supply, due to the direct savings experienced by farmers pumping water. Several other factors positively influenced adoption of mitigation techniques, including education level, access to extension services, wealth and farm size, and age of farmer (negatively correlated to adoption rate). In conclusion, drainage periods are even more important to mitigate emissions when including organic manures or residues in flooded rice, and early-season drainage should be further explored as a more safe and convenient option for smallholders. Participatory development of climate smart prototypes will be essential, and a model for such is presented.

  18. The Monitor System for the LHCb on-line farm

    Bonifazi, F; Carbone, A; Galli, D; Gregori, D; Marconi, U; Peco, G; Vagnoni, V

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the LHCb on-line farm Monitor System is to keep under control all the working indicators which are relevant for the farm operation, and to set the appropriate alarms whenever an error or a critical condition comes up. Since the most stressing tasks of the farm are the data transfer and processing, relevant indicators includes the CPU and the memory load of the system, the network interface and the TCP/IP stack parameters, the rates of the interrupts raised by the network interface card and the detailed status of the running processes. The monitoring of computers’ physical conditions (temperatures, fan speeds and motherboard voltages) are the subject of a separate technical note, since they are accessed in a different way, by using the IPMI protocol.

  19. Integrated farm sustainability assessment for the environmental management of rural activities

    Stachetii Rodrigues, Geraldo; Aparecida Rodrigues, Izilda; Almeida Buschinelli, Claudio Cesar de; Barros, Inacio de

    2010-01-01

    Farmers have been increasingly called upon to respond to an ongoing redefinition in consumers' demands, having as a converging theme the search for sustainable production practices. In order to satisfy this objective, instruments for the environmental management of agricultural activities have been sought out. Environmental impact assessment methods are appropriate tools to address the choice of technologies and management practices to minimize negative effects of agricultural development, while maximizing productive efficiency, sound usage of natural resources, conservation of ecological assets and equitable access to wealth generation means. The 'system for weighted environmental impact assessment of rural activities' (APOIA-NovoRural) presented in this paper is organized to provide integrated farm sustainability assessment according to quantitative environmental standards and defined socio-economic benchmarks. The system integrates sixty-two objective indicators in five sustainability dimensions - (i) Landscape ecology, (ii) Environmental quality (atmosphere, water and soil), (iii) Sociocultural values, (iv) Economic values, and (v) Management and administration. Impact indices are expressed in three integration levels: (i) specific indicators, that offer a diagnostic and managerial tool for farmers and rural administrators, by pointing out particular attributes of the rural activities that may be failing to comply with defined environmental performance objectives; (ii) integrated sustainability dimensions, that show decision-makers the major contributions of the rural activities toward local sustainable development, facilitating the definition of control actions and promotion measures; and (iii) aggregated sustainability index, that can be considered a yardstick for eco-certification purposes. Nine fully documented case studies carried out with the APOIA-NovoRural system, focusing on different scales, diverse rural activities/farming systems, and contrasting

  20. Revising the Depreciation and Investment Credit Lessons for Farm Management and Supervised Occupational Experience for Use in Missouri Programs of Vocational Agriculture. Final Report.

    Rohrbach, Norman; And Others

    This project developed four lessons that reflect the 1981 tax laws as they relate to the use of investment credit and depreciation in farm accounting systems. Project staff reviewed tax laws and related materials and identified four lessons in farm management and supervised occupational experience that needed revision. Materials were then…

  1. Farm nitrogen balances in six European landscapes as an indicator for nitrogen losses and basis for improved management

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Bienkowski, J F; Bleeker, A

    2012-01-01

    Improved management of nitrogen (N) in agriculture is necessary to achieve a sustainable balance between the production of food and other biomass, and the unwanted effects of N on water pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity deterioration and human health. To analyse farm N...... was found with N measured in surface waters, probably because of spatial and temporal variations in groundwater buffering and biogeochemical reactions affecting N flows from farm to surface waters. A case study of the development in N surplus from the landscape in DK from 1998–2008 showed a 22% reduction......-losses and the complex interactions within farming systems, efficient methods for identifying emissions hotspots and evaluating mitigation measures are therefore needed. The present paper aims to fill this gap at the farm and landscape scales. Six agricultural landscapes in Poland (PL), the Netherlands (NL), France (FR...

  2. Development of a generic wind farm SCADA system

    Smith, G.

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the project is to develop a 'Generic Wind Farm Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System' for the wind energy industry. A SCADA is a computer-based system that allows local and remote control of basic wind turbine functions and collects data from the wind farm that can be used to analyse and report on the operational performance. As wind farm size, complexity and remoteness of location increase an industry standard SCADA is vitally important to allow effective operation, monitoring, control and reporting. Turbine manufacturers offer a number of existing systems but these do not always fully meet the needs of wind farm operators and owners. Operators and owners who are involved with more than one turbine supplier end up with a number of incompatible systems. This causes operational difficulties and makes it hard to compared performance data from different turbines. This project aims to address these issues and develop a system that will communicate with all turbine types and calculate and store performance data in a consistent way. (Author)

  3. Managing soil nutrients with compost in organic farms of East Georgia

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2013-04-01

    Soil Fertility management in organic farming relies on a long-term integrated approach rather than the more short-term very targeted solutions common in conventional agriculture. Increasing soil organic matter content through the addition of organic amendments has proven to be a valuable practice for maintaining or restoring soil quality. Organic agriculture relies greatly on building soil organic matter with compost typically replacing inorganic fertilizers and animal manure as the fertility source of choice. In Georgia, more and more attention is paid to the development of organic farming, occupying less than 1% of total agricultural land of the country. Due to increased interest towards organic production the question about soil amendments is arising with special focus on organic fertilizers as basic nutrient supply sources under organic management practice. In the frame of current research two different types of compost was prepared and their nutritional value was studied. The one was prepared from organic fraction municipal solid waste and another one using fruit processing residues. In addition to main nutritional properties both composts were tested on heavy metals content, as one of the main quality parameter. The results have shown that concentration of main nutrient is higher in municipal solid waste compost, but it contains also more heavy metals, which is not allowed in organic farming system. Fruit processing residue compost also has lower pH value and is lower in total salt content being is more acceptable for soil in lowlands of East Georgia, mainly characterised by alkaline reaction. .

  4. Effect of cattle management practices on raw milk quality on farms operating in a two-stage dairy chain.

    Sraïri, M T; Benhouda, H; Kuper, M; Le Gal, P Y

    2009-02-01

    In many developing countries, milk production varies greatly according to farm size, cattle breed, and milking practices. However, production systems often are dominated by smallholder farms. Therefore, relatively small volumes of milk are delivered daily from numerous farms to intermediate cooperatives which supply industrial units. This paper argues that in such two-stage dairy chains, milk quality could be improved by focusing on farming practices rather than on the testing of individual deliveries. Indeed, it is difficult to analyze their quality due to technical, economic, and logistic limitations. The objective of this study is to link on-farm practices with milk chemical quality parameters (fat and protein) and hygienic quality criteria (Aerobic Plate Count, APC and Coliforms). Cattle management practices were monitored monthly over one year on 23 farms located on an irrigation scheme in Morocco. 276 milk samples were analyzed. The monthly variability of milk quality parameters was then characterized. Results show that average cow milk chemical parameters vary within a normal range. They remain primarily linked to the genetic type of cows, the lactation stage, and the conversion of feed concentrates' net energy into milk. Overall milk hygienic quality was poor (APC and Coliforms counts were 100 fold international norms), due essentially to a lack of hygiene and inadequate milking conditions (hands, udder, and teat washing, type of bucket used, dirtiness of cows...). It is suggested that a close monitoring of herd management practices may allow the indirect control of milk quality parameters, thereby avoiding costly analyses of numerous smallholder milk deliveries.

  5. 12 CFR 614.4590 - Equitable treatment of OFIs and Farm Credit System associations.

    2010-01-01

    ... differences in credit risk and administrative costs to the Farm Credit Bank or agricultural credit bank. (c... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable treatment of OFIs and Farm Credit System associations. 614.4590 Section 614.4590 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT...

  6. Farming Systems of the African Savanna: A Continent in Crisis ...

    Farmers in the parts of Africa where population growth is near, or has exceeded, the carrying capacity of the land at current technological levels face a serious crisis. This crisis is the result of the breakdown of traditional farming systems. The consequences are environmental deterioration on a massive scale, widespread ...

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  8. Economic Feasibility of Recirculating Aquaculture Systems in Pangasius Farming

    Pham, T.A.N.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Le, T.C.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Bosma, R.H.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the economic feasibility of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in pangasius farming in Vietnam. The study uses a capital budgeting approach and accounts for uncertainty in key parameters. Stochastic simulation is used to simulate the economic performance of medium and

  9. Economic Potential of Taungya Farming System in Edo State, Nigeria

    The study examined the economic potential of taungya system in Edo state, using of data obtained from both primary and secondary sources with the aid of well structured questionnaires administered to 230 respondents in eight the Local Government Areas practicing taungya farming in government reserved forests.

  10. An Implementation of the Salt-Farm Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Network

    Ju, Jonggil; Park, Ingon; Lee, Yongwoong; Cho, Jongsik; Cho, Hyunwook; Yoe, Hyun; Shin, Changsun

    In producing solar salt, natural environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind direction, wind speed and rain are essential elements which influence on the productivity and quality of salt. If we can manage the above mentioned environmental elements efficiently, we could achieve improved results in production of salt with good quality. To monitor and manage the natural environments, this paper suggests the Salt-Farm Monitoring System (SFMS) which is operated with renewable energy power. The system collects environmental factors directly from the environmental measure sensors and the sensor nodes. To implement a stand-alone system, we applied solar cell and wind generator to operate this system. Finally, we showed that the SFMS could monitor the salt-farm environments by using wireless sensor nodes and operate correctly without external power supply.

  11. Retrospective analysis of Bluetongue farm risk profile definition, based on biology, farm management practices and climatic data.

    Cappai, Stefano; Loi, Federica; Coccollone, Annamaria; Contu, Marino; Capece, Paolo; Fiori, Michele; Canu, Simona; Foxi, Cipriano; Rolesu, Sandro

    2018-07-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by species of Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Many studies have contributed to clarifying various aspects of its aetiology, epidemiology and vector dynamic; however, BT remains a disease of epidemiological and economic importance that affects ruminants worldwide. Since 2000, the Sardinia region has been the most affected area of the Mediterranean basin. The region is characterised by wide pastoral areas for sheep and represents the most likely candidate region for the study of Bluetongue virus (BTV) distribution and prevalence in Italy. Furthermore, specific information on the farm level and epidemiological studies needs to be provided to increase the knowledge on the disease's spread and to provide valid mitigation strategies in Sardinia. This study conducted a punctual investigation into the spatial patterns of BTV transmission to define a risk profile for all Sardinian farmsby using a logistic multilevel mixed model that take into account agro-meteorological aspects, as well as farm characteristics and management. Data about animal density (i.e. sheep, goats and cattle), vaccination, previous outbreaks, altitude, land use, rainfall, evapotranspiration, water surface, and farm management practices (i.e. use of repellents, treatment against insect vectors, storage of animals in shelter overnight, cleaning, presence of mud and manure) were collected for 12,277 farms for the years 2011-2015. The logistic multilevel mixed model showed the fundamental role of climatic factors in disease development and the protective role of good management, vaccination, outbreak in the previous year and altitude. Regional BTV risk maps were developed, based on the predictor values of logistic model results, and updated every 10 days. These maps were used to identify, 20 days in advance, the areas at highest risk. The risk farm profile, as defined by the model, would provide specific information about the role of each

  12. Farm-economic analysis of reducing antimicrobial use whilst adopting improved management strategies on farrow-to-finish pig farms.

    Rojo-Gimeno, Cristina; Postma, Merel; Dewulf, Jeroen; Hogeveen, Henk; Lauwers, Ludwig; Wauters, Erwin

    2016-07-01

    Due to increasing public health concerns that food animals could be reservoirs for antibiotic resistant organisms, calls for reduced current antibiotic use on farms are growing. Nevertheless, it is challenging for farmers to perform this reduction without negatively affecting technical and economic performance. As an alternative, improved management practices based on biosecurity and vaccinations have been proven useful to reduce antimicrobial use without lowering productivity, but issues with insufficient experimental design possibilities have hindered economic analysis. In the present study a quasi-experimental approach was used for assessing the economic impact of reduction of antimicrobial use coupled with improved management strategies, particularly biosecurity strategies. The research was performed on farrow-to-finish pig farms in Flanders (northern region of Belgium). First, to account for technological progress and to avoid selection bias, propensity score analysis was used to compare data on technical parameters. The treatment group (n=48) participated in an intervention study whose aim was to improve management practices to reduce the need for use of antimicrobials. Before and after the change in management, data were collected on the technical parameters, biosecurity status, antimicrobial use, and vaccinations. Treated farms were matched without replacement with control farms (n=69), obtained from the Farm Accountancy Data Network, to estimate the difference in differences (DID) of the technical parameters. Second, the technical parameters' DID, together with the estimated costs of the management intervention and the price volatility of the feed, meat of the finisher pigs, and piglets served as a basis for modelling the profit of 11 virtual farrow-to-finish pig farms representative of the Flemish sector. Costs incurred by new biosecurity measures (median +€3.96/sow/year), and new vaccinations (median €0.00/sow/year) did not exceed the cost reduction

  13. Environmental impact of heifer management decisions on Dutch dairy farms

    Mourits, M.C.M.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Dairy farming contributes substantially to Dutch environmental problems. A dynamic heifer rearing model was used to determine the extent to which the rearing activity influences nutrient flows on a dairy farm. Based on current rearing conditions, the economic optimal rearing policy resulted in an

  14. A moral Operating System of livestock farming

    Gremmen, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Societal views about livestock production systems in Europe are changing dramatically in a negative direction. Based on the tradition of pragmatism in applied philosophy I develop a Moral Operating System of animal production systems in cooperating a plurality of ethical views. This moral operating

  15. Life cycle assessment of Chinese shrimp farming systems targeted for export and domestic sales.

    Cao, Ling; Diana, James S; Keoleian, Gregory A; Lai, Qiuming

    2011-08-01

    We conducted surveys of six hatcheries and 18 farms for data inputs to complete a cradle-to-farm-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance for intensive (for export markets in Chicago) and semi-intensive (for domestic markets in Shanghai) shrimp farming systems in Hainan Province, China. The relative contribution to overall environmental performance of processing and distribution to final markets were also evaluated from a cradle-to-destination-port perspective. Environmental impact categories included global warming, acidification, eutrophication, cumulative energy use, and biotic resource use. Our results indicated that intensive farming had significantly higher environmental impacts per unit production than semi-intensive farming in all impact categories. The grow-out stage contributed between 96.4% and 99.6% of the cradle-to-farm-gate impacts. These impacts were mainly caused by feed production, electricity use, and farm-level effluents. By averaging over intensive (15%) and semi-intensive (85%) farming systems, 1 metric ton (t) live-weight of shrimp production in China required 38.3 ± 4.3 GJ of energy, as well as 40.4 ± 1.7 t of net primary productivity, and generated 23.1 ± 2.6 kg of SO(2) equiv, 36.9 ± 4.3 kg of PO(4) equiv, and 3.1 ± 0.4 t of CO(2) equiv. Processing made a higher contribution to cradle-to-destination-port impacts than distribution of processed shrimp from farm gate to final markets in both supply chains. In 2008, the estimated total electricity consumption, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions from Chinese white-leg shrimp production would be 1.1 billion kW·h, 49 million GJ, and 4 million metric tons, respectively. Improvements suggested for Chinese shrimp aquaculture include changes in feed composition, farm management, electricity-generating sources, and effluent treatment before discharge. Our results can be used to optimize market-oriented shrimp supply chains and promote more

  16. Stimulating transitions towards sustainable farming systems

    Elzen, B.; Barbier, M.; Cerf, M.; Grin, J.

    2012-01-01

    How can the dynamics of the agro-food sector in the long run be addressed? We argue that sustainable agro-food systems cannot be developed through a simple improvement of existing systems, but will require a transition. Therefore, we focus on how transitions to sustainability could be initiated and

  17. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in intensive beef cattle farms

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an assessment scheme for the evaluation at farm level of beef cattle welfare in the intensive rearing system that is capable of both identifying weak points in animal welfare and grading farms to such extent. The basic principle of the method was the avoidance of animal handling and the prolonged observation of cattle using animal-based and resource provision measures grouped in four classes of parameters: 1 Housing systems and facilities; 2 Health and cleanliness; 3 Animal behaviour and reactivity; 4 Quality of management and stockmanship. Each parameter was graded giving the highest scores to the best option for animal welfare, and the threshold value for distinguishing good from poor welfare conditions was set primarily on the results of scientific reports and investigations. An overall Welfare Index was calculated summing the scores of the 4 classes of parameters to formulate a general judgement of the farm and to allow comparison among them. The protocol was applied to 102 Italian intensive beef cattle farms rearing more than 300 young bulls/year. Regarding housing and facilities, the study showed that space allowance and space at the manger were the most frequent critical points. Within the “poor welfare” farms, more than 80% provided less than 3.5 m2/head to bulls weighing more than 500 kg, and none adopted a feeding frontage of at least 60 cm/head. Negatively judged farms compared to those ranked in the good welfare area for health and cleanliness showed a higher incidence of emergency slaughter (score 1.7: >1% vs score 3: 0.5-1%, P<0.05 and lameness (score 1.9: 1.5-3% vs score 3.3: <1.5%, P<0.05. Animal behaviour and reactivity parameters showed that in the “poor welfare” farms, bulls had a quicker flight reaction to the presence of both farmer and observer (P<0.01 likely due to a negative human-animal interaction. The quality of stockmanship was the category in which the highest number of farms

  18. Differences in the Financial Management of Conventional, Organic, and Biodynamic Farms

    Vlašicová Eliška

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The financial management of conventional, organic, and biodynamic farms was evaluated and compared. It is a highly specific issue filling in the gap namely in the area of economic research of biodynamic agriculture. Biodynamic agriculture is a less widespread concept of agriculture, the management of which meets the requirements of organic agriculture. Organic agriculture has still been gaining in importance in the Czech Republic, the number of organic farms has been growing, and availability of organic products has increased, too. Of the Czech farms receiving subsidies from the EU or state subsidies in 2007-2012, a total of 389 were selected for analysis (273 of which were conventional farms, 112 organic farms, and 4 farms were engaged in biodynamic agriculture. Subsidies, Total Costs, Operating Revenue, Profit and Gross Value Added indicators were selected for evaluation. The individual indicators within groups of companies were compared by means of a t-test. The analysis revealed significant differences in the economic indicators of individual types of farms. It was observed that organic enterprises have better economic results than conventional and biodynamic businesses. Subsidies help all types of farms achieve better results. We may hence assume dependence of these farms on subsidies.

  19. Integrating gene flow, crop biology, and farm management in on-farm conservation of avocado (Persea americana, Lauraceae).

    Birnbaum, Kenneth; Desalle, Rob; Peters, Charles M; Benfey, Philip N

    2003-11-01

    Maintaining crop diversity on farms where cultivars can evolve is a conservation goal, but few tools are available to assess the long-term maintenance of genetic diversity on farms. One important issue for on-farm conservation is gene flow from crops with a narrow genetic base into related populations that are genetically diverse. In a case study of avocado (Persea americana var. americana) in one of its centers of diversity (San Jerónimo, Costa Rica), we used 10 DNA microsatellite markers in a parentage analysis to estimate gene flow from commercialized varieties into a traditional crop population. Five commercialized genotypes comprised nearly 40% of orchard trees, but they contributed only about 14.5% of the gametes to the youngest cohort of trees. Although commercialized varieties and the diverse population were often planted on the same farm, planting patterns appeared to keep the two types of trees separated on small scales, possibly explaining the limited gene flow. In a simulation that combined gene flow estimates, crop biology, and graft tree management, loss of allelic diversity was less than 10% over 150 yr, and selection was effective in retaining desirable alleles in the diverse subpopulation. Simulations also showed that, in addition to gene flow, managing the genetic makeup and life history traits of the invasive commercialized varieties could have a significant impact on genetic diversity in the target population. The results support the feasibility of on-farm crop conservation, but simulations also showed that higher levels of gene flow could lead to severe losses of genetic diversity even if farmers continue to plant diverse varieties.

  20. Improving farm management by modeling the contamination of farm tank milk with butyric acid bacteria

    Vissers, M.M.M.; Driehuis, F.; Giffel, te M.C.; Jong, de P.; Lankveld, J.M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Control of contamination of farm tank milk (FTM) with the spore-forming butyric acid bacteria (BAB) is important to prevent the late-blowing defect in semi-hard cheeses. The risk of late blowing can be decreased via control of the contamination level of FTM with BAB. A modeling approach was applied

  1. Effect of farming system on colour components of wheat noodles

    Magdalena Lacko-Bartosova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Colour of noodles is definitely a key element of a consumer's buying decisions. It can be influenced by many factors. Conditions, under which is winter wheat grown, can be considered as one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate colour of noodles that were prepared from winter wheat grown in ecological and integrated arable farming systems, after different forecrops with two levels of fertilization (fertilized and unfertilized during the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. Winter wheat noodles were prepared from white flour and wholegrain flour and its colour was evaluated using the spectro-colorimeter. Colour was measured by three coordinates: lightness L*, red/ green value a* and yellow/ blue value b*. Wholegrain noodles had lower L* value, so they were darker than white flour noodles, with higher redness and higher yellowness. Colour of white flour noodles and wholegrain noodles was significantly influenced by crop nutrition (fertilized and unfertilized variants, farming system and meteorological conditions during experimental years. Wholegrain noodles from ecological system were darker, with lower lightness and higher redness compared to noodles from integrated system. White flour noodles from ecological system were also darker compared to noodles from integrated system. Fertilization decreased lightness of white flour noodles, on the contrary, fertilization increased the lightness and decreased the redness of wholegrain noodles. In non-fertilized treatment, ecological wheat noodles were darker, with higher redness and yellowness than noodles prepared from winter wheat grown in integrated arable farming system.

  2. THE INFORMATIONAL SYSTEM FOR RESOURSES ADMINISTRATION IN FISH FARMS

    Adrian ZUGRAVU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The informational system for aquaculture activities provide a financial planning and analysis tool.The software can also be of assistance to land-based farmers who want to more thoroughly utilizetheir water resources by developing small-scale fish farm systems to provide supplementary income.Informational model has been enhanced to produce a comprehensive software package foraquaculture feasibility modeling, financial planning, sales and harvesting planning and managementinformation tools.

  3. Remote sensing and monitor system for a large poultry farm based on Internet

    Bai, Hongwu; Teng, Guanghui; Ma, Liang; Li, Zhizhong; Yuan, Zhengdong; Li, Minzan; Yang, Xiuslayerg

    2005-09-01

    A remote sensing and monitor system for a large poultry layer farm is developed based on distributed data acquisition and internet control. The supervising system applied patent techniques known as arc orbit movable vidicon, wireless video transmission and telecommunications. It features supervising at all orientations, and digital video telecommunicating through internet. All measured and control information is sent to a central computer, which is in charge of storing, displaying, analyzing and serving to internet, where managers can monitor real time production scene anywhere and customers can also see the healthy layers through internet. This paper primarily discusses how to design the remote sensing and monitor system (RSMS), and its usage in a large poultry farm, Deqingyuan Healthy Breeding Ecological Garden, Yanqing County, Beijing, China. The system applied web service technology and the middleware using XML language and Java language. It preponderated in data management, data exchange, expansibility, security, and compatibility. As a part of poultry sustainable development management system, it has been applied in a large farm with 1,200,000 layers. Tests revealed that there was distinct decline in the death ratio of chicken with 2. 2%, as the surroundings of layers had been ameliorated. At the same time, there was definite increase in the laying ratio with 3. 5%.

  4. Management practices and milk production in dairy donkey farms distributed over the Italian territory

    Francesca Dai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Limited information is available about the actual management characteristics of dairy donkeys in Southern Europe. The aim of the present study is to describe animal management of dairy donkey farms in Italy. Twelve farmers were asked to answer a questionnaire on the management of their animals and their farms distributed over the Italian territory. Six farms grouped their animals in paddocks according to the production characteristics (e.g. lactating, dry, stallions; three farms housed the stallions in single boxes. Most of the visited farms were family run and the number of animals cared for by a single person varied from five to 103 animals. All the farms but one performed mechanical milking with a modified goat milkmaid.Vaccinations were regularly performed only on two farms. All the foals received colostrum and suckled from their own mothers. Foals were nursed by their mother until 6-12 months old. During the separation period before milking, foals were usually (83% housed in paddocks near their mothers with the possibility of visual and/or tactile contact, however such separations could be for up to 12 hours (17%. Even though the assessed sample was small, considerable differences were seen between farms, likely due to lack of uniform information available for the farmers. The adoption of scientific based procedures is suggested in order to improve both animal welfare and milk quality.

  5. Farming Systems of the African Savanna

    It is impossible to thank all those farmers, researchers, and others who have ..... Farmers using this method aim to maintain or even increase the OM content of the soil by ... (Some types of fertilizer may damage the seed or young plants if placed in ..... The structure of a system is defined by the quantitative and qualitative ...

  6. Assessing the users’ need for a spatial decision support system of smallholder farming in Kenya

    Mike Teucher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate data of the natural conditions and agricultural systems with a good spatial resolution are a key factor to tackle food insecurity in developing countries. A broad variety of approaches exists to achieve precise data and information about agriculture. One system, especially developed for smallholder agriculture in East Africa, is the Farm Management Handbook of Kenya. It was first published in 1982/83 and fully revised in 2012, now containing 7 volumes. The handbooks contain detailed information on climate, soils, suitable crops and soil care based on scientific research results of the last 30 years. The density of facts leads to time consuming extraction of all necessary information. In this study we analyse the user needs and necessary components of a system for decision support for smallholder farming in Kenya based on a geographical information system (GIS. Required data sources were identified, as well as essential functions of the system. We analysed the results of our survey conducted in 2012 and early 2013 among agricultural officers. The monitoring of user needs and the problem of non-adaptability of an agricultural information system on the level of extension officers in Kenya are the central objectives. The outcomes of the survey suggest the establishment of a decision support tool based on already available open source GIS components. The system should include functionalities to show general information for a specific location and should provide precise recommendations about suitable crops and management options to support agricultural guidance on farm level.

  7. Effects of stored feed cropping systems and farm size on the profitability of Maine organic dairy farm simulations.

    Hoshide, A K; Halloran, J M; Kersbergen, R J; Griffin, T S; DeFauw, S L; LaGasse, B J; Jain, S

    2011-11-01

    United States organic dairy production has increased to meet the growing demand for organic milk. Despite higher prices received for milk, organic dairy farmers have come under increasing financial stress due to increases in concentrated feed prices over the past few years, which can make up one-third of variable costs. Market demand for milk has also leveled in the last year, resulting in some downward pressure on prices paid to dairy farmers. Organic dairy farmers in the Northeast United States have experimented with growing different forage and grain crops to maximize on-farm production of protein and energy to improve profitability. Three representative organic feed systems were simulated using the integrated farm system model for farms with 30, 120, and 220 milk cows. Increasing intensity of equipment use was represented by organic dairy farms growing only perennial sod (low) to those with corn-based forage systems, which purchase supplemental grain (medium) or which produce and feed soybeans (high). The relative profitability of these 3 organic feed systems was strongly dependent on dairy farm size. From results, we suggest smaller organic dairy farms can be more profitable with perennial sod-based rather than corn-based forage systems due to lower fixed costs from using only equipment associated with perennial forage harvest and storage. The largest farm size was more profitable using a corn-based system due to greater economies of scale for growing soybeans, corn grain, winter cereals, and corn silages. At an intermediate farm size of 120 cows, corn-based forage systems were more profitable if perennial sod was not harvested at optimum quality, corn was grown on better soils, or if milk yield was 10% higher. Delayed harvest decreased the protein and energy content of perennial sod crops, requiring more purchased grain to balance the ration and resulting in lower profits. Corn-based systems were less affected by lower perennial forage quality, as corn silage

  8. Technical and management support for the development of wind systems for farm, remote, and rural use. Annual report, October 1976--September 1977

    1977-10-01

    During FY1977, the Test Center has been established and a total of eight WTG's have been mounted on towers for testing. At year end, five were undergoing tests, two had been returned to the manufacturers for retrofit of design improvement, and one had been destroyed in a wind storm. In addition, two WTG's were being assembled and prepared for testing and one machine was on order. Specific design improvements have been identified and implemented on two WTG's as a direct result of rf testing. The high-speed data acquisition system at the test center is not yet operational, though the hardware and software are both nearing completion. The system, when completed, will be capable of continuous monitoring of the performance of all the machines at the site as well as intensive testing for measurement of engineering data on any given WTG. Efforts under Task V (Standards Development) have resulted in an informal survey of the wind energy community's opinions on the direction Standards Development should take. Information dissemination has resulted in distribution of approximately 25,000 brochures, with a potential exposure of nearly 200,000 persons, construction of a traveling display, and continuous interface with local and national news media.

  9. Modeling Parasite Dynamics on Farmed Salmon for Precautionary Conservation Management of Wild Salmon

    Rogers, Luke A.; Peacock, Stephanie J.; McKenzie, Peter; DeDominicis, Sharon; Jones, Simon R. M.; Chandler, Peter; Foreman, Michael G. G.; Revie, Crawford W.; Krkošek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity), local host density (measured as cohort surface area), and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March–June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions. PMID:23577082

  10. Modeling parasite dynamics on farmed salmon for precautionary conservation management of wild salmon.

    Luke A Rogers

    Full Text Available Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity, local host density (measured as cohort surface area, and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March-June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions.

  11. Climate change adaptability of cropping and farming systems for Europe

    Justes, Eric; Rossing, Walter; Vermue, Anthony

    systems to CC through a gradient of adaptation strategies. Methods: The adaptation strategies are evaluated at cropping and farming systems as well as regional levels for nine “Adaptation Pilots” along a North-South climate gradient in the EU. Three categories of strategies are evaluated: i) Resistance...... and foster learning in participatory co-design workshops. Results and expectations: The expected results of the Climate-CAFE on-going project will produce an overview of potential CC adaptation measures for selected sites across the EU, along with mutual learning experiences for improved understanding......Introduction: Prospective studies showed that the European agriculture will be impacted by climate change (CC) with different effects depending on the geographic region. The ERA-Net+ project Climate-CAFE (call of FACCE-JPI) aims to improve the “adaptive capacity” of arable and forage based farming...

  12. A review of nitrous oxide mitigation by farm nitrogen management in temperate grassland-based agriculture.

    Li, Dejun; Watson, Catherine J; Yan, Ming Jia; Lalor, Stan; Rafique, Rashid; Hyde, Bernard; Lanigan, Gary; Richards, Karl G; Holden, Nicholas M; Humphreys, James

    2013-10-15

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from grassland-based agriculture is an important source of atmospheric N2O. It is hence crucial to explore various solutions including farm nitrogen (N) management to mitigate N2O emissions without sacrificing farm profitability and food supply. This paper reviews major N management practices to lower N2O emission from grassland-based agriculture. Restricted grazing by reducing grazing time is an effective way to decrease N2O emissions from excreta patches. Balancing the protein-to-energy ratios in the diets of ruminants can also decrease N2O emissions from excreta patches. Among the managements of synthetic fertilizer N application, only adjusting fertilizer N rate and slow-released fertilizers are proven to be effective in lowering N2O emissions. Use of bedding materials may increase N2O emissions from animal houses. Manure storage as slurry, manipulating slurry pH to values lower than 6 and storage as solid manure under anaerobic conditions help to reduce N2O emissions during manure storage stage. For manure land application, N2O emissions can be mitigated by reducing manure N inputs to levels that satisfy grass needs. Use of nitrification inhibitors can substantially lower N2O emissions associated with applications of fertilizers and manures and from urine patches. N2O emissions from legume based grasslands are generally lower than fertilizer-based systems. In conclusion, effective measures should be taken at each step during N flow or combined options should be used in order to mitigate N2O emission at the farm level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An overview of farming system typology methodologies and its use in the study of pasture-based farming system: a review

    Madry, W.; Mena, Y.; Roszkowska, B.; Gozdowski, D.; Hryniewski, R.; Castel, J. M.

