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Sample records for farm work activities

  1. Off-farm work decisions on Dutch cash crop farms and the 1992 and Agenda 2000 CAP reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldehanna, T.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Peerlings, J.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    A double hurdle model of off-farm work participation and off-farm labour income was derived and estimated consistent with a farm household model. It was found that rationing and unexpected transaction costs inhibit farm households from participating in off-farm work. The 1992 and the Agenda 2000 CAP

  2. Chemical usage in production agriculture: do crop insurance and off-farm work play a part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Hao; Mishra, Ashok K

    2012-08-30

    In recent years a growing body of literature in the agricultural policy arena has examined the association between crop insurance and off-farm employment. However, little is known about the extent to which these two activities may be related to environmental quality, in particular their impacts on fertilizer/chemical use of the farm. To fill this gap, this paper examines the effect of crop insurance and off-farm work on fertilizer/chemical expenses within the farm household framework. Quantile regression results from a national representative farm-level data show that off-farm work by the farm operator tends to decrease fertilizer/chemical expenses, and the effect is more pronounced at the higher percentiles of the distribution of fertilizer/chemical expense. In contrast, a positive effect of crop insurance on fertilizer/chemical expenses is evident, and the effect is robust across the entire distribution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. DETERMININGS OF FARM WORK ALLOCATION IN BRAZILIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe de Morais Cangussu Pessoa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the determinings of farm work allocation in Brazilian regions, based on micro data of National Household Sample Survey 2009. For that, the empirical procedure consisted in the use of two models: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and the Logit Model. The model Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed good fit and defined two latent variables: qualification and income. As to the Logit Model, the results showed that the fact of a man living in rural areas increases the likelihood of being allocated in farm work, however if he is white this probability decrease. Besides, the variables qualification and income have a negative relation with farm work allocation, being the Midwest region that contributed most for people being allocated in farm work.

  4. A method for assessing work productivity and flexibility in livestock farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostiou, N; Dedieu, B

    2012-05-01

    Changes affecting livestock farming systems have made farm work a central concern for both the sector and for farmers themselves. Increased pressure on farms to be competitive and productive together with farmers' demand for greater autonomy, holidays or time to spend on private activities and the family converge to underline the two key dimensions of work - productivity and flexibility - required for the assessment of work organization. This paper proposes a method called the QuaeWork (QUAlification and Evaluation of Work in livestock farms) to assess work productivity and flexibility on a farm, and its use to identify how livestock management can contribute to work organization on dairy farms. The QuaeWork method was set up through an iterative process combining surveys conducted with farmers in two regions of France, discussions with different experts and literature review. The QuaeWork was applied on a sample of seven dairy farms in the southern Massif Central in France to identify patterns of how livestock management contributes to work organization. The QuaeWork was used to analyse work organization over the year through a systemic approach to the farm, integrating interactions between herd and land management, workforce composition, equipment facilities and combinations of activities through a characterization of 'who does what, when and for how long'. The criteria for assessing work productivity were work duration (routine work, seasonal work) and work efficiency (per livestock unit or hectare of utilized agricultural area). The criteria for assessing work flexibility were room for manoeuvre and adjustments to internal and external events. The three main patterns of livestock management practices to work organization were identified. In pattern-1, farmers used indoor stable feeding practices with delegated work, with moderate room for manoeuvre and efficiency. In pattern-3, farmers used simplified milking, reproduction and breeding practices to seasonalize

  5. Assessment of Farming Systems for Sustainability of Farming Activities in the Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Moumenihelali

    2016-03-01

    criteria were identified as sustainability criteria for agricultural activities in the province along with Cooperative, Commercial and Peasant alternatives as the dominant farming system in the present study. Consequently, the identification of the most suitable farming system for sustainable agricultural activities in the province serves as the main objective of this research. Materials and Methods: The study adopted an applied survey approach to conduct the study in 2014 in Mazandaran. The statistical population comprised of all professionals and experts working in the field of sustainability aspects and farming systems with a deep understanding and sufficient information on the issue being selected through purposive and snowball sampling summing up to 15 subjects. A questionnaire was used to collect data. In order to determine the face and content validities, the professors’ and specialists’ comments were taken into account and to estimate the reliability, the inconsistency rate was used. To achieve the main objective, the analytic hierarchy process technique by considering 5 criteria and 33 sub-criteria on three farming types (cooperative, commercial and peasant were used. The Expert Choice software 2000 was applied for data analysis. It should be noted that the analytic hierarchy process is a multi-criteria decision-making approach being based on paired comparison which enables managers and policymakers to review various scenarios. Likewise, it is sought to consider the experts’ opinions from the most central units involved instead of focusing on the number of decision-makers. Results and Discussion: Based on the results and considering criteria prioritization reveal the fact that the ecological,policy, social dimensions compared with the economic and technical criteria remain more imperative. Therefore, the ecological, political and social dimensions are the most important aspects of agricultural activities sustainability in the province. Hence, it can be

  6. Off-Farm Work among Rural Households: A Case Study in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWey, Leah; Vithayathil, Trina

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes off-farm work among subsistence-level farmers in the Santarem region of the Brazilian Amazon. We build on the literature on rural livelihoods in the Global South by exploring how the opportunity to work off the farm is embedded in social relationships. We additionally differentiate our analysis by type of off-farm work, and…

  7. Off-Farm Work among Rural Households: A Case Study in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWey, Leah; Vithayathil, Trina

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes off-farm work among subsistence-level farmers in the Santarem region of the Brazilian Amazon. We build on the literature on rural livelihoods in the Global South by exploring how the opportunity to work off the farm is embedded in social relationships. We additionally differentiate our analysis by type of off-farm work, and…

  8. Green care farms promote activity among elderly people with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de S.R.; Oosting, S.J.; Kuin, Y.; Hoefnagels, E.C.M.; Blauw, Y.H.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Schols, J.M.G.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, an increasing number of green care farms are providing day care to community-dwelling elderly people with dementia. Currently, it is unknown whether activities, activity participation, and facility use of elderly people with dementia at green care farms differ from those at

  9. Green care farms promote activity among elderly people with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, S.R. de; Oosting, S.J.; Kuin, Y.; Hoefnagels, E.C.M.; Blauw, Y.H.; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Schols, J.M.G.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, an increasing number of green care farms are providing day care to community-dwelling elderly people with dementia. Currently, it is unknown whether activities, activity participation, and facility use of elderly people with dementia at green care farms differ from those at regul

  10. The intellectual legacy of Mary Neth's work on farm women and rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterud, Grey

    2009-01-01

    Mary Neth's 1995 book, "Preserving the Family Farm: Women, Community, and the Foundations of Agribusiness in the Midwest, 1900-1940," made a major contribution to the analysis of the connections between gender and the political economy that shaped farm women's lives and fueled farmers' resistance to the transformation of rural life wrought by agribusiness. Focusing on the processes of negotiation between women and men in farming families and rural communities, Neth illuminated the relationship between women's work and their power. Tracing the dense networks that connected farm families, she also showed how cooperation in work generated and sustained radical farm movements.

  11. THE HIRED FARM WORKING FORCE OF 1966, A STATISTICAL REPORT. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC REPORT NO. 120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    INFORMATION ON THE SIZE AND COMPOSITION OF THE HIRED FARM WORKING FORCE, AND ON THE EMPLOYMENT AND CASH EARNINGS FROM FARM AND NONFARM WAGE WORK FOR 1966 IS PRESENTED. THE DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM THE ANNUAL SURVEY CONDUCTED FOR THE ECONOMIC RESEARCH SERVICE BY THE BUREAU OF CENSUS. THE SAMPLE INCLUDED APPROXIMATELY 35,000 HOUSEHOLDS INTERVIEWED…

  12. All in the Family: Work-Family Enrichment and Crossover Among Farm Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprung, Justin M; Jex, Steve M

    2016-04-21

    This study expands upon the contextualization of the work-family interface by examining positive work-family experiences within the farming industry. Both individual and crossover effects were examined among a sample of 217 married farm couples. Results demonstrated multiple significant relationships between self-reported attitudes, work-family enrichment, and health outcomes. In addition, crossover effects reveal the importance of individual attitudes (husband work engagement and wife farm satisfaction) for spousal work-family enrichment and health outcomes. Furthermore, individual work-family enrichment was positively related to spousal psychological health and negatively related to spousal physical symptoms. Many of these findings remained significant after controlling for work-family conflict. Overall, our results suggest the potential beneficial impact of the integrated work-family dynamic associated with the farming profession for positive work-family experiences. Implications of these findings, as well as directions for future research, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. A Wind Farm Active Power Dispatch Strategy for Fatigue Load Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Baohua; N. Soltani, Mohsen; Hu, Weihao;

    2016-01-01

    , while the wind farm is following certain power references given by the network operator. The damage equivalent loads are included in the objective function by means of lookup tables generated under a series of working conditions. A Modified Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm is used to solve......One of the biggest challenges in wind farm management is to cope with requirements from the grid companies and to optimize efficiency and minimize wear on wind turbines. This paper addresses an optimized active power dispatch strategy of a wind farm to reduce the fatigue load of wind turbines...

  14. What factors attract and motivate dairy farm employees in their daily work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstrup, Christina Lunner

    2012-01-01

    This study examined attraction and motivation factors important for people choosing to work and remain in the profession of dairy farm worker. The study comprised 194 agricultural students, 197 employed dairy farm workers and 147 employers. The study was based on questionnaires in which the key questions were: What would attract you to choose dairy farming as a profession? What attracts and motivates you in your daily work? What would motivate you to remain employed in dairy farming? Furthermore, in order to elucidate the farm employer's view, they were asked what they believed were important factors to attract and motivate young people to the profession. In general, the students, employees and employers had similar opinions on factors that attract and motivate dairy farm workers in their daily work. Although the order of priorities was different, they agreed that having fun at work, good leadership, feeling pride in their work, job security, good team spirit, living in the countryside, meaningful and interesting work, safe and healthy workplace, flexible work tasks, the farm having a good reputation and feedback from supervisors were among the most important attraction and motivation factors.

  15. The Migrant Farm Work Force: Differences in Attachment to Farmwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitener, Leslie A.

    1985-01-01

    Investigates extent of diversity and segmentation within United States migrant farm labor force by examining differences in migrants' attachment to farmwork. Finds three groups of migrants with differing levels of dependence on agriculture differentiated by demographic (age, minority status, region) and employment (earnings) variables. (NEC)

  16. Active Power Control of Waked Wind Farms: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Active power control can be used to balance the total power generated by wind farms with the power consumed on the electricity grid. With the increasing penetration levels of wind energy, there is an increasing need for this ancillary service. In this paper, we show that the tracking of a certain power reference signal provided by the transmission system operator can be significantly improved by using feedback control at the wind farm level. We propose a simple feedback control law that significantly improves the tracking behavior of the total power output of the farm, resulting in higher performance scores. The effectiveness of the proposed feedback controller is demonstrated using high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics simulations of a small wind farm.

  17. Quantifying physical activity heat in farm animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, W.J.J.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Labussière, E.; Klinken, van J.B.

    2015-01-01

    The time dependent character of data generated by modern calorimetry equipment provides the unique opportunity to monitor short term changes in energy expenditure related to physical activity, feeding pattern and other experimental interventions. When timed recordings of physical activity are availa

  18. Active tourism development in "Jaun-Ieviņas" farm

    OpenAIRE

    Borodina, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Paper consists of three parts. The first chapter is dedicated to active tourism motivation, definition, classification and resources researching, as well as active tourism routes planning theoretical aspects, concentrating on bicycle routes and hiking routes. In the second chapter the author examines „Jaun-Ieviņas” farm and competitors’ characteristics, analyzing tourism resources, as well as farms’ advantages and disadvantages. The third chapter describes two bicycle routes and nature ...

  19. Risk Factors for Developing Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders during Dairy Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad Taghavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dairy farming work involves frequent use of poor postures. These postures may increase the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders among dairy workers. Objective: To assess postural load during performance of various tasks related to dairy farming. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a dairy farm in Iran. In order to assess postural load, tasks related to dairy farming were divided into 3 categories: feeding, milking, and manure disposal. Each task was then divided into its constituent work subdivisions (tasks. Finally, the working posture for each work subdivision was evaluated using Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA. Results: Based on the results from the REBA score, the poorest risk scores (risk level 4 were associated with the following tasks: (1 manure disposal, (2 filling feed bags, and (3 pouring milk into a bucket. Other tasks such as filling corn containers, pouring corn into the milling machine, preparing the feed, pouring food into mangers, attaching the milking machine, and pouring milk from a bucket into a tank imposed high risk (risk level 3. The risk for the tasks of washing and disinfecting the udders were assessed as medium risks. Conclusion: The risk levels associated with most of the tasks on the studied farm were unacceptably high. Therefore, it is essential to implement ergonomic interventions to reduce risk levels of the tasks.

  20. STEPS IN MAKING TECHNICAL ANALYSIS ECONOMIC ACTIVITY IN FARM

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora IVASCU

    2012-01-01

    Business analysis of agricultural units, research, information system based on the results obtained in their work, factors which have determined ways to improve them. It has an important role in ensuring the scientific management of farms, are an essential instrument in the exercise of leadership attributes on all hierarchical levels. In the analysis of business units in agriculture must take into consideration the peculiarities of agricultural production. These are reflected in the structure...

  1. Power control of a wind farm with active stall wind turbines and AC grid connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul; Iov, Florin

    This paper describes the design of a centralised wind farm controller for a wind farm made-up exclusively of active stall wind turbines with AC grid connection. The overall aim of such controller is to enable the wind farms to provide the best grid support. The designed wind farm control involves...... both the control on wind turbine level as well as the central control on the wind farm level. The ability of active stall wind farms with AC grid connection to regulate the power production to the reference power ordered by the operators is assessed and discussed by means of simulations....

  2. Agricultural work exposures and pulmonary function among hired farm workers in California (the MICASA study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Erik J; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Bennett, Deborah H; Tancredi, Daniel J; Schenker, Marc B

    2014-01-01

    Despite California's dependence on hired farm labor, scarce research has been conducted on the respiratory health of hired farm workers. Agricultural exposures to inorganic and organic dusts can adversely affect an individual's respiratory health and differ by farm type and job task. The purpose of the present analysis was to examine associations between agricultural work exposures and pulmonary function among 450 California farm workers. Data were collected as part of the Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) study, a prospective cohort study examining occupational risk factors and health of hired farm worker families in Mendota, California. Time-weighted self-reported average (TWSRA) dust scores were calculated from assessments of past-12-month agricultural work history. Other dust exposure indicator variables included months worked in agriculture in the past 12 months and years worked in agriculture. Multiple linear regression modeled FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second), FEF(25-75%) (forced midexpiratory flow rate), FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV6, FEV1/FVC, and FEV1/FEV6 separately. Seventy-six percent of participants had worked in agriculture in the past year. In models conducted for crops and tasks separately, high TWSRA dust score was associated with better FEV6. Crop and task models showed associations between greater months worked in agriculture in the past year and better FEV1, FEF(25-75%), and FEV6. Both models also found greater years worked in agriculture to be associated with worse FEV1/FEV6. Results were generally in the opposite direction as expected given past research but not uncommon. Future research should investigate relationships between pulmonary function and agricultural dust exposure over a lifetime and changes in pulmonary function over time.

  3. The Profitability of Animal Husbandry Activities on Farms in Dry Farming Areas and the Interaction between Crop Production and Animal Husbandry: The Case of Ankara Province in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Tanrıvermis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the linkages between livestock and crop farming activities and provides a comparative analysis of the profitability of different livestock activities in the highlands of Ankara. The data was collected from 52 sample farms in the Nallıhan, Aya¸s, Güdül and Beypazarı districts of Ankara by way of a questionnaire, where the farms have, on average, 20.7 ha of land and are thus regarded as small family farms. Insufficient irrigated land and working capital, weak market relations and the pressure of high population brings about a requirement to strengthen crop-livestock interaction. Production on the farms is generally carried out in extensive conditions, with goat, sheep and cattle husbandry in addition to crop production. Crop production makes up for 20.8% of the total gross production value on the farms. Of this figure, the entire yields of wheat, barley, pulses, straw and fodder crops are used for own consumption by the households, along with 74% of the wheat and 77% of the barley produced. The research results indicate that the current management systems may be defined as mixed farms in terms of crop–livestock linkages. The average total income of the households surveyed is 9,412.0 USD, of which 63.4% comes from farming activities. Every 1 USD invested in animal husbandry provides an income of 1.12 USD from dairy cattle breeding, 1.13 USD from Angora goat breeding, 1.16 USD from sheep breeding and 1.27 USD from ordinary goat breeding. It has been found that ordinary goat breeding, which provides the greatest relative profitability for the farms, offers many advantages, and that the transition from Angora goat breeding to ordinary goat breeding through the breeding of ordinary male goats into the Angora herd has occurred in recent years. The results of the survey indicate that supporting crop production with animal husbandry is considered a requirement in order to maintain economic and social sustainability in the farms

  4. Poor safety climate, long work hours, and musculoskeletal discomfort among Latino horse farm workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Jennifer; Clouser, Jessica Miller; Gan, Wenqi; Flunker, John C; Westneat, Susan; Browning, Steven R

    2017-09-03

    This study investigated the prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD) and work-related factors associated with elevated MSD among Latino thoroughbred farm workers. Participants (N = 225) were recruited using a community-based purposive sampling approach to participate in in-person interviews. Of these workers, 85% experienced MSD. MSD was divided into tertiles; the upper tertile was defined as elevated. Multivariable Poisson regression revealed associations between any elevated MSD and longer tenure on horse farms, longer work hours, and poor safety climate. Elevated neck/back MSD was associated with longer tenure, longer work hours, and poor safety climate. Elevated upper extremity MSD was associated with age and poor safety climate. Elevated lower extremity MSD was associated with longer tenure, longer work hours, and being female. Musculoskeletal discomfort is common among these workers. Improving safety climate and minimizing long work hours is recommended.

  5. 78 FR 57925 - Agency Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity Under OMB... ``OMB Control No. 2900-0095.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm...

  6. Psychosocial factors and safety behaviour as predictors of accidental work injuries in farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasscock, David John; Rasmussen, Kurt; Carstensen, Ole

    2006-01-01

    that farm stressors (including perceived economic problems), stress symptoms, and safety behaviour were predictors of occupational farm accidents. Higher levels of stressors and stress symptoms and poor safety behaviour were all associated with an elevated risk of injury. In the case of stress symptoms...... be a problem faced by farmers, there is a particular need to investigate the associations between farm accidents and work stressors and stress reactions. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, this study aimed to uncover the best psychosocial predictors of injury, while controlling for exposure......, the relation with accidents occurred via an interaction with safety behaviour. The combination of high levels of stress symptoms and poor safety behaviour was associated with a particularly high accident risk....

  7. Working capital management in farms in the year 2007 (based on FADN data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roma Ryś-Jurek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is an attempt to describe the way of the net working capital management in farms in the year 2007. Data on the farms were taken from the FADN database and include the farms from the 27 European Union countries (EU-27. A descriptive and comparative analysis was used, and also the fundamental indicators of the financial analysis were made. The analysis showed that agriculture in the EU in 2007 year was characterized by: a high share of current assets in total assets, over-liquidity and low importance of short-term liabilities, and commonly used strategy of net working capital management was an aggressive-conservative one. This strategy was characterized by a moderate profit and risk. There was also a high diversity of assets and capital structure depending on the country. The study was extended by the comparison of net working capital management in the average farms from Poland with the average one from the EU-27 according to the ESU and the agricultural type.

  8. The ergonomics analysis of work: a case study in a experimental farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lourdes Santiago Luz, Maria; Lemos, Syntia

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the initial steps of ergonomic analysis of industrial activities, which are being held in the premises of an Agricultural Experimental farm belonging to an institution of higher education. The methods employed in the initial step was confined to desk research, its purpose was to know the demographic profile and understand organizational structure followed by systematic observations in workplaces using semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire of perception to operators. The presentation of the results will provide a summary of the analysis of activity sectors visited, understanding the biomechanical efforts entered (posture and strength), as well as the evaluation according to the perception of officials to respect the constraints, ambience and suggestions. It was noted that 90% of employees surveyed feel some kind of discomfort. It also highlights the age factor of this questionnaire, in which the majority (90%) is above 40 years old, and this fact confirms and reinforces the appearance or accumulation of injuries among the employers. At this stage there was no intention to deploy improvements, but create assumptions and guide future intervention actions that can be performed.

  9. Distributed Model Predictive Control for Active Power Control of Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the active power control of a wind farm using the Distributed Model Predictive Controller (D- MPC) via dual decomposition. Different from the conventional centralized wind farm control, multiple objectives such as power reference tracking performance and wind turbine load can......-scale wind farm control....

  10. Work activities within sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Duarte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main results of a Franco-Brazilian Research project entitled "Work, Innovation and Development". The aim is to conceptually consider work activity within sustainable development, and to contribute methodologically towards developing strategies for designing sustainable work systems. After a brief description of the factors and the dimensions that have contributed to the creation of ideas on sustainable development, we will put forward two main approaches for understanding work activity within the context of sustainability, these being: the durability of work activity and the development of work activities for sustainable development. Both approaches are presented and examples are given. This is followed by a discussion of the design of sustainable work systems that focuses particularly on the political and technical dimensions of project management.

  11. Glutathione peroxidase (GPX activity in blood of ewes on farms in different scrapie categories in Iceland

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    Eiríksson Tryggvi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preliminary studies indicated decreased glutathione peroxidase (GPX activity in blood of ewes on scrapie-afflicted farms. Other studies have shown decreased GPX activity in brain of prion-infected mice and in prion-infected cells in vitro. The aim of this study was to examine the GPX activity in blood as well as the distribution of GPX-activity levels from ewes on farms in scrapie-afflicted areas in Iceland. Methods Blood samples were collected from 635 ewes (non-pregnant [n = 297] and pregnant [n = 338] on 40 farms in scrapie-afflicted areas during the years 2001–2005, for analysis of GPX activity. The farms were divided into three categories: 1. Scrapie-free farms (n = 14; 2. Scrapie-prone farms (earlier scrapie-afflicted, restocked farms (n = 12; 3. Scrapie-afflicted farms (n = 14. For comparison, 121 blood samples were also collected from non-pregnant ewes on one farm (farm A in a scrapie-free area (scrapie never registered. Chi-square test was used to test for normal distribution of GPX-results, and Kruskal-Wallis test to compare GPX-results between categories. Results The GPX-results appeared to be biphasically distributed in ewes in all three scrapie categories and on farm A. The presumptive breaking point was about 300 units g Hb-1. About 30–50% of the GPX-results from ewes in all three scrapie categories were below 300 units g Hb-1 but only about 13% of the GPX-results from ewes on farm A. The mean GPX activity was highest on farm A, and was significantly lower on scrapie-prone farms than on scrapie-free or scrapie-afflicted farms (non-pregnant and pregnant ewes: P Conclusions 1 the distribution of GPX-results in blood of Icelandic ewes apparently has a biphasic character; 2 the GPX-results were higher in ewes on one farm in a scrapie-free area than in ewes on farms in the scrapie-afflicted areas; 3 GPX-activity levels were significantly lowest on earlier scrapie-afflicted, restocked farms, which might have a

  12. Non-farm Activities and Adoption of Improved Cassava and Beans Varieties in South- Kivu, DR Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dontsop-Nguezet, PM.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-farm activities have been generally considered as important strategy for overcoming credit constraints faced by rural households as well as for reducing poverty through income effect. This paper employs binary probit and average treatment effect to estimate the impact of participation in non-farm activities on adoption of improved cassava and beans varieties in South-Kivu, DR Congo. Results showed on one hand that the participation rate in non-farm activities in South-Kivu was 38% and 52.1% respectively for crafts and small businesses. On the other hand, the rate of adoption of new cassava and beans varieties were 14 and 28% respectively. Factors affecting the adoption rate were gender, education, household size, the presence of non-farm activities, household assets in terms of livestock owned, market access and access to the information on new technologies. These results demonstrate the tendency of rural households to include the practice of non-farm activities among their strategies for survival and diversify their sources of income or supplement farm income. Results of this study indicate a positive relationship between engagement of rural households in non-farm activities and their propensity to adopt improved varieties. There is still a huge gap between potential adoption rate and actual rate of adoption for cassava and beans improved varieties in the study area. Therefore, actors involved in the development of the agricultural sector have to be aware of the importance of these factors even when they are working for the promotion of purely agricultural activities.

  13. Response to work activity guidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum is concerning the request from the FY95 Platte-Kansas Rivers Ecosystem Work Activity Guidance for refuge managers to review the purposes of refuges...

  14. Rural non-farm activities in impoverished agricultural communities : the case of North Shoa Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demeke, M.

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the extent of deagrarianization in North Shoa, one of the most impoverished regions of Ethiopia. It describes the role and trend of farm activities and output, the trends in income diversification and the historical evolution of non-farm activities, and the relationship between f

  15. 75 FR 57866 - Farm Loan Programs Loan Making Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... farm experience to demonstrate sufficient managerial ability, the experience must have been within the.... Summary of Economic Impacts The Cost Benefit Analysis covers three provisions required by the 2008 Farm... that there would not be a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities....

  16. Grid support of a wind farm with active stall wind turbines and AC grid connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Iov, F.

    2006-01-01

    One of the main concerns in the grid integration of large wind farms is their ability to behave as active controllable components in the power system. This article presents the design of a new integrated power control system for a wind farm made up exclusively of active stall wind turbines with AC...... grid connection. The designed control system has the task of enabling such a wind farm to provide the best grid support. It is based on two control levels: a supervisory control level, which controls the power production of the whole farm by sending out reference signals to each individual wind turbine......, and a local control level, which ensures that the reference power signals at the wind turbine level are reached. The ability of active stall wind farms with AC grid connection to control the power production to the reference power ordered by the operators is assessed and discussed by means of simulations....

  17. 78 FR 34174 - Proposed Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity: Comment... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm...

  18. 75 FR 77957 - Agency Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity Under OMB... INFORMATION: Title: Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income, VA Form 21- 4165. OMB Control Number: 2900...

  19. 75 FR 61248 - Proposed Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity: Comment... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm...

  20. Making contract farming work? : society and technology in Philippine transnational agribusiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: contract farming, agribusiness, Philippines, Southeast Asia, asparagus, hybrid maizeContract farming is a widespread and important tool for organising agricultural production in line with corporate strategies and market demands. This book analyses how Philippine farmers and transnational a

  1. Making contract farming work? : society and technology in Philippine transnational agribusiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: contract farming, agribusiness, Philippines, Southeast Asia, asparagus, hybrid maize

    Contract farming is a widespread and important tool for organising agricultural production in line with corporate strategies and market demands. This book analyses how Philippine farmers

  2. Brucellosis in working equines of cattle farms from Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Danilo Guedes; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Gonçalves, Vitor Salvador Picão; Santana, Jordana Almeida; Almeida, Valéria Maria de Andrade; Nicolino, Rafael Romero; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Mota, Ana Lourdes Arrais de Alencar; Veloso, Flávio Pereira; Stynen, Ana Paula Reinato; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2015-10-01

    The present survey aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of brucellosis in working equines of cattle farms from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and investigating risk factors associated with the infection. Serum samples from 6439 animals, including 5292 horses, 1037 mules and 110 donkeys, were collected from 1936 herds, between September 2003 and March 2004, in 848 municipalities from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella spp. found in equines from Minas Gerais State was 1.37% (95% CI: 0.97-1.78), resulting in a prevalence of herds with infected animals of 4.28% (95% CI: 4.21-4.36). There were differences between regions but these were not of major epidemiological relevance nor were most of them statistically significant, given the considerable overlap of confidence intervals. Nevertheless, the point estimates suggest that the three northeastern regions have slightly higher prevalence than the rest of the state, both at the herd and animal levels. No association of Brucella spp. seropositivity with sex, age or host was observed. In conclusion, the present study showed a low but widespread prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella in equines kept in cattle farms in Minas Gerais, a state where bovine brucellosis is also widespread albeit with low prevalence.

  3. The Socioecology of Territory Size and a "Work-Around" Hypothesis for the Adoption of Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This paper combines theory from ecology and anthropology to investigate variation in the territory sizes of subsistence oriented agricultural societies. The results indicate that population and the dependence of individuals within a society on “wild” foods partly determine the territory sizes of agricultural societies. In contrast, the productivity of an agroecosystem is not an important determinant of territory size. A comparison of the population-territory size scaling dynamics of agricultural societies and human foragers indicates that foragers and farmers face the same constraints on their ability to expand their territory and intensify their use of resources within a territory. However, the higher density of food in an agroecosystem allows farmers, on average, to live at much higher population densities than human foragers. These macroecological patterns are consistent with a “work-around hypothesis” for the adoption of farming. This hypothesis is that as residential groups of foragers increase in size, farming can sometimes better reduce the tension between an individual’s autonomy over resources and the need for social groups to function to provide public goods like defense and information. PMID:27391955

  4. Diurnal activity patterns of farm mink (Mustela vison) subjected to different feeding routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen H

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal patterns and time courses of activity and feed availability were investigated in three generations of farmed mink (2003-2005) subjected to three different feedings routines; normal farm feeding (close to average ad libitum), ad libitum, and restricted feeding. The mink were fed daily at h12...... on different feeding schedules. The diurnal activity rhythm in both the farm fed and the ad libitum fed mink consisted of three activity peaks; one around sunrise, one prior to feeding time, and one around sunset. However, the restrictively fed mink decreased their activity in the morning when feed...... was not available and increased their activity up to expected feeding time at noon and again around sunset. When feeding was postponed, the restrictively fed mink increased their activity up to expected feeding time, whereas the ad libitum or farm fed mink did not. The results indicate that mink fed restrictively...

  5. Monitoring rice farming activities in the Mekong Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, S. T.; Chen, C. F.; Chen, C. R.; Chiang, S. H.; Chang, L. Y.; Khin, L. V.

    2015-12-01

    Half of the world's population depends on rice for survival. Rice agriculture thus plays an important role in the developing world's economy. Vietnam is one of the largest rice producers and suppliers on earth and more than 80% of the exported rice was produced from the Mekong Delta region, which is situated in the southwestern Vietnam and encompasses approximately 40,000 km2. Changes in climate conditions could likely trigger the increase of insect populations and rice diseases, causing the potential loss of rice yields. Monitoring rice-farming activities through crop phenology detection can provide policymakers with timely strategies to mitigate possible impacts on the potential yield as well as rice grain exports to ensure food security for the region. The main objective of this study is to develop a logistic-based algorithm to investigate rice sowing and harvesting activities from the multi-temporal Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Landsat fusion data. We processed the data for two main cropping seasons (i.e., winter-spring and summer-autumn seasons) through a three-step procedure: (1) MODIS-Landsat data fusion, (2) construction of the time-series enhanced vegetation index 2 (EVI2) data, (3) rice crop phenology detection. The EVI2 data derived from the fusion results between MODIS and Landsat data were compared with that of Landsat data indicated close correlation between the two datasets (R2 = 0.93). The time-series EVI2 data were processed using the double logistic method to detect the progress of sowing and harvesting activities in the region. The comparisons between the estimated sowing and harvesting dates and the field survey data revealed the root mean squared error (RMSE) values of 8.4 and 5.5 days for the winter-spring crop and 9.4 and 12.8 days for the summer-autumn crop, respectively. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the double logistic-based algorithm for rice crop monitoring from temporal MODIS-Landsat fusion data

  6. Changes in the Welfare of an Injured Working Farm Dog Assessed Using the Five Domains Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Littlewood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present structured, systematic and comprehensive welfare evaluation of an injured working farm dog using the Five Domains Model is of interest in its own right. It is also an example for others wanting to apply the Model to welfare evaluations in different species and contexts. Six stages of a fictitious scenario involving the dog are considered: (1 its on-farm circumstances before one hind leg is injured; (2 its entanglement in barbed wire, cutting it free and transporting it to a veterinary clinic; (3 the initial veterinary examination and overnight stay; (4 amputation of the limb and immediate post-operative recovery; (5 its first four weeks after rehoming to a lifestyle block; and (6 its subsequent life as an amputee and pet. Not all features of the scenario represent average-to-good practice; indeed, some have been selected to indicate poor practice. It is shown how the Model can draw attention to areas of animal welfare concern and, importantly, to how welfare enhancement may be impeded or facilitated. Also illustrated is how the welfare implications of a sequence of events can be traced and evaluated, and, in relation to specific situations, how the degrees of welfare compromise and enhancement may be graded. In addition, the choice of a companion animal, contrasting its welfare status as a working dog and pet, and considering its treatment in a veterinary clinical setting, help to highlight various welfare impacts of some practices. By focussing attention on welfare problems, the Model can guide the implementation of remedies, including ways of promoting positive welfare states. Finally, wider applications of the Five Domains Model are noted: by enabling both negative and positive welfare-relevant experiences to be graded, the Model can be applied to quality of life assessments and end-of-life decisions and, with particular regard to negative experiences, the Model can also help to strengthen expert witness testimony during

  7. 76 FR 75427 - Farm Loan Programs Loan Making Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ...; (6) Obtain from the buyer a current balance sheet, income statement, cash flow budget, and any... direct and guaranteed loans as required by the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (the 2008 Farm..., buyers with an Agency approved repayment plan under this section will supply the Agency a current...

  8. Farm to Work: Development of a Modified Community-Supported Agriculture Model at Worksites, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Christina A; Horton, Karissa D; Loyo, Jennifer; Jowers, Esbelle M; Rodgers, Lindsay Faith; Smiley, Andrew W; Leversen, Eric; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2015-10-22

    The Farm to Work program is a modified community-supported agriculture model at worksites in Texas. The objective of the Farm to Work program is to increase fruit and vegetable intake among employees and their households by decreasing cost, improving convenience, and increasing access while also creating a new market for local farmers at worksites. The objectives of this article were to describe the development, implementation, and outcome of a 5-year participation trend analysis and to describe the community relationships that were formed to enable the successful implementation of the program. The Farm to Work program began in November 2007 as a collaborative effort between the nonprofit Sustainable Food Center, the Texas Department of State Health Services, the Web development company WebChronic Consulting LLC, and Naegelin Farm. The program provides a weekly or biweekly opportunity for employees to order a basket of produce online to be delivered to the worksite by a local farmer. A 5-year participation trend analysis, including seasonal variation and sales trends, was conducted using sales data from November 2007 through December 2012. The total number of baskets delivered from November 2007 through December 2012 was 38,343; of these, 37,466 were sold and 877 were complimentary. The total value of sold and complimentary baskets was $851,035 and $21,925, respectively. Participation in the program increased over time and was highest in 2012. The Farm to Work program increased access to locally grown fruits and vegetables for employees and created a new market for farmers. Increased program participation indicates that Farm to Work can increase employees' fruit and vegetable consumption and thus help prevent chronic diseases in this population.

  9. Farm to Work: Development of a Modified Community-Supported Agriculture Model at Worksites, 2007–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Karissa D.; Loyo, Jennifer; Jowers, Esbelle M.; Rodgers, Lindsay Faith; Smiley, Andrew W.; Leversen, Eric; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Farm to Work program is a modified community-supported agriculture model at worksites in Texas. Community Context The objective of the Farm to Work program is to increase fruit and vegetable intake among employees and their households by decreasing cost, improving convenience, and increasing access while also creating a new market for local farmers at worksites. The objectives of this article were to describe the development, implementation, and outcome of a 5-year participation trend analysis and to describe the community relationships that were formed to enable the successful implementation of the program. Methods The Farm to Work program began in November 2007 as a collaborative effort between the nonprofit Sustainable Food Center, the Texas Department of State Health Services, the Web development company WebChronic Consulting LLC, and Naegelin Farm. The program provides a weekly or biweekly opportunity for employees to order a basket of produce online to be delivered to the worksite by a local farmer. A 5-year participation trend analysis, including seasonal variation and sales trends, was conducted using sales data from November 2007 through December 2012. Outcome The total number of baskets delivered from November 2007 through December 2012 was 38,343; of these, 37,466 were sold and 877 were complimentary. The total value of sold and complimentary baskets was $851,035 and $21,925, respectively. Participation in the program increased over time and was highest in 2012. Interpretation The Farm to Work program increased access to locally grown fruits and vegetables for employees and created a new market for farmers. Increased program participation indicates that Farm to Work can increase employees’ fruit and vegetable consumption and thus help prevent chronic diseases in this population PMID:26491816

  10. Combined Active and Reactive Power Control of Wind Farms based on Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Jianhui;

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a combined wind farm controller based on Model Predictive Control (MPC). Compared with the conventional decoupled active and reactive power control, the proposed control scheme considers the significant impact of active power on voltage variations due to the low X=R ratio...... of wind farm collector systems. The voltage control is improved. Besides, by coordination of active and reactive power, the Var capacity is optimized to prevent potential failures due to Var shortage, especially when the wind farm operates close to its full load. An analytical method is used to calculate...... the sensitivity coefficients to improve the computation efficiency and overcome the convergence problem. Two control modes are designed for both normal and emergency conditions. A wind farm with 20 wind turbines was used to verify the proposed combined control scheme....

  11. The cattle farming activities in Aǧrı province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahinler, Zeki; Demir, Yücel

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to present the current data in the existing situation and potential of the cattle breeding. East Anatolia has an important place in Turkey's cattle breeding sector. Thus, Aǧrı is one of the key cities in the region and livestock breeding is a major resource of income for the population. According to Turkish Statistical Institute's data, the city of Aǧrı has the 8th place with its 321 710 head of cattle currently. In cattle gene types, with 170 583 head in local breeds it is in the first place, while it is in the 10thplace with a total of 131 195 head in crossbreeding and it stands in 63th place with 19 932 head culture race. Once again, according to the Turkish Statistical Institute's data, cattle farming brought in 382 987 750 TL as a result of 259 011 tons of the milk, 5 665 tons of meat and 8 887 skins. In 2014, Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock subsidized cattle farming in the city by paying 20 551 816 TL. Therefore, it is important to determine the existing conditions of livestock sector of the city, especially cattle farming, with regard to its potential and problems. Consequently, it would be possible to develop short term, mid-term, long term goals and solutions for the problems. As a conclusion, the city has a remarkable place in the region with its cattle population, characteristics of animal production and its position in the employment. Aǧrı represents a small model in local level for Turkey's overall livestock farming.

  12. Improving farm animal welfare : science and society working together: the welfare quality approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, H.J.; Miele, M.; Veissier, I.; Jones, B.

    2013-01-01

    How do you define the quality of life of a farmed animal? This book addresses the complex and often controversial issues surrounding the assessment and improvement of farm animal welfare. It discusses the relevance of science based welfare assessments and the importance of establishing a fruitful

  13. Cord blood cytokines are modulated by maternal farming activities and consumption of farm dairy products during pregnancy: the PASTURE Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfefferle, P.I.; Buchele, G.; Blumer, N.; Roponen, M.; Ege, M.J.; Krauss-Etschmann, S.; Genuneit, J.; Hyvarinen, A.; Hirvonen, M.R.; Lauener, R.; Pekkanen, J.; Riedler, J.; Dalphin, J.C.; Brunekreef, B.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; von Mutius, E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional farming represents a unique model situation to investigate the relationship of early-life farm-related exposure and allergy protection. OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations between maternal farm exposures and cytokine production in cord blood (CB) mononuclear cells in a pr

  14. Thermal limits of men in moderate to heavy work in tropical farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Pranab Kumar; Nag, Anjali; Ashtekar, Shirish Pratap

    2007-01-01

    The farmers in tropical climate are exposed to high heat during the summer months. The study examined the physiological strains of farmers (N=26) to six combined exposures of work and high heat, with moderate and heavy work (26 to 50%, and 51 to 75% VO(2max)) and three ambient conditions, i.e., 34.4 to 42.2 degrees C WBGT (inside) in an environmental chamber. While the cardio-respiratory responses and Tcr were predominantly influenced by the work severity (pheat strain. Both the environmental warmth and work severity had independent discernable effects on the dynamic equilibrium of the central and peripheral mechanism to regulate the body temperature. The segmental and compartmental (core, muscle, fat and skin) heat balance analysis indicated the span of convergence of the segmental core and muscle temperatures to the divergence of skin and fat temperatures (CORE-SHELL) as a quantitative estimate of the segmental gradient for heat transfer. The summation of heat exchange across the compartments and segments yielded the transient change in Tcr (0.06 to 0.12 degrees C/min), with significant difference between the moderate and heavy work. The Tcr of 39 degrees C was taken as the limit of tolerance for the farmers, and by defining the criteria limit of Tcr of approximately 2.5 degrees C gradient from the basal Tcr and the rate of change in Tcr, the tolerance times were estimated. Corollary to the development of ISO 7933 standard (PHS index), the predictions of tolerance times from the transient change in Tcr or the exponential relationship with the WBGT (tolerance time, min = 1,841 e (-0.103 WBGT)) were useful to suggest the protective limit for men at work in extremely hot environment. The simplicity of prediction lies in using WBGT as a criterion. The exponential equation estimated the tolerance time of 55 min at 34 degrees C WBGT, and up to 38 degrees C WBGT, the decrease in tolerance time was 4 to 5 min per degree increase in environmental warmth. Beyond 38 degrees

  15. Green Care Farms as Innovative Nursing Homes, Promoting Activities and Social Interaction for People With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Bram; Hamers, Jan P H; Zwakhalen, Sandra M G; Tan, Frans E S; Beerens, Hanneke C; Verbeek, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    Innovative care environments are developed for people with dementia to encourage person-centered care. This study aims to investigate whether residents of green care farms that provide 24-hour nursing care participate more in (physical) activities and social interaction compared with residents of other nursing homes. Longitudinal observation study. Nursing homes in the Netherlands (green care farms, traditional nursing homes, and regular small-scale living facilities). A total of 115 nursing home residents at baseline, 100 at follow-up. Ecological momentary assessments (n = 16,860) were conducted using the Maastricht Electronic Daily Life Observation Tool. Residents living at green care farms were compared with residents living in traditional nursing homes and regular small-scale living facilities. The following aspects were collected for this study: the activity performed by the participant or occurring in his or her vicinity, the engagement in the activity, the level of physical activity during the activity, the physical environment (location where the activity occurred), and the level of social interaction during the activity. In total, 9660 baseline observations and 7200 follow-up observations were conducted. Analyses showed that residents of green care farms significantly more often participated in domestic activities (P = .004, SE = 1.6) and outdoor/nature-related activities (P = .003, SE = 0.9), and significantly less often engaged in passive/purposeless activities (P homes. Furthermore, residents of green care farms had significantly more active engagement (P = .014, SE = 0.9), more social interaction (P = .006, SE = 1.1), and came outside significantly more (P = .010, SE = 1.1) than residents of traditional nursing homes. Residents of green care farms were significantly more physically active (P = .013, SE = 0.8) than were residents of regular small-scale living facilities. No other significant differences were found. Green care

  16. Farm Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Debra

    2001-01-01

    Describes a Philadelphia high school in which urban students study agricultural sciences to prepare for college and careers. The campus has a complete working farm, and students are exposed to a wide range of agricultural career opportunities while also studying core academic subjects. The school's farm units are real businesses, so students are…

  17. Osteoporosis in active working women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amra Mačak Hadžiomerović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is a progressive metabolic bone disease characterized by reduction of mineral density of bone, which leads to reduction of bone firmness, increased fragility and increased risk of bonefractures. The aims of this study were to determine the age structure and average values of BMI in female patients with a diagnosis of osteoporosis and osteopenia, to determine the value of T-score before and aftertherapy, and to show a correlation of frequency of fractures in relation to already given diagnosed and the presence of menopause.Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 50 female respondents with diagnosis of osteoporosis and osteopenia. Included female respondents underwent densitometry or ultrasound screening method ofheels in which high degree of osteopenia and osteoporosis is detected.Results: The average age of the female respondents included in this study was 48.06 ± 11.97 years and all the respondents were in the category of women with normal body weight. There is a difference in the values of T-score of respondents with osteoporosis compared to osteopenia. Value of T-score decreases in relation to increase of number of years, so the older female respondents had lower values of T-score.Conclusion: The incidence of osteoporosis and osteopenia was higher among active working female respondents in menopause. Respondents with osteoporosis had lower values of T-score, physical and medicamenttherapy in combination led to improvement of T-score. Female respondents with a low value of T-score, with diagnosis of osteoporosis and in menopause, mostly had bone fractures.

  18. Activity diversification in rural livelihoods : the role of farm supplementary income in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The present study assesses the contribution of farm supplementary activities to rural livelihoods in low-income regions that are characterised by economic stagnation. Through analysing the complete household portfolio of economic activities the study identifies specific aspects of individual and hou

  19. Activity diversification in rural livelihoods : the role of farm supplementary income in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The present study assesses the contribution of farm supplementary activities to rural livelihoods in low-income regions that are characterised by economic stagnation. Through analysing the complete household portfolio of economic activities the study identifies specific aspects of individual and

  20. Swamp buffalo keeping – an out-dated farming activity? A case study in smallholder farming systems in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, PR China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schiborra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of rubber tree plantations and agricultural mechanization caused a decline of swamp buffalo numbers in the Naban River National Nature Reserve (NRNNR, Yunnan Province, China. We analysed current use of buffaloes for field work and the recent development of the regional buffalo population, based on interviews with 184 farmers in 2007/2008 and discussions with 62 buffalo keepers in 2009. Three types of NRNNR farms were distinguished, differing mainly in altitude, area under rubber, and involvement in livestock husbandry. While pig based farms (PB; n=37 have abandoned buffalo keeping, 11% of the rubber based farms (RB; n=71 and 100% of the livestock-corn based farms (LB; n=76 kept buffaloes in 2008. Herd size was 2.5 +/-1.80 (n=84 buffaloes in early 2008 and 2.2 +/-1.69 (n=62 in 2009. Field work on own land was the main reason for keeping buffaloes (87.3 %, but lending work buffaloes to neighbours (79.0% was also important. Other purposes were transport of goods (16.1%, buffalo trade (11.3% and meat consumption (6.4%. Buffalo care required 6.2 +/-3.00 working hours daily, while annual working time of a buffalo was 294 +/-216.6 hours. The area ploughed with buffaloes remained constant during the past 10 years despite an expansion of land cropped per farm. Although further replacement of buffaloes by tractors occurs rapidly, buffaloes still provide cheap work force and buffer risks on poor NRNNR farms. Appropriate advice is needed for improved breeding management to increase the efficiency of buffalo husbandry and provide better opportunities for buffalo meat sale in the region.

