WorldWideScience

Sample records for farm animals celebrating

  1. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  2. Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same bacterium that has become resistant to certain antibiotics, which can make infections harder to treat. MRSA can be passed back and forth between people and farm animals through direct contact. In humans, MRSA can cause ...

  3. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  4. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  5. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  6. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M; Part, Chérie E

    2013-05-16

    The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  7. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chérie E. Part

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  8. Design and farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W T

    1976-07-24

    Farm animal welfare and the design of farm buildings and equipment are interrelated. The animals' requirements and preferences should first be estimated and ways in which this can be done are discussed, as are methods of assessment of their environment. Some examples of the influence which housing and equipment design can have are given. Attention is drawn to the difficulties inherent in the assessment of farm animal welfare and the postulation made that the veterinarian is well fitted to carry out such assessments.

  9. Transgenic Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Morse B.; Eastridge, Janet S.; Paroczay, Ernest W.

    Conventional science to improve muscle and meat parameters has involved breeding strategies, such as selection of dominant traits or selection of preferred traits by cross breeding, and the use of endogenous and exogenous hormones. Improvements in the quality of food products that enter the market have largely been the result of postharvest intervention strategies. Biotechnology is a more extreme scientific method that offers the potential to improve the quality, yield, and safety of food products by direct genetic manipulation. In the December 13, 2007 issue of the Southeast Farm Press, an article by Roy Roberson pointed out that biotechnology is driving most segments of U.S. farm growth. He indicated that nationwide, the agriculture industry is booming and much of that growth is the result of biotechnology advancements.

  10. Farm animal proteomics - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Emøke; Danielsen, Marianne; Hollung, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    in large-scale operations, with the aim to obtain animal products for human consumption. Hence, understanding the biological traits that impact yield and quality of these products is the specific aim of much biological experimentation. However, most of the data gathered from experiments on e.g. swine......In agricultural sciences as in all other areas of life science, the implementation of proteomics and other post-genomic tools is an important step towards more detailed understanding of the complex biological systems that control physiology and pathology of living beings. Farm animals are raised...... and cattle are relevant not only for farm animal sciences, but also for adding to our understanding of complex biological mechanisms of health and disease in humans. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the specific topics of interest within farm animal proteomics, and to highlight some...

  11. Transgenic Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of recombinant DNA technology has enabled scientists to isolate single genes, analyze and modify their nucleotide structure(s), make copies of these isolated genes, and insert copies of these genes into the genome of plants and animals. The transgenic technology of adding genes to li...

  12. The Roots of "Animal Farm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Barbara E.

    The presentation of the book "Animal Farm" by George Orwell to sophomores at East Orange Catholic High School, New Jersey, as a "political document" is discussed. Through research, panel discussions and voluntary comments, the students studied the book in depth comparing it to the power struggle between Stalin and Trotsky in…

  13. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified animal images are intelligently used by George Orwell to represent the people, so all the characters are animals in appearance, but humans in nature. Starting from the animal images and then the conceptual metaphors, readers can perceive a fresh understanding of this classical book. In this novel, three conceptual metaphors are identified and the special findings can be illustrated as the following: Firstly, the whole story of the animals represents the history and politics of the Soviet Union. Secondly, the pigs symbolize the authorities of the society. Thirdly, the names of the characters in the novel reveal their identities.

  14. The Freedoms and Capabilities of Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaret, Jacques; Chylinski, Caroline; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming promotes animal husbandry practices that consider the welfare of the animals on the farm. The concept of animal welfare and the standards that should encompass this concept have in many cases been largely generalised in practice, which leaves relevant aspects of animal freedom or ...

  15. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits, and opportunit...

  16. The Adipose Tissue in Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauerwein, Helga; Bendixen, Emoke; Restelli, Laura

    2014-01-01

    and immune cells. The scientific interest in adipose tissue is largely based on the worldwide increasing prevalence of obesity in humans; in contrast, obesity is hardly an issue for farmed animals that are fed according to their well-defined needs. Adipose tissue is nevertheless of major importance...... in these animals, as the adipose percentage of the bodyweight is a major determinant for the efficiency of transferring nutrients from feed into food products and thus for the economic value from meat producing animals. In dairy animals, the importance of adipose tissue is based on its function as stromal...... and metabolic disorders. We herein provide a general overview of adipose tissue functions and its importance in farm animals. This review will summarize recent achievements in farm animal adipose tissue proteomics, mainly in cattle and pigs, but also in poultry, i.e. chicken and in farmed fish. Proteomics...

  17. Assessing farm animal welfare without visiting the farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Houe, Hans; Sandøe, Peter;

    Animal welfare is typically assessed on farms by external observers making systematic observations of animals and/or the environment. External observers are costly, and efforts to minimize the time spent by external observers are giving rise to a delicate discussion of priorities of costs, validi...

  18. Behavior analysis and farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T M; Temple, W; Poling, A

    1997-01-01

    This article demonstrates that there is a role for behavior-analytic techniques in the area of farm animal welfare and provides examples of the kinds of work that can be done. Behavior-analytic procedures, specifically those used in the study of psychophysics, preference, and demand, can provide answers to three questions people concerned with the welfare of farm animals are likely to ask: What can the animals detect? What do they like and dislike? What will they work to attain or preserve? Such information certainly is necessary for making reasonable decisions about animal welfare, although it is not sufficient in and of itself.

  19. Farm Animal Welfare and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    The paper examines the relationship between farm animal welfare, industrial farm animal production, and human health consequences. The data suggest that when the animal welfare of land-based farm animals is compromised, there are resulting significant negative human health consequences due to environmental degradation, the use of non-therapeutic levels of antibiotics for growth promotion, and the consequences of intensification. This paper accepts that even if meat and fish consumption is reduced, meat and fish will be part of the diet of the future. Industrial production modified from the current intensified systems will still be required to feed the world in 2050 and beyond. This paper identifies the concept of sustainable intensification and suggests that if farm animal welfare is improved, many of the human health consequences of intensified industrial production can be eliminated or reduced. In water-based farm animal production, many new systems are resulting in a product that actually protects the environment and can be done at industrial levels without the use of antibiotics.

  20. The Dystopian Elements in Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Kai-peng; FENG Jun-xia

    2016-01-01

    Animal farm ,written by George Orwell, describes an"animal" revolution, including the course of brewing, the rise and final transformation. The novel, as a political fable, include many dystopian elements, which are mainly reflected in the term of the allusive meaning of characters and the satire of utopian social form.

  1. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...... in order to evaluate the large numbers of animals necessary for a breeding programme. For this reason, the development and validation of proxy measures of key behavioural traits is often required. Despite these difficulties, behavioural traits have been introduced by certain breeders. For example, ease...... of handling is now included in some beef cattle breeding programmes. While breeding for behaviour is potentially beneficial, ethical concerns have been raised. Since animals are adapted to the environment rather than the other way around, there may be a loss of 'naturalness' and/or animal integrity. Some...

  2. Animal Farm--A Lesson Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Susan

    1987-01-01

    Offers several suggestions for teaching George Orwell's "Animal Farm" to high school students. Included are strategies for (1) teaching themes of the story, (2) interpreting the story on several levels, (3) seeing the connections between language and politics, (4) using group activities, and (5) using visual aids. (JC)

  3. Farm animal welfare in an economic context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.; Ouden, den M.

    2002-01-01

    Consumers show a growing interest in the quality of agricultural products and the manner of production and distribution, including issues such as animal welfare, food safety and environmental pollution. Demands of this type refer to a large extent to the upstream farm stages of the so-called supply

  4. Animal health and welfare planning in organic dairy cattle farms

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is ba...

  5. Public perceptions of farm animal cloning in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper

    This report presents a picture of European opinion on farm animal cloning. In the report, both agricultural and biomedical applications of farm animal cloning are considered. With the arrival of Dolly, animal cloning became an integral part of the biotech debate, but this debate did not isolate...... animal cloning as a single issue....

  6. Farm Animal Serum Proteomics and Impact on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Di Girolamo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the incompleteness of animal genome sequencing, the analysis and characterization of serum proteomes of most farm animals are still in their infancy, compared to the already well-documented human serum proteome. This review focuses on the implications of the farm animal serum proteomics in order to identify novel biomarkers for animal welfare, early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of infectious disease treatment, and develop new vaccines, aiming at determining the reciprocal benefits for humans and animals.

  7. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies’ Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rory; Amos, Nicky; van de Weerd, Heleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Companies that produce or sell food products from farm animals can have a major influence on the lives and welfare of these animals. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) conducts an annual evaluation of the farm animal welfare-related disclosures of some of the world’s largest food companies. The programme looks at companies’ published policies and commitments and examines whether these might lead to actions that can improve animal welfare on farms. It also assesses whether companies show leadership in this field. The BBFAW found that, in 2012 and 2013, around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue, and that, between 2012 and 2013, there was clear evidence of an increased level of disclosure on farm animal welfare awareness in the companies that were assessed. However, only 34% (2012) and 44% (2013) of companies had published comprehensive farm animal welfare policies, suggesting that many companies have yet to report on farm animal welfare as a business issue or disclose their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society. Abstract The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company’s commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012) and 70 (2013) of the world’s largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon

  8. Viewpoint of animal welfare organisations on the long distance transportation of farm animals

    OpenAIRE

    Leah Garcés; Victoria Cussen; Hugh Wirth

    2008-01-01

    The World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) describes the viewpoint of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) involved in the welfare of farm animals undergoing long distance transportation. The guiding principle is that the potential for poor animal welfare increases with the distance and duration of travel. Thus, farm animals should be slaughtered as close to their farm of origin as possible and trade in live animals for slaughter should be replaced with a trade in meat only. The ...

  9. An Analysis of the Political Propaganda in Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佩佩

    2015-01-01

    In Animal Farm,Napoleon and his assistants use the technique of political propaganda to cheat other animals so that other animals will be docile and support his dominion.In current society,political propaganda is still an important part of politics in a country.This paper has analyzed Animal Farm from the aspect of the technique of political propaganda and pointed out the modern significance of the technique.

  10. Mapping farm animal welfare education at university level in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illmann, G.; Keeling, L.; Melisova, M.; Simeckova, M.; Ilieski, V.; Winckler, C.; Kostal, L.; Meunier-Salaun, M.; Mihina, S.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to map farm animal welfare university education in an enlarged Europe with emphasis on identifying existing differences and gaps. Information on 210 courses dealing with farm animal welfare from 98 universities in 26 European countries were obtained. Statistical analysis

  11. Healthy, happy and humane: evidence in farm animal welfare policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bock, B.B.; Buller, H.

    2013-01-01

    There has been a dramatic expansion and diversification of knowledge, expertise and expectation associated with farm animal welfare and we witness its increasing adoption within legislative and policy strategies. This article examines how the understanding of what constitutes farm animal welfare and

  12. Mapping farm animal welfare education at university level in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illmann, G.; Keeling, L.; Melisova, M.; Simeckova, M.; Ilieski, V.; Winckler, C.; Kostal, L.; Meunier-Salaun, M.; Mihina, S.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to map farm animal welfare university education in an enlarged Europe with emphasis on identifying existing differences and gaps. Information on 210 courses dealing with farm animal welfare from 98 universities in 26 European countries were obtained. Statistical analysis wa

  13. Techniques for evaluating nutrient status in farm animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.; Pas, te M.F.W.

    2015-01-01

    It is the aim of the study to present a literature review on methods and techniques for determining nutrient status of different farm animal species (ruminants, pigs and poultry). The study focusses especially on the options to determine nutrient status in farm animals from a research perspective ra

  14. Exploring the role of farm animals in providing care at care farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, Jan; Bruin, de Simone R.; Berget, Bente; Elings, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    We explore the role of farm animals in providing care to different types of participants at care farms (e.g., youngsters with behavioural problems, people with severe mental problems and people with dementia). Care farms provide alternative and promising settings where people can interact with

  15. A survey of Chinese citizens' perceptions on farm animal welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin You

    Full Text Available Farm animal welfare has been gradually recognized as an important issue in most parts of the world. In China, domestic animals were traditionally raised in backyard and treated as an important component of family wealth. Industrialization of animal production brings forth the farm animal welfare concerns recently in China, yet the modern concept of animal welfare has not been publicized and a comprehensive recognition on how consumers and farmers perceive animal welfare is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a survey on public opinions toward farm animal welfare in China, based on pigs (including sows, piglets, and fattening pigs, domestic fowls (including layers and broilers and their products. From 6,006 effective questionnaires approximately two thirds of the respondents had never heard of 'animal welfare'; 72.9% of the respondents claimed that, for the sake of animal derived food safety, human beings should improve the rearing conditions for pigs and domestic fowls; 65.8% of the respondents totally or partly agreed on establishing laws to improve animal welfare; more than half of the respondents were willing, or to some extent willing, to pay more for high-welfare animal products, whereas 45.5% of the respondents were not willing or reluctant to pay more. In summary, farm animal welfare is still in its early stage of development and more efforts are needed to improve the public conception to animal welfare in the process of establishing farm animal welfare standards and legislations in China.

  16. A Survey of Chinese Citizens’ Perceptions on Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xiaolin; Li, Yibo; Zhang, Min; Yan, Huoqi; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-01-01

    Farm animal welfare has been gradually recognized as an important issue in most parts of the world. In China, domestic animals were traditionally raised in backyard and treated as an important component of family wealth. Industrialization of animal production brings forth the farm animal welfare concerns recently in China, yet the modern concept of animal welfare has not been publicized and a comprehensive recognition on how consumers and farmers perceive animal welfare is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a survey on public opinions toward farm animal welfare in China, based on pigs (including sows, piglets, and fattening pigs), domestic fowls (including layers and broilers) and their products. From 6,006 effective questionnaires approximately two thirds of the respondents had never heard of ‘animal welfare’; 72.9% of the respondents claimed that, for the sake of animal derived food safety, human beings should improve the rearing conditions for pigs and domestic fowls; 65.8% of the respondents totally or partly agreed on establishing laws to improve animal welfare; more than half of the respondents were willing, or to some extent willing, to pay more for high-welfare animal products, whereas 45.5% of the respondents were not willing or reluctant to pay more. In summary, farm animal welfare is still in its early stage of development and more efforts are needed to improve the public conception to animal welfare in the process of establishing farm animal welfare standards and legislations in China. PMID:25314159

  17. A survey of Chinese citizens' perceptions on farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xiaolin; Li, Yibo; Zhang, Min; Yan, Huoqi; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-01-01

    Farm animal welfare has been gradually recognized as an important issue in most parts of the world. In China, domestic animals were traditionally raised in backyard and treated as an important component of family wealth. Industrialization of animal production brings forth the farm animal welfare concerns recently in China, yet the modern concept of animal welfare has not been publicized and a comprehensive recognition on how consumers and farmers perceive animal welfare is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a survey on public opinions toward farm animal welfare in China, based on pigs (including sows, piglets, and fattening pigs), domestic fowls (including layers and broilers) and their products. From 6,006 effective questionnaires approximately two thirds of the respondents had never heard of 'animal welfare'; 72.9% of the respondents claimed that, for the sake of animal derived food safety, human beings should improve the rearing conditions for pigs and domestic fowls; 65.8% of the respondents totally or partly agreed on establishing laws to improve animal welfare; more than half of the respondents were willing, or to some extent willing, to pay more for high-welfare animal products, whereas 45.5% of the respondents were not willing or reluctant to pay more. In summary, farm animal welfare is still in its early stage of development and more efforts are needed to improve the public conception to animal welfare in the process of establishing farm animal welfare standards and legislations in China.

  18. Transgenic farm animals: applications in agriculture and biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Tian, X C; Dai, Y; Wang, B

    2000-01-01

    During the last decade, tremendous progress has been made in the area of transgenic farm animals. While there are many important transgenic farm animal applications in agriculture, funding has been very limited and progress has been rather slow in this area. Encouragingly, the potential applications of transgenic farm animals as bioreactors for producing human therapeutic proteins and as organ donors for transplantations in humans have attracted vast funding from the private sectors. Several transgenic animal products are already in various phases of clinical trials. Estimates are, that in the near future, the worlds demands on human pharmaceutical proteins may largely be met by transgenic farm animals. While there are still major challenges ahead in the area of xenotransplantation using transgenic animal organs, transgenic tissues or cells have demonstrated promising results as a potential tool for gene therapy. Recent development on cloning, embryonic stem cells and alternative transgenic methods may further expand the transgenic applications in both agriculture and biomedicine.

  19. Environmental endocrine disruptors in farm animal reproduction: research and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, U

    2012-08-01

    In this review, possible comparative advantages of studying endocrine disruption in farm animals vs laboratory rodents are discussed. First, using farm animals, the generality of findings in laboratory rodents are challenged. Farm animals may in certain aspects be better models for humans than laboratory rodents, and sometimes there might be methodological advantages in using farm animals. Second, there are several in vitro studies based on cell-culture systems from sows and cows where the effects of chemicals on sex steroid secretion can be measured and maturation and fertilization of oocytes may be assessed. These in vitro systems are powerful tools for dissecting the mechanisms of action for endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Third, in a set of recent in vivo studies using sheep, goats and pigs, in which very different exposure regimens to endocrine-disrupting chemicals have been used, a full panel of reproductive parameters pertinent to farm animals were assessed. Clinically, it is suggested that endocrine disruption in farm animals should be considered when impaired reproduction could be linked to change in source of feed or pasture. Finally, epigenetic and toxicogenomic approaches can be particularly rewarding in elucidating endocrine disruption in future farm animal studies.

  20. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies' Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rory; Amos, Nicky; van de Weerd, Heleen A

    2017-03-06

    The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company's commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012) and 70 (2013) of the world's largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test). However, only 34% (2012) and 44% (2013) of companies published comprehensive animal welfare policies. This increase suggests that global food companies are increasingly aware that farm animal welfare is of interest to their stakeholders, but also that many companies have yet to acknowledge farm animal welfare as a business issue or to demonstrate their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society.

  1. Farm animal welfare across borders: A vision for the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Zhao, Ruquian

    2012-01-01

    . Different production methods and use of indigenous breeds also infl uence the nature of the animal welfare measures that can be applied. Cultural differences in the treatment of animals may require changes to existing farm animal welfare protocols before they can be implemented. Also, the lack of control...

  2. Celebrating Harvest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    In rural customs, recreational activities are Festival when northern farmers are thankful for Celebrating Harvest depicts a traditional act northwestern Shaanxi Province living on the L(?) is an animated painting with strong local flavor

  3. Discovery based and targeted Mass Spectrometry in farm animal proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Emøke

    2013-01-01

    in the bovine mammary gland, and the monitoring meat and milk quality markers. Also work related to collecting farm animal proteome information within the PeptideAtlas frame (www.peptideatlas.org) will be discussed. The PeptideAtlas database currently includes data from shotgun proteomics experiments from...... tissues and body fluids from pig, cow and horse, and currently provides the primary public resource for designing SRM methods for farm animal applications...

  4. Farm animal welfare: the five freedoms and the free market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A J

    2001-05-01

    This review addresses the scientific, ethical and economic factors that impact on the welfare of farm animals. Respect for animals within the food chain is considered within the context of an ethical matrix that affords respect according to the principles of wellbeing, autonomy and justice to consumers, farm animals, farmers and the living environment. The welfare of a farm animal depends on its ability to sustain fitness and avoid suffering. The responsibility of the farmer is to make provision for good welfare through good husbandry; he cannot ensure good welfare. Improvements to farm animal welfare can only come about within the context of the forces that drive the free market. In essence, consumers need to afford a greater extrinsic value to farm animals. The costs to farmers of legislation to impose higher animal welfare standards are substantial but the cost to consumers can be very small. The responsibility is therefore on the consumer to convert an expressed desire for higher welfare standards into an effective demand. A promising route to encourage and fulfil this demand is through welfare-based quality assurance schemes with quality control ensured by independent audit. At present, audit protocols are based largely on identification of the elements of good husbandry. Ultimately we need a further independent audit to ensure that the outcome of these perceived elements of good husbandry is, in fact, good animal welfare.

  5. Animal Health and Welfare Planning in Organic Dairy Cattle Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Winckler, Christoph; Roderick, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant...... for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is based on preliminary analyses carried out within a European project (acronym ANIPLAN) with participants from...... seven countries. The process begins with gathering knowledge about the current status within a given herd as background for making decisions and planning future improvements as well as evaluating already implemented improvements. Respectful communication between the owner of the herd and other farmers...

  6. Cellular reprogramming in farm animals: an overview of iPSC generation in the mammalian farm animal species

    OpenAIRE

    Ogorevc, J.; Orehek, S.; Dovč, P.

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines has been successful in mouse and human, but not in farm animals. Development of direct reprogramming technology offers an alternative approach for generation of pluripotent stem cells, applicable also in farm animals. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent practically limitless, ethically acceptable, individuum-specific source of pluripotent cells that can be generated from different types of somatic cells. iPSCs can differentiate to ...

  7. Environmental enrichment in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with environmental enrichment for domestic animals at farms, animals in zoos, experimental animals and pet animals. Also, the paper defines and describes different strategies of environmental enrichment. Environmental enrichment is a simple and effective mean of prevention of boredom, behavioral disorders as well as an effective mean of improving animal welfare in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals. Different items and materials may be used for environmental enrichment. They need to be evaluated for use by taking into account the following: the species of an animal, its needs, habits and capabilities, the type of an enrichment device, the device's ability to stimulate the animal's interest and the safety of the device. Enrichment programmes should always include two forms of enrichment: behavioral enrichment and environmental enrichment. Enrichment comes in many forms such as structural or physical enrichment, sensory enrichment (auditory and olfactory stimulation, dietary enrichment, manipulatable enrichment and social enrichment.

  8. Proteomics in farm animals models of human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceciliani, Fabrizio; Restelli, Laura; Lecchi, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    The need to provide in vivo complex environments to understand human diseases strongly relies on the use of animal models, which traditionally include small rodents and rabbits. It is becoming increasingly evident that the few species utilised to date cannot be regarded as universal. There is a great need for new animal species that are naturally endowed with specific features relevant to human diseases. Farm animals, including pigs, cows, sheep and horses, represent a valid alternative to commonly utilised rodent models. There is an ample scope for the application of proteomic techniques in farm animals, and the establishment of several proteomic maps of plasma and tissue has clearly demonstrated that farm animals provide a disease environment that closely resembles that of human diseases. The present review offers a snapshot of how proteomic techniques have been applied to farm animals to improve their use as biomedical models. Focus will be on specific topics of biomedical research in which farm animal models have been characterised through the application of proteomic techniques.

  9. The role of renewable energy on animal farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csatári, Nándor; Vántus, András

    2015-04-01

    The recent measures in the European Union promote the usage of renewable energies and enhancing the energy efficiency. These measures also effect agriculture, on the one hand by using biofuels mixed into fuel for machinery. Besides biofuels animal farms have opportunities in using renewable energy in several other ways. There are sectors in animal farming, where the energy demand is continuously high in electricity (e.g. forage grinders, mixers, milk coolers, air ventilation systems) or in heating (e.g. stables for poultry or piglets). Beside the energy demand in agricultural sector there are several products and side products suitable for energy production. For example different kinds of organic manures and corn silage could be raw materials for biogas production; plant residues like cereal straw and corn stalk bales could be combusted in boilers. Furthermore solar cells or solar collectors can be mounted on the big roof surfaces of animal farm buildings. Among animal farming sectors, dairy farming in the most energy intensive, and uses the widest variety of energy forms. It is often mentioned as the "heavy industry" of animal farming. In this research 14 dairy farms were examined in Hajdú-Bihar County in the topic of energy demand, renewable energy usage. The questioned farms covers 35% of the dairy cow population in Hajdú-Bihar County. The questions covered the general attributes of the farms and the details of the (existing or planned) renewable energy application. In terms of economic analysis saving, the investment return time and the employment effect was examined. The results show wide variety of applied renewable energy application. Fifty percent of farms uses at least one kind of renewable energy. Two biogas plants, 6 boilers for solid biomass, 2 solar cells. Regarding employment effect biogas plants created some full time workplaces, biomass boilers also needs some work hours to maintain, but none of the farms applied more labour. Besides renewable

  10. The globalisation of farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D

    2014-04-01

    Animal welfare has achieved significant global prominence for perhaps three reasons. First, several centuries of scientific research, especially in anatomy, evolutionary biology and animal behaviour, have led to a gradual narrowing of the gap that people perceive between humans and other species; this altered perception has prompted grass-roots attention to animals and their welfare, initially in Western countries but now more globally asthe influence of science has expanded. Second, scientific research on animal welfare has provided insights and methods for improving the handling, housing and management of animals; this 'animal welfare science' is increasingly seen as relevant to improving animal husbandry worldwide. Third, the development and use of explicit animal welfare standards has helped to integrate animal welfare as a component of national and international public policy, commerce and trade. To date, social debate about animal welfare has been dominated bythe industrialised nations. However, as the issue becomes increasingly global, it will be important for the non-industrialised countries to develop locally appropriate approaches to improving animal welfare, for example, by facilitating the provision of shelter, food, water and health care, and by improving basic handling, transportation and slaughter.

  11. Animal welfare decisions in Dutch poultry and pig farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The minimum level of animal welfare (AW) is guaranteed by EU and national legislation in most European countries. Within the current international economic and political environment further improvements in the welfare of farm animals predominantly rely on market initiative

  12. Economic Decisions in Farm Animal Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    Animal health economics deals with quantifying the economic effects of animal disease, decision support tools in animal health management and further analysis of the management's impact at animal, herd or national level. Scientists from The Netherlands, France and Sweden have since 1988 organised...... informal workshops to exchange their knowledge and expertise in this field of science. This report contains the summary of the presentations given by 12 PhD students and 2 senior scientists of the Animal Health Economics workshops which was held on the 9th and 10th of November, 2006 at the Research Centre...... Foulum in Denmark. Different disciplines and approaches within Animal Health Economics are dealt with by the different scientists and the report contains a variety of novel results and projects. The resulting discussion is summarized in the report....

  13. Telos and the Ethics of Animal Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning

    2012-01-01

    analysis of animals based upon this Aristotelian idea (Rollin in Animal rights and human morality (1st ed. 1981). Prometheus Books, New York, 2006b). Telos is here employed to illustrate the dimensions of what matters in welfare assessment and ethical evaluation. The second half of the article addresses...

  14. Animal based parameters are no panacea for on-farm monitoring of animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    On-farm monitoring of animal welfare is an important, present-day objective in animal welfare science. Scientists tend to focus exclusively on animal-based parameters, possibly because using environment-based parameters could be begging the question why welfare has been affected and because animal-b

  15. Adaptive thermal traits in farm animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Syllas Monteiro Luz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract O bem-estar animal é afetado por fatores climáticos que causam influências sobre o conforto térmico, portanto, o objetivo desta revisão da literatura foi avaliar a influência de fatores ambientais sobre as variáveis fisiológicas de animais interessantes zootécnicos. O rendimento é limitado ao stress do animal como resposta ao ambiente onde ele é submetido. A adaptação do animal está ligada à sua condição fisiológica relacionada com a sua zona de sobrevivência, tais como: neutralidade térmica (conforto, zona de hipotermia (estresse pelo frio e zona de hipertermia (estresse por calor. Variáveis fisiológicas: freqüência respiratória (FR; taxa de sudorese (SR; temperatura rectal (RT; freqüência cardíaca (FC. As variáveis ambientais: temperatura do ar (AT, umidade relativa do ar (AH, de bulbo úmido do índice temperatura do globo (WBGTI e carga térmica radiante (RTC. As variáveis meteorológicas influenciaram na termorregulação dos animais, afetando seu conforto térmico e diminuindo seu bem-estar. A adaptação das condições que são oferecidas pelo clima da região é um dos fatores responsáveis pelo potencial produtivo do animal.