    2013-06-01

    The main objective of the paper is to do a critic study of the use of typology methodologies within pasture-based farming systems (PBFS), especially those situated in less favoured areas, showing in each case the more relevant variables or indicators determining the farming system classification. Another objective is to do an overview of the most used farming system typology methodologies in general. First some considerations about the concept of farming system and approaches to its study have been done. Next, the farming system typology methodologies have been showed in general to different farming systems, but addressed preferably to PBFS. The different tools integrated in these methodologies have been considered: sampling methods, sources of data, variables or indicators obtained from available data and techniques of analysis (statistical or not). Methods for farming system classification have been presented (expert methods, analytical methods or a combination of both types). Among the statistical methods, the multivariate analysis has been overall treated, including the principal component analysis and the cluster analysis. Finally, the use of farming system typology methodologies on different pasture-based farming systems has been presented. The most important aspects considered are following: the main objective of the typology, the main animal species, the employed methods of classification and the main variables involved in this classification. (Author) 56 refs.

  14. Impacts of Nutrition and Feeding Programs on Farmers’ Management Decisions Affecting the Success of Dairy Farms with Culture Breed Cattle

    Yavuz Topcu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate all the factors determining the milk production and yield decisions with regard to the nutrition and feeding programs affecting the integrated management strategies on the success of the dairy farms with culture breed cattle under the pasture-based and indoor barn-based production systems. For these aims, data obtained from the individual interviews conducted at the dairy farms with 100 culture breed cattle were used for Principal Component and Multiple Regression Analyses. The results of the study highlighted that while there were linear positive relationships among liquid assets of farms value, concentrate feed and fodder intake of dairy cattle, milk sale price, forage crop support, additional feeding and their types at pasture and milk yields per dairy cattle at the dairy farms; there were inverse relationships among hay intake of dairy cattle, lactation period, pasture planning, culture breed cattle support and those. The farmers could increase the successes of the dairy farms by increasing the technical and economic effectiveness under the integrated management pattern approaches at those with culture breed cattle.

  15. Fate and occurrence of steroids in swine and dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems

    Liu Shan; Ying Guangguo; Zhang Ruiquan; Zhou Lijun; Lai Huajie; Chen Zhifeng

    2012-01-01

    Fate and occurrence of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated in three swine farms and three dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems in China. Twenty-one, 22, and 12 of total 28 steroids were detected in feces samples with concentrations ranging from below method limit of quantitation (< LOQ for estrone) to 8100 ± 444 ng/g (progesterone), in wastewater samples with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (estrone) to 20,700 ± 1490 ng/L (androsterone), in suspended particles with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (17β-trenbolone) to 778 ± 82.1 ng/g (5α-dihydrotestosterone) in the six farms, respectively. The steroids via swine farms and human sources were mainly originated from wastewater into the receiving environments while those steroids via cattle farms were mainly from cattle feces. The total contributions of steroids to the environment in China are estimated to be 139, 65.8 and 60.7 t/year from swine, dairy cattle and human sources, respectively. - Highlights: ► 28 steroids were investigated in three swine farms and three cattle farms. ► Eight detected synthetic steroids were from exogenous usage. ► Lagoon systems were more effective in removing steroids than sedimentation tanks. ► The steroids via swine and human sources were mainly from wastewater. ► The steroids via cattle were mainly originated from feces. - The swine and cattle farms contribute higher steroids masses to the environment than the human sources.

  16. Transformation towards more sustainable soil management on Dutch arable farms

    Claus, Sebastien; Egdom, van Ilona; Suter, Bruno; Sarpong, Clara; Pappa, Aikaterini; Miah, Imtiaz; Luppa, Caterina; Potters, J.I.

    2017-01-01

    Currently a debate is ongoing in the Netherlands on how to increase soil sustainable management in general and specifically in short term lease. Sustainable practices may not be adopted by farmers because of an interplay between EU, national and provincial legislation, short-term land lease system,

  17. Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems

    Van Passel, Steven, E-mail: Steven.vanpassel@uhasselt.be [Hasselt University, Faculty of Business Economics, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan, Building D, 3590, Diepenbeek (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Department Bioscience Engineering, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Meul, Marijke [University College Ghent, Department of Biosciences and Landscape Architecture, Campus Schoonmeersen, Building C, Schoonmeersstraat 52, 9000, Gent (Belgium)

    2012-01-15

    Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

  18. Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems

    Van Passel, Steven; Meul, Marijke

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: ► We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. ► SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. ► Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. ► We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

  19. Genetic traits of relevance to sustainability of smallholder sheep farming systems in South Africa

    Molotsi, Annelin; Dube, Bekezela; Oosting, Simon; Marandure, Tawanda; Mapiye, Cletos; Cloete, Schalk; Dzama, Kennedy

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable livestock production is important to ensure continuous availability of resources for future generations. Most smallholder livestock farming systems in developing countries have been perceived to be environmentally, socially and economically unsustainable. Farming with livestock that is

  20. Assessing the actions of the farm managers to execute field operations at opportune times

    Edwards, Gareth Thomas Charles; Dybro, Niels; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2016-01-01

    Planning agricultural operations requires an understanding of when fields are ready for operations. However determining a field's readiness is a difficult process that can involve large amounts of data and an experienced farm manager. A consequence of this is that operations are often executed when...... fields are unready, or partially unready, which can compromise results incurring environmental impacts, decreased yield and increased operational costs. In order to assess timeliness of operations' execution, a new scheme is introduced to quantify the aptitude of farm managers to plan operations. Two...... parameterise the crop model. The evaluation criteria could be used to identify farm managers who require decisional support when planning operations, or as a means of promoting the use of sustainable farming practices....

  1. Optimizing nutrient management for farm systems

    Goulding, Keith; Jarvis, Steve; Whitmore, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Increasing the inputs of nutrients has played a major role in increasing the supply of food to a continually growing world population. However, focusing attention on the most important nutrients, such as nitrogen (N), has in some cases led to nutrient imbalances, some excess applications especially of N, inefficient use and large losses to the environment with impacts on air and water quality, biodiversity and human health. In contrast, food exports from the developing to the developed world ...

  2. Comparison of landscape features in organic and conventional farming systems.

    Mansvelt, van J.D.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Hendriks, K.

    1998-01-01

    Four organic (biodynamic) farms coupled with conventional farms from their neighbourhood in The Netherlands, Germany and Sweden, and 3 organic farms and 4 conventional farms from the West Friesean region in The Netherlands were evaluated to compare their impact on landscape diversity. Materials used

  3. Root system-based limits to agricultural productivity and efficiency: the farming systems context

    Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Kirkegaard, John

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been renewed global interest in both genetic and management strategies to improve root system function in order to improve agricultural productivity and minimize environmental damage. Improving root system capture of water and nutrients is an obvious strategy, yet few studies consider the important interactions between the genetic improvements proposed, and crop management at a system scale that will influence likely success. Scope To exemplify these interactions, the contrasting cereal-based farming systems of Denmark and Australia were used, where the improved uptake of water and nitrogen from deeper soil layers has been proposed to improve productivity and environmental outcomes in both systems. The analysis showed that water and nitrogen availability, especially in deeper layers (>1 m), was significantly affected by the preceding crops and management, and likely to interact strongly with deeper rooting as a specific trait of interest. Conclusions In the semi-arid Australian environment, grain yield impacts from storage and uptake of water from depth (>1 m) could be influenced to a stronger degree by preceding crop choice (0·42 t ha–1), pre-crop fallow management (0·65 t ha–1) and sowing date (0·63 t ha–1) than by current genetic differences in rooting depth (0·36 t ha–1). Matching of deep-rooted genotypes to management provided the greatest improvements related to deep water capture. In the wetter environment of Denmark, reduced leaching of N was the focus. Here the amount of N moving below the root zone was also influenced by previous crop choice or cover crop management (effects up to 85 kg N ha–1) and wheat crop sowing date (up to 45 kg ha–1), effects which over-ride the effects of differences in rooting depth among genotypes. These examples highlight the need to understand the farming system context and important G × E × M interactions in studies on proposed genetic improvements to root systems for improved

  4. Factors influencing adoption of farm management practices in three agrobiodiversity hotspots in India: an analysis using the Count Data Model

    Prabhakaran T. Raghu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable agricultural practices require, among other factors, adoption of improved nutrient management techniques, pest mitigation technology and soil conservation measures. Such improved management practices can be tools for enhancing crop productivity. Data on micro-level farm management practices from developing countries is either scarce or unavailable, despite the importance of their policy implications with regard to resource allocation. The present study investigates adoption of some farm management practices and factors influencing the adoption behavior of farm households in three agrobiodiversity hotspots in India: Kundra block in the Koraput district of Odisha, Meenangadi panchayat in the Wayanad district of Kerala and Kolli Hills in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu. Information on farm management practices was collected from November 2011 to February 2012 from 3845 households, of which the data from 2726 farm households was used for analysis. The three most popular farm management practices adopted by farmers include: application of chemical fertilizers, farm yard manure and green manure for managing nutrients; application of chemical pesticides, inter-cropping and mixed cropping for mitigating pests; and contour bunds, grass bunds and trenches for soil conservation. A Negative Binomial count data regression model was used to estimate factors influencing decision-making by farmers on farm management practices. The regression results indicate that farmers who received information from agricultural extension are statistically significant and positively related to the adoption of farm management practices. Another key finding shows the negative relationship between cultivation of local varieties and adoption of farm management practices.

  5. Management and use of dairy cattle feed resources on smallholder certified organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    Kiggundu, Muhammad; Kabi, Fred; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    strategies used by farmers to overcome dry season feed shortages on 64 smallholder certified organic pineapple farms. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and two focus group discussions. Majority of households were headed by males (62.9%) while average age of respondents was 42.5 years....... Farmers allocated more land (Pgoats and pigs. Tethering was the commonest cattle management system. Fifty three percent of respondents reported using both natural pastures and crop residues....... Of the respondents, 51.4% conserved feed for their cattle as fodder banks. As a coping strategy to feed shortages, majority (42.9%) of farmer scavenged for feed resources from both organic certified and nonorganic neighbouring farms which is contrary to organic livestock farming standards. It was, therefore...

  6. Scheduling models in farm management : a new approach

    Wijngaard, P.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Three operational planning models to calculate schedules for an arable farm are examined. These models are a linear programming model, a dynamic programming model and a simulation model. They are examined at different levels of aggregation and relaxation in a retrospective way. Also a

  7. Matching breeding goals with farming systems to enhance the sustainability of fish farming

    Besson, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    Fish farming is growing but is also facing challenges regarding economic viability and environmental sustainability. Selective breeding could enhance the sustainability of fish farming by changing animal performances. Thus, our aim was to develop sustainable breeding goals by using economic (EV)

  8. Brazilian Citizens’ Opinions and Attitudes about Farm Animal Production Systems

    Maria C. Yunes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their “social license to operate”; failure to engage with the public on this topic risks the long-term sustainability of these industries. The primary aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians citizens not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production. A related secondary aim was to identify the specific beliefs and attitudes towards systems that are associated with restriction of movement. Each participant was shown pictures representing two of five possible major food animal industries (laying hens, beef cattle, pregnant sows, lactating sows, and poultry meat. Participants were presented a six pages survey that included demographic questions plus two sets of two pictures and a series of questions pertaining to the pictures. Each set of pictures represented a particular industry where one picture represented a housing type that is associated with behavioural restrictions and the other picture represented a system that allowed for a greater degree of movement. Participants were asked their perceptions on the prevalence of each system in Brazil, then their preference of one picture vs. the other, and the reasons justifying their preference. Immediately following, the participant repeated the same exercise with the second set of two pictures representing another industry followed by the same series of questions as described above. Quantitative data were analysed with mixed effects logistic regression, and qualitative responses were coded into themes. The proportion of participants that believed animals are reared in confinement varied by animal production type: 23% (beef cattle, 82% (poultry, 81% (laying hens, and 60% (swine. A large majority (79% stated that farm animals are not well-treated in Brazil. Overall, participants preferred systems that were not associated with behavioural restriction. The

  9. Brazilian Citizens' Opinions and Attitudes about Farm Animal Production Systems.

    Yunes, Maria C; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Hötzel, Maria J

    2017-09-28

    The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their "social license to operate"; failure to engage with the public on this topic risks the long-term sustainability of these industries. The primary aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians citizens not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production. A related secondary aim was to identify the specific beliefs and attitudes towards systems that are associated with restriction of movement. Each participant was shown pictures representing two of five possible major food animal industries (laying hens, beef cattle, pregnant sows, lactating sows, and poultry meat). Participants were presented a six pages survey that included demographic questions plus two sets of two pictures and a series of questions pertaining to the pictures. Each set of pictures represented a particular industry where one picture represented a housing type that is associated with behavioural restrictions and the other picture represented a system that allowed for a greater degree of movement. Participants were asked their perceptions on the prevalence of each system in Brazil, then their preference of one picture vs. the other, and the reasons justifying their preference. Immediately following, the participant repeated the same exercise with the second set of two pictures representing another industry followed by the same series of questions as described above. Quantitative data were analysed with mixed effects logistic regression, and qualitative responses were coded into themes. The proportion of participants that believed animals are reared in confinement varied by animal production type: 23% (beef cattle), 82% (poultry), 81% (laying hens), and 60% (swine). A large majority (79%) stated that farm animals are not well-treated in Brazil. Overall, participants preferred systems that were not associated with behavioural restriction. The preference for free

  10. Farm batch system and Fermi inter-process communication and synchronization toolkit

    Mandrichenko, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    Farms Batch System (FBS) was developed as a batch process management system for off-line Run II data processing at Fermilab. FBS will manage PC farms composed of up to 250 nodes and scalable to 1000 nodes with disk capacity of up to several TB. FBS allows users to start arrays of parallel processes on multiple computers. It uses a simplified resource counting method load balancing. FBS has been successfully used for more than a year at Fermilab by fixed target experiments and will be used for collider experiment off-line data processing. Fermi Inter-Process Communication toolkit (FIPC) was designed as a supplement product for FBS that helps establish synchronization and communication between processes running in a distributed batch environment. However, FIPC is an independent package, and can be used with other batch systems, as well as in a non-batch environment. FIPC provides users with a variety of global distributed objects such as semaphores, queues and string variables. Other types of objects can be easily added to FIPC. FIPC has been running on several PC farms at Fermilab for half a year and is going to be used by CDF for off-line data processing

  11. Sustainability evaluation of automatic and conventional milking systems on organic dairy farms in Denmark

    Oudshoorn, Frank W; Kristensen, Troels; van der Zijpp, A J

    2012-01-01

    Organic dairy farmers in Denmark currently are implementing automatic milking systems (AMS) to save labour costs. As organic agriculture aims at sustainable production, the introduction of a new technology such as AMS should be evaluated regarding its economic viability, environmental impact...... conventional milking systems (CMS). Sustainability indicators were quantified for economic performance of the farm, on-farm eutrophication, on-farm biodiversity, animal welfare (including health), grazing time, milk composition and labour time. Milk yield per cow per year was higher for AMS farms (9021 kg...... was not due to the use of AMS but was caused by a higher export of manure by the CMS farms. The number of veterinary treatments per cow per year was unaffected by AMS use, but culling rate was higher for the AMS farms (38%) than for the CMS farms (32%). There was no difference between the AMS and CMS farms...

  12. Risk management on the winegrowing farms at Northwest Croatia

    Hrvoje SMRKULJ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper was to determine perceptions of risk and risk management strategies by winemakers. Primary research was based on the sample of 38 randomly selected winegrowers in the Croatian northwestern sub region of Zagorje – Međimurje. Winegrowers are relatively unwilling to take risks. In the process of making business decisions most of them rely on their own experience, advices and recommendations learned by attending winegrower association courses together with critics of their customers. Highly evaluated risk sources are health issues (human risks and production risks (weather factors, as well as diseases and pests. As the most important risk management strategies in vineyard production, the winegrowers emphasized: ownership of land and objects, intuition and personal assessment and additionally the various methods of price risk management (marketing and sales policy. Crop insurance is perceived as a relatively important strategy. The main reasons why winegrowers use crop insurance are: regional exposure to extreme climate risks, as well as the unavailability of other management instruments for risk management. In order to improve the quality of insurance services it would be necessary to focus efforts and activities on promoting and developing a better system for agricultural insurance. That would consequently allow enrichment of insurance risk sources palette, but also could have effect on decrease of insurance premiums. Furthermore, in order to become competitive in both, domestic and EU market, there should be developed training programs in the area of risk management. That could have impact on reducing risk aversion in the business activities!

  13. Estimation of risk management effects on revenue and purchased feed costs on US dairy farms.

    Hadrich, Joleen C; Johnson, Kamina K

    2015-09-01

    Variations in milk and feed prices directly affect dairy farm risk management decisions. This research used data from the 2010 US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Resource Management Surveys phase III dairy survey to examine how risk management tools affected revenues and expenses across US dairy farms. The survey was sent to 26 states and collected information on costs and returns to individual dairy farms. This research used the information from milk sales, crops sales, feed expenses, and farm and operator characteristics, as well as the use of risk management tools. Matching methodology was used to evaluate the effect of 5 independent risk management tools on revenues and expenses: selling milk to a cooperative, using a commodity contract to sell grain, feeding homegrown forage at a basic and intensive level, and use of a nutritionist. Results showed that dairy farms located in the Midwest and East benefit from selling milk to a cooperative and using commodity contracts to sell grain. Across the United States, using a nutritionist increased total feed costs, whereas a feeding program that included more than 65% homegrown forages decreased total feed costs. Results point to benefits from educational programming on risk management tools that are region specific rather than a broad generalization to all US dairy farmers. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental Management System

    Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management Stewardship » Environmental Protection » Environmental Management System Environmental Management System An Environmental Management System is a systematic method for assessing mission activities, determining the

  15. Veterinary herd health management-Experience among farmers and farm managers in Swedish dairy production.

    Svensson, C; Alvåsen, K; Eldh, A C; Frössling, J; Lomander, H

    2018-07-01

    A preventive herd health approach will most likely reduce incidences of clinical and subclinical disease. Swedish veterinary organizations offer specific veterinary herd health management (HHM) programs, but these services are not used to a large extent. The aim of this study was to investigate dairy farmers' experience of HHM and the conditions for collaboration with veterinarians in HHM. Six focus group discussions were conducted in March 2015 in West Sweden. In total, 33 dairy farmers participated. The recordings were transcribed and coded using thematic analysis, and the transcripts were reviewed to identify potential factors indicating barriers for farmers to engage a veterinarian in HHM. The participants reported HHM to be important, but they had difficulty defining the actions included in the concept. They described a wide range of their work duties as preventive. The farmers' list of potential contributions by the veterinarians in HHM was strikingly short compared to the considerable number of preventive measures they performed themselves. Four main obstacles for farmers and farm managers to engage a veterinarian in HHM on their farm were identified in the analysis: "costs", "veterinary knowledge, skills, and organization", "farmer attitudes", and "veterinarian-farmer relationships". Costs were proposed as the main reason against engaging a veterinarian in HHM and included a high veterinary bill, low cost-benefit of veterinary services, and high costs to implement advice. Poor veterinary competence in HHM and poor knowledge about effective measures, practical farming, and farm economics were other important obstacles. Veterinarians were perceived to insufficiently describe their services and their benefits, and several participants felt they had never been offered veterinary HHM. Although veterinary HHM may be initiated by the farmer, the participants expected the veterinarian to have special responsibility for the initiation. A firm trust between farmer

  16. Development of web-based GIS services for sustainable soil resource management at farm level

    Papadopoulos, Antonis; Kolovos, Chronis; Troyanos, Yerasimos; Doula, Maria

    2017-09-01

    Modern farms situated in urban or suburban areas, include various and in most cases diverse land covers. Land uses in such farms may serve residential, structured, aesthetic and agricultural purposes, usually delimited inside the boundaries of a single property. The environmental conditions across a farm, especially if it is situated on an irregular terrain, can be highly differentiated. Managing soil resources in a small scale diverse farm environment in a holistic and sustainable way should have spatial and temporal reference and take advantage of cut-edge geospatial technologies. In present study, an 8 hectare farm with various land uses in the southern suburbs of Attica Prefecture, Greece was systematically monitored regarding its soil, water and plant resources. Almost 80% of the farm's area is covered with trees, shrubs and low vegetation planted in a mosaic of parterres. Farm data collected concerned soil and water physicochemical characteristics, plant species, topographical features, irrigation network, valves and infrastructure. All data were imported and developed in a GIS geodatabase. Furthermore, web GIS services and a mobile GIS app were developed in order to monitor, update and synchronize present status and future changes performed in the farm. Through the web services and using the mobile GIS app, the user has access to all data stored in the geodatabase and according to access rights he can view or edit the spatial entities. The user can easily make query to specific features, combine their properties with other overlaying spatial data and reach accurate decisions. The app can be downloaded and implemented in mobile devices like smartphones and tablets for extending its functionality. As proven in this study, web GIS services and mobile GIS apps constitute an attractive suite of methodologies for effective and user friendly management of natural resources at farm level.

  17. Proposal for a strategic management plan for experimental agricultural and academic farm "El Cairo" of Arauca

    Elías Nieves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design for a strategic management plan for the Experimental Agricultural and Academic Farm: El Cairo of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Orinoquía branch. A non-experimental methodological design was used, from which a situational analysis of the farm was generated, which was used as a basis to formulate and design a Strategic Management plan for a five-year period. It was concluded that the current organization and management plan does not meet the mission objectives of research, teaching, and continuing education, suggesting a need for the articulation of the farm with the administrative and academic structure of the university in carrying out the strategic management plan derived from the current research.

  18. Quality management system

    Lee, Mu Sung

    2009-08-15

    This book deals with ISO9001 quality management system which includes summary of this system such as classification of quality, principle of quality management, and definition, requirement and procedure of quality management system, introduction of ISO9001 system like model of ISO9001 quality management system, ISO certificate system, structure of ISO9001 standard, requirement of ISO9001 quality management system, process approach and documentation of system, propel cases of ISO9001 quality management system.

  19. Quality management system

    Lee, Mu Sung

    2009-08-01

    This book deals with ISO9001 quality management system which includes summary of this system such as classification of quality, principle of quality management, and definition, requirement and procedure of quality management system, introduction of ISO9001 system like model of ISO9001 quality management system, ISO certificate system, structure of ISO9001 standard, requirement of ISO9001 quality management system, process approach and documentation of system, propel cases of ISO9001 quality management system.

  20. Evaluation of a whole-farm model for pasture-based dairy systems.

    Beukes, P C; Palliser, C C; Macdonald, K A; Lancaster, J A S; Levy, G; Thorrold, B S; Wastney, M E

    2008-06-01

    In the temperate climate of New Zealand, animals can be grazed outdoors all year round. The pasture is supplemented with conserved feed, with the amount being determined by seasonal pasture growth, genetics of the herd, and stocking rate. The large number of factors that affect production makes it impractical and expensive to use field trials to explore all the farm system options. A model of an in situ-grazed pasture system has been developed to provide a tool for developing and testing novel farm systems; for example, different levels of bought-in supplements and different levels of nitrogen fertilizer application, to maintain sustainability or environmental integrity and profitability. It consists of a software framework that links climate information, on a daily basis, with dynamic, mechanistic component-models for pasture growth and animal metabolism, as well as management policies. A unique feature is that the component models were developed and published by other groups, and are retained in their original software language. The aim of this study was to compare the model, called the whole-farm model (WFM) with a farm trial that was conducted over 3 yr and in which data were collected specifically for evaluating the WFM. Data were used from the first year to develop the WFM and data from the second and third year to evaluate the model. The model predicted annual pasture production, end-of-season cow liveweight, cow body condition score, and pasture cover across season with relative prediction error pasture and supplement intake were predicted with acceptable accuracy, suggesting that the metabolic conversion of feed to fat, protein, and lactose in the mammary gland needs to be refined. Because feed growth and intake predictions were acceptable, economic predictions can be made using the WFM, with an adjustment for milk yield, to test different management policies, alterations in climate, or the use of genetically improved animals, pastures, or crops.

  1. Grid connection of active stall wind farms using a VSC based DC transmission system

    Iov, F.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Currently, there is an increasing trend to connect large MW wind farms to the transmission system. Requirements that focus on the influence of the farms on the grid stability and power quality, and on the control capabilities of wind farms have already been established. The main trends of modern...... wind turbines/farms are clearly the variable speed operation and a grid connection through a power electronic interface, especially using doubly fed induction generators. Using power electronics the control capabilities of these wind turbines/farms are extended and thus the grid requirements...... are fulfilled. However, the traditional squirrel-cage generators based wind turbines/wind farms directly connected to the grid have less control capabilities. These wind turbines/farms cannot regulate their production and contribute to power system stability. A DC transmission system for connection...

  2. Soil Fertility Evaluation and Land Management of Dryland Farming at Tegallalang Sub-District, Gianyar Regency, Bali, Indonesia

    Sardiana, I. K.; Susila, D.; Supadma, A. A.; Saifulloh, M.

    2017-12-01

    The landuse of Tegallalang Subdistrict is dominated by dryland farming. The practice of cultivation on agricultural dryland that ignores the carrying capacity of the environment can lead to land degradation that makes the land vulnerable to the deterioration of soil fertility. Soil fertility evaluation and land management of dryland farming in Tegallalang Sub-district, Gianyar Regency were aimed at (1) identifying the soil fertility and it’s respective limiting factors, (2) mapping the soil fertility using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and (3) developing land management for dryland farming in Tegallalang Sub-district. This research implementing explora-tory method which followed by laboratory analysis. Soil samples were taken on each homogene-ous land units which developed by overlay of slope, soil type, and land use maps. The following soil fertility were measured, such as CEC, base saturation, P2O5, K- Total and C-Organic. The values of soil fertility were mapping using QGIS 2.18.7 and refer to land management evaluation. The results showed that the soil fertility in the research area considered high, and low level. The High soil fertility presents on land units at the flat to undulating slope with different land management systems (fertilizer, without fertilizer, soil tillage and without soil tillage). The low soil fertility includes land units that present on steep slope, and without land managements. The limiting factors of soil fertility were texture, C-Organic, CEC, P2O5, and K- total. It was recommended to applying organic fertilizer, Phonska, and dolomite on the farming area.

  3. Adapting to change in banana-based farming systems of northwest Tanzania: the potential role of herbaceous legumes

    Baijukya, F.P.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Land use changes; Herbaceous legumes; Adoptability; N 2 -fixation; Residual effect; Legume management; Exploration of options, Nutrient depleted soils.The banana-based farming system in

  4. Yield and economic performance of organic and conventional cotton-based farming systems--results from a field trial in India.

    Forster, Dionys; Andres, Christian; Verma, Rajeev; Zundel, Christine; Messmer, Monika M; Mäder, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The debate on the relative benefits of conventional and organic farming systems has in recent time gained significant interest. So far, global agricultural development has focused on increased productivity rather than on a holistic natural resource management for food security. Thus, developing more sustainable farming practices on a large scale is of utmost importance. However, information concerning the performance of farming systems under organic and conventional management in tropical and subtropical regions is scarce. This study presents agronomic and economic data from the conversion phase (2007-2010) of a farming systems comparison trial on a Vertisol soil in Madhya Pradesh, central India. A cotton-soybean-wheat crop rotation under biodynamic, organic and conventional (with and without Bt cotton) management was investigated. We observed a significant yield gap between organic and conventional farming systems in the 1(st) crop cycle (cycle 1: 2007-2008) for cotton (-29%) and wheat (-27%), whereas in the 2(nd) crop cycle (cycle 2: 2009-2010) cotton and wheat yields were similar in all farming systems due to lower yields in the conventional systems. In contrast, organic soybean (a nitrogen fixing leguminous plant) yields were marginally lower than conventional yields (-1% in cycle 1, -11% in cycle 2). Averaged across all crops, conventional farming systems achieved significantly higher gross margins in cycle 1 (+29%), whereas in cycle 2 gross margins in organic farming systems were significantly higher (+25%) due to lower variable production costs but similar yields. Soybean gross margin was significantly higher in the organic system (+11%) across the four harvest years compared to the conventional systems. Our results suggest that organic soybean production is a viable option for smallholder farmers under the prevailing semi-arid conditions in India. Future research needs to elucidate the long-term productivity and profitability, particularly of cotton and

  5. Yield and economic performance of organic and conventional cotton-based farming systems--results from a field trial in India.

    Dionys Forster

    Full Text Available The debate on the relative benefits of conventional and organic farming systems has in recent time gained significant interest. So far, global agricultural development has focused on increased productivity rather than on a holistic natural resource management for food security. Thus, developing more sustainable farming practices on a large scale is of utmost importance. However, information concerning the performance of farming systems under organic and conventional management in tropical and subtropical regions is scarce. This study presents agronomic and economic data from the conversion phase (2007-2010 of a farming systems comparison trial on a Vertisol soil in Madhya Pradesh, central India. A cotton-soybean-wheat crop rotation under biodynamic, organic and conventional (with and without Bt cotton management was investigated. We observed a significant yield gap between organic and conventional farming systems in the 1(st crop cycle (cycle 1: 2007-2008 for cotton (-29% and wheat (-27%, whereas in the 2(nd crop cycle (cycle 2: 2009-2010 cotton and wheat yields were similar in all farming systems due to lower yields in the conventional systems. In contrast, organic soybean (a nitrogen fixing leguminous plant yields were marginally lower than conventional yields (-1% in cycle 1, -11% in cycle 2. Averaged across all crops, conventional farming systems achieved significantly higher gross margins in cycle 1 (+29%, whereas in cycle 2 gross margins in organic farming systems were significantly higher (+25% due to lower variable production costs but similar yields. Soybean gross margin was significantly higher in the organic system (+11% across the four harvest years compared to the conventional systems. Our results suggest that organic soybean production is a viable option for smallholder farmers under the prevailing semi-arid conditions in India. Future research needs to elucidate the long-term productivity and profitability, particularly of cotton

  6. Bridge Management Systems

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way....

  7. Climate change-related risks and adaptation strategies as perceived in dairy cattle farming systems in Tunisia

    Hajer Amamou

    Full Text Available The perception of risks due to climate change by farmers and the measures they take to address those risks are of paramount importance in policy-making if the implementations of targeted adaptation and mitigation strategies are to be economically and environmentally sustainable. This study focused on Tunisian dairy farmers’ perceptions of the risks and the actions taken to cope with changes attributable to climate change. Using a bottom-up approach, 566 surveys were carried out randomly among dairy farmers throughout Tunisia. A total of 70 diagnostic variables relating to farm characteristics, resources, management, performances and profit, in addition to climate change risk perception and adaptation strategies, were identified and analyzed. Using multivariate statistical analysis, four dairy farming groups were identified. The largest proportions of farmers belonged to the two above-ground dairy systems: without utilized agricultural areas; and with non-dairy utilized agricultural areas (Clusters 1 and 2. A minority of farmers belonged to medium-sized and large farms that specialized in milk production (Clusters 3 and 4 and has access to sufficient land, water and capital resources. In all the clusters, almost all the farmers perceived that the greatest impact of climate change would be on cow performance and forage production. The attitudes of the farmers towards adaptation to climate change are associated with farm typology. They focused mainly on increasing water capacity for livestock and crop production and improving livestock and housing conditions. The knowledge obtained from this study could be helpful for decision-makers and stakeholders in efforts to develop policies for farm management practices that address climate change and can be adapted to the country’s diverse farming systems. Keywords: Dairy farming system, Typology, Adaptation, Climate change

  8. FSSIM, a bio-economic farm model for simulating the response of EU farming systems to agricultural and environmental policies

    Louhichi, K.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Flichman, G.; Blanco, M.; Hengsdijk, H.; Heckelei, T.; Berentsen, P.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2010-01-01

    The disciplinary nature of most existing farm models as well as the issue specific orientation of most of the studies in agricultural systems research are main reasons for the limited use and re-use of bio-economic modelling for the ex-ante integrated assessment of policy decisions. The objective of

  9. Activity Analysis: Bridging the Gap between Production Economics Theory and Practical Farm Management Procedures

    Longworth, John W.; Menz, Kenneth M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is addressed to the traditional problem of demonstrating the relevance of production theory to management-oriented people. Activity analysis, it is argued, is the most appropriate pedagogic framework within which to commence either a production economics or a farm management course. Production economics theory has not been widely accepted as a useful method for the analysis of practical management problems. The theory has been traditionally presented in terms of continuous function...