  1. [Effect of industrial and socioeconomic factors on morbidity levels with temporary work loss among workers and employees of specialized state farms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleptsov, N F

    1976-01-01

    Specialization of the agricultural industry at state farms brings changes into conditions of work, affects the disease incidence involving temporary incapacitation among state farm workers. The sick-rate among those of them who are engaged in dairy and vegetable-growing state farms is higher that among workers of the cattle breeding ones. A higher level complex mechanization of labour-consuming processes in cattle breeding and plant growing mitigates the influence exercised by specialization of the state farm agricultural production. The disease-incidence with temporary incapacitation is affected not only by occupational, but also by non-occupational factors.

  2. Production and photosynthetic activity of Mimosa Verde and Mimosa Roxa lettuce in two farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mabel Rosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. is the most commonly consumed leaf vegetable in the Brazilian diet, and it is a good source of vitamins and minerals. It is widely grown in the conventional farming system. However, the hydroponic farming system has been gaining importance in the market, wining confidence from consumers, who are becoming increasingly more demanding on food quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of two lettuce cultivars on hydroponic and conventional farming systems for the production of fresh mass (FM and dry mass (DM, photosynthesis, contents of chlorophyll and anthocyanin. The following two experiments were carried out: hydroponics farming (HF and conventional farming (CF, performed in protect and unprotect environments, respectively, in Florianópolis, SC. Mimosa Verde cultivar (MV showed greater fresh mass than Mimosa Roxa (MR, in both farming systems and the two cultivars presented better performance in the hydroponic system (287.7 g MV and 139.1 g MR than the conventional system (129.7 g MV and 111.8 g MR. Mimosa Verde cultivar presented lower average contents of total chlorophyll (7.7 mg g-¹ FM than Mimosa Roxa (11.8 mg g-¹FM, and both cultivars displayed higher means for this variable in the hydroponic farming system. Mimosa Roxa presented higher contents of anthocyanin in the conventional system (88.24 mg g-¹ FM than the ones in the hydroponic system (36.89 mg g-¹ FM. The best results for CO2 net assimilation rate regarded to photosyntheticaly active photon flux density were found in the hydroponic system, for both lettuce cultivars. Variation in the contents of chlorophyll were also found. Those variations were higher in the protected system than in the hydroponic system and contents of anthocyanin were higher in the conventional system.

  3. Bringing Work Home: Take-Home Pesticide Exposure Among Farm Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curwin, B.D.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis take-home pesticide exposure among farm families, with an emphasis on herbicides, was investigated. Take-home exposure occurs when a worker unwittingly brings home a substance on his or her clothing or shoes, thereby potentially exposing his or her family. The pesticides investigated

  4. Immunologic mechanisms in the adaptation of swine farm workers to their work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Cormier, Yvon; Veillette, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Swine building exposure causes inflammatory reactions that appear to be attenuated with prolonged periods of contact. The mechanisms behind this adaptation to a dusty and endotoxin-rich environment are poorly understood. Our aim was to compare levels of selected inflammatory mediators in swine farm...... for these proteins in adaptation to the swine building environment after repeated exposures....

  5. Distributed Model Predictive Control of A Wind Farm for Optimal Active Power Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Guo, Qinglai;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic discrete-time Piece- Wise Affine (PWA) model of a wind turbine for the optimal active power control of a wind farm. The control objectives include both the power reference tracking from the system operator and the wind turbine mechanical load minimization. Instead......, which combines the clustering, linear identification and pattern recognition techniques. The developed model, consisting of 47 affine dynamics, is verified by the comparison with a widely-used nonlinear wind turbine model. It can be used as a predictive model for the Model Predictive Control (MPC......) or other advanced optimal control applications of a wind farm....

  6. The influence of anaerobic muscle activity, maturation and season on the flesh quality of farmed turbot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, B.; Imsland, A.; Stien, L.H.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Gunnarsson, S.; Foss, A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to test seasonal, rearing, maturing and anaerobic muscle activity effect on the flesh quality of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) a total of 80 farmed turbot from three different strains from reared under natural or continuous light were killed by a percussive blow to the head in November

  7. The influence of anaerobic muscle activity, maturation and season on the flesh quality of farmed turbot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, B.; Imsland, A.; Stien, L.H.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Gunnarsson, S.; Foss, A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to test seasonal, rearing, maturing and anaerobic muscle activity effect on the flesh quality of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) a total of 80 farmed turbot from three different strains from reared under natural or continuous light were killed by a percussive blow to the head in November (win

  8. Active Power Control Simulation Platform Research of Wind Farm Based on Multi-Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xingjie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The realization of the automation, routinization and intelligentization of dispatch control in wind farms is the key to the integration of wind farms into power grid management system. Active power regulate and control system in wind farms has increasingly high demand on timeliness, but at present this system is mostly equipped with centralized unidirectional control with poor timeliness and low utilization ratio for wind energy resources. The characteristics of distribution and instantaneity owned by the active power regulate and control system in wind farms are highly consistent with Multi-Agent system. This paper discusses a kind of processing method that is used in real-time, distributed and parallel computation and processing for multiple simultaneously running wind turbines, which is based on Multi-Agent technology and adopting JADE development platform. This method converts massive centralized computation to distributed computation, which optimizes the effect of the power control. This method makes the effectiveness of active power regulate and control system better, wins time for timely allocating electricity generation assignments and dealing with problems, and avoids the heavy loss of resources.

  9. Assessing neuropsychological performance in a migrant farm working Colonia in Baja California, Mexico: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousman, Chad A; Salgado, Hugo; Hendrix, Terence; Fraga, Miguel; Cherner, Mariana

    2011-08-01

    Neuropsychological impairments (NPI) can lead to difficulties in daily functioning and ultimately contribute to poor health outcomes. However, evidence for the feasibility of NPI assessment in resource-limited settings using tests developed in high literacy/high education cultures is sparse. The main objectives were to: (1) determine the feasibility and appropriateness of conducting neuropsychological assessments among a migrant farm worker population in Baja California, Mexico and (2) preliminary describe neuropsychological test performance in this unique population. A neuropsychological test battery was administered to 21 presumably healthy adults (8 men, 13 women) during a two-day international health services and research collaboration. All but one neuropsychological test (i.e. figure learning) was feasible and appropriate to administer to the study population. Contrary to expectations, participants performed better on verbal rather than nonverbal neuropsychological tests. Results support inclusion of neuropsychological tests into future studies among migrant farm worker populations in Baja California, Mexico.

  10. Agroedutourism and Ecopreneurship Activities on the Organic Farming Practice in Lawang, Malang Regency, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Raisa Khairun Nisa’

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Five farmer groups in Lawang, Malang Regency, East Java Provinces, established organic agricultural practices almost two decades. They were visited frequently for farmer benchmarking activities; therefore they had planned to develop agroedutourism. The aims of this research were to identify potential organic farming activities as agroedutourism attractions as well as farmer ecopreneurship, to find out the existing agroedutourism facilities profile and to propose some strategies for further sustainable development. The data were gathered by interviewing key person of each farmer group in Lawang. Their agroedutourism profiles compared with a developed local agro-tourism using gap analysis. Farmer groups offered some distinct attractions and become their strengths such as out door activities in the organic perfumed and pigmented rice field, fruits and vegetable garden, zero waste management, biological pest control and healthy agricultural products. Establishment of this agroedutourism would be advantageous to lesson sharing among farmers and students, to be ecopreneur activity shown by an effective market system, to show real benefits of healthy agro-ecosystem and its products, as well as to show promising green business or ecopreneurship. Collaboration among them would improve available attractions and length of visit. Moreover, the results showed that 80% of farmer groups were visited regularly 5-10 times per month by potential visitors such as other farmer groups, house wives, staffs of agricultural departments and students. All farmer groups planned to develop agroedutourism; however the policy was only issued by 60% of farmer groups. Most of farmer groups showed a high variability in providing edutourism tours and guides. For sustainable development, farmer groups should provide more interesting attractions and facilities, develop their human resource, net working, and public promotion. Keywords: agroedutourism, attraction, ecopreneurship

  11. Soil Rhizosphere Microbial Communities and Enzyme Activities under Organic Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the activities of ß-glucosidase (C cycling, ß-glucosaminidase (C and N cycling), acid phosphatase (P cycling) and arylsulfatase (S cycling) under lettuce (Lactuca sativa), potato (Solanum Tuberosum), onion (Allium cepa L), broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Tall f...

  12. Barriers to physical activity among working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Jill J

    2011-04-01

    Working mothers experience several barriers to physical activity. If these barriers can be identified by occupational health nurses and they can partner with working mothers to reduce these perceived barriers, the health of these workers can be improved and chronic disease risk prevented. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of self-regulatory efficacy on physical activity among working mothers and to describe specific barriers to physical activity. The Barriers Specific Self-Efficacy Scale (BARSE) and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) were used to measure the variables. Self-regulatory efficacy was found to be a strong predictor of physical activity in a diverse sample of working mothers who did not meet current recommendations for physical activity. Occupational health nurses can use these findings to design programs for groups and for counseling individuals.

  13. Quantitative Population Epigenetics in Screening and Development of Regulator-Active Factors of the Farming System

    OpenAIRE

    Stauss, R.

    2013-01-01

    Likewise, index selection based on statistical genetic theory in plant and animal breeding the methodology "Quantitative Population Epigenetics" can be appropriated to improve efficiency in screening and development of regulator-active factors of the farming system for potential to enhance quantitative characters such as yield, standability and resistance to unfavorable environmental influences (e.g., water stress, cold temperatures, disease resistance). For example, as was shown for an ef...

  14. Local cluster of germ cell cancer in a cohort of male automotive workers in Germany not explained by previous or concurrent activities and exposures in farming and forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeisser, N; Behrens, T; Mester, B; Gottlieb, A; Langner, I; Ahrens, W

    2011-02-01

    To examine whether exposures or activities in farming, forestry and related occupations explain the excess incidence of germ cell cancer (GCC) observed among male employees in one of the six car-manufacturing plants that is located in a geographic area where farming is frequent. A cohort based case-control study was conducted among workers in six car-manufacturing plants located in areas with different industrial structure. The study involved 188 cases of germ cell cancer identified through active retrieval in 38 hospitals and 1000 controls, drawn from administrative accounting files, individually matched by year of birth (± 2 years). Information regarding tasks and exposures and potential confounding variables were obtained by face-to-face or telephone interviews. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using a conditional logistic regression model adjusted for cryptorchidism and other potential confounders. In this case-control study 5.3% of cases and 6.3% of controls ever worked in agriculture or livestock farming. No increased risks were observed for working in agriculture (OR=0.8 95% CI: 0.4-1.6), livestock farming (OR=0.8 95% CI: 0.4-1.6) or for exposure to pesticides (OR=0.7 95% CI: 0.3-1.7), for exposure to fertilizers (OR=0.8 95% CI: 0.4-1.8) and disinfectants (OR=1.0 95% CI: 0.3-2.8). There were no statistically significant increases in risk associated with ever exposure to salt based wood protection agents (OR=2.3 95% CI: 0.6-9.1), working with plywood (OR=1.4 95% CI: 0.6-3.2), coated wood (OR=1.4 95% CI: 0.5-3.9) or working in forestry (OR=1.7 95% CI: 0.5-6.4). Lagging of exposures did not alter the results. The observed excess incidence in the cohort of automotive workers can be hardly explained by previous or concurrent work in farming or forestry. Because of the small numbers of subjects ever employed in farming the statistical power in assessing associations between agricultural work and agricultural exposures was limited

  15. Brain serotonergic activation in growth-stunted farmed salmon: adaption versus pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A.; Johansen, Ida B.; Folkedal, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Signalling systems activated under stress are highly conserved, suggesting adaptive effects of their function. Pathologies arising from continued activation of such systems may represent a mismatch between evolutionary programming and current environments. Here, we use Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar......) in aquaculture as a model to explore this stance of evolutionary-based medicine, for which empirical evidence has been lacking. Growth-stunted (GS) farmed fish were characterized by elevated brain serotonergic activation, increased cortisol production and behavioural inhibition. We make the novel observation...

  16. Understanding Usability Work as a Human Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Mie

    of usability work to include a human perspective, is crucial to downstream utility—how usability work impacts the on-going development process. Our work shows that cross-professional collaboration is subject to challenges that arise from stakeholders having conflicting priorities, procedures and personalities......Three core themes are explored in eight papers: Usability work as a human activity, usability practice and methods, and persuasiveness of evaluation results and feedback. We explore how usability work is much more than methods and work procedures, and argue that maturing our understanding....... Such challenges include evaluation results lacking relevance, poor timing of evaluation results, little respect for other disciplines, and difficulties sharing important information about a design. The studies of practical usability work suggest that user researchers working with computer games and task oriented...

  17. Sustainable agriculture: how to make it work? : a modeling approach to support management of a mixed ecological farm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfert, S.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: sustainable agriculture; organic farming; whole farm management; decision support; farming systems research; designing; modeling; beta-gamma integration

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to develop a model that helps

  18. Women's work in farming, child feeding practices and nutritional status among under-five children in rural Rukwa, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordang, Sunniva; Shoo, Tiransia; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Kinabo, Joyce; Wandel, Margareta

    2015-11-28

    Some progress has been achieved in reducing the prevalence of undernutrition among children under 5 years of age in Tanzania. In the Rukwa region (2010), the level of stunted and underweight children was 50·4 and 13·5 %, respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age, feeding practices and risk factors of undernutrition in a rural village in the Rukwa region, as well as to discuss the results in light of a similar study conducted in 1987/1988. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 152 households with children under 5 years of age. Data were obtained from the child's main caretaker and the household head, using a structured questionnaire and a 24 h dietary recall. Children's length/height and weight were measured. The prevalence of stunting and underweight was found to be 63·8 and 33·6 % (Z-scorechildren on the first day after birth. A thin gruel was introduced after a median of 2 months (25th-75th percentiles; 1-3). The time mothers spent farming was a significant risk factor for stunting (P=0·04). Illness, food shortage and dry-season cultivation were significant risk factors for underweight (Pfeeding practices were not in line with WHO recommendations. Women working in farms, food shortage, dry-season cultivation and diseases partly explain the children's poor nutritional status.

  19. Aspects of Mussel-Farming Activity in Chalastra, Thermaikos Gulf, Greece: An Effort to Untie a Management Gordian Knot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannis Savvidis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale mussel farming in the coastal area of Chalastra (Thermaikos Gulf, Greece has faced major problems during the last decade due to environmental limitations and to institutional constraints imposed by the absence of local planning and development policies. The aim of our work was to demonstrate crucial aspects of implementing the Systems Approach Framework (SAF in the area, and more specifically to explain: (a the key parts of a bioeconomic model that constitutes the basis of a draft management tool, (b the results of several investigative scenarios examined through the management tool, and (c the stakeholders' feedback through the participative procedures. The goal was to evaluate the effects of the SAF implementation on the communication between scientists, policy makers, and local stakeholders. The scenarios refer to alternative farming techniques and different environmental conditions, and examine the effects of institutional deficiencies in qualitative and quantitative ways, regarding the sustainability of the activity. The selection of the scenarios was directed from the need to provide a dialogue platform between the conflicting stakeholders. The results clearly demonstrate the effects of mussel-farming techniques on mussel production, as well as the impacts of environmental conditions, human decisions, and institutional choices on the regional (and individual economic welfare. In the bottom line, the value of the SAF is demonstrated through the apprehension of the policy issue, its impacts, and the alternative management perspectives, as well as through the establishment of a multidimensional collaboration group for the area, which is essential for the further development of the management tool and the implementation of an integrated management policy.

  20. Structural and economic dynamics in diversified Italian farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Salvioni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this work is to investigate the structural change and economic dynamics of farms pursuing diversification and differentiation strategies in Italy. The analysis was performed on a panel of data built on the basis of information collected by the Italian FADN between 2003-2009. For the purpose of the analysis, we divided the population of commercial Italian farms into a five-fold farm typology based on size and the extent of diversification and differentiation strategies adopted by the farms. In detail, farms are defined as differentiated when they make use of a system of quality certification, while they are defined as diversified when they take up non farming activities (agritourism, social farms etc.. The findings show that conventional farms remain by far the largest category within the population of Italian commercial farms, while only 13% of the total commercial farms are classified as differentiated and/or diversified. Farms adopting product differentiation strategies are found to have an income growth path similar to that of conventional farms. Yet the category of diversified farms is the only one showing an upward trend with regard to income per worker in the observed years, while farms relying entirely on agricultural products appear to perform poorly in terms of labour productivity.

  1. Farming for Health. Green-care farming across Europe and the United States of America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, J.; Dijk, van M.

    2006-01-01

    The utilization of agricultural farms as a base for promoting human mental and physical health and social well-being is a new promising development. On farms, the animals, the plants, the garden, the forest and the landscape are used in recreational or work-related activities for psychiatric patient

  2. Farming for Health. Green-care farming across Europe and the United States of America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, J.; Dijk, van M.

    2006-01-01

    The utilization of agricultural farms as a base for promoting human mental and physical health and social well-being is a new promising development. On farms, the animals, the plants, the garden, the forest and the landscape are used in recreational or work-related activities for psychiatric

  3. Accelerometer based solution for precision livestock farming: geolocation enhancement and animal activity identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrasson, G.; Llaria, A.; Marra, A.; Voaden, S.

    2016-07-01

    The rapid evolution of electronics and communication technologies in the last years has contributed to the expansion of Precision Livestock Farming applications. In this context, animal geolocation systems applied to extensive farming are interesting for farmers to optimize their daily work organization. Nevertheless, the deployment of these solutions implies several technical challenges which must be resolved, mainly the energy consumption and the suitability of the communication protocols. A recently developed solution that deals with these technical challenges is the e-Pasto platform, which is composed of low power geolocation devices embedded into collars that offer an energetic autonomy of at least seven months, completed with a visualization user interface. The autonomy is assured employing a duty-cycle operation that results in one geolocation position measurement per hour. This work studies the employ of accelerometers to overcome this limitation assuring, at the same time, the required autonomy for the geolocation device. The authors also propose an algorithm that processes the acceleration data in order to identify the steps of an individual. The whole solution (step identification and geolocation) has been validated by means of several experimental tests.

  4. Performance of Spent Mushroom Farming Waste (SMFW) Activated Carbon for Ni (II) Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desa, N. S. Md; Ghani, Z. Ab; Talib, S. Abdul; Tay, C. C.

    2016-07-01

    The feasibility of a low cost agricultural waste of spent mushroom farming waste (SMFW) activated carbon for Ni(II) removal was investigated. The batch adsorption experiments of adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time, metal concentration, and temperature were determined. The samples were shaken at 125 rpm, filtered and analyzed using ICP-OES. The fifty percent of Ni(II) removal was obtained at 0.63 g of adsorbent dosage, pH 5-6 (unadjusted), 60 min contact time, 50 mg/L Ni(II) concentration and 25 °C temperature. The evaluated SMFW activated carbon showed the highest performance on Ni(II) removal compared to commercial Amberlite IRC86 resin and zeolite NK3. The result indicated that SMFW activated carbon is a high potential cation exchange adsorbent and suitable for adsorption process for metal removal. The obtained results contribute toward application of developed SMFW activated carbon in industrial pilot study.

  5. Farm Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Nielsen, Niels Christian; Nissen, Kathrine Aae

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on a study of one specific type of small tourism enterprises (i.e. farm tourism enterprises) and argues that these enterprises differ from other enterprises in relation to a series of issues other than merely size. The analysis shows that enterprises such as these are characterized...... by blurriness of boundaries between „home spheres‟ and work situations as well as by a unique blend of commercial and private hospitality. Furthermore, the study shows that „social‟ motivations and non-monetary benefits gained through host-guest interactions are of great importance to the hosts. In particular......, our study suggests that it is problematic to threat farm tourism enterprises as if they have much in common with both larger corporations and other types of SMTEs. Farm tourism enterprises seem to differ significantly from other enterprises as the hosts are not in the tourism business because...

  6. Optimal Active Power Control of A Wind Farm Equipped with Energy Storage System based on Distributed Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Guo, Qinglai

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the Distributed Model Predictive Control (D-MPC) of a wind farm equipped with fast and short-term Energy Storage System (ESS) for optimal active power control using the fast gradient method via dual decomposition. The primary objective of the D-MPC control of the wind farm...... is power reference tracking from system operators. Besides, by optimal distribution of the power references to individual wind turbines and the ESS unit, the wind turbine mechanical loads are alleviated. With the fast gradient method, the convergence rate of the DMPC is significantly improved which leads...... is independent from the wind farm size and is suitable for the real-time control of the wind farm with ESS....

  7. 风电集群有功功率控制及其策略%Active Power Control of Wind Farm Cluster and Its Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林俐; 朱晨宸; 郑太一; 焦邵华

    2014-01-01

    鉴于大规模风电并网的集中控制和精细化调度要求,文中基于区域有功功率分层调度思想,设计了风电调度中心站-风电集群控制主站-风电场控制执行站3层体系架构的风电集群有功功率控制系统,并给出风电集群控制主站和各场站间控制接口的设计方案。继而考虑风电场、分散接入风电机组的调节性能差异,针对运行实际需求提出一套面向集群控制主站的有功功率控制策略,实现风电场有功控制模式的在线决策和相应模式下的有功功率指令值的在线快速计算,并验证了控制策略的有效性。所建系统可实现风电集群内风电场、分散机组的统一调度与监控,并且在充分利用电网接纳风电能力的同时提高集群运行的经济性,有效解决目前风电分散控制导致的资源浪费、协调困难等问题。%According to the demand of centralized control and elaborated dispatch of large-scale wind power integrated to the power grid,an active power control system for the wind farm cluster is designed based on the hierarchical dispatch of regional active powers.The system adopting a three-tier structure is subdivided into the wind power dispatch station,wind farm cluster control station and wind farm execution station.The designed scheme of interface between the master control station and wind farms in the wind farm cluster is presented.Taking the regulation performance differences of various wind farms and scattered wind turbines into account,an active power control strategy for the master control station in the wind farm cluster is then proposed to realizing online decision-making of active power control mode for wind farms and fast online calculation of active power instruction values under corresponding modes.The validity of the control strategy has been proven through simulation. The result shows that the system can realize unified dispatch and monitoring of wind farms and

  8. Extension Activity Support System (EASY: A Web-Based Prototype for Facilitating Farm Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Pettit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to disparate advances in delivering spatial information to support agricultural extension activities, the Extension Activity Support System (EASY project was established to develop a vision statement and conceptual design for such a system based on a national needs assessment. Personnel from across Australia were consulted and a review of existing farm information/management software undertaken to ensure that any system that is eventually produced from the EASY vision will build on the strengths of existing efforts. This paper reports on the collaborative consultative process undertaken to create the EASY vision as well as the conceptual technical design and business models that could support a fully functional spatially enabled online system.

  9. Particularities of farm accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapteș, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, agriculture has become one of the most important fields of activity, significant funds being allotted within the EU budget to finance the European agriculture. In this context, organising the accounting of economic entities which carry out their activity in the agricultural sector has acquired new meanings. The goal of the present study is to bring into the light the particularities of the farm accounting on two levels: on the one hand, from the perspective of the international accounting referential and, on the other hand, in compliance with the national accounting regulations. The most important conclusion of this work is that, in post-1990 Romania, no interest was further manifested for the refinement of aspects specific to farm accounting.

  10. Assessment of an electronic wallet system and determinants of cassava farmers’ participation in off-farm activities in Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alabi Olugbenga Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed an electronic wallet (e-wallet system and determinants of cassava farmers’ participation in off-farm activities in Abuja, Nigeria. A sample of 67 cassava farmers was selected through a multi-stage sampling technique from six selected agricultural extension blocks. Primary data were used. Data were collected using a well-structured and well-designed questionnaire. The analytical tools used were descriptive statistics and maximum likelihood estimates using the logistic regression model. The results indicated that an electronic-wallet is an innovative, motivational mobile phone technology, the first in sub-Saharan Africa to distribute mobile phones to farmers which bring fertilizers, improved seeds, financial services, and agricultural information tips to farmers, and this increases yields and output. The electronic wallet system targeted 20 million farmers with an intention to distribute 10 million mobile phones to farmers in 4 years. In 2014, 1,000 agro-dealers and fourteen million five hundred farmers were registered on the electronic wallet system respectively. Also, one million two hundred farmers have also received inputs via the electronic-wallet system. The electronic-wallet system added an estimated 30-40 billion dollars to Nigeria’s Gross Domestic Product in 2014. Furthermore, the result shows that the age of most sampled cassava farmers fell between 36 and 50 years. About 94% of sampled cassava farmers were male. Off-farm income has the potential to improve the income of farmers. These types of activities undertaken by cassava farmers off the farms include: teaching, tailoring, hunting, pottery, blacksmithing, petty trading, etc. Farmers’ age, farming experience and number of off-farm activities were significant variables influencing farmers’ participation in off-farm activities at P ≤ 0.01; P ≤ 0.10; and P ≤ 0.01 respectively. The coefficient of Nagelkerke (R2 value was 0.751.This shows that the

  11. Is Sustainability Compatible with Profitability? An Empirical Analysis on Family Farming Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Piedra-Muñoz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a social concern and a new strategic factor for productive and economic viability. Nevertheless, research on this subject in a holistic approach is limited, and even to a lesser extent when dealing with family farms. This paper analyzes the impact of different aspects of sustainability (socio-economic characteristics, environmentally respectful practices, and innovation on profitability. The data collection instruments include a survey questionnaire on farming in Almería, a province in Southeast Spain, and the methodology followed involves a two-step regression model. The main results show how several socio-economic and environmental-innovation features of family farms have positive effects on their economic performance. Among others, profitability increases when there are better educated and younger family farm decision-makers; the farm is specialized and supported by more efficient cooperatives: and, particularly, when the family farm displays greater concern for environmental practices and better disposition towards agroecological innovation.

  12. 78 FR 13712 - U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Planned Monitoring Activities for F-Area Tank Farm at the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Planned Monitoring Activities for F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site, Revision 0 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Document issuance....

  13. Variable frequency operation of active stall wind farms using a dc connection to grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Sorensen, Poul;

    2005-01-01

    are fulfilled. However, the traditional squirrel-cage generators based wind turbines/wind farms directly connected to the grid have less control capabilities. These wind turbines/farms cannot regulate their production and contribute to power system stability. A DC transmission system for connection...

  14. Modelling and Control of VSC based DC Connection for Active Stall Wind Farms to Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Sørensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca Daniela;

    2006-01-01

    the control capabilities of these wind turbines/farms are extended and thus the grid requirements are fulfilled.  However, the traditional squirrel-cage generators based wind turbines/wind farms directly connected to the grid does not have such control capabilities. They produce maximum possible power...

  15. Grid connection of active stall wind farms using a VSC based DC transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Sorensen, Paul; Hansen, Anca-Daniela;

    2005-01-01

    are fulfilled. However, the traditional squirrel-cage generators based wind turbines/wind farms directly connected to the grid have less control capabilities. These wind turbines/farms cannot regulate their production and contribute to power system stability. A DC transmission system for connection...

  16. Modeling and Control of VSC based DC Connection for Active Stall Wind Farms to Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Sorensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca-Daniela;

    2005-01-01

    the control capabilities of these wind turbines/farms are extended and thus the grid requirements are fulfilled. However, the traditional squirrel-cage generators based wind turbines/wind farms directly connected to the grid does not have such control capabilities. They produce maximum possible power...

  17. Soil Rhizosphere Microbial Communities and Enzyme Activities under Organic Farming in Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Senwo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the soil rhizosphere has been limited by the lack of robust assessments that can explore the vast complex structure and diversity of soil microbial communities. Our objective was to combine fatty acid methyl ester (FAME and pyrosequencing techniques to evaluate soil microbial community structure and diversity. In addition, we evaluated biogeochemical functionality of the microbial communities via enzymatic activities of nutrient cycling. Samples were taken from a silt loam at 0–10 and 10–20 cm in an organic farm under lettuce (Lactuca sativa, potato (Solanum tuberosum, onion (Allium cepa L, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and Tall fescue pasture grass (Festuca arundinacea. Several FAMEs (a15:0, i15:0, i15:1, i16:0, a17:0, i17:0, 10Me17:0, cy17:0, 16:1ω5c and 18:1ω9c varied among the crop rhizospheres. FAME profiles of the soil microbial community under pasture showed a higher fungal:bacterial ratio compared to the soil under lettuce, potato, onion, and broccoli. Soil under potato showed higher sum of fungal FAME indicators compared to broccoli, onion and lettuce. Microbial biomass C and enzyme activities associated with pasture and potato were higher than the other rhizospheres. The lowest soil microbial biomass C and enzyme activities were found under onion. Pyrosequencing revealed significant differences regarding the maximum operational taxonomic units (OTU at 3% dissimilarity level (roughly corresponding to the bacterial species level at 0–10 cm (581.7–770.0 compared to 10–20 cm (563.3–727.7 soil depths. The lowest OTUs detected at 0–10 cm were under broccoli (581.7; whereas the lowest OTUs found at 10–20 cm were under potato (563.3. The predominant phyla (85% in this soil at both depths were Bacteroidetes (i.e., Flavobacteria, Sphingobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Flavobacteriaceae and Xanthomonadaceae were predominant under broccoli. Rhizobiaceae, Hyphomicrobiaceae, and Acidobacteriaceae were more

  18. SLUDGE BATCH 7B QUALIFICATION ACTIVITIES WITH SRS TANK FARM SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

    2011-11-16

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry - Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) - be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). With the tight schedule constraints for SB7b and the potential need for caustic addition to allow for an acceptable glass processing window, the qualification for SB7b was approached differently than past batches. For SB7b, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 and a Tank 40 sample for qualification. SRNL did not receive the qualification sample from Tank 51 nor did it simulate all of the Tank Farm washing and decanting operations. Instead, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 SB7b sample from samples of Tank 7 and Tank 51, along with a wash solution to adjust the supernatant composition to the final SB7b Tank 51 Tank Farm projections. SRNL then prepared a sample to represent SB7b in Tank 40 by combining portions of the SRNL-prepared Tank 51 SB7b sample and a Tank 40 Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) sample. The blended sample was 71% Tank 40 (SB7a) and 29% Tank 7/Tank 51 on an insoluble solids basis. This sample is referred to as the SB7b Qualification Sample. The blend represented the highest projected Tank 40 heel (as of May 25, 2011), and thus, the highest

  19. Boosting Farm Produce Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of escalating inflation,securing farm produce supply and stablizing grain prices could help to alleviate economic pressure The Chinese Government has pledged to secure a stable supply of farm produce.According to a document released after the annual Central Rural Work Conference held on December 22-23 in Beijing,preventing short supplies of farm produce and avoiding"ex-

  20. The effect of physical activity on psychological distress, cortisol and obesity: results of the Farming Fit intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumby, Susan; Chandrasekara, Ananda; Kremer, Peter; Torres, Susan; McCoombe, Scott; Lewandowski, Paul

    2013-10-28

    Rural and regional Australians have a higher likelihood of mental illness throughout their lifetime than people living in major cities, although the underlying reasons are not yet well defined. Additionally, rural populations experience more lifestyle associated co-morbidities including obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Research conducted by the National Centre for Farmer Health between 2004 and 2009 revealed a positive correlation between obesity and psychological distress among the farming community. Chronic stress is known to overstimulate the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and cortisol secretion which are associated with abdominal adiposity. Increasing physical activity may normalise cortisol secretion and thereby positively impact both physical and mental health. This paper assesses the effects of increasing physical activity on obesity, health behaviors and mental health in Victorian farming men and women. Farming Fit was a six month quasi-experimental (convenience sample) longitudinal design control-intervention study. Overweight or obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) farm men (n = 43) and women (n = 29) were recruited with demographic, health behaviors, anthropometric, blood pressure and biochemistry data collected at baseline and at a six months. Salivary cortisol and depression anxiety stress scale results were collected at baseline, three and six months. The intervention group (n = 37) received a personalized exercise program and regular phone coaching to promote physical activity. The intervention group showed significant reductions in body weight and waist circumference. Results indicated that following the six month exercise program, the intervention group were 2.64 ± 0.65 kg lighter (p physical activity altered measures of obesity in farm men and women but did not affect mental health measures or cortisol secretion levels. ACTRN12610000827033.

  1. Outsourcing mental health care services? The practice and potential of community-based farms in psychiatric rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Sorana C; Zweekhorst, Marjolein B M; Veltman, Dick J; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Bunders, Joske F G

    2015-02-01

    Psychiatric rehabilitation supports individuals with mental disorders to acquire the skills needed for independent lives in communities. This article assesses the potential of outsourcing psychiatric rehabilitation by analysing care farm services in the Netherlands. Service characteristics were analysed across 214 care farms retrieved from a national database. Qualitative insights were provided by five case descriptions, selected from 34 interviews. Institutional care farms were significantly larger and older than private care farms (comprising 88.8% of all care farms). Private, independent care farms provide real-life work conditions to users who are relatively less impaired. Private, contracted care farms tailor the work activities to their capacities and employ professional supervisors. Institutional care farms accommodate for the most vulnerable users. We conclude that collaborations with independent, contracted and institutional care farms would provide mental health care organizations with a diversity in services, enhanced community integration and a better match with users' rehabilitation needs.

  2. Alcohol Use, Working Conditions, Job Benefits, and the Legacy of the “Dop” System among Farm Workers in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: Hope Despite High Levels of Risky Drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Phillip Gossage

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes alcohol consumption in five Western Cape Province communities. Cross-sectional data from a community household sample (n = 591 describe the alcohol use patterns of adult males and females, and farm workers vs. others. Data reveal that men were more likely to be current drinkers than women, 75.1% vs. 65.8% (p = 0.033; farm laborers were more likely to be current drinkers than individuals in other occupations 83.1% vs. 66.8% (p = 0.004. Group, binge drinking on weekends was the norm; men were more likely to be binge drinkers in the past week than women 59.8% vs. 48.8% (p = 0.086; farm workers were more likely to binge than others 75.0% vs. 47.5% (p < 0.001. The legacy of “Dop” contributes to current risky drinking behaviors. Farm owners or managers were interviewed on 11 farms, they described working conditions on their farms and how the legacy of “Dop” is reflected in the current use of alcohol by their workers. “Dop” was given to farm workers in the past on six of the 11 farms, but was discontinued for different reasons. There is zero tolerance for coming to work intoxicated; farm owners encourage responsible use of alcohol and assist farm workers in getting help for alcohol problems when necessary. The farm owners report some positive initiatives, were ahead of the movement to provide meaningful wages, and provide other important amenities. Further research is needed to assess whether progressive practices on some farms will reduce harmful alcohol use.

  3. Pairing Learners in Pair Work Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Neomy; Aldosari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Although pair work is advocated by major theories of second language (L2) learning and research findings suggest that pair work facilitates L2 learning, what is unclear is how to best pair students in L2 classes of mixed L2 proficiency. This study investigated the nature of pair work in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) class in a college in…

  4. Is Sustainability Compatible with Profitability? An Empirical Analysis on Family Farming Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Piedra-Muñoz; Emilio Galdeano-Gómez; Juan C. Pérez-Mesa

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability is a social concern and a new strategic factor for productive and economic viability. Nevertheless, research on this subject in a holistic approach is limited, and even to a lesser extent when dealing with family farms. This paper analyzes the impact of different aspects of sustainability (socio-economic characteristics, environmentally respectful practices, and innovation) on profitability. The data collection instruments include a survey questionnaire on farming in Almería, a...

  5. Probabilistic Approach to Optimizing Active and Reactive Power Flow in Wind Farms Considering Wake Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Cheol Kang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel probabilistic optimization algorithm for simultaneous active and reactive power dispatch in power systems with significant wind power integration. Two types of load and wind-speed uncertainties have been assumed that follow normal and Weibull distributions, respectively. A PV bus model for wind turbines and the wake effect for correlated wind speed are used to achieve accurate AC power flow analysis. The power dispatch algorithm for a wind-power integrated system is modeled as a probabilistic optimal power flow (P-OPF problem, which is operated through fixed power factor control to supply reactive power. The proposed P-OPF framework also considers emission information, which clearly reflects the impact of the energy source on the environment. The P-OPF was tested on a modified IEEE 118-bus system with two wind farms. The results show that the proposed technique provides better system operation performance evaluation, which is helpful in making decisions about power system optimal dispatch under conditions of uncertainty.

  6. Environmental impacts of coastal farming: carbon and nitrogen budgets for trout farming activity in Kaldbaksfjørđur (Faroe Islands)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordi, Gunnvør a; Glud, Ronnie N.; Gaard, Eilif

    2011-01-01

    Flow of organic carbon (OC) and nitrogen through a sea cage trout farm was calculated on the basis of detailed studies of the farming operation, water circulation, OC and nutrient transport and recycling processes in sediment. A third of the OC and nitrogen provided by fish food was incorporated...

  7. ABOUT SPONGE FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Pećarević

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Sponges are the simplest multicellular animals. Farming of sponges is facilitated by their asexual reproduction and great ability of regeneration. Farming of filter-feeding sponges is environment friendly, and it can positively influence on environmental impact of other aquaculture activities. Natural populations of sponges in Mediterranean Sea are endangered by inappropriate overfishing. Farming of sponges is possible solution for regeneration and protection of natural populations.

  8. Comparative determination of physical stress and strain on milkers in milking parlours on dairy farms in Upper Austria, using ECG, an activity sensor and spirometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Mayrhofer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To-date, the impact of modern milking parlors in dairy farming on physical strain has not been the subject of many studies. Therefore, this case study aims to record and evaluate the physical strain during the entire milking process, including the oxygen consumption (VO2, heart rate (HR and metabolic rate (WkJ, Watt of milkers. The recording was conducted with a portable respiratory gas analysis system and an ECG and activity sensor on 4 dairy farms in Austria. Eight subjects aged from 45–52 years, with a mean age 50±2.4 SD, participated and the data were recorded during the milking process in 2 types of milking parlours. For assessment, the entire milking process was divided into preparation, milking and follow-up work. The entire milking process was performed with an average oxygen consumption of 46.5 l/h and a heart rate of 98 bpm, which is below the anaerobic threshold; whereas in the preparation and follow-up work, this threshold was exceeded. Generally, during the milking process, a moderate physical strain (32.4% and a balanced metabolic rate (143 watt/m2 were determined. The physical strain in female milkers was 9.2% higher than in male milkers throughout the entire process. Reduction of physical strain can be achieved through additional breaks, reduced work speed, division of labour and technical devices.

  9. Group Work vs. Whole Class Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanveer, Asma

    2008-01-01

    Group work has only been recently introduced in the education system of Pakistan but many primary teachers, especially in the public schools, are still not aware of how different kinds of strategies that is group work and whole class teaching facilitate learning among students. This paper aims to provide an overview of teaching strategies to…

  10. Infrared applications in farming: vision of things to come

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzbach, Richard N.

    2003-04-01

    Infrared technology has seen little use at the level of the family farm, mostly due to the prohibitive high cost relative to the typically modest profit margins. Where farming exists as a hobby or secondary activity, an individual with access to the technology can uncover some of the many applications waiting to be discovered in this field. As technology improves, and the price of cameras decreases, the viability of infrared as a farming tool improves. This paper outlines a number of examples where an individual with access to infrared technology has utilized it in a family farm setting to highlight some of the potential uses which may someday become normal farming practice. These examples are augmented by research of work being done at land-grant universities and larger agricultural businesses that further show the viability of the technology in farming.

  11. Certified safe farm: identifying and removing hazards on the farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, R H; Grafft, L J; Kline, A K; Madsen, M D; Lange, J L; Donham, K J

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the development of the Certified Safe Farm (CSF) on-farm safety review tools, characterizes the safety improvements among participating farms during the study period, and evaluates differences in background variables between low and high scoring farms. Average farm review scores on 185 study farms improved from 82 to 96 during the five-year study (0-100 scale, 85 required for CSF certification). A total of 1292 safety improvements were reported at an estimated cost of $650 per farm. A wide range of improvements were made, including adding 9 rollover protective structures (ROPS), 59 power take-off (PTO) master shields, and 207 slow-moving vehicle (SMV) emblems; improving lighting on 72 machines: placing 171 warning decals on machinery; shielding 77 moving parts; locking up 17 chemical storage areas, adding 83 lockout/tagout improvements; and making general housekeeping upgrades in 62 farm buildings. The local, trained farm reviewers and the CSF review process overall were well received by participating farmers. In addition to our earlier findings where higher farm review scores were associated with lower self-reported health outcome costs, we found that those with higher farm work hours, younger age, pork production in confinement, beef production, poultry production, and reported exposure to agrichemicals had higher farm review scores than those who did not have these characteristics. Overall, the farm review process functioned as expected. encouraging physical improvements in the farm environment, and contributing to the multi-faceted CSF intervention program.

  12. [Dynamics of active organic carbon in a paddy soil under different rice farming modes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ming; Cao, Cou-Gui; Jiang, Yang; Wang, Jin-Ping; Yue, Li-Xin; Cai, Ming-Li

    2010-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the dynamics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), readily oxidizable organic carbon (ROC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in a paddy soil under integrated rice-duck farming (RD), intermittent irrigation (RW), and conventional flooded irrigation (CK), the three rice farming modes typical in southern China. Under these three farming modes, the soil DOC and MBC contents reached the highest during the period from rice booting to heading, while the soil ROC content had less change during the whole rice growth period. Two-factor variance analysis showed that soil MBC was greatly affected by rice growth stage, soil DOC was greatly affected by rice growth stage and farming mode, and soil ROC was mainly affected by farming mode. Comparing with CK, RD significantly increased the soil DOC and ROC contents and their availability, while RW significantly decreased the soil DOC content and its availability but increased the soil ROC content and its availability. No significant differences were observed in the soil MBC and microbial quotient among RD, RW, and CK.

  13. Mental wellbeing of children engaged in agricultural work activities and quality of family environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowski, Stanisław; Lachowska, Bogusława

    2007-01-01

    A considerable percentage of Polish children from agricultural families are engaged by their parents in performing work activities on farms. The performance of these tasks arouses various emotional reactions in children, from the feeling of threat, fear and anxiety, to the feeling of satisfaction, being contented and proud. The subjective feeling of happiness and life satisfaction is an extremely important factor affecting the mental health and functioning of a human being. The objective of the study was to show to what extent the quality of communication between children and parents, and the level of family cohesion and adaptability according to the Circumplex Model by D. H. Olson et al., modifies children's emotional reactions associated with the tasks performed. The study covered 192 children aged 12-13, whose parents were running a family farm. Growing up in a healthy family characterised by a balanced level of cohesion, adaptability and good communication with the father and mother, favours the occurrence in children of pleasant emotions in reaction to work which they undertake on behalf of their parents on a farm. In such families, more often than in families with bad communication and dysfunctional families (disengaged, rigid), children experience satisfaction, have a feeling of deepening bonds with their parents, and the feeling of being more adult and preparing themselves well for adult life. Family characteristics which are evidence of disorders in its functioning (lack of good communication with the father, mother, lack of bonds between family members, rigid, chaos in a family) co-occur with the child experiencing unpleasant emotional states in associated with the work performed, there occur feelings of dissatisfaction, unhappiness, unpleasantness, the feeling that it would be better to learn than to work.

  14. Productivity and efficiency of economic activity of the Lower Silesia's large area farms in comparison with other large area farms in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Minta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows economical and financial situation of the agricultural companies which have most of the grounds in lease. Analysed objects were settled on Lower Silesia (the province in the south – west Poland. The main part of the results of research was about productivity and efficiency of economic resources in these objects. The research was made in years 2000-2002. The results of research in analyzed Lower Silesia’s companies were compared with the best Polish large area farms in order of law and organisation forms: leased farms, private farms and partnerships of Polish public agency AWRSP.

  15. 20 CFR 404.1573 - General information about work activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General information about work activity. 404... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial Gainful Activity § 404.1573 General information about work activity. (a) The nature of your work. If your duties require use of...

  16. 20 CFR 220.142 - General information about work activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General information about work activity. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Substantial Gainful Activity § 220.142 General information about work activity. (a) The nature of the claimant's work. If the claimant's duties require use of the...

  17. 20 CFR 416.973 - General information about work activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General information about work activity. 416... FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial Gainful Activity § 416.973 General information about work activity. (a) The nature of your work. If your duties...

  18. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  19. Wind Farm Dynamic Equivalence Based on the Wind Turbine Output Active Power Sequence Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the complexity of simulation model containing wind farms in the context of keeping the accuracy static, this paper put forward a kind of Dynamic Equivalence method aiming at making output characteristic of the connecting point of wind farm consistent. Based on the output power sequence of wind turbines, geometric template matching algorithm is used to obtain the characteristic of that power sequence and then Attribute Threshold Clustering Algorithm is used to classify wind turbine. In each cluster, the parameter of wind turbine is made equal according to the principle of constant power output character and then be distinguished according to AMPSO. At last, this paper takes a practical wind farm as an example and respectively simulates the conditions of fault of system side and variation of wind speed, which is used in comparing the output characteristic of detailed model and Equivalent model. Results show that the output characteristic of the connecting point of wind farm keeps consistent after equivalent and that the Clustering Algorithm can reflect the operating characteristics of the wind turbine in the whole moment of any time period. It can also be saw that Equivalent method is reasonable and effective, which has certain value in engineering application.

  20. Why activity-based costing works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabram, S G; Mendola, R A; Rozenfeld, J; Gamelli, R L

    1997-01-01

    With advancing technology and the quest for delineating the true cost of a procedure or diagnostic test, cost accounting techniques are being re-explored in the health care setting. Activity-based costing (ABC), adopted from other businesses, is one such example that has applications in the health industry. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of health care costs among physician providers, emphasizing a new approach--activity-based costing.