  16. Science and Technology of Farm Animal Transgenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hajian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, many approaches for transferring genes into the genome ofdomestic animals have been devised. The main purposes of transgenesis are: to increaseanimal capabilities, to knock down or silence both onco-genes and deleterious genes, and toproduce a pharmaceutical protein. Transgenesis techniques include pronuclear microinjection(PNM, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, viral infection (VI and sperm-mediatedgene transfer (SMGT. The first transgenic mouse was produced by using the PNM techniqueand transgenic animals from other species (rabbit, sheep, pig and cattle have beenproduced thereafter. However, the PMN technique had certain drawbacks: low efficiency,random integration site of the transgene and a high mosaic rate. For this reason, other alternativetechniques have been devised to overcome its drawbacks. The most reliable methodfor transgenesis which bypasses mosaics is SCNT. However, this method is complicated andtedious; with multiple stages that need setting up. VI has been used to transfer genes into theoocytes and zygotes with high efficiency and versatility. In spite of its simplicity, the maximumtransgene length should be less than 8.5 kb. Currently, spermatozoa are considered as analternative method of carrying transgenes into the oocytes with minimum technical demands.In contrast to VI, SMGT is being used successfully to transfer different kinds of BACs withmore than 200 kbp into mouse oocytes. The present review summarizes the methods bywhich transgenes can be introduced into zygotes of domestic animals.

  17. "The Giver" as a Bridge to "Animal Farm": Controlling Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbetson, Kirsten

    Both the adolescent novel "The Giver" (Lois Lowry) and the classic work "Animal Farm" (George Orwell) deal with the idea of a controlling society. "The Giver" gives the reader an understanding of what it is like to live in a society where every move and every decision is basically made for you, but the people living…

  18. Cellular reprogramming in farm animals: an overview of iPSC generation in the mammalian farm animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorevc, J; Orehek, S; Dovč, P

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines has been successful in mouse and human, but not in farm animals. Development of direct reprogramming technology offers an alternative approach for generation of pluripotent stem cells, applicable also in farm animals. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent practically limitless, ethically acceptable, individuum-specific source of pluripotent cells that can be generated from different types of somatic cells. iPSCs can differentiate to all cell types of an organism's body and have a tremendous potential for numerous applications in medicine, agriculture, and biotechnology. However, molecular mechanisms behind the reprogramming process remain largely unknown and hamper generation of bona fide iPSCs and their use in human clinical practice. Large animal models are essential to expand the knowledge obtained on rodents and facilitate development and validation of transplantation therapies in preclinical studies. Additionally, transgenic animals with special traits could be generated from genetically modified pluripotent cells, using advanced reproduction techniques. Despite their applicative potential, it seems that iPSCs in farm animals haven't received the deserved attention. The aim of this review was to provide a systematic overview on iPSC generation in the most important mammalian farm animal species (cattle, pig, horse, sheep, goat, and rabbit), compare protein sequence similarity of pluripotency-related transcription factors in different species, and discuss potential uses of farm animal iPSCs. Literature mining revealed 32 studies, describing iPSC generation in pig (13 studies), cattle (5), horse (5), sheep (4), goat (3), and rabbit (2) that are summarized in a concise, tabular format.

  19. Genetics of ovulation rate in farm animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rate of ovulation (i.e. fecundity is largely influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The ovarian growth factorsincluding members of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs play a central role in determining ovulation quota and litter size.Naturally occurring mutation in sheep and knock-out and knock–down studies in murine indicated the importance of bonemorphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 and bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B(BMPR1B genes in mammals. These factors have major regulatory roles during the gonadotrophin-independent and -dependent stages of follicle development. Understanding of BMPs in reproduction assists in the treatment of infertility/sterility in animals.

  20. Farm animal welfare research in interaction with society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhuis, H J; Ekkel, E D; Korte, S M; Hopster, H; van Reenen, C G

    2000-10-01

    Over the last 30 years concern about farm animal welfare has increased and has become a public issue in the Netherlands. Public discussion has stimulated research in this field, financed by both government and industry. Dutch society in general and consumers of animal products in particular, want to see high standards of welfare for production animals. Good animal welfare has gradually gained more impact in the total quality concept of the product. This will encourage scientists to continue to analyse the welfare status of animals and to come up with innovative solutions for the remaining problems. At ID-Lelystad much effort is put into farm animal welfare research. This research includes for example, the development of behavioural tests for quantifying and interpreting fear in cattle, investigations into the effects of dietary iron supply and a lack of roughage on behaviour, immunology, stress physiology, and pathology in veal calves, studies of the ontogeny of tail biting in finishing pigs and feather pecking in laying hens as well as evaluation of the welfare effects of automatic milking in dairy cows. The results of these projects contribute to concrete improvements in animal husbandry and expertise and support policy making and legislation. The animal industry as well as retailers should aim at the further implementation of this knowledge and to specify welfare standards to guarantee consumer acceptance of animal production.

  1. The interaction of ethical questions and farm animal welfare science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Forkman, Björn; Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2012-01-01

    to exercise caution here? Should we assume, unless and until we are shown to be mistaken, that unborn animals may well be conscious, and protect them accordingly? Following the presentation of these ethical issues it will be argued that if we are to maintain the objectivity of welfare science, animal welfare......In the early days of farm animal welfare science it was often claimed that a sharp distinction should be drawn between, on one hand, the science-based study of animal welfare and, on the other hand, ethical investigation of what is right, and what is wrong, in our dealings with animals. However......, following debates starting in the early 1990s, it is now widely recognised that scientific assessments of animal welfare simply cannot avoid making ethical assumptions. Using simple but realistic examples, the presentation will explain how ethical assumptions inform the study and assessment of animal...

  2. Risk and profitability of animal and crop production in Slovak farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tóth

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on profitability and risk of crop and animal production based on an analysis of farms operating in Slovak Republic. The individual farm data used for the analysis are from the database of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Slovak Republic. For our analysis, data were selected according to the farm production orientation to the subset of crop farms and animal farms. The selecting criterion for production orientation was the percentage share of revenues from crop production, or revenues from animal production from the overall revenues from own products and services. We analyse profitability of farms divided into groups based on the type of production into crop and animal farms (according to the share in sales from crop or animal production. Using descriptive statistics and portfolio theory we simulate the total farm profitability and volatility of animal and crop production in Slovakia. The modified Markowitz portfolio theory approach was used to estimate the total risk of portfolios of crop and animal farms. Based on the results we conclude that in the long run crop farms are profitable and profit from crop production is used to cover the losses from animal production in mixed farms. Farms focused on animal production only are efficient and profitable, but the profitability is lower in comparison with crop farms. Animal farms results are less volatile than crop farms. Large farms tend to production with lower value added and can generate enough profit for the owner.

  3. Animal Health and Welfare Planning in Organic Dairy Cattle Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Winckler, Christoph; Roderick, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is based on preliminary analyses carried out within a European project (acronym ANIPLAN) with participants from...... seven countries. The process begins with gathering knowledge about the current status within a given herd as background for making decisions and planning future improvements as well as evaluating already implemented improvements. Respectful communication between the owner of the herd and other farmers...... countries, in collaboration with groups of organic farmers and organisations....

  4. The interaction of ethical questions and farm animal welfare science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Forkman, Björn; Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2012-01-01

    In the early days of farm animal welfare science it was often claimed that a sharp distinction should be drawn between, on one hand, the science-based study of animal welfare and, on the other hand, ethical investigation of what is right, and what is wrong, in our dealings with animals. However......, following debates starting in the early 1990s, it is now widely recognised that scientific assessments of animal welfare simply cannot avoid making ethical assumptions. Using simple but realistic examples, the presentation will explain how ethical assumptions inform the study and assessment of animal......, the indicators selected as measures of animal welfare may introduce biases which are relevant from an ethical perspective. Thus, indicators connected with pathologies and other states which are signs of pain and other types of physical suffering will inevitably favour production systems which are safe but barren...

  5. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    .  Further, there is little knowledge about the plant nutrient value of animal manure, and about technologies for environmentally-friendly manure management. This lack of knowledge enhances the risk of polluting the environment by inappropriate use of livestock manure and is also a potential risk......  The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production...... for transferring pathogens between livestock and from livestock to humans (zoonoses). The objective of this article is to describe manure management at livestock farms in Vietnam. The focus is on presenting the most typical farming concepts, manure management on these farms, environmental and hygienic risks...

  6. Hazard identification and characterization of welfare aspects during transport of farm animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.G.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Leenstra, F.R.; Lambooij, E.

    2008-01-01

    Within the EU, free movement of animals from one Member State to another and more uniformity among production animals and production systems has resulted in more long distance transport from farm to farm or from farm to slaughterhouse. Since there is a lot of discussion about transport of farm anima

  7. [Cognitive enrichment in zoo and farm animals--implications for animal behaviour and welfare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Susann; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Animals in the wild are facing a wide variety of challenges and ever-changing environmental stimuli. For successful coping, animals use both innate behavioural programs and their cognitive skills. In contrast, zoo- and farm animals have to cope with restricted husbandry conditions, which offer only few opportunities to adequately satisfy their various needs. Consequences could be sensory and cognitive underchallenge that can cause boredom and frustration as well as behavioural disturbances. Initially intended for improvement of management and husbandry, different forms of operant behavioural training have been applied firstly in zoo- and later also in farm animals. It has been suggested that successful coping with appropriate cognitive challenges is a source of positive emotions and may lead to improved welfare. Under the term cognitive enrichment, new approaches have been developed to integrate cognitive challenges into the housing of zoo- and farm animals. The present article reviews actual research in the field. Previous results indicate that, beyond improvement of management and handling routines, such approaches can positively affect animal behaviour and welfare. The combination of explorative and appetitive behaviour with successful learning improves environmental predictability and controllability for the animals, activates reward-related brain systems and can directly affect emotional processes of appraisal. For practical implementation in farm animal husbandry, it sounds promising to link individual access to e.g. automated feeders or milking systems with previously conditioned stimuli and/or discriminatory learning tasks. First experimental approaches in pigs, dwarf goats and cattle are available and will be discussed in the present article.

  8. Animal-assisted therapy with farm animals for persons with psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Berget

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal-assisted therapy (AAT with farm animals for humans with psychiatric disorders may reduce depression and state anxiety, and increase self-efficacy, in many participants. Social support by the farmer appears to be important. Positive effects are best documented for persons with affective disorders or clinical depression. Effects may sometimes take a long time to be detectable, but may occur earlier if the participants are encouraged to perform more complex working skills. Progress must however be individually adapted allowing for flexibility, also between days. Therapists involved with mental health show a pronounced belief in the effects of AAT with farm animals, variation being related to type of disorder, therapist's sex and his/her experience with AAT. Research is still scarce and further research is required to optimize and individually adapt the design of farm animal-assisted interventions.

  9. Animal-assisted therapy with farm animals for persons with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berget, Bente; Braastad, Bjarne O

    2011-01-01

    Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) with farm animals for humans with psychiatric disorders may reduce depression and state anxiety, and increase self-efficacy, in many participants. Social support by the farmer appears to be important. Positive effects are best documented for persons with affective disorders or clinical depression. Effects may sometimes take a long time to be detectable, but may occur earlier if the participants are encouraged to perform more complex working skills. Progress must however be individually adapted allowing for flexibility, also between days. Therapists involved with mental health show a pronounced belief in the effects of AAT with farm animals, variation being related to type of disorder, therapist's sex and his/her experience with AAT. Research is still scarce and further research is required to optimize and individually adapt the design of farm animal-assisted interventions.

  10. The science and technology of farm animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vajta, Gábor

    the same method, but using the nuclei of somatic cells from an adult mammal, to create Dolly the sheep. It has become theoretically possible to produce an unlimited number of genetic replicates from an adult animal or a post-implantation foetus. Since 1997 a number of different species including pigs......, goats, horses, cats, etc. have been cloned with the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique. Although the technology still has relatively low success rates and there seems to be substantial problems with the welfare of some of the cloned animals, cloning is used both within basic research...... include the production of genetically identical animals for research purposes, and also the creation of genetically modified animals. In the agricultural sector, cloning can be used as a tool within farm animal breeding. We do not intend to give an exhaustive review of the all the literature available...

  11. Animal Welfare in Relation to Standards in Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammarberg Karl-Erik

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The new EU-regulations on organic farming (1804/1999 are also influencing the animal welfare. A lot of positive regulations is to find, but also regulations that seen to mind more about the general public and customer and their view on organic farming, than the health and welfare of the animals. The paper specially focus on the impact of the regulations and the recommendations that phytotherapeutic essences and homeopathic products take precedence over the so called chemically-synthesised allopatic veterinary medical products, and that the use of the same is prohibited for preventive treatments. Key questions here are the lack of scientific evidence concerning homeopathy in animals, and that Swedish veterinarians are not allowed to work with homeopathy. Differences in interpretation of the regulations between animal owners and veterinarians will also be discussed. What is a disease that needs treatment? Who is to decide about the treatment? Parasitic infections are discussed as an illustrative example. Other consequences of the regulations concerning the animal welfare are problems in certain geographical zones, for instance subarctic areas where necessary crops are impossible to grow. Animal transports and splitting mother-offspring are briefly discussed as future problems to be handled in the regulations, and the paper ends by presenting the need of regulated herd health control programs in organic husbandry, which can detect and focus on welfare and production problems. The organic movement is not static, and must not be so.

  12. Mapping farm animal welfare research in an enlarged Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene K.; Košťál, Ľubor; Bilčík, Boris

    2017-01-01

    assessment systems on-farm. The aim of this study was mapping activities for FAW science and investigating geographical differences in FAW research in Europe (EU28 + candidate countries and the European Economic Area) with regard to available resources (e.g. human resources, infrastructure, funding......, participation in EU-funded projects related to FAW and number of publications. Respondents were allocated to 4 Western and 4 Eastern geographical clusters of countries (‘hubs’). There were a larger number of researchers, students and technical staff per laboratory in Western compared to Eastern hubs......Against the background of divergent political developments across Europe, farm animal welfare (FAW) science has evolved during the last three decades as an inter-disciplinary research area. Recent achievements include pan-European research projects and the implementation of animal welfare...

  13. Probiotics and minerals availability in organic animal farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞARA A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The human and animal health represents one of the most important challenges in EU countries andacceding countries. The alternative solutions adopted in order to improve animal health within organic farming(the use of organic mineral and probiotic supplements are the main issue of this paper. A review of the role ofthe selenium and yeast based probiotics (Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in organic livestock feeding ispresented. The benefits of using organic selenium compared to inorganic forms of selenium in livestock feedingwithin organic farming conditions are emphasized. The synergy between organic selenium and vitamin E inlivestock is also reviewed. A short history of the probiotics and a brief definition of these products is presentedin the second section of this paper. Some of the results of the research performed by authors in this field arepresented.

  14. Exogenous enzymes upgrade transgenesis and genetic engineering of farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Pablo; Forcato, Diego O; Alustiza, Fabrisio E; Alessio, Ana P; Fili, Alejandro E; Olmos Nicotra, María F; Liaudat, Ana C; Rodríguez, Nancy; Talluri, Thirumala R; Kues, Wilfried A

    2015-05-01

    Transgenic farm animals are attractive alternative mammalian models to rodents for the study of developmental, genetic, reproductive and disease-related biological questions, as well for the production of recombinant proteins, or the assessment of xenotransplants for human patients. Until recently, the ability to generate transgenic farm animals relied on methods of passive transgenesis. In recent years, significant improvements have been made to introduce and apply active techniques of transgenesis and genetic engineering in these species. These new approaches dramatically enhance the ease and speed with which livestock species can be genetically modified, and allow to performing precise genetic modifications. This paper provides a synopsis of enzyme-mediated genetic engineering in livestock species covering the early attempts employing naturally occurring DNA-modifying proteins to recent approaches working with tailored enzymatic systems.

  15. Assessing attitudes toward farm animal welfare: a national survey of animal science faculty members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleski, C R; Mertig, A G; Zanella, A J

    2004-09-01

    A survey to measure attitudes toward farm animal welfare was developed. We targeted animal science faculty because of their influence on animal production in the United States. We initially interviewed 34 faculty members from a large Midwestern public university to assist with questionnaire development. After our written survey was developed, we pilot-tested our questionnaire at this same university. Thereafter, we sent an e-mail advance notice, first survey, and follow-up survey/thank-you to the national population of animal science faculty members. With an n = 446 (response rate = 45%), we observed the following: 51% (for layer birds), 58% (for meat birds), 66% (for swine), 84% (for dairy), 86% (for sheep), and 87% (for beef) of our respondents agreed that the predominant methods used to produce various types of animal products provided appropriate levels of animal welfare. Our findings showed that greater than 90% of respondents support general principles of animal welfare, such as keeping animals free from unnecessary fear and distress. However, specific practices that have been shown to elicit distress (e.g., castration without anesthetic) were deemed a concern by only 32% of the respondents. Various industry practices/outcomes were assessed for level of concern and varied from a high of 83% of respondents agreeing that flooring effects on lameness in intensively farmed animals are a concern, to a low of 16% agreeing that early weaning in pigs is a concern. Summed attitude scores showed significant relationships with the demographic variables of gender (P farm animal welfare issues. Gaining an awareness of various stakeholders' attitudes (e.g., animal scientists, veterinarians, producers, and consumers) toward farm animal welfare will assist animal welfare scientists in knowing which research topics to emphasize and, perhaps, where critical gaps in accessibility of knowledge exist.

  16. Animal behavior and well-being symposium: Farm animal welfare assurance: science and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushen, J; Butterworth, A; Swanson, J C

    2011-04-01

    Public and consumer pressure for assurances that farm animals are raised humanely has led to a range of private and public animal welfare standards, and for methods to assess compliance with these standards. The standards usually claim to be science based, but even though researchers have developed measures of animal welfare and have tested the effects of housing and management variables on welfare within controlled laboratory settings, there are challenges in extending this research to develop on-site animal welfare standards. The standards need to be validated against a definition of welfare that has broad support and which is amenable to scientific investigation. Ensuring that such standards acknowledge scientific uncertainty is also challenging, and balanced input from all scientific disciplines dealing with animal welfare is needed. Agencies providing animal welfare audit services need to integrate these scientific standards and legal requirements into successful programs that effectively measure and objectively report compliance. On-farm assessment of animal welfare requires a combination of animal-based measures to assess the actual state of welfare and resource-based measures to identify risk factors. We illustrate this by referring to a method of assessing welfare in broiler flocks. Compliance with animal welfare standards requires buy-in from all stakeholders, and this will be best achieved by a process of inclusion in the development of pragmatic assessment methods and the development of audit programs verifying the conditions and continuous improvement of farm animal welfare.

  17. George Orwell's Animal Farm: A metonym for a dictatorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sewlall

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available George Orwell’s Animal Farm is traditionally read as a satire on dictatorships in general, and the Bolshevik Revolution in particular. This article postulates the notion that the schema of the book has attained the force of metonymy to such an extent that whenever one alludes to the title of the book or some lines from it, one conjures up images associated with a dictatorship. The title of the book has become a part of the conceptual political lexicon of the English language to refer to the corruption of a utopian ideology. As an ideological state, Animal Farm has its vision, which is embedded in its constitution; it has the vote, a national anthem and a flag. It even has its patriots, double-dealers, social engineers and lechers. In this way the title Animal Farm, like Joseph Heller’s Catch-22, or Thomas More’s Utopia, functions metonymically to map a conceptual framework which matches the coordinates of the book. The article concludes with a look at contemporary society to show how Orwell’s satire endorses the words of Lord Acton, namely, that power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely.

  18. Is experience on a farm an effective approach to understanding animal products and the management of dairy farming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Mariko; Osada, Masahiro; Ishioka, Katsumi; Matsubara, Takako; Momota, Yutaka; Yumoto, Norio; Sako, Toshinori; Kamiya, Shinji; Yoshimura, Itaru

    2014-03-01

    The understanding of animal products and dairy farming is important for the promotion of dairy farming. Thus, to examine the effects of farm experience on the understanding of animal products and the management of dairy farming, the interaction between students and dairy cows was investigated in groups of first-year veterinary nursing students in 2011 and 2012 (n = 201). These students included 181 women and 20 men. Nine items about dairy cows were presented in a questionnaire. The survey was performed before and after praxis on the educational farm attached to the authors' university. After praxis on the farm, increases occurred in the number of positive responses to the items involving the price of milk, dairy farming and the taste of milk. For these items, a significant difference (P products and dairy farming.

  19. Transgenesis may affect farm animal welfare: a case for systematic risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.; Hopster, H.; Oldenbroek, K.; Kruip, T.A.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers (potentially) harmful consequences of transgenesis for farm animal welfare and examines the strategy of studying health and welfare of transgenic farm animals. Evidence is discussed showing that treatments imposed in the context of farm animal transgenesis are by no means

  20. Transgenesis may affect farm animal welfare: a case for systematic risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.; Hopster, H.; Oldenbroek, K.; Kruip, T.A.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers (potentially) harmful consequences of transgenesis for farm animal welfare and examines the strategy of studying health and welfare of transgenic farm animals. Evidence is discussed showing that treatments imposed in the context of farm animal transgenesis are by no means biolog

  1. Welfare benefits to farm animals from their use in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Ian G

    2004-06-01

    Domestication is the purposeful selection and modification of livestock to suit the human-made production environments. While the application of modern breeding theory has accelerated genetic change, traditional practices also modify the genetic makeup of livestock. Threats to the welfare of farm animals can arise from husbandry practices, attributes of the production environment and failure to match the genotype to the production environment. The selection of sheep for resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes, the yard weaning of calves and the selection of cattle with docile temperament (e.g. slow flight time) are described as methods for improving welfare outcomes for grazing sheep and feedlot cattle, respectively. Contemporary production breeds exist as global populations. The move to the life-long individual identification of animals improves the power of breeding and management programmes that satisfy the criteria of scientific experimentation in their manner of implementation. In contrast to the use of farm animals, prejudice exists against comparable uses of more-recent domesticates (e.g. laboratory rodents). The growing global demand for livestock products suggests that Russell & Burch's Three Rs no longer provide a valid framework for deliberation on ethics of domestic animal use. A welfare outcome metric, such as that adopted by Grandin, is proposed as more robust than input quantification (reduce, replace) for appraisal of the ethics of animal use.

  2. The science and technology of farm animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vajta, Gábor

    Details of the first mammal born after nuclear transfer cloning were published by Steen Malte Willadsen in 1986. In spite of its enormous scientific significance, this discovery failed to trigger much public concern, possibly because the donor cells were derived from pre-implantation stage embryos......, goats, horses, cats, etc. have been cloned with the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique. Although the technology still has relatively low success rates and there seems to be substantial problems with the welfare of some of the cloned animals, cloning is used both within basic research...... and the biomedical sector. The next step seems to be to implement cloning in the agricultural production system and several animals have been developed in this direction. This article reviews the current state of the art of farm animal cloning from a scientific and technological perspective, describes the animal...

  3. Epigenetics and transgenerational inheritance in domesticated farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Amanda; Nilsson, Eric; Skinner, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics provides a molecular mechanism of inheritance that is not solely dependent on DNA sequence and that can account for non-Mendelian inheritance patterns. Epigenetic changes underlie many normal developmental processes, and can lead to disease development as well. While epigenetic effects have been studied in well-characterized rodent models, less research has been done using agriculturally important domestic animal species. This review will present the results of current epigenetic research using farm animal models (cattle, pigs, sheep and chickens). Much of the work has focused on the epigenetic effects that environmental exposures to toxicants, nutrients and infectious agents has on either the exposed animals themselves or on their direct offspring. Only one porcine study examined epigenetic transgenerational effects; namely the effect diet micronutrients fed to male pigs has on liver DNA methylation and muscle mass in grand-offspring (F2 generation). Healthy viable offspring are very important in the farm and husbandry industry and epigenetic differences can be associated with production traits. Therefore further epigenetic research into domestic animal health and how exposure to toxicants or nutritional changes affects future generations is imperative.

  4. The adipose tissue in farm animals: a proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerwein, Helga; Bendixen, Emoke; Restelli, Laura; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2014-03-01

    Adipose tissue is not only a tissue where energy is stored but is also involved in regulating several body functions such as appetite and energy expenditure via its endocrine activity. Moreover, it thereby modulates complex processes like reproduction, inflammation and immune response. The products secreted from adipose tissue comprise hormones and cytokines that are collectively termed as adipocytokines or "adipokines"; the discovery and characterization of new proteins secreted by adipose tissue is still ongoing and their number is thus increasing. Adipokines act in both endocrine manner as well as locally, as autocrine or paracrine effectors. Proteomics has emerged as a valuable technique to characterize both cellular and secreted proteomes from adipose tissues, including those of main cellular fractions, i.e. the adipocytes or the stromal vascular fraction containing mainly adipocyte precursors and immune cells. The scientific interest in adipose tissue is largely based on the worldwide increasing prevalence of obesity in humans; in contrast, obesity is hardly an issue for farmed animals that are fed according to their well-defined needs. Adipose tissue is nevertheless of major importance in these animals, as the adipose percentage of the bodyweight is a major determinant for the efficiency of transferring nutrients from feed into food products and thus for the economic value from meat producing animals. In dairy animals, the importance of adipose tissue is based on its function as stromal structure for the mammary gland and on its role in participating in and regulating of energy metabolism and other functions. Moreover, as pig has recently become an important model organism to study human diseases, the knowledge of adipose tissue metabolism in pig is relevant for the study of obesity and metabolic disorders. We herein provide a general overview of adipose tissue functions and its importance in farm animals. This review will summarize recent achievements in

  5. Visiting a Farm: An Exploratory Study of the Social Construction of Animal Farming in Norway and the Netherlands based on Sensory Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, B.K.; Bock, B.B.; Oosting, S.J.; Krogh, E.

    2010-01-01

    Most citizens in modern societies have little personal knowledge or experience of animal farming. This study explores the social construction of animal farming by studying how citizens perceive and evaluate modern farming after visiting a farm in real life. We wanted to understand how (non-farming)

  6. Visiting a Farm: An Exploratory Study of the Social Construction of Animal Farming in Norway and the Netherlands based on Sensory Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, B.K.; Bock, B.B.; Oosting, S.J.; Krogh, E.