  10. Analyzing farming systems diversity: a case study in south-western France

    Choisis, J. P.; Thevenet, C.; Girbon, A.

    2012-11-01

    The huge changes in agricultural activities, which may be amplified by the forthcoming Common Agriculture Policy reform, call the future of crop-livestock systems into question and hence the impact of these changes on landscapes and biodiversity. We analyzed relationships between agriculture, landscape and biodiversity in south-western France. The study area covered about 4,000 ha and included four villages. We conducted a survey of 56 farms. Multivariate analysis (multiple factor analysis and cluster analysis) were used to analyze relationships between 25 variables and to build a typology. The type of farming (beef and/or dairy cattle, cash crops), size (area and workforce) and cultivation practices, among others, were revealed as differentiating factors of farms. Six farming types were identified (1) hillside mixed crop-livestock farms, (2) large corporate farms, (3) extensive cattle farms, (4) large intensive farms on the valley sides, (5) small multiple-job holdings, and (6) hobby farms. The diversity of farming systems revealed the variable impact of the main drivers of change affecting agricultural development, particularly the enlargement and modernization of farms along with the demography of agricultural holdings. (Author) 41 refs.

  11. Whole-farm models to quantify greenhouse gas emissions and their potential use for linking climate change mitigation and adaptation in temperate grassland ruminant-based farming systems

    del Prado, A; Crosson, P; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    The farm level is the most appropriate scale for evaluating options for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because the farm represents the unit at which management decisions in livestock production are made. To date, a number of whole farm modelling approaches have been developed to quant......The farm level is the most appropriate scale for evaluating options for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because the farm represents the unit at which management decisions in livestock production are made. To date, a number of whole farm modelling approaches have been developed...... components and the sensitivity of GHG outputs and mitigation measures to different approaches. Potential challenges for linking existing models with the simulation of impacts and adaptation measures under climate change are explored along with a brief discussion of the effects on other ecosystem services....

  12. Small supermarket management system

    曹正

    2016-01-01

    This system USES the Java language in the MyEclipse platform development tool, SQL2005 as the database platform for data and data, the SQL2005 required for the user operating system. It mainly implements the daily management of goods, including purchase management, inventory management, sales management, personnel management and supplier management. The system can also complete the functions of browsing, querying, adding, deleting and modifying relevant information. This topic is the core of the stock management, inventory management and sales management, at the same time, the system also has the full user management and permissions management function..

  13. Quantifying differences in soil structure induced by farm management

    Droogers, P.

    1997-01-01

    Methodology for defining sustainable land management practices is increasingly needed to overcome environmental problems and to maintain production potentials. From the large amount of definitions for sustainable management the following was used here:

  14. Nurturing Diversified Farming Systems in Industrialized Countries: How Public Policy Can Contribute

    Alastair Iles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available If diversified farming systems (DFS are to thrive again in the United States, policies and preferences must evolve to reward the environmental and social benefits of sustainable farming and landscape management. Compared with conventional agricultural policies, policies aiding ecological diversification are underdeveloped and fragmented. We consider several examples of obstacles to the adoption and spread of diversified farming practices in the U.S. industrialized agricultural system. These include the broader political economic context of industrialized agriculture, the erosion of farmer knowledge and capacity, and supply chain and marketing conditions that limit the ability of farmers to adopt sustainable practices. To overcome these obstacles and nurture DFS, policy makers, researchers, industry, farmers, consumers, and local communities can play pivotal roles to transform agricultural research, develop peer-to-peer learning processes, support the recruitment and retention of new farmers through access to credit and land, invest in improved agricultural conservation programs, provide compensation for provision of ecological services in working landscapes, and develop links to consumer and institutional markets.

  15. Development of Organic Farming in Europe at the Crossroads: Looking for the Way Forward through System Archetypes Lenses

    Natalia Brzezina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several decades, policymakers and stakeholders in the European Union (EU have put considerable effort into increasing the adoption of organic farming, with the overall objective of its sustainable development. However, the growth of the organic sector has come with many challenges that jeopardize its sustainability. The question then is how to move organic farming in Europe forward and at the same time capitalize on its potential contribution to sustainability? Organic farming in the EU is a highly complex and dynamic food system and as such this question cannot be answered in isolation using a one-dimensional mind-set and tools of the past. In this paper, we use three system archetypes—Limits to Growth, Shifting the Burden and Eroding Goals—to sharpen our ability: (1 to analyze and anticipate difficulties in the development of organic farming in the EU under the current policy measures; and (2 to find effective ways to address these difficulties. A system archetype consists of a generic system structure that leads to unintended behavior over time and effective strategies for changing the structure into one that generates desirable behavior. The analysis reveals that in order to move forward, policymakers and stakeholders should reemphasize fundamental solutions rather than quick fixes that often generate unintended consequences. Specifically, Limits to Growth shows us that the leverage for moving organic farming out of the niche does not necessarily lie in increasing subsidies that push engines of growth, but rather in anticipating and managing its limits arising from, for instance, market dynamics or intrinsic environmental motivation. In turn, Shifting the Burden brings to attention how easily and unnoticeably the EU’s organic farming system can become dependent on third countries thereby undermining its own sustainability. Finally, Eroding Goals highlights that is it important to continuously improve regulatory standards

  16. Evaluation by employees of employee management on large US dairy farms.

    Durst, Phillip T; Moore, Stanley J; Ritter, Caroline; Barkema, Herman W

    2018-05-23

    Employees, many of whom are not native English speakers, perform the majority of work on large US dairy farms. Although management of employees is a critical role of dairy owners and managers, factors that improve employee engagement and retention are not well known. Objectives were to (1) identify key dairy farm employee management issues based on employee perceptions, (2) evaluate strengths and weaknesses of farms based on employee responses, (3) investigate differences between Latino and English-speaking employees, and (4) investigate differences in perception between employers and employees. Employees from 12 US dairy farms (each with a minimum of 10 employees) were interviewed by phone following a questionnaire provided. Employees provided their responses to 21 Likert scale questions and 8 open-ended questions. There was a wide range in employee turnover among farms (100%). Latino employees had much shorter tenure and were more often employed in milking and livestock care than English-speaking employees. Employee perceptions differed among farms regarding whether they would recommend their farm as a place to work, teamwork within the dairy, whether rules were fairly applied, availability of tools and equipment, clear lines of supervision, and recognition for good work in the previous 15 d. Latino employees (n = 91) were more positive in many of these measures than their English-speaking counterparts (n = 77) but less often provided ideas to their employer on how to improve the business. Employers, surveyed on how they thought their employees would answer, underestimated employee responses on several questions, particularly the interest of employees in learning about dairy. When asked to cite 3 goals of the operation, there were differences among owners, managers, and employees. Although employees rated their commitment to the farm and their interest in learning as high, based on turnover, there was an obvious disparity between reality and ideal employee

  17. Dairy farm demographics and management factors that played a role in the re-emergence of brucellosis on dairy cattle farms in Fiji.

    Tukana, Andrew; Gummow, B

    2017-08-01

    Little is published on risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis in Pacific island communities. The 2009 re-emergence of bovine brucellosis in Fiji enabled us to do an interview-based questionnaire survey of 81 farms in the Wainivesi locality of the Tailevu province on the main island of Fiji to investigate what risk factors could have played a role in the re-emergence of the disease. The survey was conducted on 68 farms that had no positive cases of bovine brucellosis and on 13 farms in the same area where cattle had returned a positive result to the Brucella Rose Bengal test. Descriptive statistical methods were used to describe the demographic data while univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between the selected risk factors and the presence of brucellosis on the farms at the time of the outbreak. The demographics of Fijian dairy farms are presented in the article and the biosecurity implications of those farming systems are discussed. Two risk factors were strongly associated with farms having brucellosis, and these were history of reactor cattle to brucellosis and or bovine tuberculosis on the farm (OR = 29, P ≤ 0.01) and farms that practised sharing of water sources for cattle within and with outside farms (OR = 39, P ≤ 0.01). Possible reasons why these were risk factors are also discussed. The potential risks for human health was also high as the use of personal protective equipment was low (15%). A high proportion of farmers (62%) could not recognise brucellosis thus contributing to the low frequency of disease reports (44%) made. The article also highlights other important risk factors which could be attributed to farming practices in the region and which could contribute to public health risks and the re-emergence of diseases.

  18. Sustainable Farming Systems in the Sub-Sahelian Zone of Burkina Faso - Key Factors Sustainable Farming Systems in the Sub-Sahelian Zone of Burkina Faso - Key Factors

    E. - Hien

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid population growth and climatic change threatens the sustainability of natural resources. Farming practices can mitigate environmental change and degradation. The aim of this research conducted in Yatenga region was to describe and to analyse manure practices management. In 2005, a survey was carried out to assess the evolution of farming practices. A survey was initially conducted with a sample of 44 farmers, selected randomly in the three neighbouring villages. Subsequently, 18 farms were selected for in-depth interviews. The grain yield was measured and the different practices of soil and water conservation developed by farmers were compared. According to the enquiries, two practices, called “zaï” and “djengo”, were largely used in cereals production. The “zaï” practice, known as a traditional technique for restoration of degraded soil, is characterized by the capture of runoff by micro-watersheds and a localized organic matter supply at the soil-plant system scale. The “djengo” practice is based on the same principle of the “zaï” practice but was applied on the sandy soil as traditionally “zaï” concerned the degraded and crusty soils. The two practices could increase grain crop production but moreover could limit the risk of crops failure. In addition, our observations also showed that frequent tree regenerations occurred in plots and watersheds where “zaï” or “djengo” practices were used. This study highlights the necessity of better controlling soil, water and organic matter to improve agrosystem sustainability in sub Saharan Africa.Rapid population growth and climatic change threatens the sustainability of natural resources. Farming practices can mitigate environmental change and degradation. The aim of this research conducted in Yatenga region was to describe and to analyse manure practices management. In 2005, a survey was carried out to assess the evolution of farming practices. A survey was

  19. Qualification of the adaptive capacities of livestock farming systems

    Benoît Dedieu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at exploring what is covered by « adapting to last » with a farming systems approach. Long term dynamics can be analysed as adaptive cycles, the system being permanently exposed to disturbances and shocks. Mobilizing the concept of resilience, we analyse the factors that differentiate the principles for long term action the livestock farmers have, principles which give consistency to the family - farms trajectories. With the concept of operational flexibilty, we qualify the sources of flexibility the livestock farmers maintain to cope with hazards. They are internal, related to the production process regulation properties, to the technical (adaptive or rigid specifications, to the sales policies, or external related to the information and commercial networks. Understanding the production process regulation properties require livestock farming systems models (i.e. combining decisional and biological sub-systems that can simulate how herd dynamics operate under fluctuant rules or productive parameters. It also require to evaluate the room for manoeuvre the work organization let to the farmer. All these aspects are illsutrated with on farm studies in herbivore systems (sheep, dairy, beef.Este artigo busca explorar "adaptações a mudanças" sob a ótica de sistemas de produção animal. Dinâmicas de longo prazo podem ser analisadas como ciclos adaptativos, sendo o sistema permanentemente exposto a distúrbios e choques. Utilizando o conceito de resiliência, analisam-se os fatores que diferenciam os princípios para ações de longo prazo tomadas por produtores rurais, princípios estes que dão consistência à família - trajetórias da propriedade rural. Com o conceito de flexibilidade operacional, qualificam-se as fontes de flexibilidade que os produtores mantêm para lidar com riscos. Eles são internos, relacionados a propriedades de regulação do processo produtivo, a especificações técnicas (adaptáveis ou rígidas, a

  20. Farm-Level Optimal Water Management : assistent for irrigation under deficit, second Executive summery report for FP6-European project nr. 036958

    Balendonck, J.

    2008-01-01

    FLOW-AID is a 6th Framework European project which started in autumn 2006. Its objective is to contribute to sustainability of irrigated agriculture by developing, testing in relevant conditions, and then optimizing an irrigation management system that can be used at farm level. The system will be

  1. Developing novel farming systems: effective use of nutrients from cover crops in intensive organic farming

    Burgt, van der G.J.H.M.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Koopmans, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    On-farm nitrogen fixation is a driving force in organic agriculture. The efficiency with which this nitrogen is used can be increased by using alfalfa or grass-clover crops directly as fertilizer on other fields: cut-and-carry fertilizers. In two crops in two years, the use of several types of

  2. Analysis of small-scale biogas utilization systems on Ontario cattle farms

    White, Andrew J.; Kirk, Donald W.; Graydon, John W.

    2011-01-01

    The production of biogas through the anaerobic digestion of cattle manure and its subsequent use in the generation of electricity on larger farms in Ontario is currently economically attractive. This is a result of the Ontario Feed-In Tariff (FIT) program, which provides incentivized rates for the production of electricity from biogas. Although larger farms can take advantage of the higher rates for electricity, there are substantially more smaller farms for which individually designed and engineered biogas systems would be prohibitively expensive. By employing the concept of modular biogas plants, this analysis evaluates the economics of small-scale biogas utilization systems. Dairy farms with at least 33 animals and beef farms with at least 78 animals can operate economically attractive biogas systems. This analysis shows that approximately 9000 additional Ontario cattle farms would be able to take advantage of the FIT program, which would add 120 MW e of renewable energy capacity to the Ontario electrical grid. (author)

  3. An ecosystem approach to assess soil quality in organically and conventionally managed farms in Iceland and Austria

    van Leeuwen, J. P.; Lehtinen, T.; Lair, G. J.; Bloem, J.; Hemerik, L.; Ragnarsdóttir, K. V.; Gísladóttir, G.; Newton, J. S.; de Ruiter, P. C.

    2015-01-01

    Intensive agricultural production can be an important driver for the loss of long-term soil quality. For this reason, the European Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) network adopted four pairs of agricultural CZO sites that differ in their management: conventional or organic. The CZO sites include two pairs of grassland farms in Iceland and two pairs of arable farms in Austria. Conventional fields differed from the organic fields in the use of artificial fertilisers and pesticides. Soils of these eight farms were analysed in terms of their physical, chemical, and biological properties, including soil aggregate size distribution, soil organic matter contents, abundance of soil microbes and soil fauna, and taxonomic diversity of soil microarthropods. In Icelandic grasslands, organically farmed soils had larger mean weight diameters of soil aggregates than the conventional farms, while there were no differences on the Austrian farms. Organic farming did not systematically influence organic matter contents or composition, nor soil carbon and nitrogen contents. Also, soil food web structures, in terms of presence of trophic groups of soil organisms, were highly similar among all farms, indicating a low sensitivity of trophic structure to land use or climate. However, soil organism biomass, especially of bacteria and nematodes, was consistently higher on organic farms than on conventional farms. Within the microarthropods, taxonomic diversity was systematically higher in the organic farms compared to the conventional farms. This difference was found across countries and farm, crop, and soil types. The results do not show systematic differences in physical and chemical properties between organic and conventional farms, but confirm that organic farming can enhance soil biomass and that microarthropod diversity is a sensitive and consistent indicator for land management.

  4. Results of an online questionnaire to survey calf management practices on dairy cattle breeding farms in Austria and to estimate differences in disease incidences depending on farm structure and management practices.

    Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Arnholdt, Tim; Sturmlechner, Franz; Iwersen, Michael; Drillich, Marc

    2015-08-19

    Calf disease may result in great economic losses. To implement prevention strategies it is important to gain information on management and to point out risk factors. The objective of this internet based survey was to describe calf management practices on registered dairy breeding farms in Austria and to estimate differences in calf disease incidences depending on farm structure and management practices. A total of 1287 questionnaires were finally analysed (response rate 12.2 %). Herd characteristics and regional distribution of farms indicated that this survey gives a good overview on calf management practices on registered dairy farms in Austria. The median number of cows per farm was 20 (interquartile range 13-30). Significant differences regarding farm characteristics and calf management between small and large farms (≤20 vs >20 cows) were present. Only 2.8 % of farmers tested first colostrum quality by use of a hydrometer. Storing frozen colostrum was more prevalent on large farms (80.8 vs 64.2 %). On 85.1 % of the farms, whole milk, including waste milk, was fed to the calves. Milk replacer and waste milk were more often used on large farms. In accordance with similar studies from other countries, calf diarrhoea was indicated as the most prevalent disease. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that herd size was associated with calf diarrhoea and calf respiratory tract disease, with higher risk of disease on large farms. Furthermore, feeding waste milk to the calves was associated with increasing calf diarrhoea incidence on farm. In the final model with calf respiratory tract disease as outcome, respondents from organic farms reported less often a respiratory tract disease incidence of over 10 % compared with conventional farms [odds ratio (OR) 0.40, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.75] and farmers that housed calves individually or in groups after birth significantly reported more often to have an incidence of respiratory tract

  5. A model for the optimal risk management of (farm) firms

    Rasmussen, Svend

    Current methods of risk management focus on efficiency and do not provide operational answers to the basic question of how to optimise and balance the two objectives, maximisation of expected income and minimisation of risk. This paper uses the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) to derive...... an operational criterion for the optimal risk management of firms. The criterion assumes that the objective of the firm manager is to maximise the market value of the firm and is based on the condition that the application of risk management tools has a symmetric effect on the variability of income around...... the mean. The criterion is based on the expected consequences of risk management on relative changes in the variance of return on equity and expected income. The paper demonstrates how the criterion may be used to evaluate and compare the effect of different risk management tools, and it illustrates how...

  6. A model for the optimal risk management of farm firms

    Rasmussen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    Risk management is an integrated part of business or firm management and deals with the problem of how to avoid the risk of economic losses when the objective is to maximize expected profit. This paper will focus on the identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks in agriculture followed...... by a description of procedures for coordinated and economical application of resources to control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events. Besides identifying the major risk factors and tools for risk management in agricultural production, the paper will look critically into the current methods...... for risk management Risk management is typically based on numerical analysis and the concept of efficiency. None of the methods developed so far actually solve the basic question of how the individual manager should behave so as to optimise the balance between expected profit/income and risk. In the paper...

  7. Effect of short-term versus long-term grassland management and seasonal variation in organic and conventional dairy farming on the composition of bulk tank milk

    Adler, S A; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Govasmark, E

    2013-01-01

    Bulk tank milk from 28 dairy farms was sampled every second month for 2 yr to assess the effects of grassland management, production system and season on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins, Se, and milk sensory quality. Grassland management varied in terms of...... feeding periods had potential health benefits due to FA composition. In contrast, the higher milk-fat proportions of saturated FA in milk from ORG farms may be perceived as negative for human health.......:0 and C18:1 cis-9 associated with higher forage proportion and differences in concentrations of FA in concentrates. Compared with the outdoor-feeding periods, the indoor feeding periods yielded milk fat with higher proportions of most short-chain and medium-chain FA and lower proportions of most C18-FA....... In conclusion, grassland management had minor effects on milk composition, and differences between ORG farms and CON farms may be explained by differences in concentrate intake and concentrate FA concentrations. Milk produced on ORG farms versus CON farms and milk produced during the outdoor versus indoor...

  8. The Impact of a Capstone Farm Management Course on Critical Thinking Abilities

    Perry, Dustin K.; Paulsen, Thomas H.; Retallick, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Current research demonstrates a need to explore the effects of specific course designs or directed activities on higher education students' critical thinking abilities. Specifically, such research on the effect of an experiential learning-based capstone course is limited. All students (N = 54) enrolled in a capstone farm management course…

  9. Transition Management and Social Innovation in Rural Areas: Lessons from Social Farming

    Di Iacovo, Francesco; Moruzzo, Roberta; Rossignoli, Cristiano; Scarpellini, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The article reflects on transition management in rural areas and the possible implications for extension services able to support social innovation and rural change, starting from experiences on social farming in different areas of Italy. Design/methodology/approach: By presenting three case studies we investigate the role of social…

  10. Farm Management and Leadership. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in farm management and leadership: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner with the reading, writing, and spoken communication skills needed to deal with…

  11. Managing health risks on small dairy farms in Kenya | CRDI - Centre ...

    Many cattle carry Cryptosporidium, an organism causing gastrointestinal illness with diarrhea that can be dangerous for both humans and animals. Preventing and managing this disease places a heavy burden on hospitals and veterinarians. IDRC-supported research into health hazards on smallholder dairy farms in a ...

  12. On Food, Farming and Land Management: Towards a Research Agenda to Reconnect Urban and Rural Lives

    Dillon, Justin; Rickinson, Mark; Sanders, Dawn; Teamey, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Science education has a key role to play in helping people to develop their understanding of the local and global dimensions of food, farming and land management. Based on a review of the literature on what is known about young people's (3-19) views towards and learning about these topics, a research agenda is outlined for consideration by the…

  13. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research.

    Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef; van Eerdenburg, Frank J C M; Velkers, Francisca C; Fijn, Lisa; Arndt, Saskia S

    2017-02-21

    A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting "robust" animals) adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum), or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific evidence about the welfare effects of current practices in farming such as mutilating procedures, management practices, and housing conditions is steadily growing, the gain in knowledge needs a boost through more scientific research. Considering the huge number of animals whose welfare is affected, all possible effort must be made to improve their welfare as quickly as possible in order to ban welfare-compromising procedures and practices as soon as possible.

  14. Biofuel as an Integrated Farm Drainage Management crop: A bioeconomic analysis

    Levers, L. R.; Schwabe, K. A.

    2017-04-01

    Irrigated agricultural lands in arid regions often suffer from soil salinization and lack of drainage, which affect environmental quality and productivity. Integrated Farm Drainage Management (IFDM) systems, where drainage water generated from higher-valued crops grown on high quality soils are used to irrigate salt-tolerant crops grown on marginal soils, is one possible strategy for managing salinity and drainage problems. If the IFDM crop were a biofuel crop, both environmental and private benefits may be generated; however, little is known about this possibility. As such, we develop a bioeconomic programming model of irrigated agricultural production to examine the role salt-tolerant biofuel crops might play within an IFDM system. Our results, generated by optimizing profits over land, water, and crop choice decisions subject to resource constraints, suggest that based on the private profits alone, biofuel crops can be a competitive alternative to the common practices of land retirement and nonbiofuel crop production under both low to high drainage water salinity. Yet IFDM biofuel crop production generates 30-35% fewer GHG emissions than the other strategies. The private market competitiveness coupled with the public good benefits may justify policy changes encouraging the growth of IFDM biofuel crops in arid agricultural areas globally.

  15. Using Ecophysiology to Improve Farm Efficiency: Application in Temperate Dairy Grazing Systems

    David F. Chapman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Information on the physiological ecology of grass-dominant pastures has made a substantial contribution to the development of practices that optimise the amount of feed harvested by grazing animals in temperate livestock systems. However, the contribution of ecophysiology is often under-stated, and the need for further research in this field is sometimes questioned. The challenge for ecophysiolgists, therefore, is to demonstrate how ecophysiological knowledge can help solve significant problems looming for grassland farming in temperate regions while also removing constraints to improved productivity from grazed pastures. To do this, ecophysiological research needs to align more closely with related disciplines, particularly genetics/genomics, agronomy, and farming systems, including systems modelling. This review considers how ecophysiological information has contributed to the development of grazing management practices in the New Zealand dairy industry, an industry that is generally regarded as a world leader in the efficiency with which pasture is grown and utilised for animal production. Even so, there are clear opportunities for further gains in pasture utilisation through the refinement of grazing management practices and the harnessing of those practices to improved pasture plant cultivars with phenotypes that facilitate greater grazing efficiency. Meanwhile, sub-optimal persistence of new pastures continues to constrain productivity in some environments. The underlying plant and population processes associated with this have not been clearly defined. Ecophysiological information, placed in the context of trait identification, grounded in well-designed agronomic studies and linked to plant improvements programmes, is required to address this.

  16. Factors affecting farmers' adoption of integrated rice-fish farming systems in the Mekong delta, Vietnam

    Bosma, R.H.; Nhan, D.K.; Udo, H.M.J.; Kaymak, U.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the determinants of the adoption of improved rice–fish farming systems in the Mekong delta to support policy making, agricultural land-use planning and extension of integrated rice–fish farming. Recently these systems have been referred to as adaptations to climate change,

  17. Exposure to Inhalable Dust, Endotoxin, and Total Volatile Organic Carbons on Dairy Farms Using Manual and Automated Feeding Systems

    Basinas, Ioannis; Cronin, Garvin; Hogan, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Agricultural workers tend to have high exposures to organic dusts which may induce or exacerbate respiratory disorders. Studies investigating the effect of work tasks and farm characteristics on organic dust exposures among farm workers suggest that handling of animal feed is an imp...... feeding. Until effective permanent engineering controls are established farm workers should be encouraged to wear respiratory protective equipment during these tasks....... of exposure to these agents depend on the applied feeding system in the farms. Methods: Thirty-eight personal exposure measurements were collected from farmers across seven dairy farms. The farms used manual, loft, or semi-automated feeding systems. Information on worker tasks and farm characteristics...

  18. Indigenous knowledge, use and on-farm management of enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) diversity in Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia

    2014-01-01

    Background Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman is a major food security crop in Southern Ethiopia, where it was originally domesticated and during millennia became pivotal crop around which an entire farming system has developed. Although its cultivation is highly localized, the enset-based farming system provides sustenance to more than 20 million people. Precise ethnobotanical information of intra-specific enset diversity and local knowledge on how communities maintain, manage and benefit from enset genetic resources is imperative for the promotion, conservation and improvement of this crop and its farming system. Methods This study was conducted in Southern Ethiopia among the Wolaita 'enset culture' community. The research sample consisted of 270 households from 12 Kebeles (villages) representing three agro-ecological ranges. By establishing Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) based interactions and applying ethnobotanical interviewing methods of free-listing and open-ended questionnaires, information on the use and management of enset diversity, and its associated folk-biosystematics, food traditions and material culture was collected and analyzed. Results While enset agriculture is seen as cultural heritage and identity for the Wolaita, enset intra-specific diversity holds scenic, prestige and symbolic values for the household. In the present study we recorded 67 enset landraces under cultivation, and through a comprehensive literature review we identified 28 landraces reported from other areas of Wolaita, but not encountered in our survey. Landraces, identified using 11 descriptors primarily related to agro-morphological traits, are named after perceived places of origin, agro-morphological characteristics and cooking quality attributes. Folk classification of enset is based on its domestication status, 'gender', agro-ecological adaptability and landrace suitability for different food and other uses (fiber, feed, medicinal). Enset as a food crop is used to

  19. enhancing response farming for strategic and tactical management

    ACSS

    facilitating strategic agronomic planning and tactical management of in-season risks. ... predictor, the first effective rainfall date, enabled prediction of time of season onset and season length by ..... low crop productivity and ensure food security.

  20. Managing health risks on small dairy farms in Kenya | IDRC ...

    2016-06-20

    Jun 20, 2016 ... ... in Kenya found that eating vegetables contaminated with animal manure or human waste was more ... Research improves secure access to nutritious food ... Integrated pest management yields economic and health benefits.

  1. Automatic Voltage Control System with Market Price Employing Large Wind Farms

    Qin, Nan; Bak, Claus Leth; Abildgaard, Hans

    2018-01-01

    of the voltage control service provided by the power plant owners. The benefit of employing the large offshore wind farms in this AVC system is investigated. The simulation based on the measurement data from the Danish electricity control center demonstrates the superiority of the proposed approach in terms...... of the cost minimization. The gained profit by employing the wind farms can be an argument to purchase the voltage control service provided by these wind farms....

  2. Livestock Farming Systems in the Northern Tablelands of NSW: An Economic Analysis

    Alford, Andrew R.; Griffith, Garry R.; Davies, Lloyd

    2003-01-01

    The Northern Tablelands region of New South Wales covers an area of approximately 3.12 million hectares including 2.11 million hectares occupied by some 2300 agricultural establishments producing agricultural commodities valued at more than $220 million. Sheep and wool production and cattle production are the dominant agricultural enterprises. In this Report, a whole-farm model of a representative livestock farming system in the Northern Tablelands is developed. Whole-farm economic models of ...

  3. On Farm Feeding Poultry Trial: Wholegrain Wheat in the Commercial System

    Nelder, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Organic systems aim to operate in an ecological and economic way. Importing cereals grown thousands of miles away, processed at a mill and then transported again to our farms is costly in oil and therefore money. It is neither ecologically nor economically sustainable. British farms are capable of producing a large amount of high quality cereal, the majority of which is usually sold. Transportation and processing of the grain uses oil and leaves farms vulnerable to market prices. If farmer...

  4. Facilitating smallholder tree farming in fragmented tropical landscapes: Challenges and potentials for sustainable land management.

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Sunderland, Terry; Roshetko, James M; Healey, John Robert

    2017-08-01

    Under changing land use in tropical Asia, there is evidence of forest product diversification through implementation of tree-based farming by smallholders. This paper assesses in two locations, West Java, Indonesia and eastern Bangladesh, current land use conditions from the perspective of smallholder farmers, the factors that facilitate their adoption of tree farming, and the potential of landscape-scale approaches to foster sustainable land management. Data were collected through rapid rural appraisals, focus group discussions, field observations, semi-structured interviews of farm households and key informant interviews of state agricultural officers. Land at both study sites is typically fragmented due to conversion of forest to agriculture and community settlement. Local land use challenges are associated with pressures of population increase, poverty, deforestation, shortage of forest products, lack of community-scale management, weak tenure, underdeveloped markets, government decision-making with insufficient involvement of local people, and poor extension services. Despite these challenges, smallholder tree farming is found to be successful from farmers' perspectives. However, constraints of local food crop cultivation traditions, insecure land tenure, lack of capital, lack of knowledge, lack of technical assistance, and perceived risk of investing in land due to local conflict (in Bangladesh) limit farmers' willingness to adopt this land use alternative. Overcoming these barriers to adoption will require management at a landscape scale, including elements of both segregation and integration of land uses, supported by competent government policies and local communities having sufficiently high social capital. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 77 FR 76356 - Disclosure to Investors in System-wide and Consolidated Bank Debt Obligations of the Farm Credit...

    2012-12-28

    ... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 630 RIN 3052-AC77 Disclosure to Investors in System-wide and Consolidated Bank Debt Obligations of the Farm Credit System; System Audit Committee; Effective... Corporation System Audit Committee and the Farm Credit System annual report to investors. In accordance with...

  6. Risks, resources and reason: understanding smallholder decisions around farming system interventions in Eastern Indonesia

    Clemens M. Grünbühel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of new cattle management practices by Indonesian smallholders occurs less as a ‘technology transfer’ in the classical sense but rather as a series of conscious decisions by farming households weighing risks and resources as well as matching innovations to livelihood strategies. This paper uncovers the context of decisions and communication of innovations by way of social networks. The research looks at two geographically distinct cases where new cattle management practices have been introduced. We apply the lens of a common sense framework initially introduced by Clifford Geertz. Smallholder decisions are analysed within a socio-cultural context and a particular set of resources, risks and livelihood objectives. We show that the respective value placed on land, cattle and food security is central to adoption of new cattle management techniques. Far from accepting everything novel, smallholders are selective and willing to make changes to their farming system if they do not conflict with livelihood strategies. Innovations are communicated through a range of existing social networks and are either matched to existing livelihood strategies or perceived as stepping-stones out of agriculture.