  1. Prevalence of Antibodies against Hantaviruses in Serum and Saliva of Adults Living or Working on Farms in Yorkshire, United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Jameson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are an established cause of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS in Europe. Following a confirmed case of HFRS in the UK, in an individual residing on a farm in North Yorkshire and the Humber, a tidal estuary on the east coast of Northern England, and the subsequent isolation of a Seoul hantavirus from rats trapped on the patient’s farm, it was considered appropriate to further investigate the public health risk of this virus in the region. Of a total 119 individuals tested, nine (7.6% were seropositive for hantavirus antibodies. Seven of the seropositive samples showed a stronger reaction to Seoul and Hantaan compared to other clinically relevant hantaviruses. Observation of rodents during the day, in particular mice, was associated with a reduced risk of seropositivity. In addition to one region known to be at risk following an acute case, five further potential risk areas have been identified. This study supports recently published evidence that hantaviruses are likely to be of public health interest in the region.

  2. Enzymatic activity of anthropogenic proto-organic soils in soilless farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bireescu, Geanina; Dazzi, Carmelo; Laudicina, Vito Armando; Lo Papa, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    In soilless agriculture and horticulture coir is the more used substratum to grow plants because it is widely available and more environmentally friendly than sphagnum or peat. In Italy, soilless agriculture concerns an area of about 1,000 hectares, particularly concentrated in Sicily. The southern coastal belt of this region is the area interested by the most significant experiences in the application of techniques of soilless cultivation that, recently, has been used also for growing table grapes. Starting from the above consideration we suppose that the features of the coconut fiber underlay an evident transformation and that even after few years of table grape cultivation, such organic material undergone to a transformation that allows for the formation of a proto-organic soil (a proto-Histosol, we supposed). If this is true, we believe that, in this case, to speak about soilless cultivation is for sure misleading for the common people, as we should define this cultivation "on anthropogenic soils" instead. To fit the aims of this survey we used a big greenhouse devoted to soilless cultivation of table grape in a farm in the Southern Sicily We have considered the enzymatic activity that characterized the coconut fiber after 3 cycles of cultivation of table grapes. We used as a control the coconut fiber that the farmer used to prepare pots for soilless cultivation and coconut fiber of: 6 pots at the end of the first productive cycle 6 pots at the end of the second cycle and 3 pots at the end of the third cycle. On these organic samples we investigated three enzymes, belonging to oxydoreductase (catalase and dehydrogenase) and hydrolase (urease) classes. Statistical analysis of the investigated enzymes was developed using IBM Statistic SPSS v20 by ANOVA, Tukey test HSD for p ≤ 0.01 and Multivariate Statistical Analysis. Results have shown significant differences in enzymes content and quality among coir tests. The use of the coco fiber, as nutritive substratum

  3. Possibility of the positive mental health activities at work

    OpenAIRE

    大塚, 泰正

    2012-01-01

    Positive mental health activities at work may bebeneficial improving workers' health. Positive psychology interventions, such as writing gratitude letters, learning optimistic thoughts, or ruminating positive experiences, were found to be effective to ameliorate not only depressive symptoms but also well-being. Work engagement is one of the key issues for conducting proactive mental health activities at work. Work engagement may be able to be enhanced through work environment improvement inte...

  4. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of polyphenolic extracts from Lactuca sativa (var. Maravilla de Verano) under different farming methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Simona; Pepe, Giacomo; Sommella, Eduardo; Manfra, Michele; Scopa, Antonio; Sofo, Adriano; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Russo, Mariateresa; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Autore, Giuseppina; Campiglia, Pietro; Marzocco, Stefania

    2016-09-01

    Besides their nutritional value, vegetables are a source of health-promoting compounds, such as polyphenols, and their content can be influenced by the particular farming method. In this study polyphenolic extracts from Lactuca sativa (var. Maravilla de verano) plants cultivated with different farming methods were chemically characterised and tested in vitro and ex vivo inflammation models. The tested extacts (250-2.5 µg mL(-1) ) were able to reduce both the inflammatory and oxidative stress in LPS-stimulated J774A.1 murine monocyte macrophage cells, by lowering the release of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and promoting nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2; (Nrf2) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In this regard, quantitative profiles revealed different amounts of polyphenols, in particular quercetin levels were higher in plants under mineral fertilised treatment. Those extract showed an enhanced anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. Our data showed the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of Maravilla de Verano polyphenolic extracts. The effect of farming methods on polyphenolic levels was highlighted. The higher reduction of inflammatory mediators release in extracts from plants cultivated under mineral fertilisation treatment was correlated to the higher amount of quercetin. These results can be useful for both nutraceutical or agronomic purposes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Fruit quality and bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity of tomatoes grown on-farm: comparison of organic and conventional management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juroszek, Peter; Lumpkin, Heidi M; Yang, Ray-Yu; Ledesma, Dolores R; Ma, Chin-Hua

    2009-02-25

    Replicated field trials at three matched farm pairs in southern and central Taiwan were established in October 2004 and 2005 to compare fruit quality and nutritional parameters of tomatoes grown on-farm under organic versus conventional management systems in tropical and subtropical environments. Two processing tomato varieties were evaluated using a randomized complete block design at each of the farms. Aggregation of farms by type (organic vs conventional) across two years resulted in no significant differences between organic and conventional farming systems for all tomato fruit parameters measured, including quality (pH, soluble solids, acidity, and color), content of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity (beta-carotene, lycopene, ascorbic acid, and total phenolics), and antioxidant activity. This study indicated no consistent effect of the farming system on tomato fruit parameters. Farm management skills combined with site-specific effects contributed to high lycopene levels, and the choice of variety significantly influenced the content of bioactive compounds, particularly ascorbic acid and total phenolics.

  6. Working With Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolff-Michael Roth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the experiences of two researchers, Wolff-Michael ROTH and Luis RADFORD, using cultural-historical activity theory in mathematics education. The aim is to provide insights into the ways these researchers see and engage with activity theory, how they have come to adopt and expand it, and some of the challenges and concerns that they have had using it. These questions are not usually addressed within typical scientific papers. Yet, they are important for understanding both the dynamics of research and the practical use of cultural-historical activity theory. Since the format of research report papers is not necessarily well suited to convey personal experiences and thinking, the present article takes the form of a conversation, which provides an effective vehicle for exploring and articulating these matters. This provides a basis for understanding more deeply the underlying assumptions of this theory; its dynamics and how it is applied in research of mathematics practice, thinking, and learning; and insights into the manner in which experienced researchers grapple with the theoretical dimensions of their research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1202232

  7. Planning farm succession: how to be successful

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Planning farm succession is really good farm planning in its broadest aspect. Unfortunately very few farmers and their families have devoted sufficient time to working out how the farm business will be transferred. After demonstrating the importance of the farm succession issue, this article goes on to explaining a method of successfully tackling the process.

  8. Changes of levels of rent and risk in the activity of rural farms in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kurdyś-Kujawska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lease of agricultural land is a form of the land use. It enables to create or increase a farm, without having to pay capital-expenditure related to the purchase of land. In exchange for the land lease, the tenant agrees to pay a rent, which is a constant burden on its budget and can affect the economic situation of the farm. Changes in the value of rent result in, to a large extent, deficit of land in some areas of Poland, increase of prices and demand for agricultural land. The aim of the study was to analyse the determinants and dynamics of changes in the rates of agricultural rents. The source material for the study were data on the agricultural land market in Poland in 2000-2011 published by the IERiGŻ and GUS.

  9. Wind Farms: Modeling and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    provides the state space form of the dynamic wind farm model. The model provides an approximation of the behavior of the flow in wind farms, and obtains the wind speed in the vicinity of each wind turbine. The control algorithms in this work are mostly on the basis of the developed wind farm model......The primary purpose of this work is to develop control algorithms for wind farms to optimize the power production and augment the lifetime of wind turbines in wind farms. In this regard, a dynamical model for wind farms was required to be the basis of the controller design. In the first stage......, a dynamical model has been developed for the wind flow in wind farms. The model is based on the spatial discretization of the linearized Navier-Stokes equation combined with the vortex cylinder theory. The spatial discretization of the model is performed using the Finite Difference Method (FDM), which...

  10. FarmStats_CNTYFARM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This datalayer contains Vermont agricultural data describing changes in farming activity (1860-1997), by county, extracted from U.S. Census of Agriculture. Initial...

  11. AN EVALUATION OF SELECTED SOIL PROPERTIES AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOILS IN ORGANIC FARMING IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Sarapatka, Prof. Dr. Borivoj; Pokorny, Assoc. Prof. Ing. Eduard; Hejatkova, Ing. Kvetuse; Matlova, Ing. Vera; Krskova, Dr. Milena

    2006-01-01

    Abstract - In our research we have evaluated a series of soil indicators to determine the correlation between individual soil properties in organic farming. Regression analysis has proven that the biological activity of the soil on organically farmed areas (grasslands) as expressed by respiration is mainly influenced by the bulk density, moisture, porosity, humus content, the proportion of cation exchange capacity and total nitrogen content. The multiple regressions have proven the important ...

  12. Field tests demonstrating reduced activity of ivermectin and moxidectin against small strongyles in horses on 14 farms in Central Kentucky in 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Eugene T; Tolliver, Sharon C; Collins, Sandra S; Ionita, Mariana; Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Rossano, Mary

    2011-02-01

    Efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) against small strongyles was evaluated in horses (n=363) in field tests on 14 farms in Central Kentucky between 2007 and 2009. Most of the horses were yearlings but a few were weanlings and mares. The number of horses treated with IVM was 255 and those treated with MOX was 108. Horses on six farms were allotted into two groups. One group was treated with each of the two drugs, whereas horses on the other eight farms were treated with only one of the two drugs--IVM on six farms and MOX on two farms. Strongyle eggs per gram of feces (EPGs) compared to initial use of IVM and MOX returned almost twice as quickly after treatment of horses on all of the farms. IVM has been used much more extensively in this geographical area than MOX. Reduced activity of MOX was evident even on farms with rare or no apparent previous use of MOX but with probable extensive use of IVM.

  13. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work.......To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work....

  14. Wind tunnel measurements of a large wind farm model approaching the infinite wind farm regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossuyt, Juliaan; Howland, Michael; Meneveau, Charles; Meyers, Johan

    2016-11-01

    A scaled wind farm, with 100 porous disk models of wind turbines, is used to study the effect of wind farm layout on the wind farm power output and its variability, in a wind tunnel study. The wind farm consists of 20 rows and 5 columns. The porous disk models have a diameter of 0 . 03 m and are instrumented with strain gages to measure the thrust force, as a surrogate for wind turbine power output. The frequency response of the measurements goes up to the natural frequency of the models and allows studying the spatio-temporal characteristics of the power output for different layouts. A variety of layouts are considered by shifting the individual rows in the spanwise direction. The reference layout has a regular streamwise spacing of Sx / D = 7 and a spanwise spacing of Sy / D = 5 . The parameter space is further expanded by considering layouts with an uneven streamwise spacing: Sx / D = 3 . 5 & 10 . 5 and Sx / D = 1 . 5 & 12 . 5 . We study how the mean row power changes as a function of wind farm layout and investigate the appearance of an asymptotic limiting behavior as previously described in the literature by application of the top-down model for the spatially averaged wind farm - boundary layer interaction. Work supported by ERC (Grant No. 306471, the ActiveWindFarms project) and by NSF (OISE-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project).

  15. Active Power Dispatch Method for a Wind Farm Central Controller Considering Wake Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jie; Su, Chi; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    ), then dispatch the wind power reference to each wind turbine. One of the most commonly used dispatch methods is to dispatch the wind power reference to each wind turbine proportional to each wind turbine’s available wind power without the consideration of the wake effect. The wake which depends on the thrust...... Optimization (PSO) is used to obtain the optimal wind power for each wind turbine. A case study is carried out. The available wind power of the wind farm was compared between the traditional dispatch method and the proposed dispatch method with the consideration of the wake effect....

  16. Applying an Activity System to Online Collaborative Group Work Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungshin; Kang, Myunghee

    2010-01-01

    This study determines whether an activity system provides a systematic framework to analyse collaborative group work. Using an activity system as a unit of analysis, the research examined learner behaviours, conflicting factors and facilitating factors while students engaged in collaborative work via asynchronous computer-mediated communication.…

  17. Data Farming in Support of NATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Farming into Decision Support System 5-29 Figure 6-1 The Credo of a Data Farmer and the Realms of Data Farming 6-2 Figure 6-2 Data Farming is Question...Figure 6-1: The Credo of a Data Farmer and the Realms of Data Farming. All 6 realms are covered by a sub-working group of MSG-088 Data Farming. As Figure

  18. Field studies indicating reduced activity of ivermectin on small strongyles in horses on a farm in Central Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Ionita, M; Lewellen, A; Collins, S S

    2008-06-01

    Field studies (n=6) were completed on evaluation of activity of ivermectin (200 microg/kg) paste formulation against small strongyles in horses (foals, yearlings, and older animals) on a farm (Farm MC) in Central Kentucky in late 2006 and during 2007. A girth tape was used to estimate body weights which were then used to calculate the proper dose rate of ivermectin. The foals, yearlings, and some of the older horses were born and raised on the farm. However, most of the older horses which were not raised on the farm had been there for several years. The horse herd was given ivermectin exclusively, usually four times a year, since 1990. An exception was that during the foal's period of life fenbendazole, pyrantel pamoate, and oxibendazole were given occasionally besides ivermectin. Efficacy of drug activity was determined by pretreatment and posttreatment counts of strongyle eggs per gram of feces (EPGs). Culture of strongyle eggs in feces from some of the horses showed that only small strongyle larvae were present. The research included two studies (A and B) in foals (n=24) and four studies (C, D, E, and F) in yearlings (n=13) alone or with older horses (n=10). For each of the studies (B through F), there was a treated and a nontreated group. These groups were switched for each treatment, i.e., the treated group in one study was the nontreated group in the next study and vice versa. Eggs per gram of feces counts were determined at 1- or 2-week posttreatment intervals for 4 weeks for study A and 6 weeks for studies B through F. Also, for studies B, E, and F, counts of EPGs were done either two or three times during the third week posttreatment. The studies showed a similar posttreatment pattern of strongyle EPG counts beginning to return at about 4 weeks and increasing at 5 and 6 weeks posttreatment. Two horses in study E and one in study F had low EPG values toward the end of the third week posttreatment. The results of this ivermectin investigation showed that the

  19. Trabalho rural, exposição a poeiras e sintomas respiratórios entre agricultores Farm work, dust exposure and respiratory symptoms among farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neice Müller Xavier Faria

    2006-10-01

    associated with increases in respiratory diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among farmers and the associations of these with occupational risk factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was undertaken in 1996 with 1,379 farmers from Southern Brazil. Sociodemographic and farming-production parameters were collected, as were levels of exposure to organic and mineral dusts. Respiratory symptoms were assessed by a modified version of American Thoracic Society-Division of Lung Disease questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used in analyses, controlling for confounding factors. RESULTS: The majority (52% of interviewees worked in activities with intense exposure to dust. Workers on farms with better economic indicators had a lower prevalence of respiratory symptoms. Poultry workers showed more symptoms of chronic respiratory disease (OR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.05-2.42. Farmers exposed to high concentrations of dust had more than 70% higher risk of asthma symptoms (OR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.10-2.67 and chronic respiratory disease symptoms (OR=1.77; 95% CI: 1.25-2.50. CONCLUSIONS: The rural workers studied herein were exposed to high levels of organic and mineral dusts. Those exposed to higher dust concentrations, such as poultry workers, showed an increased risk of work-related respiratory symptoms. The implementation of respiratory protection programs is recommended, emphasizing workers involved with poultry production.

  20. CONTRACT BROILER FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todsadee Areerat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, poultry sector is the main economic growth of livestock sector, especially broiler production. The rapid expansion in broiler production has been made possible by the increase in the number of commercial farms or contract farming. The objective of this research was to understand better how contract farming works, who gets involved and why and who benefits from the agreement. The study is based on the broiler file survey in Chiang Mai province of Thailand. As the results, contract farming looks quite attractive for farmers as well as for private companies but most of the farmers complained about long waiting until the delivery of the next cycle of chicks have started.

  1. Farm Diversification, Tenancy and CAP Reform: Results from a Survey of Tenant Farmers in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maye, Damian; Ilbery, Brian; Watts, David

    2009-01-01

    Little work has considered explicitly the role of farm tenancy in influencing the uptake (or not) of diversification activities. The need to examine this link has been heightened because of the 2003 CAP reforms and the decision to tie Single Farm Payment (SFP) entitlement to the land rather than what is produced on that land. The main objective of…

  2. Green Care Farms, A Safe Community Between Illness or Addiction and the Wider Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, M.; Hassink, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of focus group interviews with 42 people with a psychiatric or addiction history who work in eight different green care farms in the Netherlands. Undertaking farming activities helps participants feel useful and healthier and they develop more self-esteem, self-respec

  3. Farm Diversification, Tenancy and CAP Reform: Results from a Survey of Tenant Farmers in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maye, Damian; Ilbery, Brian; Watts, David

    2009-01-01

    Little work has considered explicitly the role of farm tenancy in influencing the uptake (or not) of diversification activities. The need to examine this link has been heightened because of the 2003 CAP reforms and the decision to tie Single Farm Payment (SFP) entitlement to the land rather than what is produced on that land. The main objective of…

  4. Work related perceived stress and muscle activity during standardized computer work among female computer users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsman, P; Thorn, S; Søgaard, K

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated the associations between work-related perceived stress and surface electromyographic (sEMG) parameters (muscle activity and muscle rest) during standardized simulated computer work (typing, editing, precision, and Stroop tasks). It was part of the European case......-control study, NEW (Neuromuscular assessment in the Elderly Worker). The present cross-sectional study was based on a questionnaire survey and sEMG measurements among Danish and Swedish female computer users aged 45 or older (n=49). The results show associations between work-related perceived stress...... and trapezius muscle activity and rest during standardized simulated computer work, and provide partial empirical support for the hypothesized pathway of stress induced muscle activity in the association between an adverse psychosocial work environment and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulder....

  5. Afvloeiing uit en aanpassing in de landbouw 1968 [Mobility in farming, parttime farming 1968

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdenburg, L.

    2007-01-01

    Farm and personnel / successor / attitude to change in modern times / contacts with immigrants / status of farmers / attitude to the farmer's work / motivations to leave farming / work type preferences / expectations for the future / attitude to reconstruction / re-allocations / cooperation / biogra

  6. Afvloeiing uit en aanpassing in de landbouw 1968 [Mobility in farming, parttime farming 1968

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdenburg, L.

    1968-01-01

    Farm and personnel / successor / attitude to change in modern times / contacts with immigrants / status of farmers / attitude to the farmer's work / motivations to leave farming / work type preferences / expectations for the future / attitude to reconstruction / re-allocations / cooperation / biogra

  7. Afvloeiing uit en aanpassing in de landbouw 1968 [Mobility in farming, parttime farming 1968

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdenburg, L.

    2007-01-01

    Farm and personnel / successor / attitude to change in modern times / contacts with immigrants / status of farmers / attitude to the farmer's work / motivations to leave farming / work type preferences / expectations for the future / attitude to reconstruction / re-allocations / cooperation /

  8. Analysis of organic farming practices amongst crop farmers in Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. atoma & Family

    The farming practice is eco-friendly and works in agreement with nature. ... Lampkin (1990), said that organic farming systems rely on crop rotation, crop residues, .... The study revealed high-level awareness of organic farming practices but ...

  9. Hepatitis E Virus (Genotype 3) in Slurry Samples from Swine Farming Activities in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, G; Della Libera, S; Brambilla, M; Bisaglia, C; Pisani, G; Ciccaglione, A R; Bruni, R; Taffon, S; Equestre, M; Iaconelli, M

    2017-06-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emergent causative agent of acute hepatitis, transmitted by fecal-oral route. Infection with HEV is a global cause for morbidity and mortality throughout the world: it mainly causes large outbreaks in endemic areas and sporadic autochthonous cases in industrialized countries where HEV infections seem to be an emergent zoonotic disease. Infection of porcine livestock and its relationship with the human cases have been demonstrated. The present study describes an investigation on the prevalence and diversity of HEV in pig slurry in Italy. Slurry samples (24) were collected from ten farms located in North Italy during 2015 and analyzed for HEV, using four broad-range nested PCR assays targeting ORF1 (MTase), ORF2 (capsid) genes, and ORF2/3 regions. Overall, 18 samples (75%) were positive for HEV RNA, and characterized as genotype 3. Nine samples could be subtyped by ORF2 sequencing: Eight belonged to subtype 3f, while one sequence could not be characterized by blast analysis and phylogenetic analysis and may actually represent a new subtype. Furthermore, similarity of 99% was found between 3f Italian HEV sequences of human and swine origins. Real-Time PCR assay was also performed, in order to obtain quantitative data on positive samples. Two swine slurry samples were positive, containing 600 and 1000 UI per mL of sewage. The results of this study show that HEV strains belonging to zoonotic genotype 3 are widely present in swine excreta, and have high degree of identity with strains detected in autochthonous HEV cases. Improving swine farming operations safety and increasing operators' awareness of the zoonotic potential connected with the handling of swine effluents turn out to be key points in order to reduce the environmental and sanitary problem represented by the possible dissemination of HEV to water bodies.

  10. Tank farm health and safety plan. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickle, G.D.

    1995-03-29

    This Tank Farm Health and Safety Plan (HASP) for the conduct of all operations and work activities at the Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms is provided in order to minimize health and safety risks to workers and other onsite personnel. The HASP accomplishes this objective by establishing requirements, providing general guidelines, and conveying farm and facility-specific hazard communication information. The HASP, in conjunction with the job-specific information required by the HASP, is provided also as a reference for use during the planning of work activities at the tank farms. This HASP applies to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), other prime contractors to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and subcontractors to WHC who may be involved in tank farm work activities. This plan is intended to be both a requirements document and a useful reference to aid tank farm workers in understanding the safety and health issues that are encountered in routine and nonroutine work activities. The HASP defines the health and safety responsibilities of personnel working at the tank farms. It has been prepared in recognition of and is consistent with National Institute of Safety and Health (NIOSH), and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)/Unlimited State Coast Guard (USCG)/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste Site Activities (NIOSH 1985); WHC-CM-4-3, Industrial Safety Manual, Volume 4, {open_quotes}Health and Safety Programs for Hazardous Waste Operations;{close_quotes} 29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response; WHC-CM-1-1, Management Policies; and WHC-CM-1-3, Management Requirements and Procedures. When differences in governing regulations or policies exist, the more stringent requirements shall apply until the discrepancy can be resolved.

  11. Psychosomatic complaints and unwinding of sympathoadrenal activation after work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, J.I.; van der Beek, A.J.; Meijman, T.F.

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that chronically elevated catecholamine excretion rates are associated with health problems, indicating the importance of recovery after work. In 28 male truck drivers, unwinding after work was found to be insufficient. The resulting spillover of sympathoadrenal activation, as asses

  12. Effect of sporting activity on absenteeism in a working population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den S.G.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Blatter, B.M.; Ari�ns, G.A.; Bongers, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of sporting activity on absenteeism in a working population. METHODS: Data were used from a prospective cohort study in a working population with a follow up period of 3 years and were collected with yearly questionnaires or collected from company records. Comple

  13. Summary of Data Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Horne

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Data Farming is a process that has been developed to support decision-makers by answering questions that are not currently addressed. Data farming uses an inter-disciplinary approach that includes modeling and simulation, high performance computing, and statistical analysis to examine questions of interest with a large number of alternatives. Data farming allows for the examination of uncertain events with numerous possible outcomes and provides the capability of executing enough experiments so that both overall and unexpected results may be captured and examined for insights. Harnessing the power of data farming to apply it to our questions is essential to providing support not currently available to decision-makers. This support is critically needed in answering questions inherent in the scenarios we expect to confront in the future as the challenges our forces face become more complex and uncertain. This article was created on the basis of work conducted by Task Group MSG-088 “Data Farming in Support of NATO”, which is being applied in MSG-124 “Developing Actionable Data Farming Decision Support for NATO” of the Science and Technology Organization, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (STO NATO.

  14. Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same bacterium that has become resistant to certain antibiotics, which can make infections harder to treat. MRSA can be passed back and forth between people and farm animals through direct contact. In humans, MRSA can cause ...

  15. Farm worker injuries on Western Cape fruit farms: The role of the Lay Health Worker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Marais

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim and method: An exploratory and descriptive study to obtain basic data on the extent, nature, sources and severity of injuries sustained on fruit farms was conducted. The possibility of utilizing lay health workers (LHWs on farms to document routine information on injuries was also investigated. Descriptive information of all injuries occurring on selected farms, both occupational and other, needing some form of treatment, were documented over a one-year period from June 1999 to May 2000. A purposive non-probability sampling method was used. Forty-eight fruit farms with a history of trained LHWs were purposefully selected. Injuries were documented using a one-page questionnaire. Results: A total of 500 injuries were recorded, giving an average of 10.4 injuries per farm per year. Half of these injuries were work-related. Workers aged 20-39 were most at risk. Injuries sustained were related to routine activities of fruit farming, occurred mostly in the orchards and involved cuts, bruises and abrasions to the hands, including the fingers, and the eyes. Most of the non-work related injuries occurred in and around the home. A third of these injuries were sustained by persons <20. A large percentage of the non-work related injuries were violence- and alcohol related. Most of the injuries required basic primary health care that could be managed by the LHW. Injury severity caused people to take time off for one third of the cases. Conclusion: A relatively high occupational injury rate in comparison to high-income countries. Occupational Health and Safety legislation needs to be institutionalized and adhered to. Alcohol and violence on farms is a serious public health problem. LHWs could potentially play an important role in documenting injury data.

  16. Physical and postural aspects of teachers during work activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Nilson Rogério; Almeida, Maria Amélia

    2012-01-01

    Studies indicate that teachers constitute a professional segment, in which the work characteristics and the demands originating from the act of teaching, favor the emergence of sickness, concerning physical or emotional aspects. The present work aimed to describe physical and postural aspects during the working activity of teachers. A total of 120 elementary school teachers (1st to 8th grade) took part in the survey. For data collection, a questionnaire was applied: it included personal and occupational information, perception of discomfort and being off work; physical strength activities; posture at work and physical conditioning activities. The average age of teachers of the present sample corresponds to 35,8 years. In relation to activities which generate more physical strength, the answer none of the activities was predominant with 30 answers; followed by writing on the board, standing up during the period of classes, explanation of the subjects, class elaboration, correction of homework and others. The area of the body with higher amount of occurrences and prevalent discomfort referred to the lower limbs and spinal cord. These data inform the necessity of investing in prevention programs for the teachers, in order to develop strategies into the organizational context and interventions at the work environment.

  17. A risk-based decision tool for the management of organic waste in agriculture and farming activities (FARMERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Río, Miguel; Franco-Uría, Amaya; Abad, Emilio; Roca, Enrique

    2011-01-30

    Currently, specific management guidelines must be implemented for guaranteeing the safe reuse of organic waste in agriculture. With that aim, this work was focused on the development of a decision support tool for a safe and sustainable management of cattle manure as fertiliser in pastureland, to control and limit metal accumulation in soil and to reduce metal biotransfer from soil to other compartments. The system was developed on the basis of an environmental risk assessment multi-compartmental model. In contrast to other management tools, a long-term dynamic modelling approach was selected considering the persistence of metals in the environment. A detailed description of the underlying flow equations which accounts for distribution, human exposure and risk characterisation of metals in the assessed scenario was presented, as well as model parameterization. The tool was implemented in Visual C++ and is structured on a data base, where all required data is stored, the risk assessment model and a GIS module for the visualization of the scenario characteristics and the results obtained (risk indexes). The decision support system allows choosing among three estimation options, depending on the needs of the user, which provide information to both farmers and policy makers. The first option is useful for evaluating the adequacy of the current management practices of the different farms, and the remaining ones provides information on the measures that can be taken to carry out a fertilising plan without exceeding risk to human health. Among other results, maximum values of application rates of manure, maximum permissible metal content of manure and maximum application times in a particular scenario can be estimated by this system. To illustrate tool application, a real case study with data corresponding to different farms of a milk production cooperative was presented.

  18. Activity-based computing for medical work in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind

    2009-01-01

    Studies have revealed that people organize and think of their work in terms of activities that are carried out in pursuit of some overall objective, often in collaboration with others. Nevertheless, modern computer systems are typically single-user oriented, that is, designed to support individual...... tasks such as word processing while sitting at a desk. This article presents the concept of Activity-Based Computing (ABC), which seeks to create computational support for human activities. The ABC approach has been designed to address activity-based computing support for clinical work in hospitals....... In a hospital, the challenges arising from the management of parallel activities and interruptions are amplified because multitasking is now combined with a high degree of mobility, collaboration, and urgency. The article presents the empirical and theoretical background for activity-based computing, its...

  19. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended-spectrum and AmpC b-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in broilers and in people living and/or working on organic broiler farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbers, P.M.C.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Haenen, A.P.J.; Florijn, A.; Hengeveld, P.D.; Duijkeren, van E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum and AmpC b-lactamase (ESBL/AmpC)-producing Escherichia coli among broilers, and humans living and/or working on organic broiler farms; further characterise isolates; and co

  20. Invisible Brain: Knowledge in Research Works and Neuron Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Aviv Segev; Dorothy Curtis; Sukhwan Jung; Suhyun Chae

    2016-01-01

    If the market has an invisible hand, does knowledge creation and representation have an “invisible brain”? While knowledge is viewed as a product of neuron activity in the brain, can we identify knowledge that is outside the brain but reflects the activity of neurons in the brain? This work suggests that the patterns of neuron activity in the brain can be seen in the representation of knowledge-related activity. Here we show that the neuron activity mechanism seems to represent much of the kn...

  1. 基于工作过程系统化的农产品仓储管理课程开发%Development of Farm Produce Storage Management Course Based on Work Process Systematization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾妍; 辛磊

    2011-01-01

    Using the course Farm Produce Storage Management as an example, the paper studies the design, development and construction of the farm produce storage course system based on work process systematization and applies the finding to the practical teaching process of Hunan Vocational College of Commerce.%以《农产品仓储管理》课程为例,阐述了 工作过程系统化的农产品仓储课程体系的设计、开发与建设,并应用于我校实际教学过程之中.

  2. 29 CFR 500.41 - Farm labor contractor is responsible for actions of his farm labor contractor employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., prior to such employee's engagement in any activity enumerated in section 3(6) of the Act. A farm labor... farm labor contractor employee. 500.41 Section 500.41 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... PROTECTION Registration of Farm Labor Contractors and Employees of Farm Labor Contractors Engaged in Farm...

  3. Attempting to be active: Self-efficacy and barrier limitation differentiate activity levels of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierc, Madelaine; Locke, Sean; Jung, Mary; Brawley, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Working mothers are less physically active than working women without children and mothers who do not work. The purpose of this study was to examine concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and barriers to physical activity in a sample of working mothers. Women completed a mixed-methods survey which included measures of physical activity, concurrent self-regulatory efficacy, and barriers. Sufficiently active women experienced significantly greater concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and significantly less barrier limitation and frequency. No significant group differences were found for age, domestic duties performed, and children's extracurricular activities. Thematic analysis of barriers revealed six themes of common and unique factors, including limited time and family activities.

  4. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMMUNOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF CAPSULAR POLYSACCHARIDE OF KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE ISOLATED FROM FARM ANIMALS AT TAIF GOVERNORATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M.A. Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative enterobacterium that has historically been and currently remains, a significant cause of human disease and several kinds of infections in animals. In the present work, trials for the isolation of Klebsiella pneumoniae from diseased and apparently healthy farm animals (cows, sheep, goats and camels were done for recognition of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies. It was noticed that there was a marked variation between incidences of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies in examined animals as regards to health condition. The frequency was greater among samples collected from diseased animals 25.2% as compared with apparently healthy one 5.5%. It was found that there was great difference between the prevalence of Klebsiella isolated from various animal origins. On biochemical identification Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae was the most prevalent followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae and Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. Rhinoscleromatis. Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis was not isolated from apparently healthy animals. The in vitro sensitivity of isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies recovered from different animal species to 23 antimicrobial agents was tested. It was found that were resistance to cefoxitin, cefotaxime, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, aztreonam, amoxicillin and ampicillin. The most potent antibiotics showing 100% activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. isolated in this study were imipenem, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, gentamicin and kanamycin. While 96.2% of all examined isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ticarcillin/clavulanic acid. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that CPSs of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies contained wide variety of different molecular weights which ranged from 15.52 kDa to106.29 kDa and gave 10-13 bands. Evaluation of humoral immune response of mice immunized with CPSs was done using ELISA. It was found that the

  5. Control and dynamic analysis of a parallel-connected single active bridge DC-DC converter for DC-grid wind farm application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kiwoo; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a control strategy and its dynamic analysis of a high-power dc-dc converter, which is constructed with the parallel-connected single active bridge (SAB) dc-dc converters for dc-grid wind farm applications. The structural and operational characteristics of the SAB dc-dc converter...... have several advantages for high-power applications, and the modular concept of the parallel-connected converter is highly beneficial especially for offshore wind farm applications in terms of maintenance cost and fault tolerance. To justify the feasibility of the parallel-connected SAB dc-dc converter...... for dc-grid wind farm applications, an input voltage control method based on the PI control will be introduced and the dynamics of the overall system will be analysed. The analysis results are to be verified by means of simulations and experiments....

  6. Agricultural policy and its impact on fuel usage: Empirical evidence from farm household analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hung-Hao [Department of Agricultural Economics, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Roosevelt Rd., Sec. 4, Taipei 10617 (China); Mishra, Ashok K. [Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, Louisiana State University, Ag Center (United States); Livingston, Michael [Production Economics and Technology Branch, Economic Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, 1800 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20036-5831 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Off-farm work is a growing reality in the US agricultural sector as a whole. Another staple program in the US agriculture is the use of crop insurance. This paper assesses hitherto unaddressed issues of fuel consumption and hence pollution generated by farm households associated with off-farm work and crop insurance. We applied a quantile regression method on a unique national farm-level survey data to address the fuel consumption issues. Results indicate that off-farm work by operators tends to decrease fuel expenses. In contrast, households with crop insurance had higher fuel consumption thereby increasing fuel usage. Finally, our study shows that the net effect of these two activities resulted in an increase in the pollution level. (author)

  7. Cognit activation: a mechanism enabling temporal integration in working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Fuster, Joaquín M.; Bressler, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Working memory is critical to the integration of information across time in goal-directed behavior, reasoning and language, yet its neural substrate is unknown. Based on recent research, we propose a mechanism by which the brain can retain working memory for prospective use, thereby bridging time in the perception/action cycle. The essence of the mechanism is the activation of cognits, which consist of distributed, overlapping and interactive cortical networks that in the aggregate encode the...

  8. Centralised power control of wind farm, with doubly fed induction generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul; Iov, Florin;

    2006-01-01

    At the moment, the control ability of wind farms is a prime research concern for the grid integration of large wind farms, due to their required active role in the power system. This paper describes the on-going work of a research project, whose overall objective is to analyse and assess...... to regulate the wind farm power production to the reference power ordered by the system operators. The presented wind farm control has a hierarchical structure with both a central control level and a local control level. The central wind farm control level controls the power production of the whole farm...... by sending out reference power signals to each individual wind turbine, while the local wind turbine control level ensures that the reference power signal send by the central control level is reached. The performance of the control strategy is assessed and discussed by means of simulations illustrated both...

  9. Centralised power control of wind farm with doubly fed induction generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.D.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Iov, F.;

    2006-01-01

    At the moment, the control ability of wind farms is a prime research concern for the grid integration of large wind farms, due to their required active role in the power system. This paper describes the on-going work of a research project, whose overall objective is to analyse and assess...... to regulate the wind farm power production to the reference power ordered by the system operators. The presented wind farm control has a hierarchical structure with both a central control level and a local control level. The central wind farm control level controls the power production of the whole farm...... by sending out reference power signals to each individual wind turbine, while the local wind turbine control level ensures that the reference power signal send by the central control level is reached. The performance of the control strategy is assessed and discussed by means of simulations illustrated both...

  10. To what extent does organic farming rely on nutrient inflows from conventional farming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Benjamin; Nesme, Thomas; David, Christophe; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2013-12-01

    Organic farming is increasingly recognized as a prototype for sustainable agriculture. Its guidelines ban the use of artificial fertilizers. However, organic farms may import nutrients from conventional farming through material exchanges. In this study, we aimed at estimating the magnitude of these flows through the quantification of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium inflows from conventional farming to organic farming. Material inflows and outflows were collected for two cropping years on 63 farms. The farms were located in three French agricultural districts distributed over a gradient of farming activity defined by both the stocking rate and the ratio of the farm area under arable crops. Our results showed that on average, inflows from conventional farming were 23%, 73% and 53% for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively. These inflows were strongly determined by the farm production systems. However, for farms similar in terms of production systems, the inflows also depended on the local context, such as the proximity of organic livestock farms: the reliance of organic farming on conventional farming was lower in mixed than in specialized districts. These results highlight the necessity to quantify the contribution of nutrient inflows from conventional farming when assessing organic farming and development scenarios.

  11. FarmVille For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The only how-to, full-color book available on the game sensation FarmVille. With more than 80 million active players since the game?s release in 2009, there seems no end to the growing popularity of FarmVille. Whether accessed through the Facebook application or from the game?s Web site, this application is a worldwide phenomenon. Yet, there has been no beginner guide that offers an introduction to newcomers and updates to experienced players?until now. FarmVille For Dummies is aimed at getting novices acquainted with FarmVille rules and regulations, while more savvy players can sharpen their

  12. Array Effects in Large Wind Farms. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-343

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-23

    The effects of wind turbine wakes within operating wind farms have a substantial impact on the overall energy production from the farm. The current generation of models drastically underpredicts the impact of these wakes leading to non-conservative estimates of energy capture and financial losses to wind farm operators and developers. To improve these models, detailed research of operating wind farms is necessary. Rebecca Barthelmie of Indiana University is a world leader of wind farm wakes effects and would like to partner with NREL to help improve wind farm modeling by gathering additional wind farm data, develop better models and increase collaboration with European researchers working in the same area. This is currently an active area of research at NREL and the capabilities of both parties should mesh nicely.

  13. Health risks of workers fish farming center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Minchola Gallardo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the ergonomic risks in workers' health Fish Farming Center. The sample universe consisted of the 15 workers of Motil Fish Farming Center, Department of La Libertad, Peru. Samples were taken every month. The methods used to assess ergonomic ergonomic risk were: Job Strain Index (JSI, Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA and Oako Working Analysis System (OWAS. The Results demonstrated by the methods of JSI and REBA that selection and maintenance activities are generating greater risks, and, according to the method OWAS, the activity that generates higher risks is that of selection, followed by selection activities of gravid females and maintenance. It was concluded that the activities that need immediate corrective measures are the selection and maintenance.

  14. A theory of working memory without consciousness or sustained activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trübutschek, Darinka; Marti, Sébastien; Ojeda, Andrés; King, Jean-Rémi; Mi, Yuanyuan; Tsodyks, Misha; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2017-07-18

    Working memory and conscious perception are thought to share similar brain mechanisms, yet recent reports of non-conscious working memory challenge this view. Combining visual masking with magnetoencephalography, we investigate the reality of non-conscious working memory and dissect its neural mechanisms. In a spatial delayed-response task, participants reported the location of a subjectively unseen target above chance-level after several seconds. Conscious perception and conscious working memory were characterized by similar signatures: a sustained desynchronization in the alpha/beta band over frontal cortex, and a decodable representation of target location in posterior sensors. During non-conscious working memory, such activity vanished. Our findings contradict models that identify working memory with sustained neural firing, but are compatible with recent proposals of 'activity-silent' working memory. We present a theoretical framework and simulations showing how slowly decaying synaptic changes allow cell assemblies to go dormant during the delay, yet be retrieved above chance-level after several seconds.

  15. Roundfish monitoring Princess amalia Wind Farm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hal, van R.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the results of field work in the Princess Amalia Wind Farm (in Dutch: Prinses Amaliawindpark, or PAWP). It is to realize the requirements of the Monitoring and Evaluation Program, which is part of the Wbr-permit of the wind farm. The objective is to determine if the wind farm f

  16. Ant Farm

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Publié à l’occasion de l’exposition d’Ant Farm au Frac Centre du 12 au 23 décembre 2007, ce très beau catalogue, qui fait état des dix ans de création du collectif californien, propose un nombre important de documents iconographiques, de notices et de textes concernant leurs différents projets. Fondé en 1968 par Doug Michels et Chip Lord, rejoints par la suite par Curtis Schreier, Hudson Marquez, Douglas Hurr et d’autres encore, le collectif Ant Farm a marqué les esprits par quelques œuvres s...

  17. Stability analysis of offshore wind farm and marine current farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawon, Mohammad Hasanuzzaman

    -trend for large electric energy production using offshore wind generators and marine current generators, respectively. Thus DFIG based offshore wind farm can be an economic solution to stabilize squirrel cage induction generator based marine current farm without installing any addition FACTS devices. This thesis first focuses on the stabilization of fixed speed IG based marine current farm using SDBR. Also stabilization of DFIG based variable speed wind farm utilizing SDBR is studied in this work. Finally a co-operative control strategy is proposed where DFIG is controlled in such a way that it can even provide necessary reactive power demand of induction generator, so that additional cost of FACTS devices can be avoided. In that way, the DFIGs of the offshore wind farm (OWF) will actively compensate the reactive power demand of adjacent IGs of the marine current farm (MCF) during grid fault. Detailed modeling and control scheme for the proposed system are demonstrated considering some realistic scenarios. The power system small signal stability analysis is also carried out by eigenvalue analysis for marine current generator topology, wind turbine generator topology and integrated topology. The relation between the modes and state variables are discussed in light of modal and sensitivity analyses. The results of theoretical analyses are verified by MATLAB/SIMULINK and laboratory standard power system simulator PSCAD/EMTDC.

  18. Automated entry technologies for confined space work activities: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Lucia; Ferrari, Emilio; Mora, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    Work in confined spaces poses a significant risk to workers and rescuers involved in the emergency response when an accident occurs. Despite several standards and regulations define the safety requirements for such activities, injuries, and fatalities still occur. Furthermore, the on-site inspections after accidents often reveal that both employers and employees fail to implement safe entry procedures. Removing the risk is possible by avoiding the worker entry, but many activities require the presence of the operator inside the confined space to perform manual tasks. The following study investigates the available technologies for hazardous confined space work activities, e.g., cleaning, inspecting, and maintenance tasks. The aim is to provide a systematic review of the automated solutions for high-risk activities in confined spaces, considering the non-man entry as the most effective confined space safety strategy. Second, this survey aims to provide suggestions for future research addressing the design of new technologies. The survey consists of about 60 papers concerning innovative technologies for confined space work activities. The document review shows that several solutions have been developed and automation can replace the workers for a limited number of hazardous tasks. Several activities still require the manual intervention due to the complex characteristics of confined spaces, e.g., to remove the remains of the automatic cleaning process from the bottom of a tank. The results show that available technologies require more flexibility to adapt to such occupational environments and further research is needed.

  19. Comparison of the Cervical Extension Angle and the Upper Trapezius Muscle Activity between Overhead Work and Below-knee Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the cervical extension angle and the upper trapezius muscle activity between overhead work and below-knee work. [Subjects] Twelve males aged 20-30 years, were recruited. [Methods] We measured the cervical extension angle and upper trapezius muscle activity during overhead work and below-knee work. [Results] The results show that the cervical extension angle and upper trapezius muscle activity were significantly increased during below-knee work compared to overhead work. [Conclusion] Below-knee work is more likely to cause neck and shoulder pain than overhead work. Therefore, future studies should investigate below-knee work in detail.

  20. Meta-Coordination Activities: Exploring Articulation Work in Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Coordination of distributed activities is central to organizational work. The effective functioning of organizations hinges on their ability to manage interdependencies both within (intra-) and between (inter-) various departments. However, more than just the management of these individual dependencies is required for smooth coordination in…

  1. Why do games work? In search of the active substance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Peters, V.; Caluwé, de L.; Martens, D.

    2009-01-01

    During the ISAGA2007 conference in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, the foundation was laid for a book that tries to find answers to the questions "Why do games work? What is the active substance that makes them do what they do?" Now, one year later, over 20 authors from different fields, from different d

  2. Lumbar posture and muscular activity while sitting during office work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörl, Falk; Bradl, Ingo

    2013-04-01

    Field study, cross-sectional study to measure the posture and sEMG of the lumbar spine during office work for a better understanding of the lumbar spine within such conditions. There is high incidence of low back pain in office workers. Currently there is little information about lumbar posture and the activity of lumbar muscles during extended office work. Thirteen volunteers were examined for around 2h of their normal office work. Typical tasks were documented and synchronised to a portable long term measuring device for sEMG and posture examination. The correlation of lumbar spine posture and sEMG was tested statistically. The majority of time spent in office work was sedentary (82%). Only 5% of the measured time was undertaken in erect body position (standing or walking). The sEMG of the lumbar muscles under investigation was task dependent. A strong relation to lumbar spine posture was found within each task. The more the lumbar spine was flexed, the less there was activation of lumbar muscles (P postures. Because of very low activation of lumbar muscles while sitting, the load is transmitted by passive structures like ligaments and intervertebral discs. Due to the viscoelasticity of passive structures and low activation of lumbar muscles, the lumbar spine may incline into de-conditioning. This may be a reason for low back pain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Activities in Retirement: Individual Experience of Silver Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Maxin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One consequence of demographic change is a longer average remaining lifetime after retirement. Many people, however, remain able and willing to continue work after reaching the statutory retirement age. Given the predicted shortage of skilled workers in the future, post-retirement activities have the potential to contribute to both organisations and society. This article elaborates the prerequisites for productivity in retirement age and the changed nature of retirement at present.It also quantifies the extent to which activities are continued at retirement age. Paid employment still occurs beyond the applicable retirement age, whereby with increasing age, self-employed persons and assistant family members make up the lion’s share of the statistics. An empirical study shows the concrete situation of active retirees and the prerequisites for post-retirement activities. At the explorative level, individual experiences of the transition into retirement, the reasons for and the framework of post-retirement activities, motivational factors in job design, and physical and intellectual demands before and after retirement are characterised. The qualitative data indicate that retirement entails changes towards more flexible structures in everyday life. Decisive reasons for taking up post-retirement activities are the desire to help, pass on knowledge or remain active; personal development and contact with others; and gaining appreciation and recognition. Flexible job design and freedom to make decisions constitute major elements in shaping post-retirement working activities. Offering autonomy, skill variety, and task significance is important for the design of post-retirement activities. The paper closes with identifying relevant research fields and the concrete need to take action at individual,  organisational, and societal levels. All in all, the transition from working life to retirement should be made flexible enough to do greater justice to the

  4. Effects of band-steaming on microbial activity and abundance in organic farming soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Jørgensen, Martin Heide; Elmholt, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Band-steaming of arable soil at 80-90 ◦C kill off weed seeds prior to crop establishment which allows an extensive intra-row weed control. Here we evaluated the side-effects of in situ band-steaming on soil respiration, enzyme activities, and numbers of culturable bacteria and fungi in an organic...... insignificant or slightly stimulatory (P arylsulfatase activity were significantly (P

  5. National Farm Medicine Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Areas Applied Sciences Biomedical Informatics Clinical Research Epidemiology Farm Medicine Human Genetics Oral-Systemic Health Clinical ... Consulting Agritourism Farm MAPPER Lyme Disease ROPS Rebate Zika Virus National Farm Medicine Center The National Farm ...