    2010-01-01

    Most citizens in modern societies have little personal knowledge or experience of animal farming. This study explores the social construction of animal farming by studying how citizens perceive and evaluate modern farming after visiting a farm in real life. We wanted to understand how (non-farming)

  7. Flea Infestation in Farm Animals and Its Health Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ebrahimzadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most fleas infest their host temporarily then pass to another of the same kind, while others move from one to a different host species. Although the comprehensive list of fleas reported from Iran, but there still exists considerable gap in our knowledge of zoonotic aspect of flea infestation. The present study was undertaken to determine correlation between domestic animals and man as host of fleas. Methods: The questionnaires on the base of flea infestation of animals flock and animal care- man were prepared and distributed to veterinary stations of all provinces. A total of 553 questionnaires sheets and 168 flea samples were collected from sixteen provinces. Results: One hundred fifty six specimens of Pulex irritans were collected from sheep, goats, cattle, chicken and human, which consisted of 92.8% of all recovered fleas. Chickens infested by three species of fleas including Pulex irritans (84.6%, Ctenocephalides canis (12.9% and Ceratophilus gallinae (2.5%. Two hundred and eighty nine cases of animal and 244 cases of human infestation were recorded among the suspicious populations, the most prevalence of infestation was found in sheep and goat herds whilst chicken flocks infested with the"nlowest rate and cattle were infested moderately. The major health problem was occurred in farmers, animal care-men and their relatives. The observations showed they had different skin reactions to flea's bites. Conclusion: The results showed that fleas are approximately a widespread parasite of farm animals and it seems that they may play an important role in occurring of zoonotic infestation in Iran. Keywords: Flea, Farm animal, Human, Iran.

  8. Visiting a Farm: An Exploratory Study of the Social Construction of Animal Farming in Norway and the Netherlands based on Sensory Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Boogaard, B.K.; Bock, B.B.; Oosting, S.J.; Krogh, E.

    2010-01-01

    Most citizens in modern societies have little personal knowledge or experience of animal farming. This study explores the social construction of animal farming by studying how citizens perceive and evaluate modern farming after visiting a farm in real life. We wanted to understand how (non-farming) citizens develop an opinion of modern dairy farming when experiencing dairy farming in real life and practice, and how they translate what they see, smell and feel into an evaluative perception and...

  9. Character Metaphors in George Orwell’s Animal Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Fajrina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Animal Farm was written by George Orwell in 1944 to criticize the Soviet Union leaders and their administration represented by animal characters. The objective of this study was to find out the resemblances between the character of Soviet Union leaders at the time the novel was written and those depicted in the novel. In analysing the objective of this study, content analysis was used. The data are the dialogues and other information in the novel concerning the metaphors of characters between the Soviet Union leaders of the 20th century and those in Animal Farm. The writer finds out that Jones metaphors Nicholas II, the last Tsar of Russian Monarchy, Old Major with his speech metaphors Karl Marx with his Communist Manifesto, Napoleon as Stalin, Snowball as Trotsky, Squealer as Pravda, the Russian Newspaper at that time, Frederick as German and Boxer as the type of gullibility proletariat. Indeed, George Orwell’s timeless work reminds us that totalitarianism could be harmful to one society.

  10. Opinions of veterinarians on antimicrobial use in farm animals in Flanders and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, M.; Speksnijder, D.C.; Jaarsma, A.D.C.; Verheij, T.J.M.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Dewulf, J.

    2016-01-01

    Veterinarians play an important role in the reduction of antimicrobial use in farm animals. This study aims to quantify opinions of veterinarians from the Netherlands and Flanders regarding antimicrobial use and resistance issues in farm animals. An online survey was sent out to 678 and 1100 farm

  11. Opinions of veterinarians on antimicrobial use in farm animals in Flanders and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, M.; Speksnijder, D. C.; Jaarsma, A. D C; Verheij, T. J M; Wagenaar, J. A.; Dewulf, J.

    2016-01-01

    Veterinarians play an important role in the reduction of antimicrobial use in farm animals. This study aims to quantify opinions of veterinarians from the Netherlands and Flanders regarding antimicrobial use and resistance issues in farm animals. An online survey was sent out to 678 and 1100 farm an

  12. Opinions of veterinarians on antimicrobial use in farm animals in Flanders and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, M.; Speksnijder, D.C.; Jaarsma, A.D.C.; Verheij, T.J.M.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Dewulf, J.

    2016-01-01

    Veterinarians play an important role in the reduction of antimicrobial use in farm animals. This study aims to quantify opinions of veterinarians from the Netherlands and Flanders regarding antimicrobial use and resistance issues in farm animals. An online survey was sent out to 678 and 1100 farm

  13. Opinions of veterinarians on antimicrobial use in farm animals in Flanders and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, D. C.; Jaarsma, A. D. C.; Verheij, T. J. M.; Wagenaar, J. A.; Dewulf, J.

    2016-01-01

    Veterinarians play an important role in the reduction of antimicrobial use in farm animals. This study aims to quantify opinions of veterinarians from the Netherlands and Flanders regarding antimicrobial use and resistance issues in farm animals. An online survey was sent out to 678 and 1100 farm an

  14. Determinants associated with veterinary antimicrobial prescribing in farm animals in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, D.C.; Jaarsma, A.D.C.; Gugten, van der A.C.; Verheij, T.J.M.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial use in farm animals might contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in humans and animals, and there is an urgent need to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. Veterinarians are typically responsible for prescribing and overseeing antimicrobial use in animals. A

  15. Determinants associated with veterinary antimicrobial prescribing in farm animals in the Netherlands : A qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, D. C.; Jaarsma, A. D C; van der Gugten, A. C.; Verheij, T. J M; Wagenaar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial use in farm animals might contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in humans and animals, and there is an urgent need to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. Veterinarians are typically responsible for prescribing and overseeing antimicrobial use in animals. A tho

  16. Determinants Associated with Veterinary Antimicrobial Prescribing in Farm Animals in the Netherlands : A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, D. C.; Jaarsma, A. D. C.; van der Gugten, A. C.; Verheij, T. J. M.; Wagenaar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial use in farm animals might contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in humans and animals, and there is an urgent need to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. Veterinarians are typically responsible for prescribing and overseeing antimicrobial use in animals. A tho

  17. Twenty years of embryonic stem cell research in farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, L A; Telugu, B P V L

    2012-08-01

    Notable distinctions between an embryonic stem cell (ESC) and somatic cell are that an ESC can maintain an undifferentiated state indefinitely, self-renew, and is pluripotent, meaning that the ESC can potentially generate cells representing all the three primordial germ layers and contribute to the terminally differentiated cells of a conceptus. These attributes make the ESC an ideal source for genome editing for both agricultural and biomedical applications. Although, ESC lines have been successfully established from rodents and primates, authentic ungulate stem cell lines on the contrary are still not available. Outstanding issues including but not limited to differences in pluripotency characteristics among the existing ESC lines, pre-implantation embryo development, pluripotency pathways, and culture conditions plague our efforts to establish authentic ESC lines from farm animals. In this review, we highlight some of these issues and discuss how the recent derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) might augur the establishment of robust authentic ESC lines from farm animals.

  18. Induced pluripotent stem cells: Mechanisms, achievementsand perspectives in farm animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dharmendra Kumar; Thirumala R Talluri; Taruna Anand; Wilfried A Kues

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells are unspecialized cells withunlimited self-renewal, and they can be triggered todifferentiate into desired specialized cell types. Thesefeatures provide the basis for an unlimited cell sourcefor innovative cell therapies. Pluripotent cells also allowto study developmental pathways, and to employ themor their differentiated cell derivatives in pharmaceuticaltesting and biotechnological applications. Via blastocystcomplementation, pluripotent cells are a favoured toolfor the generation of genetically modified mice. Therecently established technology to generate an inducedpluripotency status by ectopic co-expression of thetranscription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc allowsto extending these applications to farm animal species,for which the derivation of genuine embryonic stemcells was not successful so far. Most induced pluripotentstem (iPS) cells are generated by retroviral or lentiviraltransduction of reprogramming factors. Multiple viralintegrations into the genome may cause insertionalmutagenesis and may increase the risk of tumourformation. Non-integration methods have been reportedto overcome the safety concerns associated withretro and lentiviral-derived iPS cells, such as transientexpression of the reprogramming factors using episomalplasmids, and direct delivery of reprogrammingmRNAs or proteins. In this review, we focus on themechanisms of cellular reprogramming and currentmethods used to induce pluripotency. We also highlightproblems associated with the generation of iPS cells. Anincreased understanding of the fundamental mechanismsunderlying pluripotency and refining the methodology ofiPS cell generation will have a profound impact on futuredevelopment and application in regenerative medicineand reproductive biotechnology of farm animals.

  19. Road transport of farm animals: effects of journey duration on animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Dybkjær, Lise; Herskin, Mette S

    2011-01-01

    Transport of farm animals gives rise to concern about their welfare. Specific attention has been given to the duration of animal transport, and maximum journey durations are used in legislation that seek to minimise any negative impact of transport on animal welfare. This paper reviews......, and those aspects that may be exacerbated by journey time. We identify four aspects of animal transport, which have increasing impact on welfare as transport duration increases. These relate to (i) the physiological and clinical state of the animal before transport; and - during transport - to (ii) feeding...... the relatively few scientific investigations into effects of transport duration on animal welfare in cattle, sheep, horses, pigs and poultry. From the available literature, we attempt to distinguish between aspects, which will impair welfare on journeys of any duration, such as those associated with loading...

  20. Sequential sampling: a novel method in farm animal welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, C A E; Main, D C J; Mullan, S; Haskell, M J; Browne, W J

    2016-02-01

    Lameness in dairy cows is an important welfare issue. As part of a welfare assessment, herd level lameness prevalence can be estimated from scoring a sample of animals, where higher levels of accuracy are associated with larger sample sizes. As the financial cost is related to the number of cows sampled, smaller samples are preferred. Sequential sampling schemes have been used for informing decision making in clinical trials. Sequential sampling involves taking samples in stages, where sampling can stop early depending on the estimated lameness prevalence. When welfare assessment is used for a pass/fail decision, a similar approach could be applied to reduce the overall sample size. The sampling schemes proposed here apply the principles of sequential sampling within a diagnostic testing framework. This study develops three sequential sampling schemes of increasing complexity to classify 80 fully assessed UK dairy farms, each with known lameness prevalence. Using the Welfare Quality herd-size-based sampling scheme, the first 'basic' scheme involves two sampling events. At the first sampling event half the Welfare Quality sample size is drawn, and then depending on the outcome, sampling either stops or is continued and the same number of animals is sampled again. In the second 'cautious' scheme, an adaptation is made to ensure that correctly classifying a farm as 'bad' is done with greater certainty. The third scheme is the only scheme to go beyond lameness as a binary measure and investigates the potential for increasing accuracy by incorporating the number of severely lame cows into the decision. The three schemes are evaluated with respect to accuracy and average sample size by running 100 000 simulations for each scheme, and a comparison is made with the fixed size Welfare Quality herd-size-based sampling scheme. All three schemes performed almost as well as the fixed size scheme but with much smaller average sample sizes. For the third scheme, an overall

  1. A review of leptospirosis in farm animals in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, T

    1998-12-01

    This paper presents a review of Leptospira infection in farm animals in Portugal which is based mainly on serological results obtained in the National Veterinary Research Laboratory between January 1987 and December 1993. Serum samples were tested by the microscopic agglutination test, at a minimum dilution of 1:100. Positive titres were obtained in 15.3% of the 9,543 bovine samples examined. Sejroe, Pomona, Hebdomadis, Tarassovi and Icterohaemorrhagiae were the principal serogroups which reacted in the tests. A total of 3,195 pigs were tested, of which 20.2% showed positive reactions. The main serogroups which reacted were Australis, Pomona, Cynopteri, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Autumnalis. Field observations on outbreaks of leptospirosis in pigs, along with data obtained from an experimental infection with serovar mozdok in pregnant gilts suggest that this serovar, rather than serovar pomona, may be causing Pomona group infections in pigs. Serum samples from 5,298 sheep were tested and 3.3% gave positive results. The predominant serogroups involved were Canicola, Pomona, Cynopteri, Sejroe and Icterohaemorrhagiae. From the 1,631 goats examined serologically, 5.0% gave positive results, mainly to serogroups Grippotyphosa, Canicola, Pomona, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pyrogenes. Only 83 serum samples from horses were obtained, of which 43.4% showed positive titres. Serogroups Australis, Autumnalis, Cynopteri and Pyrogenes were those most commonly found. Serological evidence of leptospirosis in farm animals is widespread in Portugal, particularly in cattle and pigs. Leptospirosis in horses needs to be studied further. In an attempt to provide a general view on the occurrence of leptospirosis in these animal species in Portugal, the present results are compared with results obtained in previous studies and are complemented with both previous and recent bacteriological findings.

  2. A Scenario Analysis on the Implementation of a Farm Animal Welfare Assessment System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Butterworth, A.; Keeling, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    There have been important developments in the measurement of farm animal welfare in recent years. Measuring animal welfare is one thing, implementing a farm animal welfare assessment system another. The implementation of such a system occurs in an environment that is influenced by economic, politica

  3. A Comparative Study of Two Chinese Versions of Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Mei; CHENG Jing

    2016-01-01

    Animal Farm succeeds in establishing George Orwell’s position as a master in literature with its profound moral and hidden but killing sarcasms. And it has been translated into many languages around the world, arousing heated response. So far, there are seventeen versions in China. However, the academic studies focus on the significance of its literary value and political aspects, paying little attention to the systemic study of its translations. The thesis chooses the versions of Rong Rude and Fu Wei-ci and compares them from lexical, syntactical and discourse aspects. Through the comparative study, the author finds out that the two translators apply different translation strategies. Rong tends to adopt foreignization strategy, while Fu is inclined to ap-ply domestication strategy.

  4. Animal Farm: Considerations in Animal Gastrointestinal Physiology and Relevance to Drug Delivery in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Grace B; Yadav, Vipul; Basit, Abdul W; Merchant, Hamid A

    2015-09-01

    "All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others" was the illustrious quote derived from British writer George Orwell's famed work, Animal Farm. Extending beyond the remit of political allegory, however, this statement would appear to hold true for the selection of appropriate animal models to simulate human physiology in preclinical studies. There remain definite gaps in our current knowledge with respect to animal physiology, notably those of intra- and inter-species differences in gastrointestinal (GI) function, which may affect oral drug delivery and absorption. Factors such as cost and availability have often influenced the choice of animal species without clear justification for their similarity to humans, and lack of standardization in techniques employed in past studies using various animals may also have contributed to the generation of contradictory results. As it stands, attempts to identify a single animal species as appropriately representative of human physiology and which may able to adequately simulate human in vivo conditions are limited. In this review, we have compiled and critically reviewed data from numerous studies of GI anatomy and physiology of various animal species commonly used in drug delivery modeling, commenting on the appropriateness of these animals for in vivo comparison and extrapolation to humans.

  5. Development of animal health and welfare planning in organic dairy farming in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Good animal health and welfare is an explicit goal of organic livestock farming, and will need continuous development and adjustment on the farms. Furthermore, the very different conditions in different regions of Europe calls for models that can be integrated into local practice and be relevant for each type of farming context. A European project with participants from seven countries have been established with the aim of developing principles for animal health and welfare planning in organi...

  6. Improving farm animal welfare : science and society working together: the welfare quality approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, H.J.; Miele, M.; Veissier, I.; Jones, B.

    2013-01-01

    How do you define the quality of life of a farmed animal? This book addresses the complex and often controversial issues surrounding the assessment and improvement of farm animal welfare. It discusses the relevance of science based welfare assessments and the importance of establishing a fruitful

  7. Determinants associated with veterinary antimicrobial prescribing in farm animals in the Netherlands: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speksnijder, D C; Jaarsma, A D C; van der Gugten, A C; Verheij, T J M; Wagenaar, J A

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial use in farm animals might contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in humans and animals, and there is an urgent need to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. Veterinarians are typically responsible for prescribing and overseeing antimicrobial use in animals. A thorough understanding of veterinarians' current prescribing practices and their reasons to prescribe antimicrobials might offer leads for interventions to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study of factors that influence prescribing behaviour of farm animal veterinarians. Semi-structured interviews with eleven farm animal veterinarians were conducted, which were taped, transcribed and iteratively analysed. This preliminary analysis was further discussed and refined in an expert meeting. A final conceptual model was derived from the analysis and sent to all the respondents for validation. Many conflicting interests are identifiable when it comes to antimicrobial prescribing by farm animal veterinarians. Belief in the professional obligation to alleviate animal suffering, financial dependency on clients, risk avoidance, shortcomings in advisory skills, financial barriers for structural veterinary herd health advisory services, lack of farmers' compliance to veterinary recommendations, public health interests, personal beliefs regarding the veterinary contribution to antimicrobial resistance and major economic powers are all influential determinants in antimicrobial prescribing behaviour of farm animal veterinarians. Interventions to change prescribing behaviour of farm animal veterinarians could address attitudes and advisory skills of veterinarians, as well as provide tools to deal with (perceived) pressure from farmers and advisors to prescribe antimicrobials. Additional (policy) measures could probably support farm animal veterinarians in acting as a more independent animal health consultant.

  8. Animal Science Basic Core Curriculum. Kansas Postsecondary Farm and Ranch Management Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    Thirty-six units of instruction are included in this core curriculum in animal science for postsecondary farm and ranch management programs. Units of instruction are divided into seven instructional areas: (1) Livestock Types, (2) Livestock Programs, (3) Nutrition, (4) Animal Health, (5) Animal Breeding, (6) Animal Improvement, and (7) Livestock…

  9. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC CROP AND ANIMAL FARMS IN ROMANIA. COMPARATIVE EVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The organic sector in our country, although as shown in continuous development, faces a multitude of problems: the climatic conditions of our country, characterized by periods of drought in many parts of the country, high input prices, the majority of which are imported; difficulties in identifying markets for products, reduced subsidies, standardized conditions difficult to meet, etc. The problems the sector is facing reflect in the organization of the production activity and hence the economic performance of farm production. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to analyze on the basis of annual financial and accounting information collected in the two vegetable farms and the two animal breeding farms, their efficiency / inefficiency, and the results were compared to identify the causes of the differences obtained in the efficiency at a farm level. The results obtained reveal a higher level of return on integrated vegetable farm in a joint recovery and a high efficiency for chain integrated animal farms.

  10. Evaluation of organic, conventional and intensive beef farm systems: health, management and animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Penedo, I; López-Alonso, M; Shore, R F; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L

    2012-09-01

    The overall aim of the present study was to analyse and compare organic beef cattle farming in Spain with intensive and conventional systems. An on-farm study comparing farm management practices and animal health was carried out. The study also focussed on a slaughterhouse analysis by comparing impacts on the safety and quality of the cattle products. Twenty-four organic and 26 conventional farms were inspected, and farmers responded to a questionnaire that covered all basic data on their husbandry practices, farm management, veterinary treatments and reproductive performance during 2007. Furthermore, data on the hygiene and quality of 244, 2596 and 3021 carcasses of calves from organic, intensive and conventional farms, respectively, were retrieved from the official yearbook (2007) of a slaughterhouse. Differences found between organic and conventional farms across the farm analysis did not substantially reflect differences between both farm types in the predominant diseases that usually occur on beef cattle farms. However, calves reared organically presented fewer condemnations at slaughter compared with intensive and to a lesser extent with conventionally reared calves. Carcass performance also reflected differences between farm type and breed and was not necessarily better in organic farms.

  11. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... farm weeds. (2) The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and other Federal or State agencies and...

  12. Renewable Energy From Animal Biomass – Farm Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Amour, Kenneth [Vermont Public Power Supply Authority, Waterbury Center, VT (United States)

    2013-08-31

    The major goal of the project is to develop 2 anaerobic digesters on family farms in rural Vermont. We have accomplished half of that goal, with 1 digester operating on the Gebbie Maplehurst Farm in Greensboro, Vermont. The 2nd digester is planned as a student demonstration unit at Vermont Technical College in Randolph Center, Vermont. That half of the project has not commenced. We will limit our discussion to the Gebbie Maplehurst Farm project. A 150MW generator is installed on the farm and is producing electricity which is being sold as part of the Standard Offer Program within the State of Vermont. The induction generator is the first of its kind manufactured by Martin Machinery of Latham, Missouri. The project is currently generating approximately 15% - 20% of the capacity as shown in appendix I. However, it is anticipated that details will quickly be worked out to increase that capacity factor.

  13. Farm Animal Welfare and Handling in the Tropics: The Ethiopia Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimrew Asmare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of farm animal welfare has become increasingly of essence in many countries these days. Farm animal welfare concerns are expressed about the conditions in which farm animals are kept and management practices, particularly in systems where animals are kept in confinement for most of their lives, feed methods, health care, and expression of normal behaviors. The use of an ethical basis for animal welfare standards requires some generally accepted principles on how animals should be treated and used by humans. Animals have enormous capacity to feel a huge range of emotions, to learn from their experiences, to adapt to challenges, and to suffer when their needs are either ignored or disrespected. It is now time, in the evolution of the relationship between humans and animals, to move forward with this knowledge and take real action to improve the lives of farm animals. The use of behavioral principles should improve efficiency of livestock handling and reduce stress on animals. Changing public opinion about the importance of good animal welfare and applying legislative actions will be important in animal production systems especially in developing countries where the poor animal welfare is immense and production management is below substandards.

  14. Transgenesis may affect farm animal welfare: a case for systematic risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reenen, C G; Meuwissen, T H; Hopster, H; Oldenbroek, K; Kruip, T H; Blokhuis, H J

    2001-07-01

    This paper considers (potentially) harmful consequences of transgenesis for farm animal welfare and examines the strategy of studying health and welfare of transgenic farm animals. Evidence is discussed showing that treatments imposed in the context of farm animal transgenesis are by no means biologically neutral and may compromise animal health and welfare. Factors posing a risk for the welfare of transgenic farm animals include integration of a transgene within an endogenous gene with possible loss of host gene function (insertional mutations), inappropriate transgene expression and exposure of the host to biologically active transgene-derived proteins, and in vitro reproductive technologies employed in the process of generating transgenic farm animals that may result in an increased incidence of difficult parturition and fetal and neonatal losses and the development of unusually large or otherwise abnormal offspring (large offspring syndrome). Critical components of a scheme for evaluating welfare of transgenic farm animals are identified, related to specific characteristics of transgenic animals and to factors that may interact with the effects of transgenesis. The feasibility of an evaluation of welfare of transgenic farm animals in practice is addressed against the background of the objectives and conditions of three successive stages in a long-term transgenic program. Concrete steps with regard to breeding and testing of transgenic farm animals are presented, considering three technologies to generate transgenic founders: microinjection, electroporation and nuclear transfer, and gene targeting including gene knockout. The proposed steps allow for unbiased estimations of the essential treatment effects, including hemi- and homozygous transgene effects as well as effects of in vitro reproductive technologies. It is suggested that the implementation of appropriate breeding and testing procedures should be accompanied by the use of a comprehensive welfare

  15. Qualitative stakeholder analysis for the development of sustainable monitoringssystem for farm animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Greef, de K.H.; Hopster, H.

    2005-01-01

    Continued concern for animal welfare may be alleviated when welfare would be monitored on farms. Monitoring can be characterized as an information system where various stakeholders periodically exchange relevant information. Stakeholders include producers, consumers, retailers, the government, scien

  16. Indicators for on-farm self-assessment of animal welfare – Example: dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The “on-farm self-assessment” specified by the Animal Welfare Act from 2014 requires the livestock keeper to assess and monitor appropriate animal-based measures (“animal welfare indicators”) with the aim to achieve higher individual responsibility of livestock keepers for the well-being of their animals. The assessment serves to raise awareness among livestock keepers and to enable them to identify any weaknesses existing. As the Animal Welfare Act does not contain any secondary legislation,...

  17. The relationship between animal welfare and economic performance at farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Forkman, Björn

    We propose a theoretical framework for the relationship between animal welfare and the economic performance of livestock farms. We empirically analyse this relationship based on a unique data set of randomly sampled Danish pig herds that includes information from unannounced inspections of the co......We propose a theoretical framework for the relationship between animal welfare and the economic performance of livestock farms. We empirically analyse this relationship based on a unique data set of randomly sampled Danish pig herds that includes information from unannounced inspections...... of the compliance with the animal welfare legislation. We find large variations in economic performance indicators and animal welfare indicators. The relationship between these two indicators is rather weak, but tends to be slightly positive. We conclude that management has a major influence on both economic...... performance and animal welfare so that good farm managers are able to obey all animal welfare regulations and, at the same time, achieve a high economic performance....

  18. Isoflavonic phytoestrogens--new prebiotics for farm animals: a review on research in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhengkang, Han; Wang, Guojie; Yao, Wen; Zhu, Wei-yun

    2006-09-01

    Isoflavones are recognized to be estrogenic compounds that are often associated with a reduced risk of cancers. The estrogenic activity can be enhanced after metabolization to more active compounds such as genistein and daidzein by gut microorganisms. The direct use of these metabolites has been investigated in laboratory rats and farm animals over the last decade. This paper reviews the research progress on the effect of isoflavonic compounds including metabolites on the physiology, gut microbiology and performance of farm animals in China.

  19. Assisted Reproductive Techniques in Farm Animal - From Artificial Insemination to Nanobiotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    O. P. Verma; Kumar, R.; Kumar, A; Chand, S

    2012-01-01

    It has become evident that advances in farm animal reproduction have become increasingly dependent on advance scientific research in addition to an understanding of the physiological processes involved in reproduction. The use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) has helped owners to produce offspring from valuable farm animals that were considered infertile using standard breeding techniques. This chapter constitutes an update of recent developments in the field of assisted reproduction...

  20. Dilemmas experienced by government veterinarians when responding professionally to farm animal welfare incidents in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, C.; Kelly, P.; Blake, M.; Hanlon, A.; More, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This paper identifies the dilemmas experienced by government veterinarians during their investigations of farm animal welfare incidents that involve herd owner social, health, and/or psychological difficulties. The paper builds on exploratory qualitative research into the impact of these difficulties on farm animal welfare. Design The study used a qualitative research approach. Focus groups were conducted. Setting In Ireland, an Early Warning System (EWS), which brings together relevant agencies, is in place to identify and prevent farm animal welfare problems before they become critical. This study is concerned with the experiences of government veterinarians who respond to farm animal welfare incidents. Specific focus is on incidents that involve herd owner social/psychological/health-related difficulties. Participants In total, n=18 government veterinarians (representing 15 per cent of the population sample), all with a keen interest in farm animal welfare, participated. These were selected on the basis of their interest, experience, and involvement in farm animal welfare. One government veterinarian declined to participate. Four focus groups were conducted with government veterinarians. These took place in the south (S), south-west (SW), midlands (M), and north-west region of Ireland (NW). All 16 District Veterinary Offices (DVOs) were represented in the focus groups. Results The results reveal three professional dilemmas that exist for government veterinarians: (1) defining professional parameters; (2) determining the appropriate response; (3) involvement versus detachment. Participants reported not wanting any additional training. Instead, it was agreed that a formal bridge to social service providers who have the professional capability to respond appropriately and with confidence, was required. Conclusions Clearly defined guidelines are required for government veterinarians in their encounters with farm animal welfare incidents where there is a

  1. Board-invited review: the ethical and behavioral bases for farm animal welfare legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croney, C C; Millman, S T

    2007-02-01

    Concerns about farm animal welfare vary among individuals and societies. As people increasingly consider the values underlying current farm animal production methods, farm animal welfare policy debates have escalated. Recent food animal protection policies enacted in the European Union have fueled highly contentious discussions about the need for similar legislative activity in the United States. Policymakers and scientists in the United States are apprehensive about the scientific assessment, validation, and monitoring of animal welfare, as well as the unforeseen consequences of moving too hastily toward legislating farm animal welfare. The potential impact of such legislation on producers, food prices, animals, and concerned citizens must also be considered. Balancing the interests of all stakeholders has therefore presented a considerable challenge that has stymied US policymaking. In this review, we examine the roles of ethics and science in policy decisions, discuss how scientific knowledge relative to animal behavior has been incorporated into animal welfare policy, and identify opportunities for additional refinement of animal welfare science that may facilitate ethical and policy decisions about animal care.