  7. Optimized dispatch of wind farms with power control capability for power system restoration

    Xie, Yunyun; Liu, Changsheng; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    As the power control technology of wind farms develops, the output power of wind farms can be constant, which makes it possible for wind farms to participate in power system restoration. However, due to the uncertainty of wind energy, the actual output power can’t reach a constant dispatch power...... in all time intervals, resulting in uncertain power sags which may induce the frequency of the system being restored to go outside the security limits. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the dispatch of wind farms participating in power system restoration. Considering that the probability...... distribution function (PDF) of transient power sags is hard to obtain, a robust optimization model is proposed in this paper, which can maximize the output power of wind farms participating in power system restoration. Simulation results demonstrate that the security constraints of the restored system can...

  8. Environmental influence of willow coppice systems on farm land

    Ledin, S.

    1997-01-01

    As for all cultivated crops, there are numerous environmental influences when growing willows. These influences are connected with additions to the soil, management measures and changes caused by the developing crop. As a perennial crop with good root penetration into the soil, high water use and efficient nutrient uptake over a long growing season, short rotation forests with willows have an influence on the environment that differs from the influence of annual farm crops. Also the landscape is affected differently by the dense willow stand with a height of seven meters before harvest. There is usually less use of herbicides in the perennial woody crop. Due to larger amounts of litter from the willow plantation and no tillage, there is with time an increase of the humus content in the soil. In relation to this, the soil fauna, using organic material for food, prosper in the short rotation forest. Considerably more cadmium is taken up by the willows than by conventional annual crops. This could be used to clean the soil of cadmium, but more knowledge is needed for the optimisation of this procedure. Willows are usually efficient in taking up nutrients, including nitrogen, but when used as vegetation filters it is important to assess the actual ability of a stand to take up N. This ability varies considerably with the development stage of the plantation and also with site conditions. (au) 30 refs

  9. Life cycle assessment of different sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) farming systems

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang; Xu, Kefeng

    2015-12-01

    The life cycle assessment was employed to evaluate the environmental impacts of three farming systems (indoor intensive, semi-intensive and extensive systems) of sea cucumber living near Qingdao, China, which can effectively overcome the interference of inaccurate background parameters caused by the diversity of economic level and environment in different regions. Six indicators entailing global warming potential (1.86E + 04, 3.45E + 03, 2.36E + 02), eutrophication potential (6.65E + 01, -1.24E + 02, -1.65E + 02), acidification potential (1.93E + 02, 4.33E + 01, 1.30E + 00), photochemical oxidant formation potential (2.35E-01, 5.46E -02, 2.53E-03), human toxicity potential (2.47E + 00, 6.08E-01, 4.91E + 00) and energy use (3.36E + 05, 1.27E + 04, 1.48E + 03) were introduced in the current study. It was found that all environmental indicators in the indoor intensive farming system were much higher than those in semi-intensive and extensive farming systems because of the dominant role of energy input, while energy input also contributed as the leading cause factor for most of the indicators in the semi-intensive farming system. Yet in the extensive farming system, infrastructure materials played a major role. Through a comprehensive comparison of the three farming systems, it was concluded that income per unit area of indoor intensive farming system was much higher than those of semi-intensive and extensive farming systems. However, the extensive farming system was the most sustainable one. Moreover, adequate measures were proposed, respectively, to improve the environmental sustainability of each farming system in the present study.

  10. The cotton farming pipeline of Malawi and South Africa: Management implications

    J. P. Grundling

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: The purpose this paper is to identify and describe the characteristics and influences of the cotton farming pipeline in Malawi and South Africa. Problem investigated: A broad based approach was followed to investigate the cotton farming pipeline to identify the major driving forces of the cotton pipeline in each of the respective countries. Research approach: A qualitative field research approach was followed to compile data on cotton farming in Malawi and South Africa. Data was compiled upstream from input suppliers, downstream from ginners, cotton transport conveyors, cotton marketing managers and agricultural government officials as well as from farmers and agricultural organizations. Findings: In Malawi a family farming model is followed versus an industrial model of production in South Africa. Despite the differences in approach, the farmers in both countries are faced with similar problems. In this regard, an urgent rethinking of the technological conditions of production and the possibilities of technological change is needed. Recommendations: The research proposes that these countries can benefit from establishing institutions like agricultural co-operatives and mechanisms like the development of a free traffic mechanism of seed-cotton. Conclusion: The present research may assist in developing first layer managerial recommendations that could enhance the sustainability and co-existence of cotton farming in the two countries.

  11. Management strategies on Dutch dairy farms to meet environmental regulations; a multi-case study

    Ondersteijn, C.J.M.; Harsh, S.B.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Beldman, A.C.G.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, the Dutch government introduced the Mineral Accounting System (MINAS) to prevent and reduce pollution of groundwater resources by agricultural nutrients. If farmers do not comply with this system they will be taxed, which could constitute a threat to the financial viability of their farms.

  12. Optimal Control of Wind Farms for Coordinated TSO-DSO Reactive Power Management

    David Sebastian Stock

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing importance of renewable generation connected to distribution grids requires an increased coordination between transmission system operators (TSOs and distribution system operators (DSOs for reactive power management. This work proposes a practical and effective interaction method based on sequential optimizations to evaluate the reactive flexibility potential of distribution networks and to dispatch them along with traditional synchronous generators, keeping to a minimum the information exchange. A modular optimal power flow (OPF tool featuring multi-objective optimization is developed for this purpose. The proposed method is evaluated for a model of a real German 110 kV grid with 1.6 GW of installed wind power capacity and a reduced order model of the surrounding transmission system. Simulations show the benefit of involving wind farms in reactive power support reducing losses both at distribution and transmission level. Different types of setpoints are investigated, showing the feasibility for the DSO to fulfill also individual voltage and reactive power targets over multiple connection points. Finally, some suggestions are presented to achieve a fair coordination, combining both TSO and DSO requirements.

  13. Dairy cattle; Farming system; Animal feeding; Milk; Productivity; Work organization; Role of women; India

    V. Alary

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To satisfy Indian consumers’ rising demand for milk products, Indian breeders will have to boost their production rapidly, especially through improved feeding practices. Many experts point out that currently used crop by-products will not be sufficient to meet increasing feed requirements from cow and buffalo herds and that it will be necessary to turn to grains such as wheat and maize. But other experts think that grain will not be enough and that the increasing animal consumption of grain will affect human consumption, unless India decides on massive grain imports, putting pressure on the world grain market. The present survey carried out in two districts of Haryana showed that grain was not an essential feed for cattle and buffaloes, and that improving cotton and mustard by-products, and green fodder had great potential. A second finding was that wealthier farmers tended to underuse the genetic potential of milk cows and buffaloes. Moreover, biotechnical management of the herd, in particular the feeding system, was closely related to the socioeconomic management of the family farming system; family strategies aimed at ensuring sufficient milk production for the family in larger farms and to provide a regular income in smaller ones. This paper also stressed out the need to design, implement, and monitor development programs that integrate sociocultural and, especially, gender issues, to facilitate technological innovation with respect to forage storage.

  14. Influence of farming system and production purpose on the morpho structure of Spanish goat breeds

    Gonzalez-Martinez, A.; Herrera, M.; Luque, M.; Rodero, E.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of farming systems, based on the morpho structure of 1,571 female goats drawn from 40 flocks containing seven Spanish breeds (Blanca Andaluza, Blanca Celtiberica, Negra Serrana, Pirenaica, Payoya, Murciano-Granadina and Malaguena) raised under four different farming systems. Analysis of morphometric variables showed that the morphostructure of native Spanish goat breeds was linked to the farming system used and thus to the production purpose. The morphostructure of grazing breeds may be more influenced by natural selection within the physical environment and less by human selection. That of stall-fed breeds, by contrast, reflects intense artificial selection aimed at achieving a highly-productive dairy type. For this reason, morphological evaluation systems used in breeding programmes for meat or dual-purpose goat breeds farmed extensively or semiextensively should be specific, and should reflect the influence of the environment in which these goats are farmed. (Author)

  15. Water resource protection in Australia: Links between land use and river health with a focus on stubble farming systems

    Bowmer, Kathleen H.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryStubble farming (conservation farming, minimum tillage, zero tillage) has increased in Australia over several decades with claims of improved productivity, landscape stability and environmental benefit including ecosystem services downstream, yet recent audits show a dramatic and general decline in river health. This review explores explanations for this apparent anomaly. Many confounding factors complicate interactions between land use and river condition and may disguise or over-ride the potential benefits of adoption of stubble systems or other improvements in agricultural land use practice. These factors include climate change and variability; land use changes including an increase in bushfires, growth of farm dams and afforestation; lag times between land use change and expression of benefits in river systems; use of inappropriate scale that disguises local benefit; variations in the extent of ecosystem resilience; impacts of river regulation; and impacts of introduced species. Additionally, the value of river condition and utility is complicated by different local or regional perceptions and by contrasting rural and urban outlooks. The use of indicators, risk frameworks and biophysical modelling may help elucidate the complex relationships between land use and downstream ecosystem impact. The strengthening of local, regional and catchment scale approaches is advocated. This includes the re-integration of land management and governance with water management and planning. It is encouraging that farmers are themselves developing systems to optimise trade-offs between on-farm activities and ecosystem service benefits. This approach needs to be supported and extended.

  16. On Farmers’ Ground: Wisconsin Dairy Farm Nutrient Management Survey Questionnaire

    This questionnaire was used during quarterly, face-to-face interviews with the fifty-four Wisconsin dairy farmers who participated in the ‘On Farmers’ Ground’ nutrient management research project. It was designed to systematically and consistently compile information on herd size and composition, l...

  17. Intensive management in grasslands causes diffuse water pollution at the farm scale.

    Peukert, Sabine; Griffith, Bruce A; Murray, Phillip J; Macleod, Christopher J A; Brazier, Richard E

    2014-11-01

    Arable land use is generally assumed to be the largest contributor to agricultural diffuse pollution. This study adds to the growing evidence that conventional temperate intensively managed lowland grasslands contribute significantly to soil erosion and diffuse pollution rates. This is the first grassland study to monitor hydrological characteristics and multiple pollutant fluxes (suspended sediment [SS] and the macronutrients: total oxidized nitrogen-N [TON], total phosphorus [TP], and total carbon [TC]) at high temporal resolution (monitoring up to every 15 min) over 1 yr. Monitoring was conducted across three fields (6.5-7.5 ha) on the North Wyke Farm Platform, UK. The estimated annual erosion rates (up to 527.4 kg ha), TP losses (up to 0.9 kg ha), and TC losses (up to 179 kg ha) were similar to or exceeded the losses reported for other grassland, mixed land-use, and arable sites. Annual yields of TON (up to 3 kg ha) were less than arable land-use fluxes and earlier grassland N studies, an important result as the study site is situated within a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone. The high-resolution monitoring allowed detailed "system's functioning" understanding of hydrological processes, mobilization- transport pathways of individual pollutants, and the changes of the relative importance of diffuse pollutants through flow conditions and time. Suspended sediment and TP concentrations frequently exceeded water quality guidelines recommended by the European Freshwater Fisheries Directive (25 mg L) and the European Water Framework Directive (0.04 mg soluble reactive P L), suggesting that intensively managed grasslands pose a significant threat to receiving surface waters. Such sediment and nutrient losses from intensively managed grasslands should be acknowledged in land management guidelines and advice for future compliance with surface water quality standards. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of

  18. Resources Management for Income Optimization on Smallholder Food Crop Farms in South-Western Nigeria

    Adeniyi, OR.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural mobilization based purely on resources availability factor alone may falter due to inadequate attention that is hitherto paid to other complementary factors. Empirical evidence from the current study conducted on typical small-holder farms in South-western Nigeria has shown that while the availability of the required input resources were essential in raising income on small-holder farms, resources management choice factor was the most relatively crucial. With better choice of management and careful selection of enterprises, the current level of available resources at the disposal of small-holder farmers in the study area was adequate to make them economically viable and improve their potential savings. Income realizable with 'better' management plan option was N 359,761.79 per hectare while ₦ 164,213.88 per hectare was earned with the current level of resources use and enterprise combination. The better management plan recommended the cultivation of cassava/yam (0.59 ha., maize/cassava (0.34 ha., Banana-plantain (0.26 ha and maize/cocoyam (0.22 ha on 1.42 hectares of land instead of the current 2.37 hectares (67% increase cultivated mostly to sole cropping. However, the additional human and financial requirements of the proposed better management plan called for dedicated and active government action programmes in form of provision of most input needs of farmers at subsidized rates, provision of extension and training in modern farm management and organization techniques and establishment of advisory service centers to monitor and supervise the use of resource inputs on farms.

  19. Climate change and maize yield in southern Africa: what can farm management do?

    Rurinda, Jairos; van Wijk, Mark T; Mapfumo, Paul; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Supit, Iwan; Giller, Ken E

    2015-12-01

    There is concern that food insecurity will increase in southern Africa due to climate change. We quantified the response of maize yield to projected climate change and to three key management options - planting date, fertilizer use and cultivar choice - using the crop simulation model, agricultural production systems simulator (APSIM), at two contrasting sites in Zimbabwe. Three climate periods up to 2100 were selected to cover both near- and long-term climates. Future climate data under two radiative forcing scenarios were generated from five global circulation models. The temperature is projected to increase significantly in Zimbabwe by 2100 with no significant change in mean annual total rainfall. When planting before mid-December with a high fertilizer rate, the simulated average grain yield for all three maize cultivars declined by 13% for the periods 2010-2039 and 2040-2069 and by 20% for 2070-2099 compared with the baseline climate, under low radiative forcing. Larger declines in yield of up to 32% were predicted for 2070-2099 with high radiative forcing. Despite differences in annual rainfall, similar trends in yield changes were observed for the two sites studied, Hwedza and Makoni. The yield response to delay in planting was nonlinear. Fertilizer increased yield significantly under both baseline and future climates. The response of maize to mineral nitrogen decreased with progressing climate change, implying a decrease in the optimal fertilizer rate in the future. Our results suggest that in the near future, improved crop and soil fertility management will remain important for enhanced maize yield. Towards the end of the 21st century, however, none of the farm management options tested in the study can avoid large yield losses in southern Africa due to climate change. There is a need to transform the current cropping systems of southern Africa to offset the negative impacts of climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of Crop-Livestock Integration Systems among Farm ...

    USER

    This study evaluated the level of access to knowledge, farm assets and inputs .... with an optimal allocation of scarce resources, leads to sustainable production. Combining ecological sustainability and economic viability, the integrated.

  1. Generic Escherichia coli Contamination of Spinach at the Preharvest Stage: Effects of Farm Management and Environmental Factors

    Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Jun, Mikyoung; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Ivanek, Renata

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of farm management and environmental factors on preharvest spinach contamination with generic Escherichia coli as an indicator of fecal contamination. A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted by visiting spinach farms up to four times per growing season over a period of 2 years (2010 to 2011). Spinach samples (n = 955) were collected from 12 spinach farms in Colorado and Texas as representative states of the Western and Southwestern United States, respectively. During each farm visit, farmers were surveyed about farm-related management and environmental factors using a questionnaire. Associations between the prevalence of generic E. coli in spinach and farm-related factors were assessed by using a multivariable logistic regression model including random effects for farm and farm visit. Overall, 6.6% of spinach samples were positive for generic E. coli. Significant risk factors for spinach contamination with generic E. coli were the proximity (within 10 miles) of a poultry farm, the use of pond water for irrigation, a >66-day period since the planting of spinach, farming on fields previously used for grazing, the production of hay before spinach planting, and the farm location in the Southwestern United States. Contamination with generic E. coli was significantly reduced with an irrigation lapse time of >5 days as well as by several factors related to field workers, including the use of portable toilets, training to use portable toilets, and the use of hand-washing stations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between field workers' personal hygiene and produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level. Collectively, our findings support that practice of good personal hygiene and other good farm management practices may reduce produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level. PMID:23666336

  2. Generic Escherichia coli contamination of spinach at the preharvest stage: effects of farm management and environmental factors.

    Park, Sangshin; Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Jun, Mikyoung; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Ivanek, Renata

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of farm management and environmental factors on preharvest spinach contamination with generic Escherichia coli as an indicator of fecal contamination. A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted by visiting spinach farms up to four times per growing season over a period of 2 years (2010 to 2011). Spinach samples (n = 955) were collected from 12 spinach farms in Colorado and Texas as representative states of the Western and Southwestern United States, respectively. During each farm visit, farmers were surveyed about farm-related management and environmental factors using a questionnaire. Associations between the prevalence of generic E. coli in spinach and farm-related factors were assessed by using a multivariable logistic regression model including random effects for farm and farm visit. Overall, 6.6% of spinach samples were positive for generic E. coli. Significant risk factors for spinach contamination with generic E. coli were the proximity (within 10 miles) of a poultry farm, the use of pond water for irrigation, a >66-day period since the planting of spinach, farming on fields previously used for grazing, the production of hay before spinach planting, and the farm location in the Southwestern United States. Contamination with generic E. coli was significantly reduced with an irrigation lapse time of >5 days as well as by several factors related to field workers, including the use of portable toilets, training to use portable toilets, and the use of hand-washing stations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between field workers' personal hygiene and produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level. Collectively, our findings support that practice of good personal hygiene and other good farm management practices may reduce produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level.

  3. Agricultural Innovation Systems and Farm Technology Adoption: Findings from a Study of the Ghanaian Plantain Sector

    Weyori, Alirah Emmanuel; Amare, Mulubrhan; Garming, Hildegard; Waibel, Hermann

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: We assess farm technology adoption in an integrated analysis of social networks and innovation in plantain production in Ghana. The paper explores the strength of social networks in the agricultural innovation systems (AISs) and the effect of AISs on adoption of improved farm technology. Methodology/Approach: The paper uses social network…

  4. Influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming systems in Kenya

    Migose, S.A.; Bebe, B.O.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Oosting, S.J.

    2018-01-01

    We studied influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming system development. Farms were chosen from three locations that varied in distance to the urban market of Nakuru Town in the Kenyan highlands: urban location (UL, n = 10) at less than 15 km distance, mid-rural location

  5. Application of genetic algorithm in electrical system optimization for offshore wind farms

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, M.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been widely used in solving optimization problem in different areas. This paper illustrates the application of GA in the electrical system design for offshore wind farms, where the main components of a wind farm and key technical specifications are used as input...

  6. Management and use of dairy cattle feed resources on smallholder certified organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    Muhammad Kiggundu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of exclusively organic diets that meet maintenance and production requirements of dairy cattle is a major limitation to production of premium organic products of animal origin. This study was therefore carried out to assess the use and availability of feed resources and the coping strategies used by farmers to overcome dry season feed shortages on 64 smallholder certified organic pineapple farms. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and two focus group discussions. Majority of households were headed by males (62.9% while average age of respondents was 42.5 years. Farmers allocated more land (P<0.05 to organic pineapple production compared to livestock. Beside dairy cattle, farmers also kept chickens, goats and pigs. Tethering was the commonest cattle management system. Fifty three percent of respondents reported using both natural pastures and crop residues as major dairy cattle feed resources while only 19% reported using elephant grass. Banana peels (25.1% and sweet potato vines (24.7% were the most important crop residues fed to cattle. Farmers reported high cost of concentrates and scarcity of feeds as their biggest challenges in dairy cattle production. Of the respondents, 51.4% conserved feed for their cattle as fodder banks. As a coping strategy to feed shortages, majority (42.9% of farmer scavenged for feed resources from both organic certified and nonorganic neighbouring farms which is contrary to organic livestock farming standards. It was, therefore, concluded that management of livestock feeding in the study area fell short of the requirements for organic livestock feeding standards. Research to develop strategies that can use alternative on-farm feed resources through ensiling organic pineapple wastes during the dry season is recommended as a long term strategy to address feed challenges for organic livestock farmers.

  7. Rainwater harvesting potential for farming system development in a hilly watershed of Bangladesh

    Tariqul Islam, Md.; Mohabbat Ullah, Md.; Mostofa Amin, M. G.; Hossain, Sahadat

    2017-09-01

    Water resources management is an important part in farming system development. Agriculture in Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh is predominantly rainfed with an average 2210 mm monsoonal rain, but rainfall during dry winter period (December-February) is inadequate for winter crop production. The natural soil water content (as low as 7 %) of hillslope and hilltop during the dry season is not suitable for shallow-rooted crop cultivation. A study was conducted to investigate the potential of monsoonal rainwater harvesting and its impact on local cropping system development. Irrigation facilities provided by the managed rainwater harvesting reservoir increased research site's cropping intensity from 155 to 300 %. Both gravity flow irrigation of valley land and low lift pumping to hillslope and hilltop from rainwater harvesting reservoir were much more economical compared to forced mode pumping of groundwater because of the installation and annual operating cost of groundwater pumping. To abstract 7548 m3 of water, equivalent to the storage capacity of the studied reservoirs, from aquifer required 2174 kWh energy. The improved water supply system enabled triple cropping system for valley land and permanent horticultural intervention at hilltop and hillslope. The perennial vegetation in hilltop and hillslope would also conserve soil moisture. Water productivity and benefit-cost ratio analysis show that vegetables and fruit production were more profitable than rice cultivation under irrigation with harvested rainwater. Moreover, the reservoir showed potentiality of integrated farming in such adverse area by facilitating fish production. The study provides water resource managers and government officials working with similar problems with valuable information for formulation of plan, policy, and strategy.

  8. Management of groundwater in farmed pond area using risk-based regulation.

    Huang, Jun-Ying; Liao, Chiao-Miao; Lin, Kao-Hung; Lee, Cheng-Haw

    2014-09-01

    Blackfoot disease (BFD) had occurred seriously in the Yichu, Hsuehchia, Putai, and Peimen townships of Chia-Nan District of Taiwan in the early days. These four townships are the districts of fishpond cultivation domestically in Taiwan. Groundwater becomes the main water supply because of short income in surface water. The problems of over pumping in groundwater may not only result in land subsidence and seawater intrusion but also be harmful to the health of human giving rise to the bioaccumulation via food chain in groundwater with arsenic (As). This research uses sequential indicator simulation (SIS) to characterize the spatial arsenic distribution in groundwater in the four townships. Risk assessment is applied to explore the dilution ratio (DR) of groundwater utilization, which is defined as the ratio showing the volume of groundwater utilization compared to pond water, for fish farming in the range of target cancer risk (TR) especially on the magnitude of 10(-4)~10(-6). Our study results reveal that the 50th percentile of groundwater DRs served as a regulation standard can be used to perform fish farm groundwater management for a TR of 10(-6). For a TR of 5 × 10(-6), we suggest using the 75th percentile of DR for groundwater management. For a TR of 10(-5), we suggest using the 95th percentile of the DR standard for performing groundwater management in fish farm areas. For the TR of exceeding 5 × 10(-5), we do not suggest establishing groundwater management standards under these risk standards. Based on the research results, we suggest that establishing a TR at 10(-5) and using the 95th percentile of DR are best for groundwater management in fish farm areas.

  9. Limitations and barriers for adopting sustainable management practices in different farm types across Europe

    Guzmán, Gema; Portero, Ángela; Vanwalleghem, Tom; Pedrera, Ana; Jesús Gaitán, Antonio; Ten Berge, Hein

    2014-05-01

    Although apparently the conservation of natural resources such as water and soil does not represent important concerns for our society, the evolution of the world population and the degradation of these resources pose a challenge to improving agricultural food production capacity and conserving, and in some cases restoring, the environmental quality. Unfortunately, the history contains numerous examples of abandonment of these resources (McNeill 1992, Montgomery 2007). Although most of the agronomic conservation practices have been known for millennia, their implementation has often been hindered by non-agricultural motives (Davis et al. 2012). The European project CATCH-C (ten Berge 2011) started last year with the aim of evaluating sustainable soil management practices and exploring the difficulties for their adoption, both at farm and institutional level, to overcome them in the near future. As a first step with that purpose, a selection of best management practices (BMPs) based on interviews with advisors and scientific knowledge were proposed for each of the considered farm typologies: arable crops, permanent crops and pasture. These farm types are representative of the Mediterranean area in terms of agroecological properties, extension, economical importance and soil degradation problems. Semi-structured interviews were carried out by addressing different profiles of farmers to identify in a qualitative way the main limitations for adopting these BMPs on their farms. Different questionnaires were prepared based on the farmers' responses and launched at a larger scale, with the aim of achieving approximately 100 responses per each farm typology. Finally, responses from the questionnaires will be analyzed to explore the causes that hinder or impede the adoption of BMPs in different farm typologies. References: Davis A.S. et al. 2012. Plos ONE 7(10): e4719. doi:10.1371/journalpone.0047149. McNeill, J.R. 1992. The mountains of the Mediterranean world. Cambridge

  10. Amplified recruitment pressure of biofouling organisms in commercial salmon farms: potential causes and implications for farm management.

    Bloecher, Nina; Floerl, Oliver; Sunde, Leif Magne

    2015-01-01

    The development of biofouling on finfish aquaculture farms presents challenges for the industry, but the factors underlying nuisance growths are still not well understood. Artificial settlement surfaces were used to examine two possible explanations for high rates of biofouling in Norwegian salmon farms: (1) increased propagule release during net cleaning operations, resulting in elevated recruitment rates; and (2) potential reservoir effects of farm surfaces. The presence of salmon farms was associated with consistently and substantially (up to 49-fold) elevated recruitment rates. Temporal patterns of recruitment were not driven by net cleaning. Resident populations of biofouling organisms were encountered on all submerged farm surfaces. Calculations indicate that a resident population of the hydroid Ectopleura larynx, a major biofouling species, could release between 0.3 × 10(9) and 4.7 × 10(9) larvae per farm annually. Such resident populations could form propagule reservoirs and be one explanation for the elevated recruitment pressure at salmon farms.

  11. Diversity in smallholder farms growing coffee and their use of recommended coffee management practices in Uganda

    Bongers, G.; Fleskens, L.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Mukasa, D.; Giller, K.E.; Asten, van P.

    2015-01-01

    Many smallholder farm systems in Uganda produce coffee as an important cash crop. Yet coffee yields are poor. To increase farmers’ production, a range of agronomic practices have been recommended by national and international agencies. Yet the adoption potential of recommendations differs between

  12. Fostering food security in areas of extreme poverty through Integrated Farm Management: the case of Burundi

    Kessler, Aad; van Duivenbooden, Niek; van Beek, Christy

    2014-05-01

    Extreme poverty in Burundi's rural area and tensions between families with limited access to arable land hinder development towards a more stable and peaceful society. Due to these tensions and a rapid population growth, agricultural land is currently subject to increased degradation and low agricultural productivity. A whole range of other limiting factors contributes to this, such as: poor seed quality, poor nutrient management combined with low soil fertility, inadequate agronomic practices, pests and crop diseases, poorly developed supply chains, health problems, difficult access to credit, and insecurity. Solving one of these problems will not solve the chain that eventually leads to low food production; it will simply move the emphasis to the next constraining factor. An integrated rural development approach is therefore required to break this vicious circle. The project Fanning the Spark, a Public-Private-Partnership between Achmea Foundation, Alterra of Wageningen University and Research Centre, and HealthNet-TPO in Burundi started in September 2013 with an intervention in several rural villages in Gitega. The project's objective is to increase food production at village level, by means of investments in crop production, a family (income) insurance package that protects rural families against the financial consequences of catastrophic events (natural and health) and making micro-credits available. This will enhance farmers' workability and generate income from agricultural activities in order to break the poverty cycle and enhance food security. The insurance package comprises agricultural and health insurances, and will be jointly implemented with the sustainable agriculture component. The latter component focuses on Integrated Farm Management and the use of innovative soil management practices. Farmer-to-farmer training and scaling-up are crucial components, and in the first phase of the project "innovative farmer groups" have a central role in the

  13. Stability and control of wind farms in power systems

    Jauch, C.

    2006-10-15

    The Ph.D. project 'Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems' deals with some selected problems related to wind power in power systems. With increasing wind power penetration, wind turbines substitute the power production of conventional power plants. Therefore, wind turbines also have to take over the power system stabilisation and control tasks, that were traditionally carried out by conventional power plants. Out of the many aspects related to this problem, this project focuses on transient fault ride-through and power system stabilisation. The selection of turbine types considered in this project is limited to active-stall turbines and variable speed, variable pitch turbines with gearboxes and full-scale converter-connected synchronous generators. As a basis for the project, a study into the state of the art is conducted at the beginning of the project. Grid connection requirements that were in force, or published as drafts, at the time, and scientific literature related to the topic, are studied. The project is based on simulations of wind turbines in a power system simulations tool. Some of the models used in this project were readily available prior to the project; the development of others is part of the project. The most extensive modelling work deals with the design of the electrical part of the variable speed turbine and its controls. To simulate realistic grid operation the wind turbine models are connected to an aggregated model of the Nordic power system. For that purpose the Nordic power system model, which was available prior to the project, is extended with a realistic feeder configuration. It is commonly demanded from modern wind turbines, that they must not disconnect in case of transient faults. Therefore, controllers are designed that enable the two turbine types to ride through transient faults. With these transient fault controllers the wind turbines can stay connected to the grid, such that their generation capacity is

  14. On-farm welfare assessment systems: what are the recording costs?

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Nielsen, Tine Rousing; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2007-01-01

    To illustrate that different approaches lead to different costs a cost calculation on four different welfare assessment systems for four different animal species has been carried out; an integrated pig herd (450 sows), a dairy cattle herd with automatic milking (90 cows), an organic egg production...... system (3000 layers) and a mink farm (1000 mink). We calculated the cost to be: E 375 per annum for the mink farm and E 2205, E 2430 and E 2435 for the egg production system, the AMS dairy herd and the integrated pig farm, respectively. The costs can be reduced by: reducing the number of indicators and...

  15. Credit Management System

    US Agency for International Development — Credit Management System. Outsourced Internet-based application. CMS stores and processes data related to USAID credit programs. The system provides information...

  16. Effect Of Intercropping System On Green Peach Aphid Dinamics On Organic Farming Of Potato In Karo Highland

    Lamria Sidauruk; Darma Bakti; Retna Astuti Kuswardani; Chairani Hanum

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer represents one of the major pest affecting decreased production which found in different potato fields in Karo Highland. This study was conducted to determine the population dynamics of Myzus persicae Sulzer on potato cropping system. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with main plot are farming system such as conventional farming semi organic farming and organic farming. The sub plot are intercropping system consist of potato mon...

  17. High bee and wasp diversity in a heterogeneous tropical farming system compared to protected forest.

    Christof Schüepp

    Full Text Available It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity, as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems.

  18. Undertake in agricultural management of the Amazon: the case of family farms of the Amazon

    Charles Carminati Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The management of agricultural activity has great importance for the development of family farming, considering the aspects of planning, production, control and marketing, as well as entrepreneurship has innovation features for agribusiness activities. This article aims to study the contribution of entrepreneurial strategies used by farmers in the development of family farms. Were addressed in this study social, economic, technological and market factors that influence the management of rural agribusiness. For this study we used the field survey to collect data on 18 family farms who have subscription federal, state or municipal inspection in Cacoal, Rondonia, having as the qualitative research approach. Thus, it was possible to identify the entrepreneurial strategies used by farmers in the management of agribusiness, and identify the marketing contribution, cooperation, technological innovation and control in the productive activity of family farmers. The study also showed that although the challenges of production and marketing are factors that hinder the family agro-industrial production, entrepreneurship has proved important in the development of the activity, providing the farmer new job opportunities and income.

  19. Application of geographical information system for farm mechanization education and training

    R.M. Hudzari; W. Aimrun; M.A.H.A. Ssomad; M.S. Norazean

    2013-01-01

    Precision farming is managing each crop production input such as fertilizer, water, lime, herbicide, insecticide and seed on a site-specific basis to reduce waste, increase profit and maintain the quality of the environment. Without some remarkable enabling assisting technologies, the individual treatment of each plant is impossible and the concept of precision farming would not be feasible. Based on the trip, we can gain more information about the new technology that applies nowadays in agri...