  6. Amaranth farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Kjærgård, Bente

    2008-01-01

    natural resources that small-scale farmers have to combat the abovementioned problems. The study identified several local and regional barriers for increasing the level of farming, production, processing and consumption. A striking and paradoxical limitation is the monopolization practices developed...... by some of the associations in relation to knowledge and technology transfer, seeds distribution and contact to potential national and foreign buyers....

  7. Molecular farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular Farming is a new and emerging technology that promises relatively cheap and flexible production of large quantities of pharmaceuticals in genetically modified plants. Many stakeholders are involved in the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, which complicates the discussion on the poss

  8. Human temporal cortical single neuron activity during working memory maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Leona; Corina, David; Ojemann, George

    2016-06-01

    The Working Memory model of human memory, first introduced by Baddeley and Hitch (1974), has been one of the most influential psychological constructs in cognitive psychology and human neuroscience. However the neuronal correlates of core components of this model have yet to be fully elucidated. Here we present data from two studies where human temporal cortical single neuron activity was recorded during tasks differentially affecting the maintenance component of verbal working memory. In Study One we vary the presence or absence of distracting items for the entire period of memory storage. In Study Two we vary the duration of storage so that distractors filled all, or only one-third of the time the memory was stored. Extracellular single neuron recordings were obtained from 36 subjects undergoing awake temporal lobe resections for epilepsy, 25 in Study one, 11 in Study two. Recordings were obtained from a total of 166 lateral temporal cortex neurons during performance of one of these two tasks, 86 study one, 80 study two. Significant changes in activity with distractor manipulation were present in 74 of these neurons (45%), 38 Study one, 36 Study two. In 48 (65%) of those there was increased activity during the period when distracting items were absent, 26 Study One, 22 Study Two. The magnitude of this increase was greater for Study One, 47.6%, than Study Two, 8.1%, paralleling the reduction in memory errors in the absence of distracters, for Study One of 70.3%, Study Two 26.3% These findings establish that human lateral temporal cortex is part of the neural system for working memory, with activity during maintenance of that memory that parallels performance, suggesting it represents active rehearsal. In 31 of these neurons (65%) this activity was an extension of that during working memory encoding that differed significantly from the neural processes recorded during overt and silent language tasks without a recent memory component, 17 Study one, 14 Study two

  9. Activities for education at work for Medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna León Acebo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: the growing demands of a health professional that combines study and work, school with life and teaching-learning in primary and secondary health care constitute a current social problem for the country.Objective: to design a set of activities for education at work for first year medical students, from the family doctor's office, to contribute to health promotion and disease prevention in the community, favoring the integral formation of future doctors.Methods: the program was designed in work areas for the integrated teaching of biomedical disciplines for contributing to health promotion and disease prevention in "Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” polyclinic in Las Tunas. It carried out the historic and graphical analysis of the problem; students’,  professors’ and community members’ behaviors were observed; interviews and surveys were applied to explore knowledge and experiences of students and health professionals on the promotion of health education at work; workshops on critical opinion and collective elaboration were carried out and permitted to  socialize with other teachers and health professionals the proposed program for its redesign based on collective criticism.Results: the shortcomings caused by the fragmentation of subject contents and biomedical disciplines in education at work were characterized and the plan to help to eliminate the inadequacies that occur in education at work was designed by work areas and determined by the general guidelines for its implementation, without specific indications.Conclusions: the clinical method was applied its pedagogical dimension, allowing the coordination between the traditional methods of teaching-learning and for diagnosing, to contribute to eliminate the spontaneous character in the development of education in the workplace. The program of activities was designed by work areas.

  10. Trabalho em saúde: vigilância sanitária de farmácias no município de Salvador (Bahia, Brasil Work in health: sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador (state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Amorim Bastos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A farmácia é um estabelecimento de interesse da saúde onde são dispensados medicamentos, tecnologia terapêutica mais utilizada na prática médica. Este trabalho objetiva descrever e analisar a vigilância sanitária de farmácias. A partir da teoria do processo de trabalho em saúde, realizou-se um estudo sobre a vigilância sanitária em farmácias de Salvador (Bahia, Brasil, segundo as categorias analíticas agentes e atividades. Os dados foram coletados por meio da observação, análise documental e entrevistas. No processamento, utilizou-se o software QSR N Vivo. Verificou-se multiprofissionalidade no quadro técnico, profissionais com pouco tempo de serviço em vigilância sanitária de farmácias e insuficiente capacitação técnica para o exercício das atividades. Foram observadas deficiências de ordem gerencial no serviço, que ainda não incorporou práticas de planejamento e avaliação. As atividades estão direcionadas à concessão da licença sanitária, priorizando-se o atendimento à demanda espontânea, configurando um modelo tecnológico de intervenção baseado na inspeção sanitária. Revelou-se a necessidade de modernização do serviço e utilização de tecnologias diversificadas para propiciar o controle do risco, dado que a evolução tecnológica oferece medicamentos cada vez mais potentes, porém com maior grau de risco.A drugstore is an establishment of interest in health, from which medication is dispensed, namely the therapeutic technology most broadly used in the practice of medicine. The scope of this study is to describe and analyze the sanitary surveillance of drugstores. Based on the theory of working processes in healthcare, a case study was conducted on the sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador (Bahia, Brazil, examining 2 analytical categories: agents and activities. Data were collected through observation, analysis of documents and interviews, and QSR N Vivo software was used for data

  11. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMMUNOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF CAPSULAR POLYSACCHARIDE OF KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE ISOLATED FROM FARM ANIMALS AT TAIF GOVERNORATE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed M.A. Mansour; Hoda M. Zaki; Nibal A. Hassan; Abdulrahman A. Al-Humiany

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative enterobacterium that has historically been and currently remains, a significant cause of human disease and several kinds of infections in animals. In the present work, trials for the isolation of Klebsiella pneumoniae from diseased and apparently healthy farm animals (cows, sheep, goats and camels) were done for recognition of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies. It was noticed that there was a marked variation between incidences of Klebsiella pneumoniae ...

  12. Treadmill workstations: the effects of walking while working on physical activity and work performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ner, Avner; Hamann, Darla J; Koepp, Gabriel; Manohar, Chimnay U; Levine, James

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a 12-month-long experiment in a financial services company to study how the availability of treadmill workstations affects employees' physical activity and work performance. We enlisted sedentary volunteers, half of whom received treadmill workstations during the first two months of the study and the rest in the seventh month of the study. Participants could operate the treadmills at speeds of 0-2 mph and could use a standard chair-desk arrangement at will. (a) Weekly online performance surveys were administered to participants and their supervisors, as well as to all other sedentary employees and their supervisors. Using within-person statistical analyses, we find that overall work performance, quality and quantity of performance, and interactions with coworkers improved as a result of adoption of treadmill workstations. (b) Participants were outfitted with accelerometers at the start of the study. We find that daily total physical activity increased as a result of the adoption of treadmill workstations.

  13. Avoidance of wind farms by harbour seals is limited to pile driving activities

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Deborah J. F.; Hastie, Gordon D.; Thompson, David; Janik, Vincent M.; Hammond, Philip S.; Scott-Hayward, Lindesay A. S.; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Jones, Esther L.; McConnell, Bernie J

    2016-01-01

    DJFR, GH, VMJ and BM were funded by the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) as part of their Offshore Energy Strategic Environmental Assessment programme. DT and GH were also funded by NERC/Defra EBAO NE/J004243/1. ELJ was funded under Scottish Government grant MMSS001/01. This work was also supported by National Capability funding from the Natural Environment Research Council to SMRU (grant no. SMRU1001). Tags and their deployment in the Thames in 2006 and The Wash were funded ...

  14. Activity theory as a framework for analyzing and redesigning work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeström, Y

    2000-07-01

    Cultural-historical activity theory is a new framework aimed at transcending the dichotomies of micro- and macro-, mental and material, observation and intervention in analysis and redesign of work. The approach distinguishes between short-lived goal-directed actions and durable, object-oriented activity systems. A historically evolving collective activity system, seen in its network relations to other activity systems, is taken as the prime unit of analysis against which scripted strings of goal-directed actions and automatic operations are interpreted. Activity systems are driven by communal motives that are often difficult to articulate for individual participants. Activity systems are in constant movement and internally contradictory. Their systemic contradictions, manifested in disturbances and mundane innovations, offer possibilities for expansive developmental transformations. Such transformations proceed through stepwise cycles of expansive learning which begin with actions of questioning the existing standard practice, then proceed to actions of analyzing its contradictions and modelling a vision for its zone of proximal development, then to actions of examining and implementing the new model in practice. New forms of work organization increasingly require negotiated 'knotworking' across boundaries. Correspondingly, expansive learning increasingly involves horizontal widening of collective expertise by means of debating, negotiating and hybridizing different perspectives and conceptualizations. Findings from a longitudinal intervention study of children's medical care illuminate the theoretical arguments.

  15. Energy balance in olive oil farms: comparison of organic and conventional farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Meco, Ramón; Moreno, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The viability of an agricultural production system not only depends on the crop yields, but especially on the efficient use of available resources. However, the current agricultural systems depend heavily on non-renewable energy consumption in the form of fertilizers, fossil fuels, pesticides and machinery. In developed countries, the economic profitability of different productive systems is dependent on the granting of subsidies of diverse origin that affect both production factors (or inputs) and the final product (or output). Leaving such external aids, energy balance analysis reveals the real and most efficient form of management for each agroclimatic region, and is also directly related to the economic activity and the environmental state. In this work we compare the energy balance resulting from organic and conventional olive oil farms under the semi-arid conditions of Central Spain. The results indicate that the mean energy supplied to the organic farms was sensitively lower (about 30%) in comparison with the conventional management, and these differences were more pronounced for the biggest farms (> 15 ha). Mean energy outputs were about 20% lower in the organic system, although organic small farms (< 15 ha) resulted more productive than the conventional small ones. However, these lower outputs were compensated by the major market value obtained from the organic products. Chemical fertilizers and pesticides reached about 60% of the total energy inputs in conventional farming; in the organic farms, however, this ratio scarcely reached 25%. Human labor item only represented a very small amount of the total energy input in both cases (less than 1%). As conclusions, both management systems were efficient from an energy point of view. The value of the organic production should be focused on the environmental benefits it provides, which are not usually considered in the conventional management on not valuing the damage it produces to the environment. Organic

  16. Assessing working memory capacity through time-constrained elementary activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucidi, Annalisa; Loaiza, Vanessa; Camos, Valérie; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) capacity measured through complex span tasks is among the best predictors of fluid intelligence (Gf). These tasks usually involve maintaining memoranda while performing complex cognitive activities that require a rather high level of education (e.g., reading comprehension, arithmetic), restricting their range of applicability. Because individual differences in such complex activities are nothing more than the concatenation of small differences in their elementary constituents, complex span tasks involving elementary processes should be as good of predictors of Gf as traditional tasks. The present study showed that two latent variables issued from either traditional or new span tasks involving time-constrained elementary activities were similarly correlated with Gf. Moreover, a model with a single unitary WM factor had a similar fit as a model with two distinct WM factors. Thus, time-constrained elementary activities can be integrated in WM tasks, permitting the assessment of WM in a wider range of populations.

  17. Training of selective attention in work-active stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starovasnik Žagavec, Barbara; Mlinarič Lešnik, Vesna; Goljar, Nika

    2015-12-01

    The aim was to examine the effects of computer-based cognitive rehabilitation of attention in work-active patients after stroke. The study included 11 patients treated as inpatients at the University Rehabilitation Institute, Republic of Slovenia, who were included in intensive selective attention training four times a week for 3 months. Each patient was assessed at the initial and the final rehabilitation stage with the TAP system (Test of Attentional Performance), alertness, and divided attention tasks. The results indicate a moderate to strong increase in performance on the divided attention test and a mild effect on the alertness test. Early cognitive rehabilitation of the attentional system can contribute toward recovery of divided attention in work-active patients after stroke.

  18. Amaranth farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Kjærgård, Bente

    2008-01-01

    Though amaranth has been studied intensively for its exceptional nutritional properties, little has been reported about its capacity for fighting poverty, securing food supplies, turning migrations, or its impact on the environment and the prospect for mprovement of living conditions of those...... natural resources that small-scale farmers have to combat the abovementioned problems. The study identified several local and regional barriers for increasing the level of farming, production, processing and consumption. A striking and paradoxical limitation is the monopolization practices developed...

  19. Study on Innovative Ideological and Political Work in the State-owned Forest Farm---A Case Study of Songxi State-owned Forest Farm%国有林场创新思想政治工作之研究--以松溪国有林场为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜彩银; 邓育宝

    2016-01-01

    如何做好新形势下国有林场的思想政治工作是当前林业工作面临的重要任务。本文以松溪国有林场为例,从观念创新、管理创新、内容形式创新、文化创新、激励保障机制创新5个方面,阐述了思想政治工作创新对美丽林场建设的助力作用。%In the new situations, an important task the present forestry work faces is to effectively carry out the ideological and political work in the state-owned forest farm. In this paper a case study was made of Songxi State-owned Forest Farm and the promoting role the ideological and political work played in the beautiful forest farm construction was elaborated from 5 aspects including the idea innovation, management innovation, content & form innovation, cultural innovation and incentive& safeguard mechanism.

  20. Effects of soil type and farm management on soil ecological functional genes and microbial activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeve, Jennifer [Washington State University; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Carpenter-Boggs, Lynne [Washington State University; Kang, S. [University of Oklahoma; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Reganold, John P. [Washington State University

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between soil microbial diversity and soil function are the subject of much debate. Process-level analyses have shown that microbial function varies with soil type and responds to soil management. However, such measurements cannot determine the role of community structure and diversity in soil function. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of gene frequency and diversity, measured by microarray analysis, on soil processes. The study was conducted in an agro-ecosystem characterized by contrasting management practices and soil types. Eight pairs of adjacent commercial organic and conventional strawberry fields were matched for soil type, strawberry variety, and all other environmental conditions. Soil physical, chemical and biological analyses were conducted including functional gene microarrays (FGA). Soil physical and chemical characteristics were primarily determined by soil textural type (coarse vs fine-textured), but biological and FGA measures were more influenced by management (organic vs conventional). Organically managed soils consistently showed greater functional activity as well as FGA signal intensity (SI) and diversity. Overall FGA SI and diversity were correlated to total soil microbial biomass. Functional gene group SI and/or diversity were correlated to related soil chemical and biological measures such as microbial biomass, cellulose, dehydrogenase, ammonium and sulfur. Management was the dominant determinant of soil biology as measured by microbial gene frequency and diversity, which paralleled measured microbial processes.

  1. Predicting flow at work: investigating the activities and job characteristics that predict flow states at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Karina; Cleal, Bryan

    2010-04-01

    Flow (a state of consciousness where people become totally immersed in an activity and enjoy it intensely) has been identified as a desirable state with positive effects for employee well-being and innovation at work. Flow has been studied using both questionnaires and Experience Sampling Method (ESM). In this study, we used a newly developed 9-item flow scale in an ESM study combined with a questionnaire to examine the predictors of flow at two levels: the activities (brainstorming, planning, problem solving and evaluation) associated with transient flow states and the more stable job characteristics (role clarity, influence and cognitive demands). Participants were 58 line managers from two companies in Denmark; a private accountancy firm and a public elder care organization. We found that line managers in elder care experienced flow more often than accountancy line managers, and activities such as planning, problem solving, and evaluation predicted transient flow states. The more stable job characteristics included in this study were not, however, found to predict flow at work.

  2. Comparison of the Cervical Extension Angle and the Upper Trapezius Muscle Activity between Overhead Work and Below-knee Work

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the cervical extension angle and the upper trapezius muscle activity between overhead work and below-knee work. [Subjects] Twelve males aged 20–30 years, were recruited. [Methods] We measured the cervical extension angle and upper trapezius muscle activity during overhead work and below-knee work. [Results] The results show that the cervical extension angle and upper trapezius muscle activity were significantly increased during below-knee wor...

  3. Analysis and design of a parallel-connected single active bridge DC-DC converter for high-power wind farm applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kiwoo; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a parallel-connected Single Active Bridge (SAB) dc-dc converter for high-power applications. Paralleling lower-power converters can lower the current rating of each modular converter and interleaving the outputs can significantly reduce the magnitudes of input and output current...... requirements, this modular converter concept is expected to be highly beneficial especially for the offshore wind farm application....

  4. Incidence of unintentional injuries in farming based on one year of weekly registration in Danish farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K; Carstensen, O; Lauritsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark, farming ranks as the industry with the highest incidence rate of fatal injuries. For nonfatal injuries, insufficient registration practices prevent valid comparisons between occupations. This study examines the occurrence of farm accidents and injuries, as well as work-specific factors......, via weekly registration in a representative sample of 393 farms in one county during 1 year....

  5. OILSEED ACTIVITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE LINKAGES: FAMILY FARMING CASES FROM NORTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Alves Finco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The  biofuel  production  has  been  strongly  discussed  in  Brazil,  leading  the  country  to develop  policies  and  implement,  in  2004,  a  biodiesel  program  (PNPB  in  order  to  promote  rural  and regional  development.  Based  on  this,  the  present  study  aims  to  assess  the  linkages  between  the  oil seed activity and climate change, especially regarding the deforestation of native forests. Thus, a cross sectional study was conducted with small-scale farmers in Tocantins state, located in the Brazilian Legal Amazon  Region.  The  survey  was  conducted  in  2008  and  comprises  a  range  of  socio-economic  and environmental  indicators,  which  were  collected  among  smallholders  who  cultivate  Ricinus  Communisand  Jatropha  curcas  oil  seeds.  Aiming  at  having  more  accuracy  in  the  assessment  of  the  linkages, REDD  plus  project  analyses  were  also  performed  in  the  study.  Results  point  toward  a  positive relationship  between  oil  seed  production  and  deforestation  of  native  forests,  which  might  then,aggravates climate change.

  6. Green Care Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone R. de Bruin PhD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the value of day services at green care farms (GCFs in terms of social participation for people with dementia. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people with dementia who attended day services at a GCF (GCF group, n = 21, were on a waiting list (WL for day services at a GCF (WL group, n = 12, or attended day services in a regular day care facility (RDCF group, n = 17 and with their family caregivers. Results: People with dementia in the GCF and WL group were primarily males, with an average age of 71 and 76 years, respectively, who almost all had a spousal caregiver. People with dementia in the RDCF group were mostly females with an average age of 85 years, most of whom had a non-spousal caregiver. For both the GCF and RDCF groups, it was indicated that day services made people with dementia feel part of society. The most important domains of social participation addressed by RDCFs were social interactions and recreational activities. GCFs additionally addressed the domains “paid employment” and “volunteer work.” Conclusion: GCFs are valuable in terms of social participation for a particular group of people with dementia. Matching characteristics of adult day services (ADS centers to the preferences and capacities of people with dementia is of importance. Diversity in ADS centers is therefore desirable.

  7. Wind Farm Recommendation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    On April 21, 2011, an Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Land Use Committee meeting was convened to develop a wind farm recommendation for the Executive Council and a list of proposed actions for proceeding with the recommendation. In terms of land use, the INL Land Use Committee unanimously agrees that Site 6 is the preferred location of the alternatives presented for an INL wind farm. However, further studies and resolution to questions raised (stated in this report) by the INL Land Use Committee are needed for the preferred location. Studies include, but are not limited to, wind viability (6 months), bats (2 years), and the visual impact of the wind farm. In addition, cultural resource surveys and consultation (1 month) and the National Environmental Policy Act process (9 to 12 months) need to be completed. Furthermore, there is no documented evidence of developers expressing interest in constructing a small wind farm on INL, nor a specific list of expectations or concessions for which a developer might expect INL to cover the cost. To date, INL assumes the National Environmental Policy Act activities will be paid for by the Department of Energy and INL (the environmental assessment has only received partial funding). However, other concessions also may be expected by developers such as roads, fencing, power line installation, tie-ins to substations, annual maintenance, snow removal, access control, down-time, and remediation. These types of concessions have not been documented, as a request, from a developer and INL has not identified the short and long-term cost liabilities for such concessions should a developer expect INL to cover these costs. INL has not identified a go-no-go funding level or the priority this Wind Farm Project might have with respect to other nuclear-related projects, should the wind farm remain an unfunded mandate. The Land Use Committee recommends Legal be consulted to determine what, if any, liabilities exist with the Wind Farm Project and

  8. 75 FR 4904 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update... of Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Working Group Activities. SUMMARY: The FRA is updating its announcement of RSAC's Working Group activities to reflect its current status. FOR...

  9. 77 FR 58608 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update... of Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Working Group Activities. SUMMARY: FRA is updating its announcement of the RSAC Working Group activities to reflect its current status. FOR FURTHER...

  10. 75 FR 51525 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update... of Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Working Group Activities. SUMMARY: The FRA is updating its announcement of RSAC's Working Group activities to reflect its current status. FOR...

  11. 75 FR 76070 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update... of Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Working Group Activities. SUMMARY: The FRA is updating its announcement of RSAC's Working Group activities to reflect its current status. FOR...

  12. The Life, Work and Recreational Physical Activity of Female Cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena

    by the Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, a part of the PhD project was to organize and evaluate a workplace physical activity programme that used team games as the main form of exercise. Via participant observation and semi-structured interviews with 42 cleaners and their supervisors I gained insights...... targeting cleaners or other marginalized groups of the population must pay specific attention to structural factors such as the organization of the labour market or to the gendered division of work....... into their experiences with and great challenges to participate in a worksite fitness programme as well as their work, family and everyday lives, their previous experiences with sport and exercise and their health-related knowledge, opinions and practices. Although each of the four articles had a different focus...

  13. The Life, Work and Recreational Physical Activity of Female Cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena

    by the Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, a part of the PhD project was to organize and evaluate a workplace physical activity programme that used team games as the main form of exercise. Via participant observation and semi-structured interviews with 42 cleaners and their supervisors I gained insights...... into their experiences with and great challenges to participate in a worksite fitness programme as well as their work, family and everyday lives, their previous experiences with sport and exercise and their health-related knowledge, opinions and practices. Although each of the four articles had a different focus...... targeting cleaners or other marginalized groups of the population must pay specific attention to structural factors such as the organization of the labour market or to the gendered division of work....

  14. Active pauses induce more variable electromyographic pattern of the trapezius muscle activity during computer work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2009-01-01

    , with passive (relax) and active (30% maximum voluntary contraction of shoulder elevation) pauses given every 2 min at two different work paces (low/high). Bipolar SEMG from four parts of the trapezius muscle was recorded. The relative rest time was higher for the lower parts compared with the upper......The aim of this laboratory study was to evaluate effects of active and passive pauses and investigate the distribution of the trapezius surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity during computer mouse work. Twelve healthy male subjects performed four sessions of computer work for 10 min in one day...... of the trapezius (pactive pause compared with passive one (p

  15. Bioassay of Estrogenic Activity of Effluent and Influent in a Farm Wastewater Treatment Plant Using an in vitro Recombinant Assay with Yeast Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG-MING LI; FANG-NI LUO; GuI-XIA LIU; PING-TING ZHU

    2008-01-01

    Objective Environmental estrogens at an elevated concentration are known to produce adverse effects on human and animal life. However, the majority of researches have been focused on ndustrial discharges, while the impact of livestock wastes as a source of endocrine disrupters in aquatic environments has been rarely elucidated. In order to investigate the contribution of environmental estrogens from livestock, the estrogenic activity in water samples from a farm wastewater treatment plant was analyzed by a recombinant yeast screening method. Methods The extracts prepared from 15 selected water samples from the farm wastewater treatment plant, among which 6 samples were from pre-treatment section (influents) and 9 from post-treatment section (effluents), were analyzed for estrogenic activity by cellar bioassay. Yeast cells transfected with the expression plasmid of human estrogen receptor and the Lac Z reporter plasmid encoding β-galactossidase, were used to measure the estrogen-like compounds in the farm wastewater treatment plant. Results The wastewater samples from influents showed a higher estrogenic potency than the effluent samples showing a low induction of β-galactossidase relative to solvent control condition. By comparison with a standard curve for 1713-estradiol (E2), estrogenic potency in water samples from the influents was calculated as E2-equivalent and ranged from 0.1 to 150 pM E2-equivalent. The estrogenic potency in water samples from the effluents was significantly lower than that in the influents, and 7 water samples had less detectable limit in the total of 9 samples. Conclusion Yeast bioassay of estrogenic activity in most of the samples from the farm wastewater after disposal by traditional sewage treatment showed negative results.

  16. [Collaboration of the occupational physician for risk assessment activities in work environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramistella, Ernesto; Cristaudo, Alfonso; De Santa, Azelio; Canalis, Pier Franco

    2011-01-01

    In Italy, the legislative Decree n. 81/2008 (and further modifications) foresee the obligation, with relative sanction, for the "competent physician" to collaborate with the employer and the person responsible of the service of prevention and protection to the evaluation of the risks in the places of job. Objective of the present job is to give indications that allow the physician to acquit with correctness the obligation, looking for an equilibrium among the dictated normative and the resources to his/her disposition. For small and medium-sized companies, some activities developed by the physician can determine the real collaboration to the evaluation of the risks: periodic inspections; recording of the evaluations of the workers; planning of the biological monitoring; execution of the sanitary overseeing; epidemiological elaboration of the data of the sanitary overseeing; you meet with the employer etc. In the great farms the collaboration of the competent physician to the evaluation of the risks should culminate in the predisposition of a specific document Such document could compose him some followings sections: indication of the working risks; evaluation of the risks for the pregnant workers; evaluation of the risk job-correlated stress; analysis on the problem list alcohol and job; collaboration to the organization of the service of first help; analysis of the accident coarse; collaboration to the realization of programs of information; collaboration to the realization of programs of promotion of the health; layout of the sanitary plan; measures of prevention and protection necessary.

  17. Treadmill workstations: the effects of walking while working on physical activity and work performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avner Ben-Ner

    Full Text Available We conducted a 12-month-long experiment in a financial services company to study how the availability of treadmill workstations affects employees' physical activity and work performance. We enlisted sedentary volunteers, half of whom received treadmill workstations during the first two months of the study and the rest in the seventh month of the study. Participants could operate the treadmills at speeds of 0-2 mph and could use a standard chair-desk arrangement at will. (a Weekly online performance surveys were administered to participants and their supervisors, as well as to all other sedentary employees and their supervisors. Using within-person statistical analyses, we find that overall work performance, quality and quantity of performance, and interactions with coworkers improved as a result of adoption of treadmill workstations. (b Participants were outfitted with accelerometers at the start of the study. We find that daily total physical activity increased as a result of the adoption of treadmill workstations.

  18. Farm population of the United States: 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deare, D; Kalbacher, J Z

    1987-11-01

    -married farm women 18-44 averaged 2072/1000 women; the number of children born to nonfarm women was 1780/1000 women. 10) About 69% of farm residents 15+ were in the labor force in 1986 compared to 64% of the nonfarm population. Midwestern farm residents were less likely to be unemployed than Southern farm residents. Farm men were more likely to work in farm occupations while only 1/4 of farm women worked in farm occupations. 11) Median income for farm households was $20,166 as compared to $23,703 for nonfarm households. The shares of income coming from off-farm sources has been increasing because the amount of farm income has been declining. In 1985, 17% of all farm families had incomes below the poverty level, as compared to 11% of nonfarm families.

  19. Farm management systems and the Future Internet era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaloxylos, A.; Eigenmann, R.; Teye, F.; Wolfert, J.

    2012-01-01

    Smart/precision farming systems are expected to play an important role in improving farming activities. During the past years, sophisticated farm management systems have emerged to replace outdated complex and monolithic farm systems and software tools. The latest trend is to enable these management

  20. Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Annette M.

    2003-01-01

    Draws upon Maria Montessori's writings to examine work as a universal human tendency throughout life. Discusses the work of adaptation of the infant, work of "psycho-muscular organism" for the preschooler, work of the imagination for the elementary child, community work of the adolescent, and work of the adult. Asserts that…

  1. Influence of computer work under time pressure on cardiac activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ping; Hu, Sijung; Yu, Hongliu

    2015-03-01

    Computer users are often under stress when required to complete computer work within a required time. Work stress has repeatedly been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The present study examined the effects of time pressure workload during computer tasks on cardiac activity in 20 healthy subjects. Heart rate, time domain and frequency domain indices of heart rate variability (HRV) and Poincaré plot parameters were compared among five computer tasks and two rest periods. Faster heart rate and decreased standard deviation of R-R interval were noted in response to computer tasks under time pressure. The Poincaré plot parameters showed significant differences between different levels of time pressure workload during computer tasks, and between computer tasks and the rest periods. In contrast, no significant differences were identified for the frequency domain indices of HRV. The results suggest that the quantitative Poincaré plot analysis used in this study was able to reveal the intrinsic nonlinear nature of the autonomically regulated cardiac rhythm. Specifically, heightened vagal tone occurred during the relaxation computer tasks without time pressure. In contrast, the stressful computer tasks with added time pressure stimulated cardiac sympathetic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Role of Social Cognitive Theory in Farm-to-School-Related Activities: Implications for Child Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Linda; Norris, Kimberly; Kolodinsky, Jane; Nelson, Abbie

    2013-01-01

    Background: Farm-to-school (FTS) programs are gaining attention for many reasons, one of which is the recognition that they could help stem the increase in childhood overweight and obesity. Most FTS programs that have been evaluated have increased students' selection or intake of fruits and vegetables following the incorporation of FTS…

  3. Wind Farm Active Power Dispatch for Output Power Maximizing Based on a Wind Turbine Control Strategy for Load Minimizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Baohua; Hu, Weihao; Hou, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion of the wake effect in the wind farm control design (WF) can increase the total captured power by wind turbines (WTs), which is usually implemented by derating upwind WTs. However, derating the WT without a proper control strategy will increase the structural loads, caused by operation i...

  4. Functional brain activation associated with working memory training and transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cameron M; Lawlor-Savage, Linette; Goghari, Vina M

    2017-09-15

    While behavioural trials of working memory (WM) training have received much attention in recent years, a lesser explored parallel approach is functional neuroimaging. A small literature has suggested a complex time course for functional activation pattern changes following WM training (i.e. not simply increasing or decreasing due to training); however, no study to date has examined such neuroplastic effects in both the training task (dual n-back) and the fluid intelligence transfer task to which the training is purported to transfer (Raven's Matrices). This study investigated neural correlates of WM training in healthy young adults randomized to six weeks of WM training, or an active control condition (processing speed training) with a pre- and post-training fMRI design. Results indicated significant reductions in activation for the WM trained group in key WM-task related areas for trained WM tasks after training compared to the processing speed active control group. The same pattern of training related decreases in activation for the WM trained group was not observed for the transfer task, which is consistent with null results for all cognitive outcomes of the present trial. The observed pattern of results suggests that repetitive practice with a complex task does indeed lead to neuroplastic processes that very likely represent the reduced demand for attentional control while sub-components of the task become more routinized with practice. We suggest that future research investigate neural correlates of WM training in populations for which WM itself is impaired and/or behavioural trials of WM training have returned more promising results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Framework of Multi-objective Wind Farm Controller Applicable to Real Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazda, Jonas; Gögmen, Tuhfe; Giebel, Gregor;

    2016-01-01

    Optimal wind farm control can mitigate adverse wake effects that can potentially cause up to 40% power loss and 80% increased fatigue loads in wind farms. The aim of this work is to outline a methodological framework of an optimal wind farm controller, which provides improved solutions to critical......-objective optimal wind farm controller is outlined with the following key characteristics. Available control objectives are (i) to maximize the total wind farm power output or (ii) to follow a specified power reference for the wind farm’s total power output while reducing the fatigue loads of the wind turbines...... areas of optimal wind farm control research. The basis of this framework is a review of optimal wind farm control methodologies, which is presented first. It is observed that there is, at present, mainly a need for more advanced wind farm operation models. Thereafter the framework of a multi...

  6. Active biofeedback changes the spatial distribution of upper trapezius muscle activity during computer work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal effects of advanced biofeedback by inducing active and passive pauses on the trapezius activity pattern using high-density surface electromyography (HD-EMG). Thirteen healthy male subjects performed computer work with superimposed...

  7. Use of observed wild bird activity on poultry farms and a literature review to target species as high priority for avian influenza testing in 2 regions of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Theresa E; Ribble, Carl; Stephen, Craig; Kelton, David; Toews, Lorraine; Osterhold, Jason; Wheeler, Hazel

    2012-02-01

    The risk of avian influenza outbreaks in poultry is partially dependent on the probability of contact between domestic poultry and wild birds shedding avian influenza (AI) virus. The major objective of this study was to document wild bird activity on poultry farms to determine which wild bird species should be targeted for AI surveillance in Canada. We collected data in 2 major poultry producing regions of Canada, southwestern Ontario and the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, on the relative abundance of various wild bird species found on poultry farms and on how these species utilized habitat around poultry farms. We reviewed the published literature to determine what was known about AI pathobiology in the species we observed. From these results we created a list of 10 wild bird species that are a priority for further study. These species are the European starling, barn swallow, rock dove, American crow, northwestern crow, American robin, dark-eyed junco, song sparrow, horned lark, and common grackle. Abundance of these and other species varied between provinces and seasons.

  8. Nature Quality in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Alrøe, Hugo; Frederiksen, Pia

    2004-01-01

    Nature quality in relation to farming is a complex field. It involves different traditions and interests, different views of what nature is, and different ways of valuing nature. Furthermore there is a general lack of empirical data on many aspects of nature quality in the farmed landscape....... In this paper we discuss nature quality from the perspective of organic farming, which has its own values and goals in relation to nature – the Ecologist View of Nature. This is in contrast to the Culturist View characteristic of much conventional agriculture and the Naturalist View characteristic...... of the traditional biological approach to nature quality. This threefold distinction forms a framework for exploration of nature quality criteria in the farmed landscape. The traditional work on nature quality has mainly focused on biological interests based on a Naturalist View of Nature. In this paper we...

  9. TOPFARM - next generation design tool for optimisation of wind farm topology and operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Troldborg, Niels

    capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, cost of fatigue lifetime consumption and power production output throughout the design lifetime of the wind farm. The report describes the project consortium and the project activities, which has been organized in 9 Work Packages. A summary description...... as of power production as seen in an economical perspective. Crucial factors in this regard are the overall wind climate at the wind farm site, the position of the individual wind turbines, the wind turbine characteristics, the internal wind farm wind climate, the wind turbine control/operation strategy...

  10. Flow and wakes in large wind farms. Final report for UpWind WP8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Frandsen, S.T.; Rathmann, O. (Risoe DTU (Denmark)); Hansen, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark (DTU), Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Politis, E.; Prospathopoulos, J. (CRES (Greece)); Schepers, J.G. (ECN, Petten (Netherlands)); Rados, K. (NTUA, Athens (Greece)); Cabezon, D. (CENER, Sarriguren (Spain)); Schlez, W.; Neubert, A.; Heath, M. (Garrad Hassan and Partners (Germany) (United Kingdom))

    2011-02-15

    This report summarises the research undertaken through the European Commission funded project UpWind Wp8:Flow. The objective of the work was to develop understanding of flow in large wind farms and to evaluate models of power losses due to wind turbine wakes focusing on complex terrain and offshore. A crosscutting activity was to improve and compare the performance of computational fluid dynamics models with wind farm models. The report contains 6 deliverable reports and guideline to wind farm wake analysis as appendices. (Author)

  11. Developmental differences in sustained and transient activity underlying working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmbhatt, Shefali B; White, Desirée A; Barch, Deanna M

    2010-10-01

    The amount of information one can maintain in working memory (WM) increases between childhood and adulthood (Gathercole, 1994, 1999; Klingberg, 1998; Luciana, 1998; Luciana and Nelson, 1998). In addition to cognitive changes that occur early in life, childhood and adolescence are periods marked by significant neuroanatomical changes that are thought to underlie cognitive maturation. This study used a mixed state-item design and a parametric "n-back" task to explore the relationship between WM load and neural activity changes with age. Thirty-five participants from two age groups (9 to 13 and 18 to 23years) were recruited. Our behavioral results indicated that children performed significantly worse than adults at loads of 2-back, but not 0- and 1-back. Our imaging results indicated that during performance of the 2-back task, children showed evidence for increased transient, but decreased sustained activity, in comparison to adults. These results suggest that for the 2-back condition, children had more difficulty maintaining task relevant information across trials and seemed to engage in a more reactive strategy wherein they reactivated context information on a trial-by-trial basis rather than maintaining over a delay. These results have important implications for understanding the development of specific processes within the WM system.

  12. Agro-ecological system analysis (AESA) and farm plannning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Nalunga, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Organic agriculture is based on knowledge, insight and whole farm approaches. The farming system must work for each farmer family. Crop rotation cycles must be based on planning ahead, sometimes more than 2 years, so that different elements of the farm can work together. Intercropping must be bas...

  13. Exposure assessment of kneeling work activities among floor layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L K; Rytter, S; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    for a whole working day. External knee forces were measured in five different kneeling work positions in ten floor layers using Computer Dynography. The study showed that floor layers spent a high percentage of time in knee-straining work positions. Kneeling work tasks, particularly gluing and crawling caused...

  14. Organic farming at the farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Madsen, Niels; Ørum, Jens Erik

    The purpose of this report is to present possible impacts of new technology and changes in legislation on the profitability of different types of organic farms. The aim is also to look at both the current and future trends in the organic area in Denmark. The farm level analyses are carried out...... as part of a larger project entitled “Economic analyses of the future development of organic farming – effects at the field, farm, sector and macroeconomic level”. The project links effects at the field-level with analyses at the farm level. These effects are then used in sector and macroeconomic analyses...

  15. Effects of fish farming on flavonoids in Posidonia oceanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Pergent, Gerard; Pasqualini, Vanina

    2006-10-15

    This work is a first approach to flavonoid responses (total proanthocyanidins and total and simple flavonols) in Posidonia oceanica in function of nutrient enrichment (aquaculture activities - fish farming), in the western Mediterranean Sea (Calvi-Corsica-France). The first result is the presence of total and simple flavonoids in P. oceanica. The second result shows an increase in total proanthocyanidin and total flavonol concentrations near cages, which would be linked to the high grazing pressure induced by meadow enrichment. Concerning simple flavonols, only quercetin shows a response to fish farming, which could be due to its strong antioxidant capacity. The presence of fish farming, which causes variations in environmental parameters, could affect the functioning of P. oceanica meadows. Flavonoid concentrations in P. oceanica seem to be a possible bioindicator of nutrient enrichment for the management of the littoral environment.

  16. Occupational health problems among migrant and seasonal farm workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Mobed, K; Gold, E B; Schenker, M B

    1992-01-01

    Migrant and seasonal farm workers are one of the most underserved and understudied populations in the United States. The total US population of such farm workers has been estimated at 5 million, of whom about 20% live or work in California. Farm workers perform strenuous tasks and are exposed to a wide variety of occupational risks and hazards. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to health care also contribute to existing health problems in this population. Potential farm work-related he...

  17. Mixed crop-livestock farming systems: a sustainable way to produce beef? Commercial farms results, questions and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veysset, P; Lherm, M; Bébin, D; Roulenc, M

    2014-08-01

    Mixed crop-livestock (MC-L) farming has gained broad consensus as an economically and environmentally sustainable farming system. Working on a Charolais-area suckler cattle farms network, we subdivided the 66 farms of a constant sample, for 2 years (2010 and 2011), into four groups: (i) 'specialized conventional livestock farms' (100% grassland-based farms (GF), n=7); (ii) 'integrated conventional crop-livestock farms' (specialized farms that only market animal products but that grow cereal crops on-farm for animal feed, n=31); (iii) 'mixed conventional crop-livestock farms' (farms that sell beef and cereal crops to market, n=21); and (iv) organic farms (n=7). We analyse the differences in structure and in drivers of technical, economic and environmental performances. The figures for all the farms over 2 years (2010 and 2011) were pooled into a single sample for each group. The farms that sell crops alongside beef miss out on potential economies of scale. These farms are bigger than specialized beef farms (with or without on-farm feed crops) and all types of farms show comparable economic performances. The big MC-L farms make heavier and consequently less efficient use of inputs. This use of less efficient inputs also weakens their environmental performances. This subpopulation of suckler cattle farms appears unable to translate a MC-L strategy into economies of scope. Organic farms most efficiently exploit the diversity of herd feed resources, thus positioning organic agriculture as a prototype MC-L system meeting the core principles of agroecology.

  18. Organic Farming in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, C.R.; Heß, J

    1999-01-01

    During the present decade, Austria has experienced a dramatic increase in organic farming among those countries that comprise the European Union (EU). For example, in 1992, approximately 2,000 farms were practicing organic, ecological, or biodynamic farming methodes. By 1997 the number of certified organic farms plus those in transition from conventional farming had increased 10-fold to some 20,000 farms. This represents almost 9% of the total farms in Austria and an area of 345,375 ha, or 10...

  19. Rhythmic Working Memory Activation in the Human Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Leszczyński

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM maintenance is assumed to rely on a single sustained process throughout the entire maintenance period. This assumption, although fundamental, has never been tested. We used intracranial electroencephalography (EEG recordings from the human hippocampus in two independent experiments to investigate the neural dynamics underlying WM maintenance. We observed periodic fluctuations between two different oscillatory regimes: Periods of “memory activation” were reflected by load-dependent alpha power reductions and lower levels of cross-frequency coupling (CFC. They occurred interleaved with periods characterized by load-independent high levels of alpha power and CFC. During memory activation periods, a relevant CFC parameter (load-dependent changes of the peak modulated frequency correlated with individual WM capacity. Fluctuations between these two periods predicted successful performance and were locked to the phase of endogenous delta oscillations. These results show that hippocampal maintenance is a dynamic rather than constant process and depends critically on a hierarchy of oscillations.

  20. Work Engagement, Performance, and Active Learning: The Role of Conscientiousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B.; Demerouti, Evangelia; ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines whether the relationship between work engagement and job performance is moderated by the extent to which individuals are inclined to work hard, careful, and goal-oriented. On the basis of the literature, it was hypothesized that conscientiousness strengthens the relationship between work engagement and supervisor ratings…

  1. The association between farming activities, precipitation, and the risk of acute gastrointestinal illness in rural municipalities of Quebec, Canada: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselin Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing livestock density and animal manure spreading, along with climate factors such as heavy rainfall, may increase the risk of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI. In this study we evaluated the association between farming activities, precipitation and AGI. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey of randomly selected residents (n = 7006 of 54 rural municipalities in Quebec, Canada, was conducted between April 2007 and April 2008. AGI symptoms and several risk factors were investigated using a phone questionnaire. We calculated the monthly prevalence of AGI, and used multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for several demographic and risk factors, to evaluate the associations between AGI and both intensive farming activities and cumulative weekly precipitation. Cumulative precipitation over each week, from the first to sixth week prior to the onset of AGI, was analyzed to account for both the delayed effect of precipitation on AGI, and the incubation period of causal pathogens. Cumulative precipitation was treated as a four-category variable: high (≥90th percentile, moderate (50th to th percentile, low (10th to th percentile, and very low (th percentile precipitation. Results The overall monthly prevalence of AGI was 5.6% (95% CI 5.0%-6.1%, peaking in winter and spring, and in children 0-4 years old. Living in a territory with intensive farming was negatively associated with AGI: adjusted odds ratio (OR = 0.70 (95% CI 0.51-0.96. Compared to low precipitation periods, high precipitation periods in the fall (September, October, November increased the risk of AGI three weeks later (OR = 2.20; 95% CI 1.09-4.44 while very low precipitation periods in the summer (June, July, August increased the risk of AGI four weeks later (OR = 2.19; 95% CI 1.02-4.71. Further analysis supports the role of water source on the risk of AGI. Conclusions AGI poses a significant burden in Quebec rural municipalities with a peak in winter

  2. Harmonic Aspects of Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Bak, Claus Leth; Hjerrild, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the aim, the work and the findings of a PhD project entitled "Harmonics in Large Offshore Wind Farms". It focuses on the importance of harmonic analysis in order to obtain a better performance of future wind farms. The topic is investigated by the PhD project at Aalborg...... of offshore wind farm (OWF) systems....... University (AAU) and DONG Energy. The objective of the project is to improve and understand the nature of harmonic emission and propagation in wind farms (WFs), based on available information, measurement data and simulation tools. The aim of the project is to obtain validated models and analysis methods...