  2. Advanced technologies for genomic analysis in farm animals and its application for QTL mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoxiang; Gao, Yu; Feng, Chungang; Liu, Qiuyue; Wang, Xiaobo; Du, Zhuo; Wang, Qingsong; Li, Ning

    2009-06-01

    Rapid progress in farm animal breeding has been made in the last few decades. Advanced technologies for genomic analysis in molecular genetics have led to the identification of genes or markers associated with genes that affect economic traits. Molecular markers, large-insert libraries and RH panels have been used to build the genetic linkage maps, physical maps and comparative maps in different farm animals. Moreover, EST sequencing, genome sequencing and SNPs maps are helping us to understand how genomes function in various organisms and further areas will be studied by DNA microarray technologies and proteomics methods. Because most economically important traits in farm animals are controlled by multiple genes and the environment, the main goal of genome research in farm animals is to map and characterize genes determining QTL. There are two main strategies to identify trait loci, candidate gene association tests and genome scan approaches. In recent years, some new concepts, such as RNAi, miRNA and eQTL, have been introduced into farm animal research, especially for QTL mapping and finding QTN. Several genes that influence important traits have already been identified or are close to being identified, and some of them have been applied in farm animal breeding programs by marker-assisted selection.

  3. From cruelty to welfare: the emergence of farm animal welfare in Britain, 1964-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Abigail

    2012-03-01

    There is a long history of concern in Britain for how animals are treated. Until the 1960s, these concerns were expressed largely in terms of cruelty or suffering, which was prevented through various acts of Parliament. Over the period 1964-71, amidst public debates about intensive farming, a new discourse of animal welfare emerged. To understand what welfare meant and how it became established as a term, a concept and a target of government regulation, it is necessary to examine farming politics and practices, the existing tradition of animal protection and attempts to rethink the nature of animal suffering.

  4. Short communication: Survey of animal-borne pathogens in the farm environment of 13 dairy operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, J D; Aceto, H W; Rankin, S C; Dou, Z

    2013-09-01

    A survey was conducted on 13 dairies to determine the occurrence of 5 animal-borne pathogens (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter jejuni, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, and Cryptosporidium parvum) and their distributions across farm elements (feces, bedding, milk filters, stored manure, field soil, and stream water). Presence of C. parvum was measured only in feces and stored manure. All but one farm were positive for at least one pathogen species, and 5 farms were positive for 3 species. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was detected on 6 farms and in all farm elements, including milk filters. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was detected on 10 of 13 farms and in all farm elements except for milk filters. Salmonella enterica and C. jejuni were detected at lower frequencies and were not identified in soil, stream water, or milk filters on any of the 13 farms. Cryptosporidium parvum was detected in feces but not in stored manure. Stored manure had the highest occurrence of pathogens (73%), followed by feces (50%), milk filters, bedding, soil, and water (range from 23 to 31%). Association of pathogen presence with farm management factors was examined by t-test; however, the small number of study farms and samples may limit the scope of inference of the associations. Pathogens had a higher prevalence in maternity pen bedding than in calf bedding, but total pathogen occurrence did not differ in calf compared with lactating cow feces or in soils with or without manure incorporation. Herd size and animal density did not appear to have a consistent effect on pathogen occurrence. The extent of pathogen prevalence and distribution on the farms indicates considerable public health risks associated with not only milk and meat consumption and direct animal contact, but also potential dissemination of the pathogens into the agroecosystem. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Do terrestrial animals avoid areas close to turbines in functioning wind farms in agricultural landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łopucki, Rafał; Klich, Daniel; Gielarek, Sylwia

    2017-07-01

    Most studies on the effects of wind energy on animals have focused on avian and bat activity, habitat use, and mortality, whereas very few have been published on terrestrial, non-volant wildlife. In this paper, we studied the utilization of functioning wind farm areas by four terrestrial animals common to agricultural landscapes: European roe deer, European hare, red fox, and the common pheasant. Firstly, we expected that the studied animals do not avoid areas close to turbines and utilize the whole area of functioning wind farms with a frequency similar to the control areas. Secondly, we expected that there is no relation between the turbine proximity and the number of tracks of these animals. The study was conducted over two winter seasons using the snow-tracking method along 100 m linear transects. In total, 583 transects were recorded. Wind farm operations may affect terrestrial animals both in wind farm interiors and in a 700-m buffer zone around the edge of turbines. The reactions of animals were species specific. Herbivorous mammals (roe deer and European hare) avoided wind farm interiors and proximity to turbines. The common pheasant showed a positive reaction to wind turbine proximity. The red fox had the most neutral response to wind turbines. Although this species visited wind farm interiors less often than the control area, there was no relation between fox track density and turbine proximity. Greater weight should be given to the effects of wind farms on non-flying wildlife than at present. Investors and regulatory authorities should always consider the likely impacts of wind farms during environmental impact assessments and try to reduce these negative effects.

  6. The Effect of Steps to Promote Higher Levels of Farm Animal Welfare across the EU. Societal versus Animal Scientists’ Perceptions of Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averós, Xavier; Aparicio, Miguel A.; Ferrari, Paolo; Guy, Jonathan H.; Hubbard, Carmen; Schmid, Otto; Ilieski, Vlatko; Spoolder, Hans A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary We studied different EU production standards and initiatives to determine whether there is still room or not for further animal welfare improvement, and which should be the best way to achieve it. Many of the adopted measures in these standards and initiatives are scientifically supported, but other aspects that are equally important for animal welfare are not included in any of them. Animal welfare improvement should consider, for each country, those aspects actually benefiting animals, but also the social expectations within each country. Economic constraints might explain the gap between what society demands, and what farm animals actually need. Abstract Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific relevance of standards and initiatives, and those aspects going beyond minimum EU standards. Standards and initiatives were assessed to determine their strengths and weaknesses regarding animal welfare. Attitudes of stakeholders in the improvement of animal welfare were determined through a Policy Delphi exercise. Social perception of animal welfare, economic implications of upraising welfare levels, and differences between countries were considered. Literature review revealed that on-farm space allowance, climate control, and environmental enrichment are relevant for all animal categories. Experts’ assessment revealed that on-farm prevention of thermal stress, air quality, and races and passageways’ design were not sufficiently included. Stakeholders considered that housing conditions are particularly relevant regarding animal welfare, and that animal-based and farm-level indicators are fundamental to monitor the progress of animal welfare. The most notable differences between what society offers and what

  7. A Decade of Progress toward Ending the Intensive Confinement of Farm Animals in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Shields

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS farm animal protection work over the preceding decade is described from the perspective of the organization. Prior to 2002, there were few legal protections for animals on the farm, and in 2005, a new campaign at the HSUS began to advance state ballot initiatives throughout the country, with a decisive advancement in California (Proposition 2 that paved the way for further progress. Combining legislative work with undercover farm and slaughterhouse investigations, litigation and corporate engagement, the HSUS and fellow animal protection organizations have made substantial progress in transitioning the veal, pork and egg industries away from intensive confinement systems that keep the animals in cages and crates. Investigations have become an important tool for demonstrating widespread inhumane practices, building public support and convincing the retail sector to publish meaningful animal welfare policies. While federal legislation protecting animals on the farm stalled, there has been steady state-by-state progress, and this is complemented by major brands such as McDonald’s and Walmart pledging to purchase only from suppliers using cage-free and crate-free animal housing systems. The evolution of societal expectations regarding animals has helped propel the recent wave of progress and may also be driven, in part, by the work of animal protection organizations.

  8. The Profitability of Animal Husbandry Activities on Farms in Dry Farming Areas and the Interaction between Crop Production and Animal Husbandry: The Case of Ankara Province in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Tanrıvermis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the linkages between livestock and crop farming activities and provides a comparative analysis of the profitability of different livestock activities in the highlands of Ankara. The data was collected from 52 sample farms in the Nallıhan, Aya¸s, Güdül and Beypazarı districts of Ankara by way of a questionnaire, where the farms have, on average, 20.7 ha of land and are thus regarded as small family farms. Insufficient irrigated land and working capital, weak market relations and the pressure of high population brings about a requirement to strengthen crop-livestock interaction. Production on the farms is generally carried out in extensive conditions, with goat, sheep and cattle husbandry in addition to crop production. Crop production makes up for 20.8% of the total gross production value on the farms. Of this figure, the entire yields of wheat, barley, pulses, straw and fodder crops are used for own consumption by the households, along with 74% of the wheat and 77% of the barley produced. The research results indicate that the current management systems may be defined as mixed farms in terms of crop–livestock linkages. The average total income of the households surveyed is 9,412.0 USD, of which 63.4% comes from farming activities. Every 1 USD invested in animal husbandry provides an income of 1.12 USD from dairy cattle breeding, 1.13 USD from Angora goat breeding, 1.16 USD from sheep breeding and 1.27 USD from ordinary goat breeding. It has been found that ordinary goat breeding, which provides the greatest relative profitability for the farms, offers many advantages, and that the transition from Angora goat breeding to ordinary goat breeding through the breeding of ordinary male goats into the Angora herd has occurred in recent years. The results of the survey indicate that supporting crop production with animal husbandry is considered a requirement in order to maintain economic and social sustainability in the farms

  9. The interaction of ethical questions and farm animal welfare science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Forkman, Björn; Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2012-01-01

    states (pain and enjoyment or pleasure)? Perhaps we should try to assess preference satisfaction, or the extent to which the animal lives in a natural way. By choosing a specific definition of animal welfare the researcher will be taking a stance on what matters in our dealings with animals. Secondly...... to exercise caution here? Should we assume, unless and until we are shown to be mistaken, that unborn animals may well be conscious, and protect them accordingly? Following the presentation of these ethical issues it will be argued that if we are to maintain the objectivity of welfare science, animal welfare...

  10. Role of joy in farm animal welfare legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Gall, Philipp; Gjerris, Mickey

    2017-01-01

    While animal welfare is commonly invoked in legal debates regarding non-human animals kept for food purposes, the concept of animal joy is rarely mentioned in such contexts. This paper analyzes the relationship between welfare and joy in the German animal protection law (GAPL) and in the EU...... directive 98/58/EC. Based on a review of scientific and philosophical approaches towards animal welfare, joy is argued to be a part of welfare. Nevertheless, joy is ignored in the German and EU legal provisions. While there may be economic disadvantages of legally protecting animal joy, it is argued...... that overlooking elements of joy cannot be justified from any ethical perspective that claims to take animal welfare into consideration. In order to clarify the aims of the legal provisions, decision-makers need to define the role joy ought to play in welfare legislation....

  11. ANIMAL WELFARE AND ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS IN BULGARIA AND EU FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TSVETANA HARIZANOVA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationship between economic effectiveness and animal welfare standards is investigated in the case of the pig and cattle breeding. The issue is of importance in order to assess economic viability of livestock breeding while applying animal friendly practices. This paper considers animal welfare standards in national regulations in pig breeding and cattle breeding, production under animal welfare and economic effectiveness in the specified sectors. It is pointed out the conditions which the legislation lays down to ensure better animal welfare. The discussion continues with detailed examination of the applying these standards in the production process. At the end of the paper are presented main conclusions concerning economic efficiency under animal welfare standards. The aim of the paper is to analyse the interactions between the economic effectiveness of livestock production and animal welfare in the pig breeding and cattle breeding.

  12. Opinions of veterinarians on antimicrobial use in farm animals in Flanders and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, M; Speksnijder, D C; Jaarsma, A D C; Verheij, T J M; Wagenaar, J A; Dewulf, J

    2016-07-16

    Veterinarians play an important role in the reduction of antimicrobial use in farm animals. This study aims to quantify opinions of veterinarians from the Netherlands and Flanders regarding antimicrobial use and resistance issues in farm animals. An online survey was sent out to 678 and 1100 farm animal veterinarians in Flanders and the Netherlands, of which 174 and 437 were returned respectively. Suboptimal climate conditions were regarded as the most important cause for high antimicrobial use in farm animals. Flemish veterinarians also regarded insufficient biosecurity measures and farmers' mentality as important determinants, while the Dutch respondents ranked insufficient immunity of young animals and economic considerations of farmers as major causes. The majority of Dutch respondents (63.8 per cent) supported the existing national policy, which aimed to halve veterinary antimicrobial use, while the Flemish (32.9 per cent) were less supportive of such a policy. Improvements in housing and climate conditions, biosecurity measures and strict control of specific infectious diseases were seen as important and promising measures to reduce antimicrobial use. To reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals, some shared approaches might be applicable in both countries. However, cultural, political and societal differences between Flanders and the Netherlands require differentiated approaches to reduce veterinary antimicrobial use. British Veterinary Association.

  13. The Effect of Steps to Promote Higher Levels of Farm Animal Welfare across the EU. Societal versus Animal Scientists’ Perceptions of Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatko Ilieski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific relevance of standards and initiatives, and those aspects going beyond minimum EU standards. Standards and initiatives were assessed to determine their strengths and weaknesses regarding animal welfare. Attitudes of stakeholders in the improvement of animal welfare were determined through a Policy Delphi exercise. Social perception of animal welfare, economic implications of upraising welfare levels, and differences between countries were considered. Literature review revealed that on-farm space allowance, climate control, and environmental enrichment are relevant for all animal categories. Experts’ assessment revealed that on-farm prevention of thermal stress, air quality, and races and passageways’ design were not sufficiently included. Stakeholders considered that housing conditions are particularly relevant regarding animal welfare, and that animal-based and farm-level indicators are fundamental to monitor the progress of animal welfare. The most notable differences between what society offers and what farm animals are likely to need are related to transportation and space availability, with economic constraints being the most plausible explanation.

  14. The Effect of Steps to Promote Higher Levels of Farm Animal Welfare across the EU. Societal versus Animal Scientists' Perceptions of Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averós, Xavier; Aparicio, Miguel A; Ferrari, Paolo; Guy, Jonathan H; Hubbard, Carmen; Schmid, Otto; Ilieski, Vlatko; Spoolder, Hans A M

    2013-08-14

    Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific relevance of standards and initiatives, and those aspects going beyond minimum EU standards. Standards and initiatives were assessed to determine their strengths and weaknesses regarding animal welfare. Attitudes of stakeholders in the improvement of animal welfare were determined through a Policy Delphi exercise. Social perception of animal welfare, economic implications of upraising welfare levels, and differences between countries were considered. Literature review revealed that on-farm space allowance, climate control, and environmental enrichment are relevant for all animal categories. Experts' assessment revealed that on-farm prevention of thermal stress, air quality, and races and passageways' design were not sufficiently included. Stakeholders considered that housing conditions are particularly relevant regarding animal welfare, and that animal-based and farm-level indicators are fundamental to monitor the progress of animal welfare. The most notable differences between what society offers and what farm animals are likely to need are related to transportation and space availability, with economic constraints being the most plausible explanation.

  15. ANIMAL PATHOGENS THAT MAY CAUSE HUMAN DISEASE THAT ORIGINATE FROM FARM OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent increase in concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States has caused renewed concern regarding the infectious diseases that may be passed from farm animals to humans via the environment. It is also known that more than 20 recent epidemics among humans cou...

  16. Assessing the human-animal relationship in farmed species: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waiblinger, S.; Boivin, X.; Pedersen, V.; Tosi, M.; Janczak, A.M.; Visser, E.K.; Jones, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper focuses on six main issues. First, we briefly explain why an increased understanding of the human¿animal relationship (HAR) is an essential component of any strategy intended to improve the welfare of farmed animals and their stockpersons. Second, we list the main internal and

  17. [The attitude of German veterinarians towards farm animal welfare: results of a cluster analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Heinke; Kemper, Nicole; Theuvsen, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the issue of animal welfare in intensive livestock production systems has been subjected to increasing criticism from the broad public. Some groups in society ask for higher animal welfare standards and there is an increas- ing number of consumers who prefer meat from more animal friendly husbandry systems. An intense social debate on animal welfare has flared up in the recent past. Veterinarians are considered as experts for the assessment of animal welfare. Nevertheless they are rarely consulted in the current debate. Therefore, only little is known about their attitude towards animal welfare in livestock farming. Even for Germany, there is so far no comprehensive analysis about their atti- tudes towards animal welfare and animal welfare programs. In the present study, 433 veterinarians were questioned via an online survey. The results show that veterinarians have a very differentiated perception of the issue animal welfare. Four groups (clusters) which have different attitudes towards livestock farming, voluntary animal welfare programs, farm size and the effects of national animal welfare standards were identified.

  18. How assessing relationships between emotions and cognition can improve farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissy, A; Lee, C

    2014-04-01

    The assessment of farm animal welfare requires a good understanding of the animals' affective experiences, including their emotions. Emotions are transient reactions to short-term triggering events and can accumulate to cause longer-lasting affective states, which represent good or bad welfare. Cognition refers to the mechanisms by which animals acquire, process, store and act on information from the environment. The objective of this paper is to highlight the two-way relationships between emotions and cognition that were originally identified in human psychology, and to describe in what ways these can be used to better access affective experiences in farm animals. The first section describes a recent experimental approach based on the cognitive processes that the animal uses to evaluate its environment. This approach offers an integrative and functional framework to assess the animal's emotions more effectively. The second section focuses on the influence of emotions on cognitive processes and describes recently developed methodologies based on that relationship, which may enable an assessment of long-term affective states in animals. The last section discusses the relevance of behavioural strategies to improve welfare in animals by taking their cognitive skills into account. Specific cognitive processes eliciting positive emotions will be emphasised. Research into affective states of animals is progressing rapidly and the ability to scientifically access animal feelings should contribute to the development of innovative farming practices based on the animals' sentience and their cognitive skills in order to truly improve their welfare.

  19. Organization of crop and animal production in dairy farms localised in three chosen regions of lubelskie voivodeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Bojarszczuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of organization of crop and animal production in dairy farms localised in three regions in Lubelskie voivodeship was presented in the paper. The data source was questionnaire research. The study was trained in 145 farms. The provided analysis showed that cereals had significantly share in pattern system in tested farms. Researched farms are differentiated of occupied differentiation of cropping pattern and density livestock between farms localised in different regions of Lubelskie voivodeship caused different level of intensity of organization animal and crops production. The differentiation of indicators was especially significant between farms in Krasnystaw and Ryki.

  20. Rodents on pig and chicken farms – a potential threat to human and animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Backhans

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Rodents can cause major problems through spreading various diseases to animals and humans. The two main species of rodents most commonly found on farms around the world are the house mouse (Mus musculus and the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus. Both species are omnivorous and can breed year-round under favourable conditions. This review describes the occurrence of pathogens in rodents on specialist pig and chicken farms, which are usually closed units with a high level of bio-security. However, wild rodents may be difficult to exclude completely, even from these sites, and can pose a risk of introducing and spreading pathogens. This article reviews current knowledge regarding rodents as a hazard for spreading disease on farms. Most literature available regards zoonotic pathogens, while the literature regarding pathogens that cause disease in farm animals is more limited.

  1. Impact of animal health management on organic pig farming in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Papatsiros V.G.

    2011-01-01

    In Greece, organic pig farming started in 2002 and since then made significant steps forward due to the extended interesting of Greek consumer for organic products during last decade. This report aims at updating information about organic pig farming in Greece, relating production system and most health risk factors. Furthermore, in present study a animal health management program is proposed. The most common health problems that occur in the Greek organic ...

  2. The Assessment of the Quality of Water Offered to Animals in Rural Households and Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Popescu; Cristina Borda; Razvan Stefan; Cristina Iuliana Hegedus; Eva Andrea Lazar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the quality of water consumed by animals in rural households and farms. The water quality was determined based on indicator parameters (pH, ammonia, sulphates, iron, chlorides, organic substances, overall hardness, total number of germs, number of Coliform bacteria) and chemical parameters (nitrites, nitrates), by collecting and analyzing 40 water samples (from 20 households and 20 farms). The results were compared to the provisions of the Laws 458/2002 and...

  3. Constraints to utilization of draft animal power technology at farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Agricultural Engineering and Appropriate Technology Research Institute, AEATRI ... were: inadequate knowledge and skills on the use and management of DAP implements and work animals, lack of ... included participatory methods through working groups, .... Organizations (CBOs), manufactures (formal and informal),.

  4. Do Romanian Farmers and Consumers Have Different Views on Farm Animal Welfare Issues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Toma Cziszter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on farmers and consumers from the Western Romania, using the questionnaires developed within the framework of WELANIMAL project in year 2009. The aim of this paper was to identify if there are any differences between the two social categories regarding the issues of farm animal welfare. A number of seven common questions were indentified in the questionnaires of farmers and consumers, and a comparative study between these categories was conducted. Farmers considered that dairy cows (70.1%, laying hens (46.8% and pigs (24.7% need their current welfare level to be improved, while consumers considered that the welfare status of all the farm animal species mentioned in the questionnaire needed to improved. Both farmers and consumers considered that sometimes or very rarely could find information about the rearing system on the labels of animal products. Farmers believed that EU legislation exists mostly for farm animal transportation (34.8% and slaughtering (30.5%, while consumers considered that EU legislation exists for slaughtering (34.8% and rearing conditions (32.8%. Both farmers and consumers considered that in Romania the animal welfare/protection receives not enough importance (61.3% and 77.4%, respectively, while in the EU this is better than in other parts of the world (46.7% and 50%, respectively. It was concluded that farmers and consumers have either similar of divergent views on specific issues of farm animal welfare.

  5. Introduction of infected animals to herds is an important route for the spread of Yersinia enterocolitica infection between pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, S; Nikunen, S; Korkeala, H

    2014-01-01

    Altogether, 369 pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica isolates from 1,118 fecal samples collected from 22 pig farms of different production types were characterized by biotyping, serotyping, and genotyping using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis. We investigated the distribution of the different genotypes at the farm level and their association with different farm conditions. Pigs were found to carry and transmit Y. enterocolitica between farms, because the same genotypes were found on farms that had previously transported the pigs between them. The purchase of new animals for the farms associated significantly with the number of different multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis types of Y. enterocolitica found within a farm. Some genotypes seemed to persist on farms for years. The results of this study show that pigs purchased from infected herds transmit Y. enterocolitica infection between farms. Certain pig farms may act as long-term sources of infection.

  6. U.S. consumers attitudes toward farm animal cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kathleen R; Lusk, Jayson L

    2011-10-01

    In January 2008, the United States Food and Drug Administration concluded "meat and milk from cattle, swine, and goat clones or their offspring are as safe to eat as food we eat from those species now" (U.S. FDA, 2010). However, cloning remains a very controversial topic. A web-based survey administered by Knowledge Networks was used to determine U.S. consumers' awareness of and attitudes toward meat and milk from cloned cattle. Findings reveal consumers do not differentiate much between products from cloned animals and products from non-cloned animals. Overall consumers are concerned that animal cloning is an unnatural process and that it will lead to human cloning.

  7. The relationship between animal welfare and economic performance at farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Forkman, Björn;

    We propose a theoretical framework for the relationship between animal welfare and the economic performance of livestock farms. We empirically analyse this relationship based on a unique data set of randomly sampled Danish pig herds that includes information from unannounced inspections...... of the compliance with the animal welfare legislation. We find large variations in economic performance indicators and animal welfare indicators. The relationship between these two indicators is rather weak, but tends to be slightly positive. We conclude that management has a major influence on both economic...... performance and animal welfare so that good farm managers are able to obey all animal welfare regulations and, at the same time, achieve a high economic performance....

  8. Conceptual metaphor in George Orwell`s political dystopia «Animal Farm»

    OpenAIRE

    KOZLOVA L.Y.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of the author's study of conceptual metaphor in political dystopia «Animal Farm» by George Orwell, an English Socialist writer. The aim of the work was to confirm the hypothesis that the work represents a conceptual metaphorical model «Totalitarian state is Animal Farm» in both structural and meaningful ways.In modern cognitive linguistics, metaphor is regarded as one of the basic mechanisms of cognitive knowledge, structuring and explanation of the world. Si...

  9. [Aspects of animal welfare with regard to the production of farmed fish in aquaculture systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleingeld, D W

    2005-03-01

    The most important aspects on animal welfare with reference to fish are presented in this paper. World-wide a fast growing trend with regard to the production of aquatic organisms in aquaculture systems is observed. For the future an increase of the number of basic questions with relevance to animal welfare in this area is to be expected. The main precondition for the creation of appropriate welfare conditions with regard to the farmed fish species is the optimisation of the environmental quality. Careful handling in the course of necessary farming activities minimises the appearance of distrees and damages in live fish.

  10. Current and future assisted reproductive technologies for mammalian farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Reproduction in domestic animals is under control by man and the technologies developed to facilitate that control have a major impact on the efficiency of food production. Reproduction is an energy-intensive process. In beef cattle, for example, over 50 % of the total feed consumption required to produce a unit of meat protein is consumed by the dam of the meat animal (Anim Prod 27:367-379, 1978). Sows are responsible for about 20 % of the total feed needed to produce animals for slaughter (Adv Pork Prod 19:223-237, 2008). Accordingly, energy input to produce food from animal sources is reduced by increasing number of offspring per unit time a breeding female is in the herd. Using beef cattle as an example again, life-cycle efficiency for production of weaned calves is positively related to early age at puberty and short calving intervals (J Anim Sci 57:852-866, 1983). Reproductive technologies also dictate the strategies that can be used to select animals genetically for traits that improve production. Of critical importance has been artificial insemination (AI) (Anim Reprod Sci 62:143-172, 2000; Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci 38:411-441, 2007; Reprod Domest Anim 43:379-385, 2008; J Dairy Sci 92:5814-5833, 2009) and, as will be outlined in this chapter, emerging technologies offer additional opportunities for improvements in genetic selection. Given the central role of reproduction as a determinant of production efficiency and in genetic selection, improvements in reproductive technologies will be crucial to meeting the challenges created by the anticipated increases in world population (from seven billion people in 2011 to an anticipated nine billion by 2050; World population prospects: the 2010 revision, highlights and advance tables. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.220, New York) and by difficulties in livestock production wrought by climate change (SAT eJournal 4:1-23, 2007).The purpose of this chapter will be to highlight current and emerging reproductive

  11. Indicators for on-farm self-assessment of animal welfare – Example: dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Zapf

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The “on-farm self-assessment” specified by the Animal Welfare Act from 2014 requires the livestock keeper to assess and monitor appropriate animal-based measures (“animal welfare indicators” with the aim to achieve higher individual responsibility of livestock keepers for the well-being of their animals. The assessment serves to raise awareness among livestock keepers and to enable them to identify any weaknesses existing. As the Animal Welfare Act does not contain any secondary legislation, there has so far been a lack of more precise provisions regarding the content and scope of the self-assessment system. In order to identify appropriate indicators which address the most important animal welfare problems known from practice, around 50 experts have selected indicators for assessing animal welfare with regard to reliability, validity and practicability. In on-farm self-assessment, the sets of largely animal-based indicators selected for cattle, pigs and poultry (hens and turkeys should be surveyed and evaluated as completely as possible. Integration into farm management systems is recommended. This paper exemplarily presents the set of indicators proposed for dairy cattle.