  20. Project proposal: integrated farming scheme incorporating management of water hyacinth - Water hyacinth as a pig feed

    Singh, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    One of the objectives of pig research undertaken by the Research Section of the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fiji), is to evaluate local feed sources in an attempt to reduce importation of pig feeds. Protein is the major limiting nutrient in most local feed sources. Fish and meat meals are incorporated in pig feeds by many farmers but the cost of these are very high. Chemical analysis of water hyacinth taken from Rewa River showed that leaves contain 22% crude protein and stems 8%. This was determined on a dry weight basis. Therefore, water hyacinth could be a good source of protein for pigs. Utilization of water hyacinth was considered in the First Review; meeting on Management of Water Hyacinth conducted by Commonwealth Regional (Asia/Pacific) Rural Technology Programme. Water hyacinth as an animal feed was discussed in that review. It points out that the following has to be taken into account in considering the use of water hyacinth as an animal feed. The objective of the study is to investigate the use of water hyacinth as a feed for pigs in an integrated farming system involving a piggery, biogas digester and a pond and: compare pig preference for water hyacinth when fed fresh or dry compare the performance of pigs when fed water hyacinth only and in combination with a normal diet and cost/benefit analysis

  1. Fertiliser management effects on dissolved inorganic nitrogen in runoff from Australian sugarcane farms.

    Fraser, Grant; Rohde, Ken; Silburn, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) movement from Australian sugarcane farms is believed to be a major cause of crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks which have reduced the Great Barrier Reef coral cover by ~21% (1985-2012). We develop a daily model of DIN concentration in runoff based on >200 field monitored runoff events. Runoff DIN concentrations were related to nitrogen fertiliser application rates and decreased after application with time and cumulative rainfall. Runoff after liquid fertiliser applications had higher initial DIN concentrations, though these concentrations diminished more rapidly in comparison to granular fertiliser applications. The model was validated using an independent field dataset and provided reasonable estimates of runoff DIN concentrations based on a number of modelling efficiency score results. The runoff DIN concentration model was combined with a water balance cropping model to investigate temporal aspects of sugarcane fertiliser management. Nitrogen fertiliser application in December (start of wet season) had the highest risk of DIN movement, and this was further exacerbated in years with a climate forecast for 'wet' seasonal conditions. The potential utility of a climate forecasting system to predict forthcoming wet months and hence DIN loss risk is demonstrated. Earlier fertiliser application or reducing fertiliser application rates in seasons with a wet climate forecast may markedly reduce runoff DIN loads; however, it is recommended that these findings be tested at a broader scale.

  2. UNIFORM FARM OPERATIONS (UFO ON HEMP BROOM RAPE SEED GERMINATION BY BIOLOGICAL CONTROL MANAGEMENT IN IRAN

    Behzad SANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Weeds are a constant problem in agronomy and they not only compete with crops for water, nutrients, sunlight, andspace but also harbor insect and disease pests; clog irrigation and drainage systems; undermine crop quality; anddeposit weed seeds into crop harvests. In order to the microbial herbicide (Orocide influence on seed germinationin Orobancheramosa L., this experiment was conducted in 2011 at Islamic Azad University Shahr-e-Qods Branch inTehran by a completely randomized design with four replications. The factor studied included use of Orocide(0(T1, 2(T2, 4(T3 and 6(T4 percentage. The results showed that the effect of microbial herbicide (Orocide wassignificant on germination percentage of Orobancheramosa. Mean comparison showed that the highest germinationpercentage (79% was achieved by non-application of Orocide and lowest germination percentage (8% wasachieved by application of 4% Orocide.The results of this experiment showed that the use of Orocide can decreasedthe germination in Orobancheramosa L. that is uniform farm operations (UFO very important for weed biologicalcontrol management at Iran.

  3. Planning and costing of agricultural adaptation in the the integrated hill farming systems of Nepal

    Paudel, Bikash; Tamang, B.B.; Lamsal, Krishna; Paudel, Pratima

    2011-09-15

    Despite an existing information gap in scientific evidence regarding the effects of future changes in climate patterns and options for the future, the community-based adaptation process should nevertheless be initiated. This requires community involvement through participatory planning in order to make use of local experiences and knowledge. The existing technologies at the community level, and among researchers supporting communities in undertaking adaptations to climate change, are currently inadequately disseminated. While the generation of additional technologies is regarded as a priority in the long term, transfer of already available technologies to the user community should be the immediate priority. The local adaptation plan of action (LAPA) is an effective means to mainstream adaptation options in national and local governmental plans, and to support local communities in planning for adaptation. Although the initial costs of defining this methodology are high, they will decrease as soon as it is evolved and scaled up. Hence, the adaptation costs and resulting benefits will also remain at the local level. The majority of the adaptation actions identified for the hill farming system in Nepal are long-term actions. In order to achieve sustainability, the adaptation actions should not be part of any project or one-time investment, but must be integrated into the regular agricultural development process. Adaptation priorities for the hill farming system of Nepal mainly incorporate improved practices for integrated soil, land, hedgerow and water management – for instance, through water harvesting and small-scale irrigation measures.

  4. Role of Pigeonpea Cultivation on Soil Fertility and Farming System Sustainability in Ghana

    S. Adjei-Nsiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the smallholder farming system in Ghana is under threat due to soil fertility decline. Mineral fertilizer is sparingly being used by smallholder farmers because of prohibitive cost. Grain legumes such as pigeonpea can play a complementary or alternative role as a source of organic fertilizer due to its ability to enhance soil fertility. Despite its importance, the potential of pigeonpea as a soil fertility improvement crop has not been exploited to any appreciable extent and the amount of land cultivated to pigeonpea in Ghana is vey negligible. This paper synthesizes recent studies that have been carried out on pigeonpea in Ghana and discusses the role of pigeonpea cultivation in soil fertility management and its implication for farming system sustainability. The paper shows that recent field studies conducted in both the semi-deciduous forest and the forest/savanna transitional agro-ecological zones of Ghana indicate that pigeonpea/maize rotations can increase maize yield by 75–200%. Barrier to widespread adoption of pigeonpea include land tenure, market, and accessibility to early maturing and high yielding varieties. The paper concludes among other things that in order to promote the cultivation of pigeonpea in Ghana, there is the need to introduce varieties that combine early maturity with high yields and other desirable traits based on farmers preferences.

  5. Systems Engineering Management Plan

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Project Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to define and establish the MRS Project Systems Engineering process that implements the approved policy and requirements of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This plan is Volume 5 of the MRS Project Management Plan (PMP). This plan provides the framework for implementation of systems engineering on the MRS Project consistent with DOE Order 4700.1, the OCRWM Program Management System Manual (PMSM), and the OCRWM Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP)

  6. Soil type, management history and current resource allocation: Three dimensions regulating variability in crop productivity on African smallholder farms

    Zingore, S.; Murwira, H.K.; Delve, R.J.; Giller, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    Soil fertility varies markedly within and between African smallholder farms, both as a consequence of inherent factors and differential management. Fields closest to homesteads (homefields) typically receive most nutrients and are more fertile than outlying fields (outfields), with implications for

  7. Identification of dairy farm management practices associated with the presence of psychrotolerant sporeformers in bulk tank milk

    Masiello, S. N.; Martin, N H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314123083; Watters, R D; Galton, D M; Schukken, Y H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075051907; Wiedmann, M.; Boor, K. J.

    Some strains of sporeforming bacteria (e.g., Bacillus spp. and Paenibacillus spp.) can survive pasteurization and subsequently grow at refrigeration temperatures, causing pasteurized fluid milk spoilage. To identify farm management practices associated with different levels of sporeformers in raw

  8. Operation and control of a DC-grid offshore wind farm under DC transmission system faults

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    . Consequently, the protection and control strategies of dc systems need to be established. This paper studies a dc-grid offshore wind farm, where the wind power collection system and power transmission system adopt dc technology. In this paper, the redundancy of the HVDC transmission system under faults...... is studied, and a fault ridethrough strategy for the dc-grid offshore wind farm is proposed. The proposed strategy can effectively minimize the impacts of the power transmission system disturbance on the offshore wind farm, and on the ac grid. A dc-grid offshore wind farm example is simulated with PSCAD....../EMTDC, and the results validate the feasibility of the presented redundancy configuration and operation approach, and the fault ridethrough control strategy....

  9. Rice production systems and avian influenza: Interactions between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Newman, S.H.; Xiao, X.

    2010-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are the reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), a family of RNA viruses that may cause mild sickness in waterbirds. Emergence of H5N1, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain, causing severe disease and mortality in wild birds, poultry and humans, had raised concerns about the role of wild birds in possible transmission of the disease. In this review, the link between rice production systems, poultry production systems, and wild bird ecology is examined to assess the extent to which these interactions could contribute towards the persistence and evolution of HPAI H5N1. The rice (Oryza sativa) and poultry production systems in Asia described, and then migration and movements of wild birds discussed. Mixed farming systems in Asia and wild bird movement and migration patterns create opportunities for the persistence of low pathogenic AIVs in these systems. Nonetheless, there is no evidence of long-term persistence of HPAI viruses (including the H5N1 subtype) in the wild. There are still significant gaps in the understanding of how AIVs circulate in rice systems. A better understanding of persistence of AIVs in rice farms, particularly of poultry origins, is essential in limiting exchange of AIVs between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds.

  10. Maintenance and management system

    Ando, Yasumasa.

    1992-01-01

    Since highly reliable operation is required in a nuclear power plant, monitoring during operation and periodical inspection are conducted carefully. The present invention provides maintenance and management systems for providing an aid so that these systems are combined effectively and operated rationally based on unified information management. That is, the system contains data bases comprising information for the design of the equipments and pipelines of a plant, information for the exchange of equipment parts, information for the history of plant operation, information for the monitoring and inspection, and information for the management of repair operation. In addition, it has an equipment part history management sub-system for managing equipment part exchange information, an operation history management sub-system for managing the operation state of the plant, an operation history management sub-system for managing equipment monitoring inspection data and operation management sub-system for managing periodical inspection/ repairing operation. These sub-systems are collectively combined to manage the maintenance and management jobs of the plant unitarily. (I.S.)

  11. Fish farm and water quality management - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i1.10086

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba Tavares

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Fish farms’ water quality management is analyzed with regard to the management employed and the different trophic states are compared within the system during the dry and rainy seasons. Six sites were marked two in the water supply (P1 and P2, and four within the fish farm (P3 to P6 . Whereas sites P1 and P2 (water supply were characterized as oligotrophic, the others were mesotrophic and eutrotrophic sites. Environmental variables, mainly nutrients, conductivity, COD, BOD5 and TSS tended to increase as from P3 due to management and fertilization. Greater impact has been registered in the fish farm under analysis for variables COD, ammonia, total phosphorus and TSS during the discharge and pond emptying period. Frequent monitoring of water quality should be undertaken in fish breeding and plankton production ponds, especially in those close to P3 and P4. Removal of sediment in decantation lake or P5 is also recommended to decrease nutrient concentrations, especially phosphorus, accumulated on the bottom soil.

  12. System Safety Program Plan for Project W-314, tank farm restoration and safe operations

    Boos, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    This System Safety Program Plan (SSPP) outlines the safety analysis strategy for project W-314, ''Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations.'' Project W-314 will provide capital improvements to Hanford's existing Tank Farm facilities, with particular emphasis on infrastructure systems supporting safe operation of the double-shell activities related to the project's conceptual Design Phase, but is planned to be updated and maintained as a ''living document'' throughout the life of the project to reflect the current safety analysis planning for the Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations upgrades. This approved W-314 SSPP provides the basis for preparation/approval of all safety analysis documentation needed to support the project

  13. Maintenance management systems

    Rohan, M. de

    1989-01-01

    This paper is concerned principally with Maintenance Management systems and their effective introduction into organisations. Maintenance improvement is basically a problem of managing the maintenance department in the broadest sense. Improvement does not only lie in the area of special techniques, systems or procedures; although they are valuable tools, but rather in a balanced attack, carefully guided by management. Over recent years, maintenance systems have received the major emphasis and in many instances the selection of the system has become a pre-occupation, whereas the importance of each maintenance function must be recognised and good management practices applied to all maintenance activities. The ingredients for success in the implementation of maintenance management systems are summarised as: having a management committee, clear objectives, project approach using project management techniques and an enthusiastic leader, user managed and data processing supported project, realistic budget and an understanding of the financial audit requirements. (author)

  14. Sustainable Farming Systems in the Sub-Sahelian Zone of Burkina Faso - Key Factors

    E. - Hien

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid population growth and climatic change threatens the sustainability of natural resources. Farming practices can mitigate environmental change and degradation. The aim of this research conducted in Yatenga region was to describe and to analyse manure practices management. In 2005, a survey was carried out to assess the evolution of farming practices. A survey was initially conducted with a sample of 44 farmers, selected randomly in the three neighbouring villages. Subsequently, 18 farms were selected for in-depth interviews. The grain yield was measured and the different practices of soil and water conservation developed by farmers were compared. According to the enquiries, two practices, called “zaï” and “djengo”, were largely used in cereals production. The “zaï” practice, known as a traditional technique for restoration of degraded soil, is characterized by the capture of runoff by micro-watersheds and a localized organic matter supply at the soil-plant system scale. The “djengo” practice is based on the same principle of the “zaï” practice but was applied on the sandy soil as traditionally “zaï” concerned the degraded and crusty soils. The two practices could increase grain crop production but moreover could limit the risk of crops failure. In addition, our observations also showed that frequent tree regenerations occurred in plots and watersheds where “zaï” or “djengo” practices were used. This study highlights the necessity of better controlling soil, water and organic matter to improve agrosystem sustainability in sub Saharan Africa.

  15. Comparison of carbon sequestration potential in agricultural and afforestation farming systems

    Chinsu Lin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, many forests have been cut down to make room for cultivation and to increase food or energy crops production in developing countries. In this study, carbon sequestration and wood production were evaluated on afforested farms by integrating the Gaussian diameter distribution model and exponential diameter-height model derived from sample plots of an afforested hardwood forest in Taiwan. The quantity of sequestrated carbon was determined based on aboveground biomass. Through pilot tests run on an age-volume model, an estimation bias was obtained and used to correct predicted volume estimates for a farm forest over a 20-year period. An estimated carbon sequestration of 11,254 t C was observed for a 189ha-hardwood forest which is equivalent to 41,264 t CO2. If this amount of carbon dioxide were exchanged on the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX market, the income earned would be 821 US$ ha- 1. Carbon sequestration from rice (Oryza sativa or sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum production is discharged as a result of straw decomposition in the soil which also improves soil quality. Sugarcane production does not contribute significantly to carbon sequestration, because almost all the cane fiber is used as fuel for sugar mills. As a result of changing the farming systems to hardwood forest in this study area, carbon sequestration and carbon storage have increased at the rate of 2.98 t C ha- 1 year- 1. Net present value of afforestation for a 20-year period of carbon or wood management is estimated at around US$ 30,000 given an annual base interest rate of 3 %.

  16. Business advertisements management system

    Rekel, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    Business Advertisements Management System The main goal of the project was to create a business advertisements management system, where users could easily create and find business advertisements. To accomplish this goal exist- ing systems were analyzed as well as their limitations. The end result is a working system which is able to store and proccess huge amount of data.

  17. Efficiency of dairy farms participating and not participating in veterinary herd health management programs.

    Derks, Marjolein; Hogeveen, Henk; Kooistra, Sake R; van Werven, Tine; Tauer, Loren W

    2014-12-01

    This paper compares farm efficiencies between dairies who were participating in a veterinary herd health management (VHHM) program with dairies not participating in such a program, to determine whether participation has an association with farm efficiency. In 2011, 572 dairy farmers received a questionnaire concerning the participation and execution of a VHHM program on their farms. Data from the questionnaire were combined with farm accountancy data from 2008 through 2012 from farms that used calendar year accounting periods, and were analyzed using Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA). Two separate models were specified: model 1 was the basic stochastic frontier model (output: total revenue; input: feed costs, land costs, cattle costs, non-operational costs), without explanatory variables embedded into the efficiency component of the error term. Model 2 was an expansion of model 1 which included explanatory variables (number of FTE; total kg milk delivered; price of concentrate; milk per hectare; cows per FTE; nutritional yield per hectare) inserted into the efficiency component of the joint error term. Both models were estimated with the financial parameters expressed per 100 kg fat and protein corrected milk and per cow. Land costs, cattle costs, feed costs and non-operational costs were statistically significant and positive in all models (P<0.01). Frequency distributions of the efficiency scores for the VHHM dairies and the non-VHHM dairies were plotted in a kernel density plot, and differences were tested using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test. VHHM dairies had higher total revenue per cow, but not per 100 kg milk. For all SFA models, the difference in distribution was not statistically different between VHHM dairies and non-VHHM dairies (P values 0.94, 0.35, 0.95 and 0.89 for the basic and complete model per 100 kg fat and protein corrected milk and per cow respectively). Therefore we conclude that with our data farm participation in VHHM is not related

  18. AESIS: a support tool for the evaluation of sustainability of agroecosystems. Example of applications to organic and integrated farming systems in Tuscany, Italy

    Gaio Cesare Pacini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability on the farm level. Policy makers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This paper presents the outcomes of applications to organic and integrated farming of an indicator-based framework to evaluate sustainability of farming systems (Agro-Environmental Sustainability Information System, AESIS. The AESIS was described together with a review of applications dating from 1991 in a previous paper. The objective of the present paper is to present the AESIS application to organic and integrated farming systems in Val d’Elsa (Tuscany and discuss how it is adapted for application to ordinary farms. The AESIS is organised into a number of environmental and production systems. For each system, environmental critical points are identified with corresponding agro-environmental indicators and processing methods. Possible solutions to sustainability issues, and critical points of relevance to the agricultural sector of the local economic and agro-ecological zone, are formulated by including an experimental layout, identifying indicator thresholds and by defining management systems with corresponding policy measures. Alternative solutions are evaluated by calculating and measuring the relevant indicators. The outcomes of the AESIS applications are discussed with specific relevance to the operational adoptability of AESIS to ordinary, agri-touristic farms managed with the organic and the integrated production method, respectively. The AESIS framework proved to be sufficiently flexible to meet the requirements for ordinary farm applications while keeping a

  19. Genomics of high molecular weight plasmids isolated from an on-farm biopurification system

    Martini, Maria C.; Wibberg, Daniel; Lozano, Mauricio; Torres Tejerizo, Gonzalo; Albicoro, Francisco J.; Jaenicke, Sebastian; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Petroni, Alejandro; Pilar Garcillan-Barcia, M.; de la Cruz, Fernando; Schlueter, Andreas; Puehler, Alfred; Pistorio, Mariano; Lagares, Antonio; Del Papa, Maria F.

    2016-01-01

    The use of biopurification systems (BPS) constitutes an efficient strategy to eliminate pesticides from polluted wastewaters from farm activities. BPS environments contain a high microbial density and diversity facilitating the exchange of information among bacteria, mediated by mobile genetic

  20. Multicriteria performance and sustainability in livestock farming systems: Functional diversity matters

    Tichit, M.; Puillet, L.; Sabatier, R.; Teillard, F.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural intensification drastically reduces diversity at different scales of livestock farming systems (LFS). This homogenization process leads to environmental degradation and ignores the fact that multiple performance criterions often come in conflict. Taking advantage of diversity at

  1. The role of a fish pond in optimizing nutrient flows in integrated agriculture-aquaculture farming systems

    Nhan, D.K.

    2007-01-01

    In the Mekong delta, the Vietnamese government promoted integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farming systems as an example of sustainable agriculture. An important advantage of IAA-farming is the nutrient linkage between the pond and terrestrial components within a farm, which allows to improve resource use efficiency and income while reducing environmental impacts. This study monitored and analyzed water use in and nutrient flows through ponds that are part of an IAA-farming system. Th...

  2. Farming systems and food security in Kwale District, Kenya

    Oosten, van C.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines agricultural production and off-farm employment among the rural population in Kwale District Kenya. Research was carried out in two villages, located in different agro-ecological zones: Kibandaongo, in the low-potential livestock-millet zone, inhabited by the Duruma; and Bongwe,

  3. A new system of labour management in African large-scale agriculture?

    Gibbon, Peter; Riisgaard, Lone

    2014-01-01

    This paper applies a convention theory (CT) approach to the analysis of labour management systems in African large-scale farming. The reconstruction of previous analyses of high-value crop production on large-scale farms in Africa in terms of CT suggests that, since 1980–95, labour management has...

  4. Milk production, feeding systems and environmental impact of dairy cattle farming in Alpine areas: results of a field study

    Anna Sandrucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of milk production occurs even in areas traditionally characterized by low-intensive farming systems like mountain areas, leading to environmental concern. The aim of this study was to analyze management and feeding systems in a sample of 31 dairy farms in a mountain area of Lombardy (Valtellina and their effects on milk production and environmental sustainability. In 2006 daily milk sold was 17.5±5.6 kg/cow on average and daily DMI was 19.4±1.3 kg/cow, with a high forages content (65.8±9.2% DM. Rations were quite energetically balanced (+0.09±17.6 MJ/d of ME. Rations higher in starch and lower in NDF resulted in higher milk yields but significantly compromised farm self-sufficiency (which was 62.9±16.8% DM on average. Average Metabolizable Protein balance was negative (-280±203 g/d of MP, mainly due to the low CP content of diets (13.5±1.5% DM. When CP content increased, N manure and N excreted in urine increased (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively, probably due to insufficient energy intake which is partly caused by the scarce quality of forages. An improvement in forages quality could increase ME and MP contents of diets without compromising farm self-sufficiency.

  5. Systems of organic farming in spring vetch I: Biological response of sucking insect pests

    Ivelina Nikolova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Four systems of organic farming and a conventional farming system were studied over the period 2012-2014. The organic system trial variants included: I – an organic farming system without any biological products used (growth under natural soil fertility – Control; II – an organic farming system involving the use of a biological foliar fertilizer and a biological plant growth regulator (Polyversum+Biofa; III – an organic farming system in which a biological insecticide (NeemAzal T/S was used; IV – an organic farming system including a combination of three organic products: the foliar fertilizer, the plant growth regulator and the bioinsecticide (Polyversum+Biofa+NeemAzal T/S. Variant V represented a conventional farming system in which synthetic products were used in combination (foliar fertilizer, plant growth regulator and insecticide: Masterblend+Flordimex 420+Nurelle D. Treatment of vetch plants with the biological insecticide NeemAzal in combination with Biofa and Polyversum resulted in the lowest density of sucking pests, compared to all other organic farming methods tested (i.e. without NeemAzal, with NeemAzal alone, and its combination with Biofa and Polyversum. The greatest reduction in pest numbers during the vegetation period in that variant was observed in species of the order Thysanoptera (36.0-41.4%, followed by Hemiptera, and the families Aphididae (31.6-40.3% and Cicadellidae (27.3-28.6%. This combination showed an efficient synergistic interaction and an increase in biological efficacy as compared to individual application of NeemAzal. The highest toxic impact was found against Thrips tabaci, followed by Acyrthosiphon pisum. An analysis of variance regarding the efficacy against the species A. pisum, E. pteridis and T. tabaci showed that type of treatment had the most dominant influence and statistically significant impact.

  6. Evaluation of the Johne's disease risk assessment and management plan on dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    Pieper, Laura; Sorge, Ulrike S; DeVries, Trevor J; Godkin, Ann; Lissemore, Kerry; Kelton, David F

    2015-10-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a production-limiting gastrointestinal disease in cattle. To minimize the effects of JD, the Ontario dairy industry launched the Ontario Johne's Education and Management Assistance Program in 2010. As part of the program, trained veterinarians conducted a risk assessment and management plan (RAMP), an on-farm questionnaire where high RAMP scores are associated with high risk of JD transmission. Subsequently, veterinarians recommended farm-specific management practices for JD prevention. Milk or serum ELISA results from the milking herd were used to determine the herd ELISA status (HES) and within-herd prevalence. After 3.5 yr of implementation of the program, the aim of this study was to evaluate the associations among RAMP scores, HES, and recommendations. Data from 2,103 herds were available for the analyses. A zero-inflated negative binomial model for the prediction of the number of ELISA-positive animals per farm was built. The model included individual RAMP questions about purchasing animals in the logistic portion, indicating risks for between-herd transmission, and purchasing bulls, birth of calves outside the designated calving area, colostrum and milk feeding management, and adult cow environmental hygiene in the negative binomial portion, indicating risk factors for within-herd transmission. However, farms which fed low-risk milk compared with milk replacer had fewer seropositive animals. The model additionally included the JD herd history in the negative binomial and the logistic portion, indicating that herds with a JD herd history were more likely to have at least 1 positive animal and to have a higher number of positive animals. Generally, a positive association was noted between RAMP scores and the odds of receiving a recommendation for the respective risk area; however, the relationship was not always linear. For general JD risk and calving area risk, seropositive herds had higher odds of receiving recommendations compared

  7. THE INFORMATION CONTENT OF THE FARM AND UNIT LEVEL NUTRIENT BALANCES FOR THE MANAGEMENT

    T SOMOGYI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The farm gate balance is well known from the environmental literature. This method is not suitable in every case to show the nutrient load for the environment of agricultural companies that is the reason why unit level internal nutrient balances are applied to express the level of nutrient pollution on the environment. These also help to determine the source of the pollution. With the survey of the nutrient flows within the farm we determine the keystones of nutrient management to control the nutrient load of the pollution sources. On the basis of the results and the controlled data of the unit level internal balances we make recommendations for the most appropriate environmental policy instrument to reduce the nutrient pollution.

  8. Effect of pasture irrigation on the technical and management indicators of dairy farms

    Flávio de Moraes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pasture irrigation on the technical and management indicators of 20 demonstrative units participating in the “Balde Cheio” Program in the state of Rio de Janeiro from January to December 2011. The following variables were obtained: dam/labor ratio, herd size/labor ratio, milk yield/labor ratio, animals/production area, percentage of lactating cows, and milk yield. Return was analyzed considering gross margin, net margin, outcome (profit or loss, and profitability. The data were analyzed using the PASW 18.0 software. Pasture irrigation did not significantly alter the indicators studied. The greater profitability and return of farms using pasture irrigation were the consequence of better animal production rates/day and per ha/year. When gross margin, net margin and outcome using total revenue are considered, there is decapitalization of the farms

  9. Soil, water and nutrient conservation in mountain farming systems: case-study from the Sikkim Himalaya.

    Sharma, E; Rai, S C; Sharma, R

    2001-02-01

    The Khanikhola watershed in Sikkim is agrarian with about 50% area under rain-fed agriculture representing the conditions of the middle mountains all over the Himalaya. The study was conducted to assess overland flow, soil loss and subsequent nutrient losses from different land uses in the watershed, and identify biotechnological inputs for management of mountain farming systems. Overland flow, soil and nutrient losses were very high from open agricultural (cropped) fields compared to other land uses, and more than 72% of nutrient losses were attributable to agriculture land use. Forests and large cardamom agroforestry conserved more soil compared to other land uses. Interventions, like cultivation of broom grass upon terrace risers, N2-fixing Albizia trees for maintenance of soil fertility and plantation of horticulture trees, have reduced the soil loss (by 22%). Soil and water conservation values (> 80%) of both large cardamom and broom grass were higher compared to other crops. Use of N2-fixing Albizia tree in large cardamom agroforestry and croplands contributed to soil fertility, and increased productivity and yield. Bio-composting of farm resources ensured increase in nutrient availability specially phosphorus in cropped areas. Agricultural practices in mountain areas should be strengthened with more agroforestry components, and cash crops like large cardamom and broom grass in agroforestry provide high economic return and are hydroecologically sustainable.

  10. A survey analysis of indigenous goat production in communal farming systems of Botswana.

    Monau, P I; Visser, C; Nsoso, S J; Van Marle-Köster, E

    2017-08-01

    A total of 153 communal farmers in four agro-ecological regions of Botswana were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The aims of the survey were to characterise existing communal goat production systems, evaluate the importance of goats to farmers and identify breeding practices and constraints encountered in goat production in Botswana. Data was collected on socio-economic parameters, general and breeding management practices and major constraints limiting goat production in Botswana. All respondents were small-scale communal farmers with 63% respondents practising mixed crop-livestock farming and 37% keeping livestock as their primary activity. The majority (33%) of respondents were older than 60 years. Over 80% of the farmers kept goats for cash required for tuition, school uniforms and household commodities as well as re-stocking of animals. Most farmers (62%) kept indigenous crossed genotypes. Generally, uncontrolled mating was practised with the majority of farmers (41%) using on-farm reared bucks for more than two years of breeding and communal bucks (36%) as an alternative. The major constraints limiting goat productivity in communal areas included uncontrolled breeding, predators, theft and diseases. Issues raised by farmers should be considered in designing and implementing effective breeding programs for goats to improve their overall productivity and contribution to poverty alleviation in these communities.

  11. Integrated management systems

    Bugdol, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Examining the challenges of integrated management, this book explores the importance and potential benefits of using an integrated approach as a cross-functional concept of management. It covers not only standardized management systems (e.g. International Organization for Standardization), but also models of self-assessment, as well as different types of integration. Furthermore, it demonstrates how processes and systems can be integrated, and how management efficiency can be increased. The major part of this book focuses on management concepts which use integration as a key tool of management processes (e.g. the systematic approach, supply chain management, virtual and network organizations, processes management and total quality management). Case studies, illustrations, and tables are also provided to exemplify and illuminate the content, as well as examples of successful and failed integrations. Providing a particularly useful resource to managers and specialists involved in the improvement of organization...

  12. Audit Information Management System

    US Agency for International Development — USAID/OIG has initiated its new Audit Information Management System (AIMS) to track OIG's audit recommendations and USAID's management decisions. OIG's in-house...

  13. Climate change and agricultural risk management: the role of the family-farm characteristics

    Quaranta, G.; Salvia, R.

    2009-04-01

    During recent years, water-related anomalies (drought, water scarcity, flood) have become a common occurrence in most areas and especially in the arid and semiarid regions of Mediterranean areas. There are evidences of increasing inter-annual variability, as increasing deviation from the long-term mean. This could be the main reason for the increasing incidence of drought, rather than any decline in long-term rainfall, also if a decrease of total amount of water is expected by the IPCC scenarios. Another reason for increasing drought and water scarcity conditions is growing demand for water needed by different productive sectors. These anomalies greatly increase the uncertainties of the agricultural sector affecting performance and management and leading to substantial augment in agricultural risk and destabilization of farm incomes. Agricultural adaptation to drought and climate change at the farm level as well as changes in activity level strongly depend on the technological potential (different varieties of crops, irrigation technologies); soil, water, and biological response; and the capability of farmers to detect changes and undertake any necessary actions as result of perception of the problem and capacity/willingness to react. Farm characteristics (size, technological level and other characteristics) and the social economic features of the family running those farms (number of components, age, education level, etc) act as important variables influencing, at farm level, the capacity and rate of adaptation/mitigation options implementation. The ability or inability to avoid/react from a risk could be interpreted as a social resilience of an area, deriving mainly from its socio-demographic features. The shift from a paradigm mainly focuses upon the physical agents in the natural or human-modified environment, which cause a threat to society, to a new approach where the social, economical and political conditions are overcoming and gaining importance in the

  14. Production and photosynthetic activity of Mimosa Verde and Mimosa Roxa lettuce in two farming systems

    Aline Mabel Rosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. is the most commonly consumed leaf vegetable in the Brazilian diet, and it is a good source of vitamins and minerals. It is widely grown in the conventional farming system. However, the hydroponic farming system has been gaining importance in the market, wining confidence from consumers, who are becoming increasingly more demanding on food quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of two lettuce cultivars on hydroponic and conventional farming systems for the production of fresh mass (FM and dry mass (DM, photosynthesis, contents of chlorophyll and anthocyanin. The following two experiments were carried out: hydroponics farming (HF and conventional farming (CF, performed in protect and unprotect environments, respectively, in Florianópolis, SC. Mimosa Verde cultivar (MV showed greater fresh mass than Mimosa Roxa (MR, in both farming systems and the two cultivars presented better performance in the hydroponic system (287.7 g MV and 139.1 g MR than the conventional system (129.7 g MV and 111.8 g MR. Mimosa Verde cultivar presented lower average contents of total chlorophyll (7.7 mg g-¹ FM than Mimosa Roxa (11.8 mg g-¹FM, and both cultivars displayed higher means for this variable in the hydroponic farming system. Mimosa Roxa presented higher contents of anthocyanin in the conventional system (88.24 mg g-¹ FM than the ones in the hydroponic system (36.89 mg g-¹ FM. The best results for CO2 net assimilation rate regarded to photosyntheticaly active photon flux density were found in the hydroponic system, for both lettuce cultivars. Variation in the contents of chlorophyll were also found. Those variations were higher in the protected system than in the hydroponic system and contents of anthocyanin were higher in the conventional system.