  3. THE DEVELOPMENT AND PROMOTION GUIDELINES OF ORGANIC FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM: CASES IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nartsuda CHEMNASIRI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to survey the interesting organic farms for tourism in five provinces, to study tourists’ behaviours and requirements of agro-tourism area, to study the potential and qualification of organic farms on being agro-tourism tourist attractions, and to propose development and promotion guidelines of organic farms for sustainable tourism. Methods of study were field work in target organic farms, interview, focus group discussion and inquiry. The study found that there were varieties of activities which were accordant with tourists’ requirements such as brief explanation from farmers, products distribution, fruit tasting, participate in agricultural activities and spend overnight at home stay. The implementation of training on tourism service and management including practicing for being agro-tourism attraction were conducted. The results of this study indicated that there should be economic growth together with conservation of local culture and environment. The most important for sustainable tourism is community participation.

  4. 7 CFR 795.16 - Custom farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Custom farming. 795.16 Section 795.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... pesticides, and harvesting for hire with remuneration on a unit of work basis, except that, for the purpose...

  5. Managing Highway Maintenance: Maintenance Activities, Work Units, and Classifying Work, Unit 6, Level 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Offices of Research and Development.

    Part of the series "Managing Highway Maintenance," the unit explains how maintenance work should be described, measured, and classified. It is designed for supervisors who need to know the mechanics of describing work. The format is a programed, self-instruction approach in which information is presented in progressive segments or…

  6. A stochastic analysis of tractor overturn costs on catfish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibendahl, G A; Stephens, W B; Myers, M L

    2012-10-01

    An area of health and safety risk in agriculture that can be especially dangerous is catfish farming. One of the potential sources of injuries on catfish farms is tractor overturns that often result in crushing injuries. There is likely a higher probability of tractor overturns on a catfish farm than on a traditional crop farm due to the conditions that prevail on catfish farms. A catfish farm requires tractor movement near pond levees and water, and these levees have steep banks. Many of the activities on a catfish farm, such as mowing, feeding, and pond maintenance, require operating a tractor near a pond levee. Rollover protection structures (ROPS) on tractors can help to minimize the injuries caused by tractor overturns. ROPS do not lessen the probability of overturns, but ROPS mitigate the expected injury severity and lower the associated costs of an overturn. Despite the benefits of ROPS, not every tractor is so equipped. Some earlier work indicated that the cost to retrofit older tractors might outweigh the expected benefits. This article uses stochastic (i.e., randomly determined) analysis to determine if risk-averse farmers are more likely than risk-neutral farmers to retrofit tractors with ROPS. For this analysis, a distribution function of injury costs should an overturn occur was developed for both ROPS and non-ROPS tractors, and a Monte Carlo simulation was conducted. Results indicate that many risk-averse producers would be willing to retrofit older tractors with ROPS. However producers who are risk-neutral probably will not retrofit. These results might explain why not all tractors have been retrofitted despite the long-term availability of retrofit kits.

  7. Movement as Spatial Practices and Economic Strategies in Cheese Production at Family Farms in Bohinj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Repič

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article explores dairy and cheese production at family farms in Bohinj, their economical and organisational strategies (variations between family and cooperative organisation of farming and the connection of cheese production with different modes of spatial movement. In the past decade, several family farms have started producing cheese and milk products, which is an economic activity closely linked to traditional forms of cooperatives, and pasture rights of agricultural societies. These farms have revitalised traditional forms of cheese production and established new economic strategies, especially through the plurality of their activitieswork outside of the farm, tourism, marketing of their products, etc. The article first presents a development of cheese production in Bohinj, changes in family and cooperative farming and explores movement and the meshwork of paths, tracks, roads and places that are fundamental to cheese economy. Further, the article connects different movements, e.g. daily pastures close to the villages, transhumance in mountain pasturelands, selling products in markets, etc. Modes of movement (walk, cattle herding, driving to markets are basic practices behind economic strategies of dairy and cheese farms, as well as organisations and use of space, in particular mountain paths and pasturelands.

  8. Exposure to respirable crystalline silica in South African farm workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanepoel, Andrew; Rees, David [University of the Witwatersrand, School of Public Health, Johannesburg (South Africa); Renton, Kevin [National Institute for Occupational Health, Johannesburg (South Africa); Kromhout, Hans, E-mail: andrew.swanepoel@wits.ac.z [Environmental Epidemiology Division, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, University of Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-02-01

    Although listed in some publications as an activity associated with silica (quartz) exposure, agriculture is not widely recognized as an industry with a potential for silica associated diseases. Because so many people work in agriculture; and because silica exposure and silicosis are associated with serious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), particular in those immunological compromised by the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), silica exposure in agriculture is potentially very important. But in South Africa (SA) very little is known about silica exposure in this industry. The objectives of this project are: (a) to measure inhalable and respirable dust and its quartz content on two typical sandy soil farms in the Free State province of SA for all major tasks done on the farms; and (b) to characterise the mineralogy soil type of these farms. Two typical farms in the sandy soil region of the Free State province were studied. The potential health effects faced by these farm workers from exposure to respirable crystalline silica are discussed.

  9. Flow adjustment inside large finite-size wind farms approaching the infinite wind farm regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ka Ling; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Due to the increasing number and the growing size of wind farms, the distance among them continues to decrease. Thus, it is necessary to understand how these large finite-size wind farms and their wakes could interfere the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) dynamics and adjacent wind farms. Fully-developed flow inside wind farms has been extensively studied through numerical simulations of infinite wind farms. The transportation of momentum and energy is only vertical and the advection of them is neglected in these infinite wind farms. However, less attention has been paid to examine the length of wind farms required to reach such asymptotic regime and the ABL dynamics in the leading and trailing edges of the large finite-size wind farms. Large eddy simulations are performed in this study to investigate the flow adjustment inside large finite-size wind farms in conventionally-neutral boundary layer with the effect of Coriolis force and free-atmosphere stratification from 1 to 5 K/km. For the large finite-size wind farms considered in the present work, when the potential temperature lapse rate is 5 K/km, the wind farms exceed the height of the ABL by two orders of magnitude for the incoming flow inside the farms to approach the fully-developed regime. An entrance fetch of approximately 40 times of the ABL height is also required for such flow adjustment. At the fully-developed flow regime of the large finite-size wind farms, the flow characteristics match those of infinite wind farms even though they have different adjustment length scales. The role of advection at the entrance and exit regions of the large finite-size wind farms is also examined. The interaction between the internal boundary layer developed above the large finite-size wind farms and the ABL under different potential temperature lapse rates are compared. It is shown that the potential temperature lapse rate plays a role in whether the flow inside the large finite-size wind farms adjusts to the fully

  10. Role of Rice Farming in Development Risk of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Rice Farmers: a Prospective Study in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Kabir-Mokamelkhah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Farming as job, had some activities or work task such as strenuous physical tasks and high levels of manual labor in farming job, which can increase risk of MSDs among farmers. Present study with prospective design designed for assessment role of rice farming in developmental risk of MSDs among Iranian rice farmers. Present prospective study was performed on 75 rice farmers of Babol city in Iran and 75 participants without history of rice farming, during March 2013 until September 2013. At the beginning of the study, participants did not have any musculoskeletal complaints in each of their body parts. Study exposure in the present study was working in the rice farming workplace for one rice farming period which at least lasted for four months. Frequency of MSDs had been assessed by Nordic questionnaire at three follow-up points. We followed 75 rice farmers of Babol city as expose and compare them with 75 participants without history of rice farming. Within the six months follow-up, MSDs complaints in 38 (50.66%, 61 (81.33% and 47 (63.51% rice farmers had been reported respectively in upper limbs, spinal and lower limbs regions. In the present study, rice farming was reported as a risk factor for MSDs in the spinal region and lower limbs.

  11. Working activity hygiene, central nervous system and attention function parameters of the working females at knitting enterprises of Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Iskandarov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Last years in Uzbekistan the knitted manufactures have developed intensively, supplied with the new equipment and modern technologies which result in change of working conditions at the knitted-goods enterprises, in increase of intensity, strained nervous-emotional state and intellectuality of working processes. The purpose was to reveal influence of working conditions of the working women of knitted manufactures on dynamics of working activity, on the central nervous system and functions of attention. The healthy working women of the Tashkent knitted manufactures making a knitted cloth and wears (knitters, seamstresses, ironers at the age from 20 till 40 years with the operational experience from 2 till 20 years were enrolled in this study. It was established that of all unfavourable factors that effect on the reduction of the working activity the air dust contamination accounts for 13.6%, noise 13.6% and light exposure of workplace 32.4%. For decrease of a functional strain of the central nervous system and function of attention of the working women it is necessary to introduce the rational mode of work and rest as well as measures for improvement of working conditions.

  12. Anticipated Activities in Maritime Work, Process Control, and Business Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2004-01-01

    Most activities are anticipated before they are executed. The paper presents methods for describing this anticipated state and the processes that may lead to a new state where the activities are executed. The method builds on linguistic case-theory.......Most activities are anticipated before they are executed. The paper presents methods for describing this anticipated state and the processes that may lead to a new state where the activities are executed. The method builds on linguistic case-theory....

  13. Activity Theory as a Framework for Project Work in Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, David W. L.; Wong, Angela F. L.

    2000-01-01

    Proposes activity theory as a framework for student project work that is a form of open-ended contextual activity-based learning emphasizing problem solving as a collaborative effort. Topics include project work from a Vygotskian perspective of activity theory; and the design of a prototype for Web-based project work. (LRW)

  14. Prevalence of latent and active tuberculosis among dairy farm workers exposed to cattle infected by Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Torres-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis is a zoonosis presently considered sporadic in developed countries, but remains a poorly studied problem in low and middle resource countries. The disease in humans is mainly attributed to unpasteurized dairy products consumption. However, transmission due to exposure of humans to infected animals has been also recognized. The prevalence of tuberculosis infection and associated risk factors have been insufficiently characterized among dairy farm workers (DFW exposed in settings with poor control of bovine tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tuberculin skin test (TST and Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA were administered to 311 dairy farm and abattoir workers and their household contacts linked to a dairy production and livestock facility in Mexico. Sputa of individuals with respiratory symptoms and samples from routine cattle necropsies were cultured for M. bovis and resulting spoligotypes were compared. The overall prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI was 76.2% (95% CI, 71.4-80.9% by TST and 58.5% (95% CI, 53.0-64.0% by IGRA. Occupational exposure was associated to TST (OR 2.72; 95% CI, 1.31-5.64 and IGRA (OR 2.38; 95% CI, 1.31-4.30 adjusting for relevant variables. Two subjects were diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, both caused by M. bovis. In one case, the spoligotype was identical to a strain isolated from bovines. CONCLUSIONS: We documented a high prevalence of latent and pulmonary TB among workers exposed to cattle infected with M. bovis, and increased risk among those occupationally exposed in non-ventilated spaces. Interspecies transmission is frequent and represents an occupational hazard in this setting.

  15. Brucella melitensis Biovar 1 and Brucella abortus S19 Vaccine Strain Infections in Milkers Working at Cattle Farms in the Khartoum Area, Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira E F Osman

    Full Text Available Human brucellosis is a preventable zoonoses that may become persistent, causing, if left untreated, severe localized disease. Occupational exposure to infected animals or animal products and consumption of fresh contaminated dairy are main risk factors.One hundred farmworkers employed at two cattle farms one in Khartoum North and one in Omdurman were screened for the presence of specific antibodies and seropositive workers were invited to donate a blood sample for blood culture. Molecular typing was used to characterize Brucella isolates.Ten percent of farmworkers tested seropositive and while Brucella melitensis biovar 1 was isolated from the blood of three individuals, an isolate identical to the B. abortus S19 vaccine strain was isolated from a fourth person. All four bacteremic individuals were employed as milkers and did not have obvious disease.The isolation of the highly infectious pathogen B. melitensis from seropositive workers is consistent with the notion that the pathogen may persist in the blood without causing overt disease. While vaccination with strain S19 is essential for the control of bovine brucellosis the vaccine strain may be transmitted to the human population and protective measures remain important to prevent exposure also in view of the presence of B. melitensis. To create awareness for this potentially severe disease more information on the prevalence of the pathogen in different risk groups and in livestock in the Sudan is needed.

  16. Growing Wheat. People on the Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily life of the Don Riffel family, wheat farmers in Kansas. Beginning with early morning, the booklet traces the family's activities through a typical harvesting day in July, while explaining how a wheat farm is run. The booklet also briefly describes the wheat growing…

  17. Organic food and farming research in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Nykänen, Arja

    2006-01-01

    In Finland we have a tendency of increasing activities in organic food and farming research during last five years. Most of the organic food and farming research i Finland is carried out at the MTT Agrifood Research Finland. The rest is done at the universities and other institutes.

  18. Buffalo farms: same product, different strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Turri

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our paper is to investigate relationships between socio-demographic variables and access to rural development policy to sustain buffalo farm activity. An empirical analysis is applied, concerning buffalo farms of region Lazio, in Italy. Results confirms the hypothesis of strict interaction between access to policy and the explicative variables.

  19. Star wars and strategic defense initiatives: work activity and health symptoms of unionized bank tellers during work reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, A M; Messing, K; Dumais, L

    1997-01-01

    Work activity and health symptoms of bank tellers whose work was undergoing reorganization were examined during a university-union study of the health effects of work in women's traditional jobs. Data were gathered through collective and individual interviews, analysis of work activity, and a questionnaire administered to 305 tellers. Employees worked in a standing posture over 80 percent of the time. More than two-thirds frequently suffered pain in back, legs, and feet. The average teller had been involved in 3.7 robberies as a direct victim and six as a witness. Work required feats of memory and concentration. In order to meet job demands, tellers engaged in supportive activities and teamwork. The introduction of individualized objectives threatened the employees' ability to collaborate and induced distress. More than twice as many tellers as other female workers in Québec experience psychological distress (Ilfeld scale), related to: robbery during the past two years (odds ratio = 1.7; confidence interval = 1.0-2.9); difficult relations with superiors (O.R. = 2.6; C.I. = 1.3-5.3); and full-time work (O.R. = 2.3; C.I. = 1.3-3.9). Diverse methods enriched the analysis, and union participation allowed the proposal of concrete correction measures.

  20. Organic farming at the farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Madsen, Niels; Ørum, Jens Erik

    The purpose of this report is to present possible impacts of new technology and changes in legislation on the profitability of different types of organic farms. The aim is also to look at both the current and future trends in the organic area in Denmark. The farm level analyses are carried out...... as part of a larger project entitled “Economic analyses of the future development of organic farming – effects at the field, farm, sector and macroeconomic level”. The project links effects at the field-level with analyses at the farm level. These effects are then used in sector and macroeconomic analyses......, which are described in other reports from Food and Resource Economic Institute (Jacobsen, 2005 and Andersen et al., 2005). This gives coherent results from the field to the macroeconomic level regarding changes in technology and legislation....

  1. Hydrogen sulfide removal from livestock biogas by a farm-scale bio-filter desulfurization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J-J; Chang, Y-C; Chen, Y-J; Chang, K-C; Lee, S-Y

    2013-01-01

    A farm-scale biogas desulfurization system was designed and tested for H2S removal efficiency from livestock biogas. This work assesses the H2S removal efficiency of a novel farm-scale biogas bio-desulfurization system (BBS) operated for 350 days on a 1,000-head pig farm. Experimental data demonstrated that suitable humidity and temperature can help sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to form active bio-films on the bio-carriers. The daily average removal rate increased to 879.16 from 337.75 g-H2S/d with an average inlet H2S concentration of 4,691 ± 1,532 mg/m(3) in biogas. Thus, the overall (0-350 days) average H2S removal efficiency exceeded 93%. The proposed BBS overcomes limitations of H2S in biogas when utilizing pig farm biogas for power generation and other applications.

  2. Hearing loss at work? Hearing loss from leisure activities?

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The nurses of the Medical Service would like invite all persons working on the CERN site to take part in a: HEARING LOSS DETECTION WEEK From 28 August to 1st September 2006 At the Infirmary, Building 57 from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Hearing tests - advice - information - documentation - protective equipment

  3. Integrated Environmental- and Working Environmental Activity in Danish Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Elsebet Frydendal

    1998-01-01

    Description of in situ observations and consultive interactions in relation to environmental and workingenvironmental activities in a small Danish family owned company in a rual area. The procuction is cleaning of steel and plastic barrels.......Description of in situ observations and consultive interactions in relation to environmental and workingenvironmental activities in a small Danish family owned company in a rual area. The procuction is cleaning of steel and plastic barrels....

  4. Collaborative Human Engineering Work in Space Exploration Extravehicular Activities (EVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Lena; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on extravehicular activities in space exploration in collaboration with other NASA centers, industries, and universities is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept of Operations for Future EVA activities; 2) Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS); 3) Advanced EVA Walkback Test; 4) Walkback Subjective Results; 5) Integrated Suit Test 1; 6) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS); 7) Flex PLSS Design Process; and 8) EVA Information System; 9)

  5. Values in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted...

  6. Values in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted...

  7. Activating the working behavior of citizens by motivation potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Nikolayevna Lobanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the possibility to change the working behavior of employees by actualizing their motivational potential. Methods the methods of survey questionnaires focus groups coaching and interview were used in the study. Results the studies have shown that the employeesrsquo motivational potential is revealed through a complex system of labor motivation taking into account the needs and interests of a particular employee and forming the motivational and stimulating environment. Scientific novelty the research includes the development of methods to analyze the employeesrsquo interests and dominant motives and building of the structural system of employeesrsquo motivation to effective action. Practical value developing a method to increase the employeesrsquo motivation for efficient work in the form of a systematic set of actions. The application of this method allows to increase the efficiency and productivity of workers to gain additional profit which is especially important in the context of the economic crisis and the lack of additional investment. nbsp

  8. Real-time measurement of dust in the workplace using video exposure monitoring: Farming to pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, P. T.; Forth, A. R.; Clark, R. D. R.; Dowker, K. P.; Thorpe, A.

    2009-02-01

    Real-time, photometric, portable dust monitors have been employed for video exposure monitoring (VEM) to measure and highlight dust levels generated by work activities, illustrate dust control techniques, and demonstrate good practice. Two workplaces, presenting different challenges for measurement, were used to illustrate the capabilities of VEM: (a) poultry farming activities and (b) powder transfer operations in a pharmaceutical company. For the poultry farm work, the real-time monitors were calibrated with respect to the respirable and inhalable dust concentrations using cyclone and IOM reference samplers respectively. Different rankings of exposure for typical activities were found on the small farm studied here compared to previous exposure measurements at larger poultry farms: these were mainly attributed to the different scales of operation. Large variations in the ratios of respirable, inhalable and real-time monitor TWA concentrations of poultry farm dust for various activities were found. This has implications for the calibration of light-scattering dust monitors with respect to inhalable dust concentration. In the pharmaceutical application, the effectiveness of a curtain barrier for dust control when dispensing powder in a downflow booth was rapidly demonstrated.

  9. Importance of whole-farm risk management in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Risk management is an increasingly important topic. At the farm level, it received little attention in Europe. Research indicates that whole-farm riskmanagement approaches, that is approaches in which multiple risks and farm activities are considered simultaneously, seem more efficient than `single

  10. Importance of whole-farm risk management in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Risk management is an increasingly important topic. At the farm level, it received little attention in Europe. Research indicates that whole-farm riskmanagement approaches, that is approaches in which multiple risks and farm activities are considered simultaneously, seem more efficient than `single

  11. Centralised control of wind farm with doubly fed induction generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca-Daniela; Sorensen, Poul; Iov, Florin;

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an advanced wind farm controller for a wind farm made-up exclusively of doubly-fed generators. The overall aim of such controller is to enable the wind farms to behave as active controllable components in the power system. The attention is mainly drawn to t...

  12. Incidence of unintentional injuries in farming based on one year of weekly registration in Danish farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K; Carstensen, O; Lauritsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark, farming ranks as the industry with the highest incidence rate of fatal injuries. For nonfatal injuries, insufficient registration practices prevent valid comparisons between occupations. This study examines the occurrence of farm accidents and injuries, as well as work-specific factors...

  13. Activating Aesthetics: Working with Heidegger and Bourdieu for Engaged Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grierson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to investigate art in public urban space via a process of activating aesthetics as a way of enhancing pedagogies of engagement. It does this firstly by addressing the question of aesthetics in Enlightenment and twentieth-century frames; then it seeks to understand how artworks may be approached ontologically and…

  14. Working for Food Shifts Nocturnal Mouse Activity into the Day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, Roelof A.; Pilorz, Violetta; Boerema, Ate S.; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Daan, Serge; Yamazaki, Shin

    2011-01-01

    Nocturnal rodents show diurnal food anticipatory activity when food access is restricted to a few hours in daytime. Timed food access also results in reduced food intake, but the role of food intake in circadian organization per se has not been described. By simulating natural food shortage in mice

  15. Helping Children Make Transitions between Activities. What Works Briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky, M. M.; Jung, E. Y.; Hemmeter, M. L.

    This brief discusses the confusion some young children feel in moving from one activity to another (e.g., bus to classroom, cubbies to book reading, art time to lunch) that often results in frustration and challenging behaviors. The paper provides practical information on a variety of strategies to help preschool children make smooth, independent…

  16. Innovative Perceptual Motor Activities: Programing Techniques That Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrell, Howard M.

    1978-01-01

    A circuit approach and station techniques are used to depict perceptual motor games for handicapped and nonhandicapped children. Twenty activities are described in terms of objectives, materials, and procedures, and their focus on visual tracking, visual discrimination and copying of forms, spatial body perception, fine motor coordination, tactile…

  17. Activating Aesthetics: Working with Heidegger and Bourdieu for Engaged Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grierson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to investigate art in public urban space via a process of activating aesthetics as a way of enhancing pedagogies of engagement. It does this firstly by addressing the question of aesthetics in Enlightenment and twentieth-century frames; then it seeks to understand how artworks may be approached ontologically and…

  18. Biogas and bioethanol production in organic farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, P.

    2010-08-15

    The consumer demand for environmentally friendly, chemical free and healthy products, as well as concern regarding industrial agriculture's effect on the environment has led to a significant growth of organic farming. On the other hand, organic farmers are becoming interested in direct on-farm energy production which would lead them to independency from fossil fuels and decrease the greenhouse gas emissions from the farm. In the presented work, the idea of biogas and bioenergy production at the organic farm is investigated. This thesis is devoted to evaluate such a possibility, starting from the characterization of raw materials, through optimizing new processes and solutions and finally evaluating the whole on-farm biorefinery concept with the help of a simulation software. (LN)

  19. Determinants of Farmer’s Participation in Off-Farm Employment: A Case Study in Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslan ABDUL-HAKIM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of agricultural households’participation in off-farm employment. Towards this end, a logit model is employed to identify factors that determine the participation in off-farm employment. Here, determinants of participation in off-farm employment are divided into four categories – individual, household, farm and local area characteristics. With regards to the local area characteristics, the analysis is extended by including a new variable, which is the economic characteristic of the area. The results of the analysis show that the main determinants thatinfluence the farmer’s decision to participate in off-farm employment are age, gender, household size, dependency ratio, remittance, land size, types of agricultural activities, working hours allocated to the farm, the ratio of income from agricultural sources in total income of the farmer. Furthermore, this study uncovers that the economic characteristic of the area where the farmer reside isimportant determinant of the farmer’s decision to participate in off-farm job. One of the policy implications from the finding of this study is that, if the agricultural households are to be encouraged to participate in off-farm jobs, a balanced development in the rural areas must be pursued.

  20. Working Group 5: Measurements technology and active experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, E.; Barfield, J. N.; Faelthammar, C.-G.; Feynman, J.; Quinn, J. N.; Roberts, W.; Stone, N.; Taylor, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    Technology issues identified by working groups 5 are listed. (1) New instruments are needed to upgrade the ability to measure plasma properties in space. (2) Facilities should be developed for conducting a broad range of plasma experiments in space. (3) The ability to predict plasma weather within magnetospheres should be improved and a capability to modify plasma weather developed. (4) Methods of control of plasma spacecraft and spacecraft plasma interference should be upgraded. (5) The space station laboratory facilities should be designed with attention to problems of flexibility to allow for future growth. These issues are discussed.

  1. Risk assessment: A regulatory strategy for stimulating working environment activities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langaa

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses the Danish approach to workplace assessment (WPA) following European requirements to establish legislation on occupational health and safety. Quantitative studies show that WPA can be interpreted as a success within the larger Danish firms. However, data from qualitative studies...... modify this picture by showing how attention has been focussed on physical working environment problems whilst wider psycho-social problems have been ignored. The paper claims there is no evidence from either the quantitative or the qualitative studies that workplace assessment - even though positively...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1584 - Evaluation of work activity of blind people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of work activity of blind people... Evaluation of work activity of blind people. (a) General. If you are blind (as explained in § 404.1581), we will consider the earnings from the work you are doing to determine whether or not you should be...

  3. Non-farm wages and poverty alleviation in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jatta, Sylvester

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This paper is about rural non-farm income and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa and the determinants of differentials access to rural non-farm incomes, with an overview of trends in the magnitude, and location of rural poverty. It also offers evidence that advances our understanding of rural poverty, by presenting quantitative analysis of the determinants of rural income from farm and non-farm sources, drawing on data from Rural Income Generating Activities data b...

  4. Alley Farming in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerapol Silakul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Poverty alleviation and environmental preservation are very important issues to many governments. Alley farming is beneficial to the environment because it conserves soil and sustains yields over time. Specifically, alley farming reduces soil erosion, which is a major problem in Thailand. Alley farming was conducted on a farmer’s field at Khaokwan Thong, a village in Uthaithani Province, Northern Thailand. We did a two-by-two factorial with and without alley farming, and with and without fertilizer. From this study, we observed that the two species used, Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia auriculiformis, grow well in Thailand, and that alley farming is suitable for Thailand. Few Thai farmers have heard about alley farming. However, it is nevertheless useful to know that there is potential for alley farming in Thailand using the two species. These plants, based upon the diameter and height measurements provided, grew well.

  5. [Covariance of the level of activation and work performance as a method of evaluating the work load].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowiec-Dabrowska, T; Makowska, Z

    1978-01-01

    Assuming as proved the claim that there is a relation between the activation level and the results of work performed, which may be presented by means of a curve bearing a reversed "U" shape, it has been assumed that we can think of a work load when there is a negative correlation between these parameters. This assumption has been checked by comparying work load of weaving women operating two different types of looms. As an index of activation level, the frequency heart rate has been taken, whereas the rapidity of work performance and results of interpolated tests (reaction time, centre-punching, dotting, drawing a line and accuracy of observation) have been treated as the indices of capability for work. Differences in the trend of interdependence between these groups of parameters, depending on the type of activity performed and the type of loom under description, have been found, which indicates that this method may possibly be used when evaluating the load as well as pointing out its sources.

  6. Farming strategies in organic dairy farming: Effects on breeding goal and choice of breed. An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.; Baars, T.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Weenink, D.; Roep, D.

    2009-01-01

    Organic farming principles give rise to multifunctionality: different activities are combined at farm level to create ecological and economic synergies. These principles do however allow for different operationalisations and different farm development strategies, for example with regard to the use o

  7. Pre-stimulus BOLD-network activation modulates EEG spectral activity during working memory retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara eKottlow

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM processes depend on our momentary mental state and therefore exhibit considerable fluctuations. Here, we investigate the interplay of task-preparatory and task-related brain activity as represented by pre-stimulus BOLD-fluctuations and spectral EEG from the retention periods of a visual WM task. Visual WM is used to maintain sensory information in the brain enabling the performance of cognitive operations and is associated with mental health.We tested 22 subjects simultaneously with EEG and fMRI while performing a visuo-verbal Sternberg task with two different loads, allowing for the temporal separation of preparation, encoding, retention and retrieval periods.Four temporally coherent networks - the default mode network (DMN, the dorsal attention, the right and the left WM network - were extracted from the continuous BOLD data by means of a group ICA. Subsequently, the modulatory effect of these networks’ pre-stimulus activation upon retention-related EEG activity in the theta, alpha and beta frequencies was analyzed. The obtained results are informative in the context of state-dependent information processing.We were able to replicate two well-known load-dependent effects: the frontal-midline theta increase during the task and the decrease of pre-stimulus DMN activity. As our main finding, these two measures seem to depend on each other as the significant negative correlations at frontal-midline channels suggested. Thus, suppressed pre-stimulus DMN levels facilitated later task related frontal midline theta increases. In general, based on previous findings that neuronal coupling in different frequency bands may underlie distinct functions in WM retention, our results suggest that processes reflected by spectral oscillations during retention seem not only to be online synchronized with activity in different attention-related networks but are also modulated by activity in these networks during preparation intervals.

  8. Choosing where to work at work - towards a theoretical model of benefits and risks of activity-based flexible offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlers, Christina; Hertel, Guido

    2017-04-01

    Although there is a trend in today's organisations to implement activity-based flexible offices (A-FOs), only a few studies examine consequences of this new office type. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms why A-FOs might lead to different consequences as compared to cellular and open-plan offices are still unclear. This paper introduces a theoretical framework explaining benefits and risks of A-FOs based on theories from work and organisational psychology. After deriving working conditions specific for A-FOs (territoriality, autonomy, privacy, proximity and visibility), differences in working conditions between A-FOs and alternative office types are proposed. Further, we suggest how these differences in working conditions might affect work-related consequences such as well-being, satisfaction, motivation and performance on the individual, the team and the organisational level. Finally, we consider task-related (e.g. task variety), person-related (e.g. personality) and organisational (e.g. leadership) moderators. Based on this model, future research directions as well as practical implications are discussed. Practitioner Summary: Activity-based flexible offices (A-FOs) are popular in today's organisations. This article presents a theoretical model explaining why and when working in an A-FO evokes benefits and risks for individuals, teams and organisations. According to the model, A-FOs are beneficial when management encourages employees to use the environment appropriately and supports teams.

  9. 76 FR 67558 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Work-Study Allowance) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Work-Study Allowance) Activity: Comment Request... comments for information needed to determine a claimant's eligibility for work-study benefits. DATES.... Application for Work-Study Allowance, VA Form 22-8691. b. Student Work-Study Agreement (Advance Payment),...

  10. 77 FR 2351 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Work-Study Allowance): Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Work-Study Allowance): Activity Under OMB Review... INFORMATION: Titles a. Application for Work-Study Allowance, VA Form 22-8691. b. Student Work-Study Agreement (Advance Payment), VA Form 22-8692. c. Extended Student Work-Study Agreement, VA Form 22-8692a. d....

  11. Physical activity and relaxation in the work setting to reduce the need for recovery: what works for whom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Formanoy, M.A.; Dusseldorp, E.; Coffeng, J.K.; Mechelen, I. van; Boot, C.R.; Hendriksen, I.J.; Tak, E.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To recover from work stress, a worksite health program aimed at improving physical activity and relaxation may be valuable. However, not every program is effective for all participants, as would be expected within a "one size fits all" approach. The effectiveness of how the program is de

  12. Physical activity and relaxation in the work setting to reduce the need for recovery: what works for whom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Formanoy, M.A.; Dusseldorp, E.; Coffeng, J.K.; Mechelen, I. van; Boot, C.R.; Hendriksen, I.J.; Tak, E.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To recover from work stress, a worksite health program aimed at improving physical activity and relaxation may be valuable. However, not every program is effective for all participants, as would be expected within a "one size fits all" approach. The effectiveness of how the program is

  13. Modelling representative and coherent Danish farm types based on farm accountancy data for use in environmental assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Randi; Halberg, Niels; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak

    2006-01-01

    -oriented environmental assessment (e.g. greenhouse gas emissions per kg pork). The objective of this study was to establish a national agricultural model for estimating data on resource use, production and environmentally important emissions for a set of representative farm types. Every year a sample of farm accounts...... is established in order to report Danish agro-economical data to the ‘Farm Accountancy Data Network’ (FADN), and to produce ‘The annual Danish account statistics for agriculture’. The farm accounts are selected and weighted to be representative for the Danish agricultural sector, and similar samples of farm...... accounts are collected in most of the European countries. Based on a sample of 2138 farm accounts from year 1999 a national agricultural model, consisting of 31 farm types, was constructed. The farm accounts were grouped according to the major soil types, the number of working hours, the most important...

  14. Wind Farm Control Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas; Svenstrup, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This document is a delivery in the project NORCOWE. It is part of work package WP3.2.2. The main goal is to establish the present state-of-the-art for wind farm control for both research and practice. The main approach will be to study the literature. This will of cause be much more efficient...... for the research part than for the practice part. It is however not the intention to do company interviews or similar. This report is structured into a section for each WF control objective. These sections then includes the important control project issues: choice of input and output, control method, and modelling...... used for controller design and simulation respectively. A short section then discusses published literature from industry. Finally a conclusion is given discussing established results, open challenges and necessary research. An appendix present a method for optimising the energy in a one row wind...

  15. Jamming the Works: Art, Politics and Activism Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Dittmar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As we enter the second decade of the 21st century, art that aims to actively challenge the social order continues to spark controversy and encounter resistance. In one recent instance, the University of California at San Diego threatened to revoke the tenure of Ricardo Dominguez, a professor of visual art, who developed what he calls “transborder immigrant tools”—recycled cell phones loaded with GPS software that point border-crossers to caches of fresh water in the desert. Dominquez has called the phones, which feature an audio application that plays inspirational poetry to migrants, a “mobile Statue of Liberty.”

  16. Physical activity and unplanned illness-related work absenteeism: Data from an employee wellness program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elena Losina; Heidi Y Yang; Bhushan R Deshpande; Jeffrey N Katz; Jamie E Collins

    2017-01-01

    Background Illness-related absenteeism is a major threat to work productivity. Our objective was to assess the relationship between physical activity and unplanned illness-related absenteeism from work...

  17. Projected Cropping Patterns, Livestock Enterprises, Processing Activities, Capital Requirements, Employment, Income, and Training Needs for Alternative Farm Organizational Structures for the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project. A Special Report to the Four Corners Regional Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, William D.; And Others

    Information on the expected cropping patterns, livestock enterprises, processing and related activities, income and employment opportunities, capital needs, and training requirements for alternative farm organizational structures that could be selected for development of the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project is presented in this report. The major…

  18. Hydrogen activities in the European Union work-programme. Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahbout, A.; Tartaglia, G.P.; Buenger, U.

    2000-07-01

    Looking at some of the national and international developments in hydrogen technology it becomes clear which important contributions the hydrogen technology oriented activities of the EU have helped to prepare and trigger: (a) Transport Energy Strategy (TES): This initiative of 7 major German automobile and mineral oilcompanies is aimed at an industrial consensus on one or two gasoline alternative fuels, which are to be presented to the German Ministry of Transport. An intermediate trend is that hydrogen may become the fuel of choice. (b) BMW: The Bayerischen Motorenwerke have already very early exposed themselves to the vehicle and component development of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, focussing on a strategy from CNG to LNG and LH{sub 2}. (c) Opel and GM: Opel has recently announced they have chosen hydrogen as the primary long term fuel for their fuel cell vehicles to be commercialized starting in 2004. (d) CFCP: The California Fuel Cell Partnership with partners from industry and politics has announced they are preparing the installation of hydrogen fuel stations aas well as 20-25 fuel cell buses and 30 passenger cars, mainly operated with hydrogen. (e) NEDO: The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) of Japan has announced they are going to build hydrogen pilot refueling stations 18 months ahead of the original schedule to reduce the first-to-market-time. (f) Norway: A study group of Norwegian industry and institutes has carried out a comprehensive study for the Research Ministry on further R and D areas which should be intensified in a national strategy to be prepared for an international hydrogen energy system [SINTEF, 00]. (g) German Greens: The German ecologist party ''Greens'' has announced last week a shift from an anti-car lobbying to fostering greener cars, focussing on renewable hydrogen as a clean fuel. (h) Linde: The largest European Technical Gas Company has announced recently they will strategically

  19. Making activity-based funding work for mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Sebastian P; Hickie, Ian B

    2013-06-01

    The implementation of activity-based funding (ABF) in mental health from 1 July 2013 has significant risks and benefits. It is critical that the process of implementation is consistent with Australia's cherished goal of establishing a genuine and effective model of community-based mental health care. The infrastructure to support the application of ABF to mental health is currently weak and requires considerable development. States and territories are struggling to meet existing demand for largely hospital-based acute mental health care. There is a risk that valuable ABF-driven Commonwealth growth funds may be used to prop up these systems rather than drive the emergence of new models of community-based care. Some of these new models exist now and this article provides a short description. The aim is to help the Independent Hospital Pricing Authority better understand the landscape of mental health into which it now seeks to deploy ABF.

  20. Honduras - Transportation and Farm to Market Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation of the Transport Project and Farm to Market Roads Activity aimed to answer whether or not improved conditions throughout the road network: • Lowered...

  1. Video-OCS Floating Wind Farm Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data release contains digital video files from the USGS field activity 2014-607-FA, a survey of the Oregon Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Floating Wind Farm Site...

  2. Corrective Action Plan for CAU No. 95: Area 15 EPA Farm Laboratory Building, Decontamination and Demolition Closure Activities - Nevada Test Site. Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, A.L.; Nacht, S.J.

    1997-11-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm Laboratory Building 15-06 located in Area 15 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The facility is part of the Environmental Restoration Project managed by the U.S. Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Subproject which serves to manage and dispose of surplus facilities at the NTS in a manner that will protect personnel, the public, and the environment. It is identified as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 95 in Appendix III of the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). In July 1997, the DOE/NV verbally requested approval from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for the closure schedule to be accelerated. Currently, field activities are anticipated to be completed by September 30, 1997. In order to meet this new schedule NDEP has agreed to review this document as expeditiously as possible. Comments will be addressed in the Closure Report after field activities have been completed, unless significant issues require resolution during closure activities.

  3. Evaluation of parasiticidal activity of fenbendazole, ivermectin, oxibendazole, and pyrantel pamoate in horse foals with emphasis on ascarids (Parascaris equorum) in field studies on five farms in Central Kentucky in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Ionita, M; Collins, S S

    2008-07-01

    Horse foals on five farms in Central Kentucky were used in field studies in 2007 evaluating activity of paste formulations of four compounds (fenbendazole-FBZ, ivermectin-IVM, oxibendazole-OBZ, and pyrantel pamoate-PRT) against internal parasites with emphasis on ascarids (Parascaris equorum). It has been well established the last few years that there is widespread resistance of P. equorum to ivermectin. The main purpose of the present research was to obtain current data on ascaridicidal activity of FBZ, OBZ, and PRT; also, to acquire further information on ascarid resistance to ivermectin. Additionally, data were documented on drug activity on small strongyles. Detection of ascarid and strongyle eggs in feces of foals was by a qualitative method (presence or absence) or a quantitative method (eggs per gram of feces). Strongyle eggs all were assumed to be from small strongyles. This is based on fecal cultures from horses on one farm and historic records from horses in this area on excellent deworming programs. A girth tape was used to estimate the body weight of each foal so that the appropriate dose rate of each drug could be given. Many of the foals were used in more than one cycle of treatments. Efficacy of the drugs, administered intraorally, was determined by calculating the average percentage reduction (% red.) of the number of foals passing eggs after vs. before treatment: (1) FBZ at 10 mg/kg was tested on four farms; 76 foals were examined, 50 with ascarid eggs (84% red.) and 62 with strongyle eggs (0% red.); (2) IVM at 200 microg/kg was tested on three farms; 58 foals were examined, 18 with ascarid eggs (0% red.) and 48 with strongyle eggs (100% red.); (3) OBZ at 10 mg/kg was tested on three farms; 181 foals were examined, 78 with ascarid eggs (94% red.) and 79 with strongyle eggs (0% red.); (4) PRT was tested on two farms, one farm at 1x (6.6 mg base/kg); 42 were foals examined, 16 with ascarid eggs (0% red.) and 33 with strongyle eggs (12% red.) and one

  4. The epidemiology of tuberculosis among North Carolina migrant farm workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, S D; Seed, J R; Esposito, D H; Hunter, N

    1991-04-03

    Although tuberculosis (TB) has been recognized as a significant health problem of migrant farm workers, the nature and extent of the problem have been poorly defined. We report the first population-based study of TB in a random sample of farm workers (n = 543) and the first use of recall antigens in an epidemiologic study of TB. Purified protein derivative positivity ranged from 33% in Hispanics to 54% in US-born blacks and 76% in Haitians. Active tubercular disease occurred in 3.6% of US-born blacks and 0.47% of Hispanics. Among US-born blacks, risk factors associated with farm work were most significant. Blacks born in the United States also had the highest prevalence of anergy. The use of recall antigens made possible a better description of the epidemiology of TB by excluding false negatives and clarifying associations between infection and risk factors. We conclude that TB among farm workers represents a serious public health problem with previously unrecognized risk factors. Additional resources for migrant health care, improvements in health care access, and fundamental changes in the system of migrant labor are all necessary to reduce the transmission of TB.

  5. Safety and health hazard observations in Hmong farming operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, R L; Krenz, J; de Castro, A B

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural workers have a high risk of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. However, there are very few standardized tools available to assess safety and health in agricultural operations. Additionally, there are a number of groups of agricultural workers, including Hmong refugees and immigrants, for which virtually no information on safety and health conditions is available. This study developed an observation-based methodology for systematically evaluating occupational health and safety hazards in agriculture, and pilot-tested this on several small-scale Hmong farming operations. Each observation assessed of range of safety and health hazards (e.g., musculoskeletal hazards, dust and pollen, noise, and mechanical hazards), as well as on factors such as type of work area, presence of personal protective equipment, and weather conditions. Thirty-six observations were collected on nine farms. The most common hazards observed were bending at the back and lifting 50 pounds were also common. The farming activities observed involved almost no power equipment, and no pesticide or chemical handling was observed. The use of personal protective equipment was uncommon. The results of this assessment agreed well with a parallel study of perceived safety and health hazards among Hmong agricultural workers. This study suggests that small-scale Hmong farming operations involve a variety of hazards, and that occupational health interventions may be warranted in this community. The study also demonstrates the utility of standardized assessment tools and mixed-method approaches to hazard evaluation.

  6. Wind farm repowering: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selva, L. [Renewable Energy Eng. (Spain); Canas, M.; Gomez, E.; Pujante, A [Renewable Energy Research Inst., Dept. of Electrical, Electronic and Control Eng. (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    Wind farm repowering involves the replacement of smaller and middle sized wind turbines, with state-of-the-art multi-megawatt turbines. In this paper, a detailed study of the repowering of a wind farm is presented, by computing the generated active power from existing wind turbines and the new ones. The active power generated with the wind turbines are totalized to obtain the yearly generated energy and analyzed, thus economic studies take the repowering cost into account too. (au)

  7. 45 CFR 287.120 - What work activities may be provided under the NEW Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., alternative education, post secondary education, job readiness activity, job search, job skills training, training and employment activities, job development and placement, on-the-job training (OJT), employer work... employment services, job retention services, unsubsidized employment, subsidized public or private...

  8. Physical activity and relaxation during and after work are independently associated with the need for recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffeng, Jennifer K; van Sluijs, Esther M; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M; van Mechelen, Willem; Boot, Cécile R L

    2015-01-01

    Research is needed to better understand the associations between during-work and after-work-hours physical activity and relaxation and need for recovery (NFR), so a study of these variables in office workers at a financial service provider was undertaken. Self-reported baseline data of 412 employees (mean age = 41.3 y; 39.6% women) were used. Linear regression analyses were performed to test associations of physical activity, relaxation, detachment, and breaks at work with NFR. A lower NFR was significantly positively associated with standing, stair climbing, active lunch break, relaxation at work, detachment at work, physical detachment at work, relaxation at home, and detachment at home. In the multiple model, a lower NFR was independently positively associated with frequency of stair climbing, minutes spent in leisure activities, detachment at work, physical detachment at work, and relaxation and detachment at home (P relaxation at home and NFR was stronger with high job demands. Although prospective evidence is necessary to confirm the causal relationships, our findings suggest that engaging in stair climbing, leisure activities, (physical) detachment at work, relaxation and detachment after work is associated with a lower NFR. For future work site health promotion initiatives, interventions might be targeted at improving physical activity and relaxation.

  9. Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The technology behind constructing wind farms offshore began to develop in 1991 when the Vindeby wind farm was installed off the Danish coast (11 Bonus 450 kW turbines). Resource assessment, grid connection, and wind farm operation are significant challenges for offshore wind power just...... as it is for the more traditional onshore wind power, which has been under development since the 1970s. However, offshore projects face extra technical challenges some of which requires in-depth scientific investigations. This article deals with some of the most outstanding challenges concerning the turbine structure...... concern are the problems associated with locating the turbines close together in a wind farm and the problems of placing several large wind farms in a confined area. The environmental impacts of offshore wind farms are also treated, but not the supply chain, that is, the harbors, the installation vessels...

  10. 基于优先顺序法的风电场限出力有功控制策略%Priority List-Based Output-Restricted Active Power Control Strategy for Wind Farms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林俐; 谢永俊; 朱晨宸; 汪宁渤

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid increase of grid-integrated capacity of wind farms, wind farms should possess the adjusting ability of active power that can control active power output of wind farm according to the command from control center of power grid. Combining with actual requirement for active power control system of clustered wind farms in Jiuquan wind power base in Gansu province, China, taking the utilization of wind energy farthest and the prevention of frequent start/stop of wind power generators as the objectives and based on classical priority list method, an output-restricted active power control strategy for wind farms composed of variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) wind power generators is proposed. To meet the demand on output-restricted control for wind farms, an active power control frame in the level of wind farm and corresponding output-restricted control process are designed. Overall considering the prediction information, operating conditions and control characteristics of wind power generation units within wind farms, an output-restricted active power control sequence for wind farms, in which the indices of control performances of wind power generation units are taken as the index for rank ordering, is established, and then, based on the control sequence the method to allocate output-restricted active power is given. The correctness and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy are verified by the calculation of a wind farm composed of 33 doubly fed induction generators.%  随着风电并网容量的增加,风电场应具备有功功率调节能力,能根据电网调度部门指令控制其有功功率输出。结合甘肃酒泉风电基地集群风电有功控制系统的实际需要,以实现最大风能利用、避免风电场频繁起停为目标,基于经典优先顺序法提出了一种应用于变速恒频风电场的限出力有功控制策略。针对风电场限出力控制需要,设计了风电场层有功

  11. Farm Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  12. Factors Affecting Nonfarm Income Diversification among Rural Farm Households in Central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Ghimire

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonfarm activities play an important role in the determination of rural household income, consumption expenditure, and household food security. However, much less studies have been devoted to the factors that influence nonfarm income diversification by farm household in developing countries. Using cross-sectional data and a probit model, this study attempts to determine the factors influencing nonfarm income diversification decisions by farm households in Central Nepal. The result reveals that household characteristics such as age, gender and education of the household head, and family size play a significant role in nonfarm work decisions. The households with larger farm size are less likely to participate in nonfarm work than their counterpart. Additionally, for those remains in the rural households, distance to road and market hinders the opportunities for nonfarm work. Finally, regional differences also exist in participating nonfarm activities among farm households. This study suggests that government policy should pay more attention on education, gender and infrastructures such as road and markets, to reduce the entry barriers and facilitate easier access to nonfarm activities. Also, nonfarm activities need to be promoted and incorporated in governmental plans and policies for balanced development between hills and terai areas.

