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Sample records for farm htf geotechnical

  1. In-Tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and H-Tank Farm (HTF) geotechnical report, WSRC-TR-95-0057, Revision 0, Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    A geotechnical study has been completed in H-Area for the In-Tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and the balance of the H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. The study consisted of subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing, and engineering analyses. The purpose of these investigations is to evaluate the overall stability of the H-Area tanks under static and dynamic conditions. The objectives of the study are to define the site-specific geological conditions at ITP and HTF, obtain engineering properties for the assessment of the stability of the native soils and embankment under static and dynamic loads (i.e., slope stability, liquefaction potential, and potential settlements), and derive properties for soil-structure interaction studies. This document (Volume 4) contains the laboratory test results for the In-Tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and H-Tank Farm (HTF) Geotechnical Report.

  2. In-tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and H-Tank Farm (HTF) geotechnical report, WSRC-TR-95-0057, Revision 0, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    A geotechnical study has been completed in H-Area for the In-Tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and the balance of the H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. The study consisted of subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing, and engineering analyses. The purpose of these investigations is to evaluate the overall stability of the H-Area tanks under static and dynamic conditions. The objectives of the study are to define the site-specific geological conditions at ITP and HTF, obtain engineering properties for the assessment of the stability of the native soils and embankment under static and dynamic loads (i.e., slope stability, liquefaction potential, and potential settlements), and derive properties for soil-structure interaction studies.

  3. Geotechnical Field and Laboratory Investigation Procedures Pertinent to the Development of Commercial On-Shore Wind Farms in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Quille

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, both the Irish landscape and construction industry has seen a dramatic increase in the number of commercial on-shore wind farm developments. Geotechnicalfield and laboratory based testing procedures play a critical role in the development, design and construction of wind farms. A comprehensive knowledge of the ground conditionsand soil parameters prevailing across the development footprint are necessary to facilitate a site specific infrastructure and turbine foundation design; therefore, reducing associated construction risks and ensuring that an economic construction programme can be premeditated. This paper presents some geotechnical field and laboratory basedprocedures pertinent to both the development and design of commercial on-shore wind farms in Ireland. The various procedures are compared in terms of suitability of the testprocedure for the soil type encountered and geotechnical design soil parameters derived. Although each geotechnical site investigation scheme is both an iterative and uniqueprocess, a phased approach relating to a rough peat moor land typically encountered across wind farm sites in Ireland is presented.Keywords: Renewable Energy, Geotechnical, Site Investigation.

  4. Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) is a blow-down, non-vitiated (clean air) free-jet wind tunnel capable of testing large-scale, propulsion systems at Mach 5, 6,...

  5. Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) is a blow-down, non-vitiated (clean air) free-jet wind tunnel capable of testing large-scale, propulsion systems at Mach 5, 6,...

  6. Characterization of the March 2017 tank 10 surface sample (combination of HTF-10-17-30 AND HTF-10-17-31) and variable depth sample (combination of HTF-10-17-32 and HTF-10-17-33)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-19

    Two surface samples (HTF-10-17-30 and HTF-10-17-31) and two variable depth samples (HTF-10-17-32 and HTF-10-17-33) were collected from SRS Tank 10 during March 2017 and submitted to SRNL for characterization. At SRNL, the two surface samples were combined in one container, the two variable depth samples (VDSs) were combined in another container, and then the two composite samples were each characterized by a series of physical, ionic, radiological, and elemental analysis methods. The surface sample composite was characterized primarily for Tank Farm corrosion control purposes, while the VDS composite was characterized primarily for Tank Closure Cesium Removal (TCCR) purposes.

  7. GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOILS FOR FOREST ROADS: THE CASE OF MONTE ALEGRE FARM, BELONGING TO DURATEX S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cardoso Machado

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This research applied geotechnical tests to roads aiming at subsidizing the decision making process for improving theconstruction and maintenance patterns of access roads. In order to achieve this, characterization experiments (particle sizedistribution, specific weight of solids, consistence limits, compactation and CBR, in 13 samples of soils were done. The resultsindicated that, according to the technical specifications of DNER (1996, 2 samples of soils were classified as material forreinforcement of sandy soil, 11 as material to be used in road pavement sub-base and no one sample was considered appropriate for beingused in highways base. Therefore, evidencing the need of applying techniques that alter local soil properties, such as, chemical stabilization.

  8. Characterization of the tank 51 alternate reductant sludge batch 9 slurry sample (HTF-51-15-130)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-01

    Tank 51 slurry sample HTF-51-15-130 was collected following sludge washing at the Tank Farm. The sample was received at SRNL and then characterized in preparation for qualification of the alternate reductant Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) flowsheet. In this characterization, densities, solids distribution, elemental constituents, anionic constituents, carbon content, and select radioisotopes were quantified.

  9. Analytical Results from Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) Samples HTF-16-6 and HTF-16-40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-23

    Two samples from the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) were analyzed by SRNL, HTF-16-6 and HTF-16-40. Multiple analyses of these samples indicate a general composition almost identical to that of the Salt Batch 8-B feed and the Tank 21H sample results.

  10. ANALYSIS OF 2H-EVAPORATOR SCALE WALL [HTF-13-82] AND POT BOTTOM [HTF-13-77] SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.

    2013-06-21

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is planning to remove a buildup of sodium aluminosilicate scale from the 2H-evaporator pot by loading and soaking the pot with heated 1.5 M nitric acid solution. Sampling and analysis of the scale material has been performed so that uranium and plutonium isotopic analysis can be input into a Nuclear Criticality Safety Assessment (NCSA) for scale removal by chemical cleaning. Historically, since the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), silicon in the DWPF recycle stream combines with aluminum in the typical tank farm supernate to form sodium aluminosilicate scale mineral deposits in the 2Hevaporator pot and gravity drain line. The 2H-evaporator scale samples analyzed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) came from the bottom cone sections of the 2H-evaporator pot [Sample HTF-13-77] and the wall 2H-evaporator [sample HTF-13-82]. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) confirmed that both the 2H-evaporator pot scale and the wall samples consist of nitrated cancrinite (a crystalline sodium aluminosilicate solid) and clarkeite (a uranium oxy-hydroxide mineral). On “as received” basis, the bottom pot section scale sample contained an average of 2.59E+00 ± 1.40E-01 wt % total uranium with a U-235 enrichment of 6.12E-01 ± 1.48E-02 %, while the wall sample contained an average of 4.03E+00 ± 9.79E-01 wt % total uranium with a U-235 enrichment of 6.03E-01% ± 1.66E-02 wt %. The bottom pot section scale sample analyses results for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241 are 3.16E- 05 ± 5.40E-06 wt %, 3.28E-04 ± 1.45E-05 wt %, and <8.80E-07 wt %, respectively. The evaporator wall scale samples analysis values for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241 averages 3.74E-05 ± 6.01E-06 wt %, 4.38E-04 ± 5.08E-05 wt %, and <1.38E-06 wt %, respectively. The Pu-241 analyses results, as presented, are upper limit values. These results are provided so that SRR can calculate the equivalent uranium-235 concentrations for the NCSA. Results confirm that

  11. Analysis Of 2H-Evaporator Scale Wall [HTF-13-82] And Pot Bottom [HTF-13-77] Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.

    2013-09-11

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is planning to remove a buildup of sodium aluminosilicate scale from the 2H-evaporator pot by loading and soaking the pot with heated 1.5 M nitric acid solution. Sampling and analysis of the scale material has been performed so that uranium and plutonium isotopic analysis can be input into a Nuclear Criticality Safety Assessment (NCSA) for scale removal by chemical cleaning. Historically, since the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), silicon in the DWPF recycle stream combines with aluminum in the typical tank farm supernate to form sodium aluminosilicate scale mineral deposits in the 2H-evaporator pot and gravity drain line. The 2H-evaporator scale samples analyzed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) came from two different locations within the evaporator pot; the bottom cone sections of the 2H-evaporator pot [Sample HTF-13-77] and the wall 2H-evaporator [sample HTF-13-82]. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) confirmed that both the 2H-evaporator pot scale and the wall samples consist of nitrated cancrinite (a crystalline sodium aluminosilicate solid) and clarkeite (a uranium oxyhydroxide mineral). On ''as received'' basis, the bottom pot section scale sample contained an average of 2.59E+00 {+-} 1.40E-01 wt % total uranium with a U-235 enrichment of 6.12E-01 {+-} 1.48E-02 %, while the wall sample contained an average of 4.03E+00 {+-} 9.79E-01 wt % total uranium with a U-235 enrichment of 6.03E-01% {+-} 1.66E-02 wt %. The bottom pot section scale sample analyses results for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241 are 3.16E-05 {+-} 5.40E-06 wt %, 3.28E-04 {+-} 1.45E-05 wt %, and <8.80E-07 wt %, respectively. The evaporator wall scale samples analysis values for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241 averages 3.74E-05 {+-} 6.01E-06 wt %, 4.38E-04 {+-} 5.08E-05 wt %, and <1.38E-06 wt %, respectively. The Pu-241 analyses results, as presented, are upper limit values. For these two evaporator scale samples

  12. Characterizing lateral resolution of interferometers: the Height Transfer Function (HTF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerband, B.; Hetzler, J.

    2005-08-01

    The lateral resolution of an interferometer is limited mainly by the design of the optical arrangement as well as the size of the beam stop. For its characterization the MTF1,2 is not very useful. The height of a structure normal to the surface under test is transferred into a phase of a reflected wavefront. Since imaging mechanisms for intensity and phase are very different, we propose a Height Transfer Function (HTF) to describe the lateral resolution of interferometers. The HTF shows the quotient of the reconstructed and the original height of a sine-modulated surface structure as a function of the spatial frequency. The HTF can be measured with a test sample of varying periodical surface profiles and spacings. Simulations can be made using a combination of geometrical ray tracing and Fourier transformation techniques. Two different layouts of null systems for the test of an asphere are compared. A device to measure the HTF is shown along with results for a variety of different interferometers.

  13. Forensic geotechnical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, GL

    2016-01-01

    In this edited volume on advances in forensic geotechnical engineering, a number of technical contributions by experts and professionals in this area are included. The work is the outcome of deliberations at various conferences in the area conducted by Prof. G.L. Sivakumar Babu and Dr. V.V.S. Rao as secretary and Chairman of Technical Committee on Forensic Geotechnical Engineering of International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (ISSMGE). This volume contains papers on topics such as guidelines, evidence/data collection, distress characterization, use of diagnostic tests (laboratory and field tests), back analysis, failure hypothesis formulation, role of instrumentation and sensor-based technologies, risk analysis, technical shortcomings. This volume will prove useful to researchers and practitioners alike.

  14. Identity between rat htf and human xbp-1 genes: determination of gene structure, target sequence, and transcription promotion function for HTF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokura, K; Kishimoto, T; Tamura, T

    2000-01-11

    Hepatocarcinogenesis-related transcription factor (HTF) was originally isolated from rats in which the expression was enhanced in hepatocellular carcinomas. Rat HTF (rHTF) is structurally similar to human X-box-binding protein-1 (hXBP-1), and both factors are unique in respective genomes. A previous study showed that hXBP-1 mRNA is detectable ubiquitously but is enriched in the human liver as rHTF. In this study, we demonstrated the analogous exon-intron organization and significant sequence homology for rhtf and hxbp-1 genes. Alignment of amino acid sequences of rHTF and hXBP-1 revealed that all the characteristic motifs in rHTF were conserved in hXBP-1. Moreover, Southern blotting patterns provided with the rHTF and hXBP-1 probes were basically the same. These two genes were thus thought to belong to the same evolutional lineage. We determined the consensus binding sequence (CRCGTCA) for rHTF by CASTing, and it was found to be nearly the same as that for hXBP-1. Transactivation ability of rHTF was also demonstrated. The rhtf gene generates two types of mRNAs (2.0 kb and 2.5 kb), both of which encode identical rHTF protein. These transcripts had distinct transcription initiation sites. The 2.0 kb promoter, that was revealed by the transient luciferase assay, contained GC-box and CAAT-box. Sequences around the transcription initiation site for the 2.0 kb transcript were similar in rhtf and hxbp-1 genes. Our observations suggest that HTF is a rat homolog of hXBP-1.

  15. Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Rigby; M. Mrugala; G. Shideler; T. Davidsavor; J. Leem; D. Buesch; Y. Sun; D. Potyondy; M. Christianson

    2003-12-17

    The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce

  16. Geotechnical Description of Mineral Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasvári Tibor

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Performing various mineral deposits extraction methods requires thorough knowledge of the rock masses` geomechanical parameters. In the geotechnical description of mineral deposits there is proposed a methodical approarch at the collection, registration, and evaluation of rock masses` geological properties for geotechnics being applied within the mining industry.

  17. 78 FR 10163 - Notice of Availability of Draft Section 3116 Basis for Determination for Closure of H Tank Farm...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... River Operations Office, Aiken, SC 29802 (ATTN: H-Tank Farm Draft Basis). Alternatively, comments may.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The HTF is a 45-acre site, located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South...

  18. Mach 5 to 7 RBCC Propulsion System Testing at NASA-LeRC HTF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, H. Douglas; Thomas, Scott R.; Pack, William D.

    1996-01-01

    A series of Mach 5 to 7 freejet tests of a Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine were cnducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LERC) Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF). This paper describes the configuration and operation of the HTF and the RBCC engine during these tests. A number of facility support systems are described which were added or modified to enhance the HTF test capability for conducting this experiment. The unfueled aerodynamic perfor- mance of the RBCC engine flowpath is also presented and compared to sub-scale test results previously obtained in the NASA LERC I x I Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) and to Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis results. This test program demonstrated a successful configuration of the HTF for facility starting and operation with a generic RBCC type engine and an increased range of facility operating conditions. The ability of sub-scale testing and CFD analysis to predict flowpath performance was also shown. The HTF is a freejet, blowdown propulsion test facility that can simulate up to Mach 7 flight conditions with true air composition. Mach 5, 6, and 7 facility nozzles are available, each with an exit diameter of 42 in. This combination of clean air, large scale, and Mach 7 capabilities is unique to the HTF. This RBCC engine study is the first engine test program conducted at the HTF since 1974.

  19. SDZ HTF 919 stimulates canine colonic motility and transit in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A; Camilleri, M; Kost, L J; Metzger, A; Sarr, M G; Hanson, R B; Fett, S L; Zinsmeister, A R

    1997-03-01

    Effects of the nonbenzamide 5-hydroxytryptamine4 agonist SDZ HTF 919 on gastrointestinal motility are unclear. Our aim was to assess the in vivo effects on gastrointestinal and colonic transit of radiolabeled residue and on colonic phasic contractility. In six female dogs, transit was measured over a period of 2 days by radioscintigraphy and colonic motility was measured by pneumohydraulic perfusion manometry of the proximal and distal colon. SDZ HTF 919 was administered initially by bolus i.v. infusion, followed by s.c. injection 8 and 16 hr later. Doses tested were 0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg, and isotonic saline and vehicle served as controls in each dog. Stomach and small bowel transit was not significantly altered by SDZ HTF 919. Overall, i.v. SDZ HTF 919 accelerated colonic transit during the first 1 hr, compared with controls. These effects were significant even with the lowest dose of SDZ HTF 919. Responses to higher infusion doses were more variable. SDZ HTF 919 did not cause significant changes in quantitative pressure indices, such as amplitude or motor index, in the small bowel or colon. Prolonged postprandial colonic contractions, each lasting >30 sec, were noted after each i.v. agent and were significantly more frequent with the 0.03 mg/kg dose than with control (vehicle) treatment. Thus, SDZ HTF 919 accelerates canine colonic transit in vivo during the first 1 hr after i.v. administration. SDZ HTF 919 appears to be a promising agent for stimulation of mammalian colonic transit.

  20. Characterization of the March 2017 Tank 15 Waste Removal Slurry Sample (Combination of Slurry Samples HTF-15-17-28 and HTF-15-17-29)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-09

    Two March 2017 Tank 15 slurry samples (HTF-15-17-28 and HTF-15-17-29) were collected during the second bulk waste removal campaign and submitted to SRNL for characterization. At SRNL, the two samples were combined and then characterized by a series of physical, elemental, radiological, and ionic analysis methods. Sludge settling as a function of time was also quantified. The characterization results reported in this document are consistent with expectations based upon waste type, process knowledge, comparisons between alternate analysis techniques, and comparisons with the characterization results obtained for the November 2016 Tank 15 slurry sample (the sample collected during the first bulk waste removal campaign).

  1. Specificity of Geotechnical Measurements and Practice of Polish Offshore Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogumil Laczynski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As offshore market in Europe grows faster and faster, new sea areas are being managed and new ideas on how to use the sea potential are being developed. In North Sea, where offshore industry conducts intensive expansion since late 1960s, numerous wind farms, oil and gas platforms and pipelines have been put into operation following extensive research, including geotechnical measurement. Recently, a great number of similar projects is under development in Baltic Sea, inter alia in Polish EEZ, natural conditions of which vary from the North Sea significantly. In this paper, those differences are described together with some solutions to problems thereby arising.

  2. The Mothball, Sustainment, and Proposed Reactivation of the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) at NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Scott R.; Lee, Jinho; Stephens, John W.; Hostler, Robert W., Jr.; VonKamp, William D.

    2010-01-01

    The Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center s Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio, is the nation s only large-scale, non-vitiated, hypersonic propulsion test facility. The HTF, with its 4-story graphite induction heater, is capable of duplicating Mach 5, 6, and 7 flight conditions. This unique propulsion system test facility has experienced several standby and reactivation cycles. The intent of the paper is to overview the HTF capabilities to the propulsion community, present the current status of HTF, and share the lessons learned from putting a large-scale facility into mothball status for a later restart

  3. Seismic behaviour of geotechnical structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vinale

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with some fundamental considerations regarding the behaviour of geotechnical structures under seismic loading. First a complete definition of the earthquake disaster risk is provided, followed by the importance of performing site-specific hazard analysis. Then some suggestions are provided in regard to adequate assessment of soil parameters, a crucial point to properly analyze the seismic behaviour of geotechnical structures. The core of the paper is centered on a critical review of the analysis methods available for studying geotechnical structures under seismic loadings. All of the available methods can be classified into three main classes, including the pseudo-static, pseudo-dynamic and dynamic approaches, each of which is reviewed for applicability. A more advanced analysis procedure, suitable for a so-called performance-based design approach, is also described in the paper. Finally, the seismic behaviour of the El Infiernillo Dam was investigated. It was shown that coupled elastoplastic dynamic analyses disclose some of the important features of dam behaviour under seismic loading, confirmed by comparing analytical computation and experimental measurements on the dam body during and after a past earthquake.

  4. Investigation of Sensible and Latent Heat Storage System using various HTF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemkumar, N.; Karthikeyan, A.; Manoj, A.; Keerthan, J. S.; Stallan, Joseph Paul; Amithkishore, P.

    2017-05-01

    The objective of the work is investigating the latent heat storage system by varying heat transfer fluid (HTF). In this experiment, the effect of using different heat transfer fluids on the combined system is studied while using a low melting phase change material (PCM) i.e., paraffin wax. The heat transfer fluids chosen are water (low boiling fluid) and Therminol-66 (High boiling fluid). A comparison is made between the heat transfers by employing both the Heat transfer fluids. In the beginning, water is made to flow as the HTF and the charging process is undertaken followed by the discharging process by utilizing the different encapsulation materials namely, copper, aluminium and brass. These processes are then repeated for therminol-66 as HTF. At the end of the experiment it was concluded that even though therminol-66 enhances the latent heat storage capacity, water offers a higher sensible heat storage capacity, making it a better HTF for low melting PCM. Similar to above said process the experiments can be conducted for high and medium range melting point PCM with variation of HTF.

  5. New Developments in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Changwei; Su Tianbao; Zhang Jianjing; Du Lin

    2014-01-01

    Based on the review on the advances of several important problems in geotechnical seismic engineering, the authors propose the initial analysis theory of time-frequency-amplitude (known as TFA for short), in an effort to realize the organic combination of time and frequency information and develop a groundbreaking concept to the traditional idea in the geotechnical seismic engineering area.

  6. New Developments in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Changwei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the review on the advances of several important problems in geotechnical seismic engineering, the authors propose the initial analysis theory of time-frequency-amplitude (known as TFA for short, in an effort to realize the organic combination of time and frequency information and develop a groundbreaking concept to the traditional idea in the geotechnical seismic engineering area.

  7. Geotechnical properties of some organoclays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suat Akbulut; Z Nese Kurt; Seracettin Arasan; Yasemin Pekdemir

    2013-04-01

    The engineering characteristics of clay are dependant on its mineral and chemical structure. When the clay soils interacted with water, their volume and shear strength and compressibility properties change gradually. Large amount of decrease in terms of the shear strength of clay soils due to swelling is observed. In order to solve these problems, the stabilization of clay soils using chemical additives is a prevalent subject of research. In view of this, previous research studies have employed surface active surfactants to modify the fundamental properties of soft clays. In this study, surfactant–clay complexes (organoclays) were developed using a raw clay modification with four surfactants and their geotechnical properties were determined in laboratory conditions. Two of the surfactants are cationic (cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, denoted as CTAC and quaternised ethoxylated fatty amine, denoted as QEFA) and the others are anionic (linear alkylbenzene sulphonic acid, denoted as LABSA and sodium lauryl ether sulphate, denoted as SLES). The experimental results indicated that the geotechnical properties of organoclays show significant change when compared to those of natural clay. The specific gravities, unconfined compression strengths and maximum dry densities of all organoclays were decreased. Optimum moisture content and swelling pressure values were decreased in cationic surfactant modified clays. However, the optimum moisture content and swelling pressure values of anionic surfactant clays are increased. A direct shear test was performed to determine the shear strength of organoclays. The test results also showed that the internal friction angles of organoclays were increased. Additionally, the change in the hydraulic conductivity was found to be insignificant.

  8. The novel fluid loss additive HTF-200C for oil field cementing%新型固井降失水剂HTF-200C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭锦棠; 卢海川; 刘硕琼; 靳建州; 于永金

    2012-01-01

    The domestic fluid loss additives often have lower thermal stability and poor salt-tolerance and their comprehensive properties are not good enough. To solve the problems, a novel cement fluid loss additive HTF-200C. Which can resist high temperature and high salt content, was synthesized using the monomers of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propane sulphonic acid (AMPS), N, N-dimethyl acrylamide (DMAA) and a new compound with double carboxyl by the method of aqueous solution polymerization. The microstructural characterization and application performance of HTF-200C show that the polymer with the structure of all the monomers has an excellent thermal stability and strong salt tolerance, and can be used in 200 "C or in saturated brine. And the problem of the normal fluid loss additive being easy to hydrolyze due to high temperature can be solved with HTF-200C. What's more, it can also deal with the bulge of thickening curve in consistency test. The cement slurry prepared mainly by HTF-200C presents good comprehensive properties such as low filtration, high thermal stability, strong salt tolerance, rapid development of strength in low temperature, without far delayed solidification, short transit time during thickening process, and so on. The cementing job quality of Well Chengu 1-3 in the Liaohe Oilfield is excellent after it is used.%针对目前中国常规固井降失水剂抗温抗盐能力差、综合性能欠佳的问题,以2-丙烯酰胺基-2-甲基丙磺酸(AMPS)、N,N-二甲基丙烯酰胺(DMAA)、新型双羧基化合物为单体,采用水溶液自由基聚合的方法合成了耐盐、抗高温的共聚物型固井水泥降失水剂HTF-200C.HTF-200C微观结构表征和应用性能综合评价表明,各单体成功参与聚合,共聚物热稳定性良好;该降失水剂控失水耐温可达200℃,抗盐达饱和,可解决常规降失水剂高温下易水解、稠化实验“鼓包”等问题;以HTF-200C为主剂的水泥浆体系失水量低、抗盐耐温

  9. The NGDC Seafloor Sediment Geotechnical Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGDC Seafloor Sediment Geotechnical Properties Database contains test engineering properties data coded by students at NGDC from primarily U.S. Naval...

  10. Geotechnical Design Asssisted by Laboratory Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels; Dysli, Michel; Head, Ken H.;

    1997-01-01

    Eurocode 7 Part 2 is intended to serve as a reference document for the use of laboratory tests for geotechnical design. It covers the execution and interpretation of the most commonly used laboratory tests. The standard aims at ensuring that adequate quality is reached in the execution...... of laboratory tests and their interpretation. Within the framework of European Standardisation, Eurocode 7 Part 1 on the design of geotechnical structures was established. Complementary, Eurocode 7 Part 3 addresses field testing....

  11. Geotechnical Aspects of Explosive Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Shakeran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Explosive Compaction (EC is the ground modification technique whereby the energy released from setting off explosives in subsoil inducing artificial earthquake effects, which compact the soil layers. The efficiency of EC predominantly depends on the soil profile, grain size distribution, initial status, and the intensity of energy applied to the soil. In this paper, in order to investigate the geotechnical aspects, which play an important role in performance of EC, a database has been compiled from thirteen-field tests or construction sites around the world, where EC has been successfully applied for modifying soil. This research focuses on evaluation of grain size distribution and initial stability status of deposits besides changes of soil penetration resistance due to EC. Results indicated suitable EC performance for unstable and liquefiable deposits having particle sizes ranging from gravel to silty sand with less than 40% silt content and less than 10% clay content. However, EC is most effective in fine-to-medium sands with a fine content less than 5% and hydraulically deposited with initial relative density ranging from 30% to 60%. Moreover, it has been observed that EC can be an effective method to improve the density, stability, and resistance of the target soils.

  12. ANALYSES OF HTF-48-12-20/24 (FEBRUARY, 2012) AND ARCHIVED HTF-E-05-021 TANK 48H SLURRY SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.; Peters, T.

    2012-08-02

    Personnel characterized a Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) archived sample of Tank 48H slurry (HTF-E-05-021) in addition to the composite of samples HTF-48-12-20 and HTF-48-12-24, which were both retrieved in February 2012. The combined February 2012 sample is referred to as HTF-48-12-20/24 in this report. The results from these analyses are compared with Tank 48H samples analyzed in 2003, 2004, and 2005. This work supports the effort to demonstrate copper-catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) of organic content in this material. The principal findings with respect to the chemical and physical characteristics of the most recent sample are: (1) The measured potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) solid concentration is 1.76 wt %; (2) Titanium was in line with 2004 and 2005 slurry measurements at 897 mg/L, it represents 0.1535 {+-} 0.0012 wt % monosodium titanate (MST); (3) The measured insoluble solids content was 1.467 wt %; (4) The free hydroxide concentration in the Tank 48H filtrate sample (1.02 {+-} 0.02 M) is close to the Tank 48H limit (1.0 M); (5) Carbonate reported by total inorganic carbon (TIC, 1.39 {+-} 0.03 M) is more than double the concentrations measured in past (2003-2005) samples; (6) The soluble potassium content (measured at 286 {+-} 23 mg/L) in the filtrate is in line with all past measurements; and (7) The measured {sup 137}Cs concentration is 7.81E + 08 {+-} 3.9E + 07 dpm/mL of slurry (1.33 {+-} 5% Ci/gallon or 3.18E + 05 {+-} 5% curies of {sup 137}Cs in the tank) in the slurry which is in agreement with the 2005 report of 3.14E + 05 {+-} 1.5% curies of {sup 137}Cs in the tank. The filtrate {sup 137}Cs concentration is 2.57E + 07 {+-} 2.6E + 05 dpm/mL. This result is consistent with previous results. Significant analytical data are summarized in Table 1.

  13. Clinical pharmacodynamics of SDZ HTF 919, a new 5-HT4 receptor agonist, in a model of slow colonic transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, S; Kumle, A; Meier, R

    1997-11-01

    To explore the pharmacodynamic effects of the new promotile agent SDZ HTF 919, a selective partial 5-HT4 receptor agonist, in healthy subjects. A pharmacodynamic model was applied to prolong colonic transit by dietary means. Subsequently, the effects of twice-daily multiple doses of SDZ HTF 919 (1, 5, 25, and 100 mg) were investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group study with 12 subjects per dose level. The sequential design with three study periods of 7 days each included intake of a self-selected diet, a liquid formula diet with soluble fiber supplementation, and a fiber-supplemented diet together with either SDZ HTF 919 or placebo administration. Stool characteristics (frequency and consistency) and total colonic transit times (with use of radiopaque markers) were recorded in each study period. SDZ HTF 919 was well tolerated at all dose levels. The frequency of loose stool and headache increased with higher doses. After a fiber-supplemented diet intake, the median stool frequency decreased from 8 1/2-9 to 5-7 defecations per study period. SDZ HTF 919 in doses of 25 and 100 mg twice a day increased the stool frequency (p HTF 919 dose. A fiber-supplemented diet prolonged total colonic transit time in all groups by 45 hours on average. Twice-a-day administration of SDZ HTF 919 for 6 days in addition to a fiber-supplemented diet significantly shortened the total colonic transit time only at the 5 mg dose. The lack of effect at lower and higher SDZ HTF 919 doses suggests a biphasic dose-response relationship for total colonic transit time. The suitability of total colonic transit time measurements in healthy subjects as a surrogate marker should be confirmed by patient studies.

  14. Performance Improvement of Energy Storage System with nano-additivesin HTF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemkumar, N.; Karthikeyan, A.; Saravanakumar, B.; Jayaprabakar, J.

    2017-05-01

    This paper is intended to improve the heat transfer rate of thermal energy storage system with copper oxide (CuO) as nano-additivesin heat transfer fluid (HTF) by varying encapsulation materials. The experimentation is done with different encapsulating materials like copper, brass and aluminium. The results are analysed for their thermal performance characteristics during charging and discharging processes. D-Sorbitol and therminol-66 with CuO is used as PCM and HTF respectively. A comparison was made between the different encapsulations and it was found that copper encapsulation has higher efficient, storing and recovering energy. However, its high thermal conductivity promotes larger heat losses and its cost is also high on other side. So the economical use of encapsulation material is aluminium compared to other two materials.

  15. CFD analysis of supercritical CO2 used as HTF in a solar tower receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, M. I.; Fernández-Reche, J.

    2016-05-01

    The relative cost of a solar receiver can be minimized by the selection of an appropriate heat transfer fluid capable of achieving high receiver efficiencies. In a conventional central receiver system, the concentrated solar energy is transferred from the receiver tube walls to the heat transfer fluid (HTF), which passes through a heat exchanger to generate steam for a Rankine cycle. Thus, higher working fluid temperature is associated with greater efficiency in receiver and power cycle. Emerging receiver designs that can enable higher efficiencies using advanced power cycles, such as supercritical CO2 (s-CO2) closed-loop Brayton cycles, include direct heating of s-CO2 in tubular receiver designs capable of withstanding high internal fluid pressures (around 20 MPa) and temperatures (900 K). Due to the high pressures required and the presence of moving components installed in pipelines (ball-joints and/or flexible connections), the use of s-CO2 presents many technical challenges due to the compatibility of seal materials and fluid leakages of the moving connections. These problems are solved in solar tower systems because the receiver is fixed. In this regard, a preliminary analysis of a tubular receiver with s-CO2 as HTF has been developed using the design of a molten-salt receiver which was previously tested at Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA). Therefore, a simplified CFD model has been carried out in this study in order to analyze the feasibility of s-CO2 as HTF in solar towers. Simulation results showed that the heat gained by s-CO2 was around 75% greater than the one captured by molten salts (fluid inlet temperature of 715 K), but at a pressure range of 7.5-9.7 MPa. Thus, the use of s-CO2 as HTF in solar tower receivers appears to be a promising alternative, taking into account both the operating conditions required and their maintenance cost.

  16. Identification of HTF (HER2 transcription factor) as an AP-2 (activator protein-2) transcription factor and contribution of the HTF binding site to ERBB2 gene overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernimmen, Douglas; Begon, Dominique; Salvador, Christophe; Gofflot, Stéphanie; Grooteclaes, Madeleine; Winkler, Rosita

    2003-02-15

    The ERBB2 gene is overexpressed in 30% of human breast cancers and this is correlated with poor prognosis. Overexpression of the ERBB2 gene is due to increased transcription and gene amplification. Our previous studies have identified a new cis element in the ERBB2 promoter which is involved in the gene's overexpression. This cis element, located 501 bp upstream from the main ERBB2 transcription initiation site, binds a transcription factor called HTF (HER2 transcription factor). We report here the identification of HTF as an AP-2 (activator protein-2) transcription factor. The new cis element is bound by AP-2 with high affinity, compared with a previously described AP-2 binding site located 284 bp downstream. Co-transfection of an AP-2alpha expression vector with a reporter vector containing the newly identified AP-2 binding site in front of a minimal ERBB2 promoter induced a dose-dependent increase in transcriptional activity. We examined the contribution of the new AP-2 binding site to ERBB2 overexpression. For this purpose we abolished the new and/or the previously described AP-2 binding sequence by site-directed mutagenesis. The results show that the two functional AP-2 sites in the first 700 bp of the ERBB2 promoter co-operate to achieve maximal transcriptional activity.

  17. Geotechnical applications of geophysics in coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatherly, P. [CMTE/CSIRO Exploration and Mining, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    In coal mining, geophysical techniques have an established application in determining the location of seam boundaries ahead of the face so that underground mines can be planned to avoid any geological structures that might disrupt production. Geophysics can also be used in geotechnical studies to determine the in situ properties of the rock mass and the response of the rock mass to the mining. The use of geophysical logs and microseismic monitoring in these geotechnical applications are discussed in this paper. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Comparison study of selected geophysical and geotechnical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Randi Warncke; Poulsen, Søren Erbs

    2015-01-01

    Successful foundation of constructions relies on accurate characterization of the geotechnical properties of the subsurface. By implementing data from geophysical surveys, the placement of geotechnical drillings can be significantly improved, potentially reducing the number of required drillings....... This case study is mainly to compare geophysical investigations (MEP/IP) with existing PACES data and information from geotechnical drillings....

  19. A comparison investigation of DNP-binding effects to HSA and HTF by spectroscopic and molecular modeling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfagharzadeh, Mahboobeh; Pirouzi, Maliheh; Asoodeh, Ahmad; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Chamani, Jamshidkhan

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the interaction between 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) with the two drug carrier proteins - human serum albumin (HSA) and human holo transferrin (HTF). Hence, binding characteristics of DNP to HSA and HTF were analyzed by spectroscopic and molecular modeling techniques. Based on results obtained from fluorescence spectroscopy, DNP had a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA and HTF through a static quenching procedure. The binding constant and the number of binding sites were calculated as 2.3 × 10(11) M(-1) and .98 for HSA, and 1.7 × 10(11) M(-1) and 1.06 for HTF, respectively. In addition, synchronous fluorescence results showed that the microenvironment of Trp had a slight tendency of increasing its hydrophobicity, whereas the microenvironment of the Tyr residues of HSA did not change and that of HTF showed a significant trend (red shift of about 4 nm) of an increase in polarity. The distance between donor and acceptor was obtained by the Förster energy according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and was found to be 3.99 and 3.72 nm for HSA and HTF, respectively. The critical induced aggregation concentration (CCIAC) of the drug on both proteins was determined and confirmed by an inflection point of the zeta potential behavior. Circular dichroism data revealed that the presence of DNP caused a decrease of the α-helical content of HSA and HTF, and induced a remarkable mild denaturation of both proteins. The molecular modeling data confirmed our experimental results. This study is deemed useful for determining drug dosage.

  20. A randomized control comparison study of culture media (HTF versus P1) for human in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artini, Paolo G; Valentino, Valeria; Cela, Vito; Cristello, Francesca; Vitè, Alessandra; Genazzani, Andrea R

    2004-10-15

    It is now widely accepted that increasing the number of replacement embryos (>3 embryos per embryo transfer [ET]) is associated with an increased risk of multiple pregnancies. While embryo reduction is often proposed when there is a high risk of multiple pregnancies, it is a difficult decision for the couple. For this reason, different studies have focused on single embryo transfer, more precisely blastocyst transfer. The aim of the study is to confirm that phosphate-free culture media can be used to generate greater quality embryos. We carried out a study to compare the efficacy of human tubal fluid (HTF) versus preimplantation stage one (P1) as culture media for assisted reproductive therapy (ART). In 109 nonselected patients, we obtained an embryo fertilization rate with HTF and P1 culture media of 58.6 and 62.5% (P = 0.003), respectively. After 48 and 72 h, the morphology was similar for both P1 and HTF embryos in most patients. However, in the same patients, when HTF embryo quality was low (15.4%), P1 embryo quality was significantly higher 68.7% (P = 0.002). Some embryos were transferred at 48 h and some at 72 h after retrieval, in a randomized manner. We transferred a maximum of up to three embryos per ET. The implantation rate was significantly different; at 48 h, it was 6.8 and 12.2% for HTF and P1, respectively (P = 0.02). The pregnancy rate was 17.1% for HTF embryos and 23.7% for P1 embryos (P = 0.02). Therefore, we observed a significant difference between P1 and HTF in the fertilization rate, in embryo quality, in implantation rate and in pregnancy rate. But the most important difference between this study and others is that every patient was the control of herself, so we eliminated every variable.

  1. Geotechnical Classification of Søvind Marl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, Gitte Lyng; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo;

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the geotechnical classification properties of a Danish Eocene clay known as Søvind Marl. A large development is happening on locations where the soil consists of different varieties Danish Eocene clays. This gives a need for a better understanding of the properties...

  2. Geotechnical Engineering in US Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suescun-Florez, Eduardo; Iskander, Magued; Kapila, Vikram; Cain, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of several geotechnical engineering-related science activities conducted with elementary-school students. Activities presented include soil permeability, contact stress, soil stratigraphy, shallow and deep foundations, and erosion in rivers. The permeability activity employed the LEGO NXT platform for data…

  3. Geotechnical Engineering in US Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suescun-Florez, Eduardo; Iskander, Magued; Kapila, Vikram; Cain, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of several geotechnical engineering-related science activities conducted with elementary-school students. Activities presented include soil permeability, contact stress, soil stratigraphy, shallow and deep foundations, and erosion in rivers. The permeability activity employed the LEGO NXT platform for data…

  4. Soft Schemes for Earthquake-Geotechnical Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia García

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Models of real systems are of fundamental importance in virtually all disciplines because they can be useful for gaining a better understanding of the organism. Models make it possible to predict or simulate a system’s behavior; in earthquake geotechnical engineering, they are required for the design of new constructions and for the analysis of those that exist. Since the quality of the model typically determines an upper bound on the quality of the final problem solution, modeling is often the bottleneck in the development of the whole system. As a consequence, a strong demand for advanced modeling and identification schemes arises. During the past years, soft computing techniques have been used for developing unconventional procedures to study earthquake geotechnical problems. Considering the strengths and weaknesses of the algorithms, in this work a criterion to leverage the best features to develop efficient hybrid models is presented. Via the development of schemes for integrating data-driven and theoretical procedures, the soft computing tools are presented as reliable earthquake geotechnical models. This assertion is buttressed using a broad history of seismic events and monitored responses in complicated soils systems. Combining the versatility of fuzzy logic to represent qualitative knowledge, the data-driven efficiency of neural networks to provide fine-tuned adjustments via local search, and the ability of genetic algorithms to perform efficient coarse-granule global search, the earthquake geotechnical problems are observed, analyzed, and solved under a holistic approach.

  5. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Strain HTF-F and Its Extracellular Polymeric Matrix Attenuate Clinical Parameters in DSS-Induced Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Oriana; Khan, M Tanweer; Schwarzer, Martin; Hudcovic, Tomas; Srutkova, Dagmar; Duncan, Sylvia H; Stolte, Ellen H; Kozakova, Hana; Flint, Harry J; Samsom, Janneke N; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Wells, Jerry M

    2015-01-01

    A decrease in the abundance and biodiversity of intestinal bacteria within the Firmicutes phylum has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In particular, the anti-inflammatory bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, member of the Firmicutes phylum and one of the most abundant species in healthy human colon, is underrepresented in the microbiota of IBD patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory properties of F. prausnitzii strain A2-165, the biofilm forming strain HTF-F and the extracellular polymeric matrix (EPM) isolated from strain HTF-F. For this purpose, the immunomodulatory properties of the F. prausnitzii strains and the EPM were studied in vitro using human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Then, the capacity of the F. prausnitzii strains and the EPM of HTF-F to suppress inflammation was assessed in vivo in the mouse dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) colitis model. The F. prausnitzii strains and the EPM had anti-inflammatory effects on the clinical parameters measured in the DSS model but with different efficacy. The immunomodulatory effects of the EPM were mediated through the TLR2-dependent modulation of IL-12 and IL-10 cytokine production in antigen presenting cells, suggesting that it contributes to the anti-inflammatory potency of F. prausnitzii HTF-F. The results show that F. prausnitzii HTF-F and its EPM may have a therapeutic use in IBD.

  6. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Strain HTF-F and Its Extracellular Polymeric Matrix Attenuate Clinical Parameters in DSS-Induced Colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriana Rossi

    Full Text Available A decrease in the abundance and biodiversity of intestinal bacteria within the Firmicutes phylum has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. In particular, the anti-inflammatory bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, member of the Firmicutes phylum and one of the most abundant species in healthy human colon, is underrepresented in the microbiota of IBD patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory properties of F. prausnitzii strain A2-165, the biofilm forming strain HTF-F and the extracellular polymeric matrix (EPM isolated from strain HTF-F. For this purpose, the immunomodulatory properties of the F. prausnitzii strains and the EPM were studied in vitro using human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Then, the capacity of the F. prausnitzii strains and the EPM of HTF-F to suppress inflammation was assessed in vivo in the mouse dextran sodium sulphate (DSS colitis model. The F. prausnitzii strains and the EPM had anti-inflammatory effects on the clinical parameters measured in the DSS model but with different efficacy. The immunomodulatory effects of the EPM were mediated through the TLR2-dependent modulation of IL-12 and IL-10 cytokine production in antigen presenting cells, suggesting that it contributes to the anti-inflammatory potency of F. prausnitzii HTF-F. The results show that F. prausnitzii HTF-F and its EPM may have a therapeutic use in IBD.

  7. Geotechnical hazards from large earthquakes and heavy rainfalls

    CERN Document Server

    Kazama, Motoki; Lee, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers presented at the International Workshop on Geotechnical Natural Hazards held July 12–15, 2014, in Kitakyushu, Japan. The workshop was the sixth in the series of Japan–Taiwan Joint Workshops on Geotechnical Hazards from Large Earthquakes and Heavy Rainfalls, held under the auspices of the Asian Technical Committee No. 3 on Geotechnology for Natural Hazards of the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. It was co-organized by the Japanese Geotechnical Society and the Taiwanese Geotechnical Society. The contents of this book focus on geotechnical and natural hazard-related issues in Asia such as earthquakes, tsunami, rainfall-induced debris flows, slope failures, and landslides. The book contains the latest information and mitigation technology on earthquake- and rainfall-induced geotechnical natural hazards. By dissemination of the latest state-of-the-art research in the area, the information contained in this book will help researchers, des...

  8. Geotechnical analysis of construction pit in Ljubljana

    OpenAIRE

    Rodman, Grega

    2013-01-01

    In my thesis the design calculations were made for the excavation, which is located in Ljubljana between Glonarjeva street and railway track Ljubljana – Novo mesto. The depth of the excavation pit is approximately 6 m. The excavation pit is supported with bored pile wall and prestressed geotechnical anchors. For the calculation of lateral earth pressure the Rankine's theory was used. Three different profiles were analysed. Piles and anchors were dimensioned. The global stability was checked.

  9. Geotechnical properties of Egyptian collapsible soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled E. Gaaver

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The risk of constructing structures on collapsible soils presents significant challenges to geotechnical engineers due to sudden reduction in volume upon wetting. Identifying collapsible soils when encountered in the field and taking the needed precautions should substantially reduce the risk of such problems usually reported in buildings and highways. Collapsible soils are those unsaturated soils that can withstand relatively high pressure without showing significant change in volume, however upon wetting; they are susceptible to a large and sudden reduction in volume. Collapsible soils cover significant areas around the world. In Egypt, collapsible soils were observed within the northern portion of the western desert including Borg El-Arab region, and around the city of Cairo in Six-of-October plateau, and Tenth-of-Ramadan city. Settlements associated with development on untreated collapsible soils usually lead to expensive repairs. One method for treating collapsible soils is to densify their structure by compaction. The ongoing study presents the effect of compaction on the geotechnical properties of the collapsible soils. Undisturbed block samples were recovered from test pits at four sites in Borg El-Arab district, located at about 20 km west of the city of Alexandria, Egypt. The samples were tested in both unsoaked and soaked conditions. Influence of water inundation on the geotechnical properties of collapsible soils was demonstrated. A comparative study between natural undisturbed and compacted samples of collapsible soils was performed. An attempt was made to relate the collapse potential to the initial moisture content. An empirical correlation between California Bearing Ratio of the compacted collapsible soils and liquid limit was adopted. The presented simple relationships should enable the geotechnical engineers to estimate the complex parameters of collapsible soils using simple laboratory tests with a reasonable accuracy.

  10. Further investigations of plasma armature performance in the Culham Laboratory HTF rail launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, N.; Spikings, C. R.; Oxley, C. M.; Beacham, J. R.; Putley, D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the results from an experimental investigation of plasma armature behavior in the Culham Laboratory HTF rail launcher. The object of this work was to gain further insight into the conditions which lead to the formation of secondary plasma arcs in the rail launcher. The railgun was operated with a 1 cm square bore formed from glass reinforced epoxy insulators and either stainless steel or copper rails. A 1 MJ, 8 kV capacitor bank was used as the power supply; this was arranged in five 200 kJ modules. The modules were sequentially fired, to produce a current waveform approximating to a linear ramp in the railgun. B-dot probes were used to measure the behavior of the plasma armatures in the launcher. A number of calibration checks were performed to assess the quality of the B-dot probe measurements, with regard to both spatial resolution and rail current measurement. Experimental results were obtained with projectile muzzle velocities ranging from 1.5 km/s to 3.0 km/s, two free arc shots also occurred during the test series. The results show that the launcher performed much better with copper rails than with stainless steel rails. The results also show that the glass epoxy insulators performed much better than the acetyl copolymer material previously used in HTF.

  11. Management and application of Geotechnical Data: The Geotechnical Data Information System of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Motomu; Ishimura, Kenji; Nakayama, Toshio

    1992-05-01

    In the Tokyo metropolis many geological surveys are carried out in conjunction with building construction work and urban base improvement undertakings. Furthermore, the Institute of Civil Engineering (ICE) of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government (TMG) has been conducting surveys on urban geology, land subsidence, and geodetics. Thus, ICE of TMG keeps a lot of geological data. In order to plan for a more effective use of these data, the Geotechnical Data Information System of Tokyo Metropolitan Government was organized in 1985, and since 1986, it has become fully implemented. This Geotechnical Data Information System has incorporated a relational data base into a mainframe computer, the NEC ACOS System 430, and as of March 1989 it can retrieve and graphically present borehole, deep-well, and groundwater data. The authors wish to introduce in this article the organizational structure of the Geotechnical Data Information System of TMG, a summary of the data base system, standards of input data, and applicable examples of the data base.

  12. Resistivity and Surface Wave Seismic Surveys in Geotechnical Site Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Wisén, Roger

    2005-01-01

    The adaptation of geophysical methods for civil engineering purposes represents an important contribution to the development of geotechnical site investigation methodology. The term geotechnical site investigation here refers to all investigations performed prior to or during construction; i.e. investigations to support and refine a conceptual geological model as well as to provide a model of geotechnical design parameters. At any stage in the site investigation process, geophysical methods p...

  13. Comparison of the binding behavior of FCCP with HSA and HTF as determined by spectroscopic and molecular modeling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Maryam Mahmoodian; Pirouzi, Malihe; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Chamani, Jamshidkhan

    2014-06-01

    The interaction of carbonylcyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP) with human serum albumin (HSA) and human transferrin (HTF) was investigated using multiple spectroscopy, molecular modeling, zeta-potential and conductometry measurements of aqueous solutions at pH 7.4. The fluorescence, UV/vis and polarization fluorescence spectroscopy data disclosed that the drug-protein complex formation occurred through a remarkable static quenching. Based on the fluorescence quenching, two sets of binding sites with distinct affinities for FCCP existed in the two proteins. Steady-state and polarization fluorescence analysis showed that there were more affinities between FCCP and HSA than HTF. Far UV-CD and synchronous fluorescence studies indicated that FCCP induced more structural changes on HSA. The resonance light scattering (RLS) and zeta-potential measurements suggested that HTF had a greater resistance to drug aggregation, whereas conductometry measurements expressed the presence of free ions improving the resistance of HSA to aggregation. Thermodynamic measurements implied that a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic forces was involved in the interaction between FCCP with both proteins. The phase diagram plots indicated that the presence of second binding site on HSA and HTF was due to the existence of intermediate structures. Site marker competitive experiments demonstrated that FCCP had two distinct binding sites in HSA which were located in sub-domains IIA and IIIA and one binding site in the C-lobe of HTF as confirmed by molecular modeling. The obtained results suggested that both proteins could act as drug carriers, but that the HSA potentially had a higher capacity for delivering FCCP to cancerous tissues. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Characterization Of The As-Received Sludge Batch 9 Qualification Sample (Htf-51-15-81)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel have been requested to qualify the next sludge batch (Sludge Batch 9 – SB9) for processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To accomplish this task, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has sent SRNL a 3-L slurried sample of Tank 51H (HTF-51-15-81) to be characterized, washed, and then used in a lab-scale demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet (potentially after combining with Tank 40H sludge). This report documents the first steps of the qualification process – characterization of the as-received Tank 51H qualification sample. These results will be used to support a reprojection of SB9 by SRR from which final Tank 51H washing, frit development, and Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) activities will be based.

  15. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2002 - June 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-03-03

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations.

  16. Biogeochemical processes and geotechnical applications: Progress, opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, J.T.; Soga, K.S.; Kavazanjian, E.; Burns, S.; Van Paassen, L.A.; Al Quabany, A.; Aydilek, A.; Bang, S.S.; Burbank, M.; Caslake, L.F.; Chen, C.Y.; Cheng, X.; Chu, J.; Ciurli, S.; Esnault-Filet, A.; Fauriel, S.; Hamdan, N.; Hata, T.; Inagaki, Y.; Jefferis, S.; Kuo, M.; Laloui, L.; Larrahondo, J.; Manning, D.A.C.; Martinez, B.; Montoya, B.M.; Nelson, D.C.; Palomino, A.; Renforth, P.; Santamarina, J.C.; Seagren, E.A.; Tanyu, B.; Tsesarsky, M.; Weaver, T.

    2013-01-01

    Consideration of soil as a living ecosystem offers the potential for innovative and sustainable solutions to geotechnical problems. This is a new paradigm for many in geotechnical engineering. Realising the potential of this paradigm requires a multidisciplinary approach that embraces biology and

  17. Biogeochemical processes and geotechnical applications: Progress, opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, J.T.; Soga, K.S.; Kavazanjian, E.; Burns, S.; Van Paassen, L.A.; Al Quabany, A.; Aydilek, A.; Bang, S.S.; Burbank, M.; Caslake, L.F.; Chen, C.Y.; Cheng, X.; Chu, J.; Ciurli, S.; Esnault-Filet, A.; Fauriel, S.; Hamdan, N.; Hata, T.; Inagaki, Y.; Jefferis, S.; Kuo, M.; Laloui, L.; Larrahondo, J.; Manning, D.A.C.; Martinez, B.; Montoya, B.M.; Nelson, D.C.; Palomino, A.; Renforth, P.; Santamarina, J.C.; Seagren, E.A.; Tanyu, B.; Tsesarsky, M.; Weaver, T.

    2013-01-01

    Consideration of soil as a living ecosystem offers the potential for innovative and sustainable solutions to geotechnical problems. This is a new paradigm for many in geotechnical engineering. Realising the potential of this paradigm requires a multidisciplinary approach that embraces biology and ge

  18. Probabilistic approaches for geotechnical site characterization and slope stability analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Zijun; Li, Dianqing

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to revisit geotechnical site characterization from a probabilistic point of view and provide rational tools to probabilistically characterize geotechnical properties and underground stratigraphy using limited information obtained from a specific site. This book not only provides new probabilistic approaches for geotechnical site characterization and slope stability analysis, but also tackles the difficulties in practical implementation of these approaches. In addition, this book also develops efficient Monte Carlo simulation approaches for slope stability analysis and implements these approaches in a commonly available spreadsheet environment. These approaches and the software package are readily available to geotechnical practitioners and alleviate them from reliability computational algorithms. The readers will find useful information for a non-specialist to determine project-specific statistics of geotechnical properties and to perform probabilistic analysis of slope stability.

  19. Correlations of soil and rock properties in geotechnical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ameratunga, Jay; Das, Braja M

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a one-stop reference to the empirical correlations used extensively in geotechnical engineering. Empirical correlations play a key role in geotechnical engineering designs and analysis. Laboratory and in situ testing of soils can add significant cost to a civil engineering project. By using appropriate empirical correlations, it is possible to derive many design parameters, thus limiting our reliance on these soil tests. The authors have decades of experience in geotechnical engineering, as professional engineers or researchers. The objective of this book is to present a critical evaluation of a wide range of empirical correlations reported in the literature, along with typical values of soil parameters, in the light of their experience and knowledge. This book will be a one-stop-shop for the practising professionals, geotechnical researchers and academics looking for specific correlations for estimating certain geotechnical parameters. The empirical correlations in the forms of equations a...

  20. CHEMICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SLUDGE SOLIDS AT THE F AND H AREA TANK FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S.