  12. Farm animals's cognition and the tests used on its evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Priscila Bueno Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognition is a set of activities and processes whereby an animal acquires information and develops knowledge. The most common cognitive processes are: memory, categorization , attention, reasoning and language.  This present research was aimed to study the cognitive ability of livestock based on results of cognitive tests described in the literature, as well to expose the various types of tests applied to make such an assessment, in the periods from 1969 until nowadays. Through this bibliographic study, It was discussed issues related to cognition , sentience and animal consciousness, through preference tests, learning, recognition and memorization applied to domestic animals. In general they show a cognitive ability to evaluate the environment for themselves, based on their preferences and motivations. Cognitive tests have shown the high ability of some species to memorize their handlers's faces, and recognize who is aversively dealing with. Furthermore, it was possible to prove that some producing species are sentient and their choices able to imply physical sensations that can affect your mental state. Thus, it is important to point out measures to help improve the well-being of the animals.

  13. Pigs and profits: hybrids of animals, technology and humans in Danish industrialised farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger; Vaarst, Mette; Bubandt, Nils

    2013-01-01

    Farm animals live and die as part of a food production system rich in paradoxes. One central paradox of modern farming revolves around the classic anthropological opposition between ‘nature’ and ‘culture’. Inspired by Bruno Latour's diagnosis of the processes of purification and mediation...... that attend the separation between ‘nature’ and ‘culture’ in the modern constitution, we trace how this paradox plays itself out on Danish pig farms. The paper argues that, although they have to be consistently ignored, hybrids of various kinds are essential to the co-production of meat and profit...... on industrial, debt-ridden and highly effective farms in the Western world....

  14. Usage of Farm Animal Waste for Biogas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankina, O. V.; Chernysh, A. P.; Sankin, A. S.

    2017-05-01

    The article considers problems connecting with the development of cattle breeding in Russia, especially the utilization of animals and poultry waste products. Basing on the foreign scientists’ experience, it has been proposed different solutions to this problem in terms of the Russian Federation, conducted the study, and presented the results of the undertaken experiments. Recommendations on the use of substances, that speed up fermentation processes at certain temperatures, has been developed.

  15. Consumers’ perception of farm animal welfare: an Italian and European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Martelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of some recent European and Italian surveys on consumer perception of farm animal welfare are shown and discussed. Special attention is paid to consumers’ opinions about animal welfare attributes, differences among species (and across countries in terms of animal welfare perception, “animal-friendly” labels and willingness of purchasers to pay more for food (eggs deriving from animals raised under higher welfare conditions. From a general standpoint, consumers’ perception and knowledge of animal welfare varies among European countries and it is mainly affected by their economic and educational level. Among animal welfare attributes, a strong preference is given to the availability of spaces, and, in the case of Italian respondents, also to the absence of movement restrictions (chains or tethers. Laying hens (44%, followed by broilers (42% and pigs (28% are the categories/species for which rearing conditions in the EU are judged to need the highest improvement in terms of welfare. Italian consumers appear less concerned about swine welfare (17% than other Europeans. It is noteworthy that 12% of EU respondents states that all farmed animals need more welfare and/or protection. With respect to labels on food packaging, claims for animal welfare often fall within wider schemes for quality assurance and, with the exception of eggs and organic goods, in many countries the possibility of identifying animal friendly products and the knowledge of the specific legislation on farm animal protection are still limited. According to the Community Action Plan on the Protection and Welfare of Animals 2006-2010, the establishment of an EU label for animal welfare, based on standardised scientific indicators, is an option to be explored which could promote the consumption of products elaborated under high welfare standards thus facilitating the choice of consumers. The readiness of consumers to pay more for a higher animal welfare level has

  16. Insects represent a link between food animal farms and the urban environment for antibiotic resistance traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Ludek; Ghosh, Anuradha

    2014-06-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections result in higher patient mortality rates, prolonged hospitalizations, and increased health care costs. Extensive use of antibiotics as growth promoters in the animal industry represents great pressure for evolution and selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on farms. Despite growing evidence showing that antibiotic use and bacterial resistance in food animals correlate with resistance in human pathogens, the proof for direct transmission of antibiotic resistance is difficult to provide. In this review, we make a case that insects commonly associated with food animals likely represent a direct and important link between animal farms and urban communities for antibiotic resistance traits. Houseflies and cockroaches have been shown to carry multidrug-resistant clonal lineages of bacteria identical to those found in animal manure. Furthermore, several studies have demonstrated proliferation of bacteria and horizontal transfer of resistance genes in the insect digestive tract as well as transmission of resistant bacteria by insects to new substrates. We propose that insect management should be an integral part of pre- and postharvest food safety strategies to minimize spread of zoonotic pathogens and antibiotic resistance traits from animal farms. Furthermore, the insect link between the agricultural and urban environment presents an additional argument for adopting prudent use of antibiotics in the food animal industry.

  17. Pluripotent cells in farm animals: state of the art and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak-Imialek, Monika; Niemann, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent cells, such as embryonic stem (ES) cells, embryonic germ cells and embryonic carcinoma cells are a unique type of cell because they remain undifferentiated indefinitely in in vitro culture, show self-renewal and possess the ability to differentiate into derivatives of the three germ layers. These capabilities make them a unique in vitro model for studying development, differentiation and for targeted modification of the genome. True pluripotent ESCs have only been described in the laboratory mouse and rat. However, rodent physiology and anatomy differ substantially from that of humans, detracting from the value of the rodent model for studies of human diseases and the development of cellular therapies in regenerative medicine. Recently, progress in the isolation of pluripotent cells in farm animals has been made and new technologies for reprogramming of somatic cells into a pluripotent state have been developed. Prior to clinical application of therapeutic cells differentiated from pluripotent stem cells in human patients, their survival and the absence of tumourigenic potential must be assessed in suitable preclinical large animal models. The establishment of pluripotent cell lines in farm animals may provide new opportunities for the production of transgenic animals, would facilitate development and validation of large animal models for evaluating ESC-based therapies and would thus contribute to the improvement of human and animal health. This review summarises the recent progress in the derivation of pluripotent and reprogrammed cells from farm animals. We refer to our recent review on this area, to which this article is complementary.

  18. An on-farm investigation of beef suckler herds using an animal welfare index (AWI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veissier Isabelle

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beef suckler farms (194 farms throughout 13 counties were assessed once with housed cattle and once with cattle at grass using an animal welfare index (AWI. Twenty-three of the 194 farms were revisited a year later and re-evaluated using the AWI and the Tier-Gerechtheits-Index 35L/2000 (TGI35L/2000. Thirty-three indicators were collected in five categories: locomotion (5 indicators; social interactions (between animals (7, flooring (5, environment (7 and Stockpersonship (9. Three indicators relating to the size of the farm were also collected. Improving animal welfare is an increasingly important aspect of livestock production systems predominantly due to increased consumer concern about the source of animal products. The objectives were (i to evaluate animal welfare of Irish beef suckler herds using an animal welfare index (AWI, (ii to examine correlations between parameters, how they influence the AWI and investigate the applicability of the parameters used, (iii to investigate the impact of the activity of the farmer (full-time or part-time, the interest of the farmer and the number of animals on the AWI. Results The mean AWI was 65% and ranged from 54% to 83%. The grazing period represented 16.5% of the total points of the AWI. Seventy percent of the farms were rated as "Very Good" or "Excellent". There was no difference (P > 0.05 in AWI between full-time and part-time farmers. Part-time farmers had greater (P = 0.01 "social interactions": calving (P = 0.03 and weaning (P Conclusion The AWI was easily applicable for an on-farm evaluation of welfare. The Stockpersonship was an important factor in determining the AWI (11% of the total variation more specifically, the interest of the farmer. Part and full-time farming did not differ (P > 0.05 in AWI scores. This method could, with further development, be used in countries with both intensive and/or extensive production systems and would require substantially less resources

  19. First description of Cryptosporidium ubiquitum XIIa subtype family in farmed fur animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellnerová, Klára; Holubová, Nikola; Jandová, Anna; Vejčík, Antonín; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil; Kváč, Martin

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in farmed fur animals in the Czech Republic and Poland. A total of 480 faecal samples were collected from fur animals, including 300 American mink (Mustela vison), 60 silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 50 long-tailed chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera), and 70 nutrias (Myocastor coypus), at 14 farms. Samples were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium using microscopy (following aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining) and sequence analysis of PCR amplified products. Three mink and two chinchillas from two different farms tested positive for Cryptosporidium ubiquitum DNA. The presence of C. ubiquitum DNA was not associated with diarrhoea. Subtyping of C. ubiquitum isolates by sequence analysis of the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene showed that isolates belonged to the XIIa subtype family, which was previously restricted to humans and ruminants. This suggests that C. ubiquitum subtype XIIa has a broader host range than previously reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Romanian Gene Bank: Perspectives and Aspects for Farm Animal Genetic Resources Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelior Iacob

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many European countries set up gene banks for farm animal genetic resources (FAnGR. This paper describes the current status of animal genetic resources cryobanking and the perspectives for in vitro conservation of endangered livestock breeds and populations. Conservation efforts in Romania are done by the National Agency for Animal Husbandry ``Prof. dr. G.K. Constantinescu``, which implements activities to aid the farm animal genetic resources conservation and to develop a gene bank. Following the examples provided by other European countries, some improvements in FAnGR management are needed, focusing on aspects and approaches such as genetic and genomic studies, assisted reproduction techniques (ART's and by strengthening collaboration with RD institutions and universities from Romania. The aim of the paper is to give a general overview on current the situation of ex situ conservation efforts of FAnGR in Romania.

  1. [Application of CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome editing in farm animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyun, Xing; Qiang, Yang; Jun, Ren

    2016-03-01

    CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas (CRISPR associated proteins) is an acquired immune system found in bacteria and archaea that fight against invasion of viruses or plasmids. CRISPR/Cas systems are currently classified into three main types: I, II and III, of which type II has relatively simple components. The CRISPR/Cas9 technology modified from type II CRISPR/Cas system has been developed as an efficient genome editing tool. Since the initial application of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in mammals in 2013, the reports of this system for genomic editing has skyrocketed. Farm animals are not only economically important animals, but also ideal animal models for human diseases and biomedical studies. In this review, we summarize the applications of CRISPR/Cas9 in farm animals, briefly describe the off-target effects and the main solutions, and finally highlight the future perspectives of this technology.

  2. SNPs genotyping technologies and their applications in farm animals breeding programs: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Kharrati Koopaee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are DNA sequence variations that occur when a single nucleotide: adenine (A, thymine (T, cytosine (C or guanine (G in the genome sequence is altered. Traditional and high throughput methods are two main strategies for SNPs genotyping. The SNPs genotyping technologies provide powerful resources for animal breeding programs.Genomic selection using SNPs is a new tool for choosing the best breeding animals. In addition, the high density maps using SNPs can provide useful genetic tools to study quantitative traits genetic variations. There are many sources of SNPs and exhaustive numbers of methods of SNP detection to be considered. For many traits in farm animals, the rate of genetic improvement can be nearly doubled when SNPs information is used compared to the current methods of genetic evaluation. The goal of this review is to characterize the SNPs genotyping methods and their applications in farm animals breeding.

  3. Public morals in private hands? : a study into the evolving path of farm animal welfare governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toschi Maciel, C.

    2015-01-01

    Executive summary

    The advancement of regulatory instruments providing for farm animal welfare measures has been marked by various political and regulatory constraints in both domestic and international settings.In an attempt to overcome some of t

  4. Understanding "Animal Farm": A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodden, John

    "Animal Farm" is a political allegory of the USSR written in the form of a fable. Its stinging moral warning against the abuse of power is demonstrated in this casebook through a wide variety of historical, political, and literary documents that are directly applicable to George Orwell's novel. Included in the casebook are passages from…

  5. The impact of group size on damaging behaviours, aggression, fear and stress in farm animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Koene, P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss the impact of group size on damaging behaviours, aggression, fear and stress in farm animals and to identify housing- and management options that can help to reduce problems caused by suboptimal group sizes. Increasing group size was found to increase the risk of

  6. Public morals in private hands? : a study into the evolving path of farm animal welfare governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toschi Maciel, C.

    2015-01-01

    Executive summary

    The advancement of regulatory instruments providing for farm animal welfare measures has been marked by various political and regulatory constraints in both domestic and international settings.In an attempt to overcome some of t

  7. Brain tumors in children and adolescents and exposure to animals and farm life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Röösli, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The etiology of brain tumors in children and adolescents is largely unknown, and very few environmental risk factors have been identified. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between pre- or postnatal animal contacts or farm exposures and the risk of childhood brain tumors (CBTs...

  8. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruford, M.W.; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Megens, Hendrik Jan

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). Howev

  9. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruford, Michael W; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J; Amaral, Andreia J; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F; Hall, Stephen J G; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-Ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However,

  10. Public morals in private hands? : a study into the evolving path of farm animal welfare governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toschi Maciel, C.

    2015-01-01

    Executive summary

    The advancement of regulatory instruments providing for farm animal welfare measures has been marked by various political and regulatory constraints in both domestic and international settings.In an attempt to overcome some of

  11. Science and technology of farm animal cloning: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajta, Gábor; Gjerris, Mickey

    2006-05-01

    Details of the first mammal born after nuclear transfer cloning were published by Steen Malte Willadsen in 1986. In spite of its enormous scientific significance, this discovery failed to trigger much public concern, possibly because the donor cells were derived from pre-implantation stage embryos. The major breakthrough in terms of public recognition has happened when Ian Wilmut et al. [Wilmut, I., Schnieke, A.E., McWhir, J., Kind, A.J., Campbell, K.H., 1997. Viable offspring derived from fetal és adult mammalian cells. Nature 385, 810-813] described the successful application of almost exactly the same method, but using the nuclei of somatic cells from an adult mammal, to create Dolly the sheep. It has become theoretically possible to produce an unlimited number of genetic replicates from an adult animal or a post-implantation foetus. Since 1997 a number of different species including pigs, goats, horses, cats, etc. have been cloned with the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique. Although the technology still has relatively low success rates and there seems to be substantial problems with the welfare of some of the cloned animals, cloning is used both within basic research and the biomedical sector. The next step seems to be to implement cloning in the agricultural production system and several animals have been developed in this direction. This article reviews the current state of the art of farm animal cloning from a scientific and technological perspective, describes the animal welfare problems and critically assess different applications of farm animal cloning. The scope is confined to animal biotechnologies in which the use of cell nuclear transfer is an essential part and extends to both biomedical and agricultural applications of farm animal cloning. These applications include the production of genetically identical animals for research purposes, and also the creation of genetically modified animals. In the agricultural sector, cloning can be used as a

  12. Animal poisoning in Europe. Part 1: Farm livestock and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, Raimon; Croubels, Siska; Caloni, Francesca; Sachana, Magda; Davanzo, Franca; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Berny, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    The lack of a reference Veterinary Poison Control Centre for the European Union (EU) means that clinicians find it difficult to obtain information on poisoning episodes. This three-part review collates published and unpublished data obtained from Belgium, France, Greece, Italy and Spain over the last decade in order to provide a broader toxicoepidemiological perspective. The first article critically evaluates the national situation in the five European countries and concludes that information for livestock and poultry is limited and fragmentary compared to other animal groups. The analysis has revealed that clinical cases of poisoning are only occasionally studied in depth and that cattle are the species most frequently reported. Several plants and mycotoxins, a few pesticides and metals, together with contaminants of industrial origin, such as dioxins, are responsible for most of the recorded cases. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lighting Energy Saving with Light Pipe in Farm Animal Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans von Wachenfelt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish animal production sector has potential for saving electric lighting of €4-9 million per year using efficient daylight utilisation. To demonstrate this, two light pipe systems, Velux® (house 1 and Solatube® (house 2, are installed in two identical pig houses to determine if the required light intensity, daylight autonomy (DA, and reduced electricity use for illumination can be achieved. In each house, three light sensors continuously measure the indoor daylight relative to an outdoor sensor. If the horizontal illuminance at pig height decreases below 40 lux between 08.00 and 16.00 hours, an automatic control system activates the lights, and electricity use is measured. The daylight factor (DF and DA are determined for each house, based on annual climate data. The mean annual DA of 48% and 55% is achieved for house 1 and house 2, respectively. Light pipes in house 2 have delivered significantly more DA than those in house 1. The most common illuminance range between 0 and 160 lux is recorded in both houses, corresponding to approximately 82% and 83% of daylight time for house 1 and house 2, respectively. Further, the daylighting system for house 2 has produced a uniform DF distribution between 0.05 and 0.59. The results demonstrate that considerable electric energy savings can be achieved in the animal production sector using light pipes. Saving 50% of electric lighting would correspond to 36 GWh or 2520 t CO2 per year for Sweden, but currently the energy savings are not making the investment profitable.

  14. Presence of Clostridium difficile in pig faecal samples and wild animal species associated with pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Lasheras, S; Bolea, R; Mainar-Jaime, R C; Kuijper, E; Sevilla, E; Martín-Burriel, I; Chirino-Trejo, M

    2017-02-01

    To determine the presence of Clostridium difficile on fattening pig farms in north-eastern Spain. Twenty-seven farms were sampled. Pools of pig faecal samples (n = 210), samples of intestinal content from common farm pest species (n = 95) and environment-related samples (n = 93) were collected. Isolates were tested for toxin genes of C. difficile, and typed by PCR-ribotyping and toxinotyping. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of six antimicrobial agents were determined using Etest. Thirty-four isolates were obtained from 12 farms, and 30 (88·2%) had toxin genes. Seven ribotypes were identified. Ribotype 078 and its variant 126 were predominant (52·9%). The same ribotypes were isolated from different animal species on the same farm. None of the isolates were resistant to metronidazole or vancomycin. Clostridium difficile was common within the pig farm environment. Most of the positive samples came from pest species or were pest-related environmental samples. Pest species were colonized with toxigenic and antimicrobial-resistant C. difficile strains of the same ribotypes that are found in humans and pigs. Rodents and pigeons may transmit toxigenic and antimicrobial-resistant C. difficile strains that are of the same ribotypes as those occuring in humans. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Water Quality Signal of Animal Agriculture at USGS Monitoring Stations is Related to Animal Confinement and/or Farm Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. A.; Alexander, R. B.; Schwarz, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    US animal agriculture has undergone major structural changes over the past two decades, with the total number of livestock producers declining dramatically and the average size of the remaining operations increasing substantially. The result has been a pronounced trend towards greater spatial concentration and confinement of livestock. The change raises important questions about the water quality effects of animal agriculture in regions where livestock waste production has become more intensive but recovery, handling, and application of animal wastes to cropland more systematized. In previous research, we developed three separate national-level SPARROW models of surface water contaminants (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and fecal coliform bacteria). Based on USGS monitoring and ancillary data from more than 400 US stream and river basins, the models include point and nonpoint sources of contaminants, land-to-water transport factors, and in-stream loss processes; parameter estimation is by non-linear regression. In this study we report on a pattern in the statistical results for the three models: The source coefficients (quantity of contaminant delivered to streams per unit of contaminant input) for unconfined animals are consistently larger and more statistically significant than those for confined animals. The implicit meaning is that something associated with waste management on large farms and/or animal confinement (e.g. retention period, recovery of manure for application to crops and subsequent crop uptake, and/or better waste treatment) reduces the average water quality signal of this scale of animal agriculture (per unit of manure input) to barely detectable at downstream monitoring stations, while the water quality signal from unconfined animal agriculture is more clear. The county-level data for confined and unconfined manure inputs (defined primarily by farm size) are from the USDA, and are spatially distributed in the model GIS by 1-km land use data

  16. May Organically Farmed Animals Pose a Risk for Campylobacter Infections in Humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engvall Anders

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming of meat producing poultry like broilers, means that the animals should be kept outdoors as much as possible. This pose a risk that they get infected with Campylobacter. At slaughter, carcasses may be contaminated with campylobacter. If cross contamination occurs in the kitchen or if the meat is undercooked people may ingest the bacteria and suffer from enteritis. It seems possible that close to 100 percent of organically farmed flocks may be infected with campylobacter while under Swedish conditions only 10 percent of conventionally reared flocks are infected.

  17. Organic Farming in the Nordic Countries – Animal Health and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamsborg SM

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming (or ecological agriculture is of growing importance in the agricultural sector worldwide. In the Nordic countries, 1–10% of the arable land was in organic production in 1999. Organic farming can be seen as an approach to agriculture where the aim is to create integrated, humane, environmentally and economically sustainable agricultural production systems. Principles like nutrient recycling, prevention rather than treatment and the precautionary principle are included in aims and standards. Animal welfare is another hallmark of organic livestock production but despite this, several studies have indicated severe health problems e.g. in organic poultry production in Denmark. Also the quality of animal food products in relation to human health, particularly the risk of zoonotic infections, has been debated. For these reasons there is a need for improvement of production methods and animal health status. Vets play an important role in this development through work in clinical practice and in research. On-farm consultancy should be tailored to the individual farmers needs, and the practitioner should be willing to take up new ideas and when needed, to enter a critical dialogue in relation to animal welfare. Better base line data on animal health and food safety in organic food systems are needed.

  18. Development of Genome-Wide Scan for Selection Signature in Farm Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-guang

    2013-01-01

    Identifying targets of positive selection in farm animals has, until recently, been frustratingly slow, relying on the analysis of individual candidate genes. Genomics, however, has provided the necessary resources to systematically interrogate the entire genome for signatures of selection. This review described important recent results derived from the application of genome-wide scan to the study of genetic changes in farm animals. These included findings of regions of the genome that showed breed differentiation, evidence of selective sweeps within individual genomes and signatures of demographic events. Particular attention is focused on the study of the implications for domestication. To date, sixteen genome-wide scans for recent or ongoing positive selection have been performed in farm animals. A key challenge is to begin synthesizing these newly constructed maps of selection into a coherent narrative of animal breed evolutionary history and derive a deeper mechanistic understanding of how animal populations improve or evolve. The major insights from the surveyed studies are highlighted and directions for future study are suggested.

  19. A historical synopsis of farm animal disease and public policy in twentieth century Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Abigail

    2011-07-12

    The diseases suffered by British livestock, and the ways in which they were perceived and managed by farmers, vets and the state, changed considerably over the course of the twentieth century. This paper documents and analyses these changes in relation to the development of public policy. It reveals that scientific knowledge and disease demographics cannot by themselves explain the shifting boundaries of state responsibility for animal health, the diseases targeted and the preferred modes of intervention. Policies were shaped also by concerns over food security and the public's health, the state of the national and livestock economy, the interests and expertise of the veterinary profession, and prevailing agricultural policy. This paper demonstrates how, by precipitating changes to farming and trading practices, public policy could sometimes actually undermine farm animal health. Animal disease can therefore be viewed both as a stimulus to, and a consequence of, twentieth century public policy.

  20. Recent Advances in Application of Male Germ Cell Transplantation in Farm Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Honaramooz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of isolated germ cells from a fertile donor male into the seminiferous tubules of infertile recipients can result in donor-derived sperm production. Therefore, this system represents a major development in the study of spermatogenesis and a unique functional assay to determine the developmental potential and relative abundance of spermatogonial stem cells in a given population of testis cells. The application of this method in farm animals has been the subject of an increasing number of studies, mostly because of its potential as an alternative strategy in producing transgenic livestock with higher efficiency and less time and capital requirement than the current methods. This paper highlights the salient recent research on germ cell transplantation in farm animals. The emphasis is placed on the current status of the technique and examination of ways to increase its efficiency through improved preparation of the recipient animals as well as isolation, purification, preservation, and transgenesis of the donor germ cells.

  1. Celebrating Einstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro Key, Joey; Yunes, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    The Gravity Group at Montana State University (MSU) hosted Celebrating Einstein, a free public arts and multimedia event celebrating Einstein and his ideas in Bozeman, Montana April 2-6, 2013. The products of our efforts are now available to any party interested in hosting a similar event. Celebrating Einstein is a truly interdisciplinary effort including art, film, dance, music, physics, history, and education. Events included a black hole immersive art installation, a series of public talks by physicists, and Einstein lessons in the public schools leading up to a live free public multimedia performance including a professional dance company, a live interview with a renowned physicist, and an original score composed for the MSU student symphony to be performed with an original film produced by the Science and Natural History film program at MSU. This project is funded by the Montana Space Grant Consortium, Montana State University, and the National Science Foundation.

  2. [Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and seneciosis in farm animals. Part 1: occurrence, chemistry and toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, E

    2011-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids belong to a class of phytotoxins which are present in more than 6000 plant species. The disease seneciosis in farm animals represents the severe poisoning by pyrrolizidine alkaloids from plants of the genus Senecio. This form of poisoning has been known since the end of the 19th century in Germany, the USA, Canada and New Zealand, and is mainly caused by Senecio jacobaea and related Senecio spp. in farm animals, including poultry. Animal poisoning by pyrrolizidine alkaloids is of worldwide importance. In Germany poisoning of horses and cattle by Senecio jacobaea, which was earlier named Schweinsberg disease, is of renewed relevance for veterinary medicine. The disease occurs almost entirely as a consequence of chronic poisoning and in general ends fatally. The ultimate cause is the formation of toxic metabolites of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the liver, and their covalent binding to nucleic acids and proteins leading to liver cirrhosis. Because many pyrrolizidine alkaloids possess mutagenic, and a few also carcinogenic properties, European and international authorities are concerned about possible residue levels in food of animal origin. The review addresses in its first part several aspects, being the occurrence, the chemistry, and the toxicology of pyrrolizidine alkaloids as well as animal intoxications by poisonous plants. In the second part (46) clinical characteristics of animal seneciosis, the therapeutic interventions, the significant species differences and a critical assessment of so-called nontoxic amounts of Senecio plants in animal fodder with reference to cumulative lethal toxin doses are presented.

  3. Assessing ethics and animal welfare in animal biotechnology for farm production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, M

    2005-04-01

    This paper addresses the ethical issues involved in animal biotechnology. Considerable advances in this field have been made with transgenic fish, which may be the first real test case for regulatory bodies. Intrinsic concerns about animal biotechnology are often voiced in public debate, and the paper presents and critically discusses these issues. Even though these concerns may be hard to reconcile with standards of rational argument, they might still have practical consequences for ethical policy making. Animal welfare and environmental issues are discussed as the most salient extrinsic concerns about animal biotechnology. The most serious obstacle to a good risk assessment of animal biotechnology is the extent of scientific uncertainty. Ethical assessments need to address these uncertainties upfront, and the precautionary principle provides a good criterion for responsible policies. At the end of the paper, a practical method for the ethical assessment of animal biotechnology, the so-called ethical matrix, is briefly presented and discussed.