  15. Developing mechanisms for estimating carbon footprint in farming systems

    Anaya-Romero, María; Fernández Luque, José Enrique; Rodríguez Merino, Alejandro; José Moreno Delgado, Juan; Rodado, Concepción Mira; Romero Vicente, Rafael; Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable land management is critical to avoid land degradation and to reclaim degraded land for its productive use and for reaping the benefits of crucial ecosystem services and protecting biodiversity. It also helps in mitigating and adapting to climate change. Land and its various uses are affected severely by climate change too (flooding, droughts, etc.). Existing tools and technologies for efficient land management need to be adapted and their application expanded. A large number of human livelihoods and ecosystems can benefit from these tools and techniques since these yield multiple benefits. Disseminating and scaling up the implementation of sustainable land management approaches will, however, need to be backed up by mobilizing strong political will and financial resources. The challenge is to provide an integral decision support tool that can establish relationships between soil carbon content, climate change and land use and management aspects that allow stakeholders to detect, cope with and intervene into land system change in a sustainable way. In order to achieve this goal an agro-ecological meta-model called CarboLAND will be calibrated in several plots located in Andalusia region, Southern Spain, under different scenarios of climate and agricultural use and management. The output will be the CLIMALAND e-platform, which will also include protocols in order to support stakeholders for an integrated ecosystem approach, taking into account biodiversity, hydrological and soil capability, socio-economic aspects, and regional and environmental policies. This tool will be made available at the European context for a regional level, providing user-friendly interfaces and a scientifically-technical platform for the assessment of sustainable land use and management.

  16. Variability of African Farming Systems from Phenological Analysis of NDVI Time Series

    Vrieling, Anton; deBeurs, K. M.; Brown, Molly E.

    2011-01-01

    Food security exists when people have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food at all times to meet their dietary needs. The natural resource base is one of the many factors affecting food security. Its variability and decline creates problems for local food production. In this study we characterize for sub-Saharan Africa vegetation phenology and assess variability and trends of phenological indicators based on NDVI time series from 1982 to 2006. We focus on cumulated NDVI over the season (cumNDVI) which is a proxy for net primary productivity. Results are aggregated at the level of major farming systems, while determining also spatial variability within farming systems. High temporal variability of cumNDVI occurs in semiarid and subhumid regions. The results show a large area of positive cumNDVI trends between Senegal and South Sudan. These correspond to positive CRU rainfall trends found and relate to recovery after the 1980's droughts. We find significant negative cumNDVI trends near the south-coast of West Africa (Guinea coast) and in Tanzania. For each farming system, causes of change and variability are discussed based on available literature (Appendix A). Although food security comprises more than the local natural resource base, our results can perform an input for food security analysis by identifying zones of high variability or downward trends. Farming systems are found to be a useful level of analysis. Diversity and trends found within farming system boundaries underline that farming systems are dynamic.

  17. Security region-based small signal stability analysis of power systems with FSIG based wind farm

    Qin, Chao; Zeng, Yuan; Yang, Yang; Cui, Xiaodan; Xu, Xialing; Li, Yong

    2018-02-01

    Based on the Security Region approach, the impact of fixed-speed induction generator based wind farm on the small signal stability of power systems is analyzed. Firstly, the key factors of wind farm on the small signal stability of power systems are analyzed and the parameter space for small signal stability region is formed. Secondly, the small signal stability region of power systems with wind power is established. Thirdly, the corresponding relation between the boundary of SSSR and the dominant oscillation mode is further studied. Results show that the integration of fixed-speed induction generator based wind farm will cause the low frequency oscillation stability of the power system deteriorate. When the output of wind power is high, the oscillation stability of the power system is mainly concerned with the inter-area oscillation mode caused by the integration of the wind farm. Both the active power output and the capacity of reactive power compensation of the wind farm have a significant influence on the SSSR. To improve the oscillation stability of power systems with wind power, it is suggested to reasonably set the reactive power compensation capacity for the wind farm through SSSR.

  18. Analysis of losses within SMES system for compensating output fluctuation of wind power farm

    Park, S. I.; Kim, J. H.; Le, T. D.; Lee, D. H.; Kim, H. M. [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Y. S. [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Shin Ansan University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, K. Y. [Dept. of lectrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Output fluctuation which is generated in wind power farm can hinder stability of total power system. The electric energy storage (EES) reduces unstable output, and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) of various EESs has the proper performance for output compensation of wind power farm since it charges and discharges large scale power quickly with high efficiency. However, because of the change of current within SMES, the electromagnetic losses occur in the process of output compensation. In this paper, the thermal effect of the losses that occur in SMES system while compensating in wind power farm is analyzed. The output analysis of wind power farm is processed by numerical analysis, and the losses of SMES system is analyzed by 3D finite element analysis (FEA) simulation tool.

  19. Impacts of large-scale offshore wind farm integration on power systems through VSC-HVDC

    Liu, Hongzhi; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    The potential of offshore wind energy has been commonly recognized and explored globally. Many countries have implemented and planned offshore wind farms to meet their increasing electricity demands and public environmental appeals, especially in Europe. With relatively less space limitation......, an offshore wind farm could have a capacity rating to hundreds of MWs or even GWs that is large enough to compete with conventional power plants. Thus the impacts of a large offshore wind farm on power system operation and security should be thoroughly studied and understood. This paper investigates...... the impacts of integrating a large-scale offshore wind farm into the transmission system of a power grid through VSC-HVDC connection. The concerns are focused on steady-state voltage stability, dynamic voltage stability and transient angle stability. Simulation results based on an exemplary power system...

  20. Analysis of losses within SMES system for compensating output fluctuation of wind power farm

    Park, S. I.; Kim, J. H.; Le, T. D.; Lee, D. H.; Kim, H. M.; Yoon, Y. S.; Yoon, K. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Output fluctuation which is generated in wind power farm can hinder stability of total power system. The electric energy storage (EES) reduces unstable output, and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) of various EESs has the proper performance for output compensation of wind power farm since it charges and discharges large scale power quickly with high efficiency. However, because of the change of current within SMES, the electromagnetic losses occur in the process of output compensation. In this paper, the thermal effect of the losses that occur in SMES system while compensating in wind power farm is analyzed. The output analysis of wind power farm is processed by numerical analysis, and the losses of SMES system is analyzed by 3D finite element analysis (FEA) simulation tool.

  1. Optimisation of electrical system for offshore wind farms via genetic algorithm

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, Menghua; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    An optimisation platform based on genetic algorithm (GA) is presented, where the main components of a wind farm and key technical specifications are used as input parameters and the electrical system design of the wind farm is optimised in terms of both production cost and system reliability....... The power losses, wind power production, initial investment and maintenance costs are considered in the production cost. The availability of components and network redundancy are included in the reliability evaluation. The method of coding an electrical system to a binary string, which is processed by GA......, is developed. Different GA techniques are investigated based on a real example offshore wind farm. This optimisation platform has been demonstrated as a powerful tool for offshore wind farm design and evaluation....

  2. Closing the nutrient loops in (peri) urban farming systems through composting

    Nigatu, Abebe Nigussie

    waste management practices in developing countries and ensure sustainable crop production via the biotransformation of urban waste into a high-quality soil amendment. First, I aimed at determining the causes for the limited use of organic amendments in small-scale urban farming systems. I interviewed...... 220 urban farmers in Ethiopia and found that competition for agricultural waste between fuel, feed and soil amendment is a major cause for the limited use of organic amendments. I demonstrated that allocation of agricultural waste for soil amendment is linked with farmers’ livelihood strategies. I...... also studied variation in compost demand among different farmer groups, and the socio-economic variables which explained these variations. Gaseous losses of ammonia and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions occur during composting of nitrogen-rich urban waste. Several technologies could reduce these losses...

  3. Development of a decision support system for assessing farm animal welfare in relation to husbandry systems: Strategy and prototype

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Spruijt, B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Due to increasing empirical information on farm animal welfare since the 1960s, the prospects for sound decisionmaking concerning welfare have improved. This paper describes a strategy to develop a decision-making aid, a decision support system, for assessment of farm-animal welfare based on

  4. The Social Dimensions of Sustainability and Change in Diversified Farming Systems

    Christopher M. Bacon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural systems are embedded in wider social-ecological processes that must be considered in any complete discussion of sustainable agriculture. Just as climatic profiles will influence the future viability of crops, institutions, i.e., governance agreements, rural household and community norms, local associations, markets, and agricultural ministries, to name but a few, create the conditions that foster sustainable food systems. Because discussions of agricultural sustainability often overlook the full range of social dimensions, we propose a dual focus on a broad set of criteria, i.e., human health, labor, democratic participation, resiliency, biological and cultural diversity, equity, and ethics, to assess social outcomes, and on institutions that could support diversified farming systems (DFS. A comparative analysis of case studies from California's Central Valley, Mesoamerican coffee agroforestry systems, and European Union agricultural parks finds that DFS practices are unevenly adopted within and among these systems and interdependent with institutional environments that specifically promote diversified farming practices. Influential institutions in these cases include state policies, farmers' cooperatives/associations, and organized civic efforts to influence agroenvironmental policy, share knowledge, and shape markets for more 'sustainable' products. The Californian and Mesoamerican cases considers organic and fair trade certifications, finding that although they promote several DFS practices and generate social benefits, they are inadequate as a single strategy to promote agricultural sustainability. The complex governance and multifunctional management of Europe's peri-urban agricultural parks show unexpected potential for promoting DFS. Unless DFS are anchored in supportive institutions and evaluated against an inclusive set of social and environmental criteria, short-term investments to advance diversified agriculture could

  5. Effects of fish farm waste on Posidonia oceanica meadows: Synthesis and provision of monitoring and management tools

    Holmer, Marianne [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)], E-mail: holmer@biology.sdu.dk; Argyrou, Marina [Marine Environment Division, Department of Fisheries and Marine Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, 101 Bethleem Street, 1416 Nicosia (Cyprus); Dalsgaard, Tage [Department of Marine Ecology, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Vejlsovej 25, P.O. Box 314, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Danovaro, Roberto [Department of Marine Science, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Diaz-Almela, Elena; Duarte, Carlos M. [IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Miquel Marques 21, 07190 Esporles (Illes Balears) (Spain); Frederiksen, Morten [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Grau, Antoni [Direccio General de Pesca, Conselleria d' Agricultura i Pesca, Govern de les Illes Balears, Foners 10, 07006 Palma de Mallorca (Illes Balears) (Spain); Karakassis, Ioannis [Marine Ecology Laboratory, Biology Department, University of Crete, Heraklion, 71409 Crete (Greece); Marba, Nuria [IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Miquel Marques 21, 07190 Esporles (Illes Balears) (Spain); Mirto, Simone [Institute for the Marine Coastal Environment, National Council of Research, Spianata S. Raineri, 86, 98122 Messina (Italy); Perez, Marta [Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Pusceddu, Antonio [Department of Marine Science, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Tsapakis, Manolis [Institute of Oceanography, Hellenic Center for Marine Research, P.O. Box 2214, GR 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2008-09-15

    This paper provides a synthesis of the EU project MedVeg addressing the fate of nutrients released from fish farming in the Mediterranean with particular focus on the endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica habitat. The objectives were to identify the main drivers of seagrass decline linked to fish farming and to provide sensitive indicators of environmental change, which can be used for monitoring purposes. The sedimentation of waste particles in the farm vicinities emerges as the main driver of benthic deterioration, such as accumulation of organic matter, sediment anoxia as well as seagrass decline. The effects of fish farming on P. oceanica meadows are diverse and complex and detected through various metrics and indicators. A safety distance of 400 m is suggested for management of P. oceanica near fish farms followed by establishment of permanent seagrass plots revisited annually for monitoring the health of the meadows.

  6. Effects of fish farm waste on Posidonia oceanica meadows: Synthesis and provision of monitoring and management tools

    Holmer, Marianne; Argyrou, Marina; Dalsgaard, Tage; Danovaro, Roberto; Diaz-Almela, Elena; Duarte, Carlos M.; Frederiksen, Morten; Grau, Antoni; Karakassis, Ioannis; Marba, Nuria; Mirto, Simone; Perez, Marta; Pusceddu, Antonio; Tsapakis, Manolis

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a synthesis of the EU project MedVeg addressing the fate of nutrients released from fish farming in the Mediterranean with particular focus on the endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica habitat. The objectives were to identify the main drivers of seagrass decline linked to fish farming and to provide sensitive indicators of environmental change, which can be used for monitoring purposes. The sedimentation of waste particles in the farm vicinities emerges as the main driver of benthic deterioration, such as accumulation of organic matter, sediment anoxia as well as seagrass decline. The effects of fish farming on P. oceanica meadows are diverse and complex and detected through various metrics and indicators. A safety distance of 400 m is suggested for management of P. oceanica near fish farms followed by establishment of permanent seagrass plots revisited annually for monitoring the health of the meadows

  7. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  8. Reliability Assessment of Wind Farm Electrical System Based on a Probability Transfer Technique

    Hejun Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The electrical system of a wind farm has a significant influence on the wind farm reliability and electrical energy yield. The disconnect switch installed in an electrical system cannot only improve the operating flexibility, but also enhance the reliability for a wind farm. Therefore, this paper develops a probabilistic transfer technique for integrating the electrical topology structure, the isolation operation of disconnect switch, and stochastic failure of electrical equipment into the reliability assessment of wind farm electrical system. Firstly, as the traditional two-state reliability model of electrical equipment cannot consider the isolation operation, so the paper develops a three-state reliability model to replace the two-state model for incorporating the isolation operation. In addition, a proportion apportion technique is presented to evaluate the state probability. Secondly, this paper develops a probabilistic transfer technique based on the thoughts that through transfer the unreliability of electrical system to the energy transmission interruption of wind turbine generators (WTGs. Finally, some novel indices for describing the reliability of wind farm electrical system are designed, and the variance coefficient of the designed indices is used as a convergence criterion to determine the termination of the assessment process. The proposed technique is applied to the reliability assessment of a wind farm with the different topologies. The simulation results show that the proposed techniques are effective in practical applications.

  9. Management Information Systems Research.

    Research on management information systems is illusive in many respects. Part of the basic research problem in MIS stems from the absence of standard...decision making. But the transition from these results to the realization of ’satisfactory’ management information systems remains difficult indeed. The...paper discusses several aspects of research on management information systems and reviews a selection of efforts that appear significant for future progress. (Author)

  10. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF FARM DATA SYSTEM IN AZERBAIJAN

    Namig SHALBUZOV

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Scarce information on production costs and farms profitability, in line with the lack of adequate institutional arrangements between the institutions collecting, processing and analyzing information are serious obstacles to the preparation of relevant analyses. The establishment of FDMS will address these problems and allow to collect, process and analyze information on small and medium farms level, which produce more than 90 percent of agricultural products in Azerbaijan Republic. Establishment process of FDMS is analysed and recommendations for improvement are put forward in this article. This can also be in interest of Republic of Moldova which has signed the association agreement with EU and is going to enter this organisation in future. Because, establishment of FADN is one of the most important terms obligatory for EU member states.

  11. Energy balance in rainfed herbaceous crops in a semiarid environment for a 15-year experiment. 1. Impact of farming systems

    Moreno, M. M.; Moreno, C.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Meco, R.

    2012-04-01

    year-1). The difference between conservation and conventional systems was as result of the greater use of machinery and, consequently, of fuel in conventional, though the use of herbicides was slightly lower. In both systems, fertilizer was the most important energy input. EO was lower for organic (17.9 GJ ha-1 year-1) than for either conventional or conservation systems (25.7 and 23.4 GJ ha-1 year-1, respectively), a result of the lower barley grain and vetch hay yields. The highest NE was obtained in organic (14.5 GJ ha-1 year-1), and the lowest in conservation (13.0 GJ ha-1 year-1). In relation to O/I, organic farming were about 2.3 times more energetically efficient (5.36) than either the conventional or conservation systems (about 2.35). EP ranged from 400 kg GJ-1 in organic to 177 kg GJ-1 in conventional. No differences in all the energy variables considered were recorded between the conventional and conservation managements. As conclusions and in terms of energy efficiency, farming systems requiring agrochemicals in semi-arid Mediterranean conditions, whether conventional or conservation, appeared to be little efficient. Chemical fertilizer was the most important energy input in these two systems, but their use did not lead to an equivalent increase in yield because of the irregular distribution in many years. Organic farming would improve the energy efficiency in these environmental conditions, offering a sustainable production with minimal inputs.

  12. Utilizing on-farm best management practices: Managing Nitrate Leaching Using Evapotranspiration Based Irrigation Methods

    Zaragosa, I.; Melton, F. S.; Dexter, J.; Post, K.; Haffa, A.; Kortman, S.; Spellenberg, R.; Cahn, M.

    2017-12-01

    In efforts to provide tools to allow farmers to optimize and quantify water usage and fertilizer applications, University of California Cooperative Extension (UCCE) developed the CropManage irrigation and nitrogen scheduling tool that provides real time evapotranspiration (ETc) based irrigation recommendations and fertilizer recommendations on a per field basis. CropManage incorporates satellite based estimates of fractional cover from web data services from the Satellite Irrigation Management Information Support (SIMS) system developed by NASA Ames Research Center in collaboration with California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB). In this study, we conducted field trials to quantify the benefits of using these tools to support best management practices (BMPs) for irrigation and nutrient management in strawberries and lettuce in the Salinas Valley, California. We applied two different irrigation treatments based on full replacement (100%) of crop evapotranspiration (ETc), and irrigation at 130% of ETc replacement to approximate irrigation under business as usual irrigation management. Both field studies used a randomized block design with four replicates each. We used CropManage to calculate the 100% and 130% ETc replacement requirements prior to each irrigation event. We collected drainage volume and samples and analyzed them for 8500 to nitrate as (NO3-) concentrations. Experimental results for both strawberries and lettuce showed a significant decrease in the percentage of applied nitrogen leached for the 100% ETc replacement treatment against the 130% ETc replacement treatment. For strawberries, we observed that 24% of applied nitrogen was leached under the 100% ETc replacement treatment, versus 51% of applied nitrogen that was leached under the 130% ETc replacement treatment. For lettuce, we observe that 2% of the applied nitrogen leached bellow the soil profile, versus 6% of the applied nitrogen for the 130%ETc replacement treatment. In both experiments

  13. Facility Environmental Management System

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This is the Web site of the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA's) Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center (TFHRC) facility Environmental Management System (EMS)....

  14. The role of a fish pond in optimizing nutrient flows in integrated agriculture-aquaculture farming systems

    Nhan, D.K.

    2007-01-01

    In the Mekong delta, the Vietnamese government promoted integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farming systems as an example of sustainable agriculture. An important advantage of IAA-farming is the nutrient linkage between the pond and terrestrial components within a farm, which allows to

  15. Diversity in the dry land mixed system and viability of dairy sheep farming

    Jose Rivas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Castilla La Mancha is a Spanish region where sheep farming system is traditionally pasture-based. Recently, this territory has undergone a recession of dairy sheep activity, which changed the type and intensity of land utilization and led to environmental and landscape degradation. The present study analyzed the diversity and viability of dairy sheep of mixed systems. Multivariate analysis was conducted on 157 dairy sheep farms, factor analysis selected 3 productivity factors (level of intensification, land use, size and family labour, and cluster analysis classified farms into three groups. Group 1, smallholders – with the smallest size (405.5 ewes and 564.7 ha, lowest area in ownership (1.5%, and agriculture activity (6.5% crops area: family farms (90.8% highly dependent on external inputs. Group 2, large-scale farms (1058.7 ewes and 1755.1 ha – with the lowest stocking rate (0.14 livestock unit/ha and productivity: nonfamily farms (39.1% with low area in ownership (4.1% and agriculture activity (7.6%. Group 3, mixed-technified – with the highest levels of technology and least use of family labour (27.0%: large-scale farms (1387.4 ewes and 955.8 ha, combining milk production with agricultural activities (55.7% crops area, with the highest area in ownership (63.1% and the best productivity performance. In conclusion, the dry land mixed system of Castilla La Mancha showed diversity of farms. Improving viability requires a systemic approach where the key tool is grazing, allowing the mixed system to be consolidated as a model that enhances the positive impact of livestock on the environment in the Mediterranean basin.

  16. Environmental Implications of Eco-Labeling for Rice Farming Systems

    Solhee Kim; Taegon Kim; Timothy M. Smith; Kyo Suh

    2018-01-01

    Concerns about climate change have forced countries to strengthen regulations, standards, and certifications related to greenhouse gas emissions. Various policies targeting farm products, such as carbon labeling and the Environmentally-Friendly Agricultural Product Certification (EFAPC) for agricultural products, have been implemented in South Korea to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the agricultural sector. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implications of the various certific...

  17. Improving efficiency assessments using additive data envelopment analysis models: an application to contrasting dairy farming systems

    Andreas Diomedes Soteriades

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Applying holistic indicators to assess dairy farm efficiency is essential for sustainable milk production. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA has been instrumental for the calculation of such indicators. However, ‘additive’ DEA models have been rarely used in dairy research. This study presented an additive model known as slacks-based measure (SBM of efficiency and its advantages over DEA models used in most past dairy studies. First, SBM incorporates undesirable outputs as actual outputs of the production process. Second, it identifies the main production factors causing inefficiency. Third, these factors can be ‘priced’ to estimate the cost of inefficiency. The value of SBM for efficiency analyses was demonstrated with a comparison of four contrasting dairy management systems in terms of technical and environmental efficiency. These systems were part of a multiple-year breeding and feeding systems experiment (two genetic lines: select vs. control; and two feeding strategies: high forage vs. low forage, where the latter involved a higher proportion of concentrated feeds where detailed data were collected to strict protocols. The select genetic herd was more technically and environmentally efficient than the control herd, regardless of feeding strategy. However, the efficiency performance of the select herd was more volatile from year to year than that of the control herd. Overall, technical and environmental efficiency were strongly and positively correlated, suggesting that when technically efficient, the four systems were also efficient in terms of undesirable output reduction. Detailed data such as those used in this study are increasingly becoming available for commercial herds through precision farming. Therefore, the methods presented in this study are growing in importance.

  18. NASA's Risk Management System

    Perera, Jeevan S.

    2011-01-01

    Leadership is key to success. Phased-approach for implementation of risk management is necessary. Risk management system will be simple, accessible and promote communication of information to all relevant stakeholders for optimal resource allocation and risk mitigation. Risk management should be used by all team members to manage risks -- risk office personnel. Each group is assigned Risk Integrators who are facilitators for effective risk management. Risks will be managed at the lowest-level feasible, elevate only those risks that require coordination or management from above. Risk reporting and communication is an essential element of risk management and will combine both qualitative and quantitative elements. Risk informed decision making should be introduced to all levels of management. Provide necessary checks and balances to insure that risks are caught/identified and dealt with in a timely manner. Many supporting tools, processes & training must be deployed for effective risk management implementation. Process improvement must be included in the risk processes.

  19. Farm-economic analysis of reducing antimicrobial use whilst adopting improved management strategies on farrow-to-finish pig farms

    Rojo-Gimeno, Cristina; Postma, Merel; Dewulf, Jeroen; Hogeveen, Henk; Lauwers, Ludwig; Wauters, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Due to increasing public health concerns that food animals could be reservoirs for antibiotic resistant organisms, calls for reduced current antibiotic use on farms are growing. Nevertheless, it is challenging for farmers to perform this reduction without negatively affecting technical and

  20. A Nutritional Management Analysis of the Transhumant Sheep and Goat Farms in the Region of Sterea Ellada-Greece

    ANNA SIASIOU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Transhumance is the seasonal movement of herds between different summer and winter pastures. The main reason of practice of this farming system is the need for a more efficient exploitation of vegetation to meet the nutritional needs of the reared animals. The aim of this paper is to investigate nutritional management practices of transhumant herds in the region of Sterea Ellada.  In the analysis, emphasis is given in the calculation of the coverage of nutritional needs of the reared animals by supplementary feed, translated as Metabolized energy (ME, Digestible Crude Protein (DGP and Dry Matter (DM. Nutritional management is studied in four basic productive stages of ewes and dams. All necessary data were collected from a sample of 140 transhumant herders, via an exhaustive questionnaire that covered all aspects of the production of the farms and managerial practices. Data were subsequently analyzed with descriptive statistic methods. Analysis reveals that grazing tends to be the main nutritional source as approximately 30-50% of the needs of the reared animals on lowlands and more than 90% on uplands is considered to be covered by grazing

  1. Differences in sheep and goats milk fatty acid profile between conventional and organic farming systems.

    Tsiplakou, Eleni; Kotrotsios, Vaios; Hadjigeorgiou, Ioannis; Zervas, George

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in chemical composition and particularly in fatty acid (FA) profile, with emphasis on cis-9, trans-11 CLA, of milk obtained from conventional and organic dairy sheep and goats farms under the farming conditions practiced in Greece. Four dairy sheep and four dairy goat farms, representing common conventional production systems and another four dairy sheep and four dairy goat farms, organically certified, representing organic production and feeding systems were selected from all over Greece. One hundred and sixty two individual milk samples were collected from those farms in January-February 2009, about three months after parturition. The milk samples were analyzed for their main chemical constituents and their FA profile. The results showed that the production system affected milk chemical composition: in particular fat content was lower in the organic sheep and goats milk compared with the corresponding conventional. Milk from organic sheep had higher content in MUFA, PUFA, alpha-LNA, cis-9, trans-11 CLA, and omega-3 FA, whereas in milk from organic goats alpha-LNA and omega-3 FA content was higher than that in conventional one. These differences are, mainly, attributed to different feeding practices used by the two production systems. The results of this study show that the organic milk produced under the farming conditions practiced in Greece has higher nutritional value, due to its FA profile, compared with the respective conventional milk.

  2. Learning Content Management Systems

    Tache JURUBESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the evolution of e-Learning and related concepts and tools and its connection with other concepts such as Knowledge Management, Human Resources Management, Enterprise Resource Planning, and Information Technology. The paper also distinguished Learning Content Management Systems from Learning Management Systems and Content Management Systems used for general web-based content. The newest Learning Content Management System, very expensive and yet very little implemented is one of the best tools that helps us to cope with the realities of the 21st Century in what learning concerns. The debates over how beneficial one or another system is for an organization, can be driven by costs involved, efficiency envisaged, and availability of the product on the market.

  3. Effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production in different farming systems

    L. Rapetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to test the effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production. Two farms with different farming systems (intensive and semi-intensive participated to the trial. In each farm about 60 mid-lactation Alpine goats were divided in two groups during spring-summer time. A diet containing 5-6% of sunflower seeds on DM basis was compared with a control diet in a change-over design. In the semi-intensive farm milk yield of goats fed sunflower was 3.46 kg/d compared to 3.58 kg/d of goats fed control diet, whereas in the intensive farm milk yield was 4.60 kg/d vs 4.66 kg/d. Fat content increased significantly from 2.99% to 3.23% only in the intensive farm. The research in the intensive farm investigated also milk and cheese fatty acids composition. Medium and short chain fatty acids (C8-C16 content dropped and long chain fatty acids content increased when sunflower was added. In conclusion raw sunflower seed inclusion in dairy goat diets can be useful, in order to limit the inversion of fat and protein percentages in milk.

  4. Robotic systems for the high level waste tank farm replacement project at INEL

    Berger, A.; White, D.; Thompson, B.; Christensen, M.

    1993-01-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is specifying and designing a new high level waste tank farm at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The farm consists of four underground storage tanks, which replace the existing tanks. The new facility includes provisions for remote operations. One of the planned remote operations is robotic inspection of the tank from the interior and exterior. This paper describes the process used to design the robotic system for the inspection tasks

  5. NASA's Risk Management System

    Perera, Jeevan S.

    2013-01-01

    Phased-approach for implementation of risk management is necessary. Risk management system will be simple, accessible and promote communication of information to all relevant stakeholders for optimal resource allocation and risk mitigation. Risk management should be used by all team members to manage risks - not just risk office personnel. Each group/department is assigned Risk Integrators who are facilitators for effective risk management. Risks will be managed at the lowest-level feasible, elevate only those risks that require coordination or management from above. Risk informed decision making should be introduced to all levels of management. ? Provide necessary checks and balances to insure that risks are caught/identified and dealt with in a timely manner. Many supporting tools, processes & training must be deployed for effective risk management implementation. Process improvement must be included in the risk processes.

  6. Dairy farms typology and management of animal genetic resources in the peri-urban zone of Bamako (Mali

    Abdoulaye Toure

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facing growth in demand, dairy production in peri-urban areas of developing countries is changing rapidly. To characterise this development around Bamako (Mali, this study establishes a typology of dairy production systems with a special focus on animal genetic resources. The survey included 52 dairy cattle farms from six peri-urban sites. It was conducted in 2011 through two visits, in the dry and harvest seasons. The median cattle number per farm was 17 (range 5–118 and 42% of farmers owned cropland (8.3± 7.3 ha, minimum 1 ha, maximum 25 ha. Feeding strategy was a crucial variable in farm characterisation, accounting for about 85% of total expenses. The use of artificial insemination and a regular veterinary follow-up were other important parameters. According to breeders’ answers, thirty genetic profiles were identified, from local purebreds to different levels of crossbreds. Purebred animals raised were Fulani Zebu (45.8 %, Maure Zebu (9.2 %, Holstein (3.0 %, Azawak Zebu (1.3 %, Mere Zebu (0.5% and Kuri taurine (0.1 %. Holstein crossbred represented 30.5% of the total number of animals (19.0% Fulani-Holstein, 11.2% Maure-Holstein and 0.3% Kuri-Holstein. Montbéliarde, Normande and Limousin crossbreds were also found (6.6 %, 0.7% and 0.3 %, respectively. A multivariate analysis helped disaggregate the diversity of management practices. The high diversity of situations shows the need for consideration of typological characteristics for an appropriate intervention. Although strongly anchored on local breeds, the peri-urban dairy systems included a diversity of exotic cattle, showing an uncoordinated quest of breeders for innovation. Without a public intervention, this dynamic will result in an irremediable erosion of indigenous animal genetic resources.

  7. Short communication: survey of fresh cow management practices of dairy cattle on small and large commercial farms.

    Heuwieser, W; Iwersen, M; Gossellin, J; Drillich, M

    2010-03-01

    The objective was to conduct a survey of current fresh cow management practices that have an effect on health and diseases postpartum considering different herd sizes of commercial dairy farms. A mail survey regarding aspects of the fresh cow program including general management issues, calving, diseases, and veterinary service was conducted utilizing a convenience sample. A total of 429 survey forms were returned (12.0% response rate) and could be used for final analysis. Only 21.6% of the farms had a designated fresh cow pen. Almost every farm executed some type of fresh cow examination. Only 18.5% of farm managers documented the observations. Most of the dairy managers used more or less subjective criteria such as general appearance (97.0%) and appetite (69.7%). Only a minority of the responding dairy managers monitored their fresh cows using objective (fever 33.6%) or semiquantitative measures (subclinical ketosis 2.8%; body condition score 36.4%). On most farms, the veterinarian visited the herd only if needed (72.6%). Most cases of retained fetal membranes were treated by manual removal (72.3%) and antibiotic pills (89.5%). Several challenges and opportunities were identified to improve cow management practices.