    2012-08-29

    The primary source of waste solids received into the F Area Tank Farm (FTF) was from PUREX processing performed to recover uranium and plutonium from irradiated depleted uranium targets. In contrast, two primary sources of waste solids were received into the H Area Tank Farm (HTF): a) waste from PUREX processing; and b) waste from H-modified (HM) processing performed to recover uranium and neptunium from burned enriched uranium fuel. Due to the differences between the irradiated depleted uranium targets and the burned enriched uranium fuel, the average compositions of the F and H Area wastes are markedly different from one another. Both F and H Area wastes contain significant amounts of iron and aluminum compounds. However, because the iron content of PUREX waste is higher than that of HM waste, and the aluminum content of PUREX waste is lower than that of HM waste, the iron to aluminum ratios of typical FTF waste solids are appreciably higher than those of typical HTF waste solids. Other constituents present at significantly higher concentrations in the typical FTF waste solids include uranium, nickel, ruthenium, zinc, silver, cobalt and copper. In contrast, constituents present at significantly higher concentrations in the typical HTF waste solids include mercury, thorium, oxalate, and radionuclides U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, Pu-238, Pu-242, Cm-244, and Cm-245. Because of the higher concentrations of Pu-238 in HTF, the long-term concentrations of Th-230 and Ra-226 (from Pu-238 decay) will also be higher in HTF. The uranium and plutonium distributions of the average FTF waste were found to be consistent with depleted uranium and weapons grade plutonium, respectively (U-235 comprised 0.3 wt% of the FTF uranium, and Pu-240 comprised 6 wt% of the FTF plutonium). In contrast, at HTF, U-235 comprised 5 wt% of the uranium, and Pu-240 comprised 17 wt% of the plutonium, consistent with enriched uranium and high burn-up plutonium. X-ray diffraction analyses of various FTF

  1. Geotechnical risk analysis by flat dilatometer (DMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Sara; Monaco, Paola

    2015-04-01

    In the last decades we have assisted at a massive migration from laboratory testing to in situ testing, to the point that, today, in situ testing is often the major part of a geotechnical investigation. The State of the Art indicates that direct-push in situ tests, such as the Cone Penetration Test (CPT) and the Flat Dilatometer Test (DMT), are fast and convenient in situ tests for routine site investigation. In most cases the DMT estimated parameters, in particular the undrained shear strength su and the constrained modulus M, are used with the common design methods of Geotechnical Engineering for evaluating bearing capacity, settlements etc. The paper focuses on the prediction of settlements of shallow foundations, that is probably the No. 1 application of the DMT, especially in sands, where undisturbed samples cannot be retrieved, and on the risk associated with their design. A compilation of documented case histories that compare DMT-predicted vs observed settlements, was collected by Monaco et al. (2006), indicating that, in general, the constrained modulus M can be considered a reasonable "operative modulus" (relevant to foundations in "working conditions") for settlement predictions based on the traditional linear elastic approach. Indeed, the use of a site investigation method, such as DMT, that improve the accuracy of design parameters, reduces risk, and the design can then center on the site's true soil variability without parasitic test variability. In this respect, Failmezger et al. (1999, 2015) suggested to introduce Beta probability distribution, that provides a realistic and useful description of variability for geotechnical design problems. The paper estimates Beta probability distribution in research sites where DMT tests and observed settlements are available. References Failmezger, R.A., Rom, D., Ziegler, S.R. (1999). "SPT? A better approach of characterizing residual soils using other in-situ tests", Behavioral Characterics of Residual Soils, B

  2. Influence of embryo culture medium (G5 and HTF) on pregnancy and perinatal outcome after IVF: a multicenter RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijkers, Sander H M; Mantikou, Eleni; Slappendel, Els; Consten, Dimitri; van Echten-Arends, Jannie; Wetzels, Alex M; van Wely, Madelon; Smits, Luc J M; van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Repping, Sjoerd; Dumoulin, John C M; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan

    2016-10-01

    Does embryo culture medium influence pregnancy and perinatal outcome in IVF? Embryo culture media used in IVF affect treatment efficacy and the birthweight of newborns. A wide variety of culture media for human preimplantation embryos in IVF/ICSI treatments currently exists. It is unknown which medium is best in terms of clinical outcomes. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the culture medium used for the in vitro culture of embryos affects birthweight, but this has never been demonstrated by large randomized trials. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind RCT comparing the use of HTF and G5 embryo culture media in IVF. Between July 2010 and May 2012, 836 couples (419 in the HTF group and 417 in the G5 group) were included. The allocated medium (1:1 allocation) was used in all treatment cycles a couple received within 1 year after randomization, including possible transfers with frozen-thawed embryos. The primary outcome was live birth rate. Couples that were scheduled for an IVF or an ICSI treatment at one of the six participating centers in the Netherlands or their affiliated clinics. The live birth rate was higher, albeit nonsignificantly, in couples assigned to G5 than in couples assigned to HTF (44.1% (184/417) versus 37.9% (159/419); RR: 1.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-1.37; P = 0.08). Number of utilizable embryos per cycle (2.8 ± 2.3 versus 2.3 ± 1.8; P HTF. Of the 383 live born children in this trial, birthweight data from 380 children (300 singletons (G5: 163, HTF: 137) and 80 twin children (G5: 38, HTF: 42)) were retrieved. Birthweight was significantly lower in the G5 group compared with the HTF group, with a mean difference of 158 g (95% CI: 42-275 g; P = 0.008). More singletons were born preterm in the G5 group (8.6% (14/163) versus 2.2% (3/137), but singleton birthweight adjusted for gestational age and gender (z-score) was also lower in the G5 than in the HTF group (-0.13 ± 0.08 versus 0.17 ± 0.08; P = 0.008). This study was powered

  3. A conserved homeobox transcription factor Htf1 is required for phialide development and conidiogenesis in Fusarium species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Zheng

    Full Text Available Conidia are primary means of asexual reproduction and dispersal in a variety of pathogenic fungi, and it is widely recognized that they play a critical role in animal and plant disease epidemics. However, genetic mechanisms associated with conidiogenesis are complex and remain largely undefined in numerous pathogenic fungi. We previously showed that Htf1, a homeobox transcription factor, is required for conidiogenesis in the rice pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. In this study, our aim was to characterize how Htf1 homolog regulates common and also distinctive conidiogenesis in three key Fusarium pathogens: F. graminearm, F. verticillioides, and F. oxysporum. When compared to wild-type progenitors, the gene-deletion mutants in Fusarium species failed to form conventional phialides. Rather, they formed clusters of aberrant phialides that resembled elongated hyphae segments, and it is conceivable that this led to the obstruction of conidiation in phialides. We also observed that mutants, as well as wild-type Fusaria, can initiate alternative macroconidia production directly from hyphae through budding-like mechanism albeit at low frequencies. Microscopic observations led us to conclude that proper basal cell division and subsequent foot cell development of macroconidia were negatively impacted in the mutants. In F. verticillioides and F. oxysporum, mutants exhibited a 2- to 5- microconidia complex at the apex of monophialides resulting in a floral petal-like shape. Also, prototypical microconidia chains were absent in F. verticillioides mutants. F. graminearum and F. verticillioides mutants were complemented by introducing its native HTF1 gene or homologs from other Fusarium species. These results suggest that Fusarium Htf1 is functionally conserved homeobox transcription factor that regulates phialide development and conidiogenesis via distinct signaling pathways yet to be characterized in fungi.

  4. E-ELT project: geotechnical investigation at Cerro Armazones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiretti, Paolo; Heinz, Volker; Pollak, Daniela; Lagos, Jose

    2012-09-01

    The design and construction of large telescopes include significant geotechnical challenges. In order to guarantee reliable and stable operations, a giant telescope like the European - Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) requires a foundation performance according to the level of accuracy of the other telescope's components. This paper describes the main geological and geotechnical activities conducted on site along with the studies completed in specialized geotechnical laboratories with the objective to achieve a thorough characterization of the ground conditions. This study shows that, the properties of the foundation materials are appropriate to guarantee a good performance of the E-ELT.

  5. Geotechnical properties of gullying in Tomsk Oblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonova, A. V.; Lomakina, K. M.; Dmitrieva, S. A.; Baranova, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    The article deals with causes, conditions and factors of gullying in Tomsk Oblast, the case of site Grodnenskaya. A nuclear-power station was planned to be constructed in Closed Administrative Territorial Unit Seversk, which led to geotechnical investigation of the area to study the geological processes developing there. The investigation included reconnaissance traverse of the area, geological and geomorphic descriptions, and sampling. The area and percentage of the territory affected by the geological processes were estimated. As a result, it was proved that the geological processes of the area are conditioned by surface water activity leading to gullying and river erosion, and by both ground water and surface water activity resulting in bog formation. It appears that gullying is caused not only by natural factors but also by technogenic ones.

  6. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gadbury, Casey [USDOE Carlsbad Field Office, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  7. Geotechnical properties of marine soil off north Konkan Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ilangovan, D.; Jayakumar, S.; Naik, R.L.

    for various geotechnical properties. These sediments were found to have less bulk density, low carbonate content, high plasticity index with very low undrained shear strength. Grain size distribution shows that the sediments consist of 60% to 80% silt with 18...

  8. GIS-based Geotechnical Microzonation Mapping using Analytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    From the weight and rank values of the layers, geotechnical suitability .... main classes according to the Guidelines for Urban Engineering Geological Investigations (Stiff et al., 1997). ... Particle size distribution analysis and atterberg limit test ...

  9. Geotechnical properties of surface sediments in the INDEX area

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khadge, N.H.

    As a part of the environmental impact assessment studies, geotechnical properties of sediments were determined in the Central Indian Basin. The undrained shear strength and index properties of the siliceous sediments were determined on 20 box cores...

  10. Mineralogy and geotechnical characteristics of some pottery clay

    OpenAIRE

    Mujib Olamide ADEAGBO; Samuel Akinlabi OLA; Olumide Oluwapelumi OJURI

    2016-01-01

    The physical properties of soils, which are tremendously influenced by the active clay minerals in soil, are of great importance in geotechnical engineering. This paper investigates the clay-sized particles of the Igbara-Odo pottery clay, and compares results obtained with available data on the bulk sample, to determine their correlation and underline the dependence of the geotechnical properties of the bulk clay material on the clay-sized particles. The bulk clay sample consists of 52% sand-...

  11. Managing geotechnical risk on US design-build transport projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin McLain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Awarding design-build (DB contracts before a complete subsurface investigation is completed, makes mitigating the risk of differing site conditions difficult, if not impossible. The purpose of the study was to identify effective practices for managing geotechnical risk in DB projects, and it reports the results of a survey that included responses from 42 of 50 US state departments of transportation and a content analysis of DB requests for proposals from 26 states to gauge the client’s perspective, as well as 11 structured interviews with DB contractors to obtain the perspective from the other side of the DB contract.  A suite of DB geotechnical risk manage tools is presented based on the results of the analysis. Effective practices were found in three areas: enhancing communications on geotechnical issues before final proposals are submitted; the use of project-specific differing site conditions clauses; and expediting geotechnical design reviews after award. The major finding is that contract verbiage alone is not sufficient to transfer the risk of changed site conditions. The agency must actively communicate all the geotechnical information on hand at the time of the DB procurement and develop a contract strategy that reduces/retires the risk of geotechnical uncertainty as expeditiously as possible after award.

  12. Managing geotechnical risk on US design-build transport projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin McLain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Awarding design-build (DB contracts before a complete subsurface investigation is completed, makes mitigating the risk of differing site conditions difficult, if not impossible. The purpose of the study was to identify effective practices for managing geotechnical risk in DB projects, and it reports the results of a survey that included responses from 42 of 50 US state departments of transportation and a content analysis of DB requests for proposals from 26 states to gauge the client’s perspective, as well as 11 structured interviews with DB contractors to obtain the perspective from the other side of the DB contract.  A suite of DB geotechnical risk manage tools is presented based on the results of the analysis. Effective practices were found in three areas: enhancing communications on geotechnical issues before final proposals are submitted; the use of project-specific differing site conditions clauses; and expediting geotechnical design reviews after award. The major finding is that contract verbiage alone is not sufficient to transfer the risk of changed site conditions. The agency must actively communicate all the geotechnical information on hand at the time of the DB procurement and develop a contract strategy that reduces/retires the risk of geotechnical uncertainty as expeditiously as possible after award.

  13. Geotechnical assessments of upgrading power transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Andrew [Coffey Geotechnics Ltd., Harrogate (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-01

    One of the consequences of increasing demand for energy is a corresponding requirement for increased energy distribution. This trend is likely to be magnified by the current tendency to generate power in locations remote from centres of population. New power transmission routes are expensive and awkward to develop, and there are therefore benefits to be gained by upgrading existing routes. However, this in turn raises problems of a different nature. The re-use of any structure must necessarily imply the acceptance of unknowns. The upgrading of transmission lines is no exception to this, particularly when assessing foundations, which in their nature are not visible. A risk-based approach is therefore used. This paper describes some of the geotechnical aspects of the assessment of electric power transmission lines for upgrading. It briefly describes the background, then discusses some of the problems encountered and the methods used to address them. These methods are based mainly on information obtained from desk studies and walkover surveys, with a limited amount of intrusive investigation. (orig.)

  14. The effects of tegaserod (HTF 919) on oesophageal acid exposure in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrilas, P J; Quigley, E M; Castell, D O; Spechler, S J

    2000-11-01

    Tegaserod (HTF 919), a 5-HT4 receptor partial agonist, has prokinetic effects that might be useful in decreasing acid reflux in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). To investigate the potential clinical utility of tegaserod in GERD, a five-period crossover study (balanced Latin square) was designed to evaluate the efficacy of 4 b.d. doses of tegaserod vs. placebo. Four-hour manometry (1 h fasting and 3 h postprandial) with continuous recording of lower oesophageal sphincter pressure and distal oesophageal pH, was performed at the end of each 2-week treatment period in 19 patients with mild-to-moderate GERD. Recordings were scored for mean lower oesophageal sphincter pressure, number of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations, and distal oesophageal acid exposure. Tegaserod (1 mg/day and 4 mg/day) caused a more than 50% decrease in acid exposure in the postprandial period in patients with abnormal acid exposure, although only the 1 mg/day tegaserod treatment elicited statistically significant decreasing (P < 0.05) for the entire treatment group (percentage time for which pH < 4: placebo=13%; 1 mg/day dose=5%; 4 mg/day dose=8%). A decreased number of reflux episodes was demonstrated with both the 1 mg/day and 4 mg/day tegaserod doses. There was no apparent effect on mean lower oesophageal sphincter pressure, whilst transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations frequency decreased in the 1-2.5 h post-dose. Tegaserod in a dose of 1 mg/day causes a significant decrease in postprandial oesophageal acid exposure. The reduction in oesophageal acid exposure with tegaserod treatment may result from enhanced oesophageal acid clearance, improved gastric emptying, and/or reduced transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations.

  15. Effect of meal timing not critical for the pharmacokinetics of tegaserod (HTF 919).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H; Khalilieh, S; Lau, H; Guerret, M; Osborne, S; Alladina, L; Laurent, A L; McLeod, J F

    1999-09-01

    This study assessed the pharmacokinetic profiles of administering tegaserod (HTF 919) at different time intervals with respect to a meal. It was a randomized, open-label, two-phase, five-period crossover study. In the first phase, 18 healthy subjects received a single 12 mg oral dose of tegaserod administered either 30 or 15 minutes prior to the start of the 600-calorie, fat-rich breakfast. In the second phase, subjects received a single 12 mg oral dose of tegaserod 1 minute before, 2.5 hours after the start of meal, or with a continued 4-hour postdose fast. Safety assessment and plasma samples for the determination of drug concentration were obtained for 24 hours postdose. Noncompartmental analysis results indicated that the AUC of tegaserod was reduced by almost half under fed conditions compared to the fasted condition. Exploratory analyses were implemented to further investigate the absorption characteristics of tegaserod under different fed conditions. A numerical deconvolution approach was used to obtain the tegaserod oral absorption versus time profiles under both fasted and fed conditions. The tegaserod oral absorption versus time profiles were then fitted by NONMEM to a model containing two absorption phases. Based on the absorption analyses, we found that the reduction in the bioavailability of tegaserod under fed conditions was primarily due to a decrease in the extent of absorption and less so to a decrease in the absorption rate(s). Therefore, although the timing of administration of food does not appear to significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of tegaserod, the administration of food reduces the AUC by approximately 50%.

  16. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  17. Holistic simulation of geotechnical installation processes numerical and physical modelling

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book provides suitable methods for the simulations of boundary value problems of geotechnical installation processes with reliable prediction for the deformation behavior of structures in static or dynamic interaction with the soil. It summarizes the basic research of a research group from scientists dealing with constitutive relations of soils and their implementations as well as contact element formulations in FE-codes. Numerical and physical experiments are presented providing benchmarks for future developments in this field. Boundary value problems have been formulated and solved with the developed tools in order to show the effectivity of the methods. Parametric studies of geotechnical installation processes in order to identify the governing parameters for the optimization of the process are given in such a way that the findings can be recommended to practice for further use. For many design engineers in practice the assessment of the serviceability of nearby structures due to geotechnical installat...

  18. Seismic impact of the railway on the geotechnical constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolárik, Martin; Pinka, Miroslav

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, the focus on more ecological means of material and persons transport is still higher. Big loads can be transported on railways more effectively and with lower environment impact than on roads. The geotechnical structures are inherent parts of railway infrastructure, such as embankments, sides of notches and, of course, tunnels, foundation constructions of buildings or pillars of bridges and the others geotechnical constructions (e.g. retaining walls, culverts, transition area of bridges). By train pass, vibrations are caused and these vibrations are relayed to the soil. These vibrations can make adverse impact to surrounding objects and to technologies placed in. This so far uncared-for influence gets into the foreground by current trend of everyday life technical equipment increasing. The article introduces different kinds of geotechnical structures and the influence of by-passing railway transport on their constructions and surroundings. The data are evaluated in the amplitude and frequency domain.

  19. Engineering-geological and geotechnical investigation for risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Moufida; Dlala, Mahmoud; Bedday, Aouicha

    2011-09-01

    Before construction activities could begin, engineering geological and geotechnical investigations had to be approved in order to establish a map with suitable areas for safe construction. The example used in this study is Tunis City which has complex geology and geomorphology. The risk analysis was based on a large-scale land-suitability map that was prepared using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The approach used in this study combined physical data with the geotechnical properties of Tunis City. The adopted methodology and analyses were performed to assess the risk of urban expansion and landscape management. Results are presented as a zoning map that shows the suitable area for safe extension of the urban area. The data used and multi-criterion analysis of geotechnical and geological data seems to be useful for similar case studies and the adopted methodology can be used successfully for identifying similar cities for risk assessment.

  20. The importance of geotechnical studies for siting an ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescador, German R.

    2004-07-01

    Site selection is, no doubt, one of the most important preliminary studies in any telescope project since the image quality of the telescope will be limited by the site quality. Traditionally, geotechnical studies have had relatively little importance, normally being carried out once the site was already selected. However, with the increase of the telescopes size and mechancial requirements, the geotechnical studies have become increasingly important. Soil characteristics can make a big difference to the cost of an ELT. A thorough geological and geotechnical investigation of the possible site for the erection of an ELT should be carried from the beginning of the site selection process. It is very important to know the geology of the subsoil to determine the geomechanical properties of the materials, to determine the most suitable layers for anchoring the foundations, and to be able to estimate construction costs.

  1. Celebrating 25 years of Syncrude`s Geotechnical Review Board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, G.

    1998-09-01

    An historical review of Syncrude`s Geotechnical Review Board (GRB) was presented, relating some of the successes of the Board over the past 25 years since its establishment. A list of the type of challenges faced by Syncrude where the GRB`s guidance and counselling proved to be critical, is also included. The GRB was established in the 1970s to help Syncrude manage its geotechnical-based risks and to enhance its long-range chances to be successful in oil sands mining. Mining oil sands was breaking new ground back then, consequently, the geotechnical risks were largely unknown and the potential of heavy financial losses were great. Under such circumstances making the right decisions in dealing with geotechnical risks was vital to success. The fact that 25 years later Syncrude is still operating on the basis of those earlier decisions and still relies heavily on the expertise of the Board for recommendations and guidance is a testimony to the value of the GRB to Syncrude`s operations. The GRB`s success is credited to the Board`s world-wide expertise, objectivity, focus on the big issues, risk-based approach and its excellent working partnership with Syncrude employees. Dragline mining and tailings management are the areas that benefited the most from the Board`s involvement, but the Board has been involved in every facet of geotechnical-based risk management. Some of the geotechnical challenges that the GRB has helped Syncrude to overcome include dam construction of muskeg foundation, heavy foundations on gassy and temperature-sensitive soils, coring and testing of gassy/expansive oil sands and haul roads, highwall design utilizing locked sands, winter construction of large fluid retaining embankments and characterization and management of fluid fine tailings. 3 refs., 1 graph, 3 figs.

  2. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2004 - June 2005, Volume 2, Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-03-20

    This report is a compilation of geotechnical data presented as plots for each active instrument installed in the underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) through June 30, 2005. A summary of the geotechnical analyses that were performed using the enclosed data is provided in Volume 1 of the Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR).

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2005 - June 2006, Volume 2, Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-03-25

    This report is a compilation of geotechnical data presented as plots for each active instrument installed in the underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) through June 30, 2006. A summary of the geotechnical analyses that were performed using the enclosed data is provided in Volume 1 of the Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR).

  4. Effects of melatonin on in vitro development of mouse two-cell embryos cultured in HTF medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiu-Zhi; Wen, Qing; Shi, Jian-Min; Liang-Wang; Zeng, Shen-Ming; Tian, Jian-Hui; Zhou, Guang-Bin; Zhu, Shi-En; Liu, Guo-Shi

    2010-01-01

    Melatonin is capable of improving the developmental capacity of ovine, porcine and bovine embryos in vitro. However, whether melatonin possesses similar benefits to the in vitro mouse embryonic development has yet to be determined. In this study, we assessed the effects of various concentrations of melatonin (10-13 to 10-3 M) on the in-vitro development of mouse embryos cultured in HTF medium for 96 hr; embryos cultured without melatonin were used as control. The in vitro development of mouse two-cell embryos significantly benefited from treatment with melatonin in a concentration-dependent manner. The effects of melatonin on the rates of blastocyst formation, hatching/hatched blastocysts and cell number per blastocyst were bi-phasic; all significantly increased by melatonin at 10-13 to 10-5 M and decreased by melatonin at 10-3 M. Maximal benefit of melatonin on in vitro mouse 2-cell embryo development was achieved at a concentration of 10-9 M. In comparison to control, 10-9 M melatonin increased blastocyst formation rate from 48.08 +/- 5.25% to 82.08 +/- 2.34% (p HTF medium.

  5. The effects of tegaserod (HTF 919) on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of digoxin in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H; Horowitz, A; Ledford, P C; Hubert, M; Appel-Dingemanse, S; Osborne, S; McLeod, J F

    2001-10-01

    Tegaserod (HTF 919) is a highly specific 5-HT4 receptor partial agonist that exhibits promotile activity throughout the gastrointestinal tract and is under development for the treatment of functional gastrointestinal motility disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effect of multiple doses of tegaserod on the single-dose pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of digoxin, a commonly prescribed agent for congestive heart failure. The study was an open-label, randomized, two-period crossover design of 12 healthy subjects. One treatment included digoxin treatment alone; the other treatment included a combined digoxin and tegaserod treatment. On day 1 of the digoxin treatment period, subjects received a single 1 mg oral dose of digoxin. In the combined tegaserod/digoxin treatment period, subjects received a single oral dose of 1 mg digoxin after 3 days of tegaserod (6 mg bid). After coadministration of tegaserod, systemic exposure to digoxin was decreased; mean AUC decreased by 11.9% (p < 0.05) relative to digoxin alone. Cmax was decreased by about 15% (p < 0.05). The 0.5-hour difference in the median tmax between the two treatments was not statistically significant. Because the steady-state trough concentration of digoxin (C(SS,min)) correlates with pharmacological effects, C(SS,min) for digoxin alone and in combination with tegaserod was simulated based on both parametric compartmental modeling and nonparametric superpositioning approaches. The predicted arithmetic mean C(SS,min) for combination therapy is 86% to 89% of that following digoxin alone. Likewise, the predicted arithmetic mean steady-state peak concentration (C(SS,min)) and AUC at steady state during a dosing interval (AUC(SS,tau)) have a similar decrease. This extent of decrease in systemic exposure of digoxin at steady state is unlikely to be clinically relevant. Administration of tegaserod (6 mg bid) was well tolerated, both alone and in combination with a single dose of digoxin. There

  6. Geotechnical Tests on Asteroid Simulant Orgueil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alexander D'marco

    2017-01-01

    In the last 100 years, the global population has more than quadrupled to over seven billion people. At the same time, the demand for food and standard of living has been increasing which has amplified the global water use by nearly eight times from approximately 500 to 4000 cu km per yr from 1900 to 2010. With the increasing concern to sustain the growing population on Earth it is necessary to seek other approaches to ensure that our planet will have resources for generations to come. In recent years, the advancement of space travel and technology has allowed the idea of mining asteroids with resources closer to becoming a reality. During the duration of the internship at NASA Kennedy Space Center, several geotechnical tests were conducted on BP-1 lunar simulant and asteroid simulant Orgueil. The tests that were conducted on BP-1 was to practice utilizing the equipment that will be used on the asteroid simulant and the data from those tests will be omitted from report. Understanding the soil mechanics of asteroid simulant Orgueil will help provide basis for future technological advances and prepare scientists for the conditions they may encounter when mining asteroids becomes reality in the distant future. Distinct tests were conducted to determine grain size distribution, unconsolidated density, and maximum density. Once the basic properties are known, the asteroid simulant will be altered to different levels of compaction using a vibrator table to see how compaction affects the density. After different intervals of vibration compaction, a miniature vane shear test will be conducted. Laboratory vane shear testing is a reliable tool to investigate strength anisotropy in the vertical and horizontal directions of a very soft to stiff saturated fine-grained clayey soil. This test will provide us with a rapid determination of the shear strength on the undisturbed compacted regolith. The results of these tests will shed light on how much torque is necessary to drill

  7. HTF: A b-ZIP transcription factor that is closely related to the human XBP/TREB5 and is activated by hepatocellular carcinoma in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, T; Kokura, K; Kumagai, Y; Wakamatsu, T; Makino, Y; Tamura, T

    1996-06-25

    We screened for rat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-related genes by a novel cDNA subtraction method and obtained one gene. This gene was transcribed as 2.0- and 2.5-kb mRNAs, and its transcription was specifically enhanced in HCC. These cDNAs had the same open reading frame, but the 2.5 kb transcript had an extra 495 bases of 5'-UTR at the 5'-terminus. The deduced aa sequence revealed a basic-leucine zipper (b-ZIP) and proline/glutamine-rich structures, both of which are characteristic motifs for transcription factors. We designated the translation product of this gene HTF (Hepatocarcinogenesis-related Transcription Factor). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated the DNA-binding ability of the recombinant HTF. It is most interesting that HTF had a considerable homology with human XBP/TREB5, which has been reported to be a binding factor for the X-box of the MHC class II gene and for the 21-bp enhancer of the HTLV-1 LTR. Genomic Southern analysis suggested that the 2.0- and 2.5-kb mRNAs are transcribed by a dual promoter of a single gene. Our results may suggest that HTF is a b-ZIP-type transcription factor involved in rat hepatocellular carcinoma.

  8. Numerical simulation of non-linear phenomena in geotechnical engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Smed

    Geotechnical problems are often characterized by the non-linear behavior of soils and rock which are strongly linked to the inherent properties of the porous structure of the material as well as the presence and possible flow of any surrounding fluids. Dynamic problems involving such soil-fluid i...

  9. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2003 - June 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-03-20

    This report contains an assessment of the geotechnical status of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). During the excavation of the principal underground access and experimental areas, the status was reported quarterly. Since 1987, when the initial construction phase was completed, reports have been published annually. This report presents and analyzes data collected from July 1, 2003, to June 30, 2004.

  10. Project-Based Learning in Geotechnics: Cooperative versus Collaborative Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho-Lopes, Margarida; Macedo, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Since 2007/2008 project-based learning models have been used to deliver two fundamental courses on Geotechnics in University of Aveiro, Portugal. These models have evolved and have encompassed either cooperative or collaborative teamwork. Using data collected in five editions of each course (Soil Mechanics I and Soil Mechanics II), the different…

  11. Bayesian statistical analysis of censored data in geotechnical engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob; Denver, Hans

    2000-01-01

    The geotechnical engineer is often faced with the problem ofhow to assess the statistical properties of a soil parameter on the basis ofa sample measured in-situ or in the laboratory with the defect that somevalues have been replaced by interval bounds because the corresponding soilparameter values...

  12. In-Tank Processing (ITP) Geotechnical Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumbest, R.J.

    1999-01-15

    A geotechnical investigation has been completed for the In Tank Processing Facility (ITP) which consists of buildings 241-96H and 241-32H; and Tanks 241-948H, 241-949H, 241-950H, and 241-951H. The investigation consisted of a literature search for relevant technical data, field explorations, field and laboratory testing, and analyses. This document presents a summary of the scope and results to date of the investigations and engineering analyses for these facilities. A final geotechnical report, which will include a more detailed discussion and all associated boring logs, laboratory test results, and analyses will be issued in October 1994.The purpose of the investigation is to obtain geotechnical information to evaluate the seismic performance of the foundation materials and embankme nts under and around the ITP. The geotechnical engineering objectives of the investigation are to: 1) define the subsurface stratigraphy, 2) obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface materials, 3) assess the competence of the subsurface materials under static and dynamic loads, 4) derive properties for seismic soil-structure interaction analysis, 5) evaluate the areal and vertical extent of horizons that might cause dynamic settlement or instability, and 6) determine settlement at the foundation level of the tanks.

  13. Project-Based Learning in Geotechnics: Cooperative versus Collaborative Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho-Lopes, Margarida; Macedo, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Since 2007/2008 project-based learning models have been used to deliver two fundamental courses on Geotechnics in University of Aveiro, Portugal. These models have evolved and have encompassed either cooperative or collaborative teamwork. Using data collected in five editions of each course (Soil Mechanics I and Soil Mechanics II), the different…

  14. In-Tank Processing (ITP) Geotechnical Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumbust, R.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Salomone, L.A.

    1994-07-01

    A geotechnical investigation has been completed for the In Tank Processing Facility (ITP) which consists of buildings 241-96H and 241- 32H; and Tanks 241-948H, 241-949H, 241-950H, and 241-951H. The investigation consisted of a literature search for relevant technical data, field explorations, field and laboratory testing, and analyses. This document presents a summary of the scope and results to date of the investigations and engineering analyses for these facilities. A final geotechnical report, which will include a more detailed discussion and all associated boring logs, laboratory test results, and analyses will be issued in October 1994. The purpose of the investigation is to obtain geotechnical information to evaluate the seismic performance of the foundation materials and embankments under and around the ITP. The geotechnical engineering objectives of the investigation are to: (1) define the subsurface stratigraphy, (2) obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface materials, (3) assess the competence of the subsurface materials under static and dynamic loads, (4) derive properties for seismic soil- structure interaction analysis, (5) evaluate the areal and vertical extent of horizons that might cause dynamic settlement or instability, and (6) determine settlement at the foundation level of the tanks.

  15. Farm Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Debra

    2001-01-01

    Describes a Philadelphia high school in which urban students study agricultural sciences to prepare for college and careers. The campus has a complete working farm, and students are exposed to a wide range of agricultural career opportunities while also studying core academic subjects. The school's farm units are real businesses, so students are…

  16. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility Geotechnical Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, M R

    2000-01-11

    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Circulating Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork.

  17. Geological-geotechnical investigation for large horizontal directional drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Pedro R.R.; Rocha, Ronaldo; Avesani Neto, Jose Orlando; Placido, Rafael R.; Ignatius, Scandar G.; Galli, Vicente Luiz [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amaral, Claudio S. [Centro de Pesquisa Leopoldo A. Miguez de Melo (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Use of Horizontal Directional Drilling - HDD for large diameter (OD>20 inches) pipeline installation started in the second half of the seventies. Since then the method became the preferred alternative for situations in which it is necessary an underground pipeline but there are concerns about digging trenches. Crossings of roadways, water bodies and environmental sensitive areas are typical examples of its application. Technical and economic feasibility of HDD depends significantly on the properties of the materials that will be drilled. Lack of information about these materials can lead to several problems as: schedule delays, cost elevation, pipeline damage, unforeseen environmental impacts and even the failure of the entire operation. Ground investigation campaigns for HDD should define a consistent geological-geotechnical model, which must include determination of behaviour parameters for soil and rock masses that will be drilled. Thus it is proposed an investigation in tree stages: review of available geological-geotechnical information, site reconnaissance, and field survey. (author)

  18. GEOTECHNICAL SAFETY ISSUES IN THE CITIES OF POLAR REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Grebenets

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arctic settlements built on permafrostface rather unique set of geotechnical challenges. On urbanized areas, technogenic transformation of natural landscapes due toconstruction of various types of infrastructure leads to changes in heat exchange in permafrost-atmosphere system. The spatial distribution and intensity of dangerous cryogenic processes in urbanized areas is substantially different from natural background settings found prior to construction. Climate change, especially pronounced in the Arctic, exacerbated these changes. Combination of technogenic pressure and climate change resulted in potentially hazardous situation in respect to operational safety of the buildings and structures built on permafrost. This paper is focused on geotechnical safety issues faced by the Arctic urban centers built on permafrost. Common types of technogenic impacts characteristic for urban settlements wereevaluated based on field observations and modeling techniques. The basic principles of development of deformations are discussed in respect to changing permafrost conditions and operational mode of the structures built on permafrost.

  19. Holistic simulation of geotechnical installation processes benchmarks and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book examines in detail the entire process involved in implementing geotechnical projects, from a well-defined initial stress and deformation state, to the completion of the installation process.   The individual chapters provide the fundamental knowledge needed to effectively improve soil-structure interaction models. Further, they present the results of theoretical fundamental research on suitable constitutive models, contact formulations, and efficient numerical implementations and algorithms. Applications of fundamental research on boundary value problems are also considered in order to improve the implementation of the theoretical models developed. Subsequent chapters highlight parametric studies of the respective geotechnical installation process, as well as elementary and large-scale model tests under well-defined conditions, in order to identify the most essential parameters for optimizing the process. The book provides suitable methods for simulating boundary value problems in connection with g...

  20. Geotechnical problems related with loess deposits in Northern France

    CERN Document Server

    Delage, Pierre; Antoine, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Special problems were encountered in some areas in Northern France where the high speed railways (TGV Nord) crossed some loess deposits that appeared to be specially sensitive to change in water content and susceptible to collapse. Numerous sinkholes appeared along some sections of the line following wet climatic periods. After a general geological and geotechnical presentation of loess deposits and collapse susceptibility, in which some tools of the mechanics of unsaturated soils are reconsidered with special application to loess collapsibility, this paper describes the results of a geotechnical study carried out on block samples of intact loess. Collapse susceptibility is examined in the light of microstructure observation. The dependence of collapse to water content changes is examined and the validity of various existing collapse criteria is investigated.

  1. Geotechnical basis for underground energy storage in hard rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, O. C.

    1982-03-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric storage requires the excavation of caverns in hard rock. Hard rock caverns, also, are one option for compressed air stoage. Preliminary design studies for both technologies at a specific site were completed. The geotechnical aspects of these storage systems are discussed from a generic viewpoint. Information about effective use of hard rock openings, including tunnels and shafts, comes mainly from other types of underground projects. These are power houses for hydroelectric and conventional pumped storage schemes, as well as transportation facilities and mines. Rock strength, support, instrumentation, costs, management, and experimental work are among the items considered. Mapping of geologic structures, rock fragmentation, and rock mass properties is also discussed. The general conclusions are that rock types favorable for underground energy storage are present at suitable depths in many areas and that they can be identified by adequate geotechnical exploration prior to detailed design.

  2. Geotechnical problems in the consolidation of buildings of historical interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Calabresi

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The structural damages of ancient structures and monuments are very often due to differential settlements of their foundations, or to other effects of soil-structure interaction. A correct analysis of the damaging phenomena should be based on a sound geotechnical engineering approach, which requires expensive and long investigations on the mechanical characteristics of the foundation soils. However the last decade’s progress in construction technologies has offered a new and flexible kind of solutions to consolidate foundation structures that are often quicker and less expensive than a serious and complete geotechnical study. Therefore very often one of the above-mentioned solutions is simply adopted avoiding any previous study. The paper briefly illustrates the main negative effects of that approach, referring to some interesting case histories.

  3. Brillouin optical time-domain analysis for geotechnical monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Zeni; L. Picarelli; B. Avolio; A. Coscetta; R. Papa; G. Zeni; C. Di Maio; R. Vassallo; A. Minardo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we show some recent experimental applications of Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) based sensors for geotechnical monitoring. In particular, how these sensors can be applied to detecting early movements of soil slopes by the direct embedding of suitable fiber cables in the ground is presented. Furthermore, the same technology can be used to realize innovative inclinometers, as well as smart foundation anchors.

  4. The interplay between geotechnical engineering and engineering geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The proceedings of the eleventh European conference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering held in Copenhagen on May 28th - June 1st, 1995, comprise papers on the measurement of soil/soft rock properties, artificial soils and waste products, the use of soil/soft rock properties, the identification and monitoring of geo-hazards, numerical modelling and information technology, special problem soils/soft rocks and the interplay between geotechnical engineering and engineering geology. (AB)

  5. Geotechnical analysis report for July 1994--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the WIPP are interpreted and presented in this Geotechnical Analysis Report. The data are used to characterize conditions, assess design assumptions, and understand and predict the performance of the underground excavations during operations. The data are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program. They do not include data from tests performed by Sandia National Laboratories, the Scientific Advisor to the project in support of performance assessment studies. Geotechnical Analysis Reports have been prepared routinely and made available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation Program, the Architect/Engineer for the project produced the reports on a quarterly basis to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after construction of the underground. Upon completion of the constriction phase of the project in 1987, the reports have been prepared annually by the Management and Operating Contractor for the facility. This report describes the performance and conditions of selected areas from July 1, 1994, to June 30, 1995.

  6. An elastic mechanics model and computation method for geotechnical material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yingren; Gao Hong; Zheng Lushi

    2010-01-01

    Internal friction characteristic is one of the basic properties of geotechnical materials and it exists in mechanical elements all the time.However,until now internal friction is only considered in limit analysis and plastic mechanics but not included in elastic theory for rocks and soils.We consider that internal friction exists in both elastic state and plastic state of geotechnical materials,so the mechanical unit of friction material is constituted.Based on study results of soil tests,the paper also proposes that cohesion takes effect first and internal friction works gradually with the increment of deformation.By assuming that the friction coefficient is proportional to the strain,the internal friction is computed.At last,by imitating the linear elastic mechanics,the nonlinear elastic mechanics model of friction material is established,where the shear modulus G is not a constant.The new model and the traditional elastic model are used simultaneously to analyze an elastic foundation.The results indicate that the displacements computed by the new model are less than those from the traditional method,which agrees with the fact and shows that the mechanical units of friction material are suitable for geotechnical material.

  7. UCIMS: Advances in geotechnical construction and performance monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Siebenmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Crossrail project currently under construction in Central London has been described as “The Big Dig on Steroids”, obviously referencing the Central Artery/Tunnel project in Boston completed in 2007. To address the multiple demands for timely construction performance monitoring, Crossrail envisioned the underground construction information management system (UCIMS to monitor construction progress and structural health along the entire route, with a network of geotechnical instruments (i.e. slope inclinometers, extensometers, piezometers, etc. and tunnel boring machine (TBM position information. The UCIMS is a geospatially referenced relational database that was developed using an open source geographic information system (GIS that allowed all stakeholders near immediate feedback of construction performance. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief history of geotechnical and structural monitoring software, to describe the structure and operation of the UCIMS, and to demonstrate how the functionality afforded by this system provided the requisite feedback to the stakeholders. Examples will be given regarding how the data management and visualization concepts incorporated into the UCIMS advanced the geotechnical construction industry.

  8. UCIMS:Advances in geotechnical construction and performance monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raphael Siebenmann a; Hai-Tien Yu b; Robert Bachus a

    2015-01-01

    The Crossrail project currently under construction in Central London has been described as“The Big Dig on Steroids”, obviously referencing the Central Artery/Tunnel project in Boston completed in 2007. To address the multiple demands for timely construction performance monitoring, Crossrail envisioned the underground construction information management system (UCIMS) to monitor construction progress and structural health along the entire route, with a network of geotechnical instruments (i.e. slope in-clinometers, extensometers, piezometers, etc.) and tunnel boring machine (TBM) position information. The UCIMS is a geospatially referenced relational database that was developed using an open source geographic information system (GIS) that allowed all stakeholders near immediate feedback of con-struction performance. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief history of geotechnical and structural monitoring software, to describe the structure and operation of the UCIMS, and to demon-strate how the functionality afforded by this system provided the requisite feedback to the stakeholders. Examples will be given regarding how the data management and visualization concepts incorporated into the UCIMS advanced the geotechnical construction industry.

  9. Methodology for the finding of geotechnical areas within the South African gold and platinum.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goler, G

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available of the mine personnel are that a methodology for the definition of geotechnical areas: - must be simple to use, - must not conflict with existing strategies, - must allow clear distinction between different geotechnical areas, - must result in a... not conflict with existing strategies but at the same time it should allow a clear distinction between various geotechnical areas. Concern was also raised that a particular methodology or scheme would be too detailed, precluding its use as a practical...

  10. Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same bacterium that has become resistant to certain antibiotics, which can make infections harder to treat. MRSA can be passed back and forth between people and farm animals through direct contact. In humans, MRSA can cause ...

  11. Integrated modelling of the clinical pharmacokinetics of SDZ HTF 919, a novel selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist, following oral and intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel-Dingemanse, S; Lemarechal, M O; Kumle, A; Hubert, M; Legangneux, E

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of the novel selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist SDZ HTF 919 (HTF) including food effect, absolute bioavailability, interoccasion and intersubject variabilities. In the randomized, open-label, three treatment, four period crossover study, HTF was administered to 12 young healthy male subjects as a 12 mg tablet (twice under fasted and once under fed conditions) and a 3 mg intravenous (i.v.) infusion over 40 min (fasted). Pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by noncompartmental methods. A more comprehensive pharmacokinetic characterization was achieved by integrated modelling of oral (p.o.) and i.v. data. To describe the absorption phase a Weibull function and a classical first order input function were compared. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis revealed a rapid absorption (tmax 1.3 h, fasted), an absolute bioavailability of 11+/-3%, a biphasic disposition phase with a terminal half-life of 11+/-5 h, a clearance of 77+/-15 l h-1, and a volume of distribution at steady state of 368+/-223 l. The coefficients of interoccasion and interindividual variability in Cmax and AUC ranged between 17 and 28%. Food intake caused a delay (tmax 2.0 h) and decrease in absorption with consequently lower systemic exposure ( approximately 5% absolute bioavailability). Integrated p.o./i.v. pharmacokinetic modelling with a Weibull input function allowed accurate description of individual profiles. Modelling of the data from the p.o. dosing improved the description of the terminal phase by inclusion of the i. v. data and additionally provided quantitative characterization of the absorption phase. The pharmacokinetics of HTF could be well described by an integrated modelling approach for both p.o. and i.v. data. The derived model will provide guidance in the design of future studies.

  12. Proceedings of the first international congress on environmental geotechnics; Comptes-rendus de la premiere congres internationale de geotechnique environnementale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrier, W.D. III [ed.

    1994-11-01

    A conference was held on environmental geotechnics. Papers were presented on dredging, industrial, mining, municipal, nuclear, and general geotechnics. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 33 papers from the conference.

  13. Department of Mining and Geotechnics – 50 th Anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ïurove Juraj

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mining faculty of the Technical High School in Košice (now BERG Faculty of the Technical University of Košice was found in 1952. In the first years this school consisted only of three Faculties, namely the Faculty of Mining, Faculty of Metallurgy and Faculty of Mechanical Engineering with few of Departments. Teaching and research activities at the Mining Faculty from begining has been based on the staff members of the Mining Department (now Department of Mining and Geotechnics. During the last 50 years Department of Mining has been growing in terms of the number of subject, laboratories, staff members, students etc., and finished their diploma in total 1101 mining engineers At the begin of this period Department was ment to meet the needs of the Slovak mineral industry relating to the education of engineers and research works in the following areas:,underground mining of mineral deposits, open pit mine, stability problems , rock mechanics, design and construction of mines, but now also in computing and information technologies. At present the Department offers courses in various fields of mining and geotechnics, which cover a very wide range of technical problems arising in mining industry and geotechnical praxis, including rescue, fire and safety course. Full-time study at the Department takes five years and leads to a Master´s degree of mining engineering. The study program comprises also an obligatory practical work. The students´practical training is usually divided into 2 terms each of 2-3 weeks duration. In the last semester the students are preparing their Master´s degree thesis.

  14. GPR applications for geotechnical stability of transportation infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, A.; Benedetto, F.; Tosti, F.

    2012-09-01

    Nowadays, severe meteorological events are always more frequent all over the world. This causes a strong impact on the environment such as numerous landslides, especially in rural areas. Rural roads are exposed to an increased risk for geotechnical instability. In the meantime, financial resources for maintenance are certainly decreased due to the international crisis and other different domestic factors. In this context, the best allocation of funds becomes a priority: efficiency and effectiveness of plans and actions are crucially requested. For this purpose, the correct localisation of geotechnically instable domains is strategic. In this paper, the use of Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) for geotechnical inspection of pavement and sub-pavement layers is proposed. A three-step protocol has been calibrated and validated to allocate efficiently and effectively the maintenance funds. In the first step, the instability is localised through an inspection at traffic speed using a 1-GHz GPR horn launched antenna. The productivity is generally about or over 300 Km/day. Data are processed offline by automatic procedures. In the second step, a GPR inspection restricted to the critical road sections is carried out using two coupled antennas. One antenna is used for top pavement inspection (1.6 GHz central frequency) and a second antenna (600 MHz central frequency) is used for sub-pavement structure diagnosis. Finally, GPR data are post-processed in the time and frequency domains to identify accurately the geometry of the instability. The case study shows the potentiality of this protocol applied to the rural roads exposed to a landslide.

  15. Farm Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Nielsen, Niels Christian; Nissen, Kathrine Aae

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on a study of one specific type of small tourism enterprises (i.e. farm tourism enterprises) and argues that these enterprises differ from other enterprises in relation to a series of issues other than merely size. The analysis shows that enterprises such as these are characterized...... by blurriness of boundaries between „home spheres‟ and work situations as well as by a unique blend of commercial and private hospitality. Furthermore, the study shows that „social‟ motivations and non-monetary benefits gained through host-guest interactions are of great importance to the hosts. In particular......, our study suggests that it is problematic to threat farm tourism enterprises as if they have much in common with both larger corporations and other types of SMTEs. Farm tourism enterprises seem to differ significantly from other enterprises as the hosts are not in the tourism business because...

  16. Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics confirm no accumulation and dose proportionality of the novel promotile drug tegaserod (HTF 919).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel-Dingemanse, S; Hirschberg, Y; Osborne, S; Pommier, F; McLeod, J

    2001-03-01

    To evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics (PK) and dose proportionality of the selective 5-HT4 receptor partial agonist tegaserod (HTF 919) in healthy subjects. Eighteen subjects were given 2, 6, or 12-mg doses of tegaserod twice daily (b.i.d.) for 5 days, with PK and safety assessments made during the 12 h or 24 h following first administration, and 12 h after the final dose. Tegaserod was rapidly absorbed [time to reach measured maximum plasma concentration after multiple administrations (tmax,ss) 1 h]. Steady-state PK were consistent with single-dose PK characteristics supporting that there was no accumulation of tegaserod in plasma based on systemic exposure. Mean measured maximum plasma concentration after multiple administrations (Cmax,ss) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve over one dosing interval (tau, 0-12 h after drug administration, AUC tau) were between 0.7 +/- 0.3 ng/ml and 5.6 +/- 2.9 ng/ml and 2.4 +/- 1.3 h.ng/ml and 20.4 +/- 14.0 h.ng/ml, respectively, indicating dose-proportional PK of tegaserod in the range 2-12 mg b.i.d. Tegaserod was safe and well tolerated. No serious adverse events were reported. Tegaserod exhibits no accumulation and dose-proportional PK after multiple doses.

  17. Geotechnical methods of reinforcement of slopes near railroads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir D.Vereskun; Victor A.Yavna

    2015-01-01

    In order to generate well-based design decisions on reinforcement of landslide slopes and road embankment slopes, a system of combined geotechnical analysis of geological conditions is suggested which includes topographic and geo-physical survey, and laboratory studies of soils using infra-red spectroscopy methods. Calculations of slopes' deflected modes are carried out with taking into account elastic and elasto-plastic behavior of soil, and the presence of supporting man-made constructions. Results of the application of the system suggested may be used as criteria for the classification of landslide slopes along permanent ways according to the degree of danger when used for transportation.

  18. Geotechnical problems of construction on permafrost in Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Dashjamts; Z. Binderya; J. Altantsetseg

    2013-01-01

    Permafrost is found on 63%of the territory of Mongolia. This paper provides evidence that the main influences on per-mafrost formation are meso and micro factors of climate and geographical location. Regional classifications of permafrost areas in order to select the optimal principle of foundation design on permafrost are suggested based on many years’ ex-perience and lessons learned from past construction works in Mongolian geotechnical and climatic conditions. Finally, optimal alternatives for designing foundations for construction on permafrost are presented based on the specific charac-teristics of permafrost in the classification areas and certain building dimensions.

  19. Ant Farm

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Publié à l’occasion de l’exposition d’Ant Farm au Frac Centre du 12 au 23 décembre 2007, ce très beau catalogue, qui fait état des dix ans de création du collectif californien, propose un nombre important de documents iconographiques, de notices et de textes concernant leurs différents projets. Fondé en 1968 par Doug Michels et Chip Lord, rejoints par la suite par Curtis Schreier, Hudson Marquez, Douglas Hurr et d’autres encore, le collectif Ant Farm a marqué les esprits par quelques œuvres s...

  20. National Farm Medicine Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Areas Applied Sciences Biomedical Informatics Clinical Research Epidemiology Farm Medicine Human Genetics Oral-Systemic Health Clinical ... Consulting Agritourism Farm MAPPER Lyme Disease ROPS Rebate Zika Virus National Farm Medicine Center The National Farm ...

  1. Amaranth farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Kjærgård, Bente

    2008-01-01

    natural resources that small-scale farmers have to combat the abovementioned problems. The study identified several local and regional barriers for increasing the level of farming, production, processing and consumption. A striking and paradoxical limitation is the monopolization practices developed...... by some of the associations in relation to knowledge and technology transfer, seeds distribution and contact to potential national and foreign buyers....

  2. Molecular farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular Farming is a new and emerging technology that promises relatively cheap and flexible production of large quantities of pharmaceuticals in genetically modified plants. Many stakeholders are involved in the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, which complicates the discussion on the poss

  3. A fiber optics textile composite sensor for geotechnical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artières, Olivier; Dortland, Gerrit

    2010-09-01

    The fiber optics in structural health monitoring systems for civil engineering applications have been widely used. By integrating fiber optic sensing into a geotextile fabric, the TenCate GeoDetect® system is the first designed specifically for geotechnical applications. This monitoring solution embodies fiber optics on a geotextile fabric, e.g. a textile used into the soil, and combines the benefits of geotextile materials, such as high interface friction in contact with the soil, with the latest fiber optics sensing technologies. It aims to monitor geotechnical structure and to generate early warnings if it detects and localizes the early signs of malfunctioning, such as leaks or instability. This is a customizable solution: Fiber Bragg gratings, Brillouin and Raman scattering can be built into this system. These technologies measure both strain and temperature changes in soil structures. It can provide a leak and deformation location within accuracies resp. 1 l/min/m and 0.02%. The TenCate GeoDetect® solution provides objective, highly precise, and timely in-situ performance information, allowing the design professional and owner to understand system performance in addition to providing alerts for negative "geo-events" (subsidence) and other potentially deleterious events.

  4. Geotechnical properties of cemented sands in steep slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, B.D.; Sitar, N.

    2009-01-01

    An investigation into the geotechnical properties specific to assessing the stability of weakly and moderately cemented sand cliffs is presented. A case study from eroding coastal cliffs located in central California provides both the data and impetus for this study. Herein, weakly cemented sand is defined as having an unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of less than 100 kPa, and moderately cemented sand is defined as having UCS between 100 and 400 kPa. Testing shows that both materials fail in a brittle fashion and can be modeled effectively using linear Mohr-Coulomb strength parameters, although for weakly cemented sands, curvature of the failure envelope is more evident with decreasing friction and increasing cohesion at higher confinement. Triaxial tests performed to simulate the evolving stress state of an eroding cliff, using a reduction in confinement-type stress path, result in an order of magnitude decrease in strain at failure and a more brittle response. Tests aimed at examining the influence of wetting on steep slopes show that a 60% decrease in UCS, a 50% drop in cohesion, and 80% decrease in the tensile strength occurs in moderately cemented sand upon introduction to water. In weakly cemented sands, all compressive, cohesive, and tensile strength is lost upon wetting and saturation. The results indicate that particular attention must be given to the relative level of cementation, the effects of groundwater or surficial seepage, and the small-scale strain response when performing geotechnical slope stability analyses on these materials. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  5. 2. Symposium environmental geotechnics. Papers; 2. Symposium Umweltgeotechnik. Konferenzband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapperich, H. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Geotechnik]|[Kompetenz-Zentrum fuer interdisziplinaeres Flaechenrecycling CIF e.V., Freiberg (ED); Katzenbach, R. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Geotechnike e.V., Essen (Germany); Witt, K.J. [Bauhaus-Universitaet Weimar (Germany); Griessl, D. (eds.) [Verein Freiberger Geotechniker e.V. (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The 2nd symposium of the chapter section 'Environmental Geotechnics' of DGGT follows the event in Weimar 2003 and focuses on the central topics of Landfill - Contaminated Sites - Brownfields. The stream 'Waste management - Waste Site technology' discusses legal requirements and technical alternatives, especially in view of many upcoming closures of landfill sites and associated surface sealing, as well as technical reports of case studies and developments. The contribution 'Ultimate storage of radioactive waste' illustrates the wider dimensions to geotechnical questions. Between the streams of 'Remediation Techniques' and 'Land Recycling/Land Management' a panel discussion 'From Brownfield Remediation to Land Management' is taking place. The aim is to discuss the way forward and the need to take up the opportunity for future town planning as well as the design of conversion sites and expansive former mining areas. Representatives of authorities involved and project participants have submitted their statements in advance to the following question: 1.) status of remediation - research and practice 2.) what practical significance is attributed to different remediation techniques for the remediation of brownfields? 3.) modern town planning/redevelopment of former mining areas - spatial planning - real estate economy - financing models for redeveloping land - which parameters/instruments work? (orig.)