  4. The Assessment of the Quality of Water Offered to Animals in Rural Households and Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Popescu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the quality of water consumed by animals in rural households and farms. The water quality was determined based on indicator parameters (pH, ammonia, sulphates, iron, chlorides, organic substances, overall hardness, total number of germs, number of Coliform bacteria and chemical parameters (nitrites, nitrates, by collecting and analyzing 40 water samples (from 20 households and 20 farms. The results were compared to the provisions of the Laws 458/2002 and 311/2004. Three water samples (15% from rural households had nitrates exceeding the threshold levels. Within the indicator parameters, the following ones showed alterations: ammonia (20% from samples, sulphates (40% from samples, chlorides (35% from samples, overall hardness (60% from samples, organic substances (20% from samples, total number of germs (all of the samples and the number of Coliform bacteria (90% from samples, respectively. The water used in farms had no alterations of the chemical parameters. Within the indicator parameters, the following showed divergences from the legal provisions: overall hardness (85%, the total number of germs (50% from samples and the number of Coliform bacteria (35% from samples. The obtained results indicate a better quality of water consumed by animals in farms in comparison with water consumed by them in rural households.

  5. Attitudes toward farm animals welfare and consumer's buying intentions: Case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljković Saša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine consumers' perception of the products considering animal welfare and to establish the factors which affect consumers' willingness to pay the premium price for the animal-friendly products. In addition, four consumers' profiles according to their attitudes towards farm animals' welfare are distinguished and their features are elaborated. The research has been undertaken in Belgrade, comprising 198 participants. The face-to-face interview technique has been adopted, while for the analysis of the results regression and cluster analyses have been performed. The findings suggest that food sector stakeholders should put more efforts in providing information and education to the consumers regarding the importance of animal welfare and that there is a significant market potential for the introduction of the label for animal-friendly products. The implications for policy makers are proposed and discussed too.

  6. The green, blue and grey water footprint of farm animals and animal products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, M.M.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The projected increase in the production and consumption of animal products is likely to put further pressure on the globe’s freshwater resources. The size and characteristics of the water footprint vary across animal types and production systems. The current study provides a comprehensive account o

  7. ASAS centennial paper: Farm animal welfare science in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A K

    2009-06-01

    Compared with the more traditional sciences of nutrition, physiology, and reproduction, the acceptance of animal welfare science in its own right is still relatively new. Seven colleagues, who had an average of 10 yr experience with beef (n = 5), swine (n = 5), dairy (n = 2), poultry (n = 1), and sheep (n = 1) were asked several questions on the opportunities and challenges facing the field. The information collected was pooled for anonymity. General challenges identified by the group were (1) are we making progress and how can this be defined, (2) demand for information has outpaced the science, and (3) pressures from stakeholders. Solutions were (1) to continue providing sound science that has been validated, measured objectively, and is reliable; and (2) to continue to have animal science and veterinary medicine departments employ faculty trained in farm animal welfare. Highlights for the future were willingness for animal welfare scientists to work across disciplines and across departments, within the same institution, and enthusiastically across state lines, and expansion of new teaching models. In conclusion, new and innovative tools, personalities, and dedication to the field of animal welfare will continue to provide scientific information and direction for farm animal welfare science.

  8. Food animal transport: a potential source of community exposures to health hazards from industrial farming (CAFOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Ana M; Evans, Sean L; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2008-01-01

    Use of antimicrobial feed additives in food animal production is associated with selection for drug resistance in bacterial pathogens, which can then be released into the environment through occupational exposures, high volume ventilation of animal houses, and land application of animal wastes. We tested the hypothesis that current methods of transporting food animals from farms to slaughterhouses may result in pathogen releases and potential exposures of persons in vehicles traveling on the same road. Air and surface samples were taken from cars driving behind poultry trucks for 17 miles. Air conditioners and fans were turned off and windows fully opened. Background and blank samples were used for quality control. Samples were analyzed for susceptible and drug-resistant strains. Results indicate an increase in the number of total aerobic bacteria including both susceptible and drug-resistant enterococci isolated from air and surface samples, and suggest that food animal transport in open crates introduces a novel route of exposure to harmful microorganisms and may disseminate these pathogens into the general environment. These findings support the need for further exposure characterization, and attention to improving methods of food animal transport, especially in highly trafficked regions of high density farming such as the Delmarva Peninsula.

  9. Farm animal practitioners' views on their use and expectations of veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P A; Epperson, W B

    2013-05-11

    Diagnostic sampling of farm animals by private veterinary practitioners can be an important contributing factor towards the discovery of emerging and exotic diseases. This focus group study of farm animal practitioners in Northern Ireland investigated their use and expectations of diagnostic veterinary laboratories, and elicited their opinions on the role of the private practitioner in veterinary surveillance and the protection of rural public health. The veterinarians were enthusiastic users of diagnostic laboratories, and regarded their own role in surveillance as pivotal. They attached great importance to their veterinary public health duties, and called for more collaboration with their medical general practitioner counterparts. The findings of this research can be used to guide future development of veterinary diagnostic services; provide further insights into the mechanics of scanning surveillance; and measure progress towards a 'One Health' approach between veterinarians and physicians in one geographical region of the UK.

  10. Celebration Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Boykoff, Jules

    2014-01-01

    Capitalism is a nimble shapeshifter. In this talk Jules Boykoff draws from the history of the Olympic Games to offer a theory of “celebration capitalism,” a form of modern-day economics that complements Naomi Klein’s “disaster capitalism” marked by neoliberalism: privatization, deregulation, and free-market rhetoric.

  11. [Voluntary testing procedures of farm animal housing equipment according to the Animal Welfare Act of 1998].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, D; Knierim, U; von Borell, E; Herrmann, H; Koch, L; Müller, C; Rauch, H W; Sachser, N; Schwabenbauer, K; Zerbe, F

    1999-04-01

    Before its broad application in practice, housing equipment should be tested, in particular with regard to animal welfare. The differing positions of the German Federal Council (Bundesrat) and the German Federal Parliament (Bundestag), whether such testing should be mandatory or voluntary, have been conciliated in the amended animal welfare act by empowering the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries (BML) to fix official standards for voluntary testing procedures by regulation. On request of the BML, a report as scientific basis for a draft regulation is currently prepared by the scientific animal welfare committee of the German Agricultural Society (DLG). The scientific animal welfare committee has been appointed by the DLG in order to provide support in the effort to strengthen animal welfare aspects in the DLG-utility testing procedure of housing equipment, which is in place since 1953. The committee elaborates standards concerning testing methods, assessment criteria and the necessary size of investigations. As required, the scientific animal welfare committee may support the DLG-testing bodies in the implementation of the animal welfare part of the testing procedure. It will, moreover, be involved in the welfare assessment based on the testing results. The amendments of the already established testing procedure will help to fulfill the general requirements on an acceptable animal welfare testing procedure. While keeping in mind that there are certain limits in what can be achieved by a voluntary testing procedure, the enhanced consideration of animal welfare aspects within the DLG-utility testing procedure has the advantage to be relatively unbureaucratic and in line with EU legislation, and is, therefore, an appropriate tool for a contibrution to improved animal welfare in livestock housing.

  12. Cryobanking of farm animal gametes and embryos as a means of conserving livestock genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, L; Casu, Sara; Carta, A; Dattena, M

    2013-04-01

    In the last few decades, farm animal genetic diversity has rapidly declined, mainly due to changing market demands and intensification of agriculture. But, since the removal of single species can affect the functioning of global ecosystems, it is in the interest of international community to conserve the livestock genetics and to maintain biodiversity. Increasing awareness on the reduction of breed diversity has prompted global efforts for conservation of farm animal breeds. The goals of conservation are to keep genetic variation as gene combinations in a reversible form and to keep specific genes of interest. For this purpose two types of strategies are usually proposed: in situ and ex situ conservation. In situ conservation is the breed maintaining within the livestock production system, in its environment through the enhancement of its production characteristics. Ex situ in vivo conservation is the safeguard of live animals in zoos, wildlife parks, experimental farms or other specialized centres. Ex situ in vitro conservation is the preservation of genetic material in haploid form (semen and oocytes), diploid (embryos) or DNA sequences. In the last few years, ex situ in vitro conservation programs of livestock genetic resources have focused interest on cryopreservation of gametes, embryos and somatic cells as well as testis and ovarian tissues, effectively lengthening the genetic lifespan of individuals in a breeding program even after the death. However, although significant progress has been made in semen, oocytes and embryo cryopreservation of several domestic species, a standardized procedure has not been established yet. The aim of the present review is to describe the cryobanking purposes, the collection goals, the type of genetic material to store and the reproductive biotechnologies utilized for the cryopreservation of farm animal gametes and embryos.

  13. The importance of antioxidants in the protection against mycotoxicoses in farm animals

    OpenAIRE

    Joksimović-Todorović Mirjana Ž.; Davidović Vesna M.

    2011-01-01

    Mycotoxins are biologically active substances that are synthesized by saprophytic and parasitic fungi, and which, when taken into organism by ingestion, can provoke intoxications known as mycotoxicoses. Farm animals show different susceptibility to mycotoxins depending on various factors: genetic (species and breeds), physiological (age and obesity) and environmental (hygienic and climatic). One of the mechanisms of mycotoxin activities is peroxidation of lipids brought about directly b...

  14. Prevalence of leptospira species among farmed and domestic animals in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burriel, A R; Dalley, C; Woodward, M J

    2003-08-02

    A total of 1527 serum samples from pigs, goats, sheep, cattle and dogs in Greece were examined by the microscopic agglutination test and 11-8 per cent of them had antibodies against one or more Leptospira serovars at titres of 1/100 or more. The predominant serovar affecting farm animal species was Bratislava, and Copenhageni was common among dogs and the second most important serovar when all animals were considered together. Another prevalent serovar was Australis, but antibodies to Pomona were detected only in goats and cattle.

  15. Does animal welfare influence dairy farm efficiency? A two-stage approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendorf, J J; Wettemann, P J C

    2015-11-01

    This article investigated how process-based animal welfare indicators (PAI) affected the technical efficiency of German dairy farms. A sample of 115 North-Rhine Westphalian dairy farms was used to estimate their technical efficiency with data envelopment analysis. A censored regression model was then applied to quantify the effects of PAI on technical efficiency. The results indicated that in particular a higher percentage of cow losses, a higher replacement rate, and a longer calving interval had, at their respective mean, a negative marginal effect on the technical efficiency of the sample farms. In contrast, a lower age of first calving, a higher in-milk performance, and a higher somatic cell count were positively correlated with technical efficiency. Some of the PAI followed a polynomial trend (i.e., their influence on technical efficiency did not have a constant sign, and levels for minimum/maximum technical efficiency were present). The minimum efficiency score at constant returns to scale was obtained when farmers had cow losses of 0.4%, a calving interval of 430d, and a cell count of 146,000 per milliliter. However, maximum technical efficiency was obtained at a milk yield of 9,796 kg per cow and year. The corresponding amounts in case of technical efficiency under variable returns to scale were at a similar level, except that milk yield showed a positive linear influence on technical efficiency. Moreover, technical efficiency under variable returns to scale was positively correlated with the fat content of milk. The lowest level of technical efficiency was reached at a fat content of 4.1%. Subsequently, we found that efficient dairy farms did not always correspond with recommended values concerning animal welfare criteria. Finally, the results showed that the assumption of a monotone effect direction of PAI on farm efficiency was inappropriate, and that this issue would need to be addressed in future research.

  16. The concept of animal welfare at the interface between producers and scientists: the example of organic pig farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Christine

    2011-06-01

    In organic farming animal welfare is one important aspect included in the internationally agreed organic principles of health, ecology, fairness and care (IFOAM 2006), reflecting expectation of consumers and farmers. The definition of organic animal welfare includes-besides traditional terms of animal welfare-'regeneration' and 'naturalness'. Organic animal welfare assessment needs to reflect this and use complex parameters, include natural behaviour and a systemic view. Furthermore, various parties with seemingly conflicting interests are involved, causing ethical dilemmas, such as the use of nose rings for outdoor sows (impaired animal welfare vs. destruction of humus). Solutions can only be found when foundational concepts are translated and applied to practical situations. On-farm animal welfare assessment and implementation of improvement strategies are increasingly relevant scientific areas. They combine on-farm welfare assessment, identification of key problem areas and connected risk factors. Constant communication between all parties is crucial for success. Animal health and welfare planning is one application of this approach, which was carried out on Austrian organic pig farms as well as organic dairy farms in seven European countries. The projects included welfare assessment, feedback and benchmarking as a tool for communication between farmers, advisors and scientists. Finally goals were set by the farmer and improvement strategies applicable to organic farming were implemented. This included prevention of disease by management strategies instead of routine treatment with pharmaceutical products. It appeared that next to problem structuring, multidisciplinary problem solving demands good communications skills to relate animal welfare science to value reflections.

  17. Risks to farm animals from pathogens in composted catering waste containing meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, P

    2004-07-17

    Uncooked meat may contain animal pathogens, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy, foot-and-mouth disease virus, African swine fever virus and classical swine fever virus, and to prevent outbreaks of these diseases in farm animals, the disposal of meat from catering waste is controlled under the Animal By-Products Regulations. This paper estimates the risks to farm animals of grazing land on to which compost, produced by the composting of catering waste containing meat, has been applied. The factors controlling the level of risk are the separation of the meat at source, the efficiency of the composting process, and the decay and dilution of the pathogens in soil. The net pathogen destruction by the composting process is determined largely by the degree of bypass, and to accommodate the possibility of large joints or even whole carcases being discarded uncooked to catering waste, a time/temperature condition of 60 degrees C for two days is recommended. Where data are lacking, worst-case assumptions have been applied. According to the model, classical swine fever virus constitutes the highest risk, but the assessment shows that a two-barrier composting approach, together with a two-month grazing ban, reduces the risk to one infection in pigs every 190 years in England and Wales. This work defined the operational conditions for the composting of catering waste as set out in the Animal By-Products Regulations 2003 (SI 1482).

  18. Assisted Reproductive Techniques in Farm Animal - From Artificial Insemination to Nanobiotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O P Verma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It has become evident that advances in farm animal reproduction have become increasingly dependent on advance scientific research in addition to an understanding of the physiological processes involved in reproduction. The use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART has helped owners to produce offspring from valuable farm animals that were considered infertile using standard breeding techniques. This chapter constitutes an update of recent developments in the field of assisted reproduction includes Artificial insemination, Embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, embryo cryopreservation, Sexing of semen and embryos, cloning, transgenesis, stem cell technology, embryo genomics, micro and nanotechnology has been included. Recently in some of these fields remarkable progress has been made. None the less, imperfections are remaining and sustained efforts will be required to optimize existing and invent new technologies. Before referring an animal for an ART, the practitioner should be able to identify the underlying cause of subfertility of that animal. Knowing the complexity as well as the risks of these techniques, enables practitioners to refer a sub-fertile animal to the least complex and most appropriate and successful ART that can overcome specific causes of infertility. [Vet. World 2012; 5(5.000: 301-310

  19. Human-animal chimeras: ethical issues about farming chimeric animals bearing human organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourret, Rodolphe; Martinez, Eric; Vialla, François; Giquel, Chloé; Thonnat-Marin, Aurélie; De Vos, John

    2016-06-29

    Recent advances in stem cells and gene engineering have paved the way for the generation of interspecies chimeras, such as animals bearing an organ from another species. The production of a rat pancreas by a mouse has demonstrated the feasibility of this approach. The next step will be the generation of larger chimeric animals, such as pigs bearing human organs. Because of the dramatic organ shortage for transplantation, the medical needs for such a transgressive practice are indisputable. However, there are serious technical barriers and complex ethical issues that must be discussed and solved before producing human organs in animals. The main ethical issues are the risks of consciousness and of human features in the chimeric animal due to a too high contribution of human cells to the brain, in the first case, or for instance to limbs, in the second. Another critical point concerns the production of human gametes by such chimeric animals. These worst-case scenarios are obviously unacceptable and must be strictly monitored by careful risk assessment, and, if necessary, technically prevented. The public must be associated with this ethical debate. Scientists and physicians have a critical role in explaining the medical needs, the advantages and limits of this potential medical procedure, and the ethical boundaries that must not be trespassed. If these prerequisites are met, acceptance of such a new, borderline medical procedure may prevail, as happened before for in-vitro fertilization or preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

  20. Genetic characterization of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci of human and animal origin from mixed pig and poultry farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Willems, R.J.L.; Van den Bogaard, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    promoter. All investigated animal isolates were from mixed pig and poultry farms in the Netherlands and the human isolated from the farmers of these farms. A total of 24 isolates were investigated. AFLP and Tn1546 typing revealed that both pig and poultry related enterococcal and vanA transposon genotypes...

  1. Genetic characterization of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci of human and animal origin from mixed pig and poultry farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Willems, R.J.L.; Van den Bogaard, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    promoter. All investigated animal isolates were from mixed pig and poultry farms in the Netherlands and the human isolated from the farmers of these farms. A total of 24 isolates were investigated. AFLP and Tn1546 typing revealed that both pig and poultry related enterococcal and vanA transposon genotypes...

  2. Celebrity endorsements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Schimmelpfennig, Christian

    2014-01-01

    arrive at being represented by a celebrity, the stakeholders that are involved in the process and whether the decision-making process is objective or intuitive. Reat-life case studies depicting how Lindt ond Roger Federer as well as OMV/BP and Hansi Hinterseer teamed up are presented for illustration.......Celebrity endorsements are a popular business-to-consumer promotion strategy in the UK as well as internationally. This is with good reason: they provide a very emotionol approach to product promotion. The rational explanation for the increasing use of the famous in marketing compaigns is simple......: Endorsements are promising meons to counter limitations of conventional product differentiotion. The process that companies pursue until an endorsement deal is signed may be emotional or rotional. In this paper, the authors shed some light on endorser selection from a brand perspective and look into how brands...

  3. Perceived risk and strategy efficacy as motivators of risk management strategy adoption to prevent animal diseases in pig farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Backus, G.B.C.

    2011-01-01

    For Dutch fattening pig farms, this study explored (1) farmers’ perceptions towards animal disease risks and animal health risk management; (2) factors underlying farmers’ adoption of the two risk management strategies, namely, biosecurity measures and animal health programs. The risks included ende

  4. Survey on animal welfare in nine hundred and forty three Italian dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Peli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The final results of a survey on welfare of dairy cows in 7 Italian Regions are presented. The study has been performed on 943 farms in southern and central Italy to highlight critical and strong points concerning animal welfare in dairy systems, by using direct and indirect criteria. To assess animal welfare, a checklist based on 303 parameters has been used; indirect criteria have been organised in 5 general areas concerning Farm management, Farming and housing systems, Environment, Feeding, Health and hygiene; other resource-based criteria were considered in 5 specific areas for the different productive categories (lactating cows, dry cows, pregnant heifers, cows comeback, calves up to 8 weeks and calves between 8 weeks and 6 months; finally, an Indicators section focused on animal based criteria. Parameters have been valued as conforming or not conforming on the basis of the current lesgislation on animal welfare, and in the other cases by the use of a semi-quantitative scale such as poor, satisfactory, good or very good referring to scientific literature and reports by the Animal Health and Animal Welfare panel of the European Food Safety Authority. Among the 249 examined parameters (54 criteria have been valued as descriptive, 15 showed a failure prevalence inferior to 1%; for the remaining parameters, the overall non-compliance prevalence on the whole sample ranged from a maximum of 67% to a minimum of 2%, showing an inverse proportionality correlation with the herd size. One hundred and ten parameters were judged as poor (96 or not in compliance with the rules in force (14 in more than 10% of the examined herds. The most common non-compliance aspects detected in the different areas concern calves management, staff training and prophylaxis programmes; staff training levels were inversely related to failure prevalences in almost all areas. The combination of direct and indirect criteria has allowed to fully embrace recommendations on the

  5. PRODUCTS OF PROCESSING OF RAPESEED IN FEEDING OF FARM ANIMALS AND POULTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Коnоnеnко S. I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic conditions of the import substitution, special importance is given to the search for new feed sources, methods of preparing them for feeding, the use of biologically active substances and enzymes. At the forefront of feed production is rape as breeding work with this culture has showed positive results. Currently, selectionists have bred yellow double-zero "00" varieties of rapeseeds free of erucic acid of "Canole" type, that have low glucosinolate level. The development of new and modern technology standards are required for preparation them for feeding, since they are fundamentally different from the previously used rapeseed varieties and have fewer restrictions for feeding to different types of farm animals and poultry. The article presents a fairly lengthy and reasoned review of the literature of a large number of authors on the topic, as well as given rapeseed market analysis, rational and advanced methods of preparing rapeseed processed products for feeding to young and adult animals. Much attention is paid to the use of a variety of biologically active substances and enzymes, which improve digestion and absorption of nutrients from rations with rapeseed processingproducts, increase productivity and reduce feed costs per unit of production. The use of processing products of rapeseed improves the profitability of livestock production. Feeding of rapeseedcake to cattle increases the protein content and volatile fatty acids in the rumen content, increases the number of infusoria and decreases ammonia levels. The inclusion of rape forage in diets of farm animals and poultry improves hematological parameters. Products of rapeseed processing of the varieties with low glucosinolatesa1re recommended for the rations of farm animals and poultry depending on the species, age and physiological state

  6. Cool roofs with high solar reflectance for the welfare of dairy farming animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santunione, G.; Libbra, A.; Muscio, A.

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring livestock welfare in dairy farming promotes the production capacity of the animals in terms of both quantity and quality. In welfare conditions, the animals can produce at their full potential. For the dairy cattle the most debilitating period of the year is summer, when the stress arising from overheating induces physiological alterations that compromise the animals’ productivity. In this study, the summer discomfort of dairy animals is primarily quantified and the production loss is quantified versus the Temperature Humidity Index (THI), which correlates the values of temperature and relative humidity to the thermal stress. In order to reduce or eliminate such thermal stress, it is then proposed to coat the roof of the stables with a paint having high solar reflectance and thermal emittance, that is a cool roof product. This type of roofing solution can considerably limit the overheating of stables caused by solar radiation, thus providing a positive impact on the animals’ welfare and improving significantly their productivity in summer.

  7. ASSURING QUALITY IN FARM ANIMAL WELFARE CURRICULA: THE CASE OF WELFOOD CURRICULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVANGELIA N. SOSSIDOU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to analyze virtual learning environments and to provide a framework for assuring quality in farm animal welfare curricula. The framework is constructed according to the experimental learning for a case study developed in the context of the Leonardo da Vinci Community Vocational Training Action Pilot Project entitled “WELFOOD-Promoting quality assurance in animal welfare-environment-food quality interaction studies through upgraded e-Learning”. WELFOOD addressed objectives such as improvement and competencies of the skills in vocational training to promote employability and facilitate integration and reintegration in terms of capabilities and knowledge, needed for improved technologies in animal husbandry and food industry.

  8. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in veal calf farming: human MRSA carriage related with animal antimicrobial usage and farm hygiene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitske Graveland

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recently a specific MRSA sequence type, ST398, emerged in food production animals and farmers. Risk factors for carrying MRSA ST398 in both animals and humans have not been fully evaluated. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated factors associated with MRSA colonization in veal calves and humans working and living on these farms. METHODS: A sample of 102 veal calf farms were randomly selected and visited from March 2007-February 2008. Participating farmers were asked to fill in a questionnaire (n = 390 to identify potential risk factors. A nasal swab was taken from each participant. Furthermore, nasal swabs were taken from calves (n = 2151. Swabs were analysed for MRSA by selective enrichment and suspected colonies were confirmed as MRSA by using slide coagulase test and PCR for presence of the mecA-gene. Spa types were identified and a random selection of each spa type was tested with ST398 specific PCR. The Sequence Type of non ST398 strains was determined. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Human MRSA carriage was strongly associated with intensity of animal contact and with the number of MRSA positive animals on the farm. Calves were more often carrier when treated with antibiotics, while farm hygiene was associated with a lower prevalence of MRSA. CONCLUSION: This is the first study showing direct associations between animal and human carriage of ST398. The direct associations between animal and human MRSA carriage and the association between MRSA and antimicrobial use in calves implicate prudent use of antibiotics in farm animals.

  9. Exposure to Farm Animals and Risk of Lung Cancer in the AGRICAN Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tual, Séverine; Lemarchand, Clémentine; Boulanger, Mathilde; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Rachet, Bernard; Marcotullio, Elisabeth; Velten, Michel; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Clin, Bénédicte; Baldi, Isabelle; Lebailly, Pierre

    2017-08-15

    Epidemiologic studies have found lower risks of lung cancer in farmers. However, little is known about the types of agricultural activities concerned. In the Agriculture and Cancer cohort, we assessed the relationship between animal farming and lung cancer by investigating the types of animals, tasks, and timing of exposure. Analyses included 170,834 participants from the Agriculture and Cancer (AGRICAN) cohort in France. Incident lung cancers were identified through linkage with cancer registries from enrollment (2005-2007) to 2011. A Cox model, adjusting for pack-years of cigarette smoking, was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Lung cancer risk was inversely related to duration of exposure to cattle (≥40 years: hazard ratio = 0.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.41, 0.89; P for trend animals, undertaken milking, and who had been exposed to cattle in infancy. Our study provides strong evidence of an inverse association between lung cancer and cattle and horse farming. Further research is warranted to identify the etiologic protective agents and biological mechanisms. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The importance of antioxidants in the protection against mycotoxicoses in farm animals

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    Joksimović-Todorović Mirjana Ž.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are biologically active substances that are synthesized by saprophytic and parasitic fungi, and which, when taken into organism by ingestion, can provoke intoxications known as mycotoxicoses. Farm animals show different susceptibility to mycotoxins depending on various factors: genetic (species and breeds, physiological (age and obesity and environmental (hygienic and climatic. One of the mechanisms of mycotoxin activities is peroxidation of lipids brought about directly by the production of free radicals or by increased sensitivity of tissue to peroxidation. Peroxidation of lipids provoked by mycotoxins is caused by low level of natural antioxidants, so they have a crucial role in the protection against mycotoxins. Nutritive stress can influence negatively the relationship between antioxidants/pro-oxidants, and mycotoxins are nowadays regarded as leading factors of stress induced by nutrition. This optimal relationship can be regulated by the use of antioxidants in food (selenium, vitamin E, carotenoids, etc. known to prevent tissue damages caused by free radicals. Selenium and vitamin E are essential nutrients which contribute to the preservation of animal health by realizing mutual biological activities in the organism. This paper presents the findings on mechanisms of the action of different species of mycotoxins and the importance of antioxidative protection in farm animals, as well as the results of our investigations of influence of mycotoxins on the occurrence of some reproductive disorders in pigs.