  13. Havsnaes Wind Farm. A guide on Health and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wettin, Martina [Goovinn, Goeteborg (Sweden); Jiven, Anna [Nordisk Vindkraft, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    This guide has been developed by Nordisk Vindkraft in co-operation with Energimyndigheten (the Swedish Energy Agency). The main purpose is to raise the attention to work environment matters when developing, constructing and operating large-scale wind farms in the northern parts of Sweden. The Swedish wind industry is relatively young. Work Environment Management and legal awareness has been identified by the Swedish Government as one crucial factor for ensuring sound and rapid development of the industry. Havsnaes is to date the largest onshore wind farm in Sweden. Whilst developing this project, Nordisk Vindkraft has gained extensive experience and developed a profound understanding of the prerequisites for the Swedish large-scale wind industry. The wind farm's size, complexity and geographical location near Stroemsund in Jaemtland qualify the project as an excellent pilot study. Preventing accidents and ill-health largely depends on your knowledge, competence and the resources you are able and willing to spend. The key for success is a pro-active approach. During the Havsnaes project, Nordisk Vindkraft has spent considerable amount of time and effort on the management of Work Environment. We hope our gained experience will be beneficial for our industry as a whole.

  14. A Pro-active Real-time Forecasting and Decision Support System for Daily Management of Marine Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Mark; Leyssen, Gert; Smets, Steven; De Wachter, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Marine Works involving turbidity generating activities (eg. dredging, dredge spoil placement) can generate environmental stress in and around a project area in the form of sediment plumes causing light reduction and sedimentation. If these works are situated near sensitive habitats like sea-grass beds, coral reefs or sensitive human activities eg. aquaculture farms or water intakes, or if contaminants are present in the water soil environmental scrutiny is advised. Environmental Regulations can impose limitations to these activities in the form of turbidity thresholds, spill budgets, contaminant levels. Breaching environmental regulations can result in increased monitoring, adaptation of the works planning and production rates and ultimately in a (temporary) stop of activities all of which entail time and cost impacts for a contractor and/or client. Sediment plume behaviour is governed by the dredging process, soil properties and ambient conditions (currents, water depth) and can be modelled. Usually this is done during the preparatory EIA phase of a project, for estimation of environmental impact based on climatic scenarios. An operational forecasting tool is developed to adapt marine work schedules to the real-time circumstances and thus evade exceedance of critical threshold levels at sensitive areas. The forecasting system is based on a Python-based workflow manager with a MySQL database and a Django frontend web tool for user interaction and visualisation of the model results. The core consists of a numerical hydrodynamic model with sediment transport module (Mike21 from DHI). This model is driven by space and time varying wind fields and wave boundary conditions, and turbidity inputs (suspended sediment source terms) based on marine works production rates and soil properties. The resulting threshold analysis allows the operator to indicate potential impact at the sensitive areas and instigate an adaption of the marine work schedule if needed. In order to use

  15. Understanding Academic Work as Practical Activity--and Preparing (Business-School) Academics for Praxis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasanen, Keijo

    2009-01-01

    This text suggests a way of framing academic work and outlines a design for a preparatory event based on this understanding. It conceives academic work as "practical activity" and potential "praxis" in emergence by focusing on four issues: how can I do this work (tactical stance), what can I accomplish and achieve in it…

  16. Construing Systems of Management among Primary Headteachers: Moving Forward from Work Activity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Norah; Connolly, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A study used a Personal Construct Theory/Repertory Grid approach to examine the work of 12 Welsh primary headteachers. Analysis of thematic work-activity grids suggests principals have a more coherent view of their work (as centered on children and education) than Henry Mintzberg's observational studies portrayed. (Contains 36 references.) (MLH)

  17. Understanding Academic Work as Practical Activity--and Preparing (Business-School) Academics for Praxis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasanen, Keijo

    2009-01-01

    This text suggests a way of framing academic work and outlines a design for a preparatory event based on this understanding. It conceives academic work as "practical activity" and potential "praxis" in emergence by focusing on four issues: how can I do this work (tactical stance), what can I accomplish and achieve in it…

  18. Daily recovery from work: The role of activities, effort and pleasure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, M.L.M. van; Geurts, S.A.E.; Beckers, D.G.J.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the cycle of work and recovery is crucial for protecting employee health and well-being and preserving working capabilities. However, the daily process of effort and recovery is not well understood. This study investigated how the time spent on activities in the work and off-job

  19. Daily recovery from work: the role of activities, effort and pleasure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooff, M.L.M.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Beckers, D.G.J.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the cycle of work and recovery is crucial for protecting employee health and well-being and preserving working capabilities. However, the daily process of effort and recovery is not well understood. This study investigated how the time spent on activities in the work and off-job

  20. 76 FR 31682 - Agency Information Collection (Time Record (Work-Study Program)) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Time Record (Work-Study Program)) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... INFORMATION: Title: Time Record (Work-Study Program), VA Form 22-8690. OMB Control Number: 2900-0379. Type of... 22-8690 to report the number of work-study hours a claimant has completed. When a claimant elects...

  1. Understanding Academic Work as Practical Activity--and Preparing (Business-School) Academics for Praxis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasanen, Keijo

    2009-01-01

    This text suggests a way of framing academic work and outlines a design for a preparatory event based on this understanding. It conceives academic work as "practical activity" and potential "praxis" in emergence by focusing on four issues: how can I do this work (tactical stance), what can I accomplish and achieve in it (political), why are my…

  2. Evaluating the Implementation of School-to-Work Activities in Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, Rachel A.; Almonte, Brenda; Borrowman, Vern; Lamb, Terri; McCleary, Barb; Oliver, Liz

    1998-01-01

    School-to-work (STW) activities were described by 1257 K-12 teachers and 22 administrators in the Oswego County (New York) school system. More school-based than work-based activities were used. Few teachers felt knowledgeable about STW; lack of training and time were barriers. Administrators consistently underestimated the extent of STW…

  3. Structured Observation of School Administrator Work Activities: Methodological Limitations and Recommendations for Research, Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitner, Nancy J.; Russell, James S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper critically reviews studies of administrator work activities which follow the work of Henry Mintzberg (1973), concentrating on these shortcomings of the method: (1) procedural difficulties in coding; (2) design limitations of classifying activities; (3) inadequate testing of Mintzberg's hypotheses; and (4) failure to explore antecedents…

  4. Divisions of Labour: Activity Theory, Multi-Professional Working and Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmington, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon, but also critiques, activity theory by combining analysis of how an activity theory derived research intervention attempted to address both everyday work practices and organisational power relationships among children's services professionals. It offers two case studies of developmental work research (DWR) interventions in…

  5. Evaluating the Implementation of School-to-Work Activities in Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, Rachel A.; Almonte, Brenda; Borrowman, Vern; Lamb, Terri; McCleary, Barb; Oliver, Liz

    1998-01-01

    School-to-work (STW) activities were described by 1257 K-12 teachers and 22 administrators in the Oswego County (New York) school system. More school-based than work-based activities were used. Few teachers felt knowledgeable about STW; lack of training and time were barriers. Administrators consistently underestimated the extent of STW…

  6. Effects of eccentric exercise on trapezius electromyography during computer work with active and passive pauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this laboratory study was to investigate the effects of eccentric exercises on the trapezius muscle spatial electromyographic (EMG) activity during computer work with active and passive pauses. METHODS: Twelve healthy male subjects performed computer work with passive (relax......) and active (30% maximum voluntary contraction of shoulder elevation) pauses given every 40s over 2 days, before, immediately and 24h after eccentric exercise. Surface EMG signals were recorded from four parts of the trapezius during computer work. FINDINGS: EMG amplitude during computer work decreased...... immediately after exercise (Pactive pauses compared with passive ones (P

  7. Dose-response association between leisure time physical activity and work ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Sundstrup, Emil

    2015-01-01

    points), good (50 points), fair (25 points) and poor (0 points) work ability in relation to the physical demands of the job was experienced by 18%, 40%, 30%, 10% and 2% of the respondents, respectively. RESULTS: General linear models that controlled for gender, age, physical and psychosocial work factors......INTRODUCTION: Regular physical activity is important for longevity and health, but knowledge about the optimal dose of physical activity for maintaining good work ability is unknown. This study investigates the association between intensity and duration of physical activity during leisure time...... and work ability in relation to physical demands of the job. METHODS: From the 2010 round of the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study, currently employed wage earners with physically demanding work (n = 2952) replied to questions about work, lifestyle and health. Excellent (100 points), very good (75...

  8. Ergonomic analysis of New York apple harvest work using a Posture-Activities-Tools-Handling (PATH) work sampling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle-Richardson, G; Fulmer, S; Jenkins, P; Mason, C; Bresee, C; May, J

    2004-08-01

    Although back, neck, and shoulder strains are common among migrant and seasonal orchard workers, little data currently exist regarding the ergonomic factors contributing to this problem. We adapted Posture-Activities-Tools-Handling (PATH) instruments and methods for ergonomic job analysis of apple harvest work in three New York orchards, and used the resulting protocol to quantify hazardous activities, loads, and postures. Using a prototype developed previously, we trained twelve contract orchard observers with classroom training and supervised orchard practice. The PATH data were then collected on 14 orchard workers over four days (2,900 observations). Mean coefficients of variation ranged from a low of 0.212 (standing leg neutral) to a high of 0.603 (trunk moderate flexion). Most frequently observed activities were: picking (62.9%), placing and moving apples in the bag (8. 7%), and walking (8.1%). Weight bearing (>10 lb, >4.54 kg) was observed 78.5% of the time throughout a range of activities. Apple harvest work is comparable with other ergonomically high-risk occupations. Future research should focus on low-cost interventions that reduce load and awkward postures.

  9. The Balanced Scorecard as a Management Tool for Arable Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Paustian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Management requirements for crop farming are high and will rise in the future. Arable farms are challenged by volatile markets, growing administrative burdens, increasing operating costs and growing competition for land. Management skills have become much more important for farmers in recent years and this trend will continue in the future. There are numerous instruments like accounting software or crop field cards integrated in daily management practice, but there is a deficiency of a fully integrated management system to give an overview of all areas of the farming business. This gap can be closed by the management tool Balanced Scorecard (BSC that provides an overview of all production and management activities on a farm. Therefore, with the aim to transfer the BSC concept to crop farming, German farmers and agricultural advisors were surveyed to get insights into the success factors and key performance indicators in the four BSC perspectives they consider most relevant for the operational success of arable farms. By the use of a cluster analysis, three different farm types were identified according to their visions and strategies. For the three farm types the key performance indicators that the respondents considered most relevant for farm performance were figured out. Implementation of the BSC to crop farming can result in a big benefit for management practice. The BSC focuses vision and long-term strategy with the main goal to ensure consistency of the farm and increase farm performance.

  10. ECONOMICS OF DAIRY FARMING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Bor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study dairy farming activities in Turkey are employed to prove that small-scale agricultural production is disappearing rapidly due to costly investment and mechanization needs. For that purpose the cost structure and the investment needs in starting a dairy farm are analyzed. The results show that the capital requirements of building a dairy farm with optimal capacity are hard to reach for small farmers unless a system of marketing and production agricultural cooperatives and/or institutions are organized.

  11. Long and atypical working hours and the impact on intimate family life social activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans H. K.

    marriages or in general the intimate social activities of families. That is, some research point to the fact that having atypical working hours in families might have positive influence on family social activities, like supporting possibilities for the number of activities in which mothers and/or fathers...... through our longitudinal survey study of everyday family and work-life. So in short, this paper will present and discuss an analysis of the relationship between work life and intimate family life social activities as they evolve over time and across households....

  12. Experimental pain leads to reorganisation of trapezius electromyography during computer work with active and passive pauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2009-01-01

    in one day, with passive (relax) and active (30% maximum voluntary contraction of shoulder elevation) pauses given every 40 s without and with presence of experimental pain. Surface EMG signals were recorded from four parts of the trapezius. The centroid of exposure variation analysis along the time axis......The aim of this laboratory study was to investigate acute effects of experimental muscle pain on spatial electromyographic (EMG) activity of the trapezius muscle during computer work with active and passive pauses. Twelve healthy male subjects performed four sessions of computer work for 2 min...... was lower during computer work with active pauses when compared with passive one in all muscle parts (P

  13. A Review of the Social Benefits of Joint Farming Ventures

    OpenAIRE

    Áine Macken Walsh

    2010-01-01

    This paper will review some of the main benefits arising from farmers’ working together, whether through Farm Partnerships or Share Farming arrangements. First, some of the general social benefits are overviewed, and then brief case-studies are presented of the specific benefits that have been experienced by farmers working together in the UK and Norway.

  14. Simulated shift work in rats perturbs multiscale regulation of locomotor activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wan-Hsin; Escobar, Carolina; Yugay, Tatiana; Lo, Men-Tzung; Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.; Shea, Steven A.; Buijs, Ruud M.; Hu, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Motor activity possesses a multiscale regulation that is characterized by fractal activity fluctuations with similar structure across a wide range of timescales spanning minutes to hours. Fractal activity patterns are disturbed in animals after ablating the master circadian pacemaker (suprachiasmatic nucleus, SCN) and in humans with SCN dysfunction as occurs with aging and in dementia, suggesting the crucial role of the circadian system in the multiscale activity regulation. We hypothesized that the normal synchronization between behavioural cycles and the SCN-generated circadian rhythms is required for multiscale activity regulation. To test the hypothesis, we studied activity fluctuations of rats in a simulated shift work protocol that was designed to force animals to be active during the habitual resting phase of the circadian/daily cycle. We found that these animals had gradually decreased mean activity level and reduced 24-h activity rhythm amplitude, indicating disturbed circadian and behavioural cycles. Moreover, these animals had disrupted fractal activity patterns as characterized by more random activity fluctuations at multiple timescales from 4 to 12 h. Intriguingly, these activity disturbances exacerbated when the shift work schedule lasted longer and persisted even in the normal days (without forced activity) following the shift work. The disrupted circadian and fractal patterns resemble those of SCN-lesioned animals and of human patients with dementia, suggesting a detrimental impact of shift work on multiscale activity regulation. PMID:24829282

  15. Administração de medicamentos injetáveis por via intramuscular: conhecimento dos ocupacionais de farmácias Administration of intramuscular injections medications: knowledge of occupationals working in pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mara Rangel

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Complicações advindas da aplicação incorreta das injeções intramusculares podem acarretar sérios prejuízos orgânicos, favorecer o aparecimento de infecções e aumentar a permanência do paciente na instituição ou prejudicar as funções no trabalho. Estudo anterior detectou vários casos de pacientes com complicações locais após aplicação intramuscular de diclofenaco sódico em farmácias e concluiu que a falta de conhecimento da técnica de administração desse medicamento pode ter sido uma das causas das complicações. Diante disso o estudo atual teve o objetivo de identificar e avaliar o nível de conhecimentos de ocupacionais que administram medicamentos injetáveis intramusculares à população, em farmácias de Ribeirão Preto - SP. O estudo se constituiu num levantamento, a partir de um questionário contendo 20 questões abertas e fechadas, aplicado a uma população constituída por ocupacionais atuando em farmácias, selecionadas através do método da amostragem simples casual estratificada -partilha proporcional, resultando num total de 41 sujeitos. Concluímos que a população vem recebendo medicamento s injetáveis de ocupacionais com déficit de informações a respeito da técnica de aplicação de injetáveis. Os sujeitos referiram não receber treinamento adequado para exercer esse procedimento, terminando por aprendê-lo com outro funcionário ou observando alguém que o realize. Disto resulta lacunas de conhecimento em uma amostra de ocupacionais que podem, realmente, levar ao aparecimento de complicações pós injeções intramusculares na população que utiliza os serviços desses estabelecimentos.Complications from the incorrect administration of intramuscular injections can cause serious organic damages, infections and increase the patient's permanence in health institution or to harm the functions in the work. The previous study detected several cases of patients with local complications after

  16. Basic Skills and Activities Compendium. Instructional Objectives and Matching Activities for Working with Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    City Univ. of New York, NY. Center for Advanced Study in Education.

    The kit contains instructional objectives and matching activities for working with severely and profoundly mentally retarded children. Activities are classified into three color coded skill areas - sensory stimulation, motor development, and language development. Each card includes the name of the activity, objectives, and step-by-step procedures.…

  17. Measurement based analysis of active and reactive power losses in a distribution network with wind farms and CHPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torsten

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents an investigation of the active and reactive power losses in a distribution network with wind turbines and combined heat and power plants. The investigation is based on 15 min average power measurements and load flow calculations in the power system simulation tool PowerFactory...

  18. Coming full circle : agriculture, non-farm activities and the resurgence of out-migration in Njombe district, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mung'ong'o, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the findings of research carried out between December 1996 and December 1997 in two villages (Igosi and Mtwango-Lunguya) in Njombe District, Tanzania. The study is one of four regional studies on agricultural and non-agricultural activities and their change over time within Tanz

  19. Determination of ring correction factors for leaded gloves used in grab sampling activities at Hanford tank farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RATHBONE, B.A.

    1999-06-24

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of lead lined gloves in reducing extremity dose from two sources specific to tank waste sampling activities: (1) sludge inside glass sample jars and (2) sludge as thin layer contamination on the exterior surface of sample jars. The response of past and present Hanford Extremity Dosimeters (ring) designs under these conditions is also evaluated.

  20. Comparison of Orbicularis Oculi Muscle Activity during Computer Work with Single and Dual Monitors

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the orbicularis oculi muscle activity during computer work with single and dual monitors. [Subjects] Ten computer workers 22–27 years of age were included in this study. [Methods] Subjects performed computer work with single or dual monitors, and the activity of the right orbicularis oculi muscle was measured with a MP150 system. [Results] The muscle activity of the orbicularis oculi under condition 1 was significantly decreased compared with that under condition...

  1. Migrant Farm Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  2. Not Your Family Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Grogg, Jill E.

    2007-01-01

    The information industry continues to consolidate, just as agribusiness has consolidated and now dominates farming. Both the family farm and the small information company still exist but are becoming rarer in an age of mergers, acquisitions, and increased economies of scale. Small companies distinguish themselves by high quality, special themes,…

  3. Exogenous enzymes upgrade transgenesis and genetic engineering of farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Pablo; Forcato, Diego O; Alustiza, Fabrisio E; Alessio, Ana P; Fili, Alejandro E; Olmos Nicotra, María F; Liaudat, Ana C; Rodríguez, Nancy; Talluri, Thirumala R; Kues, Wilfried A

    2015-05-01

    Transgenic farm animals are attractive alternative mammalian models to rodents for the study of developmental, genetic, reproductive and disease-related biological questions, as well for the production of recombinant proteins, or the assessment of xenotransplants for human patients. Until recently, the ability to generate transgenic farm animals relied on methods of passive transgenesis. In recent years, significant improvements have been made to introduce and apply active techniques of transgenesis and genetic engineering in these species. These new approaches dramatically enhance the ease and speed with which livestock species can be genetically modified, and allow to performing precise genetic modifications. This paper provides a synopsis of enzyme-mediated genetic engineering in livestock species covering the early attempts employing naturally occurring DNA-modifying proteins to recent approaches working with tailored enzymatic systems.

  4. Game farms as sustainable ecotourist attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. van der Merwe

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research was to determine aspects that will contribute to the development of sustainable ecotourism on game farms. In order to achieve this, empirical research was done by means of a survey sample consisting of all the active members of the South African Game Farmers Organisation. There are a total of 1244 members, of whom 50 % (n = 622 were randomly sampled for the research. In the main findings of the research, aspects were identified that are developed according to the criterion for sustainable ecotourism. These aspects include natural/conservation/environmental considerations as well as cultural aspects, such as learning local languages. Aspects that are neglected include working closely with the local community to develop new products; developing partnerships and joint ventures in which the community has a significant stake; fostering the development of community-based tourism products by providing marketing and mentoring support; and considering using local entrepreneurs in the development of community initiatives.

  5. STRATEGY TO INCREASE THE FARM COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Sgroi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Italy’s wine-growing production structure is highly pulverized. So, for many wine-growing farms lowering the production cost represents the only way of gaining a competitive advantage. Production at average unit costs lower than competitors allows to improve profitability. Among farming operations, winter pruning and tying of productive vine-branches require a high human labor. For this reason the paper presents the results of research conducted on a sample of Sicilian wine-producing farms in order to study the cost-effectiveness to make the pruning and the subsequent ligation of productive branches with tools that facilitate the work. The economic analysis, after the determination of minimum optimum size, shows that the investment is suitable for both large or small farms. This denotes how the process innovation could represent a way to achieve a cost leadership and improve profit margin.

  6. Design tool for offshore wind farm clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Giebel, Gregor; Waldl, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Research Alliance (EERA) and a number of industrial partners. The approach has been to develop a robust, efficient, easy to use and flexible tool, which integrates software relevant for planning offshore wind farms and wind farm clusters and supports the user with a clear optimization work flow......The Design Tool for Offshore wind farm Clusters (DTOC) is a software tool to facilitate the optimised design of both, individual and clusters of offshore wind farms. DTOC is developed with the support of an EC funded FP7 project with contributions from science partners from the European Energy...... is developed within the project using open interface standards and is now available as the commercial software product Wind&Economy....

  7. The influence of biofeedback training on trapezius activity and rest during occupational computer work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, A; Søgaard, K; Christensen, H

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of biofeedback training on trapezius activity and rest (gaps) during occupational computer work. A randomized controlled trial with 164 computer workers was performed. Two groups working with computer mouse more than 50% (n = 64) and less than 25% (n...... = 49) of their work time performed five sessions with unilateral electromyographical (EMG) biofeedback from the dominant trapezius during computer work. A third group working with computer mouse more than 50% of their work time (n = 51) served as controls. Bipolar EMG from the bilateral upper trapezius...... muscles during normal computer work was recorded. Changes in discomfort/pain were not recorded. The biofeedback training reduced activity (P

  8. Disentangling longitudinal relations between physical activity, work-related fatigue, and task demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J.D. de; Claessens, B.J.C.; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Geurts, S.A.E.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Kompier, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This longitudinal study examined ‘normal’, ‘reversed’, and ‘reciprocal’ relationships between (1) physical activity and work-related fatigue; and (2) physical activity and task demands. Furthermore, the effects of across-time change in meaningful physical activity groups on levels of

  9. Ethnic and gender differences in farm tasks and safety practices among rural California farm youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Stephen A; Kwan, Jonathan A

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural work is hazardous and is common among rural youth, especially those living on farms or ranches. Previous work has shown differences in farm work and injury patterns between boys and girls, but little data exist addressing ethnic differences. This study examined ethnic and gender differences in farm tasks, safety attitudes, and use of protective measures among rural California youth working on farms or ranches. The University of California, Davis Youth Agricultural Injury Study is a longitudinal study focusing on agricultural work experience among youth enrolled in an agricultural sciences curriculum in 10 public high schools in California's Central Valley during the 2001-2005 school years. Using cross-sectional data from the initial entrance survey, we studied 946 participants who reported farm work in the previous year. Median annual hours of farm work varied significantly between boys and girls (p hr; Hispanic girls: 189 hr; White/Other boys: 832 hr; White/Other girls: 468 hr). Girls and Hispanic students were less likely than boys and White/Other students, respectively, to perform hazardous tasks involving tractors, machinery, and chemicals. Median age for initiating work on selected hazardous tasks was up to 3 years later for Hispanic students. Use of task-appropriate safety measures was low in all groups for most hazardous tasks. Boys were more likely than girls to use task-appropriate safety measures, with the exception of seatbelt use when in a car or truck. Hispanic students were more likely than White/Other students to employ safety measures. Girls and Hispanic youth worked fewer farm hours and had reduced exposure to selected hazardous tasks. Use of task-appropriate safety measures was low for all groups but increased for Hispanic students. Further study should explore reasons for low use of safety measures and develop educational efforts to bring about social norm changes promoting their use.

  10. Human-Computer Interaction and Operators' Performance Optimizing Work Design with Activity Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bedny, Gregory Z

    2010-01-01

    Directed to a broad and interdisciplinary audience, this book provides a complete account of what has been accomplished in applied and systemic-structural activity theory. It presents a new approach to applied psychology and the study of human work that has derived from activity theory. The selected articles demonstrate the basic principles of studying human work and particularly computer-based work in complex sociotechnical systems. The book includes examples of applied and systemic-structural activity theory to HCI and man-machine-systems, aviation, safety, design and optimization of human p

  11. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Dwight J; Gözenman, Filiz; Arciniega, Hector; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that factors influencing perception, such as Gestalt grouping cues, can influence the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM). In some cases, stationary cues, such as stimulus similarity, lead to superior VWM performance. However, the neural correlates underlying these benefits to VWM performance remain unclear. One neural index, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), is an event-related potential that shows increased amplitude according to the number of items held in VWM and asymptotes at an individual's VWM capacity limit. Here, we applied the CDA to determine whether previously reported behavioral benefits supplied by similarity, proximity, and uniform connectedness were reflected as a neural savings such that the CDA amplitude was reduced when these cues were present. We implemented VWM change-detection tasks with arrays including similarity and proximity (Experiment 1); uniform connectedness (Experiments 2a and 2b); and similarity/proximity and uniform connectedness (Experiment 3). The results indicated that when there was a behavioral benefit to VWM, this was echoed by a reduction in CDA amplitude, which suggests more efficient processing. However, not all perceptual grouping cues provided a VWM benefit in the same measure (e.g., accuracy) or of the same magnitude. We also found unexpected interactions between cues. We observed a mixed bag of effects, suggesting that these powerful perceptual grouping benefits are not as predictable in VWM. The current findings indicate that when grouping cues produce behavioral benefits, there is a parallel reduction in the neural resources required to maintain grouped items within VWM.

  12. Effects of irregular-shift work and physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqueze, Elaine Cristina; Ulhôa, Melissa Araújo; Moreno, Claudia Roberta de Castro

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the putative effect of type of shift and its interaction with leisure-time physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers. A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 57 male truck drivers working at a transportation company, of whom 31 worked irregular shifts and 26 worked on the day-shift. Participants recorded their physical activity using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire along with measurements of blood pressure, body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Participants also provided a fasting blood sample for analysis of lipid-related outcomes. Data were analyzed using a factorial model which was covariate-controlled for age, smoking, work demand, control at work and social support. Most of the irregular-shift and day-shift workers worked more than 8 hours per day (67.7% and 73.1%, respectively). The mean duration of experience working the irregular schedule was 15.7 years. Day-shift workers had never engaged in irregular-shift work and had been working as a truck driver for 10.8 years on average. The irregular-shift drivers had lower work demand but less control compared to day-shift drivers (p active irregular-shift workers had higher systolic and diastolic arterial pressures (143.7 and 93.2 mmHg, respectively) than moderately-active day-shift workers (116 and 73.3 mmHg, respectively) (p physical activity, irregular-shift drivers had higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations (211.8 and 135.7 mg/dl, respectively) than day-shift workers (161.9 and 96.7 mg/dl, respectively (ANCOVA, p physical activity.

  13. New regulations relating to systematic follow-up of the working environment in the petroleum activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wig, Helge; Wahlen, Mona [Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, Stavanger (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    Detailed statutory provisions under the Working Environment Act have been prepared by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. Known as ``Regulations relating to systematic follow-up of the working environment in petroleum activities``, they came into force in August 1995. The background and objectives of the Regulations are summarised with particular reference to the chapters on the documentation to be submitted, preventive safety and environment work, and requirements relating to the working environment. The central element is the necessity for a systematic approach to improving the working environment. (UK)

  14. Factors of cash flow in farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Wasilewski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the determinants of the balance of cash flow from operating activities in the farms participating in the PL FADN. The effects of multiple independent variables on the balance of cash flow from operating activities were measured using the robust linear regression model. Statistically significant impact on the balance of cash flow from operating activities was from the family farm income. The agricultural type and the year of measurement had a significant impact on the development of the balance of cash flow from operating activities.

  15. Professional transitions towards sustainable farming systems: The development of farmers' professional worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquil, Xavier; Dedieu, Benoît; Béguin, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    While farming in France and generally in Europe is continuing to intensify, at the expense of its environmental sustainability, promising alternatives are emerging. The processes whereby farmers change and transform their own work, to shift from an intensive mode of production to a self-sufficient and autonomous one, need to be formalized if we are to further our understanding of why and how these forms of sustainable farming activity emerge. We use the development of professional worlds theory, a systemic representation of workers' activity, whereby their experience is formalized. This can be explained as the praxis1, conceptual and axiological underpinnings form a system with the object of the action. The development of a professional world is analyzed according to the evolution of its components and the search for pragmatic coherence within it. We analyzed professional transitions towards self-sufficient and autonomous mixed farming through a case study. Our findings showed that the transition is initiated by the discovery of the unthinkable, awareness of a discrepancy between what the farmers think and what they do, the appearance of problems, and the response to external constraints. Professional transition is a non-teleological and non-incremental process; it corresponds to a comparison with reality, and a resolution of difficulties. This process is stimulated by the use of artifacts instrumented by the farmers. New perspectives are opened up by this formalization of transitions, in terms of (i) support towards sustainable farming and (ii) the design of sustainable farming systems.

  16. Extracurricular Activities Targeted towards Increasing the Number of Engineers Working in the Field of Precision Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Leon Bonde; Stark Olsen, Kent; Ahrenkiel, Linda

    in agriculture and agricultural technology. This article presents the results of an interdisciplinary extracurricular activity for first year engineering students carried out in the Fall 2012 at the University of Southern Denmark. The case was based on practical group-work centered around an agricultural mobile......, and some of them have on their own initiative engaged in subsequent educational activities within precision agriculture....... robot. The activity was called Practical experience from day one and its primary objective was to improve the participants’ practical experience and give them a broader view of technology applied in agriculture. Based on evaluation of the activities it is concluded that working with a small...

  17. Observing farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, agriculture is becoming increasingly specialised, and more and more actors are becoming involved in farm decision making. These trends are more or less pronounced in other European countries as well. We therefore find that to understand modern farming systems, we have to shift the focus...... of analysis from individual farmers to communication and social relations. This is where Luhmann’s social systems theory can offer new insights. Firstly, it can help observe and understand the operational closure and system logic of a farming system and how this closure is produced and reproduced. Secondly...

  18. Wind farm design optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreau, Michel; Morgenroth, Michael; Belashov, Oleg; Mdimagh, Asma; Hertz, Alain; Marcotte, Odile

    2010-09-15

    Innovative numerical computer tools have been developed to streamline the estimation, the design process and to optimize the Wind Farm Design with respect to the overall return on investment. The optimization engine can find the collector system layout automatically which provide a powerful tool to quickly study various alternative taking into account more precisely various constraints or factors that previously would have been too costly to analyze in details with precision. Our Wind Farm Tools have evolved through numerous projects and created value for our clients yielding Wind Farm projects with projected higher returns.

  19. Structured Observation of School Administrator Work Activities: Methodological Limitations and Recommendations for Research, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitner, Nancy J.; Russell, James S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper critically reviews administrator work activity studies which follow the research of Henry Mintzberg. It discusses directions for future research using qualitative and quantitative methods and discourages research that relies solely on Mintzberg's structure. (Author/JAZ)

  20. Levels of occupational stress and stressful activities for nurses working in emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Ferreira da Fonseca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify stress levels, areas and their activities identified as stressful by nurses working in the emergence in Manaus, AM, Brazil. It is an epidemiological, cross-sectional design, with 36 emergency nurses from December 2010 to January 2011. The Bianchi Stress Scale with 57 questions was used. The nurses were at risk for high levels of stress. The most stressful areas were the operation of the unit, conditions of work and personnel administration, and the most stressful activity was the request for equipment review and repair. The difference by Friedman test between the areas was significant (p <0.05, Dunn post-test significant (p <0.05 when compared by peers. The accumulation of management activities with the assistance activities can generate higher levels of stress, it is necessary to invest in improving the work environment and management support to minimize the stress experienced at work.

  1. Effects of electromyographic and mechanomyographic biofeedback on upper trapezius muscle activity during standardized computer work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madeleine, Pascal; Vedsted, Pernille; Blangsted, Anne Katrine

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this laboratory study was to investigate the effects of surface electromyography (EMG)- and mechanomyography (MMG)-based audio and visual biofeedback during computer work. Standardized computer work was performed for 3 min with/without time constraint and biofeedback in a randomized...... alternative to EMG in ergonomics. A lowering of the trapezius muscle activity may contribute to diminish the risk of work related musculoskeletal disorders development....

  2. Role of yoga and physical activity in work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dentists

    OpenAIRE

    Koneru, Suneetha; Tanikonda, Rambabu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Work-related musculoskeletal pain is one of the occupational hazards in dentists. Aims: To find the prevalence and severity of musculoskeletal pain in dentists, to compare musculoskeletal pain among dentists practicing yoga, those practicing physical activities, and those without any physical activity, and also to know the effects of sex, age, and workload on musculoskeletal pain. Materials and Methods: A self-reporting work-related questionnaire and the Nordic questionnaire for a...

  3. Can Muscle Soreness After Intensive Work-related Activities Be Predicted?

    OpenAIRE

    Soer, Remko; Jan H B Geertzen; van der Schans, Cees P; Johan W. Groothoff; Reneman, Michiel F

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: It is currently unknown whether specific determinants are predictive for developing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) after heavy work-related activities. The aim of this study was to analyze whether personal characteristics and performance measures are predictive for onset, intensity, and duration of DOMS after performing work-related activities during a Functional Capacity Evaluation in healthy participants. Methods: Included in this study were 197 healthy participants (102 m...

  4. How Work Positions Affect the Research Activity and Information Behaviour of Laboratory Scientists in the Research Lifecycle: Applying Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Nahyun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of research and information activities of laboratory scientists in different work positions throughout a research lifecycle. Activity theory was applied as the conceptual and analytical framework. Method: Taking a qualitative research approach, in-depth interviews and field…

  5. Clarifying and discussing successful aging at work and the active role of employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, T.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I clarify and further discuss 4 issues raised by Zacher in critically analyzing my perspective on successful aging at work and the active role of employees. First, I argue that the sustainability concept is a valuable and useful concept to better understand successful aging at work,

  6. The impact of patellar tendinopathy on sports and work performance in active athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Astrid J; Koolhaas, Wendy; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ron L.; Nieuwenhuis, Kari; Van Der Worp, Henk; Brouwer, Sandra; Van Den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2017-01-01

    Greater insight into sports and work performance of athletes with patellar tendinopathy (PT) will help establish the severity of this common overuse injury. Primary aim of this study is to investigate the impact of PT on sports and work performance. Seventy seven active athletes with PT (50 males;

  7. Physical activity and relaxation during and after work are independently associated with the need for recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffeng, J.K.; Sluijs, E.M. van; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Boot, C.R.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to better understand the associations between during-work and after-work-hours physical activity and relaxation and need for recovery (NFR), so a study of these variables in office workers at a financial service provider was undertaken. Methods: Self-reported baseline

  8. Research in the Work of New Zealand Teacher Educators: A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, David A. G.; Gunn, Alexandra C.; Hill, Mary F.; Haigh, Mavis

    2016-01-01

    In this article we use cultural-historical activity theory to explore the place of research in the work of New Zealand university-based teacher educators (TEs). We consider how aspirations for a research-informed initial teacher education are served by New Zealand universities' recruitment practices and TEs' actual work. We suggest that TEs value…

  9. Physical activity and relaxation during and after work are independently associated with the need for recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffeng, J.K.; Sluijs, E.M. van; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Boot, C.R.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to better understand the associations between during-work and after-work-hours physical activity and relaxation and need for recovery (NFR), so a study of these variables in office workers at a financial service provider was undertaken. Methods: Self-reported baseline

  10. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  11. Physical activity and relaxation in the work setting to reduce the need for recovery: what works for whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formanoy, Margriet A G; Dusseldorp, Elise; Coffeng, Jennifer K; Van Mechelen, Iven; Boot, Cecile R L; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M; Tak, Erwin C P M

    2016-08-24

    To recover from work stress, a worksite health program aimed at improving physical activity and relaxation may be valuable. However, not every program is effective for all participants, as would be expected within a "one size fits all" approach. The effectiveness of how the program is delivered may differ across individuals. The aim of this study was to identify subgroups for whom one intervention may be better suited than another by using a new method called QUalitative INteraction Trees (QUINT). Data were used from the "Be Active & Relax" study, in which 329 office workers participated. Two delivery modes of a worksite health program were given, a social environmental intervention (group motivational interviewing delivered by team leaders) and a physical environmental intervention (environmental modifications). The main outcome was change in Need for Recovery (NFR) from baseline to 12 month follow-up. The QUINT method was used to identify subgroups that benefitted more from either type of delivery mode, by incorporating moderator variables concerning sociodemographic, health, home, and work-related characteristics of the participants. The mean improvement in NFR of younger office workers in the social environmental intervention group was significantly higher than younger office workers who did not receive the social environmental intervention (10.52; 95 % CI: 4.12, 16.92). Furthermore, the mean improvement in NFR of older office workers in the social environmental intervention group was significantly lower than older office workers who did not receive the social environmental intervention ( -10.65; 95 % CI: -19.35, -1.96). The results for the physical environmental intervention indicated that the mean improvement in NFR of office workers (regardless of age) who worked fewer hours overtime was significantly higher when they had received the physical environmental intervention than when they had not received this type of intervention (7.40; 95 % CI: 0.99, 13

  12. Behavior analysis and farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T M; Temple, W; Poling, A

    1997-01-01

    This article demonstrates that there is a role for behavior-analytic techniques in the area of farm animal welfare and provides examples of the kinds of work that can be done. Behavior-analytic procedures, specifically those used in the study of psychophysics, preference, and demand, can provide answers to three questions people concerned with the welfare of farm animals are likely to ask: What can the animals detect? What do they like and dislike? What will they work to attain or preserve? Such information certainly is necessary for making reasonable decisions about animal welfare, although it is not sufficient in and of itself.

  13. Women in fish farming and gender perspectives | Singh | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... In fish farming, women are actively involved in production and other important activities like catching, cleaning, ... must be developed for successful operation and popularization of fishery activities.

  14. Rainfed farming systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tow, P. G

    2011-01-01

    "While agriculturists need a good grasp of the many separate aspects of agriculture, it is essential that they also understand the functioning of farming systems as a whole and how they can be best managed...

  15. Agriculture: Organic Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic Farming - Organically grown food is food grown and processed using no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Pesticides derived from natural sources (such as biological pesticides) may be used in producing organically grown food.

  16. Farming techniques for seaweeds

    OpenAIRE

    Castaños, M.; Buendia, R.

    1998-01-01

    Details are given of farming methods developed by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department for 3 different seaweeds: 1) Bottom line culture method for Kappaphycus; 2) Pond culture of Gracilaria; and, 3) Gracilariopsis bailinae, the new seaweed on the block.

  17. Functional invertebrate prey groups reflect dietary responses to phenology and farming activity and pest control services in three sympatric species of aerially foraging insectivorous birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Orłowski

    Full Text Available Farming activity severely impacts the invertebrate food resources of farmland birds, with direct mortality to populations of above-ground arthropods thorough mechanical damage during crop harvests. In this study we assessed the effects of phenological periods, including the timing of harvest, on the composition and biomass of prey consumed by three species of aerial insectivorous birds. Common Swifts Apus apus, Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica and House Martins Delichon urbica breed sympatrically and most of their diet is obtained from agricultural sources of invertebrate prey, especially from oil-seed rape crops. We categorized invertebrate prey into six functional groups, including oil-seed rape pests; pests of other arable crops; other crop-provisioned taxa; coprophilous taxa; and taxa living in non-crop and mixed crop/non-crop habitats. Seasonality impacted functional groups differently, but the general direction of change (increase/decrease of all groups was consistent as indexed by prey composition of the three aerial insectivores studied here. After the oil-seed rape crop harvest (mid July, all three species exhibited a dietary shift from oil-seed rape insect pests to other aerial invertebrate prey groups. However, Common Switfts also consumed a relative large quantity of oil-seed rape insect pests in the late summer (August, suggesting that they could reduce pest insect emigration beyond the host plant/crop. Since these aerially foraging insectivorous birds operate in specific conditions and feed on specific pest resources unavailable to foliage/ground foraging avian predators, our results suggest that in some crops like oil-seed rape cultivations, the potential integration of the insectivory of aerial foraging birds into pest management schemes might provide economic benefits. We advise further research into the origin of airborne insects and the role of aerial insectivores as agents of the biological control of crop insect pests

  18. Functional invertebrate prey groups reflect dietary responses to phenology and farming activity and pest control services in three sympatric species of aerially foraging insectivorous birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz; Karg, Jerzy; Karg, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Farming activity severely impacts the invertebrate food resources of farmland birds, with direct mortality to populations of above-ground arthropods thorough mechanical damage during crop harvests. In this study we assessed the effects of phenological periods, including the timing of harvest, on the composition and biomass of prey consumed by three species of aerial insectivorous birds. Common Swifts Apus apus, Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica and House Martins Delichon urbica breed sympatrically and most of their diet is obtained from agricultural sources of invertebrate prey, especially from oil-seed rape crops. We categorized invertebrate prey into six functional groups, including oil-seed rape pests; pests of other arable crops; other crop-provisioned taxa; coprophilous taxa; and taxa living in non-crop and mixed crop/non-crop habitats. Seasonality impacted functional groups differently, but the general direction of change (increase/decrease) of all groups was consistent as indexed by prey composition of the three aerial insectivores studied here. After the oil-seed rape crop harvest (mid July), all three species exhibited a dietary shift from oil-seed rape insect pests to other aerial invertebrate prey groups. However, Common Switfts also consumed a relative large quantity of oil-seed rape insect pests in the late summer (August), suggesting that they could reduce pest insect emigration beyond the host plant/crop. Since these aerially foraging insectivorous birds operate in specific conditions and feed on specific pest resources unavailable to foliage/ground foraging avian predators, our results suggest that in some crops like oil-seed rape cultivations, the potential integration of the insectivory of aerial foraging birds into pest management schemes might provide economic benefits. We advise further research into the origin of airborne insects and the role of aerial insectivores as agents of the biological control of crop insect pests, especially the

  19. Course Outline for Lesson Plans for Pre-Employment Laboratory Training in CVAE-VEH Farm and Ranch Mechanical Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains 88 lesson plans for a laboratory course in farm and ranch mechanical repair. The lesson plans are organized into six units covering the following topics: occupational information, construction and maintenance (safety, farm carpentry, farm water supply and sanitation, farm electricity, concrete), hot metal work (oxyacetylene…

  20. Sustainable Organic Farming For Environmental Health A Social Development Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijun Rijwan Susanto

    2015-05-01

    consider the loss that may be experienced by others as the principles for profit has become very prominent. As a result the development of organic agriculture simply stuck into a commercial activity which would be a criticism of the founders One of the factors that led to the involvement of the government regulated organic farming is because of the bickering about what is called organic agricultural products and because many nonorganic products sold as organic products Organic farmers have difficulty in finding locally based seed for organic farming certification of organic farming has changed it is not just the assurance processes into a tradable commodity 3 The Benefits of Organic Farming in Support for Environmental Health organic farming gives a positive impact on public health because it does not cause environmental pollution water air soil by the residues of chemical fertilizers and synthetic chemical pesticides. Besides organic farming also healthy communities through the provision of agricultural products that are free of pesticides and chemical fertilizer residues 4 The Social Development Model of Sustainable Organic Farming Sustainable agriculture organic farming seeks acre balance of three long-term goals namely a Social-cultural to create quality of life to satisfy personal and community needs for health food safety and happines b Environment to Enhance utilization of soil water air and other resourches limited c Economics to be profitable market forces. These objectives can be achieved if supported by organizational-oriented good governance principles of sustainable agriculture. Sustainable agriculture is the implementation of the principles of sustainable development. Sustainable development will be achieved if conducted prior social development within the broad scope of stakeholders 5 The Policy Recomendation for Organic Farming a National Strategic Agenda The Program Go Organic must be forwarded with the 2010 program Go Organic 2020 where the formulation of

  1. Wind farm models and control strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca D.; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.; Donovan, M.H.

    2005-08-01

    This report describes models and control strategies for 3 different concepts of wind farms. Initially, the potential in improvement of grid integration, structural loads and energy production is investigated in a survey of opportunities. Then simulation models are described, including wind turbine models for a fixed speed wind turbine with active stall control and a variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator. After that, the 3 wind farm concepts and control strategies are described. The 3 concepts are AC connected doubly fed turbines, AC connected active stall turbines and DC connected active stall turbines. Finally, some simulation examples and conclusions are presented. (au)

  2. 宁夏回族女作家马金莲的小说创作论略%Delicate "Farm Work Poetry":a Survey of Novels by Ningxia Hui Nationality Woman Writer MA Jinlian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴文

    2011-01-01

    马金莲是新世纪以来崭露头角并获得宁夏评论界首肯的回族女作家。她的小说以独特的叙述视角观照西海固古老乡土的民间生存,以平淡自然的文风谱写着清丽的"农事诗",并通过对女性生存状况的书写表达自己对女性的人文关怀。随着题材范围的拓展与对西海固人日常生存的深入思考,马金莲在坚持平淡自然的文风的道路上一定会更有建树。%MA Jinlian is a Hui nationality woman writer praised by Ningxia critical circle thanks to the novelty in her novels since the new century.Her novels reflect the folk living of the country of Xi-hai-gu with a unique narrative perspective,compose delicate farm work poetry with a plain and natural writing style,and express her humanistic concern to women through writing the females' survival condition.With the expansion of the writing material and the deep thought about the daily life of the Xi-hai-gu people,Ma Jinlian will make more achievements on the way of insisting on the plain and natural writing style.