  6. Analysis Of 2H-Evaporator Scale Pot Bottom Sample [HTF-13-11-28H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.

    2013-07-15

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is planning to remove a buildup of sodium aluminosilicate scale from the 2H-evaporator pot by loading and soaking the pot with heated 1.5 M nitric acid solution. Sampling and analysis of the scale material from the 2H evaporator has been performed so that the evaporator can be chemically cleaned beginning July of 2013. Historically, since the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), silicon in the DWPF recycle stream combines with aluminum in the typical tank farm supernate to form sodium aluminosilicate scale mineral deposits in the 2H-evaporator pot and gravity drain line. The 2H-evaporator scale samples analyzed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) came from the bottom cone sections of the 2H-evaporator pot. The sample holder from the 2H-evaporator wall was virtually empty and was not included in the analysis. It is worth noting that after the delivery of these 2H-evaporator scale samples to SRNL for the analyses, the plant customer determined that the 2H evaporator could be operated for additional period prior to requiring cleaning. Therefore, there was no need for expedited sample analysis as was presented in the Technical Task Request. However, a second set of 2H evaporator scale samples were expected in May of 2013, which would need expedited sample analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) confirmed the bottom cone section sample from the 2H-evaporator pot consisted of nitrated cancrinite, (a crystalline sodium aluminosilicate solid), clarkeite and uranium oxide. There were also mercury compound XRD peaks which could not be matched and further X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of the sample confirmed the existence of elemental mercury or mercuric oxide. On ''as received'' basis, the scale contained an average of 7.09E+00 wt % total uranium (n = 3; st.dev. = 8.31E-01 wt %) with a U-235 enrichment of 5.80E-01 % (n = 3; st.dev. = 3.96E-02 %). The measured U-238 concentration was 7

  7. Amaranth farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Kjærgård, Bente

    2008-01-01

    Though amaranth has been studied intensively for its exceptional nutritional properties, little has been reported about its capacity for fighting poverty, securing food supplies, turning migrations, or its impact on the environment and the prospect for mprovement of living conditions of those...... natural resources that small-scale farmers have to combat the abovementioned problems. The study identified several local and regional barriers for increasing the level of farming, production, processing and consumption. A striking and paradoxical limitation is the monopolization practices developed...

  8. Project-based learning in Geotechnics: cooperative versus collaborative teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho-Lopes, Margarida; Macedo, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Since 2007/2008 project-based learning models have been used to deliver two fundamental courses on Geotechnics in University of Aveiro, Portugal. These models have evolved and have encompassed either cooperative or collaborative teamwork. Using data collected in five editions of each course (Soil Mechanics I and Soil Mechanics II), the different characteristics of the models using cooperative or collaborative teamwork are pointed out and analysed, namely in terms of the students' perceptions. The data collected include informal feedback from students, monitoring of their marks and academic performance, and answers to two sets of questionnaires: developed for these courses, and institutional. The data indicate students have good opinion of the project-based learning model, though collaborative teamwork is the best rated. The overall efficacy of the models was analysed (sum of their effectiveness, efficiency and attractiveness). The collaborative model was found more adequate.

  9. Permafrost and geotechnical investigations in Nalaikh Depression of Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dashjamts Dalai; Batsaikhan Anand; Dugersuren Enkhbaatar

    2015-01-01

    Mongolia is a land-locked country in Central Asia, located between Russia and China. The country's high altitude results in cold, dry, and harsh climatic conditions with permafrost being widespread through the territory. Although the capital city Ulaanbaatar is situated in an area with discontinuous permafrost, the downtown section has recently seen a disappearance of permafrost due to an underground central heating system. During the last decade, expansion of the suburbs toward the Nalaikh Depression has resulted in construction of a new residential complex (Urgakh Naran), construction materials trading center, cement factory and agricultural products market. In the next 10 years, projects such as a university campus, logistics center, residential complex, railway and highway extensions connecting Russia and China have been planned. Engineer-ing-geological and geotechnical investigations have been conducted for these construction projects. This paper presents some of the results determining the engineering geocryological conditions of Nalaikh district and offers foundation design options.

  10. Holistic simulation of geotechnical installation processes theoretical results and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides recent developments and improvements in the modeling as well as application examples and is a complementary work to the previous Lecture Notes Vols. 77 and 80. It summarizes the fundamental work from scientists dealing with the development of constitutive models for soils, especially cyclic loading with special attention to the numerical implementation. In this volume the neo-hypoplasticity and the ISA (intergranular strain anisotropy) model in their extended version are presented. Furthermore, new contact elements with non-linear constitutive material laws and examples for their applications are given. Comparisons between the experimental and the numerical results show the effectiveness and the drawbacks and provide a useful and comprehensive pool for all the constitutive model developers and scientists in geotechnical engineering, who like to prove the soundness of new approaches.

  11. Bentonite. Geotechnical barrier and source for microbial life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matschiavelli, Nicole; Kluge, Sindy; Cherkouk, Andrea [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). HZDR Young Investigator Group; Steglich, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    Due to their properties, namely a high swelling capacity and a low hydraulic conductivity, Bentonites fulfil as geotechnical barrier a sealing and buffering function in the nuclear waste repository. Depending on the mineral composition Bentonites contain many suitable electron-donors and -acceptors, enabling potential microbial life. For the potential repository of highly radioactive waste the microbial mediated transformation of Bentonite could influence its properties as a barrier material. Microcosms were set up containing Bentonite and anaerobic synthetic Opalinus-clay-pore water solution under an N{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}-atmosphere to elucidate the microbial potential within selected Bentonites. Substrates like acetate and lactate were supplemented to stimulate potential microbial activity. First results show that bentonites represent a source for microbial life, demonstrated by the consumption of lactate and the formation of pyruvate. Furthermore, microbial iron-reduction was determined, which plays a crucial role in Betonite-transformation.

  12. Geotechnical Issues in Total System Performance Assessments of Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HO,CLIFFORD K.; HOUSEWORTH,JIM; WILSON,MICHAEL L.

    1999-12-21

    A Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain consists of integrated sub-models and analyses of natural and engineered systems. Examples of subsystem models include unsaturated-zone flow and transport, seepage into drifts, coupled thermal hydrologic processes, transport through the engineered barrier system, and saturated-zone flow and transport. The TSPA evaluates the interaction of important processes among these subsystems, and it determines the impact of these processes on the overall performance measures (e.g., dose rate to humans). This paper summarizes the evaluation, abstraction, and combination of these subsystem models in a TSPA calculation, and it provides background on the individual TSPA subsystem components that are most directly impacted by geotechnical issues. The potential impact that geologic features, events, and processes have on the overall performance is presented, and an evaluation of the sensitivity of TSPA calculations to these issues is also provided.

  13. Ferrosilt (Red Mud): Geotechnical Properties and Soil Mechanical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, F. C.

    The disposal of ferrosilt tailings creates problems because of the rather unusual geotechnical properties. Ferrosilt samples from three different bauxites were tested in connection with the alumina plant project in Wilhelmshaven (West Germany). The results of these laboratory tests explain various ferrosilt slides experienced during the past. Should ferrosilt be utilized for application where better physical qualities of the material are required it is possible to separate the coarser fraction from the finer fractions by using cyclons. The soil mechanical properties of the coarser fraction — called ferrosilt-sand — is of much better quality than the ferrosilt proper. On the other hand the quality of the finder fractions is not much inferior to the ferrosilt.

  14. Incorporating learning outcomes into an introductory geotechnical engineering course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegel, Gregg L.

    2013-06-01

    The article describes the process of incorporating a set of learning outcomes into a geotechnical engineering course. The outcomes were developed using Bloom's taxonomy and define the knowledge, skills, and abilities the students are expected to achieve upon completion of the course. Each outcome begins with an action-oriented verb corresponding to one of six levels of achievement in the cognitive domain (remember, understand, apply, analyse, evaluate, and create). The article includes a listing of outcomes articulated for several course topics. The article also summarises how the outcomes were linked to lesson plans and assignments. Example formative and summative assessment methods and results are presented with the results of teaching evaluations, which indicate that students value this approach to course design. The article concludes with a discussion of how the above approach has been implemented in upper-division courses. Outcomes are presented for a course on earth retention systems.

  15. Geotechnical characterization of peat-based landfill cover materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Afshin Khoshand; Mamadou Fall

    2016-01-01

    Natural methane (CH4) oxidation that is carried out through the use of landfill covers (biocovers) is a promising method for reducing CH4 emissions from landfills. Previous studies on peat-based landfill covers have mainly focused on their biochemical properties (e.g. CH4 oxidation capacity). However, the utilization of peat as a cover material also requires a solid understanding of its geotechnical properties (thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical), which are critical to the performance of any biocover. Therefore, the objective of this context is to investigate and assess the geotechnical properties of peat-based cover materials (peat, peat-sand mixture), including compaction, consolidation, and hydraulic and thermal conductivities. The studied materials show high compressibility to the increase of vertical stress, with compression index (Cc) values ranging from 0.16 to 0.358. The compressibility is a function of sand content such that the peat-sand mixture (1:3) has the lowest Cc value. Both the thermal and hydraulic conductivities are functions of moisture content, dry density, and sand content. The hydraulic conduc-tivity varies from 1.74 × 10-9 m/s to 7.35 × 10-9 m/s, and increases with the increase in sand content. The thermal conductivity of the studied samples varies between 0.54 W/(m K) and 1.41 W/(m K) and it in-creases with the increases in moisture and sand contents. Increases in sand content generally increase the mechanical behavior of peat-based covers; however, they also cause relatively high hydraulic and thermal conductivities which are not favored properties for biocovers.

  16. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2001 - June 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-09-20

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports on a quarterly basis to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after excavation of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2001, to June 30, 2002. It is divided into ten chapters. The remainder of Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation located in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5, 6, and 7 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the three main portions of the WIPP underground facility (the access drifts, the Northern Experimental Area, and the Waste Disposal Area). Chapter 8 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture and stratigraphic mapping, borehole and core logging, and borehole observations. Chapter 9 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation performance to the design requirements. Chapter 10 lists the References and Bibliography.

  17. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 1999-June 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions

    2002-10-01

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations during operations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports on a quarterly basis to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after excavation of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 1999, to June 30, 2000. It is divided into ten chapters. The remainder of Chapter 1 provides background information on the WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation located in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5, 6, and 7 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the three main portions of the WIPP underground facility (the access drifts, the Northern Experimental Area, and the Waste Disposal Area). Chapter 8 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which includes fracture mapping, borehole logging, and borehole observations. Chapter 9 provides an assessment of the hydrologic conditions near the Exhaust Shaft. Chapter 10 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation

  18. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2000-June 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions

    2002-09-26

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations during operations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports on a quarterly basis to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after excavation of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2000, to June 30, 2001. It is divided into ten chapters. The remainder of Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation located in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5, 6, and 7 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the three main portions of the WIPP underground facility (the access drifts, the Northern Experimental Area, and the Waste Disposal Area). Chapter 8 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture and stratigraphic mapping, borehole and core logging, and borehole observations. Chapter 9 provides an assessment of the hydrologic conditions near the Exhaust Shaft. Chapter 10 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the

  19. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 1998-June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse

    2002-08-29

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations during operations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports on a quarterly basis to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after excavation of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 1998, to June 30, 1999. It is divided into nine chapters. The remainder of Chapter 1.0 provides background information on the WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2.0 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3.0 and 4.0 describe the geomechanical instrumentation located in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the three main portions of the WIPP underground facility (the access drifts, the Northern Experimental Area, and the Waste Disposal Area). Chapter 8.0 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which includes fracture mapping, borehole logging, and borehole observations. Chapter 9.0 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation performance to the design requirements.

  20. Mineralogy and geotechnical characteristics of some pottery clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujib Olamide ADEAGBO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical properties of soils, which are tremendously influenced by the active clay minerals in soil, are of great importance in geotechnical engineering. This paper investigates the clay-sized particles of the Igbara-Odo pottery clay, and compares results obtained with available data on the bulk sample, to determine their correlation and underline the dependence of the geotechnical properties of the bulk clay material on the clay-sized particles. The bulk clay sample consists of 52% sand-size particles, 21% silt and 27% clay. Analysis of the clay-sized particles and the bulk materials shows: specific gravity of 2.07 and 2.66, liquid limit of 91.0% and 33.0%, plastic limit of 27.5% and 14.3%, plasticity index of 63.5% and 18.7% and a linear shrinkage of 7.9% and 5.4%, for both clay-sized particles and bulk clay respectively. The activity value of the clay material (0.64 suggests the presence of Kaolinite and Ilite; and these were confirmed with X-Ray diffraction on the bulk sample and clay-sized particles. X-Ray diffraction patterns shows distinctive peaks which highlight the dominance of Kaolinite (with 8 peaks in the pottery clay sample for both clay-sized particles and bulk material; while traces of other clay minerals like Illite and Halloysite and rock minerals like Mica, Feldspar and Chrysotile were also found. These results suggest that the clay possesses high viability in the manufacturing of ceramics, refractory bricks, paper, fertilizer and paint. The clay material can be used as a subgrade in road construction, since it possesses low swelling characteristics.

  1. Geotechnical Parameters of Alluvial Soils from in-situ Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młynarek, Zbigniew; Stefaniak, Katarzyna; Wierzbicki, Jedrzej

    2012-10-01

    The article concentrates on the identification of geotechnical parameters of alluvial soil represented by silts found near Poznan and Elblag. Strength and deformation parameters of the subsoil tested were identified by the CPTU (static penetration) and SDMT (dilatometric) methods, as well as by the vane test (VT). Geotechnical parameters of the subsoil were analysed with a view to using the soil as an earth construction material and as a foundation for buildings constructed on the grounds tested. The article includes an analysis of the overconsolidation process of the soil tested and a formula for the identification of the overconsolidation ratio OCR. Equation 9 reflects the relation between the undrained shear strength and plasticity of the silts analyzed and the OCR value. The analysis resulted in the determination of the Nkt coefficient, which might be used to identify the undrained shear strength of both sediments tested. On the basis of a detailed analysis of changes in terms of the constrained oedometric modulus M0, the relations between the said modulus, the liquidity index and the OCR value were identified. Mayne's formula (1995) was used to determine the M0 modulus from the CPTU test. The usefullness of the sediments found near Poznan as an earth construction material was analysed after their structure had been destroyed and compacted with a Proctor apparatus. In cases of samples characterised by different water content and soil particle density, the analysis of changes in terms of cohesion and the internal friction angle proved that these parameters are influenced by the soil phase composition (Fig. 18 and 19). On the basis of the tests, it was concluded that the most desirable shear strength parameters are achieved when the silt is compacted below the optimum water content.

  2. Fiber-optic sensor applications in civil and geotechnical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Wolfgang R.; Krebber, Katerina

    2011-09-01

    Different types of fiber-optic sensors based on glass or polymeric fibers are used to evaluate material behavior or to monitor the integrity and long-term stability of load-bearing structure components. Fiber-optic sensors have been established as a new and innovative measurement technology in very different fields, such as material science, civil engineering, light-weight structures, geotechnical areas as well as chemical and high-voltage substations. Very often, mechanical quantities such as deformation, strain or vibration are requested. However, measurement of chemical quantities in materials and structure components, such as pH value in steel reinforced concrete members also provides information about the integrity of concrete structures. A special fiber-optic chemical sensor for monitoring the alkaline state (pH value) of the cementitious matrix in steel-reinforced concrete structures with the purpose of early detection of corrosion-initiating factors is described. The paper presents the use of several fiber-optic sensor technologies in engineering. One example concerns the use of highly resolving concrete-embeddable fiber Fabry-Perot acoustic emission (AE) sensors for the assessment of the bearing behaviour of large concrete piles in existing foundations or during and after its installation. Another example concerns fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors attached to anchor steels (micro piles) to measure the strain distribution in loaded soil anchors. Polymer optical fibers (POF) can be — because of their high elasticity and high ultimate strain — well integrated into textiles to monitor their deformation behaviour. Such "intelligent" textiles are capable of monitoring displacement of soil or slopes, critical mechanical deformation in geotechnical structures (dikes, dams, and embankments) as well as in masonry structures during and after earthquakes.

  3. Numerical analysis and geotechnical assessment of mine scale model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khanal Manoj; Adhikary Deepak; Balusu Rao

    2012-01-01

    Various numerical methods are available to model,simulate,analyse and interpret the results; however a major task is to select a reliable and intended tool to perform a realistic assessment of any problem.For a model to be a representative of the realistic mining scenario,a verified tool must be chosen to perform an assessment of mine roof support requirement and address the geotechnical risks associated with longwall mining.The dependable tools provide a safe working environment,increased production,efficient management of resources and reduce environmental impacts of mining.Although various methods,for example,analytical,experimental and empirical are being adopted in mining,in recent days numerical tools are becoming popular due to the advancement in computer hardware and numerical methods.Empirical rules based on past experiences do provide a general guide,however due to the heterogeneous nature of mine geology (i.e.,none of the mine sites are identical),numerical simulations of mine site specific conditions would lend better insights into some underlying issues.The paper highlights the use of a continuum mechanics based tool in coal mining with a mine scale model.The continuum modelling can provide close to accurate stress fields and deformation.The paper describes the use of existing mine data to calibrate and validate the model parameters,which then are used to assess geotechnical issues related with installing a new high capacity longwall mine at the mine site.A variety of parameters,for example,chock convergences,caveability of overlying sandstones,abutment and vertical stresses have been estimated.

  4. GEOTECHNICAL MODELS OF THE ARCH FOUNDATIONS OF THE MASLENICA BRIDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Novosel

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available On the site of Maslenica bridge structural tectonic, geophysical and engineering geological investigations, geotechnical drilling and laboratory sample testings were performed. Maslenica anticline is characteristic for the investigated area. It is built from the limestone of Cretaceous age. The anticline has an asymmetrical form with the vergence of the axial plane towards the north. Reverse faults with recent activities are present. The recent activity was proved by the discovery of the broken stalactite with the displacement of 11 cm, whose age is 36000 years. On quite young stalactites (stalagmites in the cave on the west side, no displacements were noticed. For the next period of 500 years the maximal possible displacement of 2.0 cm is foreseen. Smaller caves with the dimensions of 1 m3, were formed on the intersections of the reverse faults and greater joints. The canyon Novsko ždrilo was formed in the fault shear zone with tectonic transport to the right. According to the range of fracture, three characteristic types of rock masses were separated by engineering geological investigations. According to »Geomechanical classification« (RMR the first type corresponds to II to III class, while the second type corresponds to IV class, and the third type corresponds to V class (mylonite. Because of the complexity of the terrain structure, original engineering geological bases of design have not enabled the direct application of the analysis of stress-strain behaviour. Because of that the simplified geotechnical models were done. They enabled the projecting of foundation in the rock mass and renewal of poor quality rock mass.

  5. Temperature effects on geotechnical and hydraulic properties of bentonite hydrated with inorganic salt solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashid, H. M. A.; Kawamoto, K.; Saito, T.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, International Journal of GEOMATE. This study investigated the combined effect of temperature and single-species salt solutions on geotechnical properties (swell index and liquid limit) and hydraulic conductivity of bentonite applying different cation types, concentrations, and temperature...

  6. Shallow subsurface structures and geotechnical characteristics of Tal El-Amarna area, middle Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Toni

    2013-12-01

    The concluded Vs and Vp values provide a preliminary estimation of the geotechnical parameters and site classification for the shallow soil as they are of great interest in civil engineering applications.

  7. HYDRO-GEOTECHNIC L SSESSMENT OF N OPEN W STE DISPOS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2014-11-28

    Nov 28, 2014 ... Key Words: Hydro-Geotechnical, Assessment, Waste, Ilorin. Introduction. Suitable land ... composting, open burning and river dump of refuse. These attempts ..... paper submitted in fulfillment of house resolution 715. State of ...

  8. Sustainable use of oil sands for geotechnical construction and road building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This symposium provides a forum for exchange of ideas on current research nationally and internationally on the use of industrial byproducts and other recycled materials in geotechnical construction. A key objective is to identify new opportunities...

  9. Recent Advances and Future Challenges for Artificial Neural Systems in Geotechnical Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Shahin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks (ANNs are a form of artificial intelligence that has proved to provide a high level of competency in solving many complex engineering problems that are beyond the computational capability of classical mathematics and traditional procedures. In particular, ANNs have been applied successfully to almost all aspects of geotechnical engineering problems. Despite the increasing number and diversity of ANN applications in geotechnical engineering, the contents of reported applications indicate that the progress in ANN development and procedures is marginal and not moving forward since the mid-1990s. This paper presents a brief overview of ANN applications in geotechnical engineering, briefly provides an overview of the operation of ANN modeling, investigates the current research directions of ANNs in geotechnical engineering, and discusses some ANN modeling issues that need further attention in the future, including model robustness; transparency and knowledge extraction; extrapolation; uncertainty.

  10. Effect of rice husk ash on some geotechnical properties of lateritic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    The study is an investigation into the effect of rice husk ash (RHA) on some geotechnical properties of a ... Optimum Moisture Content (OMC), California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and Consistency indices. ... RHA used as overall binder system for.

  11. Applications of Uncertainty Theory to Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Mine Design

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, John Markus

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty analysis remains at the forefront of geotechnical design, due to the predictive nature of the applied discipline. Designs must be analysed within a reliability-based framework, such that inherent risks are demonstrated to decision makers. This research explores this paradigm in three important areas of geotechnical design; namely, continuum, Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) and discontinuum modelling. Continuum modelling examined the negative effects of ignoring spatial heteroge...

  12. Proceedings, Seminar on Probabilistic Methods in Geotechnical Engineering Held at Vicksburg, Mississippi on 21 September 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Probabilistic Methods in Geotechnical Engineering- by Edward Kavazanjian, Jr., Jean -Lou Chameau, G. Wayne Clough, Tarik Hadk-Hamou Probabilistic...S4 -9 * .4 -d *~4 LQJ .9 *1 APPLICATIONS 0 OF 0PROBABILISTIC METHODS IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING by Edward Kavazanj ian, Jr. Jean -Lou Chameau G. Wayne...1977; Bazant and Krizek, 1976; Castro, 1975, 1977; Chameau, 1981; Christian and Swiger, 1975; DeAlba, Chan and Seed, 1975; Donovan, 1971; Drnevich, 1972

  13. Proceedings of GeoSask 2005 : The 58. Canadian Geotechnical Conference and 6. Joint CGS-IAH Groundwater Specialty Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Canadian and international geotechnical community gathered at this conference to exchange information on recent research and development concerning all sectors of geotechnical engineering, applied geology and hydrogeology. The technical sessions addressed a wide range of geotechnical engineering issues such as soil mechanics and geodynamics; geoenvironmental issues associated with contaminant transport in landfills; hydrogeology issues such as aquifer properties, hydrogeochemistry, groundwater resources, hydrogeological mapping, contaminants and remediation; geosynthetics; geotechnical modelling; rock engineering; engineering geology; mining geotechnics; buried structures; unsaturated soils and aquitards. The presentations included several geotechnical case studies that focused on broad issues such as hydraulic properties of sedimentary rock aquifers, design criteria for geotextile filters used in agricultural drainage, the long term performance of containment systems, slope stability analysis of landfills, methane emissions from landfills, shear zones in weak rocks and tailings at oil sands operations. The conference featured approximately 200 presentations, of which 17 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. GEOLOGICAL AND GEOTECHNICAL CITY KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM OF THE URBAN AREAS IN THE CENTRAL PART OF DENIZLI CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Kumsar, Halil; Sefer Beran ÇELİK; Kaya, Mustafa

    2004-01-01

    Geological and geotecnical investigations which are carried out at the first stage of a settlement place of a city play an important role on the development of urbanization. Engineering geology maps which are prepared by using the data of geological and geotechnical investigation guide urban plans and settlement. In this study a geological and geotechnical city information system of Denizli city (JEO-KBS) was developed by evaluating the Project data of the Geological, Geotechnical and Hydroge...

  15. Geotechnical Properties of Rubber Tires and Sediments Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sellaf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental work was undertaken to study the effect of rubber tires on the geotechnical properties of a dredged sediment, using a mixing ratio of large size. For comparison, two types of soil were studied (dredged sediment from Fergoug dam and Tizi Tuff from the north west of Algeria. Taking into account the high compressibility and the low water absorption of the rubber tires, grain size analysis, density, Atterberg limits analysis, chemical composition, direct shear tests, loading-unloading tests, modified Proctor and CBR tests are performed on the two soils and their mixtures with different scrap tire rubber (10, 20, 25 and 50%. The results show that liquid limits and plastic indexes decrease with the scrap tire rubber content and that the decrease is more significant for soil with high plasticity. Cohesion also decreases with scrap tire rubber content when the internal friction angle is vacillating. Compression and recompression indexes increase gradually with the scrap tire rubber content and the variation for compression index is more significant for the two soils. Compaction characteristics and CBR values decrease with scrap tire rubber content. The CBR values for W=3% are important compared to those with W=5% excepted for mixture with (75% tuff and 25% scrap tire rubber. The results show that the scrap tire rubber can be used as a reinforcement material for dredged soil, but with a content that should not highly affect the compressibility.

  16. Geotechnical reconnaissance of the 2002 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.; Thompson, E.; Minasian, D.; Moss, R.E.S.; Collins, B.D.; Sitar, N.; Dreger, D.; Carver, G.

    2004-01-01

    The 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake resulted in 340 km of ruptures along three separate faults, causing widespread liquefaction in the fluvial deposits of the alpine valleys of the Alaska Range and eastern lowlands of the Tanana River. Areas affected by liquefaction are largely confined to Holocene alluvial deposits, man-made embankments, and backfills. Liquefaction damage, sparse surrounding the fault rupture in the western region, was abundant and severe on the eastern rivers: the Robertson, Slana, Tok, Chisana, Nabesna and Tanana Rivers. Synthetic seismograms from a kinematic source model suggest that the eastern region of the rupture zone had elevated strong-motion levels due to rupture directivity, supporting observations of elevated geotechnical damage. We use augered soil samples and shear-wave velocity profiles made with a portable apparatus for the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) to characterize soil properties and stiffness at liquefaction sites and three trans-Alaska pipeline pump station accelerometer locations. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  17. Profiles and Geotechnical Properties for some Basra Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas J. Al-Taie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Basra province is known for its logistic location for trading activity and oil industry. By geological point of view, Basra areas are believed to consist mainly of alternation of (clay, silty clay, clayey silt, silt and sand type of soil. Any development of industry in this area should be affected by the occurrence of the clay soil. That is why the investigation to the soil is more than necessary. In this case, a vast testing program was carried out by the author to evaluate the various formations constituting the of some Basra soils. An attempt to characterize and discuss the nature, minerals, engineering behavior and field properties of soil samples extracted from more than one thousand and one hundred boring liner meters of three sites was performed. The average values of various geotechnical design properties are calculated and plotted with depth. A preview of climate, geology, seismicity and earthquakes of the study area was conducted. Finally, the typical soil profiles were prepared.

  18. Organic farming at the farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Madsen, Niels; Ørum, Jens Erik

    The purpose of this report is to present possible impacts of new technology and changes in legislation on the profitability of different types of organic farms. The aim is also to look at both the current and future trends in the organic area in Denmark. The farm level analyses are carried out...... as part of a larger project entitled “Economic analyses of the future development of organic farming – effects at the field, farm, sector and macroeconomic level”. The project links effects at the field-level with analyses at the farm level. These effects are then used in sector and macroeconomic analyses...

  19. Organic Farming in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, C.R.; Heß, J

    1999-01-01

    During the present decade, Austria has experienced a dramatic increase in organic farming among those countries that comprise the European Union (EU). For example, in 1992, approximately 2,000 farms were practicing organic, ecological, or biodynamic farming methodes. By 1997 the number of certified organic farms plus those in transition from conventional farming had increased 10-fold to some 20,000 farms. This represents almost 9% of the total farms in Austria and an area of 345,375 ha, or 10...

  20. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE AND BECHTEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, M; I. Arango, I; Michael Mchood, M

    2007-07-17

    The authors describe two aspects of geotechnical engineering; site characterization utilizing the CPT and recognition of aging as a factor affecting soil properties. These methods were pioneered by Professor Schmertmann and are practiced by the Bechtel Corporation in general and at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, in particular. This paper describes a general subsurface exploration approach that we have developed over the years. It consists of ''phasing'' the investigation, employing the principles of the observational method suggested by Peck (1969) and others. In doing so, we have found that the recommendations proposed by Sowers in terms of borehole spacing and exploration cost, are reasonable for developing an investigation program, recognizing that through continuous review the final investigation program will evolve. At the SRS shallow subsurface soils are of Eocene and Miocene age. It was recognized that the age of these deposits would have a marked effect on their cyclic resistance. A field investigation and laboratory testing program was devised to measure and account for aging as it relates to the cyclic resistance of the site soils. Recently, a panel of experts (Youd et al., 2001) has made recommendations regarding the liquefaction assessment of soils. This paper will address some of those recommendations in the context of re-assessing the liquefaction resistance of the soils at the SRS. It will be shown that, indeed, aging plays a major role in the cyclic resistance of the soils at the SRS, and that aging should be accounted for in liquefaction potential assessments for soils older than Holocene age.

  1. The STRATAFORM Project: U.S. Geological Survey geotechnical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasian, Diane L.; Lee, Homa J.; Locat, Jaques; Orzech, Kevin M.; Martz, Gregory R.; Israel, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    This report presents physical property logs of core samples from an offshore area near Eureka, CA. The cores were obtained as part of the STRATAFORM Program (Nittrouer and Kravitz, 1995, 1996), a study investigating how present sedimentation and sediment transport processes influence long-term stratigraphic sequences preserved in the geologic record. The core samples were collected during four separate research cruises to the northern California study area, and data shown in the logs of the cores were collected using a multi-sensor whole core logger. The physical properties collected are useful in identifying stratigraphic units, ground-truthing acoustic imagery and sub-bottom profiles, and in understanding mass movement processes. STRATA FORmation on Margins was initiated in 1994 by the Office of Naval Research, Marine Geology and Geophysics Department as a coordinated multi-investigator study of continental-margin sediment transport processes and stratigraphy (Nittrouer and Kravitz, 1996). The program is investigating the stratigraphic signature of the shelf and slope parts of the continental margins, and is designed to provide a better understanding of the sedimentary record and a better prediction of strata. Specifically, the goals of the STRATAFORM Program are to (Nittrouer and Kravitz, 1995): - determine the geological relevance of short-term physical processes that erode, transport, and deposit particles and those processes that subsequently rework the seabed over time scales - improve capabilities for identifying the processes that form the strata observed within the upper ~100 m of the seabed commonly representing 104-106 years of sedimentation. - synthesize this knowledge and bridge the gap between time scales of sedimentary processes and those of sequence stratigraphy. The STRATAFORM Program is divided into studies of the continental shelf and the continental slope; the geotechnical group within the U.S. Geological Survey provides support to both parts

  2. A geotechnical characterization of lunar soils and lunar soil simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John Carl

    Many of the essential materials needed for the construction of a lunar base can be produced from the resources found on the lunar surface. Processing natural resources on the moon into useful products will reduce the need, and the cost, to bring everything from earth. The lunar regolith has been intensely studied with respect to understanding the formation of the moon and the earth, but as a construction material, the regolith is poorly characterized and poorly understood. To better understand how to 'work' with the lunar regolith, four loosely related research projects were conducted. Two projects relate to characterizing and understanding the geotechnical properties of regolith, two projects relate to manipulating and processing granular materials in the lunar environment. The shapes of lunar soil grains are characterized using fractals - results directly and quantitatively describe the rugged reentrant nature of the large scale structure and the relatively smooth surface texture of lunar soil grains. The nature of lunar soil cohesion is considered using tensile strength measurements of lunar soil simulant. It is likely that mechanical interlocking of irregular grains is the primary cause of lunar soil cohesion. This mechanism is highly sensitive to grain shape, but relatively insensitive to particle packing density. A series of experiments are conducted to try to understand how granular particles might sort by size in a vacuum. Even in a vacuum, fine particle subjected to shear strain segregate by a mechanism called the random fluctuating sieve The random fluctuating sieve also controls particle motion that determines the structure of wind-blown sand ripples. Hybrid microwave heating was used to sinter large structural bricks from lunar soil stimulant. While heating was prone to thermal runaway, microwave heating holds great promise as a simple, direct method of making sintered structural bricks.

  3. Geo-technical Instrumentation And Monitoring For Tuen Mun Station, West Railway, Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Geo-technical instrumentation and monitoring is very important for the construction of civil works in urban area, by which the affect or even damage to the existing building and underground utilities in the working site or vicinity caused by construction activities can be predicted. During the construction of Tuen Mun station, West Railway, Hong Kong, series of Geo-technical instruments were installed and monitored in time, and the monitoring data were transferred to the Geo-technical Monitoring System in the headquarter of the Employer promptly. Meanwhile, the alarming data were responded immediately and the modified construction methods have been adopted to avoid the damage to the building and underground utility in working site to ensure the smooth construction of the station.

  4. Geotechnical Parameters from Seismic Measurements: Two Field Examples from Egypt and Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Mohamed H.

    2016-03-18

    © 2016 EEGS. Geotechnical parameters were used to determine subsurface rock quality for construction purposes. We summarize the mathematical relationships used to calculate the geotechnical parameters from P- and S-wave velocities and density values. These relationships are applied to two field examples; the first is a regional seismic study in Egypt and the second is a 2-D seismic profile recorded in Saudi Arabia. Results from both field examples are used to determine the subsurface rock quality and locate zones that should be avoided during construction. We suggest combining all geotechnical parameters into one map using a normalized-weighted relation, which helps to locate the zones with high versus low rock quality for engineering purposes.

  5. The portable GIS applied to geotechnical inspections; O GIS portatil para inspecoes geotecnicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabaco, Lis M.; Lins, Alexandre F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Costa, Rogerio M.; Freitas, Carlos F. [CONCREMAT, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to implement an interface using tool to pack the GIS application to carry out a field inspection. The solution was implemented on pocket equipment using a simplified map and database integrated with the GIS Corporative. The main objective is to avoid paper work in field inspections. The emphases are on geotechnical inspections in order to assist the recuperation of information about points with geotechnical risk. There are interfaces with external device as GPS for insertion of points of risk. A set of tools are developed for bidirectional synchronization among the Corporative GIS and the pocket devices. The project focused geotechnical inspections on field, in order to synchronize automatically the information collected with the pocket GIS application with a Web server, packing all information from field operation to managers. (author)

  6. Geotechnical effects of the 2015 magnitude 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake and aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Robb E S; Thompson, Eric; Kieffer, D Scott; Tiwari, Binod; Hashash, Youssef M A; Acharya, Indra; Adhikari, Basanta; Asimaki, Domniki; Clahan, Kevin B.; Collins, Brian D.; Dahal, Sachindra; Jibson, Randall W.; Khadka, Diwakar; Macdonald, Amy; Madugo, Chris L M; Mason, H Benjamin; Pehlivan, Menzer; Rayamajhi, Deepak; Uprety, Sital

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes the geotechnical effects of the 25 April 2015 M 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake and aftershocks, as documented by a reconnaissance team that undertook a broad engineering and scientific assessment of the damage and collected perishable data for future analysis. Brief descriptions are provided of ground shaking, surface fault rupture, landsliding, soil failure, and infrastructure performance. The goal of this reconnaissance effort, led by Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance, is to learn from earthquakes and mitigate hazards in future earthquakes.

  7. Landslides analysis using geological, geotechnical and geophysical data from experimental measurements in Prahova County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Stoica

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The landslide that is the subject of this paper occurred inPrahova County. The present work was carried out to study the spatialinfluence of geological and morphological factors upon landslideoccurrence on a local scale by using geotechnical and geophysical methods in order to determine local trigger parameters. The input data for the slopestability analysis were collected from topographic investigations, geological mapping. In addition, soil geotechnical parameters were collated from a series of in situ tests. A geophysical survey was applied by using vertical electrical soundings in order to detect the existence and continuity of a potential sliding surface.

  8. Geotechnical and Physico-Chemical Characterization of Low Lime Fly Ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Ali Baig Moghal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the possibility of using low-lime fly ashes, the physical and chemical properties which have a direct bearing on their geotechnical and geoenvironmental behaviors have been investigated. In this paper, two types of low-lime fly ashes, originating from India, have been used. A brief account of various methods adopted in characterizing their physical, chemical, and geotechnical properties is presented. The relative importance of each of these properties in enhancing the bulk applicability of fly ashes has been brought out.

  9. Sustainable use of oil sands for geotechnical construction and road building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available of Oil Sand,? Final Progress Report, Phases I, II, & III, Submitted to Caterpillar, Inc., 2005. [3] Dusseault, M.B., and Morgenstern, N.R., ?Shear Strength of Athabasca Oil Sands,? Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 15, 1978, pp. 216?238. [4] Agar..., J.G., Morgenstern, N.R., and Scott, J.D., ?Shear Strength and Stress-Strain Behavior of Athabasca Oil Sand at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures,? Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 24, 1987, pp. 1?10. [5] Samieh, A.M., and Wong, R...

  10. Geotechnical issues and guidelines for storage of compressed air in excavated hard rock caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Fossum, A.F.

    1982-04-01

    The results of a literature survey on the stability of excavated hard rock caverns are presented. The objective of the study was to develop geotechnical criteria for the design of compressed air energy storage (CAES) caverns in hard rock formations. These criteria involve geologic, hydrological, geochemical, geothermal, and in situ stress state characteristics of generic rock masses. Their relevance to CAES caverns, and the identification of required research areas, are identified throughout the text. This literature survey and analysis strongly suggests that the chief geotechnical issues for the development and operation of CAES caverns in hard rock are impermeability for containment, stability for sound openings, and hydrostatic balance.

  11. Geotechnical environmental aspects of geothermal power generation at Herber, Imperial Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-10-01

    The feasibility of constructing a 25-50 MWe geothermal power plant using low salinity hydrothermal fluid as the energy source was assessed. Here, the geotechnical aspects of geothermal power generation and their relationship to environmental impacts in the Imperial Valley of California were investigated. Geology, geophysics, hydrogeology, seismicity and subsidence are discussed in terms of the availability of data, state-of-the-art analytical techniques, historical and technical background and interpretation of current data. Estimates of the impact of these geotechnical factors on the environment in the Imperial Valley, if geothermal development proceeds, are discussed.

  12. Geotechnical Trainspotting: Early Observations From the New Seattle Liquefaction Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, P.; Yelin, T.; Weaver, C. S.; Steidl, J. H.; Steller, R. A.; Gomberg, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Seattle Liquefaction Array (SLA) is a geotechnical monitoring array established by the US Geological Survey earlier this year in industrialized Seattle, Washington. Funding for the array was provided by the Advanced National Seismic System, at the behest of the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network's regional advisory committee. The SLA aims to further the understanding of earthquake-induced liquefaction, particularly the processes associated with repeatedly liquefied soils and the liquefaction of deeply buried deposits. The SLA occupies a site at which shaking-induced liquefaction was observed during earthquakes in 1949, 1965, and 2001. The SLA site is seismically noisy but important as it is similar to sites that host many structures in Seattle. The site is comprised chiefly by loose-to-dense interbedded coastal and river outwash sands. Instrumentation at the site includes four 3-component accelerometers at the surface and at depths of 5.4, 44.9, and 56.4 meters, a surface barometer, and six piezometers at depths of 6.9, 22.9, 28.9, 43.1, 46.9, and 51.9 meters. Emplacement depths were selected to sample a variety of liquefaction susceptibilities. Continuous data from all sensors are sampled at 200 samples per second, and are available from the IRIS DMC archive, with a buffer of data stored on site in the event of telemetry failure. To date, only a handful of earthquakes have produced shaking strong enough at the SLA to be observed within the high levels of background noise. However, the noise itself provides data useful to constrain the low-strain seismic and pressure response of the site. Notably, the array is within a few meters of a set of busy railroad tracks. Passing and parked trains expose the site to a broad bandwidth of deformations, including seismic frequencies, albeit with a source at the surface. Many times each day the site experiences both high levels of shaking, and step changes in the pressure field of a variety of amplitudes that may last from

  13. Arra-Funded Geotechnical Characterization of Seismographic Station Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, W. S.; Yong, A.; Stokoe, K. H.; Diehl, J.; Martin, A. J.; Jack, S.

    2010-12-01

    Through the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the USGS allocated funding to help support research capabilities, as well as improve and upgrade facilities in the bureau. As part of this effort, the USGS contracted a consortium consisting of principals from academia and commerce to perform geotechnical site characterization at 189 seismographic station sites—185 in California and four in the central U.S. In this pilot project of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS), site characterizations will be conducted at: 130 Southern California Seismographic Network (SCSN), 25 California Geological Survey (CGS), 30 Northern California Seismographic Network (NCSN), and four Central U.S. (CEUS) sites. Each site investigation, involving passive and active surface-wave techniques, includes one or more of established approaches such as the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR), 2-D array microtremor, 1-D refraction microtremor (ReMi), spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW), and multi-channel analysis of surface wave (MASW) methods. From this multi-method approach, we determine Vs (shear-wave velocity) profiles and the calculated Vs30 (the average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 meters depth) for each site. In general, preliminary results based on field reports indicate observed records match expected values for surficial geologic conditions. Unexpected results are typically attributable to inaccurate or coarse map information and alternative explanations are verified through interpretations of local geologic structure observed during field investigations. For example, we find map-based geology to be consistent with observed records at the SCSN station CI.PLS, but not the case for CI.CWC, where inaccurate map information are at odds with our recorded velocities. At station CI.TIN (near edge of basalt outcrop) and NCSN station NC.MMLB (on rhyolite outcrop), the records observed in the shallow surface do not match expected rock values. Our pilot

  14. Organic farming at the farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Madsen, Niels; Ørum, Jens Erik

    The purpose of this report is to present possible impacts of new technology and changes in legislation on the profitability of different types of organic farms. The aim is also to look at both the current and future trends in the organic area in Denmark. The farm level analyses are carried out...... as part of a larger project entitled “Economic analyses of the future development of organic farming – effects at the field, farm, sector and macroeconomic level”. The project links effects at the field-level with analyses at the farm level. These effects are then used in sector and macroeconomic analyses......, which are described in other reports from Food and Resource Economic Institute (Jacobsen, 2005 and Andersen et al., 2005). This gives coherent results from the field to the macroeconomic level regarding changes in technology and legislation....

  15. CPTu-Based Geotechnical Site Assessment for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firouzianbandpey, Sarah; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2012-01-01

    Cone penetration testing (CPT) is a fast and reliable means of conducting site investigations. Different methods exist for soil profile interpretation from CPT data but their validity still needs to be verified. A wind farm site at Aarhus, where numerous CPTu tests have been conducted is considered....... The raw cone penetration measurements are scrutinized for data connected with physical or mechanical errors, and these are removed. The corrected data then were used for classifying soil by several charts presented in the literature. The results are further compared and verified with laboratory...

  16. Values in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted...

  17. Values in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted...

  18. Utilisation of transparent synthetic soil surrogates in geotechnical physical models: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abideen Adekunle Ganiyu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to obtain non-intrusive measurement of deformations and spatial flow within soil mass prior to the advent of transparent soils have perceptible limitations. The transparent soil is a two-phase medium composed of both the synthetic aggregate and fluid components of identical refractive indices aiming at attaining transparency of the resulting soil. The transparency facilitates real life visualisation of soil continuum in physical models. When applied in conjunction with advanced photogrammetry and image processing techniques, transparent soils enable the quantification of the spatial deformation, displacement and multi-phase flow in physical model tests. Transparent synthetic soils have been successfully employed in geotechnical model tests as soil surrogates based on the testing results of their geotechnical properties which replicate those of natural soils. This paper presents a review on transparent synthetic soils and their numerous applications in geotechnical physical models. The properties of the aggregate materials are outlined and the features of the various transparent clays and sands available in the literature are described. The merits of transparent soil are highlighted and the need to amplify its application in geotechnical physical model researches is emphasised. This paper will serve as a concise compendium on the subject of transparent soils for future researchers in this field.

  19. Geotechnical properties of deep-sea sediments from central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khadge, N.H.

    Physical and geotechnical properties of 2 sediment cores from the nodule rich area of the Central Indian Ocean Basin are studied to know the sediment characteristics. Average water content of sediment from 2 deep-sea cores is 289% with 151...

  20. Assessing geotechnical centrifuge modelling in addressing variably saturated flow in soil and fractured rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brendon R; Brouwers, Luke B; Van Tonder, Warren D; Dippenaar, Matthys A

    2017-01-05

    The vadose zone typically comprises soil underlain by fractured rock. Often, surface water and groundwater parameters are readily available, but variably saturated flow through soil and rock are oversimplified or estimated as input for hydrological models. In this paper, a series of geotechnical centrifuge experiments are conducted to contribute to the knowledge gaps in: (i) variably saturated flow and dispersion in soil and (ii) variably saturated flow in discrete vertical and horizontal fractures. Findings from the research show that the hydraulic gradient, and not the hydraulic conductivity, is scaled for seepage flow in the geotechnical centrifuge. Furthermore, geotechnical centrifuge modelling has been proven as a viable experimental tool for the modelling of hydrodynamic dispersion as well as the replication of similar flow mechanisms for unsaturated fracture flow, as previously observed in literature. Despite the imminent challenges of modelling variable saturation in the vadose zone, the geotechnical centrifuge offers a powerful experimental tool to physically model and observe variably saturated flow. This can be used to give valuable insight into mechanisms associated with solid-fluid interaction problems under these conditions. Findings from future research can be used to validate current numerical modelling techniques and address the subsequent influence on aquifer recharge and vulnerability, contaminant transport, waste disposal, dam construction, slope stability and seepage into subsurface excavations.

  1. Geotechnical behavior of fly ash mixed with randomly oriented fiber inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaniraj, S.R.; Gayathri, V. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2003-06-01

    Efforts are underway to improve the use of fly ash in several ways, with the geotechnical utilization also forming an important aspect of these efforts. A number of studies have been conducted recently to investigate the influence of randomly oriented fibers on the geotechnical behavior of coarse grained and fine grained soils. However, very few studies have been carried out on fiber-reinforced fly ash. An experimental study was carried out to investigate the influence of randomly oriented fiber inclusions on the geotechnical behavior of two Indian fly ashes. Polyester fibers of two different types and a constant fiber content of 1% (by dry weight) were used in the experiments. The raw material content of the fibers was 100% recycled plastic waste. This paper presents the results of compaction tests, triaxial shear tests, and other geotechnical characterization tests carried out on the raw and fiber-reinforced fly ashes. The fiber inclusions increased the strength of the raw fly ash specimens and changed their brittle behavior into ductile behavior.

  2. The Position of Geotechnical Engineering and Risk Management in Dutch Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broere, W.; Van Dalen, J.; Van der Schrier, J.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Dutch national research program GeoImpuls an inventory has been made of the state of the education at Dutch institutes of higher education and post-graduate education in so far as this education concerns geotechncial engineering and geotechnical risk management. Significant difference

  3. Utilisation of transparent synthetic soil surrogates in geotechnical physical models:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abideen Adekunle Ganiyu; Ahmad Safuan A. Rashid; Mohd Hanim Osman

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to obtain non-intrusive measurement of deformations and spatial flow within soil mass prior to the advent of transparent soils have perceptible limitations. The transparent soil is a two-phase medium composed of both the synthetic aggregate and fluid components of identical refractive indices aiming at attaining transparency of the resulting soil. The transparency facilitates real life visualisation of soil continuum in physical models. When applied in conjunction with advanced photogrammetry and image processing techniques, transparent soils enable the quantification of the spatial deformation, displace-ment and multi-phase flow in physical model tests. Transparent synthetic soils have been successfully employed in geotechnical model tests as soil surrogates based on the testing results of their geotechnical properties which replicate those of natural soils. This paper presents a review on transparent synthetic soils and their numerous applications in geotechnical physical models. The properties of the aggregate materials are outlined and the features of the various transparent clays and sands available in the literature are described. The merits of transparent soil are highlighted and the need to amplify its application in geotechnical physical model researches is emphasised. This paper will serve as a concise compendium on the subject of transparent soils for future researchers in this field.

  4. Geotechnical Evaluation of a Ghanaian Black Cotton Soil for use as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Page 1. GMJ Vol. 14, June, 2013. 21. 1 Introduction ... Akayuli, C. F. A., Gidigasu, S. S. R. and Gawu, S. K.Y. (2013), “Geotechnical Evaluation of a ... 1,1 Characteristics of Typical Clay Liners ... between 0.3 m and 1.4 m below ground level from.

  5. A novel combined approach based on HTF-Microbi.Array and qPCR for a reliable characterization of the Bifidobacterium-dominated gut microbiota of breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanni, Manuela; Turroni, Silvia; Biagi, Elena; Severgnini, Marco; Consolandi, Clarissa; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

    2013-06-01

    The High Taxonomic Fingerprint (HTF)-Microbi.Array is a fully validated phylogenetic microarray platform for a high taxonomic level characterization of the human gut microbiota. However, suffering from PCR-dependent biases in Bifidobacterium quantification, this tool is less appropriate when utilized for the characterization of the Bifidobacterium-dominated gut microbiota of breast-fed infants. To overcome this, we implemented a new combined approach based on HTF-Microbi.Array and qPCR for a reliable fingerprint of the infant-type microbiota. This methodology was applied in a preliminary comparative study of the faecal microbiota of eight breast-fed infants, aged 2-6 months, and five young adults. Whereas the adult gut microbiota was largely dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, the infant-type community was mainly dominated by Bifidobacterium, with Enterobacteriaceae as the second dominant component. In accordance with the most recent literature in the field, the obtained microbiota fingerprints properly depicted the adult- and the infant-type microbiota, demonstrating the reliability of the HTF-Microbi.Array/qPCR combined approach in reflecting the peculiarities of the two intestinal microbial ecosystems. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Physically-based landslide susceptibility modelling: geotechnical testing and model evaluation issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, Ivan; Mergili, Martin; Schneider-Muntau, Barbara; Alvioli, Massimiliano; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    We used the software r.slope.stability for physically-based landslide susceptibility modelling in the 90 km² Collazzone area, Central Italy, exploiting a comprehensive set of lithological, geotechnical, and landslide inventory data. The model results were evaluated against the inventory. r.slope.stability is a GIS-supported tool for modelling shallow and deep-seated slope stability and slope failure probability at comparatively broad scales. Developed as a raster module of the GRASS GIS software, r.slope.stability evaluates the slope stability for a large number of randomly selected ellipsoidal potential sliding surfaces. The bottom of the soil (for shallow slope stability) or the bedding planes of lithological layers (for deep-seated slope stability) are taken as potential sliding surfaces by truncating the ellipsoids, allowing for the analysis of relatively complex geological structures. To take account for the uncertain geotechnical and geometric parameters, r.slope.stability computes the slope failure probability by testing multiple parameter combinations sampled deterministically or stochastically, and evaluating the ratio between the number of parameter combinations yielding a factor of safety below 1 and the total number of tested combinations. Any single raster cell may be intersected by multiple sliding surfaces, each associated with a slope failure probability. The most critical sliding surface is relevant for each pixel. Intensive use of r.slope.stability in the Collazzone Area has opened up two questions elaborated in the present work: (i) To what extent does a larger number of geotechnical tests help to better constrain the geotechnical characteristics of the study area and, consequently, to improve the model results? The ranges of values of cohesion and angle of internal friction obtained through 13 direct shear tests corresponds remarkably well to the range of values suggested by a geotechnical textbook. We elaborate how far an increased number of

  7. A Machine Learning Approach to Estimate Riverbank Geotechnical Parameters from Sediment Particle Size Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Fabio; Brooks, Andrew; Spencer, John; Borombovits, Daniel; Curwen, Graeme; Olley, Jon

    2015-04-01

    Assessing bank stability using geotechnical models traditionally involves the laborious collection of data on the bank and floodplain stratigraphy, as well as in-situ geotechnical data for each sedimentary unit within a river bank. The application of geotechnical bank stability models are limited to those sites where extensive field data has been collected, where their ability to provide predictions of bank erosion at the reach scale are limited without a very extensive and expensive field data collection program. Some challenges in the construction and application of riverbank erosion and hydraulic numerical models are their one-dimensionality, steady-state requirements, lack of calibration data, and nonuniqueness. Also, numerical models commonly can be too rigid with respect to detecting unexpected features like the onset of trends, non-linear relations, or patterns restricted to sub-samples of a data set. These shortcomings create the need for an alternate modelling approach capable of using available data. The application of the Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) approach is well-suited to the analysis of noisy, sparse, nonlinear, multidimensional, and scale-dependent data. It is a type of unsupervised artificial neural network with hybrid competitive-cooperative learning. In this work we present a method that uses a database of geotechnical data collected at over 100 sites throughout Queensland State, Australia, to develop a modelling approach that enables geotechnical parameters (soil effective cohesion, friction angle, soil erodibility and critical stress) to be derived from sediment particle size data (PSD). The model framework and predicted values were evaluated using two methods, splitting the dataset into training and validation set, and through a Bootstrap approach. The basis of Bootstrap cross-validation is a leave-one-out strategy. This requires leaving one data value out of the training set while creating a new SOM to estimate that missing value based on the

  8. Alley Farming in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerapol Silakul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Poverty alleviation and environmental preservation are very important issues to many governments. Alley farming is beneficial to the environment because it conserves soil and sustains yields over time. Specifically, alley farming reduces soil erosion, which is a major problem in Thailand. Alley farming was conducted on a farmer’s field at Khaokwan Thong, a village in Uthaithani Province, Northern Thailand. We did a two-by-two factorial with and without alley farming, and with and without fertilizer. From this study, we observed that the two species used, Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia auriculiformis, grow well in Thailand, and that alley farming is suitable for Thailand. Few Thai farmers have heard about alley farming. However, it is nevertheless useful to know that there is potential for alley farming in Thailand using the two species. These plants, based upon the diameter and height measurements provided, grew well.