  11. Estimating farm-gate ammonia emissions from major animal production systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Zhu, Gaodi; Roelcke, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from livestock production in China are an important contributor to the global NH3 budget. In this study, by estimating total nitrogen (N) intake based on herd structures and excreted N, a mass balance model was used to estimate NH3 losses from animal housing and manure storage facilities of dairy cattle, beef cattle, pigs, broiler and layer productions within animal farm gate and their corresponding NH3 emission intensities on the basis of animal products, N and protein in animal products. In 2009, NH3 emissions from pigs, layers, beef and dairy cattle and broiler production systems in China were 1.23, 0.52, 0.24, 0.21 and 0.09 million tons, respectively. The NH3 emission intensities were 26.6 g NH3-N kg-1 of pork, 28.1 g NH3-N kg-1 of layer eggs, 39.4 g NH3-N kg-1 of beef meat, 6.0 g NH3-N kg-1 of dairy milk and 4.6 g NH3-N kg-1 of chicken meat, or 1260 (pigs), 1514 (layers), 1297 (beef), 1107 (dairy) and 123 g NH3-N (broilers) kg-1 N in animal products. Of the sectors of NH3 emission, manure storage facilities and farmyard manure (FYM) in animal housing were the major contributors to the total NH3 emissions except for layers; housing emissions from slurry were also major contributors for dairy and pig production.

  12. Development of practical methodology and indicators for on-farm animal welfare assessment

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    163 p. Work described in the doctoral thesis entitled ¿Development of practical methodology and indicators for on-farm animal welfare assessment¿ was conducted within the frame of Work Package 1 of the AWIN project by Joanna Marchewka. The research project aimed to optimize strategies for welfare assessment including pain in turkeys and sheep. Due to scarce knowledge on turkeys¿ welfare and lack of methodology for its evaluation, the first part of work concentrated on the development of a ...

  13. Celebrating Pentecost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Liu Yuzui, a 66-year-old fanner from Anhui Province, traveled 50 km from her village to Wuhu City alone by train. Not a big deal for most people, but for Liu it is an annual pilgrimage when she leaves behind her labor-intensive rice fields to celebrate the Pentecost, one of the three great festival days of the Christian calendar, commemorating the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the disciples. As she has done for the past 10 years, Liu attended the Mass at St. Joseph Church on June 4, stayed the night an...

  14. The cognitive capabilities of farm animals: categorisation learning in dwarf goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Susann; Nürnberg, Gerd; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

    2012-07-01

    The ability to establish categories enables organisms to classify stimuli, objects and events by assessing perceptual, associative or rational similarities and provides the basis for higher cognitive processing. The cognitive capabilities of farm animals are receiving increasing attention in applied ethology, a development driven primarily by scientifically based efforts to improve animal welfare. The present study investigated the learning of perceptual categories in Nigerian dwarf goats (Capra hircus) by using an automated learning device installed in the animals' pen. Thirteen group-housed goats were trained in a closed-economy approach to discriminate artificial two-dimensional symbols presented in a four-choice design. The symbols belonged to two categories: category I, black symbols with an open centre (rewarded) and category II, the same symbols but filled black (unrewarded). One symbol from category I and three different symbols from category II were used to define a discrimination problem. After the training of eight problems, the animals were presented with a transfer series containing the training problems interspersed with completely new problems made from new symbols belonging to the same categories. The results clearly demonstrate that dwarf goats are able to form categories based on similarities in the visual appearance of artificial symbols and to generalise across new symbols. However, the goats had difficulties in discriminating specific symbols. It is probable that perceptual problems caused these difficulties. Nevertheless, the present study suggests that goats housed under farming conditions have well-developed cognitive abilities, including learning of open-ended categories. This result could prove beneficial by facilitating animals' adaptation to housing environments that favour their cognitive capabilities.

  15. Serotypes and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Farm Animals in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zong Hui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. can indirectly infect humans via transfer from animals and animal-derived food products, and thereby cause potentially fatal diseases. Therefore, gaining an understanding of Salmonella infection in farm animals is increasingly important. The aim of this study was to identify the distribution of serotypes in Salmonella samples isolated from chickens (n = 837, pigs (n = 930, and dairy cows (n = 418 in central China (Henan, Hubei, and Hunan provinces in 2010–2011, and investigate the susceptibility of strains to antimicrobial agents. Salmonella isolates were identified by PCR amplification of the invA gene, serotypes were determined by using a slide agglutination test for O and H antigens, and susceptibility to 24 antimicrobials was tested using the agar dilution method. In total, 248 Salmonella strains were identified: 105, 105, and 38 from chickens, dairy cows, and pigs, respectively. Additionally, 209 strains were identified in unhealthy pigs from the Huazhong Agricultural University veterinary hospital. Among these 457 strains, the dominant serotypes were Typhimurium in serogroup B, IIIb in serogroup C, and Enteritidis in serogroup D. In antimicrobial susceptibility tests, 41.14% of Salmonella spp. were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents, 48.14% were resistant to at least one, and 34.72% were resistant to more than three classes. Strains were highly resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (39.61%, nalidixic acid (39.17%, doxycycline (28.22%, and tetracycline (27.58%. Resistance to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones ranged from 5.25% to 7.44% and 19.04% to 24.51%, respectively. Among penicillin-resistant and cephalosporin-resistant strains, 25 isolates produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs. The multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing Salmonella strains identified in healthy animals here will present a challenge for veterinary medicine and farm animal husbandry, and could also pose a threat to public health

  16. Sampling strategies in antimicrobial resistance monitoring: evaluating how precision and sensitivity vary with the number of animals sampled per farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takehisa; Hayama, Yoko; Hidano, Arata; Kobayashi, Sota; Muroga, Norihiko; Ishikawa, Kiyoyasu; Ogura, Aki; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Because antimicrobial resistance in food-producing animals is a major public health concern, many countries have implemented antimicrobial monitoring systems at a national level. When designing a sampling scheme for antimicrobial resistance monitoring, it is necessary to consider both cost effectiveness and statistical plausibility. In this study, we examined how sampling scheme precision and sensitivity can vary with the number of animals sampled from each farm, while keeping the overall sample size constant to avoid additional sampling costs. Five sampling strategies were investigated. These employed 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6 animal samples per farm, with a total of 12 animals sampled in each strategy. A total of 1,500 Escherichia coli isolates from 300 fattening pigs on 30 farms were tested for resistance against 12 antimicrobials. The performance of each sampling strategy was evaluated by bootstrap resampling from the observational data. In the bootstrapping procedure, farms, animals, and isolates were selected randomly with replacement, and a total of 10,000 replications were conducted. For each antimicrobial, we observed that the standard deviation and 2.5-97.5 percentile interval of resistance prevalence were smallest in the sampling strategy that employed 1 animal per farm. The proportion of bootstrap samples that included at least 1 isolate with resistance was also evaluated as an indicator of the sensitivity of the sampling strategy to previously unidentified antimicrobial resistance. The proportion was greatest with 1 sample per farm and decreased with larger samples per farm. We concluded that when the total number of samples is pre-specified, the most precise and sensitive sampling strategy involves collecting 1 sample per farm.

  17. Sampling strategies in antimicrobial resistance monitoring: evaluating how precision and sensitivity vary with the number of animals sampled per farm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehisa Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Because antimicrobial resistance in food-producing animals is a major public health concern, many countries have implemented antimicrobial monitoring systems at a national level. When designing a sampling scheme for antimicrobial resistance monitoring, it is necessary to consider both cost effectiveness and statistical plausibility. In this study, we examined how sampling scheme precision and sensitivity can vary with the number of animals sampled from each farm, while keeping the overall sample size constant to avoid additional sampling costs. Five sampling strategies were investigated. These employed 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6 animal samples per farm, with a total of 12 animals sampled in each strategy. A total of 1,500 Escherichia coli isolates from 300 fattening pigs on 30 farms were tested for resistance against 12 antimicrobials. The performance of each sampling strategy was evaluated by bootstrap resampling from the observational data. In the bootstrapping procedure, farms, animals, and isolates were selected randomly with replacement, and a total of 10,000 replications were conducted. For each antimicrobial, we observed that the standard deviation and 2.5-97.5 percentile interval of resistance prevalence were smallest in the sampling strategy that employed 1 animal per farm. The proportion of bootstrap samples that included at least 1 isolate with resistance was also evaluated as an indicator of the sensitivity of the sampling strategy to previously unidentified antimicrobial resistance. The proportion was greatest with 1 sample per farm and decreased with larger samples per farm. We concluded that when the total number of samples is pre-specified, the most precise and sensitive sampling strategy involves collecting 1 sample per farm.

  18. Farm-level plans and husbandry measures for aquatic animal disease emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, C V; Phillips, M J; Bhat, B V; Umesh, N R; Padiyar, P A

    2008-04-01

    Disease is one of the gravest threats to the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. A good understanding of biosecurity and disease causation is essential for developing and implementing farm-level plans and husbandry measures to respond to disease emergencies. Using epidemiological approaches, it is possible to identify pond- and farm-level risk factors for disease outbreaks and develop intervention strategies. Better management practices (BMPs) should be simple, science-based, cost-effective and appropriate to their context if farmers are to adopt and implement them. As part of a regional initiative by the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) to control aquatic animal diseases, effective extension approaches to promote the widespread adoption of BMPs have been developed in India, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand, and have proved their worth. A highly successful programme, which addresses rising concerns about the effect of disease on the sustainability of shrimp farming in India, is now in its seventh year. In this paper, the authors present a brief insight into the details of the programme, its outcomes and impact, the lessons learned and the way forward.

  19. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND TRADITIONAL PRACTICES: A CASE STUDY OF WELANIMAL PARTNER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZEHRA BOZKURT

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the Amsterdam Treaty, animals are sentient creatures and animal welfare requirements should be precisely met while preparing and implementing the Commission laws. Accomplishing this, cultural, religious and regional characteristics should be considered. However, more and more regulations and laws are continuously introduced in Europe and worldwide. Ongoing WELANIMAL Project was financed by EU Commission adapting of vocational training products and results of training tools of WELFOOD related to the animal welfareenvironment- food quality interactions is being enriched with consideration of cultural, socio-economic and religious approaches in order to determine a common work definition for all sectorial workers having different moral and social values on the subject of animal welfare and food safety Central and South-eastern Europe region. Although there is slight differences, national legislation in partner countries of EU in Project were harmonious with legal framework in EU regarding for all farm species. It is expected that three draft regulations in compliance with legal requirements animal protection in farms and during transportation and slaughtering and killing in Turkey, as a candidate country to membership into EU, in 2009. Also, due to in participating countries to the Project have ethnicity, history, tradition and religious structure show a great diversity it has been guessed that welfare concept which is a moral issue can be effected by people’s cultural, religious and social composition. In the WELANIMAL Project, the effects of socio-cultural, religious and regional historical differences of workers and consumers within animal production chain on understanding of animal welfare concepts are being analysed. Furthermore in the light of obtained data a common vocational animal welfare definition and animal welfare, food quality and environment interaction will be evaluated. Through the Project web page (www

  20. 农场动物福利的评估%Assessment of Farm Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹国安; 孙国鹏

    2013-01-01

    Animal welfare in the livestock industry has aroused wide concern.The assessment of farm animal welfare is the foundation to improve it.The behavior is a most easily understood and commonly used indicator to assess animal welfare,particularly the occurrence of abnormal behavior.And stress-related physiological characterization also showed that the animal is in an uncomfortable environment.But welfare assessment is complex and difficult.There are many other indicators conducive to welfare assessment,especially emotional state.The paper described commonly used assessment indicators and measures for animal welfare assessment.%畜牧业中的动物福利问题越来越为人们所关注,评估动物福利是提高畜禽福利的基础.行为是评价动物福利最容易理解和最通常使用的指标,特别是异常行为的出现.应激相关生理表征也说明动物处于不适环境.但福利评估是一个复杂而棘手的问题,其他很多指标也可用于福利评估,特别是情感状态.论文较为全面地介绍了动物福利常用的评估指标和新的评估手段.

  1. [Genomic methods for identification of traits and inherited disorders in farm animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, S; Vögeli, P; Hasan, L; Kratzsch, A; Meijerink, E; Pliska, V; Stranzinger, G

    2002-01-01

    In this review we demonstrate the interaction of the blueprint of an individual (the genome, genomic DNA), its phenotype and the environment. The phenotype consists of quantitative (e.g. growth, milk yield) or functional characteristics e.g. fitness, longevity, fertility and disease resistance. The latter characteristics influence the welfare of an animal substantially. As only the genetically determined part of a particular characteristic is transferred from one generation to the next, it is important to know what the genetic variants (alleles) of the parents at one or more gene loci are. New methods in molecular biology have made it possible to localize and characterize important genes which help to breed more efficient and healthy animals. The exact characterization of the phenotype is vital in identifying genes with major effects and therefore the cooperation with experts from veterinary medicine, biochemistry, and biology is indispensable. As well as an overview of available genetic tests in farm animals, we show various examples how to identify the molecular basis of a particular phenotype and how to use the results in practical breeding programs. Genetic diagnosis enables the breeder to identify undesired alleles early and hinders therefore its uncontrolled distribution in the population. In the long term this leads to a smaller number of affected animals and depending on the disease it may help to prevent animals from suffering.

  2. Prevalence of antibodies to toxoplasma in farm animals in the Netherlands and its implication for meat inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Knapen, F.; Franchimont, J.H.; van der Lugt, G.

    1982-01-01

    A serological survey on toxoplasmosis was carried out amongst horses, sheep, cattle, pigs and poultry in the Netherlands. Sera were obtained from slaughter animals and the results were compared with those of previous studies of this kind in the Netherlands. In horses and cattle the percentage of seropositive animals remained the same in the past 20 years. In sheep and particularly in pigs, however, a remarkable decline of seropositive animals was found. This is probably due to the age of the animals examined and a change in present day methods of farming. In poultry it was shown that only free scratching hens were seropositive in up to 30 per cent of the animals tested, whereas broilers and battery animals were seronegative. Since as yet no individual control measures in the slaughterhouse exist with regard to toxoplasmosis it is recommended to carry out periodic epizootiological surveys amongst farm animals to be able to follow trends of the infection.

  3. Got Milk? Got Water? Innovative Approach to Evaluating Groundwater Nitrate Nonpoint Source Pollution from Animal Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Vanderschans, M.; Leijnse, A.; Meyer, R. D.; Mathews, M. C.

    2002-12-01

    The California dairy industry produces 20% of US milk and is the largest animal industry in the state. Many of the dairy facilities are located in low-relief valleys and basins with vulnerable groundwater resources. The continued influx of dairies into California's Central Valley has raised critical questions regarding their environmental performance, in particular with respect to groundwater quality impacts. While animal farming systems are considered among the leading sources of groundwater nitrate,little is known about the actual impact of dairy farming practices on groundwater quality in the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying the Central Valley. With our work we attempt to characterize and assess shallow groundwater underneath dairies in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to discern the impact from various individual sources and management practices within dairies. An extensive shallow groundwater monitoring network was installed on five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, California. The monitoring network spans all dairy management units: manure water lagoons, corrals, storage areas, and manure treated forage fields under various management practices. We recently also surveyed production well water quality. Water quality is found to be highly variable, both in time and space. We propose that a meaningful interpretation of these (nonpoint source pollution) data is only possible by explicitly considering the various scales affiliated with groundwater measurement, pollution source management, regulatory control, and beneficial use. Using statistical analysis and innovative modeling tools, we provide an interpretation of the observed data that is meaningful at the field scale (the scale unit of management decisions), the farm scale (considered to be a regulatory and planning unit), and the regional scale (considered to be a planning unit).

  4. Social stress as a cause of diseases in farm animals: Current knowledge and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudfoot, Kathryn; Habing, Gregory

    2015-10-01

    Over the past 50 years, biomedical research has established a strong linkage between psychosocial stress and disease risk in humans, which has transformed the understanding of stress and the role it plays in human lives. This research has led to personalized medicine where a reduction in daily life stress is a main goal for many people with debilitating illnesses. This review describes the supporting evidence that social stress also plays a critical role in farm animal disease prevention, and may be a mediator by which common management practices can increase disease risk. There is evidence that social factors, including deprivation of social contact ('social isolation'), reducing space allowance ('crowding') and disturbing social order ('social instability') trigger physiological and behavioral indicators of stress in livestock. Less research exists, however, linking management practices that trigger social stress with higher disease risk. Suggestions are offered for future research opportunities, and practical, evidence-based recommendations are made for reducing the negative effects of social isolation, instability and crowding. The current evidence that social factors contribute to disease risk in farm animals is not as convincing as the human literature, but remains a promising and important area for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Energy from Agricultural and Animal Farming Residues: Potential at a Local Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Guariso

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal wastes from high-density farming have severe impacts on the nitrogen cycle. According to current regulations, the disposal of manure on cropland is constrained by nitrogen content in the agricultural soils. On the contrary, anaerobic digestion (AD of these wastes can produce energy and a digestate, which is easier to handle than manure and can be applied for agronomic uses. When herbaceous crops are co-digested with manure to increase the efficiency of biogas production, the nitrogen content in the digestate further increases, unless these larger plants are equipped with nitrogen stripping technologies. We propose a model to compare larger (cooperative and smaller (single parcel AD conversion plants. The whole process is modeled: from the collection of manures, to the cultivation of energy crops, to the disposal of the digestate. The model maximizes the energy produced on the basis of available biomass, road network, local heat demand and local availability of land for digestate disposal. Results are the optimal size and location of the plants, their technology and collection basins. The environmental performances of such plants are also evaluated. The study has been applied to the province of Forlì-Cesena, an Italian district where animal farming is particularly relevant.

  6. National biosecurity approaches, plans and programmes in response to diseases in farmed aquatic animals: evolution, effectiveness and the way forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håstein, T.; Binde, M.; Hine, M.

    2008-01-01

    The rapid increase in aquaculture production and trade, and increased attention to the negative effects of disease, are becoming stimuli for developing national biosecurity strategies for farmed fisheries, for which the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code and Man...

  7. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Nordquist

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting “robust” animals adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum, or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific evidence about the welfare effects of current practices in farming such as mutilating procedures, management practices, and housing conditions is steadily growing, the gain in knowledge needs a boost through more scientific research. Considering the huge number of animals whose welfare is affected, all possible effort must be made to improve their welfare as quickly as possible in order to ban welfare-compromising procedures and practices as soon as possible.

  8. Cloning adult farm animals: a review of the possibilities and problems associated with somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J L; Schrick, F N; McCracken, M D; van Amstel, S R; Hopkins, F M; Welborn, M G; Davies, C J

    2003-08-01

    In 1997, Wilmut et al. announced the birth of Dolly, the first ever clone of an adult animal. To date, adult sheep, goats, cattle, mice, pigs, cats and rabbits have been cloned using somatic cell nuclear transfer. The ultimate challenge of cloning procedures is to reprogram the somatic cell nucleus for development of the early embryo. The cell type of choice for reprogramming the somatic nucleus is an enucleated oocyte. Given that somatic cells are easily obtained from adult animals, cultured in the laboratory and then genetically modified, cloning procedures are ideal for introducing specific genetic modifications in farm animals. Genetic modification of farm animals provides a means of studying genes involved in a variety of biological systems and disease processes. Moreover, genetically modified farm animals have created a new form of 'pharming' whereby farm animals serve as bioreactors for production of pharmaceuticals or organ donors. A major limitation of cloning procedures is the extreme inefficiency for producing live offspring. Dolly was the only live offspring produced after 277 attempts. Similar inefficiencies for cloning adult animals of other species have been described by others. Many factors related to cloning procedures and culture environment contribute to the death of clones, both in the embryonic and fetal periods as well as during neonatal life. Extreme inefficiencies of this magnitude, along with the fact that death of the surrogate may occur, continue to raise great concerns with cloning humans.

  9. Epigenetics and developmental programming of welfare and production traits in farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, K D; Rutherford, K M D; Wallace, J M; Brameld, J M; Stöger, R; Alberio, R; Sweetman, D; Gardner, D S; Perry, V E A; Adam, C L; Ashworth, C J; Robinson, J E; Dwyer, C M

    2016-07-21

    The concept that postnatal health and development can be influenced by events that occur in utero originated from epidemiological studies in humans supported by numerous mechanistic (including epigenetic) studies in a variety of model species. Referred to as the 'developmental origins of health and disease' or 'DOHaD' hypothesis, the primary focus of large-animal studies until quite recently had been biomedical. Attention has since turned towards traits of commercial importance in farm animals. Herein we review the evidence that prenatal risk factors, including suboptimal parental nutrition, gestational stress, exposure to environmental chemicals and advanced breeding technologies, can determine traits such as postnatal growth, feed efficiency, milk yield, carcass composition, animal welfare and reproductive potential. We consider the role of epigenetic and cytoplasmic mechanisms of inheritance, and discuss implications for livestock production and future research endeavours. We conclude that although the concept is proven for several traits, issues relating to effect size, and hence commercial importance, remain. Studies have also invariably been conducted under controlled experimental conditions, frequently assessing single risk factors, thereby limiting their translational value for livestock production. We propose concerted international research efforts that consider multiple, concurrent stressors to better represent effects of contemporary animal production systems.

  10. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from nasal samples of healthy farm animals and pets in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsa, Haythem; Ben Slama, Karim; Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Lozano, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam; Messadi, Lilia; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Torres, Carmen

    2015-02-01

    A total of 261 healthy farm and pet animals (75 cattle, 52 goats, 100 dogs, and 34 cats) from different regions of Tunisia were screened for Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage. Molecular typing of isolates (by spa- and multilocus sequence-typing) was performed, and their antimicrobial resistance and virulence genotypes were determined by PCR and sequencing. S. aureus isolates were detected in 17 of 261 tested samples (6.5%). All S. aureus isolates recovered were methicillin-susceptible (MSSA), and one isolate/sample was further studied. Eight different spa types were detected (t189, t279, t582, t701, t1166, t1268, t1534, and t1773), and eight different sequence types were identified (ST6, ST15, ST45, ST133, ST188, ST700 [clonal complex CC130], ST2057, and a new ST2121). MSSA from pets (six isolates) showed resistance to (number of isolates, resistance gene): penicillin (six, blaZ), tetracycline (one, tet[M]), erythromycin one, erm[A]), streptomycin (one, ant[6]-Ia), and ciprofloxacin (one). All isolates from farm animals showed susceptibility to the tested antimicrobials, except for two penicillin-resistant isolates. Five S. aureus isolates from goats and cats harbored the lukF/lukS-PV genes, encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin, and six isolates from goats harbored the tst virulence gene. In addition, diverse combinations of enterotoxin genes were detected, including two variants of the egc cluster. Goats and cats could represent a reservoir of important toxin genes, with potential implications in animal and human health.

  11. Can the monitoring of animal welfare parameters predict pork meat quality variation through the supply chain (from farm to slaughter)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, L M; Velarde, A; Dalmau, A; Saucier, L; Faucitano, L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between the animal welfare conditions evaluated through the supply chain and pork quality variation. A total of 4,680 pigs from 12 farms-5 animal welfare improved raising system (AWIRS) and 7 conventional raising system (CON) farms-were assessed from farm to slaughter through a comprehensive audit protocol merging the European Welfare Quality, the Canadian Animal Care Assessment, and American Meat Institute audit guide criteria. At the abattoir, a subsample of 1,440 pigs (120 pigs/farm) was randomly chosen out of 24 loads (2 farms per wk) transported by 2 drivers (driver A and driver B) for the assessment of stunning effectiveness, carcass bruises, blood lactate levels, and meat quality traits. Meat quality was assessed in the longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle 24 h postmortem by measuring ultimate pH (pHu), color (L*, a*, and b*), and drip loss. Data were analyzed by the MIXED, GLIMMIX, and NAPAR1WAY procedures of SAS. Spearman correlations were calculated to determine the relationship between audit scores and meat quality traits. Better animal welfare conditions, as showed by greater final scores for good housing (GHo; = 0.001) and good health ( = 0.006) principles, were recorded at AWIRS farms. Pigs from AWIRS farms handled by driver B displayed a greater percentage of turning back ( = 0.01) and slips ( animal welfare audit protocols are important sources of variation in the behavioral response of pigs to preslaughter handling and may affect pork quality variation. However, the different live weight between CON and AWIRS pigs may have biased the meat quality results in this study.

  12. Characterization of Integrons and Resistance Genes in Salmonella Isolates from Farm Animals in Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 154 non-duplicate Salmonella isolates were recovered from 1,105 rectal swabs collected from three large-scale chicken farms (78/325, 24.0%, three large-scale duck farms (56/600, 9.3% and three large-scale pig farms (20/180, 11.1% between April and July 2016. Seven serotypes were identified among the 154 isolates, with the most common serotype in chickens and ducks being Salmonella enteritidis and in pigs Salmonella typhimurium. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that high antimicrobial resistance rates were observed for tetracycline (72.0% and ampicillin (69.4% in all sources. Class 1 integrons were detected in 16.9% (26/154 of these isolates and contained gene cassettes aadA2, aadA1, drfA1-aadA1, drfA12-aadA2, and drfA17-aadA5. Three β-lactamase genes were detected among the 154 isolates, and most of the isolates carried blaTEM−1(55/154, followed by blaPSE−1(14/154 and blaCTX−M−55 (11/154. Three plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were detected among the 154 isolates, and most of the isolates carried qnrA (113/154, followed by qnrB (99/154 and qnrS (10/154. Fifty-four isolates carried floR among the 154 isolates. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST analysis showed that nine sequence types (STs were identified; ST11 was the most frequent genotype in chickens and ducks, and ST19 was identified in pigs. Our findings indicated that Salmonella was widespread, and the overuse of antibiotics in animals should be reduced considerably in developing countries.

  13. Accelerometer based solution for precision livestock farming: geolocation enhancement and animal activity identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrasson, G.; Llaria, A.; Marra, A.; Voaden, S.

    2016-07-01

    The rapid evolution of electronics and communication technologies in the last years has contributed to the expansion of Precision Livestock Farming applications. In this context, animal geolocation systems applied to extensive farming are interesting for farmers to optimize their daily work organization. Nevertheless, the deployment of these solutions implies several technical challenges which must be resolved, mainly the energy consumption and the suitability of the communication protocols. A recently developed solution that deals with these technical challenges is the e-Pasto platform, which is composed of low power geolocation devices embedded into collars that offer an energetic autonomy of at least seven months, completed with a visualization user interface. The autonomy is assured employing a duty-cycle operation that results in one geolocation position measurement per hour. This work studies the employ of accelerometers to overcome this limitation assuring, at the same time, the required autonomy for the geolocation device. The authors also propose an algorithm that processes the acceleration data in order to identify the steps of an individual. The whole solution (step identification and geolocation) has been validated by means of several experimental tests.