  8. DRIVING AND LIMITING FACTORS IN THE FARM MANAGEMENT BY YOUNG FARMERS IN THE CONTEXT OF SURVEY RESEARCH

    Barbara Kiełbasa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify driving and limiting factors of farm management in a region of fragmented agriculture. The paper presents the results of the research conducted in the South-Eastern Poland (Macroregion of Małopolska and Pogórze. The survey was conducted in 2014 in the farms managed by young farmers, i.e. the benefi ciaries of the measure “Setting up of young farmers” from the RDP 2007–2013, with the use of a survey method with a questionnaire interview. The research was empirical, and its main goal was to present a case study of the farm management by young farmers in terms of specifi c management barriers. The results of the studies pointed to the fragmented agrarian structure as the one of the biggest barriers of the eff ective farm management. The young farmers pointed that fragmented agrarian structure signifi cantly impedes the purchase or lease of agricultural land, and the farm development in the same way. The survey pointed to the factors that contribute to the young farmers: the entrepreneurial attitude, activity and creativity, training, the management knowledge and better access to the Common Agricultural Policy instruments.

  9. The rain water management model on an appropriate hilly area to fulfil the needs of cocoa farm during dry season

    Hasbi, M.; Darma, R.; Yamin, M.; Nurdin, M.; Rizal, M.

    2018-05-01

    Cocoa is an important commodity because 90% farmers involved, easily marketed, and potentially harvested along the year. However, cocoa productivity tended to decrease by an average of only 300 kg hectare-1 year-1 or away from the potential productivity of two tons. Water management was an alternative method to increase its productivity by harvesting rainwater on the hilly cocoa farm area and distributing the water based on the gravity law. The research objective was to describes how to manage rainwater at the hilly cocoa farm area, so that the water needs of cocoa farm were met during the dry season. The important implication of the management was the water availability that supports the cocoa cultivation during the year. This research used qualitative method with descriptive approach to explain the appropriate technical specification of infrastructure to support the rainwater management. This research generated several mathematical formulas to support rainwater management infrastructure. The implementation of an appropriate rainwater utilization management for cocoa farm will ensuring the availability of water during dry season, so the cocoa farm allowed to produce cacao fruit during the year.

  10. Transient stability probability evaluation of power system incorporating with wind farm and SMES

    Fang, Jiakun; Miao, Lu; Wen, Jinyu

    2013-01-01

    Large scale renewable power generation brings great challenges to the power system operation and stabilization. Energy storage is one of the most important technologies to face the challenges. This paper proposes a method for transient stability probability evaluation of power system with wind farm...... and SMES. Firstly, a modified 11-bus test system with both wind farm and SMES has been implemented. The wind farm is represented as a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). Then a stochastic-based approach to evaluate the probabilistic transient stability index of the power system is presented. Uncertain...... the probability indices. With the proposed method based on Monte-Carlo simulation and bisection method, system stability is "measured". Quantitative relationship of penetration level, SMES coil size and system stability is established. Considering the stability versus coil size to be the production curve...

  11. Lithium battery management system

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  12. Archival Information Management System.

    1995-02-01

    management system named Archival Information Management System (AIMS), designed to meet the audit trail requirement for studies completed under the...are to be archived to the extent that future reproducibility and interrogation of results will exist. This report presents a prototype information

  13. Medical Information Management System

    Alterescu, S.; Hipkins, K. R.; Friedman, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    On-line interactive information processing system easily and rapidly handles all aspects of data management related to patient care. General purpose system is flexible enough to be applied to other data management situations found in areas such as occupational safety data, judicial information, or personnel records.

  14. A simple rule based model for scheduling farm management operations in SWAT

    Schürz, Christoph; Mehdi, Bano; Schulz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    For many interdisciplinary questions at the watershed scale, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT; Arnold et al., 1998) has become an accepted and widely used tool. Despite its flexibility, the model is highly demanding when it comes to input data. At SWAT's core the water balance and the modeled nutrient cycles are plant growth driven (implemented with the EPIC crop growth model). Therefore, land use and crop data with high spatial and thematic resolution, as well as detailed information on cultivation and farm management practices are required. For many applications of the model however, these data are unavailable. In order to meet these requirements, SWAT offers the option to trigger scheduled farm management operations by applying the Potential Heat Unit (PHU) concept. The PHU concept solely takes into account the accumulation of daily mean temperature for management scheduling. Hence, it contradicts several farming strategies that take place in reality; such as: i) Planting and harvesting dates are set much too early or too late, as the PHU concept is strongly sensitivity to inter-annual temperature fluctuations; ii) The timing of fertilizer application, in SWAT this often occurs simultaneously on the same date in in each field; iii) and can also coincide with precipitation events. Particularly, the latter two can lead to strong peaks in modeled nutrient loads. To cope with these shortcomings we propose a simple rule based model (RBM) to schedule management operations according to realistic farmer management practices in SWAT. The RBM involves simple strategies requiring only data that are input into the SWAT model initially, such as temperature and precipitation data. The user provides boundaries of time periods for operation schedules to take place for all crops in the model. These data are readily available from the literature or from crop variety trials. The RBM applies the dates by complying with the following rules: i) Operations scheduled in the

  15. Effects of farm management practices and transport duration on stress response and meat quality traits of suckling goat kids.

    Alcalde, M J; Suárez, M D; Rodero, E; Álvarez, R; Sáez, M I; Martínez, T F

    2017-09-01

    Studies aimed to assess up to what extent farming and transport previous to slaughtering might affect physiology and meat quality in young goat kids are needed, with the ultimate purpose of promoting practices that minimize stress in these animals. In this regard the effects of on-farm management and transport duration on some physiological responses and meat quality parameters in goat kids were assessed. Two farms representing 'high' and 'low' welfare-friendly management practices were selected. In total, 32 suckling kids were withdrawn from each farm, transported by road for 2 or 6 h, and then slaughtered. Blood samples were collected both on-farm and in the slaughterhouse, and biochemistry, cell counts and haematocrit were determined. After slaughtering, carcass quality parameters were measured. Longissimus dorsi muscle was dissected and pH, colour parameters, water holding capacity and shear force were measured throughout 8-day ageing period. Results indicate that, regardless its duration, transport caused significant effects on some blood parameters suggesting stress in live animals, like glucose, cortisol or creatine kinase. Despite the marked stress status in animals, this condition was not decisively reflected on L. dorsi quality parameters, but some effects were observed regarding fat cover in carcasses and colour parameters. The results suggest that postmortem changes throughout ageing were more decisive in terms of meat quality than stressful management either on-farm or during transport.

  16. FUNCTIONING OF A FARM ADVISORY SYSTEM ACCORDING TO THE FARMERS OF THE OPOLE VOIVODESHIP

    Stanisława Sokołowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Farm advisory system is a unique form of long-lasting education of framers and rural area dwellers. This attribute is significant as far as a transformation of European agriculture is concerned which resulted in creating a farm advisory system for the territorial scope Europe. The effectiveness of the system depends on many factors mainly, however, on active trust of farmers in the knowledge they acquire. The case study uses a questionnaire data collecting method in the households of the Opole voivodeship. On their basis the place and aim of a farm advisory organisation in the system of both agricultural knowledge and information have been determined as well as kinds of knowledge sought by farmers. The respondents’ evaluation of the significance of this institutional structure in the development of households and in the local development has also been presented. A question of the use of regional internet platforms in the realisation of farm advisory system tasks has been considered. The case study ends with conclusions and recommendation referring to the challenges to be faced by the regional structures of a farm advisory system.

  17. Dynamic performance of a novel offshore power system integrated with a wind farm

    Orlandini, Valentina; Pierobon, Leonardo; Schløer, Signe

    2016-01-01

    Offshore wind technology is rapidly developing and a wind farm can be integrated with offshore power stations. This paper considers as case study a futuristic platform powered by a wind farm and three combined cycle units consisting of a gas turbine and an ORC (organic Rankine cycle) module....... The first aim of this paper is to identify the maximum amount of wind power that can be integrated into the system, without compromising the electric grid balance. The stability of the grid is tested using a dynamic model of the power system based on first principles. Additionally, the dynamics...... of the system is compared with a simplified plant consisting of three gas turbines and a wind farm, in order to identify benefits of the installation of the ORC system. The maximum allowable wind power is 10 MW for a nominal platform load of 30 MW. The results show that the presence of the ORC system allows...

  18. The Complexity Of Government Communication System In Ettawa Crossbed (Ec Goat Farming In Purworejo

    Tatag Handaka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed to determine the complexity of the environment that is faced by the government communication system and regulation that was used to resolve the issue. The theory used is communication system in the perspective of Niklas Luhmann. The research method used is ethnography. The population of the study are in Purworejo which becomes center of crossbreed Ettawa goat farming. Data collection technique is conducted throught interviews and observations. The results of data analysis show that the government communication system has made regulations to resolve the real problems of crossbreed Ettawa goat farming that is done by breeders. When the government communication system produces the regulation, environmental issue has grown more complex. So the regulation that was made becomes irrelevant to the demands and challenge in the crossbreed Ettawa goat farming. The government communication system is slow in reducing the complexity of the environment and producing regulation.

  19. Dynamic performance of a novel offshore power system integrated with a wind farm

    Orlandini, Valentina; Pierobon, Leonardo; Schløer, Signe

    2016-01-01

    of the system is compared with a simplified plant consisting of three gas turbines and a wind farm, in order to identify benefits of the installation of the ORC system. The maximum allowable wind power is 10 MW for a nominal platform load of 30 MW. The results show that the presence of the ORC system allows......Offshore wind technology is rapidly developing and a wind farm can be integrated with offshore power stations. This paper considers as case study a futuristic platform powered by a wind farm and three combined cycle units consisting of a gas turbine and an ORC (organic Rankine cycle) module....... The first aim of this paper is to identify the maximum amount of wind power that can be integrated into the system, without compromising the electric grid balance. The stability of the grid is tested using a dynamic model of the power system based on first principles. Additionally, the dynamics...

  20. Optimal Control of a Wind Farm Group Using the WindEx System

    Piotr Kacejko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present achievements obtained in implementing the framework project N R01 0021 06 in the Power System Department of Lublin University of Technology. The result of the work was “A system of optimal wind farm power control in the conditions of limited transmission capabilities of power networks”, which one of two main modules is a state estimator. The featured wind farm control system was integrated with a SCADA dispatcher system WindEx using the WebSVC service.

  1. Environmental farm accounting: the case of the Dutch nutrients accounting system.

    Breembroek, J.A.; Koole, B.; Poppe, K.J.; Wossink, G.A.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the Netherlands bookkeeping of inputs and outputs at the level of individual farms has been selected as a new solution to control nutrient use and to tax nutrient surpluses in agriculture. At the same time, nutrient accounting presents important management information. This paper presents a

  2. Environmental and economic comparisons of manure application methods in farming systems.

    Rotz, C A; Kleinman, P J A; Dell, C J; Veith, T L; Beegle, D B

    2011-01-01

    Alternative methods for applying livestock manure to no-till soils involve environmental and economic trade-offs. A process-level farm simulation model (Integrated Farm System Model) was used to evaluate methods for applying liquid dairy (Bos taurus L.) and swine (Sus scrofa L.) manure, including no application, broadcast spreading with and without incorporation by tillage, band application with soil aeration, and shallow disk injection. The model predicted ammonia emissions, nitrate leaching, and phosphorus (P) runoff losses similar to those measured over 4 yr of field trials. Each application method was simulated over 25 yr of weather on three Pennsylvania farms. On a swine and cow-calf beef operation under grass production, shallow disk injection increased profit by $340 yr(-1) while reducing ammonia nitrogen and soluble P losses by 48 and 70%, respectively. On a corn (Zea mays L.)-and-grass-based grazing dairy farm, shallow disk injection reduced ammonia loss by 21% and soluble P loss by 76% with little impact on farm profit. Incorporation by tillage and band application with aeration provided less environmental benefit with a net decrease in farm profit. On a large corn-and-alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-based dairy farm where manure nutrients were available in excess of crop needs, incorporation methods were not economically beneficial, but they provided environmental benefits with relatively low annual net costs ($13 to $18 cow). In all farming systems, shallow disk injection provided the greatest environmental benefit at the least cost or greatest profit for the producer. With these results, producers are better informed when selecting manure application equipment.

  3. Soil Decomposition of Added Organic C in an Organic Farming System

    Kpomblekou-A, Kokoasse; Sissoko, Alassane; McElhenney, Wendell

    2015-04-01

    In the United States, large quantities of poultry waste are added every year to soil under organic management. Decomposition of the added organic C releases plant nutrients, promotes soil structure, and plays a vital role in the soil food web. In organic agriculture the added C serves as the only source of nutrients for plant growth. Thus understanding the decomposition rates of such C in organic farming systems are critical in making recommendations of organic inputs to organic producers. We investigated and compared relative accumulation and decomposition of organic C in an organic farming system trial at the George Washington Carver Agricultural Experiment Station at Tuskegee, Alabama on a Marvyn sandy loam (fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic, Typic Kanhapludults) soil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates and four treatments. The main plot (54' × 20') was split into three equal subplots to plant three sweet potato cultivars. The treatments included a weed (control with no cover crop, no fertilizer), crimson clover alone (CC), crimson clover plus broiler litter (BL), and crimson clover plus NPK mineral fertilizers (NPK). For five years, late in fall, the field was planted with crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L) that was cut with a mower and incorporated into soil the following spring. Moreover, broiler litter (4.65 Mg ha-1) or ammonium nitrate (150 kg N ha-1), triple super phosphate (120 kg P2O5 ha-1), and potassium chloride (160 kg K2O ha-1) were applied to the BL or the NPK plot and planted with sweet potato. Just before harvest, six soil samples were collected within the two middle rows of each sweet potato plot with an auger at incremental depths of 0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-5, 5-10, and 10-15 cm. Samples from each subplot and depth were composited and mixed in a plastic bag. The samples were sieved moist through a

  4. Operations management system

    Brandli, A. E.; Eckelkamp, R. E.; Kelly, C. M.; Mccandless, W.; Rue, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of an operations management system is to provide an orderly and efficient method to operate and maintain aerospace vehicles. Concepts are described for an operations management system and the key technologies are highlighted which will be required if this capability is brought to fruition. Without this automation and decision aiding capability, the growing complexity of avionics will result in an unmanageable workload for the operator, ultimately threatening mission success or survivability of the aircraft or space system. The key technologies include expert system application to operational tasks such as replanning, equipment diagnostics and checkout, global system management, and advanced man machine interfaces. The economical development of operations management systems, which are largely software, will require advancements in other technological areas such as software engineering and computer hardware.

  5. Vertical farming monitoring system using the internet of things (IoT)

    Chin, Yap Shien; Audah, Lukman

    2017-09-01

    Vertical farming had become a hot topic among peak development countries. However, vertical farming is hard to practice because minor changes on the surrounding would leave big impact to the productivity and quality of farming activity. Thus, the aim of this project is to provide a vertical farming monitoring system to help keeping track on the physical conditions of crops. In this system, varieties of sensors will be used to detect current physical conditions, and send the data to BeagleBone Black (BBB) microcontroller either in analog or digital input. Then, the data will be processed by BBB and upload to the Thingspeak Cloud. Furthermore, the system will record the position of equipment in used, which make it easier for maintenance when there is equipment broken down. The system also provide basic remote function where users could turn on/off the watering system, and the LED light via web-based application. The web-based application will also be designed to analyze and display data gathered in the form of graphs, charts or figures, for better understanding. With the improvement implemented on the vertical farming culture, it is expected that the productivity and quality of crops would increase significantly.

  6. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: breeding programmes

    Rydhmer, L; Gourdine, Jean-Luc; de Greef, K; Bonneau, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The sustainability of breeding activities in 15 pig farming systems in five European countries was evaluated. One conventional and two differentiated systems per country were studied. The Conventional systems were the standard systems in their countries. The differentiated systems were of three categories: Adapted Conventional with focus on animal welfare, meat quality or environment (five systems); Traditional with local breeds in small-scale production (three systems) and Organic (two syste...

  7. HACCP-based quality risk management approach to udder health problems on dairy farms.

    Noordhuizen, Jptm; Cannas da Silva, J

    2009-04-01

    Against the background of prevailing udder health problems on dairy farms, this paper discusses a new approach to mastitis control. Current udder health control programmes, such as the 'five-point plan', are highlighted and their drawbacks indicated. The concept and principles of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) are introduced. The eight core elements of this concept are dealt with by using the example of a dairy herd with a mastitis problem due to Staphylococcus aureus. The various steps to be taken in the development of a HACCP-based quality risk management programme are illustrated through the application of core elements. Finally, it is shown that the HACCP key words, structure, organisation, planning, communication and formalisation; which do not frequently appear in conventional herd health and production management programmes can contribute to better udder health. The role of the veterinarian can be paramount and of added value, if he/she is willing to invest in new knowledge and skills, such as the HACCP concept, farm economics, animal nutrition, and particularly the role of coach to the dairy farmer in the implementation of preventative measures in relation to udder health.

  8. HACCP-based quality risk management approach to udder health problems on dairy farms

    Noordhuizen JPTM

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Against the background of prevailing udder health problems on dairy farms, this paper discusses a new approach to mastitis control. Current udder health control programmes, such as the 'five-point plan', are highlighted and their drawbacks indicated. The concept and principles of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP are introduced. The eight core elements of this concept are dealt with by using the example of a dairy herd with a mastitis problem due to Staphylococcus aureus. The various steps to be taken in the development of a HACCP-based quality risk management programme are illustrated through the application of core elements. Finally, it is shown that the HACCP key words, structure, organisation, planning, communication and formalisation; which do not frequently appear in conventional herd health and production management programmes can contribute to better udder health. The role of the veterinarian can be paramount and of added value, if he/she is willing to invest in new knowledge and skills, such as the HACCP concept, farm economics, animal nutrition, and particularly the role of coach to the dairy farmer in the implementation of preventative measures in relation to udder health.

  9. Program Management System manual

    1986-01-01

    The Program Management System (PMS), as detailed in this manual, consists of all the plans, policies, procedure, systems, and processes that, taken together, serve as a mechanism for managing the various subprograms and program elements in a cohesive, cost-effective manner. The PMS is consistent with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the ''Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program'' (DOE/RW-0005). It is based on, but goes beyond, the Department of Energy (DOE) management policies and procedures applicable to all DOE programs by adapting these directives to the specific needs of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management program. This PMS Manual describes the hierarchy of plans required to develop and maintain the cost, schedule, and technical baselines at the various organizational levels of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. It also establishes the management policies and procedures used in the implementation of the Program. These include requirements for internal reports, data, and other information; systems engineering management; regulatory compliance; safety; quality assurance; and institutional affairs. Although expanded versions of many of these plans, policies, and procedures are found in separate documents, they are an integral part of this manual. The PMS provides the basis for the effective management that is needed to ensure that the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program fulfills the mandate of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  10. NEW RESEARCHES REGARDING THE FEEDING SYSTEM DESIGNED FOR HOLSTEIN-FRISIAN CATTLE FARMS

    LAVINIA MOISE

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the organization and development of production activity, which has like result economical efficiency into a cattle farm, the application of viable breeding technologies it’s the best way to obtain positives results.The feeding system of Holstein-Frisian cattle, applied in the Dambovita farms it’s a model can be extended and applied in all the cattle farms, in the same climate and soil conditions, even if the farm dimensions and working organization are different.At the studied farms the cattle don’t paste; the arable land it’s used for perennial and annual fodder culture, that assure the necessary in green forage during the summer and raw material for fibroses and silo-forage preparing. At these farms it isn’t a practice to feed the cattle only with green fodder in the summer period (for milk production but with a balanced quantity of dry substances represented by fibrouses, industrial succulent and wet corn, near by green fodder.One of the reason that assure a big quantity of milk of Holstein-Frisian cattle it is represented by different feeding, depending on milk quantity and physical estate of each cow.An essential condition for a profitable activity of cattle farms is the presence of arable land to assure, at least, the production of base forage, respectively green and succulent forage, silo corn and hay; without this surfaces can’t speak about efficient breeding of cattle in a farm or agricultural exploitation.

  11. Generation Ratio Availability Assessment of Electrical Systems for Offshore Wind Farms

    Zhao, Menghua; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    An availability index, Generation Ratio Availability (GRA), is proposed to evaluate the electrical system of offshore wind farms (OWF). The GRA is the probability that at least a certain percent of wind power could be transferred to the grid system through the concerned electrical system. The GRA....... Comprehensive studies have been conducted to investigate the influence of the network design, component parameters, and wind-speed regimes on the GRA. The analysis presented in this paper is useful for both future wind farm planning and existing OWF evaluation....

  12. Management information systems

    Crump, K.

    1978-01-01

    An Australian university architect studying management information systems programs at academic institutions in the United States visited 26 universities and colleges and nine educational and professional associations, including extended visits at the University of Wisconsin and the National Center of Higher Education Management Systems. During these visits, he investigated university and college space utilization programs, gained operational and developmental experience at institutions with education philosophies similar to those in Australia, and examined trends in low cost student housing. This report of his observations focusses on management information systems projects throughout the academic community, resource accountability, energy conservation, facilities planning for the handicapped, student housing, and interdisciplinary approaches to education.

  13. Influence of farming system and production purpose on the morphostructure of Spanish goat breeds

    Ana Gonzalez-Martinez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of farming systems, based on the morphostructure of 1,571 female goats drawn from 40 flocks containing seven Spanish breeds (Blanca Andaluza, Blanca Celtiberica, Negra Serrana, Pirenaica, Payoya, Murciano-Granadina and Malagueña raised under four different farming systems. Analysis of morphometric variables showed that the morphostructure of native Spanish goat breeds was linked to the farming system used and thus to the production purpose. The morphostructure of grazing breeds may be more influenced by natural selection within the physical environment and less by human selection. That of stall-fed breeds, by contrast, reflects intense artificial selection aimed at achieving a highly-productive dairy type. For this reason, morphological evaluation systems used in breeding programmes for meat or dual-purpose goat breeds farmed extensively or semi-extensively should be specific, and should reflect the influence of the environment in which these goats are farmed.

  14. Standardized facility record and report model system (FARMS) for material accounting and control

    Nishimura, Hideo; Ihara, Hitoshi; Hisamatsu, Yoshinori.

    1990-07-01

    A facility in which nuclear materials are handled maintains a facility system of accounting for and control of nuclear material. Such a system contains, as one of key elements, a record and report system. This record and report information system is a rather complex one because it needs to conform to various requirements from the national or international safeguards authorities and from the plant operator who has to achieve a safe and economical operation of the plant. Therefore it is mandatory to computerize such information system. The authors have reviewed these requirements and standardized the book-keeping and reporting procedures in line with their computerization. On the basis of this result the authors have developed a computer system, FARMS, named as an acronym of standardized facility record and report model system, mainly reflecting the requirements from the national and international safeguards authorities. The development of FARMS has also been carried out as a JASPAS - Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards - project since 1985 and the FARMS code was demonstrated as an accountancy tool in the regional SSAC training courses held in Japan in 1985 and 1987. This report describes the standardization of a record and report system at the facility level, its computerization as a model system and the demonstration of the developed system, FARMS. (author)

  15. Influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming systems in Kenya.

    Migose, S A; Bebe, B O; de Boer, I J M; Oosting, S J

    2018-03-28

    We studied influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming system development. Farms were chosen from three locations that varied in distance to the urban market of Nakuru Town in the Kenyan highlands: urban location (UL, n = 10) at less than 15 km distance, mid-rural location (MRL, n = 11) in between 20 and 50 km west of Nakuru and extreme rural location (ERL, n = 9) beyond 50 km west and south-west of Nakuru. In-depth interviews with farmers and focus group discussions with eight groups of stakeholders were held to collect narratives and data about market quality, production factors, farm performance and functions of dairy cattle. We applied thematic content analysis to qualitative information by clustering narratives according to predefined themes and used ANOVA to analyse farm data. In UL, markets were functional, with predominantly informal market chains, with a high milk price (US $ 45.1/100 kg). Inputs were available in UL markets, but prices were high for inputs such as concentrates, fodder, replacement stock and hired labour. Moreover, availability of grazing land and the high opportunity costs for family labour were limiting dairy activities. In UL, milk production per cow (6.9 kg/cow/day) and per farm (20.1 kg/farm/day) were relatively low, and we concluded that farm development was constrained by scarcity of inputs and production factors. In rural locations (MRL and ERL), markets were functional with relatively low prices (average US $ 32.8/100 kg) for milk in both formal and informal market chains. Here, concentrates were relatively cheap but also of low quality. Fodder, replacement stock and labour were more available in rural locations than in UL. In rural locations, milk production per cow (average 7.2 kg/cow/day) and per farm (average 18.5 kg/farm/day) were low, and we concluded that farm development was constrained by low quality of concentrates and low price of milk. In all locations, production for

  16. TEKNIK PENGELOLAAN USAHATANI TANAMAN CABAI BERKELANJUTAN DI DATARAN TINGGI KECAMATAN CIKAJANG KABUPATEN GARUT (Management Technique of Sustainable Red Pepper Crop Farming System in Upland Distric of Cikajang Garut Regency

    Wa Ode Muliastuty

    2016-02-01

    farming on the upland area is the decrease in the crops productivity due to a mismatch between agrotechnology with the land characteristics and the needs of the crops. This condition accelerates the erosion process and increase the loss of top soil, which are more fertile. All of those things has in turn decrease land productivity. This objectives of the study are to gain knowledge about the extension of erosion, to analyze the contribution of farm income to the farmers Need of Decent Living (NDL, and to study alternative technique of soil and water conservation. Erosion is analyzed by USLE equations. Farm income is analyzed by using cash flow budget analysis. NDL is calculated based on amount of family member in one family farmer, which is approached by minimum physical necessities added by additional life necessities. Soil conservation technique were tested in erosion experimental plots with 2 x 20 meters size made at the 40 % slope. Randomized block design is used that are consist of two factors. The first is cropping pattern which are monoculture red pepper (T1 and intercropping red pepper with cabbage (T2. The second is soil conservation technique which are the ridges in the direction of the slope as the control (K1, the ridges in the direction of the slope + the ridges cut off the slopes in every 6.6 meters (K2, the ridges across the slope (K3, and ridges across the slope with 20° tilted (K4. The research result shows that as the slope is getting steeper, the erosion is getting higher and exceeded the TSL and the contribution of farm income to the farmers NDL is getting lower. Monoculture red pepper cropping patterns have a greater erosion and the contribution of farm income to the farmers NDL is smaller than the intercropping. Conservation technique T1K3, T2K3, T1K4 and T2K4 can be applied to the upland area because it is capable to decrease the erosion less than or equal to the TSL (30.92 ton.ha-1.yr-1 and increasing farming income more than or equal to the

  17. Strategic Maintenance Scheduling of an Offshore Wind Farm in a Deregulated Power System

    Peyman Mazidi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for strategic maintenance scheduling of offshore wind farms (SMSOWF in a deregulated power system. The objective of the model is to plan the maintenance schedules in a way to maximize the profit of the offshore wind farm. In addition, some network constraints, such as transmission lines capacity, and wind farm constraints, such as labor working shift, wave height limit and wake effect, as well as unexpected outages, are included in deterministic and stochastic studies. Moreover, the proposedmodel provides theability to incorporate information from condition monitoring systems. SMSOWF is formulated through a bi-level formulation and then transformed into a single-level through Karush–Kuhn–Tucker conditions. The model is validated through a test system, and the results demonstrate applicability, advantages and challenges of harnessing the full potential of the model.

  18. Adopting a farming systems research approach to carry out an economic and environmental analysis of food supply chains

    Tavella, Elena; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Gylling, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural systems are complex, because managers need to cope with interlinked and dynamic ecological, social, political and economic aspects. Understanding and analysing such systems requires researchers to adopt a holistic approach to grasp the links between those aspects. Holistic approaches...... within agricultural research - known as Farming Systems Research (FSR) support researchers in sharing knowledge and different perspectives concerning the research process and problems. Sharing knowledge and perspectives enables to holistically understand and conceptualise complex systems, as well...... as to structure and manage research projects. The aim of this paper is to suggest and present a guideline for agricultural researchers to carry out an economic and environmental analysis of food supply chains with a FSR approach. We describe how participants of the EU-project SOLIBAM (Strategies for Organic...

  19. Livestock system as a mitigation measure of a wind farm in a mountain area

    Antoniotto Guidobono Cavalchini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study concerns a mountain territory, bordering Liguria, Piemonte, Lombardia and Emilia, where a high power 151 MW wind farm, with 42 tower of 3.6 MW power, has been proposed. As a measure of environmental mitigation, the realization of a livestock system of a herd of sucker cows pasturing in the wind farm areas is proposed. This has implications for environmental maintenance, employment in a territory gradually losing its population, and for tourism. The study, having focused on those aspects that reduce landscape impact and carrying out an analysis of the individual areas to evaluate forage resources and the different pastoral indexes, identifies the maximum sustainable load of animals (335 UBA/ha in the current conditions of neglect. So, some measures to improve and increase sustainable herds have been proposed and examined. The operations include: stone removal; light harrowing; overseeding; creation of fodder reserves for periods of shortage; and grazing will be managed by taking turns. Based on the results of two other studies, both previous tests carried out on site, encourage us to think that we will be able to increase the maximum sustainable seasonal load for the current situation by more than 50%. This means a herd of 500 UBA equal to a gross PLV, for the grazing period of 180 days, of 400,000 and so guarantee an adequate income to 3-4 UL (labor unit, and of 650,000/year in case the chain is completed during the winter months in structures located in the valley. In this case, the PLV obtained could assure income to 6-7 employees, which would be extremely important for the socio-economic conditions of the valley; in consideration of the induced activities- meat processing, marketing and tourism facilities- which could be made available. Experimental tests of the technical improvements described will be carried out in the next season.

  20. Integrate offsites management with information systems

    Valleur, M. (TECHNIP, Paris (France))

    1993-11-01

    Computerized offsites management systems in oil refineries offer a unique opportunity to integrate advanced technology into a coherent refinery information system that contributes to benefits-driven optimal operations: from long-term, multirefinery linear programming (LP) models to sequential control of transfer lineups in the tank farm. There are strong incentives to automate and optimize the offsites operations, and benefits can be quantified to justify properly sized projects. The paper discusses the following: business opportunities, oil movement and advanced technology, project scoping and sizing, review of functional requirements, transfer automation, blending optimal control, on-line analyzers, oil movement and scheduling, organizational issues, and investment and benefits analysis.

  1. Flexible Exchange of Farming Device Data

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2011-01-01

    A new trend in the farming business is to replace conventional farming devices with computerized farming devices. Accordingly, numerous computer-based farming devices for logging, processing and exchanging data have recently been installed on moving farm machinery such as tractors. The exchange o......-directional data exchange as well as efficient requirements change management through a graphical user interface. The paper also demonstrates the use of the proposed solution based on a farming case study and open source technologies....... and systems to exchange data based on a predefined set of rules. In consequence, many hand-coded data exchange solutions have been developed in the farming business. Although efforts regarding incorporating data exchange standards have been made, their actual usage so far has been limited, due to the fact...

  2. Portfolio Management System

    US Agency for International Development — PfMS is an implementation of WorkLenz. WorkLenz is USAID's portfolio management system tool. It is a commercially available, off-the-shelf (COTS) package that...

  3. Environmental Management Systems

    This site on Environmental Management Systems (EMS) provides information and resources related to EMS for small businesses and private industry, as well as local, state and federal agencies, including all the EPA offices and laboratories.

  4. Holdings Management System

    National Archives and Records Administration — This system supports the physical management of permanent, hard-copy archival Records in the custody of National Archives and Records Administration program offices.

  5. Correspondence Management System

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CMS is EPA's correspondence tracking and workflow management system. It scans, logs, routes, tracks, and stores incoming and outgoing correspondence in all Program...

  6. Earned Value Management System

    US Agency for International Development — EVMS is a system for measuring project performance and progress in an objective manner by supporting earned value management. EVMS has the ability to combine...