  9. The Role of Geotechnical Monitoring at Design of Foundation Structures and their Verification – Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drusa Marián

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, design of the square foundations has not posed a problem in engineering practice. Foundations are designed on the basis of determining the bearing capacity of the subsoil, where irregularities in its determination oftentimes affect the efficiency (economy, while possible failures of bearing resistance of foundation soil are rare. More important factor is the resulting deformation of second limit state under consideration - settlement, relative settlement, tilting and excessive deformation. The current pressure on the cost reduction of design preparation and obtaining important data from geotechnical survey often results in many cases into adverse effects of settlement and differential settlement of foundations of the buildings. The question lies in a variety of analytical methods for assessing the service ability of limit states used in European countries as well as the underestimation of the proposal risks. Authors of the article want to document the fact that the most important influence on adequate and safe design is the most accurate determination of geotechnical parameters and the appropriate selection of the calculation method. For the purposes of explanation, Monte Carlo simulation technique was used to test a variety of geotechnical parameters, which will be presented in second part of article. If all construction processes are carried out successfully, rarely are the buildings evaluated once again. However, when the opportunity to participate in the stage of engineering survey and collection of geotechnical parameters as well as the control of the construction process by tools of geotechnical monitoring presents itself, it is valuable to perform the analysis of the entire process for pointing out hidden risks.

  10. General Relationship between Field Electrical Resistivity Value (ERV and Basic Geotechnical Properties (BGP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hazreek Zainal Abidin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrical resistivity technique is a popular alternative method used in geotechnical soil investigations. Most past applications have been particularly in the area of subsurface ground investigations such as to locate boulder, bedrock, water table, etc. Traditionally, this method was performed by a geophysicist expert for data acquisition, processing and interpretation. The final outcome from the electrical resistivity technique was an anomaly image which used to describe and conclude the particular soil condition measured. The anomalies highlighted uncertainties on the nature of soil that was often variable and depended on each particular site condition that gave a site dependent soil electrical resistivity value (ERV. Hence, this study demonstrates a relationship between ERV (ρ and some of the basic geotechnical properties (BGP such as soil moisture content (w, grain size of geomaterial (CS or FS, density (ρbulk and ρdry, porosity (η, void ratio (e and Atterberg limit (AL. Different soil samples were collected and tested under field and laboratory conditions to determine basic geotechnical properties immediately after the field electrical resistivity method was performed. It was found that the electrical resistivity value was different for number of soils tested and was relatively subjective to variations in the geotechnical properties. In other words, electrical resistivity value was greatly influenced by the geotechnical properties as the ERV was higher due to the lower moisture content, void ratio and porosity with a higher value of soil density and vice versa. The relationship of ERV and BGP can be described by ρ α 1/w, ρ α CS, ρ α 1/FS, ρ α ρbulk/dry and ρ α 1/AL. Hence, it was shown that behaviour of ERV was significantly influenced by the variation of basic soil properties and thus applicable to support and enhance the conventional stand alone anomaly outcome which is traditionally used for interpretation purposes.

  11. Comparison of tegaserod (HTF 919) and its main human metabolite with cisapride and erythromycin on cardiac repolarization in the isolated rabbit heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drici, M D; Ebert, S N; Wang, W X; Rodriguez, I; Liu, X K; Whitfield, B H; Woosley, R L

    1999-07-01

    Tegaserod (HTF 919) is a new drug being developed for gastrointestinal motility disorders. Because other gastrointestinal prokinetic agents, such as cisapride and erythromycin, cause slowing of cardiac repolarization and have been implicated in the development of the potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmia, torsades de pointes, a study was initiated to determine whether tegaserod and its main human metabolite adversely influence cardiac repolarization. By using isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts, we show that QT intervals remain unchanged at concentrations of tegaserod from 0.5 to 10 microM. It was not until the tegaserod concentration was increased to 50 microM (roughly 500-5,000 times more concentrated than those typically found in human plasma after administration of recommended clinical dosages), that a small, but significant increase in the QT interval (12+/-4%; p 70%, respectively; p < 0.01; n = 4). Erythromycin also caused significant lengthening of QT intervals (11+/-2%; p < 0.001; n = 4), although 100 microM concentrations of this drug were required to achieve this effect. These results demonstrate that both cisapride and erythromycin can slow cardiac repolarization at therapeutic doses and that tegaserod's lack of QT prolongation at therapeutic doses suggests that it has the potential to be a safer alternative to cisapride as a gastrointestinal prokinetic agent.

  12. Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The technology behind constructing wind farms offshore began to develop in 1991 when the Vindeby wind farm was installed off the Danish coast (11 Bonus 450 kW turbines). Resource assessment, grid connection, and wind farm operation are significant challenges for offshore wind power just...... as it is for the more traditional onshore wind power, which has been under development since the 1970s. However, offshore projects face extra technical challenges some of which requires in-depth scientific investigations. This article deals with some of the most outstanding challenges concerning the turbine structure...... concern are the problems associated with locating the turbines close together in a wind farm and the problems of placing several large wind farms in a confined area. The environmental impacts of offshore wind farms are also treated, but not the supply chain, that is, the harbors, the installation vessels...

  13. Geotechnical zoning of urban foundations: Avilés case study (N Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Díaz-Díaz, Luis; Arias, Daniel; López-Fernández, Carlos; Pando, Luis

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to carry out a geotechnical evaluation of the underground within an urban setting in relation to types of foundations, and particularly at expansion zones. The ultimate aim is to produce a foundation zonation map at the scale 1:10,000. Furthermore, a general methodology that way be extrapolated to other cities is proposed. This work focused on the city of Aviles like a case study; a medium-sized city which has significant industrial and port areas and singular equipment in its surroundings. This city is located in the Spanish north coast and spread out on both flanks of the Avilés stuary. This means that there are an important development of recent deposits that implies different geotechnical units with a highly variable behavior, generally poor. In contrast, the bedrock is more homogenous, formed by Permo-Triassic red clay and marl. Locally there are also outcrops of carbonates and conglomeratic Jurassic levels. Also, on the whole area is important to note the presence of heterogeneous anthropic deposits along the whole area as a consequence, mainly, of an intense industrial activity. Permo-Triassic clayey and marly materials imply special engineering issues in foundations as a consequence of their composition (likely weathering, presence of gypsum, low bearing capacity). Moreover, recent deposits (marine and alluvial origin) show different geotechnical behaviors depending on their geometry and grain size. Hence, many areas of the city are especially problematic when designing and implementing foundations. The methodology followed in this study consisted in elaborating a geological-geotechnical exhaustive survey of the urban underground on a scale of 1/10.000. Based on this, a multi criteria analysis of the identified geotechnical units was carried out taking into consideration all the lithological, geomorphological, hidrogeological and geotechnical aspects. Taken into account all of these criteria, a number of areas are defined based

  14. Boosting Farm Produce Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of escalating inflation,securing farm produce supply and stablizing grain prices could help to alleviate economic pressure The Chinese Government has pledged to secure a stable supply of farm produce.According to a document released after the annual Central Rural Work Conference held on December 22-23 in Beijing,preventing short supplies of farm produce and avoiding"ex-

  15. ABOUT SPONGE FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Pećarević

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Sponges are the simplest multicellular animals. Farming of sponges is facilitated by their asexual reproduction and great ability of regeneration. Farming of filter-feeding sponges is environment friendly, and it can positively influence on environmental impact of other aquaculture activities. Natural populations of sponges in Mediterranean Sea are endangered by inappropriate overfishing. Farming of sponges is possible solution for regeneration and protection of natural populations.

  16. Geotechnical aspects of subsurface seabed disposal of high level radioactive wastes. Annual progress report, January--December 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.J.; Calnan, D,I.

    1978-05-01

    The status of the following major studies is reported: geotechnical properties of deep sea clays; experimental water migration studies;laboratory hole closure experiments; and in-site heat transfer experiments. (LK)

  17. Laboratory assessment of the influence of the proportion of waste foundry sand on the geotechnical engineering properties of clayey soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mgangira, Martin B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil improvement can be achieved through mechanical stabilisation using industrial byproducts. Clayey soils were blended with waste foundry sand to examine its influence on the geotechnical engineering properties of the soils. The waste foundry sand...

  18. Effect of benthic disturbance on geotechnical characteristics of sediments from nodule mining area in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khadge, N.H.

    Benthic disturbance is carried out in the Central Indian Basin for environmental impact assessment studies. Geotechnical measurements were made on sediments collected before and after disturbing the top 10-15 cm of the seafloor. Results indicate...

  19. Discussion on Several Issues in Geotechnical Engineering%浅议岩土工程中的几个问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查兴晓; 陈宏超

    2013-01-01

    文章首先阐述了岩土工程的概念,并针对岩土工程中存在的问题对岩土参数的选择、岩石地基承载力的问题、片状砂的工程特性以及地基施工过程中的一些注意点等做出一些研究讨论,最后做出总结。%This paper firstly describes the concept of geotech-nical engineering, and aiming at the existing problems of geo-technical parameter selection, the bearing capacity of rock gro-und problems, sheet sand foundation engineering characteris-tics and some points of construction process in the geotechnic-al engineering makes some research and discussion, final y makes a summary.

  20. Farm Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  1. GEOLOGICAL AND GEOTECHNICAL CITY KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM OF THE URBAN AREAS IN THE CENTRAL PART OF DENIZLI CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil KUMSAR

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Geological and geotecnical investigations which are carried out at the first stage of a settlement place of a city play an important role on the development of urbanization. Engineering geology maps which are prepared by using the data of geological and geotechnical investigation guide urban plans and settlement. In this study a geological and geotechnical city information system of Denizli city (JEO-KBS was developed by evaluating the Project data of the Geological, Geotechnical and Hydrogeological Properties of Denizli Municipality Settlement Place which was carried out by the research team of the Geological Engineering Department of Pamukkale University. Topography, urban plan and distric maps are digitised into the system. A knowledge base system was written for evaluating geotechnical tests of field and loboratory, geophysical and geological data. Engineering geology maps were prepared in JEO-KBS system by using the data of the knowledge base system. It is possible to reach geological and geotechnical data on a defined point on the graphic screen of JEO-KBS. The developed city knowledge base system gives an important contribution to the municipalities for urban planning and re-evaluation of geological and geotechnical data.

  2. An overview of the geotechnical damage brought by the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanta Hazarika,; Takaji Kokusho,; Kayen, Robert; Dashti, Shideh; Yutaka Tanoue,; Shuuichi Kuroda and Kentaro Kuribayashi,; Daisuke Matsumoto,; Furuichi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake with a moment magnitude of 7.0 (Japanese intensity = 7) that struck on April 16 brought devastation in many areas of Kumamoto Prefecture and partly in Oita Prefecture in Kyushu Region, Japan. The earthquake succeeds a foreshock of magnitude 6.5 (Japanese intensity = 7) on April 14. The authors conducted two surveys on the devastated areas: one during April 16-17, and the other during May 11-14. This report summarizes the damage brought to geotechnical structures by the two consecutive earthquakes within a span of twenty-eight hours. This report highlights some of the observed damage and identifies reasons for such damage. The geotechnical challenges towards mitigation of losses from such earthquakes are also suggested.

  3. Use of Internet Technology for the Improvement of Execution Management in Geotechnical Engineering Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Degebrodt; Marcus Mejstrik; Frank Rackwitz; Stavros Savidis; Frank Schley; Klaus-Peter Holz

    2008-01-01

    An intemet-based information and monitoring platform for the specific requirements of geotechni-cal engineering projects is presented.The platform is based on a hybrid-model approach consisting of a model-based information management system and a resource management system,the latter also referred to as DCMS.Project key information can be accessed via the main user interface,the"graphical navigator".The graphical navigator provides also a direct access to additional information in the DCMS.Prompt reac-tion in exceptional situations as well as in daily work gets an extensive support.In practical applications it has been proven that this platform seems to be an adequate tool especially for risk assessment and man-agement in geotechnical engineenng projects.Components and advantages of the platform as well as ex-periences from the applications are presented and discussed in the paper.

  4. Physical and geotechnical properties of cement-treated clayey soil using silica nanoparticles: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasabkolaei, N.; Janalizadeh, A.; Jahanshahi, M.; Roshan, N.; Ghasemi, Seiyed E.

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the use of nanosilica to improve geotechnical characteristics of cement-treated clayey soil from the coastal area of the eastern Caspian Sea in the Golestan province, Iran. Atterberg limits, unconfined compressive strength, and California bearing ratio (CBR) tests were performed to investigate the soil plastic and strength parameters. The specimens were prepared by mixing soil with 9% cement and various contents of nanosilica. An ultrasonic bath device was used to disperse nanosilica in water. The addition of nanosilica enhanced the strength parameters of the clayey soil. Moreover, a nanosilica percentage of 1.5% by weight of cement improved the compressive strength of the cement-treated clay up to 38%, at age of 28 days. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM) were used to evaluate specimen morphology. SEM and AFM results confirm the experimental ones. Therefore, nanosilica can be employed for soil improvement in geotechnical engineering.

  5. Review of geotechnical measurement techniques for a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report presents a description of geotechnical measurement techniques that can provide the data necessary for safe development - i.e., location, design, construction, operation, decommissioning and abandonment - of a radioactive waste repository in bedded salt. Geotechnical data obtained by a diversity of measurement techniques are required during all phases of respository evolution. The techniques discussed in this report are grouped in the following categories: geologic, geophysical and geodetic; rock mechanics; hydrologic, hydrogeologic and water quality; and thermal. The major contribution of the report is the presentation of extensive tables that provide a review of available measurement techniques for each of these categories. The techniques are also discussed in the text to the extent necessary to describe the measurements and associated instruments, and to evaluate the applicability or limitations of the method. More detailed discussions of thermal phenomena, creep laws and geophysical methods are contained in the appendices; references to detailed explanations of measurement techniques and instrumentation are inluded throughout the report.

  6. Identification of parameters in nonlinear geotechnical models using extenden Kalman filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestorović Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct measurement of relevant system parameters often represents a problem due to different limitations. In geomechanics, measurement of geotechnical material constants which constitute a material model is usually a very diffcult task even with modern test equipment. Back-analysis has proved to be a more effcient and more economic method for identifying material constants because it needs measurement data such as settlements, pore pressures, etc., which are directly measurable, as inputs. Among many model parameter identification methods, the Kalman filter method has been applied very effectively in recent years. In this paper, the extended Kalman filter – local iteration procedure incorporated with finite element analysis (FEA software has been implemented. In order to prove the effciency of the method, parameter identification has been performed for a nonlinear geotechnical model.

  7. Nonparametric Monitoring for Geotechnical Structures Subject to Long-Term Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Bum Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonparametric, data-driven methodology of monitoring for geotechnical structures subject to long-term environmental change is discussed. Avoiding physical assumptions or excessive simplification of the monitored structures, the nonparametric monitoring methodology presented in this paper provides reliable performance-related information particularly when the collection of sensor data is limited. For the validation of the nonparametric methodology, a field case study was performed using a full-scale retaining wall, which had been monitored for three years using three tilt gauges. Using the very limited sensor data, it is demonstrated that important performance-related information, such as drainage performance and sensor damage, could be disentangled from significant daily, seasonal and multiyear environmental variations. Extensive literature review on recent developments of parametric and nonparametric data processing techniques for geotechnical applications is also presented.

  8. Geotechnical properties of sediments from North Pacific and Northern Bermuda Rise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A J; Laine, E P; Lipkin, J; Heath, G R; Akers, S A

    1980-01-01

    Studies of geotechnical properties for the Sub-seabed Disposal Program have been oriented toward sediment characterization related to effectiveness as a containment media and determination of detailed engineering behavior. Consolidation tests of the deeper samples in the North Pacific clays indicate that the sediment column is normally consolidated. The in-situ coefficient of permeability (k) within the cored depth of 25 meters is relatively constant at 10/sup -7/ cm/sec. Consolidated undrained (CIU) triaxial tests indicate stress-strain properties characteristic of saturated clays with effective angles of friction of 35/sup 0/ for smectite and 31/sup 0/ for illite. These results are being used in computer modeling efforts. Some general geotechnical property data from the Bermuda Rise are also discussed.

  9. The Geotechnical Board National Research Council. [Annual] activities report, March 1, 1991--June 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeallie, P.H.

    1993-08-11

    This report covers the activities of the Geotechnical Board and its two national committees, the US National Committee for Rock Mechanics (USNC/RM) and the US National Committee on Tunneling Technology (USNC/TT), for the period from March 1, 1991 to June 30, 1992. The report covers a 16-month period, through June of this year, to bring the reporting period in line with the National Research Council`s (NRC) fiscal year. Subsequent reports will cover the 12-month period July 1--June 30, unless individual contracts require otherwise. A description of the Geotechnical Board and its committees within the context of the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council, as well as lists of current members of the board and national committees can be found in Attachment A.

  10. Safe mining face advance and support installation practice in mechanical miner workings under different geotechnical conditions.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Canbulat, I

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Final Project Report Safe mining face advance and support installation practice in mechanical miner workings under different geotechnical conditions I Canbulat and JN van der Merwe Research agency : CSIR : Division of Mining Technology Project..., including changing the organisation of work and the design of safe systems of work, necessary to (a) eliminate any recorded risk; (b) control the risk at source; (c) minimise the risk; and (d) in so far as the risk remains (i) provide for personal...

  11. Geotechnical characterization and seismic response of shallow geological formations in downtown Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Teves-Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available  The geological and geotechnical characterization of shallow formations is one of the main steps in performing a microzonation study. This paper presents an example of the usefulness of the information compiled in a geological and geotechnical database for the estimation of the seismic response of the shallower formations of the Lisbon downtown area of Baixa. The geotechnical characterization of this area was performed based on the analysis of Standard Penetration Test (SPT data compiled in the geological and geotechnical database. This database, connected to a geoscientific information system (CGIS, allows, also, the definition of 2D geological profiles used for estimating the thickness of the shallower layers. The shear-wave velocities (VS for each layer were estimated from empirical correlations using mean SPT values computed from the statistical evaluation of the compiled data. These VS values were further calibrated with ambient vibration recording analysis. The seismic response of Baixa’s superficial deposits was estimated by applying a 1D equivalent linear method to a set of soil profiles, regularly distributed across the area, and using synthetic accelerograms to simulate input motions associated with probable earthquake occurrences in Lisbon. The results are presented in terms of maps of predominant frequencies, with the corresponding amplification level, as well as spectral amplification factors for 1 Hz and 2.5 Hz. The results show that the fundamental frequency of the Baixa area is between 1.2 Hz and 2 Hz, for the whole central valley, reaching 3 Hz near the edges where anthroprogenic and alluvial deposits have less expression. Amplification factors up to 5 were obtained. These results were achieved regardless of the considered input motion. The similarity of the obtained fundamental frequency with the natural frequency of Baixa’s old building stock increases the probability of resonance effects in future earthquakes.

  12. Influence of Storage Conditions on Geotechnical Properties of Ariake Clay and on its Chemical Stabilization

    OpenAIRE

    シナ, コスラナント; SINAT, KOSLANANT

    2006-01-01

    Influence of storage conditions on geotechnical properties of Ariake clay and on its chemical stabilization is investigated to make use of the surplus clay as construction materials. The influence factors in lime and cement stabilization including salts, diatom and clay minerals were studied. The experiments were set up by mixing clays with various proportions of studied factors. As a result, for Bangkok clay, Kaolin and Bentonite, the factors improving the unconfined compressive strength of...

  13. Geotechnical Analysis of Five Shelby Tube Samples from H-Area Retention Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.A.

    1999-06-02

    Geotechnical and geochemical analyses were performed on five Shelby tube samples collected in the H-Area Retention Basin (HRB) during July and August of 1998. The samples were collected as part of the HRB characterization study. The test results, which are documented in this report, will be used to support the HRB contaminant fate and transport modeling/analysis and to evaluate remedial options. The results will also be used as a base line for future treatability studies.

  14. River Embankment and Bank Failure: A Study on Geotechnical Characteristics and Stability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Hossain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Embankment failure and riverbank erosion are common problem in Bangladesh. Almost every year earthen embankments and riverbanks are facing problems like erosion, breaching or retirements. Among many reasons the major causes are considered due to the use of geotechnically unstable materials, improper method of construction, seepage and sliding. In this study the problem is considered geotechnical point of view where the geotechnical properties of failed Jamuna river embankment material and Padma riverbank material were investigated. Moreover, stability analysis technique of embankment has been reviewed through a case study of Manu river embankement. Approach: Sample materials were collected during field investigation and tested at laboratory according to Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS. Limit equilibrium stability analysis and steady state seepage analysis was conducted for Manu river embankment to review the existing design procedure of embankment. Results: Study results reveal that the soil of Jamuna river embankment is not well graded sand and the permeability is found minimum of 1.29×10-5 cm sec−1 (at w = 24% which increases rapidly in submerge condition. The maximum strength is found 51.8 kN m−2 which is not preferable as embankment material. Moreover, the slope is not well protected that makes the embankment vulnerable to erosion. In contrast, the soil of Padma riverbank contains mostly sand with 25% clay content. Both permeability and strength of bank material decrease rapidly with the increase of water content. Nevertheless, tension crack and toe erosion also accelerate the mass failure mechanism of riverbank. From case study the Factor of Safety (FS is found overestimated of about 22-24% in stability analysis of embankment in usual practice. Conclusion: Embankment soil needs to be improved geotechnically to minimize mass failure. Geo-bags, cement composites with reinforcement could be used for

  15. Migrant Farm Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  16. Not Your Family Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Grogg, Jill E.

    2007-01-01

    The information industry continues to consolidate, just as agribusiness has consolidated and now dominates farming. Both the family farm and the small information company still exist but are becoming rarer in an age of mergers, acquisitions, and increased economies of scale. Small companies distinguish themselves by high quality, special themes,…

  17. Effects of Dissolved Alum on the Geotechnical Properties of Lateritic Soil for Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga Oludolapo AMU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to study the effects of dissolved alum on the geotechnical properties of lateritic soil for road construction. Preliminary tests were performed on three samples, A, B and C for identification and classification purposes followed by the consistency limit tests. Geotechnical property tests (compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compression test and triaxial were also performed on the samples, both at the stabilized and unstabilized states by adding varying amounts of alum (5, 10 and 15g of alum/liter to the soil samples. The results show ed that the addition of alum significantly reduced the strength of the three soil samples. Maximum Dry Density (MDD increased simultaneously as the Optimum Moisture Content (OMC increased, the CBR values decreased from 15.2 to 0.9%, 13.1 to 1.3% and 14.0 to 1.2% in samples A, B and C , respectively. Shear strength values also decreased from 43 to 15, 49 to 16 and 41 to 16 kN/m2 in samples A , B and C, respectively. The study concluded that alum -soil is detrimental to the geotechnical properties of lateritic soil for road construction.

  18. Introduction of Microbial Biopolymers in Soil Treatment for Future Environmentally-Friendly and Sustainable Geotechnical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Chang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil treatment and improvement is commonly performed in the field of geotechnical engineering. Methods and materials to achieve this such as soil stabilization and mixing with cementitious binders have been utilized in engineered soil applications since the beginning of human civilization. Demand for environment-friendly and sustainable alternatives is currently rising. Since cement, the most commonly applied and effective soil treatment material, is responsible for heavy greenhouse gas emissions, alternatives such as geosynthetics, chemical polymers, geopolymers, microbial induction, and biopolymers are being actively studied. This study provides an overall review of the recent applications of biopolymers in geotechnical engineering. Biopolymers are microbially induced polymers that are high-tensile, innocuous, and eco-friendly. Soil–biopolymer interactions and related soil strengthening mechanisms are discussed in the context of recent experimental and microscopic studies. In addition, the economic feasibility of biopolymer implementation in the field is analyzed in comparison to ordinary cement, from environmental perspectives. Findings from this study demonstrate that biopolymers have strong potential to replace cement as a soil treatment material within the context of environment-friendly construction and development. Moreover, continuing research is suggested to ensure performance in terms of practical implementation, reliability, and durability of in situ biopolymer applications for geotechnical engineering purposes.

  19. CPT Profiling and Laboratory Data Correlations for Deriving of Selected Geotechnical Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulko, Roman; Drusa, Marián; Vlček, Jozef; Mečár, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Currently, can be seen a new trend in engineering geological survey, where laboratory analysis are replaced by in situ testing methods, which are more efficient and cost effective, and time saving too. A regular engineering geological survey cannot be provided by simple core drillings, macroscopic description (sometimes very subjective), and then geotechnical parameters are established based on indicative standardized values or archive values from previous geotechnical standards. The engineering geological survey is trustworthy if is composed of laboratory and in-situ testing supplemented by indirect methods of testing, [1]. The prevalence of rotary core drilling for obtaining laboratory soil samples from various depths (every 1 to 3 m), cannot be a more enhanced as continues evaluation of strata and properties e.g. by CPT Piezocone (every 1 cm). Core drillings survey generally uses small amounts of soil samples, but this is resulting to a lower representation of the subsoil and underestimation of parameters. Higher amounts of soil samples make laboratory testing time-consuming and results from this testing can be influenced by the storage and processing of the soil samples. Preference for geotechnical surveys with in situ testing is therefore a more suitable option. In situ testing using static and dynamic penetration tests can be used as a supplement or as a replacement for the (traditional) methods of surveying.

  20. -wave velocity test for assessment of geotechnical properties of some rock materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saffet Yagiz

    2011-07-01

    -wave velocity test, a non-destructive and easy method to apply in both field and laboratory conditions, has increasingly been conducted to determine the geotechnical properties of rock materials. The aim of this study is to predict the rock properties including the uniaxial compressive strength, Schmidt hardness, modulus of elasticity, water absorption and effective porosity, slake durability index, saturated and dry density of rock using -wave velocity (p). For this purpose geotechnical properties of nine different rock types were determined in the laboratory and their mineralogical composition examined using thin section analysis. Utilizing the generated data, sets of empirical equations were developed between p and relevant quantified rock parameters. The validity of the obtained empirical equations was confirmed using statistical analysis. It is evident that rock texture and mineralogical compositions affect the geotechnical properties of rock materials. Therefore, the best relationship obtained between both E and UCS with p in the correlation coefficient of 0.92 and 0.95 in that order. It is concluded that p could be practically used for estimating the measured rock properties except dry and saturated density of rocks ( = 0.58 and 0.46 respectively).

  1. Geotechnical Environmental Aspects of Geothermal Power Generation at Heber, Imperial Valley, California. Topical report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-10-01

    This report presents a portion of the results from a one-year feasibility study sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to assess the feasibility of constructing a 25-50 MWe geothermal power plant using low salinity hydrothermal fluid as the energy source. The impact of power generation from hydrothermal resources on subsurface water flow, seismicity and subsidence are of acute interest in the determination of the environmental acceptance of geothermal energy. At the same time, the experience and data bases in these areas are very limited. The objective of the project was to assess the technical, geotechnical, environmental and economic feasibility of producing electricity from hydrothermal resources like those known to exist in the US. The objective of this part of the study was to investigate the geotechnical aspects of geothermal power generation and their relationship to environmental impacts in the Imperial Valley of California. This report discusses geology, geophysics, hydrogeology, seismicity and subsidence in terms of the availability of data, state-of-the-art analytical techniques, historical and technical background and interpretation of current data. it also discusses estimates of the impact of these geotechnical factors on the environment in the Imperial Valley, if geothermal development proceeds.

  2. CPT Profiling and Laboratory Data Correlations for Deriving of Selected Geotechnical Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulko Roman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, can be seen a new trend in engineering geological survey, where laboratory analysis are replaced by in situ testing methods, which are more efficient and cost effective, and time saving too. A regular engineering geological survey cannot be provided by simple core drillings, macroscopic description (sometimes very subjective, and then geotechnical parameters are established based on indicative standardized values or archive values from previous geotechnical standards. The engineering geological survey is trustworthy if is composed of laboratory and in-situ testing supplemented by indirect methods of testing, [1]. The prevalence of rotary core drilling for obtaining laboratory soil samples from various depths (every 1 to 3 m, cannot be a more enhanced as continues evaluation of strata and properties e.g. by CPT Piezocone (every 1 cm. Core drillings survey generally uses small amounts of soil samples, but this is resulting to a lower representation of the subsoil and underestimation of parameters. Higher amounts of soil samples make laboratory testing time-consuming and results from this testing can be influenced by the storage and processing of the soil samples. Preference for geotechnical surveys with in situ testing is therefore a more suitable option. In situ testing using static and dynamic penetration tests can be used as a supplement or as a replacement for the (traditional methods of surveying.

  3. EFFECTS OF COMPACTIVE EFFORTS ON GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF SPENT ENGINE OIL CONTAMINATED LATERITE SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLUREMI, J. ROTIMI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the effects of compactive efforts and spent engine oil (SEO contamination on the geotechnical properties of lateritic soils was made. Contaminated specimens were prepared by mixing lateritic soil with up to 10 % SEO by dry weight of the soil in step concentration of 2 % and subjected to geotechnical tests. Results indicated a decrease in the fine content, decrease in liquid limit, maximum dry density (MDD and unconfined compressive strength (UCS with up to 10 % SEO content. No general trend was observed in the optimum moisture content (OMC with increasing SEO content. The MDD, OMC and UCS values increased with increase in the compactive effort. Regression analysis of the results showed that optimum moisture content, fine content and compactive effort significantly influence the soils UCS values. Analysis of variance showed that SEO and compactive effort has significant effect on the parameters with the exception in one case. The results of laboratory tests showed that geotechnical properties of the SEO contaminated soil were immensely impaired.

  4. Direct Push supported geotechnical and hydrogeological characterisation of an active sinkhole area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippelt, Thomas; Vienken, Thomas; Kirsch, Reinhard; Dietrich, Peter; Werban, Ulrike

    2017-04-01

    Sinkholes represent a natural geologic hazard in areas where soluble layers are present in the subsurface. A detailed knowledge of the composition of the subsurface and its hydrogeological and geotechnical properties is essential for the understanding of sinkhole formation and propagation. This serves as base for risk evaluation and the development of an early warning system. However, site models often depend on data from drillings and surface geophysical surveys that in many cases cannot resolve the spatial distribution of relevant hydrogeological and geotechnical parameters sufficiently. Therefore, an active sinkhole area in Münsterdorf, Northern Germany, was investigated in detail using Direct Push technology, a minimally invasive sounding method. The obtained vertical high-resolution profiles of geotechnical and hydrogeological characteristics, in combination with Direct Push based sampling and surface geophysical measurements lead to a strong improvement of the geologic site model. The conceptual site model regarding sinkhole formation and propagation will then be tested based on the gathered data and, if necessary, adapted accordingly.

  5. Development of a coupled hydrological-geotechnical framework for rainfall-induced landslides prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaogang; Hong, Yang; Vergara, Humberto; Zhang, Ke; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Zhang, Yu; Qiao, Gang; Liu, Chun

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a new coupled hydrological-geotechnical model called CRESLIDE (Coupled Routing and Excess Storage and SLope-Infiltration-Distributed Equilibrium), which can alleviate the chronic flaws of landslides simulation and prediction. CRESLIDE is designed to improve the original landslides model (SLIDE) through the coupling of hydrological model (CREST) and to deliver an integrated system for predicting storm-triggered landslides. This coupled system is implemented and evaluated in Macon County, North Carolina, where Hurricane Ivan triggered widespread landslides in September 2004 during the hurricane season. Model simulations from CRESLIDE show its reliability to predict landslides occurrence (location and timing). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrates that the coupled system (CRESLIDE) has higher specificity (94.10%) and higher sensitivity (11.36%) compared to the original SLIDE model (specificity = 93.32%, sensitivity = 10.23%) and a well-known landslide model (TRIGRS, whose sensitivity is 6.98%). This improved predictive performance demonstrates the advantage of coupling hydrological and geotechnical models with a more realistic representation of infiltration. It warrants a better depiction of the spatial and temporal dependence of hydrological and geotechnical processes in the course of the rainfall-triggered landslide event. This kind of model integration is useful for landslides prediction and early warning.

  6. Observing farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, agriculture is becoming increasingly specialised, and more and more actors are becoming involved in farm decision making. These trends are more or less pronounced in other European countries as well. We therefore find that to understand modern farming systems, we have to shift the focus...... of analysis from individual farmers to communication and social relations. This is where Luhmann’s social systems theory can offer new insights. Firstly, it can help observe and understand the operational closure and system logic of a farming system and how this closure is produced and reproduced. Secondly...

  7. Wind farm design optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreau, Michel; Morgenroth, Michael; Belashov, Oleg; Mdimagh, Asma; Hertz, Alain; Marcotte, Odile

    2010-09-15

    Innovative numerical computer tools have been developed to streamline the estimation, the design process and to optimize the Wind Farm Design with respect to the overall return on investment. The optimization engine can find the collector system layout automatically which provide a powerful tool to quickly study various alternative taking into account more precisely various constraints or factors that previously would have been too costly to analyze in details with precision. Our Wind Farm Tools have evolved through numerous projects and created value for our clients yielding Wind Farm projects with projected higher returns.

  8. Rainfed farming systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tow, P. G

    2011-01-01

    "While agriculturists need a good grasp of the many separate aspects of agriculture, it is essential that they also understand the functioning of farming systems as a whole and how they can be best managed...

  9. FarmStats_CNTYFARM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This datalayer contains Vermont agricultural data describing changes in farming activity (1860-1997), by county, extracted from U.S. Census of Agriculture. Initial...

  10. Agriculture: Organic Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic Farming - Organically grown food is food grown and processed using no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Pesticides derived from natural sources (such as biological pesticides) may be used in producing organically grown food.

  11. CONTRACT BROILER FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todsadee Areerat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, poultry sector is the main economic growth of livestock sector, especially broiler production. The rapid expansion in broiler production has been made possible by the increase in the number of commercial farms or contract farming. The objective of this research was to understand better how contract farming works, who gets involved and why and who benefits from the agreement. The study is based on the broiler file survey in Chiang Mai province of Thailand. As the results, contract farming looks quite attractive for farmers as well as for private companies but most of the farmers complained about long waiting until the delivery of the next cycle of chicks have started.

  12. Farming techniques for seaweeds

    OpenAIRE

    Castaños, M.; Buendia, R.

    1998-01-01

    Details are given of farming methods developed by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department for 3 different seaweeds: 1) Bottom line culture method for Kappaphycus; 2) Pond culture of Gracilaria; and, 3) Gracilariopsis bailinae, the new seaweed on the block.

  13. Cross validation of geotechnical and geophysical site characterization methods: near surface data from selected accelerometric stations in Crete (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupasakis, C.; Tsangaratos, P.; Rozos, D.; Rondoyianni, Th.; Vafidis, A.; Kritikakis, G.; Steiakakis, M.; Agioutantis, Z.; Savvaidis, A.; Soupios, P.; Papadopoulos, I.; Papadopoulos, N.; Sarris, A.; Mangriotis, M.-D.; Dikmen, U.

    2015-06-01

    The specification of the near surface ground conditions is highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding settlements, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined, through the Thalis ″Geo-Characterization″ project, for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of site characterization data is going to be presented by providing characteristic examples from a total number of thirteen sites. Selected examples present sufficiently the ability, the limitations and the right order of the investigation methods.

  14. PRACTICE OF CONDUCTING A GEOTECHNICAL MONITORING FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE ROAD TUNNEL “DOUBLER KURORTNOGO PROSPEKTA” IN SOCHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesnoy V. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the practice of conducting a geotechnical monitoring of the road tunnel № № 8, 8а «Doubler Kurortnogo Prospekta» in Sochi in difficult geotechnical conditions. Geotechnical monitoring method was developed on the results of mathematical modeling performed based on engineering studies and design solutions. The particular importance is paid to areas of shallow road tunnels, because in these areas there are the highest strain that could lead to malfunction of the lithological technical system "accommodating array - fixing tunnel" and the further destruction of the road tunnel walling. Geotechnical monitoring at the stage of engineering survey allows us to assess comprehensively the condition of the geological environment in a pristine condition, as well as detailed consideration to the effect on her of construction of mining operations. Implementation of geotechnical monitoring at the stages the engineering survey and construction will identify weaknesses malfunction of the lithological technical system "accommodating array - fixing tunnel" and ensure the security of the operation of such a technically complex and demanding facilities such as road tunnels

  15. Application of computational intelligence tools for the analysis of marine geotechnical properties in the head of Zakynthos canyon, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferentinou, Maria; Hasiotis, Thomas; Sakellariou, Michael

    2012-03-01

    This paper uses a computational approach to provide insight into the relationships among marine geotechnical properties that characterize the recent sedimentary cover at the head of Zakynthos Canyon in western Greece. Self-organizing maps (SOM) and generic interaction matrix (GIM) theory were used to investigate the tendency of the data to cluster and to examine the sediment property relationships. This analysis has also focused on the assessment of the dominance and interaction intensity between the related parameters following GIM theory definition. The principal results refer to the identification of clusters in the original multivariate data set. SOM-based analysis distinguished five clusters, with similar geotechnical characteristics, which led to the separation of the surficial (˜80 cm) unconsolidated sediments from the deeper normally consolidated sediments and depicted better relations between the geotechnical properties within each cluster. The combination of SOM with GIM theory also demonstrates the dominance of fine-grained sediments (especially silts) and their associated Atterberg limits. The strongest interaction intensity is observed between silt and water content, whereas the undrained shear strength of the surficial deposits appears to be least interactive. The application of computational intelligence methods in the study of marine geotechnical properties allows insight into the relationships between the various geotechnical parameters and provides a promising tool for knowledge extraction in marine geo-environments.

  16. Summary of Data Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Horne

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Data Farming is a process that has been developed to support decision-makers by answering questions that are not currently addressed. Data farming uses an inter-disciplinary approach that includes modeling and simulation, high performance computing, and statistical analysis to examine questions of interest with a large number of alternatives. Data farming allows for the examination of uncertain events with numerous possible outcomes and provides the capability of executing enough experiments so that both overall and unexpected results may be captured and examined for insights. Harnessing the power of data farming to apply it to our questions is essential to providing support not currently available to decision-makers. This support is critically needed in answering questions inherent in the scenarios we expect to confront in the future as the challenges our forces face become more complex and uncertain. This article was created on the basis of work conducted by Task Group MSG-088 “Data Farming in Support of NATO”, which is being applied in MSG-124 “Developing Actionable Data Farming Decision Support for NATO” of the Science and Technology Organization, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (STO NATO.

  17. Site characterization of foundation soil for Offshore Wind Farms - an example from the German North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiter, Stefan; Mörz, Tobias; Metzen, Jan F.; Hepp, Daniel A.; Ossig, Benjamin; Otto, Daniel; Socko, Lukasz; Keil, Hanno; Spieß, Volkhard; Hebbeln, Dierk

    2010-05-01

    The promising possibility to reduce CO2 emissions from energy production by the erection of offshore wind farms caused a boom of wind farm projects in the German North Sea. The projected wind turbines have overall heights of up to 200 m above sea level and require considerable foundation depths of up to 50 m pile length in the subsoil. Little experience exists concerning the optimal geotechnical site characterisation for such projects. As approximately 80 considerable sized foundations are needed per wind farm, costs have to be minimized to help making renewable energies competitive. The cost effective and save design of the foundation depends on a reliable knowledge of the upper 50 to 100 m of the subsoil. The marine subsoil of the German North Sea is in general a favourable foundation soil, but Quaternary buried glacial and fluvial valleys introduce heterogeneities, which have to be accurately mapped and considered for the installation planning. Necessary site investigations combine geophysical exploration, core drilling and cone penetration testing. At the same time they have to be in accordance with the national approval procedure which is organised in Germany in several steps. Here, an industry-financed and scientifically-accompanied geotechnical site characterisation of one exemplary offshore wind farm project is presented (partners: RWE-Innogy, ENOVA and MARUM; Initiative "germanwind"). In order to image the lateral highly heterogeneous sedimentation environment in the North Sea a dense net of high resolution multichannel seismic lines was acquired using the University of Bremen shallow water seismic equipment. This provided seismic images of 1.5 m lateral resolution and 2-3 m vertical resolution therefore overcoming the low signal penetration of conventional boomer seimics and the low resolution of conventional multichannel seismics. The seismic survey was complemented with push cores and cone penetration tests at 14 sites, each reaching down to about 50 m

  18. Genetic expression of hexokinase and glucose phosphate isomerase in late-stage mouse preimplantation embryos: transcription activities in glucose/phosphate-containing HTF and glucose/phosphate-free P1 media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M D; Batey, D W; Behr, B; Barro, J

    1997-04-01

    In mouse and human preimplantation development, pyruvate is consumed preferentially during early embryogenesis; however, during the morula and blastocyst stages, glucose is the preferred energy substrate. Studies have suggested that the glycolytic enzymes, hexokinase and glucose phosphate isomerase, are important enzymes in glucose metabolism during these later stages of human and mouse preimplantation development. In order to investigate the genetic activities of these enzymes in late-stage mouse embryos developing in vitro, we analysed hexokinase and glucose phosphate isomerase transcription activities by qualitative RNA assays using reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction amplification of individual mouse morulae and early blastocysts incubated in glucose/phosphate-free preimplantation stage one (P1) medium and glucose/phosphate-containing human tubal fluid (HTF) medium. We observed an increased incidence of hexokinase transcripts in the population of blastocysts compared with morulae, and differences in transcript incidence between early blastocysts developing in HTF medium and in P1 medium. In contrast, glucose phosphate isomerase transcripts were consistantly present in all embryos analysed, and appear to be constitutively expressed during late-stage mouse embryogenesis. The different activity patterns of the two glycolytic genes may reflect different mechanisms of gene regulation or differential transcript stability during the later stages of mouse preimplantation development.

  19. Subsidence monitoring with geotechnical instruments in the Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, E.; Sarychikhina, O.; Márquez Ramírez, V. H.; Robles, B.; Nava, F. A.; Farfán, F.; García Arthur, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    The Mexicali Valley (northwestern Mexico), situated in the southern part of the San Andreas fault system, is an area with high tectonic deformation, recent volcanism, and active seismicity. Since 1973, fluid extraction, from the 1500-3000 m depth range, at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF), has influenced deformation in the Mexicali Valley area, accelerating the subsidence and causing slip along the traces of tectonic faults that limit the subsidence area. Detailed field mapping done since 1989 (González et al., 1998; Glowacka et al., 2005; Suárez-Vidal et al., 2008) in the vicinity of the CPGF shows that many subsidence induced fractures, fissures, collapse features, small grabens, and fresh scarps are related to the known tectonic faults. Subsidence and fault rupture are causing damage to infrastructure, such as roads, railroad tracks, irrigation channels, and agricultural fields. Since 1996, geotechnical instruments installed by CICESE (Centro de Investigación Ciéntifica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, B.C.) have operated in the Mexicali Valley, for continuous recording of deformation phenomena. Instruments are installed over or very close to the affected faults. To date, the network includes four crackmeters and eight tiltmeters; all instruments have sampling intervals in the 1 to 20 min range. Instrumental records typically show continuous creep, episodic slip events related mainly to the subsidence process, and coseismic slip discontinuities (Glowacka et al., 1999, 2005, 2010; Sarychikhina et al., 2015). The area has also been monitored by levelling surveys every few years and, since the 1990's by studies based on DInSAR data (Carnec and Fabriol, 1999; Hansen, 2001; Sarychikhina et al., 2011). In this work we use data from levelling, DInSAR, and geotechnical instruments records to compare the subsidence caused by anthropogenic activity and/or seismicity with slip recorded by geotechnical instruments, in an attempt to obtain more information

  20. Certified safe farm: identifying and removing hazards on the farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, R H; Grafft, L J; Kline, A K; Madsen, M D; Lange, J L; Donham, K J

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the development of the Certified Safe Farm (CSF) on-farm safety review tools, characterizes the safety improvements among participating farms during the study period, and evaluates differences in background variables between low and high scoring farms. Average farm review scores on 185 study farms improved from 82 to 96 during the five-year study (0-100 scale, 85 required for CSF certification). A total of 1292 safety improvements were reported at an estimated cost of $650 per farm. A wide range of improvements were made, including adding 9 rollover protective structures (ROPS), 59 power take-off (PTO) master shields, and 207 slow-moving vehicle (SMV) emblems; improving lighting on 72 machines: placing 171 warning decals on machinery; shielding 77 moving parts; locking up 17 chemical storage areas, adding 83 lockout/tagout improvements; and making general housekeeping upgrades in 62 farm buildings. The local, trained farm reviewers and the CSF review process overall were well received by participating farmers. In addition to our earlier findings where higher farm review scores were associated with lower self-reported health outcome costs, we found that those with higher farm work hours, younger age, pork production in confinement, beef production, poultry production, and reported exposure to agrichemicals had higher farm review scores than those who did not have these characteristics. Overall, the farm review process functioned as expected. encouraging physical improvements in the farm environment, and contributing to the multi-faceted CSF intervention program.

  1. Update of assessment of geotechnical risks, strategic petroleum reserve, Weeks Island site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, S.J. [ed.

    1994-12-01

    This report is a critical reassessment of the geotechnical risks of continuing oil storage at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. It reviews all previous risk abatement recommendations, subsequent mitigative actions, and new information. Of increased concern, due to the discovery of a surface levels, is the long term maintainability of the mine as an oil storage repository. Mine operational changes are supported in order to facilitate monitoring of water entry diagnostics. These changes are also intended to minimize the volume in the mine available for water entry. Specific recommendations are made to implement the mine changes.

  2. Ambient Noise Surface Wave Tomography for Geotechnical Monitoring Using "Large N" Distributed Acoustic Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Lindsey, N.; Martin, E. R.; Wagner, A. M.; Robertson, M.; Bjella, K.; Gelvin, A.; Ulrich, C.; Wu, Y.; Freifeld, B. M.; Daley, T. M.; Dou, S.

    2015-12-01

    Surface wave tomography using ambient noise sources has found broad application at the regional scale but has not been adopted fully for geotechnical applications despite the abundance of noise sources in this context. The recent development of Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) provides a clear path for inexpensively recording high spatial resolution (survey as well as direct-push data on ice content. We also compare vintages of ambient noise DAS data to evaluate the short-term repeatability of the technique in the face of changing noise environments. The resulting dataset demonstrates the utility of using DAS for real-time shear-modulus monitoring in support of critical infrastructure.

  3. Multiscale stochastic finite element method on random field modeling of geotechnical problems- a fast computing procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi F. XU

    2015-01-01

    The Green-function-based multiscale stochastic finite element method (MSFEM) has been formulated based on the stochastic variational principle. In this study a fast computing procedure based on the MSFEM is developed to solve random field geotechnical problems with a typical coefficient of variance less than 1. A unique fast computing advantage of the procedure enables computation performed only on those locations of interest, therefore saving a lot of computation. The numerical example on soil settlement shows that the procedure achieves significant computing efficiency compared with Monte Carlo method.

  4. The spatial information system EramSIS in the service of geotechnical monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, M.; Skrzyppek, J.; Croise, J. [Colenco Power Engineering Ltd, Baden (Switzerland); Mauke, R. [Bundesamt Fur Strahlenschutz (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany); Mohlfeld, M. [Zerna, Kopper Und Partner (ZKP), Bochum (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Backfilling activities in the Morsleben radioactive waste repository (ERAM) began in 2003. They are necessary to stabilize the intensely mined central part of the repository. Thanks to geotechnical monitoring it is possible to ensure the local structural stability and the mandatory operational safety. The use of the integrated spatial information system EramSIS right from an early stage makes it possible to locate the great number of continuously acquired measurement results in a three-dimensional model on the computer screen. The interactive visualization proved to greatly facilitate the interpretation of the various types of information. (authors)

  5. CSCE annual conference. Volume 5: sustainable development, environment, geotechnical engineering, transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, R.; Johnson, C.; Gordon, M.; Lupien, C. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    Forty papers on sustainable development, environment, geotechnical engineering, and transportation are contained in this volume. Seven additional volumes contain 246 papers presented at the plenary sessions and sessions on history and education and the Confederation Bridge (volume 1); 2nd CSCE Construction Specialty Conference (volume 2); 13th Canadian Hydrotechnical Conference (volume 3); 2nd Symposium on Applied Mechanics, structures, and seismic engineering (volume 4); structures: composite materials, structural systems, and telecommunication towers (volume 6); structures: conception, concrete and reinforced concrete structures, and bridges (volume 7); and agricultural engineering, soil and water engineering, energy and processing/food engineering, machinery systems, waste management, and information and computer technologies (volume A).

  6. WSSRAP chemical plant geotechnical investigations for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    This document has been prepared for the United states Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which consists of MK-Ferguson Company (MKF) and Morrison Knudsen Corporation Environmental Services Group (MKES) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as MKF's predesignated subcontractor. This report presents the results of site geotechnical investigations conducted by the PMC in the vicinity of the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pits (WSCP/RP) and in potential on-site and off-site clayey material borrow sources. The WSCP/RP is the proposed disposal cell (DC) site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. On the hydrological properties of mountain soils, from measurement to the geotechnical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barontini Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at contributing with a hydrological perspective to the geotechnical investigation in mountain environments, particularly focusing on landslides triggered by perched water tables, we present some findings of a longlasting experimental and theoretical investigation of mountain—soils hydrology. After recalling a theoretical framework suitable to describe the hydrology of shallow, sloping and heterogeneous soils, we discuss some relevant difficulties concerning the measurement of the hydrological properties of heterogeneous and non mature soils, and we finally focus on the role played by the soil heterogeneity in the perched water tables onset.

  8. Geotechnical and Geological Aspects of Differential Subsidence in the Skaw Spit, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Holger Lykke; Thorsen, Grete; Hauerbach, P.

    1996-01-01

    Local differential subsidence has been observed by means of repeated precise levellings in the township of Skagen at the northernmost tip of the Skaw Spit in Jutland. We have l studied the possible causes of the subsidence. Oedometer tests have been carried out on undisturbed clayey samples from...... the Holocene in a boring at the depth interval 30-114 m. Seismic profiles were acquired in Kattegat along the coast and on land. The geotechnical investigations indicate that the consolidation process in the Holocene sediments is completed. Other possible causes: lowering of the groundwater table in water...

  9. Suggested best practice for geotechnical characterisation of permafrost in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Frederik Ancker; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Foged, Niels Nielsen

    2012-01-01

    . It is proposed that a best practice for permafrost characterisation employs sample volume determination based on the Archimedes principle and that ice contents are presented as the volume fraction of excess ice to the frozen sample volume. Furthermore, direct measurements of unfrozen water content and thermal......Even though permafrost is a specialty within Nordic geotechnical engineering, engineers and researcher will be faced with managing the consequences of projected climatic influences to construction design in permafrost areas. This requires the determination of the frozen soil engineering properties...

  10. Geotechnical variability of permafrozen glaciomarine clays in Sdr. Strømfjord in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Belmonte, Louise Josefine

    2014-01-01

    This contribution presents the geotechnical properties of some permafrozen glaciomarine clays near to the Kangerlussuaq Airport at Sdr. Strømfjord in West Greenland.This fjord system was established by glacial erosion into the bedrock consisting of Nagssugtoqidian banded gneisses with amphibolitic...... y BC) 5 km east of the Airport. Subformations found are; glaciomarine clay deposited in a coastal environment as very fine flocculated suspended matter ("rock flour"), deltaic sediments of silt and finesand and meltwater gravel and sand carried by the meltwater rivers. This sedimentation is still on...

  11. Geotechnical properties of La Arganosa Formation (Upper Cretaceous, Oviedo); Propiedades geotecnicas de la Formacion La Arganosa (Cretacico Superior, Oviedo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pando, L.; Gutierrez Claverol, M.; Flor-Blanco, G.

    2011-07-01

    It is performed the first geotechnical synthesis for La Arganosa Formation, the Cretaceous lithostratigraphic unit with very low geomechanical quality under the urban core of Oviedo; it also configures a major regional aquifer. In this study, geotechnical parameters of identification and condition, as well as physical and hydraulic ones, are compiled, statistically treated and interpreted. They were obtained from about 400 laboratory tests and more than 250 field tests around the city. The unit, of detrital origin, is bounded at the bottom and top by limestone lithologies, and is made up of soils and very soft rocks in alternating granular and cohesive layers. It discusses the main properties that define its geotechnical behavior: particle size distribution, plasticity, strength, compactness, consistency, compressibility, expansivity, collapsibility, permeability, and chemical aggressiveness of the materials and water. Furthermore, same numerical values are provided for reference forward guidance for future research to develop on this formation. (Author) 31 refs.

  12. Ultimate storage of radioactive waste - geotechnical challenge or routine task?; Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle - Herausforderung oder Routine fuer die Geotechnik?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alheid, H.J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Construction, operation and decommissioning of nuclear waste repositories require sophisticated design, high-tech technical implementation and reliable performance assessment studies. Geotechnical methods have been applied in many research projects and tailored to the high standards of nuclear waste disposal. Exemplary the development of methods for the characterization of excavation damaged zones (EDZ) is discussed in this paper. Well known geotechnical and geophysical methods have been adapted to fulfil the requirements of essential high resolution in space and the necessity of long term observations. The achieved improvements in measurement techniques and data processing allow to describe the properties of the EDZ in detail. Scientist have accepted the challenge and fulfilled the special requirements of measuring, monitoring and modelling in the field of nuclear waste disposal. The newly developed methods should be checked for their applicability to other geotechnical problems in order to achieve more detailed results than with standard methods. (orig.)