  3. Internet-Related Work Activities and Academic Government Documents Librarians' Professional Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselle, Ann

    1999-01-01

    Examines specific Internet-related work activities of academic government documents librarians in the United States and how these activities are affecting academic government documents librarians' professional relationships. Results are reported from a national survey of 226 academic government documents librarians that indicate closer…

  4. Improving the Cultural Competency of Social Work Students with a Social Privilege Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Cynthia L.; Deck, Stacy M.; Miller, J. Jay; Borders, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the development and utilization of an instructional activity created by the authors for the purposes of preparing social work students for culturally competent practice with members of historically oppressed populations. Experiential activities in the classroom provide an alternative approach to traditional pedagogical…

  5. Emotion at Work: A Contribution to Third-Generation Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-01-01

    Second-generation cultural-historical activity theory, which drew its inspiration from Leont'ev's work, constituted an advance over Vygotsky's first-generation theory by explicitly articulating the dialectical relation between individual and collective. As part of an effort to develop third-generation-historical activity theory, I propose in this…

  6. co-Laevo - Supporting Cooperating Teams by Working 'within' Shared Activity Time Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeuris, Steven; Tell, Paolo; Bardram, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    and collaborators’ activities as part of task switching during everyday work. We introduce this concept, and several entailing design implications, as cooperative activity life cycle management. We anticipate the design of such a system to decrease information overload and increases awareness among team members....

  7. Flexibility in use: Switching behaviour and satisfaction in activity-based work environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoendervanger, Jan Gerard; De Been, Iris; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Mobach, Mark P.; Albers, Casper J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Despite their growing popularity among organisations, satisfaction with Activity-Based Work (ABW) environments is found to be below expectations. Research also suggests that workers typically do not switch frequently, or not at all, between different activity settings. Hence, in the presen

  8. How Do Detergents Work? A Qualitative Assay to Measure Amylase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, M. Teresa; Casanoves, Marina; Garcia-Vallvé, Santi; Pujadas, Gerard; Mulero, Miquel; Valls, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    We present a practical activity focusing on two main goals: to give learners the opportunity to experience how the scientific method works and to increase their knowledge about enzymes in everyday situations. The exercise consists of determining the amylase activity of commercial detergents. The methodology is based on a qualitative assay using a…

  9. Flexibility in use: Switching behaviour and satisfaction in activity-based work environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoendervanger, Jan Gerard; De Been, Iris; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Mobach, Mark P.; Albers, Casper J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Despite their growing popularity among organisations, satisfaction with Activity-Based Work (ABW) environments is found to be below expectations. Research also suggests that workers typically do not switch frequently, or not at all, between different activity settings. Hence, in the

  10. Dissociation of Active Working Memory and Passive Recognition in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Active cognitive control of working memory is central in most human memory models, but behavioral evidence for such control in nonhuman primates is absent and neurophysiological evidence, while suggestive, is indirect. We present behavioral evidence that monkey memory for familiar images is under active cognitive control. Concurrent cognitive…

  11. Dissociation of Active Working Memory and Passive Recognition in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Active cognitive control of working memory is central in most human memory models, but behavioral evidence for such control in nonhuman primates is absent and neurophysiological evidence, while suggestive, is indirect. We present behavioral evidence that monkey memory for familiar images is under active cognitive control. Concurrent cognitive…

  12. Cortisol-induced impairments of working memory require acute sympathetic activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzinga, B.M.; Roelofs, K.

    2005-01-01

    The present study assessed whether the effects of cortisol on working memory depend on the level of adrenergic activity (as measured by sympathetic activation) during memory performance. After exposure to a psychosocial stress task, participants were divided into cortisol responders and nonresponder

  13. The Effects of Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    In work-related instrumental learning contexts, the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory predict skill adaptation as an outcome. This prediction was tested by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants' response and error rates during novel…

  14. Effects of dynamic workstation Oxidesk on acceptance, physical activity, mental fitness and work performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenesteijn, L.; Commissaris, D.A.C.M.; Berg-Zwetsloot, M. van den; Hiemstra-Van Mastrigt, S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Working in an office environment is characterised by physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour. This behaviour contributes to several health risks in the long run. Dynamic workstations which allow people to combine desk activities with physical activity, may contribute to prevention of

  15. Evaluation of Active Working Fluids for Brayton Cycles in Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, J. C.; Courville, G. E.; Scott, J. H.

    2004-02-01

    The main parameter of interest for space thermal power conversion to electricity is specific power, defined as the total electric power output per unit of system mass, rather than the cycle thermal efficiency. For a closed Brayton cycle, performance with two active working fluids, nitrogen tetroxide and aluminum chloride, is compared to that with an inert mixture of helium and xenon having a molecular mass of 40. A chemically active working fluid is defined here as a chemical compound that has a relatively high molecular weight at temperatures appropriate for the compressor inlet and dissociates to a lighter molecular weight fluid at typical turbine inlet temperatures. The active working fluids may have the advantage of a higher net turbomachinery work output and an advantageous enhancement of the heat transfer coefficient in the heat exchangers. The fundamental theory of the active working fluid concept is presented to demonstrate these potential advantages. Scoping calculations of the heat exchanger mass for a selected spacecraft application of 36.4 kW of electrical power output show that the nitrogen tetroxide active working fluid has an advantageous 7% to 30% lower mass-to-power ratio than that for the inert noble gas mixture, depending on the allowable turbine inlet temperature. The calculations for the aluminum chloride system suggest only a slight improvement in performance relative to the inert noble gas mixture.

  16. Informal work and formal plans: articulating the active role of patients in cancer trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsted, Rikke Juul; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Brostrøm Kousgaard, Marius

    2012-01-01

    . The patients’ requests were not sufficiently supported in the professional organisation of work or formal planning. Patients’ insertion and use of information in their trajectories challenged professional views and working processes. And the design of the formal pathway models limits the patients´ active......Introduction: Formal pathway models outline that patients should receive information in order to experience a coherent journey but do not describe an active role for patients or their relatives. The aim of this is paper is to articulate and discuss the active role of patients during their cancer...... and care. They initiated processes in the trajectories, and acquired information, which they used to form their trajectories. Patients presented problems to the healthcare professionals in order to get proper help when needed. Discussion: Work done by patients was invisible and not perceived as work...

  17. An Optimal Control Scheme to Minimize Loads in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a control algorithm for wind farms that optimizes the power production of the farm and helps to increase the lifetime of wind turbines components. The control algorithm is a centralized approach, and it determines the power reference signals for individual wind turbines...... such that the structural loads of the wind turbines in low frequencies are reduced. The controller is relatively easy to implement on a wind farm, and in here the results of simulating the controller on a small wind farm is presented....

  18. An Optimal Control Scheme to Minimize Loads in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a control algorithm for wind farms that optimizes the power production of the farm and helps to increase the lifetime of wind turbines components. The control algorithm is a centralized approach, and it determines the power reference signals for individual wind turbines...... such that the structural loads of the wind turbines in low frequencies are reduced. The controller is relatively easy to implement on a wind farm, and in here the results of simulating the controller on a small wind farm is presented....

  19. Effects of irregular-shift work and physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Marqueze

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the putative effect of type of shift and its interaction with leisure-time physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 57 male truck drivers working at a transportation company, of whom 31 worked irregular shifts and 26 worked on the day-shift. Participants recorded their physical activity using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire along with measurements of blood pressure, body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Participants also provided a fasting blood sample for analysis of lipid-related outcomes. Data were analyzed using a factorial model which was covariate-controlled for age, smoking, work demand, control at work and social support. RESULTS: Most of the irregular-shift and day-shift workers worked more than 8 hours per day (67.7% and 73.1%, respectively. The mean duration of experience working the irregular schedule was 15.7 years. Day-shift workers had never engaged in irregular-shift work and had been working as a truck driver for 10.8 years on average. The irregular-shift drivers had lower work demand but less control compared to day-shift drivers (p < 0.05. Moderately-active irregular-shift workers had higher systolic and diastolic arterial pressures (143.7 and 93.2 mmHg, respectively than moderately-active day-shift workers (116 and 73.3 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.05 as well as higher total cholesterol concentrations (232.1 and 145 mg/dl, respectively (p = 0.01. Irrespective of their physical activity, irregular-shift drivers had higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations (211.8 and 135.7 mg/dl, respectively than day-shift workers (161.9 and 96.7 mg/dl, respectively (ANCOVA, p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Truck drivers are exposed to cardiovascular risk factors due to the characteristics of the job, such as high work demand, long working hours and time in this profession, regardless of shift type or leisure-time physical

  20. Correlations in background activity control persistent state stability and allow execution of working memory tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eDipoppa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM is tightly capacity limited, it requires selective information gating, active information maintenance, and rapid active updating. Hence performing a WM task needs rapid and controlled transitions between neural persistent activity and the resting state. We propose that changes in spike-time correlations in neural activity provides a mechanism for the required working memory operations. As a proof of principle, we implement sustained activity and working memory in a recurrently-coupled spiking network with neurons receiving excitatory random background activity where background correlations are induced by a common noise source. We first characterize how the level of background correlations controls the stability of the persistent state. With sufficiently high correlations, the sustained state becomes practically unstable, so it cannot be initiated by a transient stimulus. We exploit this in a working memory model implementing the delay match to sample task by modulating flexibly in time the correlation level at different phases of the task. The modulation sets the network in different working regimes: more prompt to gate in a signal or clear the memory. The findings presented in this manuscript can form the basis for a new paradigm about how correlations are flexibly controlled by the cortical circuits to execute WM operations.

  1. Functional activation in the cerebellum during working memory and simple speech tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durisko, Corrine; Fiez, Julie A

    2010-01-01

    Verbal working memory is the ability to temporarily store and manipulate verbal information. This study tested the predictions of a neuroanatomical model of how the cerebellum contributes to verbal working memory (Desmond et al., 1997). In this model, a large bilateral region in the superior cerebellum is associated with articulatory rehearsal and a right-lateralized region in the inferior cerebellum is associated with the correction of errors within the working memory system. The Desmond et al. (1997) model was based on neuroimaging findings using item recognition tasks and comparisons between working memory and covert rehearsal tasks, whereas in this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we used a delayed serial recall (DSR) task because it relies more heavily on articulatory rehearsal, and our comparison tasks included both overt and covert speech tasks. Our results provide some support for the Desmond et al. (1997) model. In particular, we found multiple activation foci within the superior and inferior sectors of the cerebellum and evidence that these regions show different patterns of activation across working memory and speech tasks. However, the specific patterns of activation were not fully consistent with those reported by Desmond et al. (1997). Namely, our results indicate that activation in the superior sector should be functionally subdivided into a medial focus involved in speech processing and a lateral focus more specific to verbal working memory; the results also indicate that activation in the inferior sector is not uniquely right lateralized. These complex findings speak to the need for future studies to consider the speech-motor aspects of tasks, to investigate the functional significance of adjacent peaks of activation within large regions of cerebellar activation, and to use analysis procedures that support regional distinctions through direct statistical tests. Such studies would help to refine our understanding of how the

  2. Evaluating internalization of multifunctionality by farm diversification: evidence from educational dairy farms in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohe, Yasuo

    2011-03-01

    Farm diversification by farmers' open-door policy generates opportunities for farmers to internalize externalities of multifunctionality. Although the educational function of agriculture is an example of such an open-door policy and is attracting growing attention, this function has been little explored. To promote farm diversification in this direction, this paper examined how and to what degree farmers internalize externalities of multifunctionality by focusing on the educational function provided by dairy farming, i.e., farming experience services, in Japan. The main findings were as follows. First, we can say that the educational function is determined by ordinary technical jointness as well as institutional jointness, which is represented by food culture and the agrarian heritage. Both the technical and institutional jointness enhanced the externality. Because of these two working factors, there is a U-shaped relationship between farm diversification and provision of farming experience services. Second, however, an empirical evaluation indicated that farmers only partially internalize educational externalities by treating them as supplementary services combined with processed milk products. Therefore, appropriate integrated management of these newly emerging educational services to become a viable market should be fully addressed in the future, especially for family farms.

  3. IMPACT OF THE EU FUNDS SUPPORTING FARM MODERNISATION ON THE CHANGES OF THE ASSETS IN POLISH FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawrzyniec Czubak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the analysis of the changes in the production potential of Polish farms after implementing CAP mechanisms (2004-2011. Two criteria were used to share the farms: investment activity and economic size. Only those farms were selected, which continuously conducted the agricultural accounting FADN system in 2004--2011. Based on the analysis it was found that in the base period, farms making the most complex investments (supported by EU funds or financed on the basin of own financial resources, had greater production potential – in the matter of area and volume of assets. The investment activities contributed to the increase in disparities between groups of farms. Especially the non-investment farms were able to preserve the area of agricultural land, but the value of their assets was significantly reduced.

  4. The technical efficiency of specialised milk farms: a regional view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spička, Jindřich; Smutka, Luboš

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to evaluate production efficiency and its determinants of specialised dairy farming among the EU regions. In the most of European regions, there is a relatively high significance of small specialised farms including dairy farms. The DEAVRS method (data envelopment analysis with variable returns to scale) reveals efficient and inefficient regions including the scale efficiency. In the next step, the two-sample t-test determines differences of economic and structural indicators between efficient and inefficient regions. The research reveals that substitution of labour by capital/contract work explains the variability of the farm net value added per AWU (annual work unit) income indicator by more than 30%. The significant economic determinants of production efficiency in specialised dairy farming are farm size, herd size, crop output per hectare, productivity of energy, and capital (at α = 0.01). Specialised dairy farms in efficient regions have significantly higher farm net value added per AWU than inefficient regions. Agricultural enterprises in inefficient regions have a more extensive structure and produce more noncommodity output (public goods). Specialised dairy farms in efficient regions have a slightly higher milk yield, specific livestock costs of feed, bedding, and veterinary services per livestock unit.

  5. The Technical Efficiency of Specialised Milk Farms: A Regional View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindřich Špička

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to evaluate production efficiency and its determinants of specialised dairy farming among the EU regions. In the most of European regions, there is a relatively high significance of small specialised farms including dairy farms. The DEAVRS method (data envelopment analysis with variable returns to scale reveals efficient and inefficient regions including the scale efficiency. In the next step, the two-sample t-test determines differences of economic and structural indicators between efficient and inefficient regions. The research reveals that substitution of labour by capital/contract work explains the variability of the farm net value added per AWU (annual work unit income indicator by more than 30%. The significant economic determinants of production efficiency in specialised dairy farming are farm size, herd size, crop output per hectare, productivity of energy, and capital (at α=0.01. Specialised dairy farms in efficient regions have significantly higher farm net value added per AWU than inefficient regions. Agricultural enterprises in inefficient regions have a more extensive structure and produce more noncommodity output (public goods. Specialised dairy farms in efficient regions have a slightly higher milk yield, specific livestock costs of feed, bedding, and veterinary services per livestock unit.

  6. Evaluating the impact of farm scale innovation at catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breda, Phelia; De Clercq, Willem; Vlok, Pieter; Querner, Erik

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological modelling lends itself to other disciplines very well, normally as a process based system that acts as a catalogue of events taking place. These hydrological models are spatial-temporal in their design and are generally well suited for what-if situations in other disciplines. Scaling should therefore be a function of the purpose of the modelling. Process is always linked with scale or support but the temporal resolution can affect the results if the spatial scale is not suitable. The use of hydrological response units tends to lump area around physical features but disregards farm boundaries. Farm boundaries are often the more crucial uppermost resolution needed to gain more value from hydrological modelling. In the Letaba Catchment of South Africa, we find a generous portion of landuses, different models of ownership, different farming systems ranging from large commercial farms to small subsistence farming. All of these have the same basic right to water but water distribution in the catchment is somewhat of a problem. Since water quantity is also a problem, the water supply systems need to take into account that valuable production areas not be left without water. Clearly hydrological modelling should therefore be sensitive to specific landuse. As a measure of productivity, a system of small farmer production evaluation was designed. This activity presents a dynamic system outside hydrological modelling that is generally not being considered inside hydrological modelling but depends on hydrological modelling. For sustainable development, a number of important concepts needed to be aligned with activities in this region, and the regulatory actions also need to be adhered to. This study aimed at aligning the activities in a region to the vision and objectives of the regulatory authorities. South Africa's system of socio-economic development planning is complex and mostly ineffective. There are many regulatory authorities involved, often with unclear

  7. Anticipatory activity in rat medial prefrontal cortex during a working memory task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenwen Bai; Tiaotiao Liu; Hu Yi; Shuangyan Li; Xin Tian

    2012-01-01

    Objective Working memory is a key cognitive function in which the prefrontal cortex plays a crucial role.This study aimed to show the firing patterns of a neuronal population in the prefrontal cortex of the rat in a working memory task and to explore how a neuronal ensemble encodes a working memory event.Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in a Y-maze until they reached an 80% correct rate in a working memory task.Then a 16-channel microelectrode array was implanted in the prefrontal cortex.After recovery,neuronal population activity was recorded during the task,using the Cerebus data-acquisition system.Spatio-temporal trains of action potentials were obtained from the original neuronal population signals.Results During the Y-maze working memory task,some neurons showed significantly increased firing rates and evident neuronal ensemble activity.Moreover,the anticipatory activity was associated with the delayed alternate choice of the upcoming movement.In correct trials,the averaged pre-event firing rate (10.86 ± 1.82 spikes/bin) was higher than the post-event rate (8.17 ± 1.15 spikes/bin) (P <0.05).However,in incorrect trials,the rates did not differ.Conclusion The results indicate that the anticipatory activity of a neuronal ensemble in the prefrontal cortex may play a role in encoding working memory events.

  8. Physical activity and sedentary time: male perceptions in a university work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Emma S; Kolt, Gregory S; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Guagliano, Justin M

    2014-03-01

    Promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary time in males can be challenging, and interventions tailored specifically for males are limited. Understanding male perceptions of physical activity and sedentary behavior is important to inform development of relevant interventions, especially for males working in an office setting. As part of a larger intervention study to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time, male university employees aged 35 to 64 years were invited to partake in focus groups to discuss benefits, motivators, and barriers related to physical activity and sedentary time. Five semistructured focus group sessions, ranging from 50 to 70 minutes in duration, were conducted on two campuses at an Australian university. A total of 15 participants (9 academic/faculty staff and 6 professional staff), with a mean (± SD) age of 46.1 (±8.0) years took part in the study. Health and family were commonly discussed motivators for physical activity, whereas time constraints and work commitments were major barriers to physical activity participation. Sedentary time was a perceived "by-product" of participants' university employment, as a substantial proportion of their days were spent sitting, primarily at a computer. Participants believed that physical activity should be recognized as a legitimate activity at work, embedded within the university culture and endorsed using a top-down approach. It is important to encourage breaks in sedentary time and recognize physical activity as a legitimate health-promoting activity that is supported and encouraged during working hours. These findings can be used as a platform from which to develop targeted strategies to promote physical activity in male university employees.

  9. Contribution of underlying processes to improved visuospatial working memory associated with physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingchun Ji

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Working memory is critical for various cognitive processes and can be separated into two stages: short-term memory storage and manipulation processing. Although previous studies have demonstrated that increased physical activity (PA improves working memory and that males outperform females on visuospatial working memory tasks, few studies have determined the contribution of the two underlying stages to the visuospatial working memory improvement associated with PA. Thus, the aims of the present study were to verify the relationship between physical activity and visuospatial working memory, determine whether one or both stages were affected by PA, and investigate any sex differences. Methods A total of 56 undergraduate students were recruited for this study. Their scores on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ were used to separate them into either a lower PA (n = 26; IPAQ score ≤3,000 metabolic equivalent [MET]-min/week or higher PA (n = 30; IPAQ score >3,000 MET-min/week group. Participants were required to complete three tasks: a visuospatial working memory task, a task that examines the short-term memory storage stage, and a mental rotation task that examines the active manipulation stage. Results Participants in the higher PA group maintained similar accuracy but displayed significantly faster reaction times (RT than those in the lower PA group on the visuospatial working memory and manipulation tasks. By contrast, no difference was observed between groups on the short-term memory storage task. In addition, no effects of sex were detected. Discussion Our results confirm that PA was positively to visuospatial working memory and that this positive relationship was associated with more rapid cognitive processing during the manipulation stage, with little or no relationship between PA and the memory storage stage of visuospatial working memory.

  10. Optimal control of wind-farm boundary layers: effect of turbine response time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munters, Wim; Meyers, Johan

    2016-11-01

    Complex turbine wake interactions play an important role in overall energy extraction in large wind farms. Current control strategies optimize individual turbine power, and lead to significant energy losses in wind farms compared to lone-standing turbines. In recent work, an optimal control framework for dynamic induction control of wind farms and their interaction with the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) was introduced, with the aim of mitigating such losses. The framework applies a receding horizon methodology, in which the ABL state is modeled through large-eddy simulations. Previously, the framework was applied to both fully-developed and spatially developing wind farms, for which respective energy gains of 16% and 7% were obtained, albeit at the cost of additional turbine loading variability. Here, we quantify the trade-off between increased power extraction and smoothed turbine dynamics by varying the turbine response time in the control framework. We consider simulation cases restricted to underinduction compared to Betz-optimal induction, as well as cases that also allow overinduction. In addition, efforts on replicating optimized power gains with practical controllers are presented. The authors are supported by the ERC (ActiveWindFarms, Grant No.: 306471).

  11. Natural cycles and agricultural inputs: a farm gate Ecological Footprint analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeri, Nicolo; Blasi, Emanuele; Borucke, Michael; Galli, Alessandro; Franco, Silvio

    2014-05-01

    Land suitability for different crops depends on soil, water and climate conditions, as well as farmers' cultivation choices. Moreover, the use of agricultural inputs affects the natural cycles of crops and impacts their production. By assessing the ecological performance of farms as influenced by crop types, cultivation choices and land suitability one can therefore evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural practices and governance's options. Ecological Footprint accounts can be used to measure such ecological performance. These accounts track human demand for natural resources and ecological services and compare this demand with nature ability to regenerate these resource and services. This regenerative capacity is called biocapacity. Both demand (Footprint) and supply (biocapacity) are expressed in global hectares. Farming different from most other human activities, not only uses natural resources, but also enhances or erodes ecological supply. It therefore affects all factors that determine both Footprint and biocapacity. Climate, farmers' skills and choices (fertilizers, pesticides, machines) determine crop productivity, and to what extent crops preserve or compromise soils. The aim of this work is to evaluate how farmer's choices affect resources overexploitation. The study analysed how the use of inputs influences natural cycles within farm boundaries. This result from a pilot case study will show how particular farming practices affect both the farm's biocapacity and Ecological Footprint. Such analysis is relevant for informing involved stakeholders, namely the farmers on more sustainable agricultural practices and the policy makers on more suitable agricultural policies.

  12. Wind Energy Development in India and a Methodology for Evaluating Performance of Wind Farm Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev H. Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With maturity of advanced technologies and urgent requirement for maintaining a healthy environment with reasonable price, India is moving towards a trend of generating electricity from renewable resources. Wind energy production, with its relatively safer and positive environmental characteristics, has evolved from a marginal activity into a multibillion dollar industry today. Wind energy power plants, also known as wind farms, comprise multiple wind turbines. Though there are several wind-mill clusters producing energy in different geographical locations across the world, evaluating their performance is a complex task and is an important focus for stakeholders. In this work an attempt is made to estimate the performance of wind clusters employing a multicriteria approach. Multiple factors that affect wind farm operations are analyzed by taking experts opinions, and a performance ranking of the wind farms is generated. The weights of the selection criteria are determined by pairwise comparison matrices of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. The proposed methodology evaluates wind farm performance based on technical, economic, environmental, and sociological indicators. Both qualitative and quantitative parameters were considered. Empirical data were collected through questionnaire from the selected wind farms of Belagavi district in the Indian State of Karnataka. This proposed methodology is a useful tool for cluster analysis.

  13. Stronger activation and deactivation in archery experts for differential cognitive strategy in visuospatial working memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeehye; Kim, Yang-Tae; Song, Hui-Jin; Lee, Hui Joong; Lee, Jongmin; Jung, Tae-Du; Lee, Gunyoung; Kwon, Eunjin; Kim, Jin Gu; Chang, Yongmin

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that elite athletes have higher performance in perception, planning, and execution in sports activities relative to novices. It remains controversial, however, whether any differences in basic cognitive functions between experts and novices exist. Furthermore, few studies have directly used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural activation and deactivation differences between experts and novices while performing visuospatial working memory (WM) tasks. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine possible differences in neural activation and deactivation associated with working memory components in processing visuospatial information between archery experts and novices. To this end, we employed a judgment of line orientation (JLO) task, which has a strong WM component. With regard to brain activation, archery experts displayed higher activation in cortical areas associated with visuospatial attention and working memory, including the middle frontal cortex, supplemental motor area, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex than that of the novices during the performance of the JLO task. With regard to brain deactivation, archery experts exhibited stronger task-related deactivation in cortical areas, such as the paracentral cortex/precuneus and the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex related to the default network, than that of the novices. These results suggest that the archery experts have a strategy that demands greater use of neural correlates associated with visuospatial working memory and attention in addition to greater use of DMN in visuospatial working memory task not directly tied to their domain of expertise.

  14. Appreciation to Organic Agriculture Function: Case Study of Rice Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinjung Mary Prihtanti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural activities are not only producing the visible (tangible output in the form of food but also the non-visible output (non-marketable goods/non-tangible services. Non-visible output refers to a multifunctionality to supply food to ensure the food sufficiency of farmer household and job opportunities at rural area. The article aims to compare the capability of organic rice farming to conventional, to ensure the food sufficiency of farmer household, the economic value of rice farming to produce food, and the economic estimation of rice farming to its function as an job opportunities. The data for the research is collected in Gentungan Village, Mojogedang District, Karanganyar Regency during the crop year of 2015. In order to study the differences of two rice farming systems, the total of 60 farmers, 30 farmers are dealing with organic farming and other 30 farmers from conventional farming, are subjected for the interview in this research. The results found that the food security of organic farming is higher than conventional farming. The organic rice farming gives the economic value as the food producing and the labor-absorbing function in the study area is higher than the  conventional farming.

  15. Decision Support System Requirements Definition for Human Extravehicular Activity Based on Cognitive Work Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew James; McGuire, Kerry M; Feigh, Karen M

    2017-06-01

    The design and adoption of decision support systems within complex work domains is a challenge for cognitive systems engineering (CSE) practitioners, particularly at the onset of project development. This article presents an example of applying CSE techniques to derive design requirements compatible with traditional systems engineering to guide decision support system development. Specifically, it demonstrates the requirements derivation process based on cognitive work analysis for a subset of human spaceflight operations known as extravehicular activity. The results are presented in two phases. First, a work domain analysis revealed a comprehensive set of work functions and constraints that exist in the extravehicular activity work domain. Second, a control task analysis was performed on a subset of the work functions identified by the work domain analysis to articulate the translation of subject matter states of knowledge to high-level decision support system requirements. This work emphasizes an incremental requirements specification process as a critical component of CSE analyses to better situate CSE perspectives within the early phases of traditional systems engineering design.

  16. Farm Biogas Handbook; Gaardsbiogashandbok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensson, Kjell; Bjoernsson, Lovisa; Dahlgren, Stefan; Eriksson, Peter; Lantz, Mikael; Lindstroem, Johanna; Mickelaaker, Maria

    2009-04-15

    A very large share of the total raw material potential for biogas production will be found within the agriculture. The raw material potential of manure in Sweden amounts to 4 - 6 TWh. Within the agriculture there is moreover a big potential in the form of residues from plant cultivation and non-food crops (approximately 7 TWh) that can to be used for biogas production. The potential for biogas production from only residues and manure is around 8-10 TWh. An increased biogas production within the agriculture would give significant environmental effects. Among other things manure, that today is leaking methane gas to the atmosphere, can be fermented, and trough this process the methane losses will be reduced. When the produced biogas replaces fossil fuel, an overall environmental effect will be reached, that is highly significant. This manual deals with biogas plants for agriculture and such plants that do not have extensive transports of different raw materials, as manure, wastes etc. One of the starting points for this manual's set-up is a course plan that Biogas Syd made for the courses they give to farmers, advisors and others. The manual illustrates important aspects in planning and construction of biogas plants, from raw material and technology to dimensioning of plant, use of biogas and planning of local gas grids. We also think it is important to illustrate the legislation that encompasses construction work and operation of a biogas plant. Investment costs are also illustrated, but the book does not give any extensive economic calculations, since we believe that such calculations need their own manual in the form of calculation examples, based on various conditions. The final section is called 'Biogas on farm - from idea to reality' where the entire process from analysis and pre-planning to monitoring and control of plant during operation is briefly described

  17. Informal work and formal plans: articulating the active role of patients in cancer trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Juul Dalsted

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Formal pathways models outline that patients should receive information in order to experience a coherent journey but do not describe an active role for patients or their relatives. The aim of this is paper is to articulate and discuss the active role of patients during their cancer trajectories.  Methods and theory: An in-depth case study of patient trajectories at a Danish hospital and surrounding municipality using individual interviews with patients. Theory about trajectory and work by Strauss was included.  Results: Patients continuously took initiatives to organize their treatment and care. They initiated processes in the trajectories, and acquired information, which they used to form their trajectories.  Patients presented problems to the healthcare professionals in order to get proper help when needed.  Discussion: Work done by patients was invisible and not perceived as work. The patients' requests were not sufficiently supported in the professional organisation of work or formal planning. Patients' insertion and use of information in their trajectories challenged professional views and working processes. And the design of the formal pathway models limits the patients´ active participation. When looking at integrated care from the perspective of patients, the development of a more holistic and personalized approach is needed. Introduction: Formal pathway models outline that patients should receive information in order to experience a coherent journey but do not describe an active role for patients or their relatives. The aim of this is paper is to articulate and discuss the active role of patients during their cancer trajectories. Methods and theory: An in-depth case study of patient trajectories at a Danish hospital and surrounding municipality using individual interviews with patients. Theory about trajectory and work by Strauss was included. Results: Patients continuously took initiatives to organize their

  18. Primary and secondary rewards differentially modulate neural activity dynamics during working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie M Beck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive control and working memory processes have been found to be influenced by changes in motivational state. Nevertheless, the impact of different motivational variables on behavior and brain activity remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The current study examined the impact of incentive category by varying on a within-subjects basis whether performance during a working memory task was reinforced with either secondary (monetary or primary (liquid rewards. The temporal dynamics of motivation-cognition interactions were investigated by employing an experimental design that enabled isolation of sustained and transient effects. Performance was dramatically and equivalently enhanced in each incentive condition, whereas neural activity dynamics differed between incentive categories. The monetary reward condition was associated with a tonic activation increase in primarily right-lateralized cognitive control regions including anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC, dorsolateral PFC, and parietal cortex. In the liquid condition, the identical regions instead showed a shift in transient activation from a reactive control pattern (primary probe-based activation during no-incentive trials to proactive control (primary cue-based activation during rewarded trials. Additionally, liquid-specific tonic activation increases were found in subcortical regions (amygdala, dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, indicating an anatomical double dissociation in the locus of sustained activation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These different activation patterns suggest that primary and secondary rewards may produce similar behavioral changes through distinct neural mechanisms of reinforcement. Further, our results provide new evidence for the flexibility of cognitive control, in terms of the temporal dynamics of activation.

  19. [Nursing images and representations concerning stress and influence on work activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzelmann, Renata da Silva; Passos, Joanir Pereira

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of this study were: to identify the representations related to working stress factors attributed by nursing professionals and to discuss the influence of those factors on their work activities. The investigation was developed through a descriptive study with a qualitative approach, using the premises of social representations. The performed studies were used as the framework for the analyses. Data collection was performed using individual semi-structured interviews. The content analysis technique was used to understand the images as representations of nursing workers, the meaning of the stressing factors and their influence on occupational activity. The studied population regularly faces the lack of appropriate working conditions, the scarcity of human and material resources and untrained personnel; Nursing workers feel dissatisfied and present mental and physical fatigue, which are situations that may cause stress when performing occupational activities.

  20. The importance of work or productive activity in life care planning and case management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Christine; Riddick-Grisham, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: The importance of work or productive activity for the well-being, community integration, and quality of life of people living with disabilities is addressed, with implications for life care planning and case management. BACKGROUND: The role of work or productive activity in our society, and consequences of deprivation if rehabilitation services do not address vocational effects of disabilities, is explored. A continuum of productivity options is introduced; types of vocational rehabilitation assessment processes and interventions are described. PURPOSE: The role of vocational rehabilitation services in life care planning and case management is discussed, focusing on quality of life for people living with disabilities. CONCLUSION: Rehabilitation and health care professionals should understand the importance of work or other productive activity, and support the development of appropriate plans to address those needs among people who have disabilities. PMID:26409330

  1. Effects of a worksite physical activity intervention for hospital nurses who are working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Sharon J; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M; Murphy, Justyne N; Thompson, Warren G; Weymiller, Audrey J; Lohse, Christine; Levine, James A

    2011-09-01

    Hospital nurses who are working mothers are challenged to maintain their personal health and model healthy behaviors for their children. This study aimed to develop and test an innovative 10-week worksite physical activity intervention integrated into the work flow of hospital-based nurses who were mothers. Three volunteer adult medical-surgical nursing units participated as intervention units. Fifty-eight nurses (30 intervention and 28 control) provided baseline and post-intervention repeated measurements of physical activity (steps) and body composition. Intervention participants provided post-intervention focus group feedback. For both groups, daily steps averaged more than 12,400 at baseline and post-intervention. No significant effects were found for physical activity; significant effects were found for fat mass, fat index, and percent fat (p working mothers. Future research is warranted with a larger sample, longer intervention, and additional measures.

  2. Learning activities in a political context - development of the working environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledskov, Annette

    2002-01-01

    are identified – ‘the politically actors’ and ‘the translator’. When facilitating learning activities in the management of work environment it is necessary to be aware of this political nature of the actions .In understanding learning in the management of work environment it is beneficial to look at the concept...... of “communities of practice”, to understand under which conditions the actors are learning and developing new methods....

  3. Health care costs, work productivity and activity impairment in non-malignant chronic pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Christian; Handberg, Gitte; Axelsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the costs of non-malignant chronic pain in patients awaiting treatment in a multidisciplinary pain clinic in a hospital setting. Health care costs due to chronic pain are particular high during the first year after pain onset, and remain high compared with health care costs...... before pain onset. The majority of chronic pain patients incur the costs of alternative treatments. Chronic pain causes production losses at work, as well as impairment of non-work activities....

  4. Wind farm models and control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Iov, F.;

    2005-01-01

    models for a fixed speed wind turbine with active stall control and a variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator. After that, the 3 wind farm concepts and control strategies are described.The 3 concepts are AC connected doubly fed turbines, AC connected active stall turbines and DC......This report describes models and control strategies for 3 different concepts of wind farms. Initially, the potential in improvement of grid integration, structural loads and energy production is investigated in a survey of opportunities. Then simulationmodels are described, including wind turbine...

  5. Work group I: Measures of the food and physical activity environment: instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelens, Brian E; Glanz, Karen

    2009-04-01

    A work group was convened to identify the core challenges, content gaps, and corresponding possible solutions for improving food- and physical activity-environment instrumentation. Identified challenges included instrument proliferation, the scaling or grain of instruments and appropriate aggregation to the neighborhood or community level, and unknown sensitivity to change of most instruments. Solutions for addressing these challenges included establishing an interactive and real-time instrument repository, developing and enforcing high standards for instrument reporting, increasing community-researcher collaborations, and implementing surveillance of food and physical activity environment. Solid instrumentation will accelerate a better understanding of food- and physical activity-environment effects on eating and physical activity behaviors.

  6. An autonomous weeding robot for organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.; Asselt, van C.J.; Bontsema, J.; Müller, J.; Straten, van G.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is the replacement of hand weeding in organic farming by a device working autonomously at ¯eld level. The autonomous weeding robot was designed using a structured design approach, giving a good overview of the total design. A vehicle was developed with a diesel engine,

  7. An autonomous weeding robot for organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.; Asselt, van C.J.; Bontsema, J.; Müller, J.; Straten, van G.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is the replacement of hand weeding in organic farming by a device working autonomously at ¯eld level. The autonomous weeding robot was designed using a structured design approach, giving a good overview of the total design. A vehicle was developed with a diesel engine,

  8. In allergic rhinitis, work, classroom and activity impairments are weakly related to other outcome measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillier, P; Bousquet, J; Salvator, H; Naline, E; Grassin-Delyle, S; de Beaumont, O

    2016-11-01

    The impact of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinitis (AR) on classroom/work productivity and activities can be assessed with a specific instrument: the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire plus Classroom Impairment Questions: Allergy Specific (WPAI-AS). This study evaluated the relationships between the WPAI-AS and other outcome measures in AR. Adolescents (aged 12-17) and adults (aged 18-65) consulting specialists for AR were enrolled in a four-week, multicentre, observational study. The management of AR was left to the physicians' discretion. Participants regularly rated the WPAI-AS, their symptoms (using the Rhinoconjunctivitis Total Symptom Score (RTSS) and a 0- to 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS)) and quality of life (according to the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ)). A total of 247 adolescents and 292 adults showed similar baseline impairments in classroom/work productivity and activities other than work. In both age groups, the WPAI-AS scores were moderately correlated with the RQLQ score and, to a lesser extent, with the VAS score and the RTSS. A multiple regression analysis indicated that the RQLQ score was a weak but statistically significant predictor of both impaired work/classroom productivity and daily activities. A 50-mm VAS cut-off categorized patients in whom AR had the greatest impact on productivity. Grass pollen-induced AR impairs work/classroom and daily activity to a similar extent in adults and adolescents. The weak-to-moderate correlations with AR symptom scores and quality-of-life scores suggest that a specific tool (such as the WPAI-AS) should be used to assess AR's impact on word/classroom productivity and daily activities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Calculating Program for Decommissioning Work Productivity based on Decommissioning Activity Experience Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Seung-Kook; Park, Hee-Seong; Moon, Jei-kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist.

  10. EVALUATION OF THE WORK CONDITIONS OF ACTIVITIES OF URBAN TREE PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton César Fiedler

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available this work analyzed the work environment in the trees pruning activities in the urban arborization, comparison with the values of the legislation and the practical application of results to provide a better comfort, security, health, welfare to workers, and also a better efficiency and quality of the work. The weather conditions, the noise levels, the light conditions and vibration were analyzed using suitable ergonomic methods. The weather conditions in the work environment were according the permissible values in the legislation (NR15 for index of humid bulb and globe thermometer (IBUTG of 25°C for the activities of pruning, with exception of the schedule to twelve hours (26,2°C, the hours of working should be of 30 minutes of work and 30 minutes of rest. The noise levels found in the activities of cut were 105,7 dB (A and bucking were 103.9 dB (A, above the level permited by legislation (NR15. The minimum light conditions values were acceptable for legislation (NBR 5413/92, but the global indices were too high being able to cause problems to the worker health. The vibration conditions were acceptable.

  11. Association of Occupational and Leisure-Time Physical Activity with Aerobic Capacity in a Working Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundwiler, Jonas; Schüpbach, Ulla; Dieterle, Thomas; Leuppi, Jörg Daniel; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Wolfer, David Paul; Miedinger, David; Brighenti-Zogg, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Objective data on the association of maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) with work related physical activity are sparse. Thus, it is not clear whether occupational physical activity (OPA) contributes to an increase of VO2max. This study examined the association of VO2max with work and non-work related physical activity in a Swiss working population. Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 337 healthy and full-time employed adults were recruited. Demographic data, height, weight and BMI were recorded in all subjects. Participants were classified into nine occupational categories (ISCO-88) and merged into three groups with low, moderate, and high OPA. Physical activity was objectively measured by the SenseWear Mini Armband on seven consecutive days (23 hours per day). Participants were regarded as sufficiently active when accumulating ≥30 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day. VO2max was evaluated using the multistage 20-meter shuttle run test. Results Data of 303 participants were considered for analysis (63% male, age 33 yrs, SD 12). Multiple linear regression analysis (adjusted R2 = 0.69) revealed significant positive associations of VO2max with leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) at vigorous intensity (β = 0.212) and sufficient moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (β = 0.100) on workdays. Female gender (β = -0.622), age (β = -0.264), BMI (β = -0.220), the ratio of maximum to resting heart rate (β = 0.192), occupational group (low vs. high OPA, β = -0.141), and smoking (β = -0.133) were also identified as independent predictors of VO2max. Conclusions The present results suggest that VO2max is positively associated with LTPA, but not with OPA on workdays. This finding emphasizes the need for employees to engage in sufficient high-intensity physical activity in recreation for maintaining or improving VO2max with regard to health benefits. PMID:28045939

  12. Applying activity theory to computer-supported collaborative learning and work-based activities in corporate settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Margaryan, Anoush

    2004-01-01

    Business needs in many corporations call for learning outcomes that involve problem solutions, and creating and sharing new knowledge within worksplace situation that may involve collaboration among members of a team. We argue that work-based activities (WBA) and computer-supported collaborative lea

  13. Applying Activity Theory to Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning and Work-Based Activities in Corporate Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Betty; Margaryan, Anoush

    2004-01-01

    Business needs in many corporations call for learning outcomes that involve problem solutions, and creating and sharing new knowledge within workplace situations that may involve collaboration among members of a team. We argue that work-based activities (WBA) and computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) are appropriate components for…

  14. Facilitating Active Engagement of the University Student in a Large-Group Setting Using Group Work Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, Gemma K.; Mahon, Catherine; Lillis, Seamus

    2017-01-01

    It is envisaged that small-group exercises as part of a large-group session would facilitate not only group work exercises (a valuable employability skill), but also peer learning. In this article, such a strategy to facilitate the active engagement of the student in a large-group setting was explored. The production of student-led resources was…

  15. Beyond a man's world: contributions from considering gender in the study of bus drivers' work activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Liliana; Nogueira, Sónia; Lacomblez, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Bus driving is a typically male occupation undergoing a process of feminization. Although men remain a majority, women's integration has raised some questions, namely, related to work organization or its impact on health. This paper focuses on the contributions of assuming a gender perspective in the analysis of the bus driving occupation and the conditions under which it is performed. Twenty female and 158 male bus drivers. Qualitative and quantitative approaches were combined. Ergonomic work analysis and individual interviews were used, as well as INSAT (Work and Health Questionnaire). Difficulties inherent to the work activity were highlighted, in terms of working hours and management of "peripheral tasks", with implications for the balance between professional and personal life. These difficulties were reported differently by men and women, although both made themselves clear about the impact on their career and health. Taking gender into consideration has enabled an enrichment of the questions that guide the analysis of this work activity, and contributed to a new perspective on the work performed by this occupational group as well as a new approach to study the history of the transport industry by proposing as focus of analysis issues related to "gender mobility".

  16. AN EVALUATION OF HANFORD SITE TANK FARM SUBSURFACE CONTAMINATION FY2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F.M.

    2007-07-10

    The Tank Farm Vadose Zone (TFVZ) Project conducts activities to characterize and analyze the long-term environmental and human health impacts from tank waste releases to the vadose zone. The project also implements interim measures to mitigate impacts, and plans the remediation of waste releases from tank farms and associated facilities. The scope of this document is to report data needs that are important to estimating long-term human health and environmental risks. The scope does not include technologies needed to remediate contaminated soils and facilities, technologies needed to close tank farms, or management and regulatory decisions that will impact remediation and closure. This document is an update of ''A Summary and Evaluation of Hanford Site Tank Farm Subsurface Contamination''. That 1998 document summarized knowledge of subsurface contamination beneath the tank farms at the time. It included a preliminary conceptual model for migration of tank wastes through the vadose zone and an assessment of data and analysis gaps needed to update the conceptual model. This document provides a status of the data and analysis gaps previously defined and discussion of the gaps and needs that currently exist to support the stated mission of the TFVZ Project. The first data-gaps document provided the basis for TFVZ Project activities over the previous eight years. Fourteen of the nineteen knowledge gaps identified in the previous document have been investigated to the point that the project defines the current status as acceptable. In the process of filling these gaps, significant accomplishments were made in field work and characterization, laboratory investigations, modeling, and implementation of interim measures. The current data gaps are organized in groups that reflect Components of the tank farm vadose zone conceptual model: inventory, release, recharge, geohydrology, geochemistry, and modeling. The inventory and release components address

  17. Farm and rural adolescents′ perspective on hearing conservation: Reports from a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Anne S Rosemberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of rural and farm adolescents regarding hearing conservation strategies. This qualitative study took place at two high schools in rural Michigan. Twenty-five adolescents living and working on farms or living in rural areas participated in one of two focus groups. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed by two researchers and checked by an additional researcher to ensure reliability. Noise exposure was ubiquitous among participants, both in farm-related (e.g., equipment, livestock and non-farm-related (e.g., music, firearms activities. Perceived barriers to use of hearing protection devices outweighed perceived benefits, resulting in uncommon use of protection. When hearing protection was used, it was usually earmuffs or earplugs. Participants indicated a lack of training in noise hazards and protective strategies. Despite their acknowledged risk of hearing loss, participants did not associate their use of hearing protection today with their hearing ability later in life. Categories emerging that relate to hearing protector use included: Barriers, benefits, self-efficacy, situational influences, impersonal influences, cues to action, susceptibility, and severity. Farm and rural adolescents are at risk for noise exposure and hearing loss. The findings stress the significance of work environment and adult modeling in facilitating hearing conservation behaviors. As indicated by the youths′ recommendations, school-based interventions may be an effective approach to address this health concern. Intervention studies are needed to test various approaches that can effectively promote use of hearing conservation strategies among rural and farm adolescents.