  7. A distribution management system

    Verho, P.; Jaerventausta, P.; Kaerenlampi, M.; Paulasaari, H. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Partanen, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The development of new distribution automation applications is considerably wide nowadays. One of the most interesting areas is the development of a distribution management system (DMS) as an expansion of the traditional SCADA system. At the power transmission level such a system is called an energy management system (EMS). The idea of these expansions is to provide supporting tools for control center operators in system analysis and operation planning. The needed data for new applications is mainly available in some existing systems. Thus the computer systems of utilities must be integrated. The main data source for the new applications in the control center are the AM/FM/GIS (i.e. the network database system), the SCADA, and the customer information system (CIS). The new functions can be embedded in some existing computer system. This means a strong dependency on the vendor of the existing system. An alternative strategy is to develop an independent system which is integrated with other computer systems using well-defined interfaces. The latter approach makes it possible to use the new applications in various computer environments, having only a weak dependency on the vendors of the other systems. In the research project this alternative is preferred and used in developing an independent distribution management system

  8. A distribution management system

    Verho, P; Jaerventausta, P; Kaerenlampi, M; Paulasaari, H [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Partanen, J [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The development of new distribution automation applications is considerably wide nowadays. One of the most interesting areas is the development of a distribution management system (DMS) as an expansion of the traditional SCADA system. At the power transmission level such a system is called an energy management system (EMS). The idea of these expansions is to provide supporting tools for control center operators in system analysis and operation planning. The needed data for new applications is mainly available in some existing systems. Thus the computer systems of utilities must be integrated. The main data source for the new applications in the control center are the AM/FM/GIS (i.e. the network database system), the SCADA, and the customer information system (CIS). The new functions can be embedded in some existing computer system. This means a strong dependency on the vendor of the existing system. An alternative strategy is to develop an independent system which is integrated with other computer systems using well-defined interfaces. The latter approach makes it possible to use the new applications in various computer environments, having only a weak dependency on the vendors of the other systems. In the research project this alternative is preferred and used in developing an independent distribution management system

  9. Analysis to develop a program for energy-integrated farm systems

    Eakin, D.E.; Clark, M.A.; Inaba, L.K.; Johnson, K.I.

    1981-09-01

    A program to use renewable energy resources and possibly develop decentralization of energy systems for agriculture is discussed. The purpose of the research presented is to establish the objective of the program and identify guidelines for program development. The program's objective is determined by: (1) an analysis of the technologies that could be utilized to transform renewable farm resources to energy by the year 2000, (2) the quantity of renewable farm resources that are available, and (3) current energy-use patterns. Individual research, development, and demonstration projects are fit into a national program of energy-integrated farm systems on the basis of: (1) market need, (2) conversion potential, (3) technological opportunities, and (4) acceptability. Quantification of these factors for the purpose of establishing program guidelines is conducted using the following four precepts: (1) market need is identified by current use of energy for agricultural production; (2) conversion potential is determined by the availability of renewable resources; and (3) technological opportunities are determined by the state-of-the-art methods, techniques, and processes that can convert renewable resources into farm energy. Each of these factors is analyzed in Chapters 2 to 4. Chapter 5 draws on the analysis of these factors to establish the objective of the program and identify guidelines for the distribution of program funds. Chapter 6 then discusses the acceptability of integrated farm systems, which can not be quantified like the other factors.

  10. Integrating soil physical and biological properties in contrasting tillage systems in organic and conventional farming

    Crittenden, S.J.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though soil physical and soil biological properties are intrinsically linked in the soil environment they are often studied separately. This work adds value to analyses of soil biophysical quality of tillage systems under organic and conventional farming systems by correlating physical and

  11. Socioeconomic impact of widespread adoption of precision farming and controlled traffic systems in Denmark

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    2012-01-01

    and the Danish society as a whole. At the farm level, the findings from the study indicate that an implementation of CTF systems may have a significant impact on fuel savings due to a reduced overlap with auto guidance systems and easier movement with tractors and tools in the field. The PF site-specific weed...

  12. KNOWLEDGE AND APPLICATION OF METHODS AND SYSTEMS QUALITY ASSURANCE IN ORCHARD FARMS IN POLAND

    Eugenia Czernyszewicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Poland is significant producer of fruits in Europe. After accession to the EU, fruit producers are obligated to comply with operative rules and standards on this market which are related to ensuring commercial and healthcare products of appropriate quality. The quality of fruits available on the market is varied. This results from the fact that in the past, in domestic horticulture, more attention was paid to enlargement of the acreage, the modernization of orchards, increasing the intensity of production and productivity than on issues related to certification and quality management systems. Therefore, the aim of the work was to show the producer's opinion on methods and systems which assure quality of fruits. It was stated that producers have a good knowledge of the methods and systems of fruit quality assurance. Knowledge of these issues is significantly associated with the scale of the fruit production. The knowledge of the principles of integrated fruit production and trading standards GLOBALG.A.P. was declared most often. These methods of quality assurance were also top rated by producers and implemented mostly in farms.

  13. System Engineering Management and Implementation Plan for Project W-211, ''Initial Tank Retrieval Systems'' (ITRS)

    VAN BEEK, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    This systems Engineering Management and Implementation Plan (SEMIP) describes the Project W-211 implementation of the Tank Farm Contractor Systems Engineering Management Plan (TFC SEMP). The SEMIP defines the systems engineering products and processes used by the project to comply with the TFC SEMP, and provides the basis for tailoring systems engineering processes by applying a graded approach to identify appropriate systems engineering requirements for W-211

  14. System Engineering Management and Implementation Plan for Project W-211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS)

    VAN BEEK, J.E.

    2000-05-05

    This systems Engineering Management and Implementation Plan (SEMIP) describes the Project W-211 implementation of the Tank Farm Contractor Systems Engineering Management Plan (TFC SEMP). The SEMIP defines the systems engineering products and processes used by the project to comply with the TFC SEMP, and provides the basis for tailoring systems engineering processes by applying a graded approach to identify appropriate systems engineering requirements for W-211.

  15. Associations between management practices and colostrum quality on New Zealand dairy farms.

    Denholm, K S; Hunnam, J C; Cuttance, E L; McDougall, S

    2017-09-01

    To describe colostrum quality in spring-calving dairy herds in New Zealand, in terms of Brix, pH and total and coliform bacterial counts and to investigate associations between farm management practices and these measures of colostrum quality. In June 2015, commercial dairy farms (n=105), located in North and South Islands of New Zealand, were visited shortly after the first cows had calved, and when approximately 50% and 80% of the herd had calved (early, middle and late visits). One litre of pooled colostrum that was being fed to newborn calves was collected at each visit and used to determine Brix, pH, total bacterial and coliform counts. A survey of calf management practices was conducted with the herd manager or calf rearer after the final visit. Of 298 pooled colostrum samples tested 29/298 (9.7%) had Brix >22%. Brix was higher on farms where calves were picked up twice daily compared with once daily (18.2 (95% CI=16.5-19.9)% vs. 15.9% (95% CI=15.2-16.6)%; p=0.012), and was lower where first milking colostrum was combined with colostrum obtained at later milkings (15.0 (95% CI=13.9-16.1)%) compared with where it was not (16.9 (95% CI=16.3-17.6)%; p=0.002). Vaccination of all cows against calf diarrhoeal pathogens was associated with increased Brix compared with no vaccination (18.1 (95% CI=16.6-19.6)% vs. 16.3 (95% CI=15.6-17.0)%; p=0.033). Mean pH of samples tested decreased from 5.97 (95% CI=5.84-6.09) to 5.58 (95% CI=5.45-5.71) for early and late-season visits, respectively (p<0.001). Of 268 samples tested, 23 (8.6%) had bacterial counts below the recommended threshold of 1.00×10 5 cfu/mL. Mean bacterial counts increased from 2.75 (95% CI=1.80-3.70)×10 8 to 4.99 (95% CI=3.95-6.03)×10 8 cfu/mL for early and late-season visits, respectively (p<0.001). Of 259 samples tested, 23 (8.9%) had coliform counts below the recommended threshold of 1.00×10 4 cfu/mL. On a large majority of dairy farms included in this study the pooled colostrum fed to newborn calves

  16. OPTIMISASI SISTEM USAHA TANI UNTUK PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN DI KAWASAN PESISIR BALI UTARA (Optimization of Farming System Towards Sustainable Agriculture in North Coastal Plain Bali

    I Wayan Budiasa

    2007-11-01

    system development (FSD on poor fertile soil with limited water source can lead to trade-off between economic benefit in the short run and environmental problems in the long run. As environmental degradation increases and inefficient in resources allocation, farming system will become unsustainable. This study aims to optimize irrigated farming system model and to assess its sustainability. By using linear programming analysis, local farmer in north coastal plain of Bali was optimal in resources allocation indicated from optimal solution of conventional farming system model which conforms to observed behavior. By several adjustments, conventional farming system model can be extended to sustainable farming system model. It is found that the sustainable farming system is better than the conventional farming system. Since all components and indicators of sustainability were considered into model and all criteria of sustainability were fulfilled by optimal results, the extended farming system model also guarantees that irrigated farming system development at household level will become sustaipable. To make the sustainable farming system at household level, the farmer should be able to allocate the groundwater less than or equal to 8.547 Lis, to add the organic fertilizer from manure more than or equal to 5 t/ha/yr, to continue the mixed-farming system and crops rotation, to consider minimum household expenditure, and to put the sustainable value in the use of water in approximately Rp I ,218.29/CM into effect. The sustainable farming system model generated from this study passed validated process. Thus, it can be contributed to scientific development. Also, its results can become best management practices by local farmers on their farms.

  17. Systems engineering management plan

    Conner, C.W.

    1985-10-01

    The purpose of this Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to prescribe the systems engineering procedures to be implemented at the Program level and the minimum requirements for systems engineering at the Program-element level. The Program level corresponds to the Director, OCRWM, or to the organizations within OCRWM to which the Director delegates responsibility for the development of the System and for coordinating and integrating the activities at the Program-element level. The Office of Policy and Outreach (OPO) and the Office of Resource Management (ORM) support the Director at the Program level. The Program-element level corresponds to the organizations within OCRWM (i.e., the Office of Geologic Repositories (OGR) and the Office of Storage and Transportation Systems (OSTS)) with overall responsibility for developing the System elements - that is, the mined geologic disposal system (MGDS), monitored retrievable storage (MRS) (if approved by Congress), and the transportation system

  18. A Dynamic Decision Support System for Farm Water Management in Surface Irrigation: Model Development and Application Un Sistema de Soporte Dinámico de Decisión para la Gestión de Agua Predial en Riego Superficial: Desarrollo y Aplicación del Modelo

    Carlos I. Flores

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An online dynamic decision support system (DDSS was developed, to support the farm water management in surface irrigation. The online DDSS was based on the formulation and integration of three components: a dynamic-relational data base, an administrator model, and a graphical user interface. The DDSS allows routines of actualization, edition and addition of online data, providing information in real time. The online DDSS was applied in an orange orchard (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck cv. Valencia Late under furrow irrigation. The results pointed out that the time irrigation cutoff was the main significant management factor, to decrease the hazard of leaching, superficial runoff and percolation. Applying the results obtained with the DDSS, furrow irrigation efficiencies could be improved up to values equals to 95.89% for application efficiency and 94.61% for total distribution efficiency. As a conclusion, the DDSS demonstrated to be a useful tool to assist the decision making process, providing proper information for the management of the available water resource at farm level.Se desarrolló un sistema de soporte dinámico de decisión (SSDD en línea, con el objetivo de asistir la gestión del agua predial en riego superficial. El SSDD en línea se basó en la formulación e integración de tres componentes: una base de datos relacional dinámica, un modelo administrador y una interfaz gráfica de usuario. El SSDD permite rutinas de actualización, edición y adición de información en línea, proporcionando información en tiempo real. El SSDD en línea se aplicó en un huerto de naranjos (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck cv. Valencia Late bajo riego por surcos. Los resultados indicaron que el tiempo de corte es la variable significativa de decisión para disminuir el riesgo de lixiviación, escorrentía superficial y percolación. Aplicando los resultados obtenidos con el SSDD, las eficiencias del riego por surco podrían mejorarse, alcanzando valores

  19. Culture, climate change and farm-level groundwater management: An Australian case study

    Sanderson, Matthew R.; Curtis, Allen L.

    2016-05-01

    Cultural factors - values, beliefs, and norms - provide important insights into the environmental attitudes, risk perceptions, and behaviors of the general population. Little is known, however, about the ostensibly complex relationships linking those elements of culture to climate change risk perceptions, especially in the context of farm level decision in the ground water context. This paper addresses that gap through an analysis of survey data provided by irrigators in the Namoi catchment of Australia's Murray-Darling Basin. We use Values-Beliefs-Norms theory to construct multivariate models of the relationship between ground water irrigators' interpretations of climate change risks and their implementation of adaptive water conservation practices. Results indicate that these cultural factors are important explanations of irrigators' climate change risk perceptions, and these risk perceptions are related to adaptive ground water management strategies at the farm level. The implications of the findings are discussed for research on the culture-environment nexus and for outreach designed to encourage agricultural adaptations to climate change.

  20. Organic farming of dairy goats in the Veneto region: feeding management and milk quality

    Lucia Bailoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the quality of goat milk and the feeding management in organic farms located in the Veneto Region was evaluated. Five organic dairy goat farms with Alpine and Saanen breeds were considered. Samples of bulk milk and feeds were collected monthly and analysed for chemical composition. Milk fatty acids profile was also determined. All data were submitted by ANCOVA analysis using breed (B, time of sampling (ST and B x ST as fixed effects and dry matter intake (DMI, dietary concentrations of crude protein (CPc, NDF (NDFc, starch (starchc, and use of grazing as linear covariates. Milk urea N was positively affected by DMI (r=3.64; P<0.05 and negatively by starchc (r=-5.91; P<0.05 and total bacterial count increased significantly (P<0.05 with the increase of CPc and starchc. DMI affected positively the milk fatty acid (FA profile by increasing of PUFA (P<0.01, n-3 (P<0.001 and n-6 (P<0.05 acids and decreasing of SFA (P<0.05 levels in milk. Opposite effects on FA profile were observed by CPc, NDFc and starchc. The use of grazing only caused a significant increase (P<0.05 in the content of CLA in milk.

  1. Performance and operational experience with the heterogeneous farm of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition system.

    Garelli, N; The ATLAS collaboration; Vandelli, W

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) is a distributed, multi trigger level, data-acquisition system, mostly made of off-the-shelf processing units organized in a farm. In its final configuration the system will account more than 2000 nodes, sporting heterogeneous capabilities and network connectivities, due to the TDAQ program for rolling expansions and upgrades. In this paper we will present how we dealt with the farm heterogeneity during the proton-proton collisions of 2010 and 2011: a period characterized by changing working conditions, and constantly increasing LHC instantaneous luminosity. We will describe a graphical tool to show, control, modify and balance the computing-power and bandwidth sharing across the trigger farms, a data-flow monitoring daemon which provides a high-level resource-aware data-flow operational information, and the evolution of data-flow communication protocols.

  2. Performance and Operational Experience with the Heterogeneous Farm of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition System

    Garelli, N; The ATLAS collaboration; Vandelli, W

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) is a distributed, multi trigger level, data-acquisition system, mostly made of off-the-shelf processing units organized in a farm. In its final configuration the system will account more than 2000 nodes, sporting heterogeneous capabilities and network connections, due to the TDAQ program for rolling expansions and upgrades. In this paper we present how we dealt with the farm heterogeneity during the proton-proton collisions of 2010 and 2011: a period characterized by changing working conditions, and constantly increasing LHC instantaneous luminosity. We describe a graphical tool to balance the computing-power and bandwidth sharing across the trigger farms, a data-flow monitoring daemon that provides high-level resource-aware data-flow operational information and the evolution of data-flow communication protocols.

  3. Audit Management System

    Alconada, Federico

    2015-01-01

    In the need of renewing their system, the Internal Audit department has given a proposal for building a new one. Taking into consideration the problems of their system they elaborated a requirement's list with the functionalities and features they were expecting from the new management system. This new system would be primarily for the use of the Internal Audit staff but it would also support the follow-up of internal audit recommendations by potentially all CERN staff members.

  4. Water Use Efficiency under Different Tillage and Irrigation Systems for Tomato Farming in Southeastern Brazil

    Bhering, S. B.; Fernandes, N. F.; Macedo, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    In the northwest part of Rio de Janeiro state water availability is one of the main limiting factors for human development and crop productivity. In the same way that shortage of freshwater is one of the main problems, the tomato production systems waste water and highly degrade the environment. The search for the water use efficiency is a challenge in tomato sustainable development production systems. This study aimed to contribute towards the development of sustainable production systems for the tomato farming in the northwestern part or Rio de Janeiro state, as well as increase water use efficiency and the improvement of our understanding on the role played by soil and water management practices on soil hydrology, especially on the amount of water available for the plants. The study was carried out at an experimental watershed in the city of São José do Ubá, in the northwestern portion of Rio de Janeiro state. This city has one of the worst human development index (HDI = 0718) of the state, occupying one of the last 6 positions (85 in 91), with serious problems of education, sanitation, water supply and public health. This area is characterized by an extensive steep hilly topography constituted by long convex-concave hillslopes separated by flat valley-bottoms. The original Atlantic Forest was continuously removed for the introduction of farming and grazing activities, which currently dominate the landscape of the region. The combination of such topographic and land-use characteristics tend to generate a variety of erosional processes, including rill and interrill erosion, gullies and even landslides. The average annual rainfall in the area is about 1,171 mm, with most of rain concentrated during the summer season, making December the wetter and July the drier months. The water balance is negative for most of the year, with the exception of the period from November to January. The cultivation in the area is traditionally done using production systems that

  5. eFarm: A Tool for Better Observing Agricultural Land Systems

    Qiangyi Yu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, observations of an agricultural land system (ALS largely depend on remotely-sensed images, focusing on its biophysical features. While social surveys capture the socioeconomic features, the information was inadequately integrated with the biophysical features of an ALS and the applications are limited due to the issues of cost and efficiency to carry out such detailed and comparable social surveys at a large spatial coverage. In this paper, we introduce a smartphone-based app, called eFarm: a crowdsourcing and human sensing tool to collect the geotagged ALS information at the land parcel level, based on the high resolution remotely-sensed images. We illustrate its main functionalities, including map visualization, data management, and data sensing. Results of the trial test suggest the system works well. We believe the tool is able to acquire the human–land integrated information which is broadly-covered and timely-updated, thus presenting great potential for improving sensing, mapping, and modeling of ALS studies.

  6. Electrical distribution system management

    Hajos, L.; Mortarulo, M.; Chang, K.; Sparks, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that maintenance of electrical system data is essential to the operation, maintenance, and modification of a nuclear station. Load and equipment changes affect equipment sizing, available short-circuit currents and protection coordination. System parameters must be maintained in a controlled manner to enable evaluation of proposed modifications and provide adequate verification and traceability. For this purpose, Public Service Electric and Gas Company has implemented a Verified and Validated Electric Distribution System Management (EDSM) program at the Hope Creek and Salem Nuclear Power Stations. EDSM program integrates computerized configuration management of electrical systems with calculational software the Technical Standard procedures. The software platform is PC-based. The Database Manager and Calculational programs have been linked together through a user friendly menu system. The database management nodule enable s assembly and maintenance of databases for individual loads, buses, and branches within the electrical systems with system access and approval controlled through electronic security incorporated within the database manger. Reports drawn from the database serve as the as-built and/or as-designed record of the system configurations. This module also creates input data files of network parameters in a format readable by the calculational modules. Calculations modules provide load flow, voltage drop, motor starting, and short-circuit analyses, as well as dynamic analyses of bus transfers

  7. Sewer System Management Plan.

    Holland, Robert C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    A Sewer System Management Plan (SSMP) is required by the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Order No. 2006-0003-DWQ Statewide General Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR) for Sanitary Sewer Systems (General Permit). DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Sandia Field Office has filed a Notice of Intent to be covered under this General Permit. The General Permit requires a proactive approach to reduce the number and frequency of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) within the State. SSMPs must include provisions to provide proper and efficient management, operation, and maintenance of sanitary sewer systems and must contain a spill response plan.

  8. Program management system manual

    1989-08-01

    OCRWM has developed a program management system (PMS) to assist in organizing, planning, directing and controlling the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. A well defined management system is necessary because: (1) the Program is a complex technical undertaking with a large number of participants, (2) the disposal and storage facilities to be developed by the Program must be licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and hence are subject to rigorous quality assurance (QA) requirements, (3) the legislation mandating the Program creates a dichotomy between demanding schedules of performance and a requirement for close and continuous consultation and cooperation with external entities, (4) the various elements of the Program must be managed as parts of an integrated waste management system, (5) the Program has an estimated total system life cycle cost of over $30 billion, and (6) the Program has a unique fiduciary responsibility to the owners and generators of the nuclear waste for controlling costs and minimizing the user fees paid into the Nuclear Waste Fund. This PMS Manual is designed and structured to facilitate strong, effective Program management by providing policies and requirements for organizing, planning, directing and controlling the major Program functions

  9. A distribution management system

    Jaerventausta, P; Verho, P; Kaerenlampi, M; Pitkaenen, M [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Partanen, J [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The development of new distribution automation applications is considerably wide nowadays. One of the most interesting areas is the development of a distribution management system (DMS) as an expansion to the traditional SCADA system. At the power transmission level such a system is called an energy management system (EMS). The idea of these expansions is to provide supporting tools for control center operators in system analysis and operation planning. Nowadays the SCADA is the main computer system (and often the only) in the control center. However, the information displayed by the SCADA is often inadequate, and several tasks cannot be solved by a conventional SCADA system. A need for new computer applications in control center arises from the insufficiency of the SCADA and some other trends. The latter means that the overall importance of the distribution networks is increasing. The slowing down of load-growth has often made network reinforcements unprofitable. Thus the existing network must be operated more efficiently. At the same time larger distribution areas are for economical reasons being monitored at one control center and the size of the operation staff is decreasing. The quality of supply requirements are also becoming stricter. The needed data for new applications is mainly available in some existing systems. Thus the computer systems of utilities must be integrated. The main data source for the new applications in the control center are the AM/FM/GIS (i.e. the network database system), the SCADA, and the customer information system (CIS). The new functions can be embedded in some existing computer system. This means a strong dependency on the vendor of the existing system. An alternative strategy is to develop an independent system which is integrated with other computer systems using well-defined interfaces. The latter approach makes it possible to use the new applications in various computer environments, having only a weak dependency on the

  10. Materials management information systems.

    1996-01-01

    The hospital materials management function--ensuring that goods and services get from a source to an end user--encompasses many areas of the hospital and can significantly affect hospital costs. Performing this function in a manner that will keep costs down and ensure adequate cash flow requires effective management of a large amount of information from a variety of sources. To effectively coordinate such information, most hospitals have implemented some form of materials management information system (MMIS). These systems can be used to automate or facilitate functions such as purchasing, accounting, inventory management, and patient supply charges. In this study, we evaluated seven MMISs from seven vendors, focusing on the functional capabilities of each system and the quality of the service and support provided by the vendor. This Evaluation is intended to (1) assist hospitals purchasing an MMIS by educating materials managers about the capabilities, benefits, and limitations of MMISs and (2) educate clinical engineers and information system managers about the scope of materials management within a healthcare facility. Because software products cannot be evaluated in the same manner as most devices typically included in Health Devices Evaluations, our standard Evaluation protocol was not applicable for this technology. Instead, we based our ratings on our observations (e.g., during site visits), interviews we conducted with current users of each system, and information provided by the vendor (e.g., in response to a request for information [RFI]). We divided the Evaluation into the following sections: Section 1. Responsibilities and Information Requirements of Materials Management: Provides an overview of typical materials management functions and describes the capabilities, benefits, and limitations of MMISs. Also includes the supplementary article, "Inventory Cost and Reimbursement Issues" and the glossary, "Materials Management Terminology." Section 2. The

  11. Farm management, not soil microbial diversity, controls nutrient loss from smallholder tropical agriculture

    Stephen A Wood

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical smallholder agriculture supports the livelihoods of over 900 million of the world’s poorest people. This form of agriculture is undergoing rapid transformation in nutrient cycling pathways as international development efforts strongly promote greater use of mineral fertilizers to increase crop yields. These changes in nutrient availability may alter the composition of microbial communities with consequences for rates of biogeochemical processes that control nutrient losses to the environment. Ecological theory suggests that altered microbial diversity will strongly influence processes performed by relatively few microbial taxa, such as denitrification and hence nitrogen losses as nitrous oxide, a powerful greenhouse gas. Whether this theory helps predict nutrient losses from agriculture depends on the relative effects of microbial community change and increased nutrient availability on ecosystem processes. We find that mineral and organic nutrient addition to smallholder farms in Kenya alters the taxonomic and functional diversity of soil microbes. However, we find that the direct effects of farm management on both denitrification and carbon mineralization are greater than indirect effects through changes in the taxonomic and functional diversity of microbial communities. Changes in functional diversity are strongly coupled to changes in specific functional genes involved in denitrification, suggesting that it is the expression, rather than abundance, of key functional genes that can serve as an indicator of ecosystem process rates. Our results thus suggest that widely used broad summary statistics of microbial diversity based on DNA may be inappropriate for linking microbial communities to ecosystem processes in certain applied settings. Our results also raise doubts about the relative control of microbial composition compared to direct effects of management on nutrient losses in applied settings such as tropical agriculture.

  12. Characterization of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes on an Ecological Farm System

    Songhe Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern worldwide about the prevalence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs on the farm. In this study, we investigated the distribution of seven antibiotics and ten ARGs in fresh and dried pig feces, in biogas slurry, and in grape-planting soil from an ecological farm. Antibiotics including sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline were detected in these samples (except for sulfamethoxazole in dried feces. In general, antibiotics levels in samples were in the sequence: biogas slurry > fresh feces > soil or dried feces. Results of ecological risk assessments revealed that among the seven antibiotics chlortetracycline showed the highest ecological risk. Among the ten ARGs, sulI and tetO were the most prevalent on this ecological farm. There were positive correlations between certain ARGs and the corresponding antibiotics on this ecological farm. Therefore, continuous monitoring of antibiotics and their corresponding ARGs should be conducted in the agroecosystem near the concentrated animal farming operation systems.

  13. Management Information System

    1984-01-01

    New Automated Management Information Center (AMIC) employs innovative microcomputer techniques to create color charts, viewgraphs, or other data displays in a fraction of the time formerly required. Developed under Kennedy Space Center's contract by Boeing Services International Inc., Seattle, WA, AMIC can produce an entirely new informational chart in 30 minutes, or an updated chart in only five minutes. AMIC also has considerable potential as a management system for business firms.

  14. Hulpmiddelen voor de arbeidsorganisatie op grote melkveebedrijven : eindresultaat van het project "Meer mans met protocollen" = Tools for labor management on large dairy farms

    Zijlstra, J.; Poelarends, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    A study group of dairy farmers, employees of agricultural employment agencies and research workers in dairy farm management selected and developed nine tools to improve labor management on dairy farms in the Netherlands. The tools cover the fields of standard operating procedures, planning and labor

  15. Simulation of interaction between wind farm and power system[Flicker

    Soerensen, P.; Hansen, A.; Janosi, L.; Bech, J.; Bak-Jensen, B.

    2001-12-01

    A dynamic model of the wind farm Hagesholm has been implemented in the dedicated power system simulation program DIgSILENT. The wind farm consists of six 2MW NM2000/72 wind turbines from NEG-Micon. The model has been verified using simultaneous power quality measurements on the 10 kV terminals of a single wind turbine and power performance measurements on two wind turbines. The verification shows a generally good agreement between simulations and measurements, although the simulations at higher wind speeds seem to underestimate the power and voltage fluctuations. A way to improve the simulation at higher wind speeds is suggested. (au)

  16. Influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming systems in Kenya

    Migose, S.A.; Bebe, B.O.; Boer, de, I.J.M.; Oosting, S.J.

    2018-01-01

    We studied influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming system development. Farms were chosen from three locations that varied in distance to the urban market of Nakuru Town in the Kenyan highlands: urban location (UL, n = 10) at less than 15 km distance, mid-rural location (MRL, n = 11) in between 20 and 50 km west of Nakuru and extreme rural location (ERL, n = 9) beyond 50 km west and south-west of Nakuru. In-depth interviews with farmers and focus group discussions w...

  17. Anesthesia information management systems

    Feri Štivan; Janez Benedik; Tomaž Lužar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) is on the increase. This is particularly true for academic anesthesia departments. The main reasons for slow adoption of these systems in the past are financial barriers associated with implementation of these systems and their not so traditionally obvious potential to improve patient care. In addition, a major obstacle to acceptance of this technology is the concern of users over the impact of the electronic anesthesia...

  18. Longitudinal assessment of dairy farm management practices associated with the presence of psychrotolerant Bacillales spores in bulk tank milk on 10 New York State dairy farms.

    Masiello, S N; Kent, D; Martin, N H; Schukken, Y H; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2017-11-01

    The ability of certain spore-forming bacteria in the order Bacillales (e.g., Bacillus spp., Paenibacillus spp.) to survive pasteurization in spore form and grow at refrigeration temperatures results in product spoilage and limits the shelf life of high temperature, short time (HTST)-pasteurized fluid milk. To facilitate development of strategies to minimize contamination of raw milk with psychrotolerant Bacillales spores, we conducted a longitudinal study of 10 New York State dairy farms, which included yearlong monthly assessments of the frequency and levels of bulk tank raw milk psychrotolerant spore contamination, along with administration of questionnaires to identify farm management practices associated with psychrotolerant spore presence over time. Milk samples were first spore pasteurized (80°C for 12 min) and then analyzed for sporeformer counts on the initial day of spore pasteurization (SP), and after refrigerated storage (6°C) for 7, 14, and 21 d after SP. Overall, 41% of samples showed sporeformer counts of >20,000 cfu/mL at d 21, with Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. being predominant causes of high sporeformer counts. Statistical analyses identified 3 management factors (more frequent cleaning of the bulk tank area, the use of a skid steer to scrape the housing area, and segregating problem cows during milking) that were all associated with lower probabilities of d-21 Bacillales spore detection in SP-treated bulk tank raw milk. Our data emphasize that appropriate on-farm measures to improve overall cleanliness and cow hygiene will reduce the probability of psychrotolerant Bacillales spore contamination of bulk tank raw milk, allowing for consistent production of raw milk with reduced psychrotolerant spore counts, which will facilitate production of HTST-pasteurized milk with extended refrigerated shelf life. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk Management Plan for Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations, Project W-314

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Risk Management Plan for Project W-314 describes the systems, processes and procedures for implementation of applicable risk management practices described in HNF-0842, Volume IV, Section 2.6, ''Risk Management''. This plan is tailored specifically for use by Project W-314

  20. Risk Perception and Management Strategies in Dairy Farming: A Case of Adana Province of Turkey

    Seyit Hayran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine and analyse farmers’ risk perceptions and risk management strategies in dairy farming. Data were obtained in 2014 (December and 2015 (February and March from face-to-face interviews with 96 dairy farmers in Yüregir and Saricam district of Adana province of Turkey. Factor analysis was used in data reduction to identify a small number of factors related to risk sources and risk strategies in this study. Then, multiple regression model was used to evaluate the influence of socio-economic characteristics and communication behaviour on the farmers’ risk perceptions and risk management strategies using factor loadings. The results of this study show that the most important risk source that the farmers' perceive is variability in feed prices and risk management strategy that the farmers' perceive is take precautions to prevent disease. The results of factor analysis show that the risk scale consists of 8 factors explaining 70.24% of total variance. The internal consistency coefficient Cronbach Alfa of the scale is 0.808 and KMO is 0.732. The risk management scale consists of 6 factors explaining 67.78% of total variance. The internal consistency coefficient Cronbach Alfa of the scale is 0.775 and KMO is 0.746. According to the results, perceptions were farmer-specific, a number of socio-economic variables and communication behaviour are found to be related to risk and risk management. To improve risk management strategies is useful for farmers as well and might help them to avoid many risks and reduce losses.