  13. Rockfall risk evaluation using geotechnical survey, remote sensing data, and GIS: a case study from western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos; Depountis, Nikolaos; Vagenas, Nikolaos; Kavoura, Katerina; Vlaxaki, Eleni; Kelasidis, George; Sabatakakis, Nikolaos

    2015-06-01

    In this paper a specific example of the synergistic use of geotechnical survey, remote sensing data and GIS for rockfall risk evaluation is presented. The study area is located in Western Greece. Extensive rockfalls have been recorded along Patras - Ioannina highway just after the cable-stayed bridge of Rio-Antirrio, at Klokova site. The rockfalls include medium- sized limestone boulders with volume up to 1.5m3. A detailed engineering geological survey was conducted including rockmass characterization, laboratory testing and geological - geotechnical mapping. Many Rockfall trajectory simulations were done. Rockfall risk along the road was estimated using spatial analysis in a GIS environment.

  14. Effect of adding natural pozzolana on geotechnical properties of lime-stabilized clayey soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aref al-Swaidani; Ibrahim Hammoud; Ayman Meziab

    2016-01-01

    Clayey soils in Syria cover a total area of more than 20,000 km2 of the country, most of which are located in the southwestern region. In many places of the country, the clayey soils caused severe damage to infrastructures. Extensive studies have been carried out on the stabilization of clayey soils using lime. Syria is rich in both lime and natural pozzolana. However, few works have been conducted to investigate the influence of adding natural pozzolana on the geotechnical properties of lime-treated clayey soils. The aim of this paper is to understand the effect of adding natural pozzolana on some geotechnical properties of lime-stabilized clayey soils. Natural pozzolana and lime are added to soil within the range of 0%-20%and 0%-8%, respectively. Consistency, compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR) and linear shrinkage properties are particularly investigated. The test results show that the investigated properties of lime-treated clayey soils can be considerably enhanced when the natural pozzolana is added as a stabiliz-ing agent. Analysis results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spec-troscopy (EDX) show significant changes in the microstructure of the treated clayey soil. A better flocculation of clayey particles and further formation of cementing materials in the natural pozzolana-lime-treated clayey soil are clearly observed.

  15. Case Studies and Benchmark Examples for the Use of Grading Entropy in Geotechnics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay P. Singh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The grading entropy concept can be adapted to the field of geotechnics, to establish criteria for phenomena such as particle packing, particle migration and filtering, through a quantified expression of the order/disorder in the grain size distribution, in terms of two entropy-based parameters. In this paper, the grading entropy theory is applied in some geotechnical case studies, which serve as benchmark examples to illustrate its application to the characterisation of piping, softening and dispersive soils, and to filtering problems in the context of a leachate collection system for a landfill site. Further, since unstable cohesive (dispersive soils are generally improved by lime, the effect of lime addition is also considered, on the basis of some measurements and a further application of the grading entropy concept, which allows evolutions in the entropy of a soil to be considered as its grading is modified. The examples described support the hypothesis that the potential for soil erosion and particle migration can be reliably identified using grading entropy parameters derived from grading curve data, and applied through an established soil structure stability criteria and a filtering rule. It is shown that lime modification is not necessarily helpful in stabilizing against particle migration.

  16. Quarry geotechnical report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    This report has been prepared for the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which is MK-Ferguson Company (MK-Ferguson) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as its designated subcontractor. The Weldon Spring site (WSS) comprises the Weldon Spring quarry area and the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pit areas. This report presents the results of geotechnical investigations conducted during 1989--1990 at the proposed Weldon Spring quarry staging and water treatment facilities in the quarry area. The facilities are intended for treatment of water removed from the quarry area. An access road and a decontamination pad will be necessary for handling and transportation of bulk waste. Results of previous geotechnical investigations performed by other geoscience and environmental engineering firms in the quarry area, were reviewed, summarized and incorporated into this report. Well logging, stratigraphy data, piezometer data, elevations, and soil characteristics are also included.

  17. GIS for geotechnical decision making: Visualization of cut-odd wall construction data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, J.B.; Bachus, R.C.; Schauer, D. [Geosyntec Consultants (United States); Arnold, M.A. [Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, Dresden (Germany); Berrios, A. [Bauer Foundation Corporation, Odessa (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The construction industry is investigating how best to collect and manage information from large and high-profile construction projects. An efficient data management system contributes to reducing the complexity, the duration and the budget of projects. This paper presented an application of geographic information systems (GIS) technology to capture information from multiple data streams and provide geotechnical feedback and project control feedback. The Herbert Hoover dike (HHD), Florida, USA, is an on-going program using the cutter soil mixer (CSM) process technique for the cut-off wall. A GIS application WallTracker was developed to manage, visualize and remotely access in near-real time, data from the HHD project. This paper presented the challenges associated with the construction of the HHD cut-off structure. It provided a description of the CSM technology and describes the capability and functionality of the WallTracker to address the information demands. This presentation illustrated the efficiency of GIS technology as a tool for geotechnical decision making.

  18. Preliminary Geophysical Survey for Assessing the Geotechnical Conditions and Geohazards at Huaca de La Luna, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, G. J.; Lopez, S.; Ebinger, C. J.; Pando, M. A.; Lambert, C.; Morales, R.; Uceda, S.; Perucchio, R.; Castaneda, B.; Aguilar, R.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents results of near surface geophysical tests to help assess the geotechnical conditions of the archaeological complex of Huaca de la Luna located near the coastal city of Trujillo, Peru. This area of Peru has experienced damaging earthquakes and tsunamis in historic time. The huaca complex is a massive adobe temple progressively built by the Moche civilization from 100 AD to 650 AD. The geophysical tests carried out included Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), magnetic gradiometer, and Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) to help assess geotechnical conditions such as buried cavities and hallways, thickness and elastic properties of sand sediments, and the depth to the underlying granitic bedrock. The tests were performed to help with the investigation of structural damage observed along a massive adobe wall (north façade) which has shown signs of distress including fissures, settlements, and other damage. The geophysical results together with detailed Lidar surveying are being used as part of this investigation and highlight the usefulness of these non-destructive techniques for archaeological and historical sites.

  19. Geophysical characterization in solid waste landfill for evaluation of geotechnical instability conditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Del Roveri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of solid waste can create environmental problems, in addition to the potential risk of instability even in planned geotechnical works, such as provisions in stacks or high ends of the landfill, because they represent mere adjustments in civil engineering works. The Leme city, SP, generates about 35 t/day of municipal waste, that are deposited in a landfill located in the Barro Preto neighborhood. This work conducted a geophysical survey, based on geotechnical instability evidence in area, for analysis of the conditioners that cause on the sides leachate resurgence landfill and its relationship to mass movements and ravines installation in cover soil, with consequent waste exposure. The results indicate horizons of low resistivity connected with resurgence points generated by the organic matter decomposition contained in the waste. Such horizons result in leachate concentration in some places, which, in turn, may lead to loss of cohesion of the materials constituting the residues mass. The results are areas with mass flow by rotational movements, which, together with the surface flow of rainwater, evolves into ravines and exposed residues, preferably at the resurgence point. The leachate flow on the surface affects areas beyond the limits at landfill with direct impact on local agriculture and risk to pedestrians using the highway bordered by the landfill beyond the soil and the local aquifer.

  20. Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Coupled with Finite Element Limit Equilibrium Method for Geotechnical Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a modified particle swarm optimization algorithm coupled with the finite element limit equilibrium method (FELEM for the minimum factor of safety and the location of associated noncircular critical failure surfaces for various geotechnical practices. During the search process, the stress compatibility constraints coupled with the geometrical and kinematical compatibility constraints are firstly established based on the features of slope geometry and stress distribution to guarantee realistic slip surfaces from being unreasonable. Furthermore, in the FELEM, based on rigorous theoretical analyses and derivation, it is noted that the physical meaning of the factor of safety can be formulated on the basis of strength reserving theory rather than the overloading theory. Consequently, compared with the limit equilibrium method (LEM and the shear strength reduction method (SSRM through several numerical examples, the FELEM in conjunction with the improved search strategy is proved to be an effective and efficient approach to routine analysis and design in geotechnical practices with a high level of confidence.

  1. Quality assurance aspects of geotechnical practices for underground radioactive waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    In August 1988, the National Research Council, through the Geotechnical Board and the Board on Radioactive Waste Management, held a colloquium to discuss the practice of quality assurance that is being implemented in the high-level radioactive waste storage program. The intent of the colloquium was to bring together program managers of the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission, to discuss with the technical community both the advantages and problems associated with applying current quality assurance practices to underground science and engineering. The colloquium program included talks from 14 individuals that provided a variety of perspectives on both programmatic and technical issues. The talks initiated extended discussions from the 71 participants representing 7 government agencies, 8 academic institutions, and 22 private companies. The competencies of the participants were many and varied including, among others, geochemistry, hydrology, geotechnical engineering, computer programming, engineering and structural geology, underground design and construction, rock mechanics, laboratory testing, systems engineering, nuclear engineering, law, and environmental science. Based on a transcript of the meeting, this report summarizes the talks and discussions which took place. 2 figs.

  2. USACE geotechnical earthquake engineering software, report 1 WESHAKE for personal computers (version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykora, David W.; Wahl, Ronald E.; Wallace, David C.

    1992-09-01

    One of the basic problems to be solved by geotechnical engineers in regions where earthquake hazards exist is to estimate the site-specific dynamic response of a layered soil deposit under a level ground surface. This problem is commonly referred to as a site-specific response analysis or soil amplification study (although motions may be deamplified). The solution of this problem allows the geotechnical engineer to evaluate the potential for liquefaction, to conduct the first analytical phase of seismic stability evaluations for slopes and embankments, to calculate site natural periods, to assess ground motion amplification, and to provide structural engineers with various parameters, primarily response spectra, for design and safety evaluations of structures. The computer program described and provided in this report, WESHAKE, may be used to accomplish this task. WESHAKE is an adaptation of the original computer program, SHAKE, written at the University of California at Berkeley by Schnabel, Lysmer, and Seed (1972). WESHAKE was created and has been continually modified by WES to keep pace with state-of-the-art technology and provide a user-friendly interface.

  3. Difficult Geotechnical Conditions Under the Palace Complex, Case Study from Cianowice, Near Krakow, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Mastalerczyk, Joanna; Gil, Regina

    2016-10-01

    The palace complex in Cianowice near Krakow (Lesser Poland, Poland) built around 1890, after 1945 ceased to function as a residential, so the whole building underwent successive devastation. Military activities, ad hoc repairs and long-term shortage of funds in Poland, led to the destruction of the magnificent assumptions. Since 2006. Palace remained completely unsecured and unattended. Performed in 2012-2015 modernization of the historic palace with the expansion of the basement (for residential building multigenerational) has become the occasion for a thorough diagnosis of the prevailing geotechnical conditions and the state of preservation of threads stone and brick walls and vaults chambers basement. Difficult ground conditions, water penetration, lack of insulation of horizontal and vertical has become one of the main causes of the destruction of the foundations and walls of basements. Moisture from the ground, rising damp in the walls (with dissolved salts in it), evaporate causing erosion of the walls. The result it led to the weakening of the structural and breakout layers of walls. The phenomenon has become particularly clear after the geotechnical surveys, excavations and complete discovery of the basement walls. The conducted works related to general technical renovation and restoration, included foundations (lining and insulation), walls, floors and roof. The assumption palace in Cianowice, through appropriate interference with the use of modern and introduction of a new substance, in any manner that emphasizes value and historical monument became possible to restore the important significance of the object and place.

  4. Soil susceptibility to accelerated hydric erosion: geotechnical evaluation of cut slopes in residual soil profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciano Oliveira da Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The experimental research program was developed in the Alto Paraopeba region, state of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. The main objective was to promote the geotechnical evaluation of soil samples from four cut slopes in residual soil profiles of highways and local secondary roads in order to assess the potential of the anthropic impact on the soil susceptibility to accelerated erosion processes. Soil samples were named: red residual soil (RRS; pink residual soil (PRS; yellow residual soil (YRS; and white residual soil (WRS. The methodology used consisted of geotechnical characterization tests, infiltration rate and modified mass loss by immersion tests performed on soil samples from these profiles, using the physical parameters and indirect assessment of erodibility proposed in 2000 by Bastos et al. The results of indirect assessment of erodibility, which were derived from tests based on the MCT methodology, highlighted the different susceptibility of the investigated soils to hydric erosion. The parameters proposed by the referred authors were complementary to conventional criteria for an adequate classification of tropical soils into their respective classes of erodibility. Among the tested soil samples, the highest erodibility was associated with the YRS and PRS, respectively, in the natural and pre-moistened conditions, as well as it was not detected erodibility in the RRS and WRS.

  5. INVESTIGATION OF GEOTECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF SAND DUNE SOIL: A CASE STUDY AROUND BAIJI IN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas J. Al-Taie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: While more than half the land surface of Iraq consists of deserts covered mainly with sand dunes, little research has taken place to study the characteristics and the behavior of dune soils. This paper directed toward studying the geotechnical properties of dune sands taken from Baiji city (northwest of Iraq. A vast laboratory testing program was carried out to achieve the purpose of this paper. The physical tests, chemical tests, X-ray diffraction analysis, permeability test, compaction characteristics, compressibility and collapsibility tests; and shear strength tests were included in this program. The results indicate that soil of Baiji sand dune exhibits prefer engineering properties according to their state. As such, this soil is considered suitable for use in geotechnical constructions. ABSTRAK: Walaupun lebih separuh daripada bumi Iraq terdiri daripada gurun yang dipenuhi dengan bukit-bukit pasir, tidak banyak penyelidikan dijalankan untuk mengkaji sifat-sifat dan ciri-ciri tanah pasir  tersebut. Kertas kerja ini menyelidik sifat geoteknikal bukit pasir yang diambil dari pekan Baiji (di bahagian barat utara Iraq.  Program penyelidikan makmal yang menyeluruh telah  dijalankan bagi mencapai objektif kajian ini. Ujian fizikal, ujian kimia, analisis belauan sinar-x, ujian kebolehtelapan, ciri pemadatan, faktor ketermampatan, ujian keruntuhan dan ujian kekuatan ricih diambilkira dalam program ini. Keputusan menunjukkan bahawa tanih bukit pasir Baiji mengutamakan ciri kejuruteraan berdasarkan keadaannya. Oleh itu, tanah ini dianggap sesuai untuk kegunaan pembinaan geoteknikal.

  6. Geological and geotechnical limitations of radioactive waste retrievability in geologic disposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahlmann, Joachim; Leon-Vargas, Rocio; Mintzlaff, Volker; Treidler, Ann-Kathrin [TU Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

    2015-07-01

    The capability of retrieving radioactive waste emplaced in deep geological formations is nowadays in discussion in many countries. Based on the storage of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in deep geological repositories there is a number of possible scenarios for their retrieval. Measurements for an improved retrieving capability may impact on the geotechnical and geological barriers, e.g. keeping open the access drifts for a long period of time can result in a bigger evacuation damage zone (EDZ) in the host rock which implies potential flow paths for ground water. Nevertheless, to limit the possible scenarios associated to the retrieval implementation, it is necessary to take in consideration which criteria will be used for an efficient monitoring program, while clearly determining the performance reliability of the geotechnical barriers. In addition, the integrity of the host rock as geological barrier has to be verified. Therefore, it is important to evaluate different design solutions and the most appropriate measurement methods to improve the retrievability process of wastes from a geological repository. A short presentation of the host rocks is given is this paper.

  7. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  8. Wind Farm Recommendation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    On April 21, 2011, an Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Land Use Committee meeting was convened to develop a wind farm recommendation for the Executive Council and a list of proposed actions for proceeding with the recommendation. In terms of land use, the INL Land Use Committee unanimously agrees that Site 6 is the preferred location of the alternatives presented for an INL wind farm. However, further studies and resolution to questions raised (stated in this report) by the INL Land Use Committee are needed for the preferred location. Studies include, but are not limited to, wind viability (6 months), bats (2 years), and the visual impact of the wind farm. In addition, cultural resource surveys and consultation (1 month) and the National Environmental Policy Act process (9 to 12 months) need to be completed. Furthermore, there is no documented evidence of developers expressing interest in constructing a small wind farm on INL, nor a specific list of expectations or concessions for which a developer might expect INL to cover the cost. To date, INL assumes the National Environmental Policy Act activities will be paid for by the Department of Energy and INL (the environmental assessment has only received partial funding). However, other concessions also may be expected by developers such as roads, fencing, power line installation, tie-ins to substations, annual maintenance, snow removal, access control, down-time, and remediation. These types of concessions have not been documented, as a request, from a developer and INL has not identified the short and long-term cost liabilities for such concessions should a developer expect INL to cover these costs. INL has not identified a go-no-go funding level or the priority this Wind Farm Project might have with respect to other nuclear-related projects, should the wind farm remain an unfunded mandate. The Land Use Committee recommends Legal be consulted to determine what, if any, liabilities exist with the Wind Farm Project and

  9. Technologies in organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    (pollution) and consequences for human health. Broader ideas about ecosystems and the recycling of nutrients between the agricultural sector and the urban population are notably absent. On the basis of these findings the paper concludes by discussing the relationship between the consumers’ values that guide......In organic farming a dilemma is posed by the heavy reliance on nutrients from conventional livestock farming. For Danish organic plant producers the influx of conventional nutrients accounts for up to 70% of their nutrients. Facing this problem, Danish organic farmers’ organizations have decided...

  10. Drew Goodman, Earthbound Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Drew Goodman is CEO and co-founder, with his wife, Myra, of Earthbound Farm, based in San Juan Bautista, California. Two years after its 1984 inception on 2.5 Carmel Valley acres, Earthbound became the first successful purveyor of pre-washed salads bagged for retail sale. The company now produces more than 100 varieties of certified organic salads, fruits, and vegetables on a total of about 33,000 acres, with individual farms ranging from five to 680 acres in California, Arizona, Washington, ...

  11. Urban Farm Business Plan Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Urban Farm Business Plan Handbook (this document) provides guidance for developing a business plan for the startup and operation of an urban farm. It focuses on food and non-food related cultivated agriculture.

  12. Geotechnical Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    an adequate number of trained and competent personnel. Areas of expertise shall be appropriate to the type of construction project under contract...walls carefully for evidence of faults and of geologically recent faulting. Estimate age of any broken stalactites or stalagmites from column rings Are...any stalactites or stalagmites broken from apparent ground displacement or shaking? Erosion resistance Need for total or partial channel slope

  13. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  14. NORCOWE Reference Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Graham, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Offshore wind farms are complex systems, influenced by both the environment (e.g. wind, waves, current and seabed) and the design characteristics of the equipment available for installation (e.g. turbine type, foundations, cabling and distance to shore). These aspects govern the capital and opera...

  15. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  16. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  17. Geotechnical Risk Classification for Underground Mines / Klasyfikacja Poziomu Zagrożenia Geotechnicznego W Kopalniach Podziemnych

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ritesh Kumar; Rinne, Mikael

    2015-03-01

    Underground mining activities are prone to major hazards largely owing to geotechnical reasons. Mining combined with the confined working space and uncertain geotechnical data leads to hazards having the potential of catastrophic consequences. These incidents have the potential of causing multiple fatalities and large financial damages. Use of formal risk assessment in the past has demonstrated an important role in the prediction and prevention of accidents in risk prone industries such as petroleum, nuclear and aviation. This paper proposes a classification system for underground mining operations based on their geotechnical risk levels. The classification is done based on the type of mining method employed and the rock mass in which it is carried out. Mining methods have been classified in groups which offer similar geotechnical risk. The rock mass classification has been proposed based on bulk rock mass properties which are collected as part of the routine mine planning. This classification has been subdivided for various stages of mine planning to suit the extent of available data. Alpha-numeric coding has been proposed to identify a mining operation based on the competency of rock and risk of geotechnical failures. This alpha numeric coding has been further extended to identify mining activity under `Geotechnical Hazard Potential (GHP)'. GHP has been proposed to be used as a preliminary tool of risk assessment and risk ranking for a mining activity. The aim of such classification is to be used as a guideline for the justification of a formal geotechnical risk assessment. Górnictwo podziemne pociąga za sobą różnorakie zagrożenia spowodowane przez uwarunkowania geotechniczne. Urabianie złoża w połączeniu z pracą w zamkniętej przestrzeni oraz z niepewnymi danymi geotechnicznymi powodować może zagrożenia, które w konsekwencji prowadzić mogą do wypadków, a te potencjalnie powodować mogą skutki śmiertelne dla osób oraz poważne straty

  18. Population pressure and farm fragmentation:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    small but farms are further fragmented into diminutive size fields due to ... terms of household characteristics; land use and performance indicators; technology adoption .... 'best' unit of measurement of farm size, and size of enterprises within farms will ..... less common, accounting for 18 percent (3 percent) and 10 percent (7.

  19. Geotechnical mapping for alluvial fan deposits controlled by active faults: a case study in the Erzurum, NE Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbasi, Necmi; Kalkan, Ekrem

    2009-08-01

    Erzurum, the biggest city of Eastern Anatolia Region in the Turkey, is located in Karasu Plain. Karasu Plain, located on the central segment of the Erzurum Fault Zone, is an intermountain sedimentary basin with a Miocene-Quaternary volcanic basement, andesitic-basaltic lava flows and fissure eruptions of basaltic lava. It was filled in the early Quaternary by lacustrine fan-delta deposits. The basin is characterized by NNE-SSW trending sinistral wrench faults on its eastern margin and ENE-WSW trending reverse faults on its southern margin. Both systems of active faults intersect very near to Erzurum, which is considered to be the most likely site for the epicenter of a probable future large earthquake. Historical records of destructive earthquakes, morphotectonic features formed by paleo-seismic events and instrument seismic data of region indicate to a very high regional seismicity. The residential areas of Erzurum are located on thick alluvial fan deposits forming under the control of faults on the central segment of the Erzurum Fault Zone, which is one of the most active fault belts of the East Anatolian Region. Over time, the housing estates of city such as Yenisehir and Yildizkent have been expanded toward to the west and southwest part of Erzurum as a consequence of rapid and massive construction during the last 30 years. Geotechnical investigation has therefore been undertaken the residential areas of city in order to characterize geotechnical properties over the varied lithologies examine the potential for geotechnical mapping and assess the foundation conditions of the present and future settlement areas. The geological field observations and operations have been performed to make the soil sampling and characterize the lateral and vertical changes in thickness of the alluvial deposits in trenches, excavations and deep holes with 6-12 m sections. The soil samples have been subjected to a series of tests under laboratory conditions to obtain physical and

  20. VERIFICATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS REGARDING THE HOMOGENEITY OF GEOTECHNICAL MEDIUMS AT THE "SOOT FACTORY / ČAĐARA" LOCATION IN KUTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Jurak

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of data which determine the characteristics of engineering soils was collected in the course of geotechnical explorations conducted for the purpose of building two industrial objects near Kutina (Tvornica umjetnih gnojiva / Artificial fertilizer factory II and Soot Factory II/ Čađara II. Wishing to familiarize ourselves with the condition of homogeneity/heterogeneity underneath the object, we decided to check the hypothesis regarding the homogeneity of the a priori acquired geotechnical mediums and their geotechnical similarity. The relationship of the two mediums under observation is superpositional, they are lithologically similar but genetically different. They are represented through an engineering geological model reaching the depth of forty meters. Following the basic statistical data analysis for identification, geotechnical parameters and the use of several statistical tests, we were able to reach an engineering judgment on the basis of statistical conclusions. We realized that, from a statistical point of view, both geotechnical mediums are mostly homogenous or, speaking from the engineering point of view, ''quasi-homogenous''. The comparison of these two mediums showed that there is no statistically significant difference according to certain geotechnical parameters of geotechnical parameters. It follows, therefore, that the unification of the superpositioned mediums in a physically united halfspace located under the object is acceptable (the paper is published in Croatian.

  1. Influence of Oil Contamination on Geotechnical Properties of Basaltic Residual Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfahmi A. Rahman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Oil contamination due to accidental spillage or leakage brings hefty damage to the environments. It percolates steadily into subsurface environments and contaminates the soil and water system. Hydrocarbon contamination has not just affected the quality of the soil but will also alter the physical properties of oil-contaminated soil. Approach: This study presented the geotechnical properties of oil-contaminated soils as well as uncontaminated soils for comparison. Testing programs performed on the studied soils included basic properties, Atterberg limit, compaction, permeability and unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests. The base soils used were originated from weathered basaltic rock of grades V and VI. Soil samples were artificially contaminated with 4, 8, 12 and 16% oil of the dry weight of based soils. Results: The results showed that the oil contamination decreased the liquid limit and plastic limit values for both grades of weathered soils. For soil grade V, the decrease in plastic limit and liquid limit were represented by 21 and 39%, respectively. Meanwhile, for soil grade VI, the drop was significantly high for liquid limit (39% and lower for plastic limit (19% if compared to soil grade V. The oil-contaminated soils also indicated a lower Maximum Dry Density (MDD and optimum water content if compared with uncontaminated soils. The MDD for soil grade V and VI decreased from 1.67-1.50 and 1.60-1.55 g cm-3, respectively. The OMD values dropped from 23.5-17.5% for soil grade V and 23.0-16.5% for soil grade VI when oil contents were increased. A reduction in permeability was observed as a result of the oil contamination. The permeability of soil grade V and VI decreased from 3.74-0.22 and 2.65-0.22 cm sec-1, respectively. In terms of undrained shear strength, Cu was clearly affected by the increase in oil content in contaminated soils. Both soil grades showed stress dependant behavior with a brittle mode of failure. The

  2. Evaluation of road failure vulnerability section through integrated geophysical and geotechnical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A.N. Adiat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the competence of the proposed road for pavement stability, geotechnical and geophysical investigations involving Land Magnetic, Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic (VLF-EM and Electrical Resistivity methods were carried out along Akure-Ipinsa road Southwestern Nigeria. The magnetic profile was qualitatively and quantitatively interpreted to produce geomagnetic section that provides information on the basement topography and structural disposition beneath the proposed road. Similarly, the VLF-EM profile was equally interpreted to provide information on the possible occurrence of linear features beneath the study area. These linear features pose a potential risk to the proposed road as they are capable of undermining the stability of the pavement structure. The geoelectric parameters obtained from the quantitative interpretation of the VES data were used to generate geoelectric section. The geoelectric section generated shows that the study area was underlain by four geoelectric layers namely the topsoil, the weathered layer, the partly weathered/fractured basement and the fresh basement. The major part of the topsoil, which constitutes the subgrade, is characterized by relatively low resistivity values (<100 Ωm suggestive of weak zones that are capable of undermining the stability of the proposed road. This therefore suggests that the layer is composed of incompetent materials that are unsuitable for engineering structures. Furthermore, fractured basement was also delineated beneath some portion of the proposed road. Since fracture is a weak zone, its presence can facilitate failure of the proposed road especially when it is occurring at shallow depth. The geotechnical results reveal that most of the investigated soil samples are clayey in nature. Integration of the results demonstrates that there is a good correlation between geophysical results and the geotechnical results. Furthermore, a vulnerability section that

  3. Evaluation of road failure vulnerability section through integrated geophysical and geotechnical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiat, K. A. N.; Akinlalu, A. A.; Adegoroye, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    In order to investigate the competence of the proposed road for pavement stability, geotechnical and geophysical investigations involving Land Magnetic, Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and Electrical Resistivity methods were carried out along Akure-Ipinsa road Southwestern Nigeria. The magnetic profile was qualitatively and quantitatively interpreted to produce geomagnetic section that provides information on the basement topography and structural disposition beneath the proposed road. Similarly, the VLF-EM profile was equally interpreted to provide information on the possible occurrence of linear features beneath the study area. These linear features pose a potential risk to the proposed road as they are capable of undermining the stability of the pavement structure. The geoelectric parameters obtained from the quantitative interpretation of the VES data were used to generate geoelectric section. The geoelectric section generated shows that the study area was underlain by four geoelectric layers namely the topsoil, the weathered layer, the partly weathered/fractured basement and the fresh basement. The major part of the topsoil, which constitutes the subgrade, is characterized by relatively low resistivity values (<100 Ωm) suggestive of weak zones that are capable of undermining the stability of the proposed road. This therefore suggests that the layer is composed of incompetent materials that are unsuitable for engineering structures. Furthermore, fractured basement was also delineated beneath some portion of the proposed road. Since fracture is a weak zone, its presence can facilitate failure of the proposed road especially when it is occurring at shallow depth. The geotechnical results reveal that most of the investigated soil samples are clayey in nature. Integration of the results demonstrates that there is a good correlation between geophysical results and the geotechnical results. Furthermore, a vulnerability section that divided the road

  4. Filling the gap between geophysics and geotechnics in landslide process understanding: a data fusion methodology to integrate multi-source information in hydro-mechanical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernadie, S.; Gance, J.; Grandjean, G.; Malet, J.

    2013-12-01

    The population increase and the rising issue of climate change impact the long term stability of mountain slopes. So far, it is not yet possible to assess in all cases conditions for failure, reactivation or rapid surges of slopes. The main reason identified by Van Asch et al. (2007) is the excessive conceptualization of the slope in the models. Therefore to improve our forecasting capability, considering local information such as the local slope geometry, the soil material variability, hydrological processes and the presence of fissures are of first importance. Geophysical imaging, combined with geotechnical tests, is an adapted tool to obtain such detailed information. The development of near-surface geophysics in the last three decades encourages the use of multiple geophysical methods for slope investigations. However, fusion of real data is little used in this domain and a gap still exists between the data processed by the geophysicists and the slope hydro-mechanical models developed by the geotechnical engineers. Starting from this statement, we propose a methodological flowchart of multi-source geophysical and geotechnical data integration to construct a slope hydro-mechanical model of a selected profile at the Super-Sauze landslide. Based on data fusion concepts, the methodology aims at integrating various data in order to create a geological and a geotechnical model of the slope profile. The input data consist in seismic and geoelectrical tomographies (that give access to a spatially distributed information on the soil physical state) supplemented by punctual geotechnical tests (dynamic penetration tests). The tomograms and the geotechnical tests are combined into a unique interpreted model characterized by different geotechnical domains. We use the fuzzy logic clustering method in order to take into account the uncertainty coming from each input data. Then an unstructured finite element mesh, adapted to the resolution of the different input data and

  5. Rock-mechanical and geotechnical standard planning system of the DSK; Darstellung der gebirgsmechanischen und geotechnischen Standardplanung fuer Streckenauffahrungen der DSK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polysos, N.; Witthaus, H. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    A standard planning system for the development of roadways was adopted to German coal mines based on the results of geotechnical and rockmechanical investigations for sufficient support systems under conditions of multiple seam mining in great depth. The report points out the required determination of geotechnical parameters and the basics for achieving a high level of planning reliability and resulting high performance in roadway development and longwall mining. The instrumentation and the planning procedure for realisation of variable support design respectively to geotechnical parameters are described and demonstrated exemplarily.

  6. Description of the rock mechanical and geotechnical planning in roadheading at the DSK; Darstellung der gebirgsmechanischen und geotechnischen Standardplanung fuer Streckenauffahrungen der DSK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polysos, N.; Witthaus, H. [Werksdirektion Zentrale Technik, Abt. ZTT-B, Deutsche Steinkohle AG (DSK), Herne (Germany)

    2004-09-09

    A standard planning system for the development of roadways was adopted to German coal mines based on the results of geotechnical and rockmechanical investigations for sufficient support systems under conditions of multiple seam mining in great depth. The report points out the required determination of geotechnical parameters and the basics for achieving a high level of planning reliability and resulting high performance in roadway development and longwall mining. The instrumentation and the planning procedure for realisation of variable support design respectively to geotechnical parameters are described and demonstrated exemplarily. (orig.)

  7. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SHIRASU TUNNEL TAKEN ACCOUNT OF GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF SHIRASU GROUND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taho, Toru; Suzuki, Masayuki; Sugawara, Kentaro; Kitamura, Ryosuke

    Shirasu which is defined as the non-welded part of pyroclastic flow deposits is widely distributed in the southern part of Kyushu Island. Shirasu is regarded as a soft ground when the mountain tunneling method is applied because its unconfined compression strength is only 20-100 kN/m2. Nevertheless, it is well known among the practical engineers that Shirasu tunnel is stable. In this paper the mechanical properties of Shirasu tunnel was analyzed, taking account of the geotechnical properties of Shirasu ground, where the laboratory and in-situ tests were carried out with the field measurement in tunnel. Furthermore the numerical experiment by FDM was also performed by using the proposed nonlinear mechanical model for Shirasu ground to compare the numerical results with those obtained from the field measurement.

  8. The effects of different compaction energy on geotechnical properties of kaolin and laterite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Siti Aimi Nadia Mohd; Bakar, Ismail; Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Zainorabidin, Adnan; Azmi, Mastura; Ramli, Harris

    2017-08-01

    Strength and deformation parameters of compacted soil are known to be related to soil type and moisture. However, little attention has been directed towards understanding the influence of compaction energy on soil type and moisture. This study considers the effect of different compaction energy on certain geotechnical properties of Kaolin and Laterite soil. This paper describes a laboratory study conducted to evaluate the relationship between soil type, soil moisture content with different compaction energy and strength characteristic. Specimens were compacted with impact energy at levels of 596 kg/m3(Standard Proctor) and 2682 kJ/m3 (Modified Proctor) over a wide range of moisture contents to determine dry unit weight, and Unconfined Compression Strength Test (UCS). Result shows that compaction energy is an important factor in determining soil strength that should be considered during the planning phase of any earthwork construction operation.

  9. Geotechnical aspects of the January 2003 Tecoma'n, Mexico, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartman, Joseph; Rodriguez-Marek, Adrian; Macari, Emir J.; Deaton, Scott; Ramirez-Reynaga, Marti'n; Ochoa, Carlos N.; Callan, Sean; Keefer, David; Repetto, Pedro; Ovando-Shelley, Efrai'n

    2005-01-01

    Ground failure was the most prominent geotechnical engineering feature of the 21 January 2003 Mw 7.6 Tecoma´n earthquake. Ground failure impacted structures, industrial facilities, roads, water supply canals, and other critical infrastructure in the state of Colima and in parts of the neighboring states of Jalisco and Michoaca´n. Landslides and soil liquefaction were the most common type of ground failure, followed by seismic compression of unsaturated materials. Reinforced earth structures generally performed well during the earthquake, though some structures experienced permanent lateral deformations up to 10 cm. Different ground improvement techniques had been used to enhance the liquefaction resistance of several sites in the region, all of which performed well and exhibited no signs of damage or significant ground deformation. Earth dams in the region experienced some degree of permanent deformation but remained fully functional after the earthquake.

  10. Comparison of Shear-wave Profiles for a Compacted Fill in a Geotechnical Test Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvain, M. B.; Pando, M. A.; Whelan, M.; Bents, D.; Park, C.; Ogunro, V.

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the use of common methods for geological seismic site characterization including: i) multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW),ii) crosshole seismic surveys, and iii) seismic cone penetrometer tests. The in-situ tests were performed in a geotechnical test pit located at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte High Bay Laboratory. The test pit has dimensions of 12 feet wide by 12 feet long by 10 feet deep. The pit was filled with a silty sand (SW-SM) soil, which was compacted in lifts using a vibratory plate compactor. The shear wave velocity values from the 3 techniques are compared in terms of magnitude versus depth as well as spatially. The comparison was carried out before and after inducing soil disturbance at controlled locations to evaluate which methods were better suited to captured the induced soil disturbance.

  11. Constraints on Pore Pressure in Subduction Zones From Geotechnical Tests and Physical Properties Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, D. M.; McKiernan, A. W.

    2005-12-01

    At subduction zones, as incoming sediments are either offscraped or underthrust at the trench, elevated pore pressures result from the combination of rapid loading and low permeability. Pore pressure within underthrust sediment is especially important for the mechanical strength of the plate boundary fault system, because the main décollement localizes immediately above this sediment, and at many subduction zones steps downward into it. Because the underthrust sediment undergoes progressive uniaxial (vertical) strain, quantitative estimates of in situ pore pressure can be obtained by several methods, including: (1) maximum past burial stress ( Pv'}) from laboratory consolidation tests on core samples, and (2) observed compaction trends in boreholes. These methods allow a detailed view of pore pressure and its variability down-section, providing insight into dewatering processes and the evolution of shear strength relevant to early development of the décollement. Geotechnical tests also provide independent measurement of the coefficient of consolidation ( Cv), compressibility ( mv), and permeability (k) of sediment samples, which can be used to parameterize forward models of pressure generation. Here, I discuss pore pressure estimates derived from (1) consolidation tests on core samples, and (2) observed porosity profiles, along transects where ODP drilling has sampled sediment at the Nankai, N. Barbados, and Costa Rican subduction zones. At all three margins, the two independent methods yield consistent results, and indicate development of significant overpressures that increase systematically with distance from the trench. The values are in good agreement with direct measurements in 2 instrumented boreholes at Barbados, maximum and minimum bounds from the known loading rate, and results of 2-D numerical models of fluid flow. Inferred pressures document nearly undrained conditions at the base of the section (excess pressures equal to the load emplaced by

  12. IHG: an Integrated Hydrological-Geotechnical model for large landslides' susceptibility assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, R.; Bovolenta, R.

    2012-04-01

    A large area (~ 5 km2) in the north-east sector of the Genoa-Province (Liguria - Italy) is subjected to a diffused, continuous kinematic phenomenon. It is shaped into a top-valley gentle slope (circa 11° ), which downgrades directly from the south-side faces of the Northern Apennines summits (1800 meters a.s.l.). On this endangered site are situated a small town and six of its surrounding hamlets. In consequence of the widespread and differential movements at ground level, many buildings and structures are continuously damaged. Institutions, Land-Authorities, as well as the Citizens, are applying their economical efforts in the rehabilitations and the assessment/control of the active phenomena. From the geological and morphological points of view, the topmost sediment is formed by a pliocenic glacial till and its body of widely assorted sediments had been reckoned as a large relict landslide. The loose-soils' thickness spans from few meters up to 90, before of reaching the local bedrock formations (argillites, sandstones, mudstones, ophiolites and diabases in pillows). Former studies have underlined that the main trigger actions are represented by the seasonal rain/snow falls on the watershed and that the kinematic phenomenon is heavily influenced by the subsoil features. The Authors have recently dealt with the characterization and study of this complex landslide [ref. @: the International Association for Mathematical Geosciences (IAMG) Conference, Salzburg (A), September 5-9, 2011 and the 2nd World Landslide Forum, Rome (I), October 3-9, 2011], giving particular attention to both the geotechnical and the hydrological aspects of the site. Since the buried bedrock spatial morphology, depth and steepness have a key role, geophysical and seismic array techniques were used toinvestigate the micro-tremor characteristics and to correlate the emerging data to the geotechnical and geophysical properties of the shallowsediments. Noise measurements were made at more than

  13. Geotechnical Properties of Sabkha Soil in the southern part of AlKhobar city, KSA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal M. Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The geotechnical properties of sabkha soil covering most parts of the southern portion of Al-Khobar area – Saudia Arabia were determined. These soil have very low strength, low bearing capacity and high compressibility. The expected settlement is always above the recommended tolerable limits. The chemical analysis of both soil and water from sabkha flat shows a very high concentration of salts. These high concentrations of salts give rise to a very corrosive environment and therefore it is recommended to protect concrete and reinforcement by using sulphate resisting cement, pozzolanic materials, use of corrosion inhibitors and by applying suitable water proofing membranes . The properties determined during this study has a significant impact on both technical and economical values of each project and therefore, the outcome of the study is much important for planners and developers

  14. Probabilistic density function estimation of geotechnical shear strength parameters using the second Chebyshev orthogonal polynomial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A method to estimate the probabilistic density function (PDF) of shear strength parameters was proposed. The second Chebyshev orthogonal polynomial(SCOP) combined with sample moments (the originmoments)was used to approximate the PDF of parameters. χ2 test was adopted to verify the availability of the method. It is distribution-free because no classical theoretical distributions were assumed in advance and the inference result provides a universal form of probability density curves. Six most commonly-used theoretical distributions named normal, lognormal, extreme value Ⅰ , gama, beta and Weibull distributions were used to verify SCOP method. An example from the observed data of cohesion c of a kind of silt clay was presented for illustrative purpose. The results show that the acceptance levels in SCOP are all smaller than those in the classical finite comparative method and the SCOP function is more accurate and effective in the reliability analysis of geotechnical engineering.

  15. Effects of Rice Husk Ash on Some Geotechnical Properties of Lateritic Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelis O. OKAFOR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is an investigation into the effect of RHA on some geotechnical properties of a lateritic soil classified as A-2-6 (0 or SW for sub-grade purposes. The investigation includes evaluation of properties such as compaction, consistency limits and strength of the soil with RHA content of 5%, 7.5%, 10% and 12.5% by weight of the dry soil. The results obtained show that the increase in RHA content increased the OMC but decreased the MDD. It was also discovered that increase in RHA content, reduced plasticity and increased volume stability as well as the strength of the soil. 10% RHA content was also observed to be the optimum content.

  16. COMPOSITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR SEEPAGE ANALYSIS OF GEOTECHNICAL STRUCTURES WITH DRAINAGE HOLE ARRAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Sheng-hong; XU Qing; HU Jing

    2004-01-01

    Air element concept and Composite Element Method (CEM) were introduced in this paper firstly, and then an explicit drainage holes element model was developed. The main advantage of the new model is that it allows drainage holes to be located within soil elements. Therefore the mesh generation of complicated geotechnical structures with a large number of seepage drainage holes becomes relatively convenient and feasible. This will further facilitate the optimal design of seepage control system, and in this case the calculation mesh can be kept unchanged when the number, position and orientation of drainage holes are adjusted. The model was been implemented in software. A sluice foundation seepage control problem was studied, by which the validity and the robustness of the new model were verified.

  17. [Geotechnical Board activities and funding]. [Annual] activites report, July 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeallie, P.H.

    1993-07-23

    The Geotechnical Board, a part of the US National Research Council, which is the operating arm of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering, serves to advise the federal government and others on issues where geotechnology can have an impact, such as environmental remediation and infrastructure development. The board met three times during the reporting period to review current projects and to initiate activities that move the knowledge base of geotechnology forward. The board operates with two long-standing national committees, the US National Committee for Rock Mechanics and the US National Committee on Tunneling Technology. It also conducts special studies at the request of the government. A list of attachments is given.

  18. Wind Farms: Modeling and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    provides the state space form of the dynamic wind farm model. The model provides an approximation of the behavior of the flow in wind farms, and obtains the wind speed in the vicinity of each wind turbine. The control algorithms in this work are mostly on the basis of the developed wind farm model......The primary purpose of this work is to develop control algorithms for wind farms to optimize the power production and augment the lifetime of wind turbines in wind farms. In this regard, a dynamical model for wind farms was required to be the basis of the controller design. In the first stage......, a dynamical model has been developed for the wind flow in wind farms. The model is based on the spatial discretization of the linearized Navier-Stokes equation combined with the vortex cylinder theory. The spatial discretization of the model is performed using the Finite Difference Method (FDM), which...

  19. Geotechnical assessment of road failure and slope monitoring along Nsukka-Adoru-Idah highway, Southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduka, Raphael Iweanya; Igwe, Ogbonnaya; Ayogu, Nnadozie Onyekachi; Ayogu, Chinero Nneka; Nwachukwu, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The quality of highway pavement is greatly influenced by the subgrade materials, the general geology of the area, and the materials used for construction. Investigation into the 75-km Nsukka-Adoru-Idah highway revealed that the pavement was underlain by three lithological units-Imo, Nsukka, and Ajali formations. The geotechnical evaluation carried out in the study includes the particle size distribution, Atterberg limit, specific gravity, compaction tests, and California bearing ratio (CBR). The base course has clay/silt (7-14%), fine sand (1-4%), medium sand (6-13%), and coarse sand (65-86%), while the subgrade presented clay/silt (74-82%), fine sand (6-9%), medium sand (10-17%), and coarse sand (1-3%). The average specific gravity results for the studied base course and subgrades are 2.58 and 2.52. Liquid limit (LL) result ranges from 27 to 60%, while plastic limit (PL) ranges between 17 and 24%, and plasticity index (PI) ranges from 5 to 39%. The maximum dry density (MDD) result ranges from 1.70 to 2.10 mg/m(3), while the optimum moisture content (OMC) for the samples ranges between 14.1 and 18.0%. The CBR result for soaked and unsoaked samples ranges from 37 to 74 and 48 to 83%, respectively. The low unsoaked CBR ( 30% and PI > 12%) failed the stipulated Nigerian standard, signifying the need for stabilization. A geotechnical model of a highway road cut generated a factor of safety of 1.45, indicating possibility of slope failure.

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2004 - June 2005, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-04-03

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports quarterly to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after early excavations of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2005. It is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the Geomechanical Monitoring Program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5 and 6 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the two main portions of the WIPP underground (the access drifts and the waste disposal area). Chapter 7 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture mapping and borehole observations. Chapter 8 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation performance to the design requirements. Chapter 9 lists the references and bibliography.

  1. Engineering geologic and geotechnical analysis of paleoseismic shaking using liquefaction effects: Field examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R.A.; Obermeier, S.F.; Olson, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The greatest impediments to the widespread acceptance of back-calculated ground motion characteristics from paleoliquefaction studies typically stem from three uncertainties: (1) the significance of changes in the geotechnical properties of post-liquefied sediments (e.g., "aging" and density changes), (2) the selection of appropriate geotechnical soil indices from individual paleoliquefaction sites, and (3) the methodology for integration of back-calculated results of strength of shaking from individual paleoliquefaction sites into a regional assessment of paleoseismic strength of shaking. Presented herein are two case studies that illustrate the methods outlined by Olson et al. [Engineering Geology, this issue] for addressing these uncertainties. The first case study is for a site near Memphis, Tennessee, wherein cone penetration test data from side-by-side locations, one of liquefaction and the other of no liquefaction, are used to readily discern that the influence of post-liquefaction "aging" and density changes on the measured in situ soil indices is minimal. In the second case study, 12 sites that are at scattered locations in the Wabash Valley and that exhibit paleoliquefaction features are analyzed. The features are first provisionally attributed to the Vincennes Earthquake, which occurred around 6100 years BP, and are used to illustrate our proposed approach for selecting representative soil indices of the liquefied sediments. These indices are used in back-calculating the strength of shaking at the individual sites, the results from which are then incorporated into a regional assessment of the moment magnitude, M, of the Vincennes Earthquake. The regional assessment validated the provisional assumption that the paleoliquefaction features at the scattered sites were induced by the Vincennes Earthquake, in the main, which was determined to have M ??? 7.5. The uncertainties and assumptions used in the assessment are discussed in detail. ?? 2004 Elsevier B

  2. Large scale debris-flow hazard assessment: a geotechnical approach and GIS modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Delmonaco

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A deterministic distributed model has been developed for large-scale debris-flow hazard analysis in the basin of River Vezza (Tuscany Region – Italy. This area (51.6 km 2 was affected by over 250 landslides. These were classified as debris/earth flow mainly involving the metamorphic geological formations outcropping in the area, triggered by the pluviometric event of 19 June 1996. In the last decades landslide hazard and risk analysis have been favoured by the development of GIS techniques permitting the generalisation, synthesis and modelling of stability conditions on a large scale investigation (>1:10 000. In this work, the main results derived by the application of a geotechnical model coupled with a hydrological model for the assessment of debris flows hazard analysis, are reported. This analysis has been developed starting by the following steps: landslide inventory map derived by aerial photo interpretation, direct field survey, generation of a database and digital maps, elaboration of a DTM and derived themes (i.e. slope angle map, definition of a superficial soil thickness map, geotechnical soil characterisation through implementation of a backanalysis on test slopes, laboratory test analysis, inference of the influence of precipitation, for distinct return times, on ponding time and pore pressure generation, implementation of a slope stability model (infinite slope model and generalisation of the safety factor for estimated rainfall events with different return times. Such an approach has allowed the identification of potential source areas of debris flow triggering. This is used to detected precipitation events with estimated return time of 10, 50, 75 and 100 years. The model shows a dramatic decrease of safety conditions for the simulation when is related to a 75 years return time rainfall event. It corresponds to an estimated cumulated daily intensity of 280–330 mm. This value can be considered the hydrological triggering

  3. Integrated Geophysical Methods Applied to Geotechnical and Geohazard Engineering: From Qualitative to Quantitative Analysis and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Near-Surface is a region of day-to-day human activity on the earth. It is exposed to the natural phenomena which sometimes cause disasters. This presentation covers a broad spectrum of the geotechnical and geohazard ways of mitigating disaster and conserving the natural environment using geophysical methods and emphasizes the contribution of geophysics to such issues. The presentation focusses on the usefulness of geophysical surveys in providing information to mitigate disasters, rather than the theoretical details of a particular technique. Several techniques are introduced at the level of concept and application. Topics include various geohazard and geoenvironmental applications, such as for earthquake disaster mitigation, preventing floods triggered by tremendous rain, for environmental conservation and studying the effect of global warming. Among the geophysical techniques, the active and passive surface wave, refraction and resistivity methods are mainly highlighted. Together with the geophysical techniques, several related issues, such as performance-based design, standardization or regularization, internet access and databases are also discussed. The presentation discusses the application of geophysical methods to engineering investigations from non-uniqueness point of view and introduces the concepts of integrated and quantitative. Most geophysical analyses are essentially non-unique and it is very difficult to obtain unique and reliable engineering solutions from only one geophysical method (Fig. 1). The only practical way to improve the reliability of investigation is the joint use of several geophysical and geotechnical investigation methods, an integrated approach to geophysics. The result of a geophysical method is generally vague, here is a high-velocity layer, it may be bed rock, this low resistivity section may contain clayey soils. Such vague, qualitative and subjective interpretation is not worthwhile on general engineering design works

  4. Waste Isolation PIlot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2005 - June 2006, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-04-03

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports quarterly to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after early excavations of the underground facility. Since completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2005, to June 30, 2006. It is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5 and 6 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the two main portions of the WIPP underground (the access drifts and the waste disposal area). Chapter 7 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture mapping and borehole observations. Chapter 8 summarizes the results of geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation performance to the design requirements. Chapter 9 lists references.

  5. Wind farm production estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge;

    2012-01-01

    on a 3GHz pc. The turbine controller is fully implemented. Initially, production estimates of a single turbine under free and wake conditions, respectively, are compared for (undis- turbed) mean wind speeds ranging from 3m/s to 25m/s. The undisturbed situation refers to a wind direction bin defined......In this paper, the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model is applied for simulation of wind farm production. In addition to the numerical simulations, measured data have been analyzed in order to provide the basis for a full-scale verification of the model performance. The basic idea behind...... as 270◦ ±5◦, whereas the wake situation refers to the wind direction bin 319◦ ±5◦. In the latter case, the investigated turbine operated in the wake of 6 upstream turbines, with the mean wind direction being equal to the orientation of the wind turbine row. The production of the entire wind farm has been...

  6. Transgenic Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Morse B.; Eastridge, Janet S.; Paroczay, Ernest W.

    Conventional science to improve muscle and meat parameters has involved breeding strategies, such as selection of dominant traits or selection of preferred traits by cross breeding, and the use of endogenous and exogenous hormones. Improvements in the quality of food products that enter the market have largely been the result of postharvest intervention strategies. Biotechnology is a more extreme scientific method that offers the potential to improve the quality, yield, and safety of food products by direct genetic manipulation. In the December 13, 2007 issue of the Southeast Farm Press, an article by Roy Roberson pointed out that biotechnology is driving most segments of U.S. farm growth. He indicated that nationwide, the agriculture industry is booming and much of that growth is the result of biotechnology advancements.

  7. Particularities of farm accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapteș, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, agriculture has become one of the most important fields of activity, significant funds being allotted within the EU budget to finance the European agriculture. In this context, organising the accounting of economic entities which carry out their activity in the agricultural sector has acquired new meanings. The goal of the present study is to bring into the light the particularities of the farm accounting on two levels: on the one hand, from the perspective of the international accounting referential and, on the other hand, in compliance with the national accounting regulations. The most important conclusion of this work is that, in post-1990 Romania, no interest was further manifested for the refinement of aspects specific to farm accounting.

  8. Organic food and farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kledal, Paul Rye

    The paper is based on research conducted for DARCOF II (Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming, www.darcof.dk). The aim of the research project is to analyze the future development of the Danish organic food sector through focusing on two agro-commodities: vegetables and pork. Emphasis...... is placed on identification of economic forces within the supply chains. The main conclusions of the paper – being the results from the organic vegetable chain – are that the rules and regulations, and the development of alternative transaction processes in organic food and farming have so far been founded...... conventional farmers – declining prices, concentration of production and shift in bargaining power to the retailers. Logically, this situation will lead eventually to increasing conflicts between organic values and their subordination to free market forces, i.e. conventionalization. In the same time retailers...

  9. Amy Courtney: Freewheelin' Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Shareholders in Freewheelin’ Farm’s community supported agriculture program enjoy an unusual perk: delivery by bicycle-drawn trailer. Freewheelin’ founder Amy Courtney, a 1997 graduate of UCSC’s Apprenticeship in Ecological Horticulture, strives to produce fresh, healthy food while minimizing her environmental footprint. Courtney started the farm in 2002 with almost no motorized vehicles, incorporating used equipment and recycled materials wherever possible in the farm’s operations. She and h...