  18. Farm and rural adolescents' perspective on hearing conservation: reports from a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S; McCullagh, Marjorie C; Nordstrom, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of rural and farm adolescents regarding hearing conservation strategies. This qualitative study took place at two high schools in rural Michigan. Twenty-five adolescents living and working on farms or living in rural areas participated in one of two focus groups. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed by two researchers and checked by an additional researcher to ensure reliability. Noise exposure was ubiquitous among participants, both in farm-related (e.g., equipment, livestock) and non-farm-related (e.g., music, firearms) activities. Perceived barriers to use of hearing protection devices outweighed perceived benefits, resulting in uncommon use of protection. When hearing protection was used, it was usually earmuffs or earplugs. Participants indicated a lack of training in noise hazards and protective strategies. Despite their acknowledged risk of hearing loss, participants did not associate their use of hearing protection today with their hearing ability later in life. Categories emerging that relate to hearing protector use included: Barriers, benefits, self-efficacy, situational influences, impersonal influences, cues to action, susceptibility, and severity. Farm and rural adolescents are at risk for noise exposure and hearing loss. The findings stress the significance of work environment and adult modeling in facilitating hearing conservation behaviors. As indicated by the youths' recommendations, school-based interventions may be an effective approach to address this health concern. Intervention studies are needed to test various approaches that can effectively promote use of hearing conservation strategies among rural and farm adolescents.

  19. 20 CFR 667.274 - What health and safety standards apply to the working conditions of participants in activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... working conditions of participants in activities under title I of WIA? 667.274 Section 667.274 Employees... and safety standards apply to the working conditions of participants in activities under title I of... working conditions of employees are equally applicable to working conditions of participants engaged...

  20. Cross-modal activation of auditory regions during visuo-spatial working memory in early deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Qin, Wen; Liang, Meng; Ming, Dong; Wan, Baikun; Li, Qiang; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-09-01

    Early deafness can reshape deprived auditory regions to enable the processing of signals from the remaining intact sensory modalities. Cross-modal activation has been observed in auditory regions during non-auditory tasks in early deaf subjects. In hearing subjects, visual working memory can evoke activation of the visual cortex, which further contributes to behavioural performance. In early deaf subjects, however, whether and how auditory regions participate in visual working memory remains unclear. We hypothesized that auditory regions may be involved in visual working memory processing and activation of auditory regions may contribute to the superior behavioural performance of early deaf subjects. In this study, 41 early deaf subjects (22 females and 19 males, age range: 20-26 years, age of onset of deafness deaf subjects exhibited faster reaction times on the spatial working memory task than did the hearing controls. Compared with hearing controls, deaf subjects exhibited increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the recognition stage. This increased activation amplitude predicted faster and more accurate working memory performance in deaf subjects. Deaf subjects also had increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the maintenance stage and in the right superior temporal gyrus during the encoding stage. These increased activation amplitude also predicted faster reaction times on the spatial working memory task in deaf subjects. These findings suggest that cross-modal plasticity occurs in auditory association areas in early deaf subjects. These areas are involved in visuo-spatial working memory. Furthermore, amplitudes of cross-modal activation during the maintenance stage were positively correlated with the age of onset of hearing aid use and were negatively correlated with the percentage of lifetime hearing aid use in deaf subjects. These findings suggest that earlier and longer hearing aid use may

  1. Radical heterosexuality: Straight teacher activism in schools : Does ally-led activism work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Potvin

    2016-06-01

    Here, I explore the efficacy of straight teacher allies, the importance of understanding straight privilege, and the significance of radical heterosexuality for straight people doing LGBTQ activism. Relying on queer theory and decolonizing/Indigenous queer theory, I argue that it is necessary for straight teachers to acknowledge their straight privilege in order to challenge homophobia's companions: heterosexism and heteronormativity. In addressing the latter two covert forms of oppression in schools, teachers and students could shift into deeper, more effective resistance measures.

  2. Farming for a Better Climate by Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions (FarmClim)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Barbara; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Schröck, Andrea; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kasper, Martina; Sigmund, Elisabeth; Schaller, Lena; Moser, Tobias; Baumgarten, Andreas; Dersch, Georg; Zethner, Gerhard; Anderl, Michael; Kitzler, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    The project FarmClim (Farming for a better climate) assesses impacts of agriculture on N and GHG fluxes in Austria and proposes measures for improving N efficiency and mitigating emissions, including their economic assessment. This paper focuses on animal husbandry and crop production measures, and on N2O emissions from soils. FarmClim applies national inventory reporting methods to assess Austrian NH3 and GHG fluxes in order to develop flux estimates with implementation of mitigation measures. Based on scientific literature and on the outcome of the Austrian working group agriculture and climate protection a list of potential mitigation measures has been produced: phase feeding, dairy cattle diet, biogas production. Data cover resulting production levels as well as GHG mitigation. In crop production, an optimisation potential remains with respect to N fertilization and nutrient uptake efficiency. Projected regional yield data and information on the N content of arable crops have been delivered from field experiments. These data complement official statistics and allow assessing the effect of increasing proportions of legume crops in crop rotations and reducing fertilizer input on a regional scale. Economic efficiency of measures is a crucial factor for their future implementation on commercial farms. The economic model evaluates investment costs as well as changes in direct costs, labour costs and economic yield. Biophysical modelling with Landscape DNDC allows establishing a framework to move from the current approach of applying the IPCC default emission factor for N2O emissions from soils. We select two Austrian model regions to calculate N fluxes taking into account region and management practices. Hot spots and hot moments as well as mitigation strategies are identified. Two test regions have been identified for soil emission modelling. The Marchfeld is an intensively used agricultural area in North-East Austria with very fertile soils and dry climate. The

  3. Volunteer Activity in the Context of Formation of Social Intellect of Future Specialists in Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsiana Sokolova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes such concepts as ”social intellect” and ”volunteer activity”; presents approaches to the definition of the phenomenon of volunteering. The author proves the possibilities of volunteer activity in the context of formation of social intellect of future specialists in social work, reveals the features of organization of students’ practical volunteer activity to form their social intellect.

  4. Environmental impacts of coastal fish farming; Carbon and Nitrogen budgets for trout farming in Kaldbacksfjord, Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordi, Gunnvor A; Glud, Ronnie N.; Gaard, Eilif

    2011-01-01

    Flow of organic carbon (OC) and nitrogen through a sea cage trout farm was calculated on the basis of detailed studies of the farming operation, water circulation, OC and nutrient transport and recycling processes in sediment. A third of the OC and nitrogen provided by fish food was incorporated......% of nitrogen derived from fish food settled on the seabed, where it was either mineralized or accumulated in the sediment. Based on transect measurements of diagenetic activity, the farm footprint was found to cover an area similar to 10 times the farm area. OC mineralization in the sediment increased linearly...

  5. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  6. Technologies in organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    (pollution) and consequences for human health. Broader ideas about ecosystems and the recycling of nutrients between the agricultural sector and the urban population are notably absent. On the basis of these findings the paper concludes by discussing the relationship between the consumers’ values that guide......In organic farming a dilemma is posed by the heavy reliance on nutrients from conventional livestock farming. For Danish organic plant producers the influx of conventional nutrients accounts for up to 70% of their nutrients. Facing this problem, Danish organic farmers’ organizations have decided...

  7. Drew Goodman, Earthbound Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Drew Goodman is CEO and co-founder, with his wife, Myra, of Earthbound Farm, based in San Juan Bautista, California. Two years after its 1984 inception on 2.5 Carmel Valley acres, Earthbound became the first successful purveyor of pre-washed salads bagged for retail sale. The company now produces more than 100 varieties of certified organic salads, fruits, and vegetables on a total of about 33,000 acres, with individual farms ranging from five to 680 acres in California, Arizona, Washington, ...

  8. Pushing the limits. Chronotype- and time-of-day modulate working memory-dependent cerebral activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eSchmidt#

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Morning type individuals experience more difficulties to maintain optimal attentional performance throughout a normal waking day than evening types. However, time-of-day modulations may differ across cognitive domains. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we investigated how chronotype and time of day interact with working memory at different levels of cognitive load/complexity in a N-back paradigm (N0-, N2- and N3-back levels. Extreme morning and evening type individuals underwent 2 fMRI sessions during N-back performance, one 1.5 h (morning and one 10.5 h (evening after wake-up time scheduled according to their habitual sleep-wake preference. At the behavioural level, increasing working memory load resulted in lower accuracy, while chronotype and time of day only exerted a marginal impact on performance. Analyses of neuroimaging data disclosed an interaction between chronotype, time of day and the modulation of cerebral activity by working memory load in the thalamus and in the middle frontal cortex. In the subjective evening hours, evening types exhibited higher thalamic activity than morning types at the highest working memory load condition only (N3-back. Conversely, morning type individuals exhibited higher activity than evening type participants in the middle frontal gyrus during the morning session in the N3-back condition. Our data emphasize inter-individual differences in time-of-day preferences and underlying cerebral activity, which should be taken into account when investigating vigilance state effects in task-related brain activity. These results support the hypothesis that higher task complexity leads to a chronotype-dependent increase in thalamic and frontal brain activity, permitting stabilization of working memory performance across the day.

  9. Lower extremity injuries sustained while farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Janice A

    2002-01-01

    Today's complex farm environment can pose many threats to the lower extremities of all people especially those with chronic diseases that affect the lower extremities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of injuries to the lower extremities among farmers and to rank the importance of these incidents in order to plan prevention programs. one hundred farmers were surveyed at a large farm show in the southeastern United States. An average of 4.86 injuries per farmer were reported. Blisters from work shoes or boots, followed by injuries from animals stepping on the feet were the most common injuries. Since those with chronic illnesses are especially prone to injury and disability, regular foot assessments, evaluation, and education about the hazards of farming are mainstays of prevention.

  10. The use of ‘ecological risk‘ for assessing effects of human activities: an example including eutrophication and offshore wind farm construction in the North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Nunneri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes the move from the uncertainty surrounding ecosystem thresholds and addresses the issue of ecosystem-state assessment by means of ecological integrity indicators and ‘ecological risk‘. The concept of ‘ecological risk‘ gives a measure of the likelihood of ecosystem failure to provide the level of natural ecological goods and services expected/desired by human societies. As a consequence of human pressures (use of resources and discharge into the environment, ecosystem thresholds can be breached thus resulting in major threats to human health, safety and well-being. In this study we apply the concept of ‘ecological risk‘ to two case-studies in the German exclusive economic zone: eutrophication and construction of offshore wind farms. The effects of different future scenarios for single-uses upon ecosystem integrity are analysed as well as the effects of one combined scenario. We conclude that in the short term construction of offshore wind farms can influence some processes to a much larger degree than eutrophication, however, combined impacts deriving from eutrophication and offshore wind farm construction need a more detailed analysis. Due to non-linear ecosystem processes, effects of combined or multiple uses of marine resources in terms of ‘ecological risk‘, cannot be extrapolated from single-use scenarios.

  11. Effectiveness of physical activity programs at worksites with respect to work-related outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Staal, B.J.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Beek, A.J. van der; Mechelen, W. van

    2002-01-01

    This paper systematically reviews the literature on the effectiveness of physical activity programs at worksites with respect to work-related outcomes. A computerized literature search, a reference search, and a manual search of personal databases were performed using the following inclusion

  12. Effectiveness of physical activity programs at worksites with respect to work-related outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Staal, B.J.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Beek, A.J. van der; Mechelen, W. van

    2002-01-01

    This paper systematically reviews the literature on the effectiveness of physical activity programs at worksites with respect to work-related outcomes. A computerized literature search, a reference search, and a manual search of personal databases were performed using the following inclusion criteri

  13. Behavioural decisions of travel-time ratios for work, maintenance and leisure activities in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susilo, Y.S.; Dijst, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Using the 2005 Dutch National Travel Survey data-set this paper investigates the influences of socio-demographics, journey patterns and built environment factors on the ratio of travel time and activity duration that an individual spends when engaging in work, daily shopping, non-daily shopping

  14. What motivates older employees to be physically active at work? Using the Experience Sampling Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Mirka; van Velsen, Lex Stefan; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Boerema, Simone Theresa; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing retirement ages brings the challenge to keep our older employees sufficiently physically fit to perform their work. As a first step in the development of preventive strategies, this study investigates current (physical) activities, satisfaction and energy levels of older

  15. Behavioural decisions of travel-time ratios for work, maintenance and leisure activities in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susilo, Y.S.; Dijst, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Using the 2005 Dutch National Travel Survey data-set this paper investigates the influences of socio-demographics, journey patterns and built environment factors on the ratio of travel time and activity duration that an individual spends when engaging in work, daily shopping, non-daily shopping and

  16. Pile-up correction method for fission work with active targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroux, B.; Caitucoli, F.; Audouard, P.; Asghar, M.; Barreau, G.; Doan, T.P.; Sicre, A. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, 33 - Gradignan (France))

    1983-02-15

    A method which forms a part of a multiparametric set-up for fission work on very ..cap alpha..-particle active fissile targets is presented here. It helps to identify a piled-up fission event and to correct off-line for the amount of pile-up present. Some results are presented for the spontaneous fission of /sup 244/Cm.

  17. Electronic Learning Courses as a Means to Activate Students' Independent Work in Studying Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurygin, Viktor Yurjevich; Krasnova, Lyubov Alekseevna

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are special requirements to the system of higher education, focused not only on imparting knowledge to students, but also on the formation of the continuous need for independent self-education, self-creative approach to getting knowledge throughout their active life. In this regard, the role of students' independent work with its…

  18. Physical Activity and Relaxation During and After Work are Independently Associated With Need for Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffeng, J.K.; Sluijs, E.M. van; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Boot, C.R.L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:To study the associations between during and after work hours physical activity and relaxation and need for recovery (NFR) in office workers at a financial service provider. METHODS:Self-reported baseline data of 412 employees (mean age 41.3 years; 39.6% women) were used. Linear regressio

  19. Connecting Social Work and Activism in the Arts through Continuing Professional Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawdon, Kathryn; Moxley, David

    2016-01-01

    The authors place a continuing education conference devoted to linking the arts, social practice, and social work within the context of a movement to advance arts activism. They illustrate how social workers, artists, and community arts activists can collaborate in building public awareness about serious social issues, creating alternative…

  20. Pre-Service Teachers' Learning Styles and Preferences towards Instructional Technology Activities and Collaborative Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, Farrah Dina; Sumari, Melati

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate pre-service teachers' learning styles and their preferences with respect to 15 technology-based instructional activities and collaborative work tasks. Felder and Silverman's online Index of Learning Style (ILS) and a questionnaire were used to measure students' learning styles and…

  1. Working through: In-Session Processes that Promote Between-Session Thoughts and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jesse; Quirk, Kelley; Hilsenroth, Mark J.; Rodolfa, Emil

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether clients' ratings of the working alliance as well as their perception of cognitive-behavioral (CB) and psychodynamic-interpersonal (PI) techniques (delivered by therapists who used both) were associated with clients' intersession processes (i.e., their thoughts about therapy and therapeutic activity between sessions).…

  2. Effects of Cooperative Group Work Activities on Pre-School Children's Pattern Recognition Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarim, Kamuran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is twofold; to investigate the effects of cooperative group-based work activities on children's pattern recognition skills in pre-school and to examine the teachers' opinions about the implementation process. In line with this objective, for the study, 57 children (25 girls and 32 boys) were chosen from two private schools…

  3. Can Muscle Soreness After Intensive Work-related Activities Be Predicted?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, Remko; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; van der Schans, Cees P.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: It is currently unknown whether specific determinants are predictive for developing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) after heavy work-related activities. The aim of this study was to analyze whether personal characteristics and performance measures are predictive for onset, intensity

  4. Using Activity Theory to Understand How People Learn to Negotiate the Conditions of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthen, Helena

    2008-01-01

    In a typical workplace in the United States, two knowledge-producing activity systems are in motion. Each produces knowledge about how to do the work of that workplace, but they are differently motivated: one toward productivity, and the other toward earning a living. The conflict between these two systems is addressed through the process of…

  5. Impact of spinal pain on daily living activities in postmenopausal women working in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Raczkiewicz

    2017-03-01

    The impact of spinal pain on daily life activities in postmenopausal women working in agriculture was assessed as moderate, on average, and depended mainly on spinal pain-related characteristics, such as severity, age at onset and co-existence of pain in any other spinal sections

  6. Physical Activity and Relaxation During and After Work are Independently Associated With Need for Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffeng, J.K.; Sluijs, E.M. van; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Boot, C.R.L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:To study the associations between during and after work hours physical activity and relaxation and need for recovery (NFR) in office workers at a financial service provider. METHODS:Self-reported baseline data of 412 employees (mean age 41.3 years; 39.6% women) were used. Linear

  7. Behavioural decisions of travel-time ratios for work, maintenance and leisure activities in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susilo, Y.S.; Dijst, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Using the 2005 Dutch National Travel Survey data-set this paper investigates the influences of socio-demographics, journey patterns and built environment factors on the ratio of travel time and activity duration that an individual spends when engaging in work, daily shopping, non-daily shopping and

  8. Statement of work for the immobilized low-activity waste transportation system -- Project W-465

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouette, P.

    1998-06-19

    The objective of this Statement of Work (SOW) is to present the scope, the deliverables, the organization, the technical and schedule expectations for the development of a Package Design Criteria (PDC), cost and schedule estimate for the acquisition of a transportation system for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW).

  9. Dissociable Memory- and Response-Related Activity in Parietal Cortex during Auditory Spatial Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Alain

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Attending and responding to sound location generates increased activity in parietal cortex which may index auditory spatial working memory and/or goal-directed action. Here, we used an n-back task (Experiment 1 and an adaptation paradigm (Experiment 2 to distinguish memory-related activity from that associated with goal-directed action. In Experiment 1, participants indicated, in separate blocks of trials, whether the incoming stimulus was presented at the same location as in the previous trial (1-back or two trials ago (2-back. Prior to a block of trials, participants were told to use their left or right index finger. Accuracy and reaction times were worse for the 2-back than for the 1-back condition. The analysis of fMRI data revealed greater sustained task-related activity in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL and superior frontal sulcus during 2-back than 1-back after accounting for response-related activity elicited by the targets. Target detection and response execution were also associated with enhanced activity in the IPL bilaterally, though the activation was anterior to that associated with sustained task-related activity. In Experiment 2, we used an event-related design in which participants listened (no response required to trials that comprised four sounds presented either at the same location or at four different locations. We found larger IPL activation for changes in sound location than for sounds presented at the same location. The IPL activation overlapped with that observed during auditory spatial working memory task. Together, these results provide converging evidence supporting the role of parietal cortex in auditory spatial working memory which can be dissociated from response selection and execution.

  10. Informal work and formal plans: articulating the active role of patients in cancer trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsted, Rikke Juul; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Brostrøm Kousgaard, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Formal pathway models outline that patients should receive information in order to experience a coherent journey but do not describe an active role for patients or their relatives. The aim of this is paper is to articulate and discuss the active role of patients during their cancer...... trajectories. Methods and theory: An in-depth case study of patient trajectories at a Danish hospital and surrounding municipality using individual interviews with patients. Theory about trajectory and work by Strauss was included. Results: Patients continuously took initiatives to organize their treatment...... and care. They initiated processes in the trajectories, and acquired information, which they used to form their trajectories. Patients presented problems to the healthcare professionals in order to get proper help when needed. Discussion: Work done by patients was invisible and not perceived as work...

  11. Activities of the US-Japan Safety Monitor Joint Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard L. Savercool; Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-09-01

    This paper documents the activities of the US-Japan exchange in the area of personnel safety at magnetic and laser fusion experiments. A near-miss event with a visiting scientist to the US in 1992 was the impetus for forming the Joint Working Group on Fusion Safety. This exchnge has been under way for over ten years and has provided many safety insights for both US and Japanese facility personnel at national institutes and at universities. The background and activities of the Joint Working Group are described, including the facilities that have been visited for safety walkthroughs, the participants from both countries, and the main safety issues examined during visits. Based on these visits, some operational safety ideas to enhance experiment safety are given. The near-term future plans of the Safety Monitor Joint Working group are also discussed.

  12. Urban Farm Business Plan Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Urban Farm Business Plan Handbook (this document) provides guidance for developing a business plan for the startup and operation of an urban farm. It focuses on food and non-food related cultivated agriculture.

  13. Can cognitive activities during breaks in repetitive manual work accelerate recovery from fatigue? A controlled experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svend Erik Mathiassen

    Full Text Available Neurophysiologic theory and some empirical evidence suggest that fatigue caused by physical work may be more effectively recovered during "diverting" periods of cognitive activity than during passive rest; a phenomenon of great interest in working life. We investigated the extent to which development and recovery of fatigue during repeated bouts of an occupationally relevant reaching task was influenced by the difficulty of a cognitive activity between these bouts. Eighteen male volunteers performed three experimental sessions, consisting of six 7-min bouts of reaching alternating with 3 minutes of a memory test differing in difficulty between sessions. Throughout each session, recordings were made of upper trapezius muscle activity using electromyography (EMG, heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV using electrocardiography, arterial blood pressure, and perceived fatigue (Borg CR10 scale and SOFI. A test battery before, immediately after and 1 hour after the work period included measurements of maximal shoulder elevation strength (MVC, pressure pain threshold (PPT over the trapezius muscles, and a submaximal isometric contraction. As expected, perceived fatigue and EMG amplitude increased during the physical work bouts. Recovery did occur between the bouts, but fatigue accumulated throughout the work period. Neither EMG changes nor recovery of perceived fatigue during breaks were influenced by cognitive task difficulty, while heart rate and HRV recovered the most during breaks with the most difficult task. Recovery of perceived fatigue after the 1 hour work period was also most pronounced for the most difficult cognitive condition, while MVC and PPT showed ambiguous patterns, and EMG recovered similarly after all three cognitive protocols. Thus, we could confirm that cognitive tasks between bouts of fatiguing physical work can, indeed, accelerate recovery of some factors associated with fatigue, even if benefits may be moderate and some

  14. Can cognitive activities during breaks in repetitive manual work accelerate recovery from fatigue? A controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Hallman, David M; Lyskov, Eugene; Hygge, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Neurophysiologic theory and some empirical evidence suggest that fatigue caused by physical work may be more effectively recovered during "diverting" periods of cognitive activity than during passive rest; a phenomenon of great interest in working life. We investigated the extent to which development and recovery of fatigue during repeated bouts of an occupationally relevant reaching task was influenced by the difficulty of a cognitive activity between these bouts. Eighteen male volunteers performed three experimental sessions, consisting of six 7-min bouts of reaching alternating with 3 minutes of a memory test differing in difficulty between sessions. Throughout each session, recordings were made of upper trapezius muscle activity using electromyography (EMG), heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) using electrocardiography, arterial blood pressure, and perceived fatigue (Borg CR10 scale and SOFI). A test battery before, immediately after and 1 hour after the work period included measurements of maximal shoulder elevation strength (MVC), pressure pain threshold (PPT) over the trapezius muscles, and a submaximal isometric contraction. As expected, perceived fatigue and EMG amplitude increased during the physical work bouts. Recovery did occur between the bouts, but fatigue accumulated throughout the work period. Neither EMG changes nor recovery of perceived fatigue during breaks were influenced by cognitive task difficulty, while heart rate and HRV recovered the most during breaks with the most difficult task. Recovery of perceived fatigue after the 1 hour work period was also most pronounced for the most difficult cognitive condition, while MVC and PPT showed ambiguous patterns, and EMG recovered similarly after all three cognitive protocols. Thus, we could confirm that cognitive tasks between bouts of fatiguing physical work can, indeed, accelerate recovery of some factors associated with fatigue, even if benefits may be moderate and some responses may be

  15. High School Beef Farm is Career Education Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herren, Ray

    1976-01-01

    The beef farm at Gaylesville High School, Gaylesville, Alabama, has provided an opportunity for students to gain work experience in a variety of areas including construction, animal care, and packing plant procedures. (LH)

  16. The topography of alpha-band activity tracks the content of spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Joshua J; Sutterer, David W; Serences, John T; Vogel, Edward K; Awh, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is a system for the online storage of information. An emerging view is that neuronal oscillations coordinate the cellular assemblies that code the content of WM. In line with this view, previous work has demonstrated that oscillatory activity in the alpha band (8-12 Hz) plays a role in WM maintenance, but the exact contributions of this activity have remained unclear. Here, we used an inverted spatial encoding model in combination with electroencephalography (EEG) to test whether the topographic distribution of alpha-band activity tracks spatial representations held in WM. Participants in three experiments performed spatial WM tasks that required them to remember the precise angular location of a sample stimulus for 1,000-1,750 ms. Across all three experiments, we found that the topographic distribution of alpha-band activity tracked the specific location that was held in WM. Evoked (i.e., activity phase-locked to stimulus onset) and total (i.e., activity regardless of phase) power across a range of low-frequency bands transiently tracked the location of the sample stimulus following stimulus onset. However, only total power in the alpha band tracked the content of spatial WM throughout the memory delay period, which enabled reconstruction of location-selective channel tuning functions (CTFs). These findings demonstrate that alpha-band activity is directly related to the coding of spatial representations held in WM and provide a promising method for tracking the content of this online memory system.

  17. Persistent neural activity during the maintenance of spatial position in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimal, Riju; Curtis, Clayton E

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism for the short-term maintenance of information involves persistent neural activity during the retention interval, which forms a bridge between the cued memoranda and its later contingent response. Here, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify cortical areas with activity that persists throughout working memory delays with the goal of testing if such activity represents visuospatial attention or prospective saccade goals. We did so by comparing two spatial working memory tasks. During a memory-guided saccade (MGS) task, a location was maintained during a delay after which a saccade was generated to the remembered location. During a spatial item recognition (SIR) task identical to MGS until after the delay, a button press indicated whether a newly cued location matched the remembered location. Activity in frontal and parietal areas persisted above baseline and was greater in the hemisphere contralateral to the cued visual field. However, delay-period activity did not differ between the tasks. Notably, in the putative frontal eye field (FEF), delay period activity did not differ despite that the precise metrics of the memory-guided saccade were known during the MGS delay and saccades were never made in SIR. Persistent FEF activity may therefore represent a prioritized attentional map of space, rather than the metrics for saccades.

  18. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  19. NORCOWE Reference Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Graham, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Offshore wind farms are complex systems, influenced by both the environment (e.g. wind, waves, current and seabed) and the design characteristics of the equipment available for installation (e.g. turbine type, foundations, cabling and distance to shore). These aspects govern the capital and opera...

  20. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  1. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  2. An Activity-Centric Approach to Configuration Work in Distributed Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houben, Steven

    be distributed, fragmented and used across multiple devices and users. Second, I present a technical infrastructure and four applications that apply the concepts of activity configuration. The infrastructure is a general purpose platform for the design, development and deployment of distributed activitycentric....... In this dissertation, I explore an activity-centric approach to configuration work in distributed interaction. The central goal of this dissertation is to develop and apply concepts and ideas from Activity-Centric Computing to distributed interaction. Using the triangulation approach, I explore these concepts...... on a conceptual, empirical and technological level and present a framework and use cases for designing activitycentric configurations in multi-device information systems. The dissertation presents two major contributions: First, I introduce the term configuration work as an abstract analytical unit that describes...

  3. Persistent neural activity in the prefrontal cortex: a mechanism by which BDNF regulates working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Evan M; Woo, Newton H; Lu, Bai

    2008-01-01

    Working memory is the ability to maintain representations of task-relevant information for short periods of time to guide subsequent actions or make decisions. Neurons of the prefrontal cortex exhibit persistent firing during the delay period of working memory tasks. Despite extensive studies, the mechanisms underlying this persistent neural activity remain largely obscure. The neurotransmitter systems of dopamine, NMDA, and GABA have been implicated, but further investigations are necessary to establish their precise roles and relationships. Recent research has suggested a new component: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its high-affinity receptor, TrkB. We review the research on persistent activity and suggest that BDNF/TrkB signaling in a distinct class of interneurons plays an important role in organizing persistent neural activity at the single-neuron and network levels.

  4. Agro-ecological system analysis (AESA) and farm plannning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Nalunga, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Organic agriculture is based on knowledge, insight and whole farm approaches. The farming system must work for each farmer family. Crop rotation cycles must be based on planning ahead, sometimes more than 2 years, so that different elements of the farm can work together. Intercropping must be based...... on knowledge on which crops support each other. The surrounding nature must be considered in the planning, e.g. rainfall, animals in the environment, where some of them can be predators and some can eat the crops. Herbs and weeds can prove to be valuable sources of nutrients, medicine or bio-pesticides....

  5. Peer outreach work as economic activity: implications for HIV prevention interventions among female sex workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie George

    Full Text Available Female sex workers (FSWs who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers' economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers' relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers.

  6. Testicular damage and farming environments - An integrative ecotoxicological link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parelho, Carolina; Bernardo, Filipe; Camarinho, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Armindo Santos; Garcia, Patrícia

    2016-07-01

    The exposure to agrochemicals during farming activities affects the function of the reproductive system, as revealed by the increasing worldwide evidence of male infertility amongst farmers. The main objective of this study was to untangle the link between agricultural practices and male reproductive impairment due to chronic exposure to xenobiotics (such as agrochemicals) in conventional and organic farming environments. For this purpose, male wild mice (Mus musculus) populations from sites representing two distinct farming practices (conventional and organic farming systems) were used as bioindicators for observable effects of testicular damage, namely on a set of histological and cellular parameters: (i) relative volumetric density of different spermatogenic cells and interstitial space; (ii) damage in the seminiferous tubules and (iii) apoptotic cells in the germinal epithelium. Results showed that mice from the conventional farming site bioaccumulated higher Pb hepatic loads, while mice from the organic farming site tend to bioaccumulate higher Cd hepatic loads. In general, for the analyzed testicular damage related parameters, mice from the organic farming site showed a similar performance than mice from the reference site. Mice from the conventional farming site stood out not only by underperforming in most studied parameters, while displaying an association between Pb hepatic loads and the observed testicular structural and functional disruption, but also by the increased stress index (Integrated Biomarker Response value). This study highlights the potential damaging effects of conventional farming practices on testicular structure and function, under natural conditions, raising concern about ensuing fertility risks for farmers.

  7. Population pressure and farm fragmentation:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    small but farms are further fragmented into diminutive size fields due to ... terms of household characteristics; land use and performance indicators; technology adoption .... 'best' unit of measurement of farm size, and size of enterprises within farms will ..... less common, accounting for 18 percent (3 percent) and 10 percent (7.

  8. Differences in macrofaunal and seagrass assemblages in seagrass beds with and without seaweed farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklöf, J. S.; de la Torre Castro, M.; Adelsköld, L.; Jiddawi, N. S.; Kautsky, N.

    2005-05-01

    Since it was introduced to Zanzibar (Tanzania), seaweed farming has significantly contributed to local, socio-economic development. However, several investigations have shown impacts on the coastal environment near where the farms are located. As many seaweed farms are located on seagrass beds, there is a risk that seaweed farming could affect seagrass beds, and thereby disturb important ecosystem functions and the flow of ecological goods and services. This study compares characteristics of macrophytes (focusing on seagrasses), benthic macrofauna and sediment in seagrass beds, with and without seaweed farms, and a sand bank without vegetation in Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar. The results showed that seagrass beds underneath seaweed farms generally had less seagrass and macroalgae, finer sediment, lower sediment organic matter content and a reduced abundance and biomass of macrofauna, than seagrass beds without seaweed farms. Further, the macrofaunal community structure in seaweed farms showed more similarities to that on the sand bank than in the unfarmed seagrass beds. Most of the dissimilarity was attributable to Lucinidae (suspension-feeding bivalves), which were almost absent in the seaweed farms, resulting in the large difference in biomass between the seaweed farms and the unfarmed seagrass beds. When interpreted together with information from farmers, the observed pattern is believed to be caused by the seaweed farming activities. This indicates that more research is needed to establish the effects of seaweed farming on seagrass beds, and that more attention should be given to the location of farms and the choice of farming methods.

  9. Wind tunnel measurements of wake structure and wind farm power for actuator disk model wind turbines in yaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Michael; Bossuyt, Juliaan; Kang, Justin; Meyers, Johan; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-11-01

    Reducing wake losses in wind farms by deflecting the wakes through turbine yawing has been shown to be a feasible wind farm control approach. In this work, the deflection and morphology of wakes behind a wind turbine operating in yawed conditions are studied using wind tunnel experiments of a wind turbine modeled as a porous disk in a uniform inflow. First, by measuring velocity distributions at various downstream positions and comparing with prior studies, we confirm that the nonrotating wind turbine model in yaw generates realistic wake deflections. Second, we characterize the wake shape and make observations of what is termed a "curled wake," displaying significant spanwise asymmetry. Through the use of a 100 porous disk micro-wind farm, total wind farm power output is studied for a variety of yaw configurations. Strain gages on the tower of the porous disk models are used to measure the thrust force as a substitute for turbine power. The frequency response of these measurements goes up to the natural frequency of the model and allows studying the spatiotemporal characteristics of the power output under the effects of yawing. This work has been funded by the National Science Foundation (Grants CBET-113380 and IIA-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project). JB and JM are supported by ERC (ActiveWindFarms, Grant No. 306471).

  10. Animal Farm--A Lesson Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Susan

    1987-01-01

    Offers several suggestions for teaching George Orwell's "Animal Farm" to high school students. Included are strategies for (1) teaching themes of the story, (2) interpreting the story on several levels, (3) seeing the connections between language and politics, (4) using group activities, and (5) using visual aids. (JC)

  11. How does the workload and work activities of procedural GPs compare to non-procedural GPs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Deborah J; McGrail, Matthew R

    2017-08-01

    To investigate patterns of Australian GP procedural activity and associations with: geographical remoteness and population size hours worked in hospitals and in total; and availability for on-call DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: National annual panel survey (Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life) of Australian GPs, 2011-2013. Self-reported geographical work location, hours worked in different settings, and on-call availability per usual week, were analysed against GP procedural activity in anaesthetics, obstetrics, surgery or emergency medicine. Analysis of 9301 survey responses from 4638 individual GPs revealed significantly increased odds of GP procedural activity in anaesthetics, obstetrics or emergency medicine as geographical remoteness increased and community population size decreased, albeit with plateauing of the effect-size from medium-sized (population 5000-15 000) rural communities. After adjusting for confounders, procedural GPs work more hospital and more total hours each week than non-procedural GPs. In 2011 this equated to GPs practising anaesthetics, obstetrics, surgery, and emergency medicine providing 8% (95%CI 0, 16), 13% (95%CI 8, 19), 8% (95%CI 2, 15) and 18% (95%CI 13, 23) more total hours each week, respectively. The extra hours are attributable to longer hours worked in hospital settings, with no reduction in private consultation hours. Procedural GPs also carry a significantly higher burden of on-call. The longer working hours and higher on-call demands experienced by rural and remote procedural GPs demand improved solutions, such as changes to service delivery models, so that long-term procedural GP careers are increasingly attractive to current and aspiring rural GPs. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  12. Paid Work and Physical Activity Preserve Functional Capacity in Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lariane Mortean Ono MMSc

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence and association between functional disability and health conditions in elderly people. Method: A cross-sectional, population-based study with 1,705 elderly residents in urban region of Florianópolis, Brazil, from September 2009 to July 2010. The functional disability was classified according to the difficulty in accomplishing six basic activities of daily living. The crude and adjusted multinomial logistic regression was used to identify the associated factors. Results: The prevalence of mild functional disability was 38.9%, and it was positively associated with being female, older age, reporting four or more chronic diseases, overweight, and negative self-perception of health. High education and income, having paid work, and being physically active in leisure activities reduced the chance of presenting it. The prevalence of moderate/severe disability was 11.7% and positively associated with older age, presence of depressive symptoms, four or more chronic diseases, and negative self-perception of health. High education, paid work, and being physically active in leisure activities also reduced the chance of presenting moderate/severe disability. Conclusion: Being gainfully employed, having a high level of education, and being physically active in their leisure time reduced the chance of presenting disability. The negative self-perception of health was the factor that most increased the chance of presenting functional disability.

  13. Paid Work and Physical Activity Preserve Functional Capacity in Elderly People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Lariane Mortean; Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola; Confortin, Susana Cararo; d’Orsi, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and association between functional disability and health conditions in elderly people. Method: A cross-sectional, population-based study with 1,705 elderly residents in urban region of Florianópolis, Brazil, from September 2009 to July 2010. The functional disability was classified according to the difficulty in accomplishing six basic activities of daily living. The crude and adjusted multinomial logistic regression was used to identify the associated factors. Results: The prevalence of mild functional disability was 38.9%, and it was positively associated with being female, older age, reporting four or more chronic diseases, overweight, and negative self-perception of health. High education and income, having paid work, and being physically active in leisure activities reduced the chance of presenting it. The prevalence of moderate/severe disability was 11.7% and positively associated with older age, presence of depressive symptoms, four or more chronic diseases, and negative self-perception of health. High education, paid work, and being physically active in leisure activities also reduced the chance of presenting moderate/severe disability. Conclusion: Being gainfully employed, having a high level of education, and being physically active in their leisure time reduced the chance of presenting disability. The negative self-perception of health was the factor that most increased the chance of presenting functional disability. PMID:28138470

  14. Paid Work and Physical Activity Preserve Functional Capacity in Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lariane Mortean Ono MMSc

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence and association between functional disability and health conditions in elderly people. Method: A cross-sectional, population-based study with 1,705 elderly residents in urban region of Florianópolis, Brazil, from September 2009 to July 2010. The functional disability was classified according to the difficulty in accomplishing six basic activities of daily living. The crude and adjusted multinomial logistic regression was used to identify the associated factors. Results: The prevalence of mild functional disability was 38.9%, and it was positively associated with being female, older age, reporting four or more chronic diseases, overweight, and negative self-perception of health. High education and income, having paid work, and being physically active in leisure activities reduced the chance of presenting it. The prevalence of moderate/severe disability was 11.7% and positively associated with older age, presence of depressive symptoms, four or more chronic diseases, and negative self-perception of health. High education, paid work, and being physically active in leisure activities also reduced the chance of presenting moderate/severe disability. Conclusion: Being gainfully employed, having a high level of education, and being physically active in their leisure time reduced the chance of presenting disability. The negative self-perception of health was the factor that most increased the chance of presenting functional disability.

  15. Temporal structure in neuronal activity during working memory in Macaque parietal cortex

    CERN Document Server

    Pesaran, B; Sahami, M; Mitra, P; Andersen, R A

    2000-01-01

    A number of cortical structures are reported to have elevated single unit firing rates sustained throughout the memory period of a working memory task. How the nervous system forms and maintains these memories is unknown but reverberating neuronal network activity is thought to be important. We studied the temporal structure of single unit (SU) activity and simultaneously recorded local field potential (LFP) activity from area LIP in the inferior parietal lobe of two awake macaques during a memory-saccade task. Using multitaper techniques for spectral analysis, which play an important role in obtaining the present results, we find elevations in spectral power in a 50--90 Hz (gamma) frequency band during the memory period in both SU and LFP activity. The activity is tuned to the direction of the saccade providing evidence for temporal structure that codes for movement plans during working memory. We also find SU and LFP activity are coherent during the memory period in the 50--90 Hz gamma band and no consisten...

  16. Return to normal activities and work after living donor laparoscopic nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Dawn B; Jacobs, Cheryl; Berglund, Danielle; Wiseman, Jennifer; Garvey, Catherine; Gillingham, Kristen; Ibrahim, Hassan N; Matas, Arthur J

    2017-01-01

    Transplant programs inform potential donors that they should be able to return to normal activities within ~2 weeks and to work by 6 weeks after laparoscopic nephrectomy. We studied actual time. Between 10/2004 and 9/2014, 911 donors having laparoscopic nephrectomy were surveyed 6 months post-donation. Surveys asked questions specific to their recovery experience, including time to return to normal activities and work and a description of their recovery time relative to pre-donation expectations. Of the 911, 646 (71%) responded: mean age at donation was 43.5±10.6 years; 65% were female, 95% were white, 51% were biologically related to their recipient, and 83% reported education beyond high school. Of the 646 respondents, a total of 35% returned to normal activities by 2 weeks post-donation; 79% by 4 weeks post-donation; 94% by 5-6 weeks; however, 6% took >6 weeks. Of the 646, 551 (85%) were working for pay; of these, mean time to return to work was 5.3±2.8 weeks; median, 5 weeks. Of the 551, a total of 14% returned to work in 1-2 weeks, 46% by 3-4 weeks, and 76% by 5-6 weeks. Importantly, 24% required >6 weeks before returning to work with the highest rates for donors in manual labor or a skilled trade. Significantly longer return to work was reported by females (vs males; P=.01), those without (vs those with) post-high school education (P=.010, those with longer hospital stay (P=.01), and those with a postoperative complication (P=.02). Of respondents, 37% described their recovery time as longer than expected. During the donor informed consent process, additional emphasis on realistic expectations around recovery to baseline activities and return to work is warranted.

  17. Physical activities at work and risk of musculoskeletal pain and its consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Korshøj, Mette; Lagersted-Olsen, Julie;

    2013-01-01

    Among blue-collar workers, high physical work demands are generally considered to be the main cause of musculoskeletal pain and work disability. However, current available research on this topic has been criticised for using self-reported data, cross-sectional design, insufficient adjustment...... for potential confounders, and inadequate follow-up on the recurrent and fluctuating pattern of musculoskeletal pain. Recent technological advances have provided possibilities for objective diurnal field measurements of physical activities and frequent follow-up on musculoskeletal pain.The main aim...... of musculoskeletal pain among blue-collar workers....

  18. Impact of spinal pain on daily living activities in postmenopausal women working in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Owoc, Alfred; Sarecka-Hujar, Beata; Saran, Tomasz; Bojar, Iwona

    2017-03-22

    Postmenopausal women working in agriculture suffer from spinal pain for two overlapping reasons, the first is related to the menopause and the second to the specificity of rural work, which includes lifting heavy objects and changing weather conditions. Spinal pain affects the daily life of women as well as their ability to work. The objective of the study was to analyse the impact of spinal pain on activities of daily life in Polish postmenopausal women performing agricultural work. The study was conducted in 2016 in Poland and included 1,119 post-menopausal women living in rural areas and working in agriculture. The women assessed the severity of spinal pain in 3 sections: neck, thorax and lumbar. Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Oswestry Low Back Disability Index (ODI) questionnaires were used to assess the impact of spinal pain on daily life activities. Generalized linear models were estimated in statistical analyses. Postmenopausal women working in agriculture suffered most often from pain in the lumbar spine, less frequently in the neck, and the least in the thoracic. The most common was an isolated pain in only one section of the spine. Spinal pain disturbed the most the women's rest, standing, lifting objects, while sleep, concentration, and walking the least. The impact of spinal pain on the activities of daily life, on average, was moderate, and increased with greater pain severity, the earlier the age the pain started, the higher the body weight, the lower education level and if there was a co-existing pain in any of the other spine sections. The impact of spinal pain on daily life activities did not depend on age between 45-65, WHR, age at last menstruation, parity, and number and types of births. The impact of spinal pain on daily life activities in postmenopausal women working in agriculture was assessed as moderate, on average, and depended mainly on spinal pain-related characteristics, such as severity, age at onset and co-existence of pain in any

  19. Physical activity intervention effects on perceived stress in working mothers: the role of self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailey, Emily L; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Working mothers often report elevated stress, and efforts to improve their coping resources are needed to buffer the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study examined the impact of changes in physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-regulation across the course of a brief intervention on subsequent levels of stress in working mothers. Participants (N = 141) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control condition (2:1 ratio). The intervention was conducted in Illinois between March 2011 and January 2012 and consisted of two group-mediated workshop sessions with content based on social cognitive theory. Participants completed measures of physical activity, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and perceived stress at baseline, immediately postintervention, and 6-month follow-up. Stress levels declined across the 6-month period in both groups. Changes in stress were negatively associated with changes in self-efficacy and self-regulation among intervention participants only. Regression analyses revealed the intervention elicited short-term increases in physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-regulation, but only changes in self-efficacy predicted perceived stress at 6-month follow-up. These results suggest that enhancing self-efficacy is likely to improve working mothers' perceived capabilities to cope with stressors in their lives. Future interventions should continue to focus on increasing self-efficacy to promote improvements in physical activity and psychological well-being in this population.

  20. [Physical activity in adult working population: results from the European National Health Survey for Spain (2009)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado-Pérez, Carmen; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Cesar; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2015-11-01

    1) To describe physical activity in the Spanish adult working population aged 16-70 years in 2009, and 2) to describe the prevalence of physical activity according to socio-demographic features, self-perceived health status, co-morbidity, and lifestyle habits. An epidemiological population based descriptive study was conducted using individual data taken from the European Health Survey for Spain. Community. The number of subjects aged 16-70 years included in the study was 10,928 (5,628 women and 5,300 men). None. Physical activity and intensity were assessed from questions included in the interview-survey. An analysis was performed on the socio-demographic characteristics and self-rated physical and mental health, using multivariate logistic regression models. Not having a partner (OR 1.44; P<.001), have university studies (OR 1.62; P<.001), non-smoker (OR 1.50; P<.001), and taking medications (OR 1.22; P<.5) were a predictor of intense physical activity in men. The first 3 factors are equal for intense activity in women. In contrast, obesity (OR 0.58; P<.001), and 36-50 years (OR 0.68; P<.001) were factors related to low activity in men. Aged between 36-50 years (OR 1.26; P<.01), suffering≥2 co-morbid conditions (OR 1.30; P<.001), and non-smoker (OR 1.17; P<.5) were also associated with higher probability of reporting moderate physical activity in women. The positive mental health was significant for physical activity in both sexes (OR 1.01; P<.5). This study identified several factors that appear to influence physical activity in the Spanish adult working population, with potential implications for healthcare providers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.