  10. Wind farm production estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model is applied for simulation of wind farm production. In addition to the numerical simulations, measured data have been analyzed in order to provide the basis for a full-scale verification of the model performance. The basic idea behind the DWMm......In this paper, the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model is applied for simulation of wind farm production. In addition to the numerical simulations, measured data have been analyzed in order to provide the basis for a full-scale verification of the model performance. The basic idea behind...... on a 3GHz pc. The turbine controller is fully implemented. Initially, production estimates of a single turbine under free and wake conditions, respectively, are compared for (undis- turbed) mean wind speeds ranging from 3m/s to 25m/s. The undisturbed situation refers to a wind direction bin defined...... as 270◦ ±5◦, whereas the wake situation refers to the wind direction bin 319◦ ±5◦. In the latter case, the investigated turbine operated in the wake of 6 upstream turbines, with the mean wind direction being equal to the orientation of the wind turbine row. The production of the entire wind farm has been...

  11. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M; Part, Chérie E

    2013-05-16

    The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  12. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chérie E. Part

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  13. Preserving drinking water quality in geotechnical operations: predicting the feedback between fluid injection, fluid flow, and contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Frank R.

    2014-05-01

    Not only in densely populated areas the preservation of drinking water quality is of vital interest. On the other side, our modern economies request for a sustained energy supply and a secure storage of waste materials. As energy sources with a high security of supply, oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy cover ca. 60% of Europe's energy demand; together with coal more than 75% (IEA 2011). Besides geothermal energy, all of the resources have a high greenhouse gas footprint. All these production activities are related to fluid injection and/or fluid production. The same holds true for gas storage operations in porous reservoirs, to store natural gases, oil, or greenhouse gases. Different concerns are discussed in the public and geoscientific community to influence the drinking water quality: - wastewater discharges from field exploration, drilling, production, well treatment and completion - wastewater sequestration - gas storage - tight gas and tight oil production (including hydraulic fracturing) - Shale gas production (including hydraulic fracturing) - mine drainage This overview contribution focusses on strategies to systematically reduce the risk of water pollution in geotechnical operations of deep reservoirs. The principals will be exemplarily revealed for different geotechnical operations. - How to control hydraulic fracturing operations to reduce the risk of enhanced seismic activity and avoiding the connection of originally separated aquifers. The presented approach to quantitatively predict the impact of stimulation activities is based on petrophysical models taking the feedback of geomechanical processes and fluid flow in porous media, fissures and faults into account. The specific flow patterns in various rock types lead to distinguished differences in operational risk. - How can a proper planning of geotechnical operations reduce the involved risks. A systematic risk reduction strategy will be discussed. On selected samples the role of exploration

  14. Foundation integrity assessment using integrated geophysical and geotechnical techniques: case study in crystalline basement complex, southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayanju, G. M.; Mogaji, K. A.; Lim, H. S.; Ojo, T. S.

    2017-06-01

    The determination of parameters comprising exact depth to bedrock and its lithological type, lateral changes in lithology, and detection of fractures, cracks, or faults are essential to designing formidable foundations and assessing the integrity of civil engineering structures. In this study, soil and site characterization in a typical hard rock geologic terrain in southwestern Nigeria were carried out employing integrated geophysical and geotechnical techniques to address tragedies in civil engineering infrastructural development. The deployed geophysical measurements involved running both very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity methods (dipole-dipole imaging and vertical electrical sounding (VES) techniques) along the established traverses, while the latter technique entailed conducting geological laboratory sieve analysis and Atterberg limit-index tests upon the collected soil samples in the area. The results of the geophysical measurement, based on the interpreted VLF-EM and dipole-dipole data, revealed conductive zones and linear features interpreted as fractures/faults which endanger the foundations of public infrastructures. The delineation of four distinct geoelectric layers in the area—comprised of topsoil, lateritic/clayey substratum, weathered layer, and bedrock—were based on the VES results. Strong evidence, including high degree of decomposition and fracturing of underlying bedrock revealed by the VES results, confirmed the VLF-EM and dipole-dipole results. Furthermore, values in the range of 74.2%-77.8%, 55%-62.5%, 23.4%-24.5%, 7.7%-8.2%, 19.5%-22.4%, and 31.65%-38.25% were obtained for these geotechnical parameters viz soil percentage passing 0.075 mm sieve size, liquid limit, plasticity index, linear shrinkage, natural moisture content, and plastic limit, respectively, resulting from the geotechnical analysis of the soil samples. The comparatively analyzed geophysical and geotechnical results revealed a high

  15. Are large farms more efficient? Tenure security, farm size and farm efficiency: evidence from northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuepeng; Ma, Xianlei; Shi, Xiaoping

    2017-04-01

    How to increase production efficiency, guarantee grain security, and increase farmers' income using the limited farmland is a great challenge that China is facing. Although theory predicts that secure property rights and moderate scale management of farmland can increase land productivity, reduce farm-related costs, and raise farmer's income, empirical studies on the size and magnitude of these effects are scarce. A number of studies have examined the impacts of land tenure or farm size on productivity or efficiency, respectively. There are also a few studies linking farm size, land tenure and efficiency together. However, to our best knowledge, there are no studies considering tenure security and farm efficiency together for different farm scales in China. In addition, there is little study analyzing the profit frontier. In this study, we particularly focus on the impacts of land tenure security and farm size on farm profit efficiency, using farm level data collected from 23 villages, 811 households in Liaoning in 2015. 7 different farm scales have been identified to further represent small farms, median farms, moderate-scale farms, and large farms. Technical efficiency is analyzed with stochastic frontier production function. The profit efficiency is regressed on a set of explanatory variables which includes farm size dummies, land tenure security indexes, and household characteristics. We found that: 1) The technical efficiency scores for production efficiency (average score = 0.998) indicate that it is already very close to the production frontier, and thus there is little room to improve production efficiency. However, there is larger space to raise profit efficiency (average score = 0.768) by investing more on farm size expansion, seed, hired labor, pesticide, and irrigation. 2) Farms between 50-80 mu are most efficient from the viewpoint of profit efficiency. The so-called moderate-scale farms (100-150 mu) according to the governmental guideline show no

  16. Zoning and Geotechnical Characterization of soils from the port of Veracruz; Zonificacion y Caracterizacion geotecnica de los Suelos del Puerto de Veracruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, O.; Ochoa Sanchez, O. A.

    2012-07-01

    Describes the geological province that hosts the city of Veracruz and the morphological traits that resulted from the activity that preceded the Quaternary on the other hand, presents the geotechnical characteristics of the soil, which constitute the different deposits that make up the ground to throughout the length and breadth of the urban sprawl from Veracruz and urban areas, and then after, make a zoning proposal from the point of view geotechnical. (Author) 25 refs.

  17. Verification of Engineering-Geological/Geotechnical Correlation Column and Reference Level of Correlation (RNK) Method by Observations in the Slip-Plane Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Jurak, V.; Ortolan, Ž.; Slovenec, D.; Mihalinec, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The engineering-geological/geotechnical correlation column can be established in zones of limited extent using one or several characteristic layers, one of which is selected as the reference layer. The Reference Level of Correlation method, i.e. the RNK (Referentni nivo korelacije in Croatian) method, is a confirmed procedure enabling the establishment of such columns. In the engineering geological/geotechnical correlation column, the plasticity index is the most significant indicator of the ...

  18. Fault Tolerant Wind Farm Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    with best at a wind turbine control level. However, some faults are better dealt with at the wind farm control level, if the wind turbine is located in a wind farm. In this paper a benchmark model for fault detection and isolation, and fault tolerant control of wind turbines implemented at the wind farm...... control level is presented. The benchmark model includes a small wind farm of nine wind turbines, based on simple models of the wind turbines as well as the wind and interactions between wind turbines in the wind farm. The model includes wind and power references scenarios as well as three relevant fault...... scenarios. This benchmark model is used in an international competition dealing with Wind Farm fault detection and isolation and fault tolerant control....

  19. Social Farming Rural Development Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gheorghe ZUGRAVU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper follows two main objectives: to understand farmers’ perception and image of social services and to identify communication levers in order to improve the perceived image of social farming. Orientations in terms of communication are product-focused and aim at enhancing the reputation of social farming consequently with impact on rural development. This paper conducted a questionnaire survey of Romanian farmers’ perception toward social agricultural. The empirical study indicated that farmers shown different awareness to social farming.

  20. Understanding crop and farm management

    OpenAIRE

    Chongtham, Iman Raj

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture faces challenges in meeting rising demand for food, feed, fibre and fuel while coping with pressure from globalisation, limited natural resources and climate change. Farmers will choose management practices based on their goals and available resources and these practices will influence farm performance. The aim of this thesis was to understand farmers’ crop and farm management practices and their links to farm(er) characteristics, productivity, biodiversity, marketing channels and...

  1. Design and farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W T

    1976-07-24

    Farm animal welfare and the design of farm buildings and equipment are interrelated. The animals' requirements and preferences should first be estimated and ways in which this can be done are discussed, as are methods of assessment of their environment. Some examples of the influence which housing and equipment design can have are given. Attention is drawn to the difficulties inherent in the assessment of farm animal welfare and the postulation made that the veterinarian is well fitted to carry out such assessments.

  2. Proceedings of Sea to Sky Geotechnique 2006 : The 59. Canadian Geotechnical Conference and 7. Joint CGS-IAH-CNC Groundwater Specialty Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This conference was attended by members of the Canadian and international geotechnical communities to exchange information on research and development that affects all sectors of geotechnical engineering, applied geology and hydrogeology. A wide range of topics were addressed, including special sessions on infrastructure and geotechnical mining methods that are of particular local or national relevance to the fields of geotechnical and groundwater engineering. The Canadian Geotechnical Society sessions covered oil mechanics and foundation engineering; engineering geology and geophysical investigation; seismology and earthquake engineering; landslide and slope engineering; soft soils engineering; forestry geotechnical issues; rock mechanics and rock engineering; mining; aging infrastructure; geo-environmental engineering; geosynthetics and cold regions geotechnology. The sessions of the International Association of Hydrogeologists covered groundwater protection and sustainability; groundwater and slope failures; fractured rock hydrogeology; mine water geochemistry and hydrology; hydrogeology of the Fraser Lowlands and data collection successes and failures. Many themes associated with major civil engineering works were also explored. The conference featured approximately 250 presentations, of which 17 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. FarmVille For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The only how-to, full-color book available on the game sensation FarmVille. With more than 80 million active players since the game?s release in 2009, there seems no end to the growing popularity of FarmVille. Whether accessed through the Facebook application or from the game?s Web site, this application is a worldwide phenomenon. Yet, there has been no beginner guide that offers an introduction to newcomers and updates to experienced players?until now. FarmVille For Dummies is aimed at getting novices acquainted with FarmVille rules and regulations, while more savvy players can sharpen their

  4. Immigrant Workers and Farm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob R.; Seidelin, Claus Aastrup

    2013-01-01

    In many developed countries, the agricultural sector has experienced a significant inflow of immigrants. At the same time, agriculture is still in a process of structural transformation, resulting in fewer but larger and presumably more efficient farms. We exploit matched employer-employee data...... for Danish farms in 1980–2008 to analyze the micro-level relationship between these two developments. Farms employing immigrants tend to be both larger than and no less productive than other farms. Furthermore, an increased use of immigrants is associated with an improvement in job creation and revenue......, which at least partially seems to reflect a causal effect of immigrants....

  5. Technical Note: Example of the Application of Jet Grouting to the Neutralisation of Geotechnical Hazard in Shaft Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dybeł Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a geotechnical hazard neutralisation technology for shaft structures. The diagnosis of problems with uncontrolled subsidence of the ventilation duct provided by the authors enabled the development of a schedule of works required for the protection and reinforcement of foundation soil in the shaft area. The technology of protection works was selected after the analysis of the technical condition of shaft structures as well as hydrological and geomechanical conditions. Due to the closeness of the shaft lining, it was necessary to form grout columns using jet grouting and low-pressure grouting technologies. The article presents the issues related to the selected technology and its application to the neutralisation of the emergent geotechnical hazard. The method of performance of recommended works was also described together with their impact on the technical condition of structures discussed as well as their functionality and usage.

  6. Proceedings of GeoHalifax 2009 : the 62. Canadian geotechnical conference and 10. joint CGS/IAH-CNC groundwater conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, C.; Fenton, G. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada); Taylor, B. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada); Ferguson, G. [Saint Francis Xavier Univ., Antigonish, NS (Canada)] (comps.) (and others)

    2009-07-01

    More than 500 delegates from industry, government, universities and research centres attended this conference to exchange professional knowledge on research and development that affects all sectors of geotechnical engineering, applied geology and hydrogeology. The conference also highlighted recent geoenvironmental achievements. The geotechnical sessions were entitled: soil mechanics; soil mechanics and brownfields; foundation engineering; landslide and slopes engineering; rock mechanics; risk assessment; reliability-based design; geoenvironmental issues; transportation geotechniques; marine geotechniques and geohazards; non-textbook soils and waste soils; covers and liners; instrumentation; harbour and shoreline geotechniques; geosynthetic mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) systems; cold regions and climate change; computer applications; regional hydrogeology; groundwater-surface water interaction; well hydraulics; radioactive waste management; groundwater sustainability; source water protection; mine waters; field techniques in hydrogeology; and hydrogeology of fractured rocks. The conference featured more than 230 presentations, of which 37 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Geotechnical and assessment of environmental problems caused by urban spread in the county Jardim das Palmeiras, Rio Claro (SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales de Deus Diniz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The geological formations that make up the region studied are susceptible to occurrence of certain geotechnical problems. The city of Rio Claro features a recent urbanization of the western portion, with new residential neighborhoods near industrial areas. Due to a lack of adequate planning, urban sprawl, in many cases, is causing a number of problems such as: occupation of the flood risk areas and sliding, invasion of the permanent preservation areas and occurrence of erosion processes. In this context, this work aims to make environmental diagnosis in the county of Jardim Palmeiras and surroundings, with emphasis on geotechnical problems, occurrence of erosion processes and dynamics of surface water. The study was developed based on the analysis of field with data sheets standardized, with the main problems identified at each point. With the results you can check the environmental degradation in several locations, mainly associated with poorly planned urban occupation.Keywords: urban occupation, environmental impact, geological processes.

  8. Characterization Lithostratigraphic, Geotechnical, and Correlations with the Occurrence of Mass Movement Processes in the Slope Barriers Formation (Cariacica-ES)

    OpenAIRE

    Luiza Leonardi Bricalli

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to describe and analyze the lithostratigraphic and geotechnical aspects, in order to correlate them to the occurrence of the mass movement process (slip) on the slope of Barreiras Formation (Cariacica-ES). The methodological basis used was Survey of implementing Percussion Standard Penetration Test (SPT); analysis of the stratigraphic layers; preparation of geological profiles; conducting particle size analysis, compression, liquid limit and plasticity and shear. It was possib...

  9. Spatial allocation of farming systems and farming indicators in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempen, Markus; Elbersen, Berien S.; Staritsky, Igor

    2011-01-01

    sample farms making it possible to aggregate farm types both to natural and to lower scale administrative regions. This spatial flexibility allows providing input data to economic or bio-physical models at their desired resolution. The allocation approach is implemented as a constrained optimization...

  10. Energy balance in IPM rice farms compared to conventional farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Fazeli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Pest Management based on Farmer Field Schools (IPM/FFS is a program aimed to guide farmers toward managing agricultural pests in an environmentally responsible manner. This program has been in practice during the recent decade in the north of Iran. A study was conducted to evaluate the overall impacts of IPM/FFS program on energy balance and economic revenue of paddy (Oryza sativa L. farms compared with conventional farms (no IPM. The data of inputs, management practices, and output (yield of 238 paddy farms (135 IPM farms and 103 conventional farms located in a semi-Mediterranean climate were collected in 2010 and 2011. Total energy input, energy output, energy efficiency, and energy productivity were determined as indicators of energy balance. The total energy requirement for paddy production in IPM system was 48756 MJ ha−1, indicating that 8% more energy was used in IPM farms than that in conventional farms. It was noticed that IPM program in this region failed to reduce the consumption of chemical pesticides in paddy farms and the conventional system was more energy efficient than IPM system. Although paddy yield of the two systems was similar, the economic net return in IPM system was almost 20% higher than the conventional system due to the higher price of paddy produced in IPM system.

  11. Whole Farm Nutrient Balance Calculator for New York Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberon, Melanie A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Rasmussen, Caroline N.; Czymmek, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient loss and accumulation as well as associated environmental degradation have been a concern for animal agriculture for many decades. Federal and New York (NY) regulations apply to Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and a comprehensive nutrient management plan (CNMP) is required for regulated farms. The whole farm nutrient mass balance…

  12. Whole Farm Nutrient Balance Calculator for New York Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberon, Melanie A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Rasmussen, Caroline N.; Czymmek, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient loss and accumulation as well as associated environmental degradation have been a concern for animal agriculture for many decades. Federal and New York (NY) regulations apply to Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and a comprehensive nutrient management plan (CNMP) is required for regulated farms. The whole farm nutrient mass balance…

  13. Spatial allocation of farming systems and farming indicators in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, M.; Elbersen, B.S.; Staritsky, I.G.; Andersen, E.; Heckelei, T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article an approach to spatially allocate farm information to a specific environmental context is presented. At this moment the European wide farm information is only available at a rather aggregated administrative level. The suggested allocation approach adds a spatial dimension to all samp

  14. Analysis of hydrological and geotechnical aspects related to landslides caused by rainfall infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capparelli, Giovanna; La Sala, Gabriella; Vena, Mirko; Donato, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    A landslide is defined as a perceptible downward and outward movement of slope-forming soil, rock, and vegetation under the influence of gravity. Landslides can be triggered by both natural and human-induced changes in the environment. However rainfall is recognized as a major precursor for many types of slope movements. As a result of rainfall events and subsequent infiltration into the subsoil, the soil moisture can be significantly changed with a decrease in matric suction in unsaturated soil layers and/or increase in pore-water pressure in saturated layers. As a consequence, in these cases, the shear strength can be reduced enough to trigger the failure. An effective way to develop such an understanding is by means of computer simulation using numerical model. As part of the project PON "Integrated Early Warning System" our main objective was just to develop a numerical models that was able to consider the relation between rainfall, pore pressure and slope stability taking into account several components, including specific site conditions, mechanical, hydraulic and physical soil properties, local seepage conditions, and the contribution of these to soil strength. In this work the mechanism behind rainfall-triggered landslides is modeled by using combined infiltration, seepage and stability analyses. This method allows the evaluation of the terrain and its response based on geological, physical, hydrogeological and mechanical characteristics. The model is based on the combined use of two modules: an hydraulic module, to analyze the subsoil water circulation due to the rainfall infiltration under transient conditions and a geotechnical module, which provides indications regarding the slope stability. With regard to hydraulic module, variably saturated porous media flows have been modeled by the classical nonlinear Richards equation; in the geotechnical module the differential equilibrium equations have been solved taking into account the linear constitutive

  15. Geotechnical maps development through the use of geo-technologies to implement and monitor pipelines in a GIS environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueira, Ernesto Goldfarb [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Figueira, Isabella Francoso Rebutini; Bongiolo, Alessandra de Barros e Silva [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Cutritiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The variations of the geologic characteristics of the subsurface materials can have direct impact in the pipeline projects. The elaboration of a geotechnical zoning have intention to reduce, among others, these uncertainties and consequently to minimize costs of implantation and maintenance. The present paper intends to present the experiences obtained through the elaboration of a geotechnical zoning as well as a panorama of the tools and currently available methods. The pipes studied, object of this work, are situated in Rio de Janeiro state, between Cabiunas and Duque de Caxias cities, with an extension upper 200 km, crossing lands with very different characteristics, from fluvial marine lowlands, constituted of quaternary sediments to mountain regions, formed of metamorphic and igneous rocks. The database used in an GIS environment include satellite images, three-dimensional models of the land, digital air photographs, laser airborne for generation of digital elevation models DEM, geologic, geomorphologic, pedological maps and land surveys. The integration of these different levels of information, also with the digital 3D photo interpretation with the geomorphologic contacts, beyond maps of declivity generated from xyz data, resulted in geotechnical maps, scale 1:10.000, with the order of 750 meters borders for each side of the pipeline direction. (author)

  16. Livestock Farming Under Climate Change Conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Koelle, B

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available for livestock farming under changing environmental conditions. Farming with livestock can be challenging, especially when farming in arid areas. This handbook is primarily informed by the experience of farmers in the South African winter rainfall area....

  17. Strategy and risk in farming

    OpenAIRE

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Issues that are relevant in current farm management are discussed. First, three basic farm management theories are presented: (1) decision-making theory; (1) system theory; and (3) theory of management by objectives. Next, two new developments are introduced, namely, strategic management and risk management.

  18. Intelligent control on wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    with the wind farm makes the grid more vulnerable. The communication technologies have been considered as a solution to solve the problems according to the IEC 61400-25 series protocols. This paper presents the significance of communication technologies in wind farm system by the simulations on some practical...

  19. Grieving for the Family Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Simon H.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews impact of recent agricultural trends in South Dakota. Outlines Kubler-Ross' stages of grief/adaptation that farm families must negotiate as they cope with the trauma of the loss of their farms. Indicates service providers must overcome farmers' mistrust for human welfare services and reach out to this vulnerable population. (NEC)

  20. Food and farm products surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the radiological analyses performed on food and farm samples collected during 1994. The food and farm sampling design addresses the potential influence of Hanford Site releases. Details of the sampling design and radionuclides analyzed are included in this section.

  1. Geotechnical aspects for the optimization of dump design at Chinh Bac Mine waste dump in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchsschwanz, M.; Ziegler, M. [Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Geotechnical Engineering; Ahmad, S.; Fernandez, J.B.P.; Martens, P.N. [Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany). Inst. of Mining Engineering; Deissmann, G. [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Vietnam's Quang Ninh province is one of the country's most important coal producing regions. Several open pit mines are being operated in the area by Nui Beo Coal Company (NBCC). The construction of large waste dumps for overburden removed by blasting have led to environmental problems at the mining sites, including dust emissions from mining and dumping operations; ground and surface water contamination by acid mine drainage; and slope stability problems caused by heavy rainfall and dump movements. This paper discussed investigations regarding the influence of the dump layout on slope stability and erosion. The paper described the project site and ongoing activities for the development of optimized stabilization and rehabilitation concepts with a particular focus on geotechnical aspects. The site was described in terms of coal and waste rock production; Chinh Bac waste rock dump; crack mapping; material properties of dumped material; density; and settlements. Ongoing activities focus on the effect of benches on slope stability; influence of benches on erosion; and layered dumping. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  2. An Overview on Japan and Malaysia Peat Relating to Geotechnical Characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Khaidir Abu Talib

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Peat deposits distribution is extensive and can be found in many countries throughout the world when the conditions are favorable for their accumulation and formation at different climatic zones. These deposits represent the extreme form of soft soil and subject to instability and enormous primary as well as long-term settlement even when subjected to moderate load. Access to these superficial deposits is usually very difficult as the water table will be at near or above the ground surface. To sum up, peat is considered as unsuitable soils for supporting foundations or any construction works in its natural state. This paper presents some review of peat soil from Japan and Malaysia pertaining to geotechnical properties in order to develop and expand an understanding about tropical peats for future studies. The parameters studied were the moisture content, loss on ignition, unit weight, specific gravity (Gs, fiber contents, acidity, liquid limit (LL, plastic limit (PL, plastic index (PI and shear strength. Overall, Hokkaido peat that had been studied has many similarities of peat properties with Malaysia peat especially in West region including Johor peat.

  3. Numerical Verification Of Geotechnical Structure In Unfavourable Geological Conditions – Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drusa Marián

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerical modelling represents a powerful tool not only for special geotechnical calculations in cases of complicated and difficult structure design or their foundation conditions, but also for regular tasks of structure foundation. Finite element method is the most utilized method of numerical modelling. This method was used for calculations of the retaining wall monitored during 5 years after construction. Retaining wall of the parking lot with the facing from gabion blocks was chosen for numerical model. Besides the unfavourable geological conditions, a soft nature of the facing was also a difficult part of the modelling. This paper presents the results of the modelling when exact geometry, material characteristics and construction stages were simulated. The results capture the trend of displacements even though the basic material models were utilized. The modelling proved the ability of the finite element method to model the retaining structure with sufficient accuracy as well as reasonable demand on quality and quantity of input data. This method can then be used as a regular design tool during project preparation.

  4. Geotechnical centrifuge model tests for explosion cratering and propagation laws of blast wave in sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-kai FAN; Zu-yu CHEN; Xiang-qian LIANG; Xue-dong ZHANG; Xin HUANG

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the explosion cratering effects and their propagation laws of blast waves in dry standard sands using a 450 g-t geotechnical centrifuge apparatus.Ten centrifuge model tests were completed with various ranges of explosive mass,burial depth and centrifuge accelerations.Eleven accelerometers were installed to record the acceleration response in sand.The dimensions of the explosion craters were measured after the tests.The results demonstrated that the relationship between the dimensionless parameters of cratering efficiency and gravity scaled yield is a power regression function.Three specific function equations were obtained.The results are in general agreement with those obtained by other studies.A scaling law based on the combination of the r terms was used to fit the results of the ten model tests with a correlation coefficient of 0.931.The relationship can be conveniently used to predict the cratering effects in sand.The results also showed that the peak acceleration is a power increasing function of the acceleration level.An empirical exponent relation between the proportional peak acceleration and distance is proposed.The propagation velocity of blast waves is found to be ranged between 200 and 714 m/s.

  5. Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Performance Monitoring of Piles Fiber in a Geotechnical Centrifugal Model Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Weng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In centrifugal tests, conventional sensors can hardly capture the performance of reinforcement in small-scale models. However, recent advances in fiber optic sensing technologies enable the accurate and reliable monitoring of strain and temperature in laboratory geotechnical tests. This paper outlines a centrifugal model test, performed using a 60 g ton geocentrifuge, to investigate the performance of pipe piles used to reinforce the loess foundation below a widened embankment. Prior to the test, quasidistributed fiber Bragg grating (FBG strain sensors were attached to the surface of the pipe piles to measure the lateral friction resistance in real time. Via the centrifuge actuator, the driving of pipe piles was simulated. During testing, the variations of skin friction distribution along the pipe piles were measured automatically using an optical fiber interrogator. This paper represents the presentation and detailed analysis of monitoring results. Herein, we verify the reliability of the fiber optic sensors in monitoring the model piles without affecting the integrity of the centrifugal model. This paper, furthermore, shows that lateral friction resistance developed in stages with the pipe piles being pressed in and that this sometimes may become negative.

  6. Application of geotechnical and geophysical field measurements in an active alpine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, D. R.; Fankhauser, K.; Springman, S. M.

    2015-09-01

    Rainfall can trigger landslides, rockfalls and debris flow events. When rainfall infiltrates into the soil, the suction (if there is any) is reduced, until positive water pressure can be developed, decreasing the effective stresses and leading to a potential failure. A challenging site for the study of mass movement is the Meretschibach catchment, a location in the Swiss Alps in the vicinity of Agarn, Canton of Valais. To study the effect of rainfall on slope stabilities, the soil characterization provides valuable insight on soil properties, necessary to establish a realistic ground model. This model, together with an effective long term-field monitoring, deliver the essential information and boundary conditions for predicting and validating rainfall- induced slope instabilities using numerical and physical modelling. Geotechnical monitoring, including soil temperature and volumetric water content measurements, has been performed on the study site together with geophysical measurements (ERT) to study the effect of rainfall on the (potential) triggering of landslides on a scree slope composed of a surficial layer of gravelly soil. These techniques were combined to provide information on the soil characteristics and depth to the bedrock. Seasonal changes of precipitation and temperature were reflected in corresponding trends in all measurements. A comparison of volumetric water content records was obtained from decagons, time domain reflectometry (TDR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) conducted throughout the spring and summer months of 2014, yielding a reasonable agreement.

  7. Geotechnical Properties of Soils as Influenced by Land Use in a Humid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Idigbor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated some geotechnical properties of soils of Port Harcourt in 2009 under three land use types, namely mechanically cleared land, on-going building constructions and fallow land. A combination of target and random soil survey techniques guided field studies. Five soil samples were collected in each land use, giving a total of 15 soil samples which were air-dried and sieved. These soil samples were subjected to routine laboratory analysis and resulting data were analyzed statistically using means and correlation analysis. Soils were sandy, of slight to neutral acidity (pH = 5.9-7.6. Disturbed soils were older (silt-clay ratio= 0.13- water 0.50 when compared with fallow having a mean value of 2.1. Plasticity index values were low (< 35% and differed due to the land use: 11.63% (building site, 12.29% (mechanically cleared land and 14.57% (fallow. There was low colloidal activity: 0.36 (building site, 0.40 (fallow and 0.41 (mechanically cleared land. Highest recorded maximum dry density was found in building site (2.03 Mg mG3, while 24.87% optimum moisture content was obtained in fallow soils. Plasticity index showed good relationships with moisture, clay and colloidal activity in the study sites.

  8. Surface Rupture and Geotechnical Features of The July 2, 2013 Tanah Gayo Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudrik Rahmawan Daryono

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of surface rupture and collateral ground failures can help to evaluate the impact of future earthquakes. This paper presents the results of a field survey conducted to map the surface rupture and geotechnical phenomena associated with the ground shaking during the July 2, 2013 earthquakes in Tanah Gayo Highland. The objectives of this survey are to document and to characterize the surface ruptures as well as to identify types of earthquake-induced ground failures. Results of the survey identified four best sites of possible surface rupture. Two locations are obvious surface ruptures that can be traced on primary topographic feature of the active fault segment from the north to the south, crossing Pantan Terong Hill. The fault segment has a total mapped length of 19 km, with WNW trending zone and a dextral rupture offset. The ground shaking also resulted in landslides and liquefaction in areas underlain by very fine-grained tuffaceous sands. Based on the field survey, it can be concluded that the newly defined active fault segment, the Pantan Terong segment, is likely the segment that ruptured at the July 2, 2013 Tanah Gayo earthquake. Due to the soil types and unstable rocky slopes in the hilly Central Aceh region, large-scale landslides are primary risks during an earthquake event in this region.

  9. Use of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste in geotechnical applications: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rafaela; Silva, Rui Vasco; Brito, Jorge de; Dhir, Ravindra

    2016-03-01

    The use of recycled aggregates (RA) in construction constitutes a significant step towards a more sustainable society and also creates a new market opportunity to be exploited. In recent years, several case-studies have emerged in which RA were used in Geotechnical applications, such as filling materials and in unbound pavement layers. This paper presents a review of the most important physical properties of different types of RA and their comparison with natural aggregates (NA), and how these properties affect their hydraulic and mechanical behaviour when compacted. Specifically, the effects of compaction on grading size distribution curves and density are analysed, as well as the consequences of particle crushing on the resilient modulus, CBR and permeability. The paper also contains an analysis of the influence of incorporating different RA types on the performance of unbound road pavement layers as compared with those built with NA by means of the International Roughness Index and deflection values. The results collected from the literature indicate that the performance of most RA is comparable to that of NA and can be used in unbound pavement layers or in other applications requiring compaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of AN Open-Source Automatic Deformation Monitoring System for Geodetical and Geotechnical Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, P.; Schweimler, B.

    2016-04-01

    The deformation monitoring of structures and buildings is an important task field of modern engineering surveying, ensuring the standing and reliability of supervised objects over a long period. Several commercial hardware and software solutions for the realization of such monitoring measurements are available on the market. In addition to them, a research team at the Neubrandenburg University of Applied Sciences (NUAS) is actively developing a software package for monitoring purposes in geodesy and geotechnics, which is distributed under an open source licence and free of charge. The task of managing an open source project is well-known in computer science, but it is fairly new in a geodetic context. This paper contributes to that issue by detailing applications, frameworks, and interfaces for the design and implementation of open hardware and software solutions for sensor control, sensor networks, and data management in automatic deformation monitoring. It will be discussed how the development effort of networked applications can be reduced by using free programming tools, cloud computing technologies, and rapid prototyping methods.

  11. Geotechnical maps for recommendation on bored pile capacity in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suksun Horpibulsuk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of geotechnical maps in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand based on the boring logs and in situ test results collected from public and private sector sources. The standard penetration number, N was used to identify the soil type. The soil deposits in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality are divided into three layers: medium-to-stiff silty clay with N 50. The medium-to-stiff silty clay layer has a thickness varying from 1.8 to 7.5 metres and an average N value of 14 with a relatively low standard deviation of 1.08. The first hard silty clay layer has a thickness varying from 1.2 to 3.0 metres and an average N value of 42 with a standard deviation of 1.37. For a practical application in foundation engineering in which the pile tips of the bored piles are located in the second hard stratum with N > 50, eight pile tip zones with approximated load capacity are recommended for pile lengths of 3-10 metres.

  12. Geotechnical aspects in the epicentral region of the 2011, Mw5.8 Mineral, Virginia earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Russell A.; Lasley, Samuel; Carter, Mark W.; Munsey, Jeffrey W.; Maurer, Brett W.; Tuttle, Martitia P.

    2015-01-01

    A reconnaissance team documented the geotechnical and geological aspects in the epicentral region of the Mw (moment magnitude) 5.8 Mineral, Virginia (USA), earthquake of 23 August 2011. Tectonically and seismically induced ground deformations, evidence of liquefaction, rock slides, river bank slumps, ground subsidence, performance of earthen dams, damage to public infrastructure and lifelines, and other effects of the earthquake were documented. This moderate earthquake provided the rare opportunity to collect data to help assess current geoengineering practices in the region, as well as to assess seismic performance of the aging infrastructure in the region. Ground failures included two marginal liquefaction sites, a river bank slump, four minor rockfalls, and a ~4-m-wide, ~12-m-long, ~0.3-m-deep subsidence on a residential property. Damage to lifelines included subsidence of the approaches for a bridge and a water main break to a heavily corroded, 5-cm-diameter valve in Mineral, Virginia. Observed damage to dams, landfills, and public-use properties included a small, shallow slide in the temporary (“working”) clay cap of the county landfill, damage to two earthen dams (one in the epicentral region and one further away near Bedford, Virginia), and substantial structural damage to two public school buildings.

  13. Geotechnical stability analysis, fragility of structures and velocity of movement to assess landslides vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Cuanalo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are geohazards that can be potential risks to life and property; these phenomena usually cause disasters when they occur in densely populated communities as those that inhabit mountainous and steep regions. Hazard and vulnerability are parameters determined by probability mathematical analysis with values between 0 and 1. When there are no records or enough information regards historical events on the phenomenon in study, that have occurred in a specific area (as in several mountainous regions of Mexico inhabited by ethnic groups, it has the disadvantage of not being able to perform a statistical analysis to properly evaluate the hazard nor the vulnerability. To solve the problem, this paper presents a proposal for evaluating the physical and functional vulnerability of the elements at risk, from two fundamental aspects: (a the exposure level (EL, and (b the expected damage degree (EDD. First of these factors is determined by the severity index (SI and the safety factor from geotechnical stability analysis (SFgeo; the second one from the construction type (degree of fragility of structures and the velocity that may have the landslide. For evaluating the parameters aforementioned, included tables, graphs and equations proposed by the authors.

  14. Complementing geotechnical slope stability and land movement analysis using satellite DInSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripolitsiotis, Achilleas; Steiakakis, Chrysanthos; Papadaki, Eirini; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Mertikas, Stelios; Partsinevelos, Panagiotis

    2014-03-01

    This paper explores the potential of using satellite radar inteferometry to monitor time-varying land movement prior to any visible tension crack signs. The idea was developed during dedicated geotechnical studies at a large open-pit lignite mine, where large slope movements (10-20 mm/day) were monitored and large fissures were observed in the immediate area outside the current pit limits. In this work, differential interferometry (DInSAR), using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ALOS images, was applied to monitor the progression of land movement that could potentially thwart mine operations. Early signs of land movements were captured by this technique well before their visual observation. Moreover, a qualitative comparison of DInSAR and ground geodetic measurements indicates that the technique can be used for the identification of high risk areas and, subsequently, for the optimization of the spatial distribution of the available ground monitoring equipment. Finally, quantitative land movement results from DInSAR are shown to be in accordance with simultaneous measurements obtained by ground means.

  15. Geotechnical risk management to prevent coal outburst in room-and-pillar mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Peter⇑; Peterson Scott; Neilans Dan; Wade Scott; McGrady Ryan; Pugh Joe

    2016-01-01

    A coal outburst is a severe safety hazard in room-and-pillar mining under deep cover. It is more likely to occur during pillar retreating. Multi-seam mining dramatically increases the risk of coal outburst within the influence zones created by remnant pillars and gob-solid boundaries. Though coal outburst is gener-ally associated with heavy loading of coal pillars, its occurrence is difficult to predict. Risk management provides a proactive tool to minimize coal outburst in room-and-pillar mining under deep cover. Risk assessment is the first step in identifying and quantifying outburst risk factors. The primary risk factors for coal outburst are overburden depth, roof and floor strength, geological anomalies, mining type, multi-seam mining, and panel width. A risk assessment chart can be used to proactively screen out min-ing sections with high risk of coal outburst for further analysis. Gob-solid boundaries and remnant pillars are critical factors in evaluation of the coal outburst risk of multi-seam mining. Risk identification, risk assessment, geologic influence mapping, geotechnical evaluation, risk analysis, risk mitigation, and mon-itoring are essential elements of coal outburst risk management process. Training is an integral part of risk management for risk identification and communication between all the stakeholders including man-agement, technical and safety personnel, and miners.

  16. Geotechnical properties of peat soil stabilised with shredded waste tyre chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rahgozar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To accommodate major civil engineering projects in or in the vicinity of peatlands, it is essential to stabilise peat deposits. On the other hand, the accumulation of waste tyres in recent decades has caused environmental problems around the world. An effective remedy for both issues is to use scrap tyre material to stabilise problematic peat soils. This article reports an experimental investigation of the effects of adding shredded tyre chips on the stability and bearing capacity of peat soil. Peat soil samples from the Chaghakhor Wetland (Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran were mixed with sand at a constant dosage of 400 kg m-3 and different percentages (0 %, 5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % by weight of shredded tyre chips. The unconfined compressive strength, effective cohesion, angle of internal friction and coefficient of permeability were measured for all of these mixtures. The results showed that adding shredded tyre chips significantly improved the geotechnical properties of the peat soil. The mixture with 10 % shredded tyre chips showed the highest unconfined compressive strength; the one with 15 % tyre chips exhibited the highest ductility; and adding 20 % shredded tyre chips provided the highest values for angle of internal friction, effective cohesion and coefficient of permeability. Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM showed that the pore spaces in the stabilised peat were mostly filled with sand.

  17. Geotechnical characterization of mined clay from Appalachian Ohio: challenges and implications for the clay mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Anthony R; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan

    2011-07-01

    Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL) in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling.

  18. Kalman Filters in Geotechnical Monitoring of Ground Subsidence Using Data from MEMS Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Azzam, Rafig; Fernández-Steeger, Tomás M

    2016-07-19

    The fast development of wireless sensor networks and MEMS make it possible to set up today real-time wireless geotechnical monitoring. To handle interferences and noises from the output data, Kalman filter can be selected as a method to achieve a more realistic estimate of the observations. In this paper, a one-day wireless measurement using accelerometers and inclinometers was deployed on top of a tunnel section under construction in order to monitor ground subsidence. The normal vectors of the sensors were firstly obtained with the help of rotation matrices, and then be projected to the plane of longitudinal section, by which the dip angles over time would be obtained via a trigonometric function. Finally, a centralized Kalman filter was applied to estimate the tilt angles of the sensor nodes based on the data from the embedded accelerometer and the inclinometer. Comparing the results from two sensor nodes deployed away and on the track respectively, the passing of the tunnel boring machine can be identified from unusual performances. Using this method, the ground settlement due to excavation can be measured and a real-time monitoring of ground subsidence can be realized.

  19. Ovčiarsko tunnel – interpretation of the results of the geotechnical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondráček, Jakub

    2017-09-01

    The Ovčiarsko twin-tube tunnel is part of the development of the Hričovské Podhradie – Lietavská Lúčka section of the D1 motorway, running southwest of the Žilina town. The D1 motorway overcomes the detached mass of an overthrust sheet and the western adge of the Paleogene fill of the Žilina Basin through the Ovčiarsko tunnel. The 2T – 8 category is designated for the Ovčiarsko tunnel with the total length of the northern tunnel tube 2360 m and southern tunnel tube 2367 m. the tunnel orientation to the cardinals is on the west-east axis, the marking of tunnel portals and tunnels tubes is distinguished according to it. The design speed is 100 km/h, respectively 90 km/h under worsened weather conditions. Parts of the tunnel are three cross passages passable for vehicles and five cross passages passable for pedestrians, serving as protected escape routes. This report describes geotechnical monitoring, construction technology and procedures with respect to complicated geological conditions. The geological conditions require the operative approach of the project owner, contractor, designer and geologist to the optimum solution for the running of the tunnel construction.

  20. GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LATERITIC SOIL STABILIZED WITH SAWDUST ASH-LIME MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Segun Nnochiri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the geotechnical characteristics of lateritic soil and sawdust ash lime (SDAL mixtures. Preliminary tests were carried out on the natural soil sample for identification and classification purposes. The sawdust was mixed with lime for stabilization in the ratio 2:1. This mixture was thereafter added to the lateritic soil in varying proportions of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% by weight of soil. Addition of SDAL increased values of Optimum Moisture Content (OMC from 17.0% at 0% SDAL to 26.5% at 10% SDAL by weight of soil, also, values of Maximum Dry Density (MDD decreased from 2040 kg/m3 at 0% SDAL to 1415 kg/m3 at 10% SDAL. Values of Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS increased from 38.58 kN/m2 at 0% SDAL to highest value of 129.63 kN/m2 at 6% SDAL. The values of liquid limits and plasticity index of the soil were effectively reduced with the addition of the SDAL, from 54.0% at 0% SDAL to 49.0% at 10% SDAL and from 13.7% at 0% SDAL to 12.5% at 10% SDAL respectively. It was therefore concluded that the sawdust ash lime (SDAL mixture can serve as a cheap soil stabilizing agent for poor lateritic soil.

  1. Combining airborne electromagnetic and geotechnical data for automated depth to bedrock tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Craig William; Pfaffhuber, Andreas Aspmo; Anschütz, Helgard; Smaavik, Tone Fallan

    2015-08-01

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey data was used to supplement geotechnical investigations for a highway construction project in Norway. Heterogeneous geology throughout the survey and consequent variable bedrock threshold resistivity hindered efforts to directly track depth to bedrock, motivating us to develop an automated algorithm to extract depth to bedrock by combining both boreholes and AEM data. We developed two variations of this algorithm: one using simple Gaussian or inverse distance weighting interpolators, and another using ordinary kriging and combined probability distribution functions of input parameters. Evaluation shows that for preliminary surveys, significant savings in boreholes required can be made without sacrificing bedrock model accuracy. In the case study presented, we estimate data collection savings of 1000 to 10,000 NOK/km (c. 160 to 1600 USD/km) would have been possible for early phases of the investigation. However, issues with anthropogenic noise, low signal, and uncertainties in the inversion model likely reduced the comparative advantage that including AEM provided. AEM cannot supersede direct sampling where the model accuracy required exceed the resolution possible with the geophysical measurements. Nevertheless, with the algorithm we can identify high probability zones for shallow bedrock, identify steep or anomalous bedrock topography, and estimate the spatial variability of depth at earlier phases of investigation. Thus, we assert that our method is still useful where detailed mapping is the goal because it allows for more efficient planning of secondary phases of drilling.

  2. Investigation and assessment on mountain tunnels and geotechnical damage after the Wenchuan earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On May 12, 2008, a strong earthquake with a magnitude of 8.0 (Ms) struck Wenchuan town, in the eastern Sichuan area of west China. Following the earthquake on May 18, the Southwest Jiaotong University organized a damage survey team and dispatched it to the affected area for the investigation into the damage and collection of information and data. This paper outlines the findings of this investigation on the earthquake disaster to mountain tunnels and geotechnical engineering. The systematic investigation, involving geological conditions, design documents, construction and maintenance records of the tunnels, has been conducted and the degree of damage to investigated tunnels has been assessed according to the width and length of cracks, the stability of the slope above the tunnel, and the condition of the groundwater inrush. The results show that the major damage of the mountain tunnels was mainly concentrated in the tunnel portals due to widespread landslides and rockfalls, and the inner part of investigated tunnels suffered moderate damages mainly due to fault displacements. It is hoped that the information shared herein could enhance the outstanding of seismic behavior of mountain tunnels and improve seismic design and construction procedures.

  3. Geotechnical and environmental considerations in highway layouts: an integrated GIS assessment approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Salah; Kaysi, Isam; Bedran, Mounia

    Highway route layout design typically relies on aerial photographs, topographic maps and geologic maps. In this paper, a GIS platform, which incorporates the main digital data needed for evaluating route layouts, is used in a computer-based approach for highway layout assessment. Possible layouts are evaluated based on two sets of criteria. First, traditional evaluation criteria focussing on geometric design factors and impact on man-made features are considered. Next, the developed assessment framework builds on the GIS platform to generate specific environmental and geotechnical criteria for route layout evaluation. The developed approach integrates highway design, slope stability, and traffic noise modeling packages and specifically written codes with the GIS packages ARC/INFO and ArcView. A prototypical application of the assessment framework for a proposed highway south of the city of Beirut, Lebanon is presented. The results demonstrate the potential of the developed approach in incorporating new evaluation criteria at the route layout design stage and in automating the route layout assessment procedure.

  4. Geotechnical, Hydrogeologic and Vegetation Data Package for 200-UW-1 Waste Site Engineered Surface Barrier Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Andy L.

    2007-11-26

    Fluor Hanford (FH) is designing and assessing the performance of engineered barriers for final closure of 200-UW-1 waste sites. Engineered barriers must minimize the intrusion and water, plants and animals into the underlying waste to provide protection for human health and the environment. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator is being used to optimize the performance of candidate barriers. Simulating barrier performance involves computation of mass and energy transfer within a soil-atmosphere-vegetation continuum and requires a variety of input parameters, some of which are more readily available than others. Required input includes parameter values for the geotechnical, physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of the materials comprising the barrier and the structural fill on which it will be constructed as well as parameters to allow simulation of plant effects. This report provides a data package of the required parameters as well as the technical basis, rationale and methodology used to obtain the parameter values.

  5. Assessment of geotechnical properties of uncemented/cemented clayey soil incorporated with waste crumb rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JITENDRA SINGH YADAV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Discarded waste tires are becoming a serious threat to health, environment, and ecological systems worldwide if it is not disposed of properly. Every year 1000 million of waste tires are discarded. This number may grow up to 1200 million by the year 2030. On the other hand, construction of civil engineering structures such as buildings, dams, highways, etc. are at high risk of differential settlement, especially in the case of weak or soft clay, which is due to its low shear strength and high compressibility. The paper aims to assess geotechnical properties of uncemented/cemented clayey soil incorporated with waste crumb rubber. Compaction parameters, unconfined compressive strength, split tensile strength, toughness index, CBR values and swelling pressure of rubberized uncemented/cemented clayey soil (3%, and 6% cement and different percentage of crumb rubber have been obtained. After rigorous extensive study, it has been concluded that unconfined compressive strength and split tensile strength of rubberized cemented clayey soil decreases with the increase of the percentage of crumb rubber whereas the axial, and diametral strain are found to be increased with the addition of crumb rubber up to 5% after that it starts to decrease. The CBR values, swelling pressure, and toughness index of uncemented/cemented clayey soil was significantly affected by incorporation of crumb rubber. SEM studies have also been incorporated in this investigation.

  6. Offshore wind farms: Danish experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, H.; Taylor, D.; Petersen, A. [Carl Bro Group, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Denmark has extensive plans for offshore wind farms, and by 2030 parks to generate some 5,500 MW of power will be constructed. Out of this 4,000 MW will be offshore and to date 15 sites have been identified. Carl Bro Group are currently involved in the programme carrying out basic and detailed design, including EIA for 5 sites where construction is planned to take place before 2005. The first phase consists of the installation of 150MW wind farms. In Middelgrunden, off shore from Copenhagen, a scheme is well advanced to install 20 windmills generating approximately 40MW of power. This project is the largest offshore wind farm in the world and illustrates Denmark's commitment to sustainability. The paper gives an overview of the plans for offshore wind farms in Denmark and includes a detailed description of the farm at Middelgrunden, with emphasis on environmental, aesthetic, safety, design, construction and installation aspects. (Author)

  7. TOPFARM wind farm optimization tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Fuglsang, Peter; Larsen, Torben J.;

    the optimization problem includes elements as energy production, turbine degradation, operation and maintenance costs, electrical grid costs and foundation costs. The objective function is optimized using a dedicated multi fidelity approach with the locations of individual turbines in the wind farm spanning......A wind farm optimization framework is presented in detail and demonstrated on two test cases: 1) Middelgrunden and 2) Stags Holt/Coldham. A detailed flow model describing the instationary flow within a wind farm is used together with an aeroelastic model to determine production and fatigue loading...... of wind farm wind turbines. Based on generic load cases, the wind farm production and fatigue evaluations are subsequently condensed in a large pre-calculated database for rapid calculation of lifetime equivalent loads and energy production in the optimization loop.. The objective function defining...

  8. Characteristics of New Jersey Agritourism Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Schilling, Brian J.; Sullivan, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    Agritourism is an important alternative farm enterprise strategy in the U.S., especially for farms operating under urban influence. This paper develops a logit model to identify the characteristics of farms engaged in agritourism using 2007 Census of Agriculture respondent-level records. New Jersey, which ranks first nationally in the proportion of farm income derived from agritourism, provides the geographic context. We find that fruit/vegetable farms, rural residential/retirement farms, and...

  9. Wind Farm Control Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas; Svenstrup, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This document is a delivery in the project NORCOWE. It is part of work package WP3.2.2. The main goal is to establish the present state-of-the-art for wind farm control for both research and practice. The main approach will be to study the literature. This will of cause be much more efficient...... for the research part than for the practice part. It is however not the intention to do company interviews or similar. This report is structured into a section for each WF control objective. These sections then includes the important control project issues: choice of input and output, control method, and modelling...... used for controller design and simulation respectively. A short section then discusses published literature from industry. Finally a conclusion is given discussing established results, open challenges and necessary research. An appendix present a method for optimising the energy in a one row wind...

  10. Biomass plantations - energy farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.

    1981-02-01

    Mounting oil import bills in India are restricting her development programmes by forcing the cutting down of the import of other essential items. But the countries of the tropics have abundant sunlight and vast tracts of arable wastelands. Energy farming is proposed in the shape of energy plantations through forestry or energy cropping through agricultural media, to provide power fuels for transport and the industries and also to provide fuelwoods for the domestic sector. Short rotation cultivation is discussed and results are given of two main species that are being tried, ipil-ipil and Casuarina. Evaluations are made on the use of various crops such as sugar cane, cassava and kenaf as fuel crops together with hydrocarbon plants and aquatic biomass. (Refs. 20)

  11. CDF II production farm project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranovski, A.; Benjamin, D.; Cooper, G.; Farrington, S.; Genser, K.; Hou, S.; Hsieh, T.; Kotwal, A.; Lipeles, E.; Murat, P.; Norman, M.; /Fermilab /Duke U. /Taiwan,

    2006-12-01

    We describe the architecture and discuss our operational experience in running the off-line reconstruction farm of the CDFII experiment. The Linux PC-based farm performs a wide set of tasks,ranging from producing calibrations and primary event reconstruction to large scale ntuple production.The farm control software uses a standard Condor toolkit and the data handling part is based on SAM (Sequential Access via Metadata)software.During its lifetime,the CDFII experiment will integrate a large amount of data (several petabytes)and the data processing chain is one of the key components of the successful physics program of the experiment.

  12. Geotechnical applications of remote sensing and remote data transmission; Proceedings of the Symposium, Cocoa Beach, FL, Jan. 31-Feb. 1, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.I.; Pettersson, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    Papers and discussions concerning the geotechnical applications of remote sensing and remote data transmission, sources of remotely sensed data, and glossaries of remote sensing and remote data transmission terms, acronyms, and abbreviations are presented. Aspects of remote sensing use covered include the significance of lineaments and their effects on ground-water systems, waste-site use and geotechnical characterization, the estimation of reservoir submerging losses using CIR aerial photographs, and satellite-based investigation of the significance of surficial deposits for surface mining operations. Other topics presented include the location of potential ground subsidence and collapse features in soluble carbonate rock, optical Fourier analysis of surface features of interest in geotechnical engineering, geotechnical applications of U.S. Government remote sensing programs, updating the data base for a Geographic Information System, the joint NASA/Geosat Test Case Project, the selection of remote data telemetry methods for geotechnical applications, the standardization of remote sensing data collection and transmission, and a comparison of airborne Goodyear electronic mapping system/SAR with satelliteborne Seasat/SAR radar imagery.

  13. Delineating Bukit Bunuh impact crater boundary by geophysical and geotechnical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwin, I. N.; Rosli, S.; Mokhtar, S.; Nordiana, M. M.; Ragu, R. R.; Mark, J.

    2015-03-01

    Evidences of crater morphology and shock metamorphism in Bukit Bunuh, Lenggong, Malaysia were found during the archaeological research conducted by the Centre for Global Archaeological Research Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia. In order to register Bukit Bunuh as one of the world meteorite impact site, detailed studies are needed to verify the boundary of the crater accordingly. Geophysical study was conducted utilising the seismic refraction and 2-D electrical resistivity method. Seismic refraction survey was done using ABEM MK8 24 channel seismograph with 14Hz geophones and 40kg weight drop while 2-D electrical resistivity survey was performed using ABEM SAS4000 Terrameter and ES10-64C electrode selector with pole-dipole array. Bedrock depths were digitized from the sections obtained. The produced bedrock topography map shows that there is low bedrock level circulated by high elevated bedrock and interpreted as crater and rim respectively with diameter approximately 8km. There are also few spots of high elevated bedrock appear at the centre of the crater which interpreted as rebounds zone. Generally, the research area is divided into two layers where the first layer with velocity 400-1100 m/s and resistivity value of 10-800 Om predominantly consists of alluvium mix with gravel and boulders. Second layer represents granitic bedrock with depth of 5-50m having velocity >2100 m/s and resistivity value of >1500 Om. This research is strengthen by good correlation between geophysical data and geotechnical borehole records executed inside and outside of the crater, on the rim, as well as at the rebound area.

  14. GEOTECHNICAL ASSESSMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION NEEDS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE ISOLATION IN CRYSTALLINE AND ARGILLACEOUS ROCKS SYMPOSIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1978-12-19

    Today there exists in the United States a large volume of nuclear wastes that result from both military and commercial activities. The United States has to date placed major emphasis on disposal in only one rock type--salt--whereas other nations have considered other rock types, such as granite in England and Sweden and clays in Belgium. No comprehensive evaluation of isolation in rocks other than salt has been made in the United States, and it is most appropriate that other rock types be evaluated both for constructing disposal sites in areas devoid of salt and also for having alternative waste management plans in case substantial problems are encountered in using salt as a disposal medium. To evaluate the state-of-the-art, research needs, and research priorities related to waste disposal in largely-impermeable rocks, scientists and engineers working on geologic aspects of nuclear waste disposal were brought together. The Geotechnical Assessment and Instrumentation Needs (GAIN) Symposium for Nuclear Waste Isolation in Crystalline and Argillaceous Rocks was held July 16-20, 1978 in Berkeley. This report and recommendations are the proceedings from that symposium. The location, design, and testing of a potential nuclear waste disposal site are both a geologic and an engineering problem. Disposal requires isolating the wastes from the surface and subsurface of the earth for a period of time of ten to hundreds of thousands of years. Engineers have never before been called upon to predict the behavior of structures or the flow of groundwater so far into the future.

  15. A contactless positioning system for monitoring discontinuities in three dimensions with geological and geotechnical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi-Montes, Natalia; Rowberry, Matt; Frontera, Carlos; BaroÅ, Ivo; Garcés, Javier; Blahůt, Jan; Pérez-López, Raúl; Pennos, Christos; Martí, Xavi

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a contactless positioning system is presented which has been designed to monitor the kinematic behavior of mechanical discontinuities in three dimensions. The positioning system comprises a neodymium magnet, fixed on one side of a discontinuity, and a magnetoresistive sensing array, fixed on the opposing side. Each of the anisotropic magnetoresistive sensors in the sensing array records the magnetic field along three orthogonal directions. The positioning system intrinsically generates compact data packages which are transmitted effectively using a range of standard wireless telecommunication technologies. These data are then modeled using a global least squares fitting procedure in which the adjustable parameters are represented by the position and orientation of the neodymium magnet. The instrumental resolution of the positioning system can be tuned depending on the strength of the magnetic field generated by the neodymium magnet and the distance between the neodymium magnet and the magnetoresistive sensing array. For a typical installation, the displacement resolution is shown to be circa 10 μm while the rotation resolution is circa 0.1°. The first permanently deployed positioning system was established in June 2016 to monitor the behavior of an N-S trending fault located at the contact between the eastern Alps and the Vienna Basin. The robust design of the positioning system is demonstrated by the fact that no interruptions in the broadcasted data streams have occurred since its installation. It has a range of potential applications in many areas of basic and applied research including geology, geotechnical engineering, and structural health monitoring.

  16. Delineating Bukit Bunuh impact crater boundary by geophysical and geotechnical investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azwin, I. N., E-mail: nurazwinismail@yahoo.com; Rosli, S.; Nordiana, M. M.; Ragu, R. R.; Mark, J. [Geophysics Section, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Mokhtar, S. [Centre for Global Archaeological Research Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-30

    Evidences of crater morphology and shock metamorphism in Bukit Bunuh, Lenggong, Malaysia were found during the archaeological research conducted by the Centre for Global Archaeological Research Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia. In order to register Bukit Bunuh as one of the world meteorite impact site, detailed studies are needed to verify the boundary of the crater accordingly. Geophysical study was conducted utilising the seismic refraction and 2-D electrical resistivity method. Seismic refraction survey was done using ABEM MK8 24 channel seismograph with 14Hz geophones and 40kg weight drop while 2-D electrical resistivity survey was performed using ABEM SAS4000 Terrameter and ES10-64C electrode selector with pole-dipole array. Bedrock depths were digitized from the sections obtained. The produced bedrock topography map shows that there is low bedrock level circulated by high elevated bedrock and interpreted as crater and rim respectively with diameter approximately 8km. There are also few spots of high elevated bedrock appear at the centre of the crater which interpreted as rebounds zone. Generally, the research area is divided into two layers where the first layer with velocity 400-1100 m/s and resistivity value of 10-800 Om predominantly consists of alluvium mix with gravel and boulders. Second layer represents granitic bedrock with depth of 5-50m having velocity >2100 m/s and resistivity value of >1500 Om. This research is strengthen by good correlation between geophysical data and geotechnical borehole records executed inside and outside of the crater, on the rim, as well as at the rebound area.

  17. Three-fold embeddedness of farm development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Methorst, R.G.; Roep, D.; Verstegen, J.A.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Farm development strategy is affected by, and affects, the biophysical and socio-economic context of the farm leading to agri-environmental challenges for farm development. For effective policies and support programmes it is important to understand the drivers for choices farm development. Three-fol

  18. Planning farm succession: how to be successful

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Planning farm succession is really good farm planning in its broadest aspect. Unfortunately very few farmers and their families have devoted sufficient time to working out how the farm business will be transferred. After demonstrating the importance of the farm succession issue, this article goes on to explaining a method of successfully tackling the process.

  19. Organic Farming, Gender, and the Labor Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alan; Mogyorody, Veronika

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to explain variations in gender participation in farm production and decision-making through an analysis of organic farm types, sizes, and orientations. Based on both survey and case study data, the analysis shows that female farmers on vegetable farms and mixed livestock/cash crop farms are more likely to be involved in farm…

  20. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... this section. The constitution and identification of land as a farm for the first time and...

  1. Nature Quality in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Alrøe, Hugo; Frederiksen, Pia

    2004-01-01

    Nature quality in relation to farming is a complex field. It involves different traditions and interests, different views of what nature is, and different ways of valuing nature. Furthermore there is a general lack of empirical data on many aspects of nature quality in the farmed landscape....... In this paper we discuss nature quality from the perspective of organic farming, which has its own values and goals in relation to nature – the Ecologist View of Nature. This is in contrast to the Culturist View characteristic of much conventional agriculture and the Naturalist View characteristic...... of the traditional biological approach to nature quality. This threefold distinction forms a framework for exploration of nature quality criteria in the farmed landscape. The traditional work on nature quality has mainly focused on biological interests based on a Naturalist View of Nature. In this paper we...

  2. Push-pull farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, John A; Woodcock, Christine M; Midega, Charles A O; Khan, Zeyaur R

    2014-04-01

    Farming systems for pest control, based on the stimulo-deterrent diversionary strategy or push-pull system, have become an important target for sustainable intensification of food production. A prominent example is push-pull developed in sub-Saharan Africa using a combination of companion plants delivering semiochemicals, as plant secondary metabolites, for smallholder farming cereal production, initially against lepidopterous stem borers. Opportunities are being developed for other regions and farming ecosystems. New semiochemical tools and delivery systems, including GM, are being incorporated to exploit further opportunities for mainstream arable farming systems. By delivering the push and pull effects as secondary metabolites, for example, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene repelling pests and attracting beneficial insects, problems of high volatility and instability are overcome and compounds are produced when and where required.

  3. Green Care Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone R. de Bruin PhD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the value of day services at green care farms (GCFs in terms of social participation for people with dementia. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people with dementia who attended day services at a GCF (GCF group, n = 21, were on a waiting list (WL for day services at a GCF (WL group, n = 12, or attended day services in a regular day care facility (RDCF group, n = 17 and with their family caregivers. Results: People with dementia in the GCF and WL group were primarily males, with an average age of 71 and 76 years, respectively, who almost all had a spousal caregiver. People with dementia in the RDCF group were mostly females with an average age of 85 years, most of whom had a non-spousal caregiver. For both the GCF and RDCF groups, it was indicated that day services made people with dementia feel part of society. The most important domains of social participation addressed by RDCFs were social interactions and recreational activities. GCFs additionally addressed the domains “paid employment” and “volunteer work.” Conclusion: GCFs are valuable in terms of social participation for a particular group of people with dementia. Matching characteristics of adult day services (ADS centers to the preferences and capacities of people with dementia is of importance. Diversity in ADS centers is therefore desirable.

  4. Cost optimizing of large-scale offshore wind farms. Appendix A to D. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Volume 2 contains reports prepared by Nellemann, Nielsen and Rauschenberger A/S (NNR) and NNR`s 2 sub-consultants Danish Geotechnical Institute (DGI) and Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI). It contains Appendix A - Geotechnical Review and Summary prepared by Nellemann, Nielsen and Rauschenberger A/S; Appendix B - Geotechnical Investigations, factual reports for geotechnical investigations and laboratory tests prepared by Danish Geotechnical Institute; Appendix C - Hydraulic Assessment prepared by Danish Hydraulic Institute; Appendix D - Conceptual Design and Optimisation prepared by Nellemann, Nielsen and Rauschenberger A/S. (LN)

  5. Roy Fuentes: Fuentes Berry Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    As president of Fuentes Berry Farms, Rogelio (Roy) Fuentes is one of many independent growers producing organic berries for Driscoll’s—a company that was initiated more than a century ago by two strawberry farmers on California’s Central Coast, and has since evolved into an international concern devoted to research, breeding, production, sales and distribution of conventionally and organically farmed strawberries, raspberries, blackberries and blueberries. Driscoll’s CEO Miles Reiter and his ...

  6. Whole Farm Management to Reduce Nutrient Losses From Dairy Farms: A Simulation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotz, C.A.; Oenema, J.; Keulen, van H.

    2006-01-01

    Whole-farm simulation provides a tool for evaluating long-term impacts of nutrient conservation technologies and strategies on dairy farms. A farm simulation model was verified to predict the production and nutrient flows of the De Marke experimental dairy farm in the Netherlands. On this farm,

  7. Simultaneous seismic and geotechnical monitoring for the characterization of superficial deformations of the mudslide in Super-Sauze, French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Marco; Joswig, Manfred; Arnhardt, Christian; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2010-05-01

    To characterize superficial deformations of the mudslide in Super-Sauze, southern French Alps, seismic and geotechnical monitoring techniques have been applied simultaneously during a field campaign in July 2009. Based on the method nanoseismic monitoring (Joswig, 2008), we installed three seismic mini-arrays with an aperture of 25-30m, each one consisting of one three-component central-station and three outer vertical-component stations. We identified two different deformation processes caused by the movement of the mudslide: fracture processes within the slope material and superficial fissure development (Walter & Joswig, 2009). The spatiotemporal occurrence of deformation processes identified by nanoseismic monitoring has been verified with geotechnical monitoring systems. GPS devices as well as a small wireless ad-hoc, multi hop sensor network (WSN) have been installed in the slope area. The network consist of 7 connection points, called nodes, that transfer data from different sensors via radio signal directly or over other nodes (Multi Hop) in real-time to a data collection point (gateway). To determine the varying deformation processes, like toppling, spreading, falling and sliding, 6 nodes were equipped with micro-sensors (each with 3-axis acceleration sensor, 2-axis tilt sensor and barometric pressure sensor). In order to monitor the deformation of a recent fissure, one node was equipped with a position-sensor (draw wire displacement transducer). Laboratory tests for the different sensors showed that tilt movements can be detected with an accuracy of +/- 0,06° and a resolution of >0,1°, accelerations with +/- 0,008g and >0,02g and displacements with +/- 0,1mm and >0,1mm. The analysis of data recorded by barometric pressure sensors is quite difficult due to the high natural pressure fluctuations in mountain areas, anyway, the detection of fluctuations of >0,5m was possible. Except the displacement transducers, the geotechnical sensors didn't detect any

  8. Utilizing geological and geotechnical parameters to constrain optimal siting of Mid-Atlantic Bight offshore wind projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Alia

    As the offshore wind energy sector expands due to government mandates, a thorough understanding of the geologic setting of potential project sites becomes an essential component in the design process. Geophysical and geotechnical parameters yield vital information on the sediments and/or rocks that are present. The variable distribution of sediments, with concomitant variations in geotechnical properties, has significant implications for the selection (e.g., monopile, suction caisson, gravity base, jacket), design, location, installation, and subsequent scouring in the vicinity of wind turbine foundations. Identifying suitable sites based on sediment types allow for optimized engineering design solutions. Because foundations represent approximately 25% of total offshore wind project expenditures, reducing foundation costs with geologic suitability in mind could significantly decrease required initial investments, thereby expediting project and industry advancement. To illustrate how geological and geotechnical data can be used to inform site selection for foundations, geophysical data were analyzed and interpreted (chirp sub-bottom profiling, side-scan sonar, and multibeam bathymetry) from the Maryland Wind Energy Area (WEA). Side-scan sonar data from the WEA show three distinct acoustic intensities; each is correlated to a general bottom sediment grain size classification (muds, muddy and/or shelly sand, and sand with some gravel). Chirp sub-bottom profiles reveal the continuity and thicknesses of various depositional layers including paleochannel systems. Paleochannels consist of heterogeneous infill; creating undesirable conditions for foundation placement. This "desktop" study provides a suitability model for how the interpretation of geophysical and geotechnical data can be used to provide constraints on, and reduce uncertainties associated with, foundation location and type selection. Results from this study revealed 5 distinct subsurface units. The oldest

  9. Enhanced Bank-Stability Modeling With Coupled Geotechnical, Hydraulic and Near-Bank Groundwater Sub-Models: Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. E.; Simon, A.; Bankhead, N.

    2008-12-01

    Physically-based, deterministic bank-stability models have recently been developed to effectively simulate the driving and resisting forces governing streambank erosion. Significant advances have been made in the manner in which groundwater flow through variably saturated porous media, planar and circular geotechnical failures and fluvial sediment transport are simulated. However, to date, coupling these models has required tedious exporting and conversion of geometries and results and manual remeshing. In this presentation, we introduce the first fully integrated suite of models that deterministically simulate the controlling hydrologic, hydraulic and geotechnical processes that govern streambank erosion and channel-width adjustment. The model suite incorporates routines that: 1. Permit the user to enter between 5 and 23 points to describe the bank cross-sectional geometry; 2. Automatically generate a mesh by which to implicitly discretize the 2-D Richards equation utilizing finite volumes. The resulting pentadiagonal matrix is solved iteratively with Stone's Strongly Implicit Procedure (SIP). Timesteps are automatically adjusted to minimize mass balance and truncation errors; 3. Evaluate the force-equilibrium factor of safety (Fs), permitting the simulation of planar and cantilever shear failures with a horizontal slice method and planar shear failures with tension cracks with a rigorous vertical slice method. A random walk approach is adopted to search for the minimum Fs; 4. Estimate the increase in cohesion due to vegetation with a global load-sharing Fibre Bundle Model; and 5. Simulate the erosion of the bank face and bank toe with an excess shear stress approach. Management options to increase slope stability (through the addition of vegetation) and reduce channel- boundary erodibility (through the addition of natural and artificial structures) are also incorporated. We illustrate the efficacy of the modeling approach with a series of case studies in which

  10. Ships as future floating farm systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-09-29

    Environmental and agriculture challenges such as severe drought, desertification, sprawling cities and shrinking arable lands in large regions in the world compel us to think about alternative and sustainable farming systems. Ongoing projects to build floating cities in the sea suggest that building specific ships for farming purposes (as farming ships or farming boats) would also be attainable to introduce new farming surfaces and boost food production worldwide to cope with food insecurity issues.

  11. Data Farming in Support of NATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Farming into Decision Support System 5-29 Figure 6-1 The Credo of a Data Farmer and the Realms of Data Farming 6-2 Figure 6-2 Data Farming is Question...Figure 6-1: The Credo of a Data Farmer and the Realms of Data Farming. All 6 realms are covered by a sub-working group of MSG-088 Data Farming. As Figure

  12. Farm Biogas Handbook; Gaardsbiogashandbok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensson, Kjell; Bjoernsson, Lovisa; Dahlgren, Stefan; Eriksson, Peter; Lantz, Mikael; Lindstroem, Johanna; Mickelaaker, Maria

    2009-04-15

    A very large share of the total raw material potential for biogas production will be found within the agriculture. The raw material potential of manure in Sweden amounts to 4 - 6 TWh. Within the agriculture there is moreover a big potential in the form of residues from plant cultivation and non-food crops (approximately 7 TWh) that can to be used for biogas production. The potential for biogas production from only residues and manure is around 8-10 TWh. An increased biogas production within the agriculture would give significant environmental effects. Among other things manure, that today is leaking methane gas to the atmosphere, can be fermented, and trough this process the methane losses will be reduced. When the produced biogas replaces fossil fuel, an overall environmental effect will be reached, that is highly significant. This manual deals with biogas plants for agriculture and such plants that do not have extensive transports of different raw materials, as manure, wastes etc. One of the starting points for this manual's set-up is a course plan that Biogas Syd made for the courses they give to farmers, advisors and others. The manual illustrates important aspects in planning and construction of biogas plants, from raw material and technology to dimensioning of plant, use of biogas and planning of local gas grids. We also think it is important to illustrate the legislation that encompasses construction work and operation of a biogas plant. Investment costs are also illustrated, but the book does not give any extensive economic calculations, since we believe that such calculations need their own manual in the form of calculation examples, based on various conditions. The final section is called 'Biogas on farm - from idea to reality' where the entire process from analysis and pre-planning to monitoring and control of plant during operation is briefly described

  13. Effect of farming practices and farm history on incidence of coconut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of farming practices and farm history on incidence of coconut lethal yellowing in Mozambique. ... African Crop Science Journal ... to investigate the impact of farming practices and related history, on the CLYD incidence in Mozambique.

  14. CleverFarm final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-15

    Wind turbine technology has ventured in recent years from prototypes and first deployments towards large power plant scale projects. With this, also the ownership structure of wind farms changed: from single farmers to cooperatives, and to large multi-national developers specialised in building and running wind power projects. At the same time, the best sites for wind energy were already taken, leading to more remote sites and offshore sites being developed. Both these developments lead to an increased wish for remote monitoring of turbines. Ideally, the turbine would know on its own accord when it would need maintenance, and call the maintenance crew autonomously. The crew then would have all the information they need to have before they go out to the turbine and do the necessary tasks. Having knowledge of the type of fault that has happened would help the maintenance crew to deal with it efficiently. This also could mean to wait until the next scheduled maintenance is due. The potential savings for this alone are considerable, if you think of the plans for offshore wind farms tens of kilometres from the coast, where access would probably be by helicopter. The idea behind this project was to take the existing techniques developed for optimising and enhancing the performance of wind farms, integrate them into one system and implement the system at a number of wind farms. The techniques include remote measuring of the status and production of the wind farm, short-term prediction of the expected wind speeds at and power output from the wind farm, models for wake calculations, remote control of wind farm production and so on. (au)

  15. CleverFarm final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-15

    Wind turbine technology has ventured in recent years from prototypes and first deployments towards large power plant scale projects. With this, also the ownership structure of wind farms changed: from single farmers to cooperatives, and to large multi-national developers specialised in building and running wind power projects. At the same time, the best sites for wind energy were already taken, leading to more remote sites and offshore sites being developed. Both these developments lead to an increased wish for remote monitoring of turbines. Ideally, the turbine would know on its own accord when it would need maintenance, and call the maintenance crew autonomously. The crew then would have all the information they need to have before they go out to the turbine and do the necessary tasks. Having knowledge of the type of fault that has happened would help the maintenance crew to deal with it efficiently. This also could mean to wait until the next scheduled maintenance is due. The potential savings for this alone are considerable, if you think of the plans for offshore wind farms tens of kilometres from the coast, where access would probably be by helicopter. The idea behind this project was to take the existing techniques developed for optimising and enhancing the performance of wind farms, integrate them into one system and implement the system at a number of wind farms. The techniques include remote measuring of the status and production of the wind farm, short-term prediction of the expected wind speeds at and power output from the wind farm, models for wake calculations, remote control of wind farm production and so on. (au)

  16. The Contribution of Robert F. Corwin to Self-Potential and Geotechnical Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, D. V.

    2007-12-01

    Throughout his career, Robert F. Corwin developed innovative geophysical methods to solve geotechnical problems. Most notable is his work on self-potential (SP) where his focus was a blend of electricity and water, a potentially lethal brew, to solve very practical problems. Corwin's work in SP started with the idea of applying the technique to marine mineral exploration; this early work is characterized by a theme that ran through his career: understanding the effects that can influence measurements, developing methodologies to obtain consistent and reliable data, and interpreting those data in a conservative and believable manner supported by the facts. He expanded the electricity-water connection to geothermal fluids and the SP signals produced by them. He was involved in geothermal exploration throughout the western U.S. including Alaska and Mexico. In addition to developing reliable field techniques he worked on interpretational methods that made SP interpretation quantitative. Corwin's most significant contribution was the study of leaky dams using SP. Water leakage produces an SP anomaly because of the electrokinetic properties of geologic materials. Through a series of SP studies for the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers he developed a methodology for making and interpreting SP measurements that helped locate, assess, and remediate leakage. This success led to numerous surveys throughout Canada for regional power authorities. Corwin returned to marine geophysical studies throughout his career including SP measurements to locate moveable concrete mats placed in the Mississippi River to control bank erosion. Because of changes in river flow, these large articulated mats were often undercut, moved, and reburied causing hazardous bank conditions. SP and electrical resistivity measurements were found to accurately locate the mats. Corwin also worked on electrical resistivity measurements of the ocean floor. Starting with stationary

  17. Preliminary Geotechnical Investigation of Two Basaltic Landslide Sites in Mauritius, Offshore Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoopendra, D.; Fukuoka, H.; Kuwano, T.; Ichikawa, K.

    2016-12-01

    Landslide hazards in developing areas in Mauritius became a great challenge as well as a fundamental concern for the government and the citizen of the country. In recent years, landslide disasters have caused losses of both public and private properties. In 2005, a large-scale landslide at Chitrakoot affected 54 houses and infrastructures, and it was reactivated in 2006, damaging another 14 houses. Vallee Pitot landslide is frequently reactivated in these years and threatening several houses in the densely-populated zone. Being of volcanic origin, Mauritius has observed dramatic and quick weathering of the soil which may partly contribute to creating landslide-prone geo-environment. This study focuses on the preliminary geotechnical investigation of the two basaltic landslide areas in Mauritius. A recent investigation was conducted jointly by JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) and Ministry of Public Infrastructure and Land Transport of Government of Mauritius on both sites from 2012 to 2015 to survey the landslide surface and to implement countermeasures works.Both sites are located in the highly populated area in the capital city of Mauritius.The geological features of the sites were studied with the borehole core logging data obtained from 6 boreholes and it was found that possible sliding surface was observed in the colluvium layer consisting of gravels and stiff silty-clays, at depths from 6 to 10 m below the ground surface. The rate of landslide movement during heavy rainfall amount exceeding 100 mm/hr was elaborated with past records of extensometers installed on these sites. Colluvium samples from both sites of the same characteristics with the sliding surface were tested in the ring shear apparatus in Japan under different normal stresses reducing from 300 kPa to 50 kPa step-wise at a shear velocity of 0.02 mm/min under drained condition to obtain the residual friction angle (φ) and the cohesion (c). Obtained residual friction angle and cohesion

  18. Integrated Interpretation of Geophysical, Geotechnical, and Environmental Monitoring Data to Define Precursors for Landslide Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, S.; Chambers, J.; Merritt, A.; Wilkinson, P.; Meldrum, P.; Gunn, D.; Maurer, H.; Dixon, N.

    2014-12-01

    To develop a better understanding of the failure mechanisms leading to first time failure or reactivation of landslides, the British Geological Survey is operating an observatory on an active, shallow landslide in North Yorkshire, UK, which is a typical example of slope failure in Lias Group mudrocks. This group and the Whitby Mudstone Formation in particular, show one of the highest landslide densities in the UK. The observatory comprises geophysical (i.e., ERT and self-potential monitoring, P- and S-wave tomography), geotechnical (i.e. acoustic emission and inclinometer), and hydrological and environmental monitoring (i.e. weather station, water level, soil moisture, soil temperature), in addition to movement monitoring using real-time kinematic GPS. In this study we focus on the reactivation of the landslide at the end of 2012, after an exceptionally wet summer. We present an integrated interpretation of the different data streams. Results show that the two lobes (east and west), which form the main focus of the observatory, behave differently. While water levels, and hence pore pressures, in the eastern lobe are characterised by a continuous increase towards activation resulting in significant movement (i.e. metres), water levels in the western lobe are showing frequent drainage events and thus lower pore pressures and a lower level of movement (i.e. tens of centimetres). This is in agreement with data from the geoelectrical monitoring array. During the summer season, resistivities generally increase due to decreasing moisture levels. However, during the summer of 2012 this seasonal pattern was interrupted, with the reactivated lobe displaying strongly decreasing resistivities (i.e. increasing moisture levels). The self-potential and soil moisture data show clear indications of moisture accumulation prior to the reactivation, followed by continuous discharge towards the base of the slope. Using the different data streams, we present 3D volumetric images of

  19. Geophysical and Geotechnical Determination of Sand Resources on the Florida Atlantic Continental Shelf: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkl, C. W.; Andrews, J. L.; Suthard, B. C.; Robertson, W.

    2007-12-01

    the ability to assess sand resource potential on the shelf. Sand resources on the Florida Atlantic continental shelf amount to something on the order of about 85 x 109 m3. These potential sand volumes, based on average 3 m depth assumptions, break down to about 1 x 109 m3 for the southeast (Miami, Broward, Palm Beach counties), 4.3 x 109 m3 for the central (Martin, St. Lucie, Indian River, Brevard counties), and 78.5 x 109 m3 for the northeast (Volusia, Flagler, St. Johns, Duval, Nassau counties) Florida shelf areas. It is effective to use multiple remote sensing methods to locate large sand bodies, but more detailed geotechnical surveys are required to better estimate these sand resource potentials.

  20. International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) Established at the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, A.; Nadim, F.

    2003-12-01

    As one of 13 new `Centres of Excellence' awarded by the Norwegian Research Council with a 10-year funding schedule, the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) was established at the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), in January 2003. The Centre is formed through a co-operation between several institutions, which in addition to NGI are the Gelogical Survey of Norway (NGU), Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR), University of Oslo (UiO) and the Norwegian University for Science and Technology (NTNU). The Centre is located in the NGI building in Oslo, Norway. Funding is for 10 years, and the centre is staffed by researchers from the partner institutions, visiting scientists, post-doctoral fellows and Ph.D. students. With the ultimate goal of geohazard mitigation and preventing the loss of lives and damage to infrastructure and environment, key research topics of the Centre are: Unsaturated soils and mechanisms for precipitation-induced slides in steep slopes; Risk and vulnerability analysis for geohazards; Earthquake hazard, vulnerability and risk evaluation; Rock slope failures - models and risks; Landslides in soft clay slopes (quick clay), fjord margins and coastal zones; GIS applications to geohazards; SAR applications to geohazards; Slide dynamics and mechanics of disintegration; Tsunami modelling and prediction; and Offshore Geohazards. As prospecting for hydrocarbons move into increasingly deeper waters of the world's continental margins, research on offshore geohazard forms an important activity of the new centre. Main offshore geohazards include slope instability, effects of shallow gas and gas hydrates on the behaviour of seafloor sediments, mud volcanism and diapirism. Of these, slope instability is considered to be the major hazard, because of the potentially serious third party impact. The current offshore geohazards project within ICG consists of three main themes: Assessment of offshore geohazards (site surveys); Geophysical methods for offshore

  1. A progress report on the ARRA-funded geotechnical site characterization project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. J.; Yong, A.; Stokoe, K.; Di Matteo, A.; Diehl, J.; Jack, S.

    2011-12-01

    For the past 18 months, the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) has funded geotechnical site characterizations at 189 seismographic station sites in California and the central U.S. This ongoing effort applies methods involving surface-wave techniques, which include the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) technique and one or more of the following: spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW), active and passive multi-channel analysis of surface wave (MASW) and passive array microtremor techniques. From this multi-method approach, shear-wave velocity profiles (VS) and the time-averaged shear-wave velocity of the upper 30 meters (VS30) are estimated for each site. To accommodate the variability in local conditions (e.g., rural and urban soil locales, as well as weathered and competent rock sites), conventional field procedures are often modified ad-hoc to fit the unanticipated complexity at each location. For the majority of sites (>80%), fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave dispersion-based techniques are deployed and where complex geology is encountered, multiple test locations are made. Due to the presence of high velocity layers, about five percent of the locations require multi-mode inversion of Rayleigh wave (MASW-based) data or 3-D array-based inversion of SASW dispersion data, in combination with shallow P-wave seismic refraction and/or HVSR results. Where a strong impedance contrast (i.e. soil over rock) exists at shallow depth (about 10% of sites), dominant higher modes limit the use of Rayleigh wave dispersion techniques. Here, use of the Love wave dispersion technique, along with seismic refraction and/or HVSR data, is required to model the presence of shallow bedrock. At a small percentage of the sites, surface wave techniques are found not suitable for stand-alone deployment and site characterization is limited to the use of the seismic refraction technique. A USGS Open File Report-describing the surface geology, VS profile and the

  2. Heat piles - a combination of geotechnical and geothermal engineering; Energiepfaehle - Verbindung von Geotechnik und Geothermie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzenbach, R.; Rueckert, A. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Geotechnik; Knoblich, K.; Sanner, B. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Mands, E. [Prof. Dr. Knoblich und Partner GmbH, Wetzlar (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The numerical programs used for borehole heat exchangers are also suitable to simulate the performance of heat piles, provided they permit a differentiation of thermal properties in the vicinity of the heat exchanger pipes. Adaptations of known programs for heat piles have been described by PAHUD and FROMENTIN (1997). For simple pile geometries, the program EED can be used as well (HELLSTROeM et al., 1997), as it permits very quick determination of the potentials for heat extraction and energy supply. Because of their geotechnical function, such systems should only be made use of where heating and cooling can be planned with sufficient accuracy, giving an idea of the likely temperatures in the piles. Further, the static function of the piles needs to be kept in mind. If adequately used, heat piles offer a huge potential for practically all types of buildings erected in sites requiring deep foundations or where the excavation for the foundation needs to be enclosed. In Germany alone 5000 buildings are erected each year which would permit non-depleting use of the thermal energy bottled up in the ground and ground water via heat piles. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Simuliation des Betriebsverhaltens von Energiepfahlanlagen eigenen sich die auch fuer Erdwaermesonden verwendeten numerischen Programme, vorausgesetzt, sie lassen eine Differenzierung der thermischen Eigenschaften im Nahbereich der Waermetauscherrohre zu. Anpassungen von bekannten Programmen im Hinblick auf Energiepfaehle schildern PAHUD and FROMENTIN (1997). Fuer einfache Pfahlgeometrien kann auch das Programm EED herangezogen werden (HELLSTROeM et al., 1997), mit dem sich sehr schnell die moeglichen Entzugs- und Einspeiseleistungen ermitteln lassen. Wegen der vorrangigen geotechnischen Bedeutung sollten Energiepfaehle nur im Rahmen einer ausreichend genauen Heizungs-/Kuehlungsplanung vorgesehen werden, die einen Eindruck der zu erwartenden Temperaturen in den Phaehlen geben kann. Ausserdem ist immer zu beachten

  3. Correlations between the in situ acoustic properties and geotechnical parameters of sediments in the Yellow Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baohua; Han, Tongcheng; Kan, Guangming; Li, Guanbao

    2013-11-01

    Knowledge about the marine sediment acoustic properties is a key to understanding wave propagation in sediments and is very important for military oceanography and ocean engineering. We developed a hydraulic-drived self-contained in situ sediment acoustic measurement system, and measured for the first time the in situ acoustic properties of sediments on 78 stations in the Yellow Sea, China, by employing this system. The relationships between the in situ measured acoustic properties and the onboard or laboratory determined geotechnical parameters were analyzed. Porosity was found to be the dominant factor in reducing velocity in a quadratic fashion; velocity showed an increment with bulk density and a decrement with mean grain size and clay content both with a nonlinear dependence; acoustic attenuation showed a bell-shaped correlation with porosity and mean grain size but reduced with clay content of the sediments. The attenuation results indicate that intergrain friction rather than viscous interactions between pore fluid and solid grains is the dominant loss mechanism in our marine sediments. The relationships established would be used to predict the geotechnical parameters from in situ measured acoustic properties and vice versa, as well as being an indicator of the seafloor processes, potential gas bubbles hazard and gas hydrates resources or other suitable targets of acoustic surveys.

  4. Geotechnical Properties of Lateritic Overburden Materials on the Charnockite and Gneiss Complexes in Ipele-Owo Area, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Ojo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The lateritic soils that overburden Charnockite and Gneiss Complexes in Ipele-Owo area of Ondo State, Nigeria are in great use for local construction. However, little is known of their engineering properties and suitability as sub-grade and sub-base materials for large-scale building and road construction. This work utilized standard geotechnical analytical techniques to examine and characterize these laterites. The results show that the soil is characteristically of a moderate strength based on the average California Bearing Ratio (CBR test result of 52.5%. The average particle size distribution indicates 11% fine grained sand, 2% medium grains, 12.4% coarse grains, 2% fine gravel and 74.6% clay-sized particles. The respective values of the linear shrinkage, liquid and plastic limits are 10.5%, 52.7% and 23.45%. The maximum dry density of the laterites is 1778.5 kg/m3 while the moisture content is 17.65%. It is therefore suggested that the Ipele-Owo laterites are suitable for use as sub-grade and sub-base construction materials since the geotechnical properties are fairly within the regulatory standards in Nigeria

  5. Combined analysis of 2-D electrical resistivity, seismic refraction and geotechnical investigations for Bukit Bunuh complex crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwin, I. N.; Saad, Rosli; Saidin, Mokhtar; Nordiana, M. M.; Anderson Bery, Andy; Hidayah, I. N. E.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in studying impact crater on earth has increased tremendously due to its importance in geologic events, earth inhabitant history as well as economic value. The existences of few shock metamorphism and crater morphology evidences are discovered in Bukit Bunuh, Malaysia thus detailed studies are performed using geophysical and geotechnical methods to verify the type of the crater and characteristics accordingly. This paper presents the combined analysis of 2-D electrical resistivity, seismic refraction, geotechnical SPT N value, moisture content and RQD within the study area. Three stages of data acquisition are made starting with regional study followed by detailed study on West side and East side. Bulk resistivity and p-wave seismic velocity were digitized from 2-D resistivity and seismic sections at specific distance and depth for corresponding boreholes and samples taken. Generally, Bukit Bunuh shows the complex crater characteristics. Standard table of bulk resistivity and p-wave seismic velocity against SPT N value, moisture content and RQD are produce according to geological classifications of impact crater; inside crater, rim/slumped terrace and outside crater.

  6. Pipeline integrity management: integration of geotechnical and mechanical assessment to control potential risks due to external forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malpartida Moya, John E.; Sota, Giancarlo Massucco de la; Seri, Walter [Compania Operadora de Gas del Amazonas, Lima (Peru)

    2009-07-01

    Every pipeline integrity management system evaluates and controls various threats. On pipelines which have particular characteristics as it is the case of the Andean pipelines and pipelines crossing jungles, one of the main threats are the external forces. Even, this threat causes a greater number of failures than other threats like corrosion or the third part damage. Facing this situation, the pipeline integrity management system of TgP has achieved an important development in the use and suitable handling of the information provided by diverse techniques of pipeline mechanical inspection and geotechnical inspection of the right-of-way (ROW). This document presents our methodology, which interrelate information of the in-line inspection, information of geotechnical inspections of the ROW, instrumentation (Strain Gages), topographic monitoring, among others. All this information is supported in a Geographic Information System (GIS) which allows us to integrate the information. By means of the pipeline integrity management system we control potential risks due to external forces, we have been able to act before events become critical, with no occurrence of failures. This system allows us simultaneously to optimize efforts and preserve the mechanical integrity of our pipelines, not producing neither personal nor environmental nor economical affectation. (author)

  7. Investigation on the effect of geometrical and geotechnical parameters on elongated offshore piles using fuzzy inference systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminfar, Ali; Mojtahedi, Alireza; Ahmadi, Hamid; Aminfar, Mohammad Hossain

    2017-06-01

    Among numerous offshore structures used in oil extraction, jacket platforms are still the most favorable ones in shallow waters. In such structures, log piles are used to pin the substructure of the platform to the seabed. The pile's geometrical and geotechnical properties are considered as the main parameters in designing these structures. In this study, ANSYS was used as the FE modeling software to study the geometrical and geotechnical properties of the offshore piles and their effects on supporting jacket platforms. For this purpose, the FE analysis has been done to provide the preliminary data for the fuzzy-logic post-process. The resulting data were implemented to create Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) classifications. The resultant data of the sensitivity analysis suggested that the orientation degree is the main factor in the pile's geometrical behavior because piles which had the optimal operational degree of about 5° are more sustained. Finally, the results showed that the related fuzzified data supported the FE model and provided an insight for extended offshore pile designs.

  8. Geotechnical mapping of the urban perimeter of Chapada dos Guimarães: subsidies to the city master plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ximenes de Tavares Salomão

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The cartographic prediction, characterization, and documentation of geological processes and hazard areas have fundamentalimportance for land-use regulation and planning, respecting the potentials and limits of the lands. Geotechnical mappingis an effective tool, which provides local authorities with such information, as demonstrated in the elaboration of thegeotechnical mapping of the urban area of Chapada dos Guimarães, in Mato Grosso state, Brazil. The morphopedologicalapproach was used, and it allowed the integrated interpretation of physical components and deductions of water shed operations.It also allowed the boundary identification of areas of relative homogeneity, as far as physical processes, geotechnicalattributes, potentialities and restrictions of land use are concerned. Six geotechnical units were defined and characterized.One was favorable for using without restrictions; two others were restricted but subject to control by Civil Engineeringworks and the remaining three ones presented geological risks associated with mass movement and erosion. The latter wasconsidered non favorable for human occupation, therefore of restricted use, and specific planning conditions.

  9. Engineering-geological and geotechnical investigations for risk assessment of the University Olympic Village in Izmir (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincal, Cem; Koca, Mehmet Yalçin; Yilmaz, H. Recep; Akgün, Mustafa; Özyalin, Şenol; Eskişar, Tuǧba; Akçiǧ, Zafer; van Loon, A. J. Tom

    2010-04-01

    The Metropolitan Municipality of Izmir (Turkey) designated a steeply inclined area for the construction of buildings to house the participants of the Izmir University Olympic Games. Before the construction activities could start, engineering geological and geotechnical investigations had to be carried out in order to establish which zones in the area were suitable for safe constructions. Seismic studies, borings and laboratory tests yielded the data, which were used for preparing five hazard maps in a GIS environment. The construction activities based on the results of this complex investigation appeared successful. The engineering geological investigations included geotechnical measurements on core samples obtained from the boreholes (core drilling) and laboratory testing. The rock-quality designation (RQD%) values of the rock units were determined and used in the rock-mass classification (rock-mass rating method) as an input parameter and in the calculation of the bearing capacity of the various rock units. Geophysical surveys were carried out to determine the seismic velocity of the rocks at the site. A short overview is provided of the main problems that had to be dealt with, and of the successive steps taken to solve the engineering-geological problems. Determination of these problems is necessary for adequate land-use planning and construction activities.

  10. TOPFARM wind farm optimization tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rethore, P.-E.; Fuglsang, P.; Larsen, Torben J.; Buhl, T.; Larsen, Gunner C.

    2011-02-15

    A wind farm optimization framework is presented in detail and demonstrated on two test cases: 1) Middelgrunden and 2) Stags Holt/Coldham. A detailed flow model describing the instationary flow within a wind farm is used together with an aeroelastic model to determine production and fatigue loading of wind farm wind turbines. Based on generic load cases, the wind farm production and fatigue evaluations are subsequently condensed in a large pre-calculated database for rapid calculation of lifetime equivalent loads and energy production in the optimization loop. The objective function defining the optimization problem includes elements as energy production, turbine degradation, operation and maintenance costs, electrical grid costs and foundation costs. The objective function is optimized using a dedicated multi fidelity approach with the locations of individual turbines in the wind farm spanning the design space. The results are over all satisfying and are giving some interesting insights on the pros and cons of the design choices. They show in particular that the inclusion of the fatigue loads costs give rise to some additional details in comparison with pure power based optimization. The Middelgrunden test case resulted in an improvement of the financial balance of 2.1 M Euro originating from a very large increase in the energy production value of 9.3 M Euro mainly counterbalanced by increased electrical grid costs. The Stags Holt/Coldham test case resulted in an improvement of the financial balance of 3.1 M Euro. (Author)

  11. Geophysical/Geotechnical Applications to Urban Transformation: Example of District of Yildirim of Bursa City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Savas; Imre, Nazire; Yeziz, Hatice; Caglak, Faruk; Tezel, Okan; Ozcep, Ferhat

    2013-04-01

    The city of Bursa, which is located near to the North Anatolian Fault Zone has a very active tectonic regime. The city has a local site effect problem, which is the subject of many studies for this region due to take place in the middle of the basin of the city center. However, in line with the law of new urban transformation, Turkey has started renovation of damaged old buildings and sub-urban buildings. The first example of study has been conducted in Bursa City Center in the district of Yıldırım and that has covered a big area. We used Turkish/Eurocode-8 Standard and Microzonation Criteria for all of this study. The study area covered 7 sub-district areas in particular the southern part of the conservancy district of the plains and northern part of the Uludag slope. We carried out geophysical (microtremors, seismic refraction method, surface wave analysis methods (MASW-MAM) and vertical electrical sounding) and geotechnical (boring up to 20 m and laboratory testing) studies at 75 sites to estimate elastical parameters, soil group, soil classification, and geological cross-sections. The study area was divided into two sub-areas as slope rubble (in the southern part) and alluvial deposits by using borehole data. Standard penetration tests were applied for each 1.5 m to all the boreholes and to estimate mechanical and index properties of soils, several laboratory test were applied to soil/rock specimens. Several soil problems such as soil bearing capacity, soil liquefaction potential, soil settlement analysis, soil amplification, soil expansion analysis were solved by using the results of geophysical, geotechnical and laboratory data. For the study area, deterministic and probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis was performed and ground motion level (magnitude and accelaration of design earthquake) was estimated as Mw:7.4 and a: 0.41 g for exceedence rate of 30% in 50 years. These values guided the solution of soil dynamic analysis. Vs30 map of soils for the

  12. Farm animal proteomics - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Emøke; Danielsen, Marianne; Hollung, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    in large-scale operations, with the aim to obtain animal products for human consumption. Hence, understanding the biological traits that impact yield and quality of these products is the specific aim of much biological experimentation. However, most of the data gathered from experiments on e.g. swine......In agricultural sciences as in all other areas of life science, the implementation of proteomics and other post-genomic tools is an important step towards more detailed understanding of the complex biological systems that control physiology and pathology of living beings. Farm animals are raised...... and cattle are relevant not only for farm animal sciences, but also for adding to our understanding of complex biological mechanisms of health and disease in humans. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the specific topics of interest within farm animal proteomics, and to highlight some...

  13. Challenges in wind farm optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    for the wind turbine modeling, where aeroelastic models are required, and for the wind farm flow field description, where in-stationary flow field modeling is needed to capture the complicated mixture of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flows and upstream emitted meandering wind turbine wakes, which together...... dictates the fatigue loading of the individual wind turbines. Within an optimization context, the basic challenge in describing the in-stationary wind farm flow field is computational speed. The Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model includes the basic features of a CFD Large Eddy Simulation approach...

  14. Social-insect fungus farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    Which social insects rear their own food? Growing fungi for food has evolved twice in social insects: once in new-world ants about 50 million years ago; and once in old-world termites between 24 and 34 million years ago [1] and [2] . The termites domesticated a single fungal lineage - the extant...... the farming insects with most of their food ( Figure 1 ). No secondary reversals to the ancestral life style are known in either group, which suggests that the transitions to farming were as drastically innovative and irreversible as when humans made this step about 10,000 years ago....

  15. Succession Planning in Australian Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hicks

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this paper is that succession planning in Australian farming is under-developed.It may be linked to economic and social change which suggests that farmers need to adapt togenerational change but this is being resisted or ignored. The implications of this are the slowdecline of family farming, a poor transfer of skills and knowledge to subsequent generationsof farmers in some parts of the agricultural sector and the potential for an extension of thefinancial services industry to develop a more effective raft of succession planning measuresto mitigate the effects of a traditional approach to succession in agriculture.

  16. To what extent does organic farming rely on nutrient inflows from conventional farming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Benjamin; Nesme, Thomas; David, Christophe; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2013-12-01

    Organic farming is increasingly recognized as a prototype for sustainable agriculture. Its guidelines ban the use of artificial fertilizers. However, organic farms may import nutrients from conventional farming through material exchanges. In this study, we aimed at estimating the magnitude of these flows through the quantification of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium inflows from conventional farming to organic farming. Material inflows and outflows were collected for two cropping years on 63 farms. The farms were located in three French agricultural districts distributed over a gradient of farming activity defined by both the stocking rate and the ratio of the farm area under arable crops. Our results showed that on average, inflows from conventional farming were 23%, 73% and 53% for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively. These inflows were strongly determined by the farm production systems. However, for farms similar in terms of production systems, the inflows also depended on the local context, such as the proximity of organic livestock farms: the reliance of organic farming on conventional farming was lower in mixed than in specialized districts. These results highlight the necessity to quantify the contribution of nutrient inflows from conventional farming when assessing organic farming and development scenarios.

  17. Assessing farm animal welfare without visiting the farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Houe, Hans; Sandøe, Peter;

    Animal welfare is typically assessed on farms by external observers making systematic observations of animals and/or the environment. External observers are costly, and efforts to minimize the time spent by external observers are giving rise to a delicate discussion of priorities of costs, validi...

  18. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The different uses to which geothermal heat and fluids could be applied as a direct utilization of resource or as heat utilization are explored. The following aspects are covered: geotechnical assessment, agricultural and industrial applications, socioeconomic assessment, and engineering assessment. (MHR)

  19. An integrated geotechnical-geophysical investigation of soft clay at a coastal site in the Mekong Delta for oil and gas infrastructure development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giao, P.H. [Asian Inst. of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand). School of Engineering; Dung, N.T. [Dong A Univ., Sahagu (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Geotechnical Engineering; Long, P.V. [Vina Mekong Engineering J.S. Co., Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2008-11-15

    In southern Vietnam, an increasing number of energy facilities are being constructed on soft clays of the very low-level Mekong River Delta. Prior to any energy infrastructure development in coastal areas, it is necessary to conduct adequate site investigations of the soft clay since a poor site investigation could result in damage to newly constructed facilities. To date, deficiencies in site investigations in southern Vietnam have been due to a rapid development of energy facilities resulting in limited soil investigation and soil improvement. Deficiencies in site investigations can also be attributed to outdated laboratory and in situ geotechnical testing capability and a lack of conformance with the geotechnical standards and engineering practice codes. This paper reviewed and analyzed geotechnical data at a typical coastal site at Ca Mau in the Mekong River Delta and demonstrated the application of a near-surface geophysical technique known as electric imaging (EI) for mapping the soft clay deposit at the site. An integrated geotechnical-geophysical study was conducted on the soft clay deposit at the Ca Mau site in order to characterize the subsoil profile and soil parameters that can be used in the design of energy facilities. 1 fig.

  20. Attitude and acceptance of offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Möller, B.

    2011-01-01

    Generally people are more positive towards offshore wind farms compared to on-land wind farms. However, the attitudes are commonly assumed to be independent of experience with wind farms. Important relations between attitude and experience might therefore be disregarded. The present paper gives...... a novel contribution to this field. First of all, we give a thorough review of the studies that have analysed the relation between experience with wind turbines and attitude. In addition, we supplement the review by analysing the effect of travel distance to the nearest offshore wind farm and the wind...... farms attributes on attitude towards offshore wind farms. The results point towards that the travel time and the attributes of the nearest offshore wind farm influence the attitude significantly. Travel time has mixed effects on the attitude, whilst offshore wind farms with many turbines generate more...

  1. Determinants of farm diversification in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meraner, M.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Kuhlman, J.W.; Finger, R.

    2015-01-01

    Farm diversification has been prominently supported by agricultural policy makers aiming to support rural development. To increase the understanding of determinants influencing diversification and hence to increase the efficiency of policies aiming to support farm diversification this paper presents

  2. Wakes in large offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelmie, Rebecca J.; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Rathmann, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Power losses due to wind turbine wakes are of the order of 10 and 20% of total power output in large wind farms. The focus of this research carried out within the EC funded UPWIND project is wind speed and turbulence modelling for large wind farms/wind turbines in complex terrain and offshore...... is for five turbines in flat terrain. Finally a complex terrain wind farm will be modelled and compared with observations. For offshore wind farms, the focus is on cases at the Horns Rev wind farm which indicate wind farm models require modification to reduce under-prediction of wake losses while CFD models...... in order to optimise wind farm layouts to reduce wake losses and loads. For complex terrain, a set of three evaluations is underway. The first is a model comparison for a Gaussian Hill where CFD models and wind farm models are being compared for the case of one hilltop wind turbine. The next case...

  3. Entomology: A Bee Farming a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Aanen, Duur K

    2015-11-16

    Farming is done not only by humans, but also by some ant, beetle and termite species. With the discovery of a stingless bee farming a fungus that provides benefits to its larvae, bees can be added to this list.

  4. Organic farming improves pollination success in strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Georg K S; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G

    2012-01-01

    Pollination of insect pollinated crops has been found to be correlated to pollinator abundance and diversity. Since organic farming has the potential to mitigate negative effects of agricultural intensification on biodiversity, it may also benefit crop pollination, but direct evidence of this is scant. We evaluated the effect of organic farming on pollination of strawberry plants focusing on (1) if pollination success was higher on organic farms compared to conventional farms, and (2) if there was a time lag from conversion to organic farming until an effect was manifested. We found that pollination success and the proportion of fully pollinated berries were higher on organic compared to conventional farms and this difference was already evident 2-4 years after conversion to organic farming. Our results suggest that conversion to organic farming may rapidly increase pollination success and hence benefit the ecosystem service of crop pollination regarding both yield quantity and quality.

  5. Organic farming improves pollination success in strawberries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg K S Andersson

    Full Text Available Pollination of insect pollinated crops has been found to be correlated to pollinator abundance and diversity. Since organic farming has the potential to mitigate negative effects of agricultural intensification on biodiversity, it may also benefit crop pollination, but direct evidence of this is scant. We evaluated the effect of organic farming on pollination of strawberry plants focusing on (1 if pollination success was higher on organic farms compared to conventional farms, and (2 if there was a time lag from conversion to organic farming until an effect was manifested. We found that pollination success and the proportion of fully pollinated berries were higher on organic compared to conventional farms and this difference was already evident 2-4 years after conversion to organic farming. Our results suggest that conversion to organic farming may rapidly increase pollination success and hence benefit the ecosystem service of crop pollination regarding both yield quantity and quality.

  6. Biogas and Bioethanol Production in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    The thesis consists of two parts. First one is an introduction providing background information on organic farming, ethanol and anaerobic digestion processes, and concept of on‐farm bioenergy production. Second part consists of 8 papers....

  7. 7 CFR 761.103 - Farm assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agency assesses each farming operation to determine the applicant's financial condition, organizational structure, management strengths and weaknesses, appropriate levels of Agency oversight, credit counseling... assessment must evaluate, at a minimum, the: (1) Farm organization and key personnel qualifications; (2) Type...

  8. Keeping Noise Down on the Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do > Keeping Noise Down on the Farm Keeping Noise Down on the Farm SHARE Some people may ... risks permanent hearing damage. Take steps to reduce noise from machinery. Keep machinery running smoothly by replacing ...

  9. Flexible Exchange of Farming Device Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2011-01-01

    A new trend in the farming business is to replace conventional farming devices with computerized farming devices. Accordingly, numerous computer-based farming devices for logging, processing and exchanging data have recently been installed on moving farm machinery such as tractors. The exchange...... of data generally takes place between the devices and farming systems, mostly installed at the premises of farmers, contractors, advisory services etc. In most cases, data exchange is based on farming data exchange standards and is bi-directional. Bi-directional data exchange allows different devices...... and systems to exchange data based on a predefined set of rules. In consequence, many hand-coded data exchange solutions have been developed in the farming business. Although efforts regarding incorporating data exchange standards have been made, their actual usage so far has been limited, due to the fact...

  10. Impact of Geotechnical Factors on the Safety of Low Embankment Dams From the Perspective of Technical and Safety Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasana, Andrej; Minárik, Marian; Nikolaj, Maroš

    2015-03-01

    Our research deals with a broad spectrum of problems concerning the variability of geotechnical factors and their influence on the safety of the biggest group of dam constructions in Slovakia, i.e., low earthfill dams. Its specific aim is the observation of their risk factors by using our experience and knowledge gained while working in the sector of technical and safety supervision. To achieve the aims of a research thesis, we analyzed 39 low earthfill dams. We performed observations and documented their conditions with the aim of clarifying the risk factors. After an analysis of the information materials that characterize dams and after a statistical analysis of the measurement results in situ, including measurements from technical and safety supervision databases, we performed an analysis by using mathematical modeling to evaluate the safety of the dam constructions. Out of the total number of 39 dam constructions, an analysis of the stability of the dam slopes was performed on 37 dams, and deformation problems were analyzed on 28 of the dams. Filtration problems were analyzed at 26 dams, and a complete evaluation of the intensity of filtration movements was performed on 19 of the constructions. On the basis of a detailed analysis of the 39 dam constructions, we specified their problems and the concomitant consequences of the problems. Geotechnical risk factors and specific risks that determine the safety of water constructions were characterized. The analysis confirmed the importance of an engineer-geological and geotechnical checkup in the process of preparation and building (alternatively, during reconstructions and sanitation work) of such water constructions and also the importance of monitoring in the process of dam usage. Technical and safety checkups were also shown to be important when analyzing risk factors. The conclusions of the knowledge gained and the recommendations for the practice deal with recommendations to change the flow policy, develop a

  11. Cone penetration and bevameter geotechnical tests in lunar regolith simulants: discrete element method analysis and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchitsky, A. V.; Johnson, J.; Duvoy, P.; Wilkinson, A.; Creager, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    degrees at a controlled speed and measuring the cone tip and sleeve resistance from the penetration of the granular matter. This test was simulated in the COUPi DEM model. Particle size distribution, bulk density, particle-particle contact friction, specific gravity, particle shape, and mechanical properties of every particle were varied to understand how each affect the results. When the important parameters were identified, the parameters of modeled regolith were found that best replicated the experimental data. To find out if the simulations could be translated to different geotechnical tools, a series of bevameter tests were run. The bevameter technique consists of a plate pressure-sinkage test conducted by pressing a disk into the granular aggregate, and a shear test to determine shear stress-displacement properties of regolith. Computer-aided design (CAD) models of the bevameter were imported to the COUPi DEM model. Both plate pressure and shear tests were performed to validate the model. The work presented here is a parametric study to find the most important physical parameters for the DEM, and then adjusting those parameters to converge on the best fit to physical experiments in the two lunar-like soils. Future work will test the parameter set against other experiments, not fit in this work, to see how predictive the tool can be.

  12. Preliminary Geotechnical Investigation of Two Basaltic Landslide Sites in Mauritius, Offshore Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabycharun, Bhoopendra; Kuwano, Takeshi; Ichikawa, Kensuke; Fukuoka, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Landslide hazards in developing areas in Mauritius became a great challenge as well as a fundamental concern for the government and the citizen of the country. In recent years, landslide disasters have caused losses of both public and private properties. In 2005, a large-scale landslide at Chitrakoot affected 54 houses and infrastructures, and it was reactivated in 2006, damaging another 14 houses. Vallee Pitot landslide is frequently reactivated in these years and threatening several houses in densely-populated zone. Although the long-term annual precipitation show slightly decreasing trend, number of tropical cyclone over Mauritius is clearly increasing at least in the past 3 decades. Being of volcanic origin, Mauritius has observed dramatic and quick weathering of the soil which may partly contributes to creating landslide-prone geo-environment. This study focuses on the preliminary geotechnical investigation of the above-mentioned two basaltic landslide areas in Mauritius. Recent investigation was conducted jointly by JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) and Ministry of Public Infrastructure and Land Transport of Government of Mauritius on both sites from 2012 to 2015 to survey the landslide surface and to implement countermeasures works. In the field investigation, aerial photo interpretation was used to investigate the zone of cracks and scarps for both sites. The landslide areas for Chitrakoot and Vallee Pitot were estimated to 1.8 km2 and 5,000 m2 respectively. Both sites are located in the highly populated area in the capital city of Mauritius. The geological features of the sites were studied with the borehole core logging data obtained from 6 boreholes and it was found that possible sliding surface was observed in the colluvium layer consisting of gravels and stiff silty-clays, at depths from 6 to 10 m below the ground surface. The rate of landslide movement during heavy rainfall amount exceeding 100 mm/hr was elaborated with past records of

  13. Deformation analysis through the SBAS-DInSAR technique and geotechnical methods for structural damage assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonano, M.; Arangio, S.; Calò, F.; Di Mauro, M.; Manunta, M.; Marsella, M.; Sansosti, E.; Sonnessa, A.; Tagliafierro, V.; Lanari, R.

    2012-04-01

    a small separation between the acquisition orbits (baseline) in order to mitigate the noise effects, thus maximizing the coherent pixel density in the investigated area. The SBAS approach allows us to work at the full spatial resolution scale of the SAR acquisitions (Lanari et al., 2004), thus detecting and analyzing localized deformation affecting single structures or portions of them (intra-building movements). More recently, the full resolution SBAS approach has been extended in order to deal with multi-sensor SAR data collected by different radar systems acquiring with the same illumination geometry as for the case of ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT satellites (Bonano et al., 2012), thus effectively exploiting the huge ESA SAR data archive for generating very long-term deformation time-series spanning almost 20 years. In this work, we apply the multi-sensor full-resolution SBAS-DInSAR technique for investigating the deformation phenomena occurring within the urban area of Roma (Italy), where almost 20 years of ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT SAR data are available. The achieved results are effectively exploited for analyzing the correlation between the ground deformation and the structural damage detected on some buildings located within the urban area of the city of Roma. To this aim, we benefit of the well-known geotechnical approaches, usually aimed at preventing buildings and infrastructures from settlements-induced damages, for better understanding and interpreting the temporal behavior of the detected displacements.

  14. Improving the geotechnical properties of expansive soils by mixture with olive mill wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña, C.; Azañón, J. M.; Corpas, F.; Nieto, F.; León-Buendía, C.

    2012-04-01

    In Southern Spain, Olive grove is an artificial forest which has a surface of 18.000 km2, representing more than 25% of olive oil world production. During the manufacturing process of this oil, different types of residues are generated. The most important is a biomass called olive mill wastewater. It is a dark colored liquid which can not be directly poured onto natural watercourses. On the one hand, part of this biomass is burnt to produce electrical energy or treated to make a bio-diesel. On the other hand, we propose the use of olive mill wastewater as a stabilization agent for expansive clayey soils. Using raw biomass as a stabilization agent two objectives are achieved: adding value to biomass and reducing the problems of expansive soils. Moreover, an important reduction of economic costs can take place. A pure bentonite clay was chosen as a sample of original expansive soil. It is abundant in Southern Spain and its main component is Na-Montmorillonite. Bentonite is very susceptible to changes in the environmental available moisture and very unsuitable for its use in civil engineering due to its low bearing capacity, high plasticity and volume changes. Several dosages (5%, 10%, 15%) of olive mill wastewater were added to the original sample of bentonite. To study eventual improvements in the mechanical properties of soil, Proctor, Atterberg Limits, California Bearing Ratio, Swelling Pressure and X-Ray Diffraction tests were carried out, following Spanish standards UNE by AENOR. Both geotechnical and mineralogical characterizations were developed at two different curing times: 15 and 30 days. The Plasticity Index (PI) of the original bentonite soil was 251 (High Plasticity). The addition of 15% of olive mill wastewater yielded reductions of PI similar to those produced by the addition of 5% of Portland cement. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values increased slightly after the treatment with biomass leading to very similar values to those obtained after the

  15. Problems associated with shellfish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinabut, S; Somsiri, T; Limsuwan, C; Lewis, S

    2006-08-01

    Shellfish culture is a major sector of aquaculture production worldwide, and zoonoses and drug residues associated with shellfish farm practice are of concern to public health. This paper focuses on three of the most important shellfish species: molluscs, crabs and shrimp. Although many diseases can affect shellfish, they do not appear to be transmittable to humans. Rather, the main hazards are associated with the methods used to farm the different species. The risk to human health from shellfish most commonly relates to contamination by biotoxins produced by marine algae. Another well-recognised problem associated with shellfish culture is the contamination of shellfish with domestic sewage that contains human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, which causes diseases such as typhoid fever and hepatitis. In shrimp farming, the main potential food safety hazards are zoonoses, chemical contamination and veterinary drug residues. Untreated effluent from shrimp farms is a major concern to the environmental sector as it is known to promote plankton blooms if directly discharged into natural water sources.

  16. Consumer perceptions of farmed fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Machiel J.; Banović, Marija; Guerrero, Lluis; Krystallis, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate possible cross-cultural consumer segments
    in the EU aquaculture market and provide direction and focus for marketing strategies for farmed
    fish products.
    Design/methodology/approach – Selected psychographic constructs (i.e. category i

  17. The Roots of "Animal Farm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Barbara E.

    The presentation of the book "Animal Farm" by George Orwell to sophomores at East Orange Catholic High School, New Jersey, as a "political document" is discussed. Through research, panel discussions and voluntary comments, the students studied the book in depth comparing it to the power struggle between Stalin and Trotsky in…

  18. Consumer perceptions of farmed fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Machiel J.; Banović, Marija; Guerrero, Lluis; Krystallis, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate possible cross-cultural consumer segments
    in the EU aquaculture market and provide direction and focus for marketing strategies for farmed
    fish products.
    Design/methodology/approach – Selected psychographic constructs (i.e. category

  19. Imagining the ideal dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Clarissa S; Hötzel, Maria José; Weary, Daniel M; Robbins, Jesse A; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-02-01

    Practices in agriculture can have negative effects on the environment, rural communities, food safety, and animal welfare. Although disagreements are possible about specific issues and potential solutions, it is widely recognized that public input is needed in the development of socially sustainable agriculture systems. The aim of this study was to assess the views of people not affiliated with the dairy industry on what they perceived to be the ideal dairy farm and their associated reasons. Through an online survey, participants were invited to respond to the following open-ended question: "What do you consider to be an ideal dairy farm and why are these characteristics important to you?" Although participants referenced social, economic, and ecological aspects of dairy farming, animal welfare was the primary issue raised. Concern was expressed directly about the quality of life for the animals, and the indirect effect of animal welfare on milk quality. Thus participants appeared to hold an ethic for dairy farming that included concern for the animal, as well as economic, social, and environmental aspects of the dairy system.

  20. Farm and Ranch Financial Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Israelsen, Clark; Feuz, Dillon

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet is a brief overview of the financial statements and budgeting tools that are likely a part of most farm financial record keeping systems. Links are provided for additional detail on any one financial report or topic. A brief description of a Balance Sheet, a Profit Loss Statement or Income Statement, Statement of Cash Flows and Enterprise Analysis is included.

  1. Farm size and growth in field crop and dairy farms in France, Hungary and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bakucs

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the relationship between size and farm growth. The existing theories of the association between size and farm growth give mixed results by countries and over time. This paper pursues a twofold objective: on one hand, to test the validity of Gibrat’s Law for French, Hungarian and Slovenian specialized dairy and crop farms during the pre- and post-accession period to the European Union membership. Dairy and crops farms are prevailing in the farming structure of these countries. Using Farm Accountancy Data Network datasets makes it necessary to avoid biases due to heterogeneous structures across the farming systems. Thus we use quantile regressions to control for farm size related heterogeneity in the samples. On the other hand, the main novelty of this paper is the comparative analysis of the relationship between farm size and farm growth between transition Hungarian and Slovenian and non-transition French farming sectors, characterized by rather different farm structures. The results reject the validity of Gibrat’s Law for crop farms in Hungary and to a lesser extent in France, and for French and Slovenian dairy farms. We provide evidence that smaller farms grew faster than larger ones over the studied period 2001-2007 for France, 2001-2008 for Hungary, and 2004-2008 for Slovenia. Conversely, the results for Slovenia suggest that the rate of growth of crop farms in terms of its land is independent from its size.

  2. Whole farm management to reduce nutrient losses from dairy farms: a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotz, C.A.; Oenema, J.; Keulen, van H.

    2003-01-01

    Whole farm simulation provides a tool for evaluating the impact of nutrient conservation technologies and strategies on dairy farms. A farm simulation model was verified by simulating the production and nutrient flows of the De Marke experimental dairy farm in the Netherlands. Technology such as a

  3. Farm population of the United States: 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deare, D; Kalbacher, J Z

    1987-11-01

    This report presents annual estimates of selected social and economic characteristics of the farm population in 1986. Also included are fertility characteristics from the June 1986 Current Population Survey (CPS) and data from the March 1986 CPS supplement. The Census Bureau and the Economic Research Service of the Department of Agriculture prepared the farm population estimates for 1986 from CPS data. Highlights of the data follow. 1) About 5,226,000 persons lived on farms in rural areas of the US in 1986. About 1 of 46 persons, or 2.2% of the nation's population, had a farm residence in 1986, compared to 30.2% in 1920. The farm population consists of persons living on farms in rural areas of the country; it does not include residents of the small number of farms in urban areas. 2) No statistically significant change in the number of farm residents occurred between 1985 and 1986. 3) Half of all farm residents now live in the Midwest. The Southern farm population has rapidly declined to just 29% of the national total; its 11% loss over the last year made it the only 1 of the 4 geographic regions to experience a significant change in number of farm residents. 4) About 1/4 (1.3 million) of the farm population live in metropolitan areas, while 3/4 live in non metropolitan areas. 5) In 1986, 97% of farm residents were white, 2% black, and 2% hispanic. 6) The median age of rural farm residents was 37 years in 1986, which is significantly higher than the median of 31.6 years for the non-farm production. There were 110 men/100 women living on farms in 1986, compared with just 93 men/100 women in the nonfarm population. 7) About 69% of farm residents 15+ were married and living with a spouse, compared with 56% of nonfarm residents. 8) About 87% of farm households were made up of families; the comparable proportion of nonfarm families was 72%. The average size of the farm family is 3.18 members compared to 3.21 members/nonfarm family. 9) The number of children born to ever

  4. Reliability evaluation for offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua; Blåbjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new reliability index - Loss Of Generation Ratio Probability (LOGRP) is proposed for evaluating the reliability of an electrical system for offshore wind farms, which emphasizes the design of wind farms rather than the adequacy for specific load demand. A practical method...... to calculate LOGRP of offshore wind farms is proposed and evaluated....

  5. Fish benefits from offshore wind farm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonhard, Simon B.; Stenberg, Claus; Støttrup, Josianne

    2013-01-01

    The studies up until 2006 showed few effects on the fish fauna that could be attributed to the establishment and operation of the wind farms. Fish abundance and diversity were not higher inside the wind farms than in the areas outside the wind farms. One obvious reason for this could be that the ...

  6. Roundfish monitoring Princess amalia Wind Farm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hal, van R.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the results of field work in the Princess Amalia Wind Farm (in Dutch: Prinses Amaliawindpark, or PAWP). It is to realize the requirements of the Monitoring and Evaluation Program, which is part of the Wbr-permit of the wind farm. The objective is to determine if the wind farm f

  7. Farming in the city of Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Mboganie-Mwangi, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes urban farming in Nairobi, Kenya: its magnitude and characteristics, its importance for those involved, the constraints faced by urban farmers, the impact of urban farming on the environment, the legal and institutional setting, and the prospects for urban farming. The paper is b

  8. Do farm audits improve milk quality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores-Miyamoto, A.; Reij, M.W.; Velthuis, A.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk quality is assessed using bulk milk analysis and by farm audits in the Netherlands. However, the extent of the effect that dairy farm audits have on milk quality is unknown. Data from over 13,000 audits performed on 12,855 dairy farms from February 2006 to April 2008 were merged with laboratory

  9. Missouri Small Farm Family Program. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, George; And Others

    Records maintained by rural extension designees on the Missouri Small Farm Family Program, (initiated in 1972 by the cooperative extension service to help low income farm families learn to use available resources to improve their quality of life) provided data re: family characteristics, farm improvement progress, and improvement in the quality of…

  10. Capital adjustment patterns on Dutch pig farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a generalised adjustment cost framework that explicitly accounts for zero investments on Dutch pig farms. A farm-specific flexible adjustment cost function is used to account for differences in adjustment costs between farms. Using the Generalised Method of Moments the Euler equa

  11. Stress history and geotechnical properties of sediment from the Cape Fear Diapir, Blake Ridge Diapir, and Blake Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Geotechnical properties of sediment from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 164 are presented as: (1) normalized shipboard strength ratios from the Cape Fear Diapir, the Blake Ridge Diapir, and the Blake Ridge; and (2) Atterberg limit, vane shear strength, pocket-penetrometer strength, and constant-rate-of-strain consolidation results from Hole 995A, located on the Blake Ridge. This study was conducted to understand the stress history in a region characterized by high sedimentation rates and the presence of gas hydrates. Collectively, the results indicate that sediment from the Blake Ridge exhibits significant underconsolidated behavior, except near the seafloor. At least 10 m of additional overburden was removed by erosion or mass wasting at Hole 993A on the Cape Fear Diapir, compared to nearby sites.

  12. A select bibliography with abstracts of reports related to Waste Isolation Pilot Plant geotechnical studies (1972--1990)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.W. [Powers (Dennis W.), Anthony, TX (United States); Martin, M.L. [International Technology, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This select bibliography contains 941 entries. Each bibliographic entry contains the citation of a report, conference paper, or journal article containing geotechnical information about the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The entries cover the period from 1972, when investigation began for a WIPP Site in southeastern New Mexico, through December 1990. Each entry is followed by an abstract. If an abstract or suitable summary existed, it has been included; 316 abstracts were written for other documents. For some entries, an annotation has been provided to clarify the abstract, comment on the setting and significance of the document, or guide the reader to related reports. An index of key words/phrases is included for all entries.

  13. Digital geospatial presentation of geoelectrical and geotechnical data for the lower American River and flood plain, east Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Burton, Bethany L.; Powers, Michael H.; Asch, Theodore H.

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the extent and thickness of lithologic units that may have differing scour potential, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, has performed several geoelectrical surveys of the lower American River channel and flood plain between Cal Expo and the Rio Americano High School in east Sacramento, California. Additional geotechnical data have been collected by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and its contractors. Data resulting from these surveys have been compiled into similar database formats and converted to uniform geospatial datums and projections. These data have been visualized in a digital three-dimensional framework project that can be viewed using freely available software. These data facilitate a comprehensive analysis of the resistivity structure underlying the lower American River corridor and assist in levee system management.

  14. Mapping refuse profile in Singapore old dumping ground through electrical resistivity, S-wave velocity and geotechnical monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Tong, Huan Huan; Noh, Omar; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Giannis, Apostolos

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to track the refuse profile in Lorong Halus Dumping Ground, the largest landfill in Singapore, by electrical resistivity and surface wave velocity after 25 years of closure. Data were analyzed using an orthogonal set of plots by spreading 24 lines in two perpendicular geophone-orientation directions. Both geophysical techniques determined that refuse boundary depth was 13 ± 2 m. The refuse boundary revealed a certain degree of variance, mainly ascribed to the different principle of measurements, as well as the high heterogeneity of the subsurface. Discrepancy was higher in spots with greater heterogeneity. 3D analysis was further conducted detecting refuse pockets, leachate mounding and gas channels. Geotechnical monitoring (borehole) confirmed geophysical outcomes tracing different layers such as soil capping, decomposed refuse materials and inorganic wastes. Combining the geophysical methods with borehole monitoring, a comprehensive layout of the dumping site was presented showing the hot spots of interests.

  15. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 1, Data summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E. [Agapito Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Kessel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavation of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the feasibility of locating a potential high-level nuclear waste repository on lands adjacent to the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan. This report is volume 1 of the data summary.

  16. Summary of geotechnical services for the proposed Route 24/580/980 interchange improvement in Oakland, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabatabaie, A.; Majchrzak, M. [Kleinfelder, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    This report presents a summary of the geotechnical services in connection with the proposed Route 24/580/980 Interchange Improvement in Oakland, California. The purpose of the work was to provide drilling equipment and personnel to log test borings, collect soils samples, testing of excess soil cutting for environmental concerns and disposal of excess soils cutting. A field investigation was conducted from September 7 through September 26, 1995. The field work consisted of drilling 7 borings (B-1 through B-7) at the approximate locations shown on the Boring Location Map provided by CALTRANS. These borings extended to approximately 200 feet below the ground surface. This project is part of a CALTRANS earthquake retrofit project.

  17. Characterization Lithostratigraphic, Geotechnical, and Correlations with the Occurrence of Mass Movement Processes in the Slope Barriers Formation (Cariacica-ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Leonardi Bricalli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe and analyze the lithostratigraphic and geotechnical aspects, in order to correlate them to the occurrence of the mass movement process (slip on the slope of Barreiras Formation (Cariacica-ES. The methodological basis used was Survey of implementing Percussion Standard Penetration Test (SPT; analysis of the stratigraphic layers; preparation of geological profiles; conducting particle size analysis, compression, liquid limit and plasticity and shear. It was possible to establish the instability of the slope factors and identify the surface rupture slip, identifying 2 (two lithostratigraphic levels: i a set of layers of fine material (mudstone in its upper portion and; ii a set of coarser material layers (sandstone. Both packages have safety factors below 1.

  18. 岩土工程信息技术初探%Study on technology of geotechnical engineering information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李盛斌; 刘永行

    2013-01-01

    Details of the information management technology at home and abroad in geotechnical engineering, and introduces the related engineering software.On the domestic and foreign information technology gap are analyzed.%  本文介绍了我国岩土工程领域的信息技术的发展历程,对信息技术在岩土工程中重要性进行了阐述。详细介绍了国内外岩土工程中信息管理技术,并介绍了相关工程软件。对国内外的信息技术差距进行了对比分析。

  19. Farm Typology in the Berambadi Watershed (India: Farming Systems Are Determined by Farm Size and Access to Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ production decisions and agricultural practices directly and indirectly influence the quantity and quality of natural resources, some being depleted common resources such as groundwater. Representing farming systems while accounting for their flexibility is needed to evaluate targeted, regional water management policies. Farmers’ decisions regarding investing in irrigation and adopting cropping systems are inherently dynamic and must adapt to changes in climate and agronomic, economic and social, and institutional, conditions. To represent this diversity, we developed a typology of Indian farmers from a survey of 684 farms in Berambadi, an agricultural watershed in southern India (state of Karnataka. The survey provided information on farm structure, the cropping system and farm practices, water management for irrigation, and economic performances of the farm. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis (Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering were used to analyze relationships between observed factors and establish the farm typology. We identified three main types of farms: (1 large diversified and productivist farms; (2 small and marginal rainfed farms, and (3 small irrigated marketing farms. This typology represents the heterogeneity of farms in the Berambadi watershed.

  20. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  1. Empirical Analysis of Farm Credit Risk under the Structure Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan

    2009-01-01

    The study measures farm credit risk by using farm records collected by Farm Business Farm Management (FBFM) during the period 1995-2004. The study addresses the following questions: (1) whether farm's financial position is fully described by the structure model, (2) what are the determinants of farm capital structure under the structure model, (3)…

  2. Empirical Analysis of Farm Credit Risk under the Structure Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan

    2009-01-01

    The study measures farm credit risk by using farm records collected by Farm Business Farm Management (FBFM) during the period 1995-2004. The study addresses the following questions: (1) whether farm's financial position is fully described by the structure model, (2) what are the determinants of farm capital structure under the structure model, (3)…

  3. Health effects of agrochemicals among farm workers in commercial farms of Kwekwe district, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Magauzi, Regis; Mabaera, Bigboy; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Chimusoro, Anderson; Ndlovu, Nqobile; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Shambira, Gerald; Chadambuka, Addmore; Gombe, Notion

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Farm workers are at a very high risk of occupational diseases due to exposure to pesticides resulting from inadequate education, training and safety systems. The farm worker spends a lot of time exposed to these harmful agrochemicals. Numerous acute cases with symptoms typical of agrochemical exposure were reported from the commercial farms. We assessed the health effects of agrochemicals in farm workers in commercial farms of Kwekwe District (Zimbabwe), in 2006. Methods An analy...

  4. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised...

  5. Physicochemical and Geotechnical Alterations to MX-80 Bentonite at the Waste Canister Interface in an Engineered Barrier System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. Davies

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the basic geomechanical and mineralogical evolution of the bentonite barrier under various experimental boundary conditions which replicated the near-field Thermo-Hydro-Chemico (THC conditions in a repository. The relationships between the physicochemical alterations and changes in the geotechnical properties have seldom been studied, especially on a consistent dataset. This paper attempts to link the physicochemical properties of Na-bentonite (MX-80 to the macro-scale engineering functionality of the bentonite post THC exposure. Experiments investigated the impact of THC variables on the engineering and physicochemical functionality of the bentonite with respect to its application within a High-Level Waste (HLW engineered barrier system. Intrinsic alterations to the MX-80 bentonite under relatively short-term exposure to hydrothermal and chemical conditions were measured. Additionally, two long-term tests were conducted under ambient conditions to consider the impact of exposure duration. The intrinsic measurements were then related to the overall performance of the bentonite as a candidate barrier material for application in a UK geological disposal facility. Findings indicate that exposure to thermo-saline-corrosion conditions (i.e., corrosion products derived from structural grade 275 carbon steel inhibits the free swell capacity and plasticity of the bentonite. However, the measured values remained above the design limits set out for the Swedish multi-barrier concept, from which the UK concept may take a lead. Corrosion alone does not appear to significantly affect the geotechnical measurements compared with the influence of thermal loading and high saline pore water after relatively short-term exposure. Thermal and corrosion exposure displayed no impact on the intrinsic swelling of the smectite component, indicating that no significant structural alteration had occurred. However, when exploring more complex saline

  6. Geotechnical properties of MSW-incinerated bottom ash%垃圾焚烧炉渣的土工特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许四法; 杨杨; 王哲

    2011-01-01

    To solve the problem of incinerator residue disposal and recycle, the changes of geotechnical properties of the bottom ash with time were investigated by indoor physical tests and SEM.The results show that the initial particle size is large when its diameter increases and the maximum dry density decreases with the time; that the bottom ash is in high initial void ratio and compressibility, but because of the adsorption and the hydrated reaction, the void ratio deceases with the time; and that the compressive strength increases and the deformation decreases with the time.Finally, the causes of the change on the geotechnical characteristics of the bottom ash with the time were analyzed by the electron microscopy,which provids a reference for efficacious utilization of bottom ash.%为了有效处理和利用炉渣,以炉渣为研究对象,采用室内物理试验和扫描电镜,探讨炉渣的性质随时间变化的特性.试验结果表明:随着放置时间的增加、粗颗粒变多以及最大干密度变小,炉渣的初始孔隙比较大,属于中高压缩性土,但由于吸附和水化反应,孔隙比随时间减小;同样,无侧限抗压强度随时间增加,变形下降.最后,通过电子显微镜分析了炉渣的土工特性随时间变化的原因,为炉渣的有效利用提供参考.

  7. New constraints on oceanographic vs. seismic control on submarine landslide initiation: a geotechnical approach off Uruguay and northern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Fei; Strasser, Michael; Preu, Benedict; Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Krastel, Sebastian; Kopf, Achim

    2014-10-01

    Submarine landslides are common along the Uruguayan and Argentinean continental margin, but size, type and frequency of events differ significantly between distinct settings. Previous studies have proposed sedimentary and oceanographic processes as factors controlling slope instability, but also episodic earthquakes have been postulated as possible triggers. However, quantitative geotechnical slope stability evaluations for this region and, for that matter, elsewhere in the South Atlantic realm are lacking. This study quantitatively assesses continental slope stability for various scenarios including overpressure and earthquake activity, based on sedimentological and geotechnical analyses on three up to 36 m long cores collected on the Uruguayan slope, characterized by muddy contourite deposits and a locus of landslides (up to 2 km3), and in a canyon-dominated area on the northern Argentinean slope characterized by sandy contourite deposits. The results of shear and consolidation tests reveal that these distinct lithologies govern different stability conditions and failure modes. The slope sectors are stable under present-day conditions (factor of safety >5), implying that additional triggers would be required to initiate failure. In the canyon area, current-induced oversteepening of weaker sandy contourite deposits would account for frequent, small-scale slope instabilities. By contrast, static vs. seismic slope stability calculations reveal that a peak ground acceleration of at least 2 m/s2 would be required to cause failure of mechanically stronger muddy contourite deposits. This implies that, also along the western South Atlantic passive margin, submarine landslides on open gentle slopes require episodic large earthquakes as ultimate trigger, as previously postulated for other, northern hemisphere passive margins.

  8. Elevated lateral stress in unlithified sediment, Midcontinent, United States - geotechnical and geophysical indicators for a tectonic origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolery, E.W.; Schaefer, J.A.; Wang, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Indirect and direct geotechnical measurements revealed the presence of high lateral earth pressure (Ko) in shallow, unlithified sediment at a site in the northernmost Mississippi embayment region of the central United States. Results from pile-load and pressuremeter tests showed maximum Ko values greater than 10; however, the complex geologic environment of the Midcontinent made defining an origin for the anomalous Ko based solely on these measurements equivocal. Although in situ sediment characteristics indicated that indirect tectonic or nontectonic geologic mechanisms that include transient overburden loads (e.g., fluvial deposition/erosion, glacial advance/retreat) and dynamic shear loads (e.g., earthquakes) were not the dominant cause, they were unable to provide indicators for a direct tectonic generation. Localized stresses induced anthropogenically by the geotechnical field tests were also considered, but ruled out as the primary origin. A high-resolution shear-wave (SH) reflection image of geologic structure in the immediate vicinity of the test site revealed compression-style neotectonism, and suggested that the elevated stress was a tectonic manifestation. Post-Paleozoic reflectors exhibit a Tertiary (?) structural inversion, as evidenced by post-Cretaceous fault displacement and pronounced positive folds in the hanging wall of the interpreted faults. The latest stratigraphic extent of the stress effects (i.e., all measurements were in the Late Cretaceous to Tertiary McNairy Formation), as well as the relationship of stress orientation with the orientation of local structure and regional stress, remain unknown. These are the subjects of ongoing studies. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Stability analysis of offshore wind farm and marine current farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawon, Mohammad Hasanuzzaman

    Renewable energy has been playing an important role to meet power demand and 'Green Energy' market is getting bigger platform all over the world in the last few years. Due to massive increase in the prices of fossil fuels along with global warming issues, energy harvesting from renewable energy sources has received considerable interest, nowadays, where extensive researches are going on to ensure optimum use of renewable sources. In order to meet the increasing demand of electricity and power, integration of renewable energy is getting highest priorities around the world. Wind is one of the most top growing renewable energy resources and wind power market penetration is expected to reach 3.35 percent by 2013 from its present market of about 240 GW. A wind energy system is the most environmental friendly, cost effective and safe among all renewable energy resources available. Another promising form of renewable energy is ocean energy which covers 70 % of the earth. Ocean energy can be tapped from waves, tides and thermal elements. Offshore Wind farm (OWF) has already become very popular for large scale wind power integration with the onshore grid. Recently, marine current farm (MCF) is also showing good potential to become mainstream energy sources and already successfully commissioned in United Kingdom. However, squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) has the stability problem similar to synchronous generator especially during fault location to restore the electromagnetic torque. Series dynamic braking resistor (SDBR) has been known as a useful mean to stabilize fixed speed wind generator system. On the other hand, doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) has the capability of coupling the control of active and reactive power and to provide necessary reactive power demand during grid fault conditions. Series dynamic braking resistor (SDBR) can also be employed with DFIG to limit the rotor over current. An integration of wind and tidal energy represents a new

  10. Farm woodlands for the future. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, P.J.; Brierley, E.D.R.; Morris, J. [eds.] [Cranfield University, Silsoe (United Kingdom). Institute of Water and Environment; Evans, J. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). T.H. Huxley School

    1999-07-01

    This book contains the papers presented at the conference on 'Farm Woodlands for the Future' held at Cranfield University on 8-10 September 1999. Topics covered include the socio-economic role of farm woodlands; the value of farm woodlands for shelter, biodiversity and landscape enhancement; the economic value of of farm woodlands; the value of agroforestry, poplar and short rotation coppice; and the promotion of farm woodlands. Of the eighteen papers published in this book, one is abstracted here.

  11. Establishing a benchmarking for fish farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasner, Tobias; Brinker, Alexander; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    The promotion of Blue Growth in aquaculture requires an understanding of the economic drivers influencing the sector at farm level, but the collection of reliable and comparable data at this level is time-consuming and expensive. This study suggests an alternative strategy for qualitative sampling...... German farms profit from local market prices and advanced farm management. Danish farms using recirculating techniques remain competitive thanks to enhanced productivity and economy of scale. However, small traditional farms in Germany and Denmark may struggle to stay competitive in the long term....... Organic farms in both countries face challenges of high feed costs and comparatively low productivity with mixed success. Using edible protein energy return on investment (epEROI) as an indicator of ecological sustainability, all surveyed farms compared very favourably with the terrestrial systems...

  12. Key Succes Factors for Organic Farming Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Ramdhani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the weight from determinant factors in developing organic farming in Garut District, West Java, Indonesia. Determinant factor in the research are determined based on judgment from the respondent. Determinant factors in developing farming are classified by some aspects such as technology, social and politic, economic and environment. The weight of each factor is counted by using weight method based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP Model. The result of synthesis shows that respondents prefer organic farming method than conventional method. However, to implement organic farming extensively needs program or policy support from stakeholders on sub-criteria who tend to make organic farming better. The programs including orientation on quantity improvement in organic farming yield, provision of equipments, and raw materials, farmer’s performance, financial support, provision of market, and decreasing organic farming business risk.

  13. Leverages for on-farm innovation from farm typologies? An illustration for family-based dairy farms in north-west Michoacán, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortez Arriola, J.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Amendola Massiotti, R.D.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Groot, J.C.J.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on farm diversity provides insight into differences among farms, enables scaling from individual farm to farm population level and vice versa, and has been used in the definition of recommendation domains for introduction of novel technologies. Farm diversity can be broadly described in te

  14. Leverages for on-farm innovation from farm typologies? An illustration for family-based dairy farms in north-west Michoacán, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortez Arriola, J.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Amendola Massiotti, R.D.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Groot, J.C.J.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on farm diversity provides insight into differences among farms, enables scaling from individual farm to farm population level and vice versa, and has been used in the definition of recommendation domains for introduction of novel technologies. Farm diversity can be broadly described in te

  15. Floating VAWT wind farm concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Vita, Luca

    2008-01-01

    The report contains proposals and descriptions of VAWTs of 200kW, 1MW, 5MW and 25MW sizes in terms of dimensions, weights, loads, and power production. Additionally a proposal of the use of each of these sizes in a concept description for a 100MW wind farm. Manufacture, transportation, installation, maintenance and operation of VAWTs are considered briefly. A summary on advantages and disadvantages of floating VAWTs is given.

  16. Grid Integration of Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giæver Tande, John Olav

    2003-07-01

    This article gives an overview of grid integration of wind farms with respect to impact on voltage quality and power system stability. The recommended procedure for assessing the impact of wind turbines on voltage quality in distribution grids is presented. The procedure uses the power quality characteristic data of wind turbines to determine the impact on slow voltage variations, flicker, voltage dips and harmonics. The detailed assessment allows for substantially more wind power in distribution grids compared with previously used rule-of-thumb guidelines. Power system stability is a concern in conjunction with large wind farms or very weak grids. Assessment requires the use of power system simulation tools, and wind farm models for inclusion in such tools are presently being developed. A fixed-speed wind turbine model is described. The model may be considered a good starting point for development of more advanced models, hereunder the concept of variable-speed wind turbines with a doubly fed induction generator is briefly explained. The use of dynamic wind farm models as part of power system simulation tools allows for detailed studies and development of innovative grid integration techniques. It is demonstrated that the use of reactive compensation may relax the short-term voltage stability limit and allow integration of significantly more wind power, and that application of automatic generation control technology may be an efficient means to circumvent thermal transmission capacity constraints. The continuous development of analysis tools and technology for cost-effective and secure grid integration is an important aid to ensure the increasing use of wind energy. A key factor for success, however, is the communication of results and gained experience, and in this regard it is hoped that this article may contribute.

  17. The CDF Central Analysis Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T.H.; /MIT; Neubauer, M.; /UC, San Diego; Sfiligoi, I.; /Frascati; Weems, L.; /Fermilab; Wurthwein, F.; /UC, San Diego

    2004-01-01

    With Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron well underway, many computing challenges inherent to analyzing large volumes of data produced in particle physics research need to be met. We present the computing model within CDF designed to address the physics needs of the collaboration. Particular emphasis is placed on current development of a large O(1000) processor PC cluster at Fermilab serving as the Central Analysis Farm for CDF. Future plans leading toward distributed computing and GRID within CDF are also discussed.

  18. Branchburg Solar Farm and Carport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, John [Township of Branchburg, NJ (United States)

    2013-10-23

    To meet the goal of becoming a model of green, clean, and efficient consumer of energy, the Township of Branchburg will install of a 250kw solar farm to provide energy for the Township of Branchburg Municipal Building, a 50kw Solar carport to provide power to the Municipal Annex, purchase 3 plug in hybrid-electric vehicles, and install 3 dual-head charging stations.

  19. Farm cooperation to improve sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Hans; Larsén, Karin; Lagerkvist, Carl-Johan; Andersson, Chrisitian; Blad, Fredrik; Samuelsson, Johan; Skargren, Per

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, it is demonstrated that partnership arrangements between farmers might be a way to secure the economic viability of their farms as well as to increase profitability. The article discusses empirical analyses of three different forms of collaboration, with an emphasis on the environmental improvements associated with collaboration. Collaboration between a dairy farm and a crop farm is analyzed in the first case. The results show that potential gains from improved diversification and crop rotation are substantial, and even larger when the collaboration also involves machinery. The second analysis considers external integration between farrowing and finishing-pig operations. Gains from collaboration originate from biological and technical factors, such as improved growth rate of the pigs and better utilization of buildings. Finally, an evaluation of a group of collaborating crop farmers is performed. In this case, the benefits that arise are mainly due to reduced machinery costs and/or gains due to other factors, such as improved crop rotation and managerial/marketing strategies.

  20. Herramientas para análisis por confiabilidad en geotecnia: La teoría Tools for reliability analysis in geotechnical engineering: The theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Hidalgo Montoya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan algunas de las fuentes de incertidumbre en los diseños geotécnicos como son la determinación de los parámetros mecánicos y las suposiciones realizadas para definir los modelos y teorías empleados. Posteriormente, se presentan y comparan tres técnicas probabilísticas para la evaluación de la incertidumbre en diversos procesos geotécnicos.In this work, many sources of uncertainty in geotechnical design as the estimation of mechanical parameters and the premises for models and theories are analyzed. Subsequently, three probabilistic tools for valuation of the uncertainty in many geotechnical processes are presented and compared.

  1. Towards Quality Assurance and an Adequate Risk Management in Geotechnical Engineering - Application of Eurocode 7 and DIN 4020 in Engineering Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetelig, Kurt; Heitfeld, Michael; von Soos, Paul; Stocker, Manfred; Mainz, Mark

    A key issue of engineering geology is the extreme variety of soil and rock, their heterogeneity and at places anisotropy, the fabric of rockmasses, the influence of water, the primary stresses and their change into a secondary stress field by loading or unloading. Changeable properties of some kinds of soil and rock, the effect of different scales of laboratory tests, field tests and the size of the structure create further questions. Considering the difficulties of investigation of the underground, size and complexity of the structure and its construction procedure Eurocode 7 and DIN 4020 have introduced geotechnical categories. The design concept in geotechnical category 3 is mostly combined with the observational method. This requires the establishment of an adequate monitoring system and a permanent comparison of the design assumptions (pre-calculated displacements or stresses) with the recorded values. The goals and handling of Eurocode 7 and DIN 4020 are demonstrated by means of site examples.

  2. Livestock systems and farming styles in Eastern Italian Alps: an on-farm survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Ramanzin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the relationships between livestock systems, landscape maintenance and farming styles in the Belluno Province, a mountainous area of the Eastern Italian Alps. A total of 65 farms were sampled on the basis of livestock category farmed and herd size. Farms were visited to collect information on technical and productive aspects, on landscape features of land managed, which was identified by aerial photographs and digitised in a GIS environment, and on the farmers’ background, attitudes and approach to farming. Six different livestock systems were identified: intensive beef cattle (2 farms; extensive beef cattle (12 farms; large sheep/goat farms (9 farms; small sheep/goat farms (6 farms; intensive dairy cattle (14 farms and extensive dairy cattle (22 farms. The intensive systems had larger herds, modern structures and equipment, and were strongly production oriented, whereas the extensive systems had smaller herds and productivity, with often traditional or obsolete structures and equipment, but showed a tendency to diversify production by means of on-farm cheese making and/or mixed farming of different livestock categories. The ability to maintain meadows and pastures was greater for the extensive systems, especially in steep areas, while the annual nitrogen output, estimated as kg N/ha, was lower. Data on the farmers’ background and attitudes were analysed with a non-hierarchical cluster procedure that clustered the farmers into 4 farming styles widely different in motivations to farming, innovative capability, and ability to diversify income sources and ensure farm economic viability. The farming styles were distributed across all livestock systems, indicating the lack of a linkage between the assignment of a farm to a livestock system and the way the farm is managed. This study demonstrates that in mountain areas variability of livestock systems may be high, and that they differ not only in production practices

  3. Seismic, magnetic, and geotechnical properties of a landslide and clinker deposits, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    Exploitation of vast coal and other resources in the Powder River Basin has caused recent, rapid increases in population and in commercial and residential development and has prompted land utilization studies. Two aspects of land utilization were studied for this report: (1) the seismic and geotechnical properties of a landslide and (2) the seismic, magnetic, and geotechnical properties of clinker deposits. (1) The landslide seismic survey revealed two layers in the slide area. The upper (low-velocity) layer is a relatively weak mantle of colluvium and unconsolidated and weathered bedrock that ranges in thickness from 3.0 to 7.5 m and has an average seismic velocity of about 390 m/s. It overlies high-velocity, relatively strong sedimentary bedrock that has velocities greater than about 1330 m/s. The low-velocity layer is also present at the other eight seismic refraction sites in the basin; a similar layer has also been reported in the Soviet Union in a landslide area over similar bedrock. The buried contact of the low- and high-velocity layers is relatively smooth and is nearly parallel with the restored topographic surface. There is no indication that any of the high-velocity layer (bedrock) has been displaced or removed. The seismic data also show that the shear modulus of the low-velocity layer is only about one-tenth that of the high-velocity layer and the shear strength (at failure) is only about one-thirtieth. Much of the slide failure is clearly in the shear mode, and failure is, therefore, concluded to be confined to the low-velocity layer. The major immediate factor contributing to landslide failure is apparently the addition of moisture to the low-velocity layer. The study implies that the low-velocity layer can be defined over some of the basin by seismic surveys and that they can help predict or delineate potential slides. Preventative actions that could then be taken include avoidance, dewatering, prevention of saturation, buttressing the toe, and

  4. Farming in an Agriburban Ecovillage Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenore Newman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing desire for local food systems has increased interest in peri-urban farming, leading to the rise of agriburban landscapes, in which a desire to farm or to be near farmland is a contributing factor to development patterns. Interviews and site visits to the Yarrow Ecovillage near Vancouver, Canada, outline an example of a development that allows new farmers access to land in a setting with few tensions between farming and non-farming residents in a zone on the edge of a protected agricultural region. Although there are limitations to replication of this model, we suggest that intentional settlements with an agricultural element on the rural/urban fringe could buffer traditional tensions between farm usage and residential usage, while allowing small-scale farmers a place to farm in areas with prohibitively high land values.

  5. Building ground analyses and expert opinions in district heating pipeline construction. Geotechnical investigations according to DIN 4020; Baugrunduntersuchungen und Baugrundgutachten im Fernwaermeleitungsbau. Geotechnische Untersuchungen nach DIN 4020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidlich, Ingo [AGFW Energieeffizienzverband fuer Waerme, Kaelte und KWK e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    During construction of district heating pipelines, the specifications of the pertinent technical rules must be observed in order to ensure regular construction and to prevent damage. In principle, analyses of the building ground are required depending on the construction project and the pertinent DIN standards. The author lists the standards that are relevant for geotechnical operation, makes an evaluation of these standards, and explains their relevance in the construction of district heating pipelines. (orig.)

  6. Seafloor Environments North St. Croix Margin and Virgin Islands Trough. Part 1. Introduction. Part 2. Geology and Geophysics. Part 3. Geotechnical Investigations. Part 4. Engineering Significance,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    activities plan7 extending up to 35* (see map insert). ned in the area. Table 3.4. Calcium carbonate analyses. Percent (dry weight) Sample Number Below... Herrmann (4.2], in specifying guidelines for de- For purposes of presentation, the geo- sign of small (maximum dimension less logical and...the geotechnical data have been guided Herrmann and Valent 14.91 give some by the recommendations of the Naval * general guidelines for estimating

  7. Ring wall storages. An essential contribution of the geotechnics to te energy storage; Ringwallspeicher. Ein essentieller Beitrag der Geotechnik zur Energiespeicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, Matthias [Matthias Popp Ingenieurbuero Erneuerbare Energien, Energiespeicherung, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on ring wall storages as an essential contribution to the geotechnical engineering for energy storage. At first, renewable energies as well as the storage requirements for the compensation of the volatility of electricity from wind power and solar energy are described. Subsequently, the storage technologies for energy management requirements as well as the need for water and land area of pumped storage systems are presented with special emphasis of ring wall storages.

  8. Mini-review of the geotechnical parameters of municipal solid waste: Mechanical and biological pre-treated versus raw untreated waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Igor

    2016-09-01

    The most viable option for biostabilisation of old sanitary landfills, filled with raw municipal solid waste, is the so-called bioreactor landfill. Even today, bioreactor landfills are viable options in many economically developing countries. However, in order to reduce the biodegradable component of landfilled waste, mechanical and biological treatment has become a widely accepted waste treatment technology, especially in more prosperous countries. Given that mechanical and biological treatment alters the geotechnical properties of raw waste material, the design of sanitary landfills which accepts mechanically and biologically treated waste, should be carried out with a distinct set of geotechnical parameters. However, under the assumption that 'waste is waste', some design engineers might be tempted to use geotechnical parameters of untreated raw municipal solid waste and mechanical and biological pre-treated municipal solid waste interchangeably. Therefore, to provide guidelines for use and to provide an aggregated source of this information, this mini-review provides comparisons of geotechnical parameters of mechanical and biological pre-treated waste and raw untreated waste at various decomposition stages. This comparison reveals reasonable correlations between the hydraulic conductivity values of untreated and mechanical and biological pre-treated municipal solid waste. It is recognised that particle size might have a significant influence on the hydraulic conductivity of both municipal solid waste types. However, the compression ratios and shear strengths of untreated and pre-treated municipal solid waste do not show such strong correlations. Furthermore, another emerging topic that requires appropriate attention is the recovery of resources that are embedded in old landfills. Therefore, the presented results provide a valuable tool for engineers designing landfills for mechanical and biological pre-treated waste or bioreactor landfills for untreated raw

  9. NRL Hyperspectral Imagery Trafficability Tool (HITT): Software andSpectral-Geotechnical Look-up Tables for Estimation and Mapping of Soil Bearing Strength from Hyperspectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    Environmental Sensing 2009 (HI-HARES’09), TALISMAN SABER’09, and Mariana Island Hyperspectral Airborne Remote Environmental Sensing 2010 (MI-HARES’10...spectral-geotechnical look-up tables from the VCR’07, HI-HARES’09, TALISMAN SABER’09, and MI-HARES’10 campaigns (Bachmann, Nichols et al, 2012d, 2012e...campaigns (VCR’07, HI-HARES’09, TALISMAN SABER’09, and MI- HARES’10) appears in the directory with filename

  10. An Overview of Offshore Wind Farm Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2016-01-01

    For offshore wind energy to be viable, the design of wind turbines is not the only important factor—rather, the design of wind farms is also crucial. The current chapter discusses the challenges of designing an optimum wind farm and identifies the various factors that need to be considered. Lastly......, the chapter presents the novel EERA-DTOC tool for designing offshore wind farm clusters....

  11. Farming in the city of Nairobi

    OpenAIRE

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Mboganie-Mwangi, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes urban farming in Nairobi, Kenya: its magnitude and characteristics, its importance for those involved, the constraints faced by urban farmers, the impact of urban farming on the environment, the legal and institutional setting, and the prospects for urban farming. The paper is based on four studies carried out in Nairobi by Diana Lee-Smith et al. (1984-1985), Donald Freeman (1987), Alice Mboganie Mwangi (1994), and Pascale Dennery (1994)

  12. Developmental Tendency of Dry Land Farming Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Lun

    2002-01-01

    The developmental tendency of dry land farming technologies in the semiarid area of China were reviewed based on the overview of recent progress in dry land farming researches from China and oversea. It was emphasized that conservation tillage, limited irrigation, genetic modification and chemical control are the important aspects for the dry land farming research and development of the future. In addition, some considerations and suggestions on above-mentioned aspects were proposed in this paper.

  13. Organic Farming Worldwide 2007: Overview & Main Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Yussefi, Minou; Willer, Helga

    2007-01-01

    The Foundation Ecology & Agriculture SOEL and the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL have collected data about organic farming worldwide every year since 1999. Since the publication of the 2003 results, IFOAM has collaborated in the project. In an annual yearbook, the data are published together with articles from experts on the development of organic farming in the continents and on other issues related to the global development of organic farming. This chapter summarizes the ...

  14. Afvloeiing uit en aanpassing in de landbouw 1968 [Mobility in farming, parttime farming 1968

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdenburg, L.

    2007-01-01

    Farm and personnel / successor / attitude to change in modern times / contacts with immigrants / status of farmers / attitude to the farmer's work / motivations to leave farming / work type preferences / expectations for the future / attitude to reconstruction / re-allocations / cooperation / biogra

  15. Afvloeiing uit en aanpassing in de landbouw 1968 [Mobility in farming, parttime farming 1968

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdenburg, L.

    1968-01-01

    Farm and personnel / successor / attitude to change in modern times / contacts with immigrants / status of farmers / attitude to the farmer's work / motivations to leave farming / work type preferences / expectations for the future / attitude to reconstruction / re-allocations / cooperation / biogra

  16. Roads used on farm owned by Open Space Institute and leased to Roxbury Farm.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This line file represents the major roads used to access Roxbury Farm and the farm fields. This shapefile is part of a project called Biological Surveys at the...

  17. Framework of Multi-objective Wind Farm Controller Applicable to Real Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazda, Jonas; Gögmen, Tuhfe; Giebel, Gregor;

    2016-01-01

    Optimal wind farm control can mitigate adverse wake effects that can potentially cause up to 40% power loss and 80% increased fatigue loads in wind farms. The aim of this work is to outline a methodological framework of an optimal wind farm controller, which provides improved solutions to critical......-objective optimal wind farm controller is outlined with the following key characteristics. Available control objectives are (i) to maximize the total wind farm power output or (ii) to follow a specified power reference for the wind farm’s total power output while reducing the fatigue loads of the wind turbines...... areas of optimal wind farm control research. The basis of this framework is a review of optimal wind farm control methodologies, which is presented first. It is observed that there is, at present, mainly a need for more advanced wind farm operation models. Thereafter the framework of a multi...

  18. Afvloeiing uit en aanpassing in de landbouw 1968 [Mobility in farming, parttime farming 1968

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdenburg, L.

    2007-01-01

    Farm and personnel / successor / attitude to change in modern times / contacts with immigrants / status of farmers / attitude to the farmer's work / motivations to leave farming / work type preferences / expectations for the future / attitude to reconstruction / re-allocations / cooperation /

  19. The influence of different geotechnically relevant amendments on the reductive degradation of TCE by nZVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Peter; Schöftner, Philipp; Waldner, Georg; Reichenauer, Thomas G.; Nickel, Claudia; Spitz, Marcus; Dietzel, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) was widely used as a cleaning and degreasing agent. Companies needing these agents were often situated in or close to built up areas, so spillage led to contaminated sites which now can only be remediated using in situ techniques. The situation is compounded by the fact that TCE tends to seep through ground water bodies forming pools at the bottom of the aquifer. When reacting with TCE, nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) is known to reduce it into non-toxic substances. The difficulty is to bring it in contact with the pollutant. Attempts using passive insertion into the groundwater via wells yielded mixed results. Reasons for this are that ZVI tends to coagulate, to sediment and to adsorb on the matrix of the aquifer. Also, in inhomogeneous aquifers a passive application of nZVI can be difficult and might not bring the desired results, due to existence of preferential flow paths. A possible solution to this problem is the physical in situ mixing of ZVI into the contaminant source. This can, in principle, be done by adapting jet grouting - a method that uses a high pressure slurry jet, consisting of water and geotechnical additives ("binders"), to mix and compact zones ("columns") in soil. These columns are commonly used to solve foundation problems but can also be used to solve the problem of delivering nZVI to TCE source zones. This paper examines the influence binders have on the degradation reaction between TCE and nZVI. The necessity of these binders is explained by the fact that the subsoil structure is rearranged during the jetting process leading to subsidence on the surface. These subsidences could result in damage to neighbouring structures. A series of batch experiments was conducted in this study. Contaminated groundwater was brought into contact with samples of slurries commonly used in geotechnical applications. We tested the effects of concresole, bentonite, zeolithe, fly ash, slag sand and cement on the kinetics of TCE

  20. 3D Geotechnical Soil Model of Nice, France, Inferred from Seismic Noise Measurements, for Seismic Hazard Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, E.; Duval, A.; Castan, M.; Vidal, S.

    2007-12-01

    In seismic risk studies, the assessment of lithologic site effect is based on an accurate knowledge of mechanical properties and geometry of superficial geological formations. Therefore, we built a 3D subsurface model in the city of Nice, southeastern France, using not only geological and geotechnical data but also geophysical inputs. We used especially ambient vibration recordings to supply the lack of borehole data over the city. Nice spreads over 72 km2 and roughly 20% of the city is built upon recent alluvium deposits. Other parts of the city lie on Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks to the east and thick Pliocene conglomerates to the west. Nearly 450 boreholes located mainly in the alluvial valleys were used. Because they are essentially linked to previous planned constructions (such as road network or important building), their distribution is rather heterogeneous over the studied area. In the valleys moreover, less than 40% of the boreholes are reaching the rock basement. These boreholes have been analyzed and a representative soil column made of 9 sedimentary layers has been recognized. Shear wave velocity of these layers were obtained from Standard Penetration Test values using several empirical correlation law described in the literature. Because of its cost, an extended boring survey was not feasible to complete our data set. Traditional seismic profiling was also not intended, as it is not possible to use intensive explosive sources in town. Recent years have seen many studies using ambient vibration measurements for site effect estimation. Especially, the very simple H/V technique was proven to be suitable for microzoning studies although some limitation were pointed out when dealing with 2D or 3D structures. Nevertheless, this technique alone provides only the fundamental eigenfrequency of the site under investigation. But assuming the shear wave velocity in the sediment it can helps to constrain the depth of the bedrock thanks to the well known f0=VS/4H