  14. Farm Fairs and Petting Zoos: A Review of Animal Contact as a Source of Zoonotic Enteric Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Cheyenne C; Stanford, Kim; Narvaez-Bravo, Claudia; Callaway, Todd; McAllister, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Many public venues such as farms, fairs, and petting zoos encourage animal contact for both educational and entertainment purposes. However, healthy farm animals, including cattle, small ruminants, and poultry, can be reservoirs for enteric zoonotic pathogens, with human infections resulting in nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and, in some cases, severe complications that can lead to death. As animals shed these organisms in their feces, contamination of themselves and their surroundings is unavoidable. The majority of North Americans reside in urban and suburban settings, and the general public often possess limited knowledge of agricultural practices and minimal contact with farm animals. Furthermore, there is a lack of understanding of zoonotic pathogens, particularly how these pathogens are spread and the human behaviors that may increase the risk of infection. Human risk behaviors include hand-to-mouth contact immediately after physical contact with animals and their environments, a practice that facilitates the ingestion of pathogens. It is often young children who become ill due to their under-developed immune systems and poorer hygienic practices compared with adults, such as more frequent hand-to-mouth behaviors, and infrequent or improper hand washing. These illnesses are often preventable, simply through adequate hygiene and hand washing. Our objective was to use a structured approach to review the main causal organisms responsible for human illnesses acquired in petting zoo and open farm environments, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, nontyphoidal Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Cryptosporidium. Notable outbreaks involving direct contact with farm animals and farm, fair, or petting zoo environments are discussed and recommendations for how public venues can increase safety and hand hygiene compliance among visitors are proposed. The most effective protective measures against enteric illnesses include education of the public, increasing overall awareness

  15. Actual problems of protecting highly productive animals farms in the Lipetsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ushkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to more efficient use of feed, many farms, ensuring high productivity, has reached the profitability of milk production 40 % or more. No wonder milk has recently been called "white gold" because it provides the highest profitability among livestock products. However, higher producing cows have higher requirements for balanced feeding. Such cows are more intense metabolism: compared to cows of average productivity, the gas exchange is increased in 1,5-2 times, also increases blood pressure, pulse rate and respiration. This means that the wear and tear of the body is faster. And the consequences of inadequate feeding due to unbalanced diets on nutritional and biological active substances lead to profound metabolic disorders, which leads to disruption of the function of reproduction, diseases, shortening productive use of animals to one or two lactations. Without a system of introduction of achievements of zoo technical and veterinary Sciences, the proper organization of feeding, housing and care, application of progressive forms of work organization - cannot be opened, laid in the animals genetic potential. The main direction in the development of dairy cattle breeding is its intensification. The effectiveness of intensification is the implementation of the following development paths: full implementation and improvement of the genetic potential of dairy cattle; rich, biologically full feeding of animals; preparation of sufficient high-quality feed; implementation of efficient technologies.

  16. Complex Etiology, Prophylaxis and Hygiene Control in Mycotoxic Nephropathies in Farm Animals and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoycho D. Stoev

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Various etiological factors contributing to the development of mycotoxic nephropathy in farm animals and humans are reviewed. The possible synergistic effect between ochratoxin A (OTA and other mycotoxins, as penicillic acid (PA and fumonisin B1 (FB1, contributing to this nephropathy is also considered and discussed. The most convenient ways of prophylaxis and various preventive measures against OTA contamination of feeds or foods are reviewed. A reference is made concerning the most successful methods of veterinary hygiene control in the slaughterhouses in order to prevent the entering of OTA in commercial channels with a view to human health. The economic efficacy of these prophylactic procedures is also considered. An evaluation of human exposure to OTA is made.

  17. Consumers’ Attitudes towards Farm Animal Welfare and their Influence on Meat Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Cerjak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine Croatian consumers’ attitudes towards meat producing farm animal welfare (AW. The survey conducted with 102 meat consumers in Zagreb revealed that consumers believe in importance of AW but most of them do not consider it when buying meat. Three segments, differing in their attitudes towards AW, were identified by using cluster analysis: the most numerous (44% are mostly concerned about AW and they eat meat less oft en than others; the second group (37% considers AW as an important issue, but they believe that modern food production not following high AW standards is necessary. The smallest segment (19% is rather indifferent towards AW compared to others, and they consider taste of meat as more important than the way of its production.

  18. Consumers’ Attitudes towards Farm Animal Welfare and their Influence on Meat Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Cerjak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine Croatian consumers’ attitudes towards meat producing farm animal welfare (AW. The survey conducted with 102 meat consumers in Zagreb revealed that consumers believe in importance of AW but most of them do not consider it when buying meat. Three segments, differing in their attitudes towards AW, were identified by using cluster analysis: the most numerous (44% are mostly concerned about AW and they eat meat less oft en than others; the second group (37% considers AW as an important issue, but they believe that modern food production not following high AW standards is necessary. The smallest segment (19% is rather indifferent towards AW compared to others, and they consider taste of meat as more important than the way of its production.

  19. Governing farm animal welfare, governing stockmanship: a sociological analysis of the formulation and on-farm implementation of the EU group sow housing legislation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    EU pig welfare legislation required European pig farmers to shift from individual to group housing of pregnant sows by 1 January 2013. This requirement was principally designed to meet the sows’ needs for locomotion and interaction with conspecifics. This paper explored how the legislation affected everyday sow-farmer interaction, which influences farm animal welfare to an important degree. We started by analysing conceptualisations of sow welfare and sow-farmer relations as implicated in the...

  20. Invited review: resource allocation mismatch as pathway to disproportionate growth in farm animals - prerequisite for a disturbed health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, K

    2017-08-14

    The availability of resources including energy, nutrients and (developmental) time has a crucial impact on productivity of farm animals. Availability of energy and nutrients depends on voluntary feed intake and intestinal digestive and absorptive capacity at optimal feeding conditions. Availability of time is provided by the management in animal production. According to the resource allocation theory, resources have to be allocated between maintenance, ontogenic growth, production and reproduction during lifetime. Priorities for these processes are mainly determined by the genetic background, the rearing system and the feeding regimen. Aim of this review was to re-discuss the impact of a proper resource allocation for a long and healthy life span in farm animals. Using the barrel model of resource allocation, resource fluxes were explained and were implemented to specific productive life conditions of different farm animal species, dairy cows, sows and poultry. Hypothetically, resource allocation mismatch neglecting maintenance is a central process, which might be associated with morphological constraints of extracellular matrix components; evidence for that was found in the literature. A potential consequence of this limitation is a phenomenon called disproportionate growth, which counteracts the genetically determined scaling rules for body and organ proportions and could have a strong impact on farm animal health and production.

  1. Using biochar in animal farming to recycle nutrients and reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Wilson, Kelpie; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Charcoal has been used to treat digestive disorder in animals since several thousand years. But only since about 2010 biochar has increasingly been used as regular feed additive in animal farming usually mixed with standard feed at approximately 1% of the daily feed intake. The use of biochar as feed additive has the potential to improve animal health, feed efficiency and the animal-stable environment; to reduce nutrient losses and GHG emissions; and to increase soil organic mater and thus soil fertility. The evaluation of more than 150 scientific papers on feeding (activated) biochar showed in most of the studies and for all investigated livestock species positive effects on parameters like toxin adsorption, digestion, blood values, feed use efficiency and livestock weight gain, meat quality and GHG emissions. The facilitation of direct electron transfers between different species of bacteria or microbial consortia via the biochar mediator in the animal digestion tract is hypothesized to be the main reason for a more energy efficient digestion and thus higher feed efficiency, for its selective probiotic effect, for reduced N-losses and eventually for less GHG emissions. While chicken, pigs, fish and other omnivore animals provoke GHG-emissions (mainly NH3, CH4, N2O) when their liquid and solid excretions decompose anaerobically, ruminants cause direct methane emissions through flatulence and burps (eructation). Preliminary studies demonstrated that feeding high temperature biochars might reduce ruminant CH4 emissions though more systematic research is needed. It is likely that microbial decomposition of manure containing digested biochar produces less ammonia, less methane and thus retain more nitrogen, as seen when manure was composted with and without biochar or when biochar is used as bedding or manure treatment additive. Laboratory adsorption trials estimated that using biochar for liquid manure treatment could safe 57,000 t NH4 and 4,600 t P2O5 fertilizer per

  2. Farm scale electrical power production from animal waste. Volume I. Final report, 30 June 1981-30 December 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, P.A.

    1984-01-31

    A 1 1/2 (dry) tons per day biodigester cogeneration plant has been designed and constructed. This project is part of a federal program to promote energy conservation and the use of non-conventional energy resources. The main purpose of the project is to demonstrate that a dairy farm can generate its own power and supply excess power to a local utility. Such a facility can produce significant energy savings to livestock farms and small communities by allowing them to get energy from raw animal and human waste. Also, an odorless by-product is produced that is nearly pathogenically free and has the possibility of several end uses such as: fertilizer and soil conditioner, protein-rich animal refeed, livestock bedding material, and aquatic food for fish farming. 53 references, 18 figures, 4 tables.

  3. The gut microbiome as a virtual endocrine organ with implications for farm and domestic animal endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, T F; Ross, R P; Stanton, C; Clarke, G

    2016-07-01

    The gut microbiome exerts a marked influence on host physiology, and manipulation of its composition has repeatedly been shown to influence host metabolism and body composition. This virtual endocrine organ also has a role in the regulation of the plasma concentrations of tryptophan, an essential amino acid and precursor to serotonin, a key neurotransmitter within both the enteric and central nervous systems. Control over the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis also appears to be under the influence of the gut microbiota. This is clear from studies in microbiota-deficient germ-free animals with exaggerated responses to psychological stress that can be normalized by monocolonization with certain bacterial species including Bifidobacterium infantis. Therapeutic targeting of the gut microbiota may thus be useful in treating or preventing stress-related microbiome-gut-brain axis disorders and metabolic diseases, much the same way as redirections of metabolopathies can be achieved through more traditional endocrine hormone-based interventions. Moreover, the implications of these findings need to be considered in the context of farm and domestic animal physiology, behavior, and food safety.

  4. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruford, Michael W; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J; Amaral, Andreia J; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F; Hall, Stephen J G; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-Ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However, these rapid changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and integrative methodologies needed to fully exploit new, multidimensional data. The final conference of the ESF Genomic Resources program aimed to address these interdisciplinary problems in an attempt to contribute to the agenda for research and policy development directions during the coming decade. By 2020, according to the Convention on Biodiversity's Aichi Target 13, signatories should ensure that "…the genetic diversity of …farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives …is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity." However, the real extent of genetic erosion is very difficult to measure using current data. Therefore, this challenging target demands better coverage, understanding and utilization of genomic and environmental data, the development of optimized ways to integrate these data with social and other sciences and policy analysis to enable more flexible, evidence-based models to underpin FAnGR conservation. At the conference, we attempted to identify the most important problems for effective livestock genomic resource conservation during the next decade. Twenty priority questions were identified that could be broadly categorized into challenges related to methodology, analytical approaches, data management and conservation. It should be acknowledged here that while the focus of our meeting was predominantly around genetics, genomics and animal science, many of the practical challenges facing conservation of genomic resources are

  5. Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantanen, Juha; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling;

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects...... to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment. Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation...

  6. What Difference Does a Visit Make? Changes in Animal Welfare Perceptions after Interested Citizens Tour a Dairy Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Beth Ann; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Wittman, Hannah; Weary, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    Citizens' concerns about farm animal welfare are often dismissed on the assumption that they are not well informed about farming practices. We conducted exploratory surveys of interested citizens (n = 50) before and after a self-guided tour of a 500-head dairy farm. 'Before' survey questions explored perceptions, concerns, and values about dairy cattle farming and welfare, in addition to a short knowledge-based quiz on dairy cattle husbandry. An 'after' survey explored the extent to which these constructs shifted after the tour. Before, most participants correctly answered quiz questions about general feeding and housing practices, but scores were low on questions about specific practices such as cow-calf separation. Participants considered several elements as necessary for a 'good' life for dairy cattle: fresh food and water, pasture access, gentle handling, space, shelter, hygiene, fresh air and sunshine, social companions, absence of stress, health, and safety from predators. These elements reflect a diverse conception of animal welfare that incorporates values for physical and mental well-being, natural living, and humane care. The visit had a mixed effect on perceptions of whether dairy cows had a 'good' life, improving perceptions for a quarter of participants, worsening perceptions in a third, with no shift in the remaining participants. The visit appeared to mitigate some concerns (e.g., provision of adequate food and water, gentle humane care) while reinforcing or eliciting others (e.g., lack of pasture access, early cow-calf separation). Moreover, animal welfare-relevant values held by participants (e.g., natural living, care) appeared to play an important role in influencing perceptions of farm practices. These results suggest that education and exposure to livestock farming may resolve certain concerns, but other concerns will likely persist, especially when practices conflict with deeply held values around animal care.

  7. What Difference Does a Visit Make? Changes in Animal Welfare Perceptions after Interested Citizens Tour a Dairy Farm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Ann Ventura

    Full Text Available Citizens' concerns about farm animal welfare are often dismissed on the assumption that they are not well informed about farming practices. We conducted exploratory surveys of interested citizens (n = 50 before and after a self-guided tour of a 500-head dairy farm. 'Before' survey questions explored perceptions, concerns, and values about dairy cattle farming and welfare, in addition to a short knowledge-based quiz on dairy cattle husbandry. An 'after' survey explored the extent to which these constructs shifted after the tour. Before, most participants correctly answered quiz questions about general feeding and housing practices, but scores were low on questions about specific practices such as cow-calf separation. Participants considered several elements as necessary for a 'good' life for dairy cattle: fresh food and water, pasture access, gentle handling, space, shelter, hygiene, fresh air and sunshine, social companions, absence of stress, health, and safety from predators. These elements reflect a diverse conception of animal welfare that incorporates values for physical and mental well-being, natural living, and humane care. The visit had a mixed effect on perceptions of whether dairy cows had a 'good' life, improving perceptions for a quarter of participants, worsening perceptions in a third, with no shift in the remaining participants. The visit appeared to mitigate some concerns (e.g., provision of adequate food and water, gentle humane care while reinforcing or eliciting others (e.g., lack of pasture access, early cow-calf separation. Moreover, animal welfare-relevant values held by participants (e.g., natural living, care appeared to play an important role in influencing perceptions of farm practices. These results suggest that education and exposure to livestock farming may resolve certain concerns, but other concerns will likely persist, especially when practices conflict with deeply held values around animal care.

  8. Attitudes and perceptions of Dutch veterinarians on their role in the reduction of antimicrobial use in farm animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, David C.; Jaarsma, Debbie A C; Verheij, Theo J M; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about attitudes of veterinarians towards antibiotic use and reduction opportunities, and their interaction with farmers herein. Therefore, a questionnaire was developed and sent out to Dutch farm animal veterinarians. The response rate was 40%. Categorical Principal Component Analysi

  9. Attitudes and perceptions of Dutch veterinarians on their role in the reduction of antimicrobial use in farm animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, David C.; Jaarsma, Debbie A.C.; Verheij, Theo J.M.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about attitudes of veterinarians towards antibiotic use and reduction opportunities, and their interaction with farmers herein. Therefore, a questionnaire was developed and sent out to Dutch farm animal veterinarians. The response rate was 40%. Categorical Principal Component Anal

  10. Attitudes and perceptions of Dutch veterinarians on their role in the reduction of antimicrobial use in farm animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, David C.; Jaarsma, Debbie A. C.; Verheij, Theo J. M.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about attitudes of veterinarians towards antibiotic use and reduction opportunities, and their interaction with farmers herein. Therefore, a questionnaire was developed and sent out to Dutch farm animal veterinarians. The response rate was 40%. Categorical Principal Component Analysi

  11. Early life exposure to farm animals and symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema: an ISAAC Phase Three Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B.; von Mutius, E.; Wong, G.; Odhiambo, J.; Clayton, T.O.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Associations between early life exposure to farm animals and respiratory symptoms and allergy in children have been reported in developed countries, but little is known about such associations in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To study the association between early life exposure to far

  12. A descriptive study of visits by animal health specialists in pig farming: type, frequency, and herd-health management factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enting, J.; Laak, van de M.J.L.; Tielen, M.J.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    This research was carried out to analyse the visits specialists of the Dutch Animal Health Service made to growing and fattening pig farms. The type and frequency of the visits and identified herd-health management factors that did not meet accepted standards were investigated. In total 373 visit re

  13. Perfluoroalkylated substances in edible livers of farm animals, including depuration behaviour in young sheep fed with contaminated grass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Vassiliadou, Irene; Costopoulou, Danae; Leondiadis, Leondios; Schafft, Helmut A.; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P.; Leeuwen, van Stefan P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) present a potential health risk for consumers. In animals these compounds are known to accumulate in livers. In order to determine potential PFASs contamination in commercially available livers, samples from farmed sheep, horses, cows, pigs and chicken were

  14. Public perceptions of reproductive biotechnologies: the case of farm animal breeding and reproduction in France and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Arouna P

    2004-01-01

    Results of previous qualitative and quantitative stages of the research project demonstrated that, although consumers had poor knowledge about breeding and reproduction procedures, they were concerned about the impact of breeding practices on their food items. They acknowledged breeding and reproduction to be at the very core of animal-based food chain process. Since however modern breeding programmers beg so much for genetics, their practices increasingly raised consumer concerns. This paper presents results of a research addressing this issue and based on interviews of livestock breeders and specialized scientists. This research was undertaken within the frame of an EU funded project (Sustainable Farm Animal Breeding and Reproduction Project, 2000-2003). Interviews were performed according to the methodology of focus groups and results were used to prepare a discussion guide, including definitions of breeding techniques such as artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and molecular genetics. Farm animal breeding and reproduction methods raised high level of concerns in conventional terms like safety, healthiness and quality of food, factory farming and related consequences on environment, international issues, and cost. Several propositions were presented that deal with modern farm animal breeding and reproduction, EU regulation of breeding procedures, education of consumers on breeding methods, and labelling of products on breeding and reproduction grounds.

  15. Current Status of the Preharvest Application of Pro- and Prebiotics to Farm Animals to Enhance the Microbial Safety of Animal Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerger, Rolf D; Ganguly, Arpeeta

    2017-01-01

    The selection of microorganisms that act as probiotics and feed additives that act as prebiotics is an ongoing research effort, but a sizable range of commercial pro-, pre- and synbiotic (combining pro- and prebiotics) products are already available and being used on farms. A survey of the composition of commercial products available in the United States revealed that Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecium, and Bacillus subtilis were the three most common species in probiotic products. Of the nearly 130 probiotic products (also called direct-fed microbials) for which information was available, about 50 also contained yeasts or molds. The focus on these particular bacteria and eukaryotes is due to long-standing ideas about the benefits of such strains, research data on effectiveness primarily in laboratory or research farm settings, and regulations that dictate which microorganisms or feed additives can be administered to farm animals. Of the direct-fed microbials, only six made a claim relating to food safety or competitive exclusion of pathogens. None of the approximately 50 prebiotic products mentioned food safety in their descriptions. The remainder emphasized enhancement of animal performance such as weight gain or overall animal health. The reason why so few products carry food safety-related claims is the difficulties in establishing unambiguous cause and effect relationships between the application of such products in varied and constantly changing farm environments and improved food safety of the end product.

  16. Challenges facing the farm animal veterinary profession in England: A qualitative study of veterinarians' perceptions and responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruston, Annmarie; Shortall, Orla; Green, Martin; Brennan, Marnie; Wapenaar, Wendela; Kaler, Jasmeet

    2016-05-01

    The farm animal veterinary profession in the UK has faced a number of challenges in recent decades related to the withdrawal of government funding and a contraction of the agricultural sector. They have come under pressure to respond by developing skills and focusing on disease prevention advisory services. However, this puts veterinarians in competition with other providers of these services, and moves in this direction have only been partial. Failure to respond to these challenges puts the veterinary profession at risk of de-professionalisation-a loss of their monopoly over knowledge, an erosion of client beliefs in their service ethos and a loss of work autonomy. This paper explores how farm animal veterinarians in England perceive these challenges and are responding to them. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with 28 veterinarians from Royal College of Veterinary Surgeon farm accredited practices. Veterinarians were chosen from high, medium and low density cattle farming regions. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and themes identified through the constant comparison method. The majority of respondents recognised the challenges facing the veterinary profession. Most believed their role had changed, moving towards that of a disease prevention adviser who was part of the farm management team. In terms of maintaining and redefining their professional status, farm animal veterinarians do have a defined body of knowledge and the ability to develop trusting relationships with clients, which enhances their competitiveness. However, while they recognise the changes and challenges, moves towards a disease prevention advisory model have only been partial. There seem to be little effort towards using Farm accreditation status or other strategies to promote their services. They do not appear to be finding effective strategies for putting their knowledge on disease prevention into practice. Disease prevention appears to be delivered on farm on an ad

  17. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef; van Eerdenburg, Frank J. C. M.; Velkers, Francisca C.; Fijn, Lisa; Arndt, Saskia S.

    2017-01-01

    Simple summary Intensive farming systems are confronted with a number of animal welfare issues such as injuries from horns in cattle and feather pecking in poultry. To solve these problems, mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are applied routinely. These and other procedures such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions impair animal welfare. Scientific underpinning of the efficacy of these interventions and management practices is poor. We advocate that all stakeholders, in particular animal scientists and veterinarians, take the lead in evaluating common, putative mutilating and welfare reducing procedures and management practices to develop better, scientifically supported alternatives, focused on adaptation of the environment to the animals, to ensure uncompromised animal welfare. Abstract A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting “robust” animals) adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum), or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific

  18. Medawar redux - an overview on the use of farm animal models to elucidate principles of reproductive immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Peter J

    2010-10-01

    Farm animals have been important models for the development of reproductive immunology. Two of the major concepts underpinning reproductive immunology, the idea of the fetal allograft and progesterone's role in regulation of uterine immunity, were developed using the bovine as a model. This volume of the American Journal of Reproductive Immunology is composed of review articles that highlight the continued relevance of farm animals as models for research in mammalian biology. It is important that a diverse array of genotypes are used to elucidate biological principles relevant to mammalian biology and human health because the nature of mammalian evolution has resulted in a situation where the genome of the most commonly used animal model, the laboratory mouse, is less similar to the human than other species like the cow. Moreover, the evolution of placental function has been accompanied by formation of new genes during recent evolution so that orthologs do not exist in any but closely related species. Given the infrastructure needs to study farm animal species, optimal utilization of these animals as models for biomedical research will require significant increases in funding to reverse a historical erosion of resources devoted to animal agricultural research.

  19. Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha eKantanen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects on climate change has been inadequately discussed despite there being several important associations between animal genetic resources and climate change issues. The sustainability of animal production systems and future food security require access to a wide diversity of animal genetic resources.There are several genetic questions that should be considered in strategies promoting adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental effects of livestock production. For example, it may become important to choose among breeds and even among farm animal species according to their suitability to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment.Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation of harmful greenhouse gas effects induced by livestock production is the reduction of methane (CH4 emissions from ruminants. There are differences in CH4 emissions among breeds and among individual animals within breeds that suggest a potential for improvement in the trait through genetic selection.Characterization of breeds and individuals with modern genomic tools should be applied to identify breeds that have genetically adapted to marginal conditions and to get critical information for breeding and conservation programmes for farm animal genetic resources. We conclude that phenotyping and genomic technologies and adoption of new breeding approaches, such as genomic selection introgression, will promote breeding for useful characters in livestock species.

  20. Fruit and Vegetable Co-Products as Functional Feed Ingredients in Farm Animal Nutrition for Improved Product Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Kasapidou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are significant environmental, economic and social factors favoring the reutilization of fruit and vegetable processing co-products in farm animal nutrition. Current evidence shows that fruit and vegetable processing co-products can be effectively used in farm animal nutrition as functional feed ingredients for the production of food products of improved quality. These ingredients comply with consumer requests for the production of “clean,” “natural” and “eco/green” label food products. The main parameters affecting extensive application of fruit and vegetable processing by-/co-products as functional feed ingredients in livestock nutrition are related to animal factors, logistics, and commercial value. Further research is needed to enable the commercial application of these products to livestock nutrition.

  1. National biosecurity approaches, plans and programmes in response to diseases in farmed aquatic animals: evolution, effectiveness and the way forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håstein, T.; Binde, M.; Hine, M.

    2008-01-01

    The rapid increase in aquaculture production and trade, and increased attention to the negative effects of disease, are becoming stimuli for developing national biosecurity strategies for farmed fisheries, for which the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code...... and Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals serve as an excellent framework. Using examples from a few countries and selected diseases, this paper provides a general overview of the development of approaches to implementing biosecurity strategies, including those emerging in the national legislation...... and regulations of some countries, and those being initiated by industries themselves. The determination of disease status in different epidemiological units (from a farm to a nation), appropriate approaches for preventing the introduction of disease and developing contingencies for disease control...

  2. Celebrities and Afropolitans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Christiansen, Lene Bull

    . This paper will explore how saturating communications between the global North and South with celebrity content normalizes the celebrity modality of ‘Africa’. This presentation will explore how in the aid celebrity modality, expertise becomes celebritized and circulated, while affective commitment...

  3. Serologic and molecular characterization of Anaplasma species infection in farm animals and ticks from Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, José; Torina, Alessandra; Caracappa, Santo; Tumino, Giovanni; Furlá, Roberto; Almazán, Consuelo; Kocan, Katherine M

    2005-11-05

    Although Anaplasma marginale was known to be endemic in Italy, the diversity of Anaplasma spp. from this area have not been characterized. In this study, the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. antibodies in randomly selected farm animals collected on the island of Sicily was determined by use of a MSP5 cELISA for Anaplasma spp. and an immunofluorescence test specific for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Genetic variation among strains of Anaplasma spp. from animals and ticks was characterized using the A. marginale msp1alpha and the Anaplasma spp. msp4 genes. Eight species of ticks were collected and tested by PCR. Seropositivity for Anaplasma spp. and A. phagocytophilum was detected in bovine and ovine samples. All the donkeys were seropositive for A. phagocytophilum but not for Anaplasma spp. Four A. marginale genotypes were identified by msp4 sequences from bovine and tick samples. Two new genotypes of Anaplasma ovis were characterized in sheep. The sequences of A. phagocytophilum from three donkeys proved to be identical to the sequence of the MRK equine isolate from California. Six A. marginale genotypes were found in cattle and one tick using the A. marginale msp1alpha sequences. All genotypes had four repeated sequences in the N-terminal portion of the MSP1a, except for one that had five repeats. The Italian strains of A. marginale contained three repeat sequences that were not reported previously. Definition of the diversity of Anaplasma spp. in Sicily reported, herein is fundamental to development of control strategies for A. marginale, A. ovis and A. phagocytophilum in Sicily.

  4. Prospects and Challenges for the Conservation of Farm Animal Genomic Resources, 2015-2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael William Bruford

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy, climate change and market demands. The last decade saw a step change in technological and analytical approaches to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR. These changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and the methodologies needed to exploit new, multidimensional data. The ESF Genomic Resources program final conference addressed these problems attempting to contribute to the development of the research and policy agenda for the next decade. We broadly identified four areas related to methodological and analytical challenges, data management and conservation. The overall conclusion is that there is a need for the use of current state-of-the-art tools to characterise the state of genomic resources in non-commercial and local breeds. The livestock genomic sector, which has been relatively well-organised in applying such methodologies so far, needs to make a concerted effort in the coming decade to enable to the democratisation of the powerful tools that are now at its disposal, and to ensure that they are applied in the context of breed conservation as well as development.

  5. Animal board invited review: precision livestock farming for dairy cows with a focus on oestrus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottram, T

    2016-10-01

    Dairy cows are high value farm animals requiring careful management to achieve the best results. Since the advent of robotic and high throughput milking, the traditional few minutes available for individual human attention daily has disappeared and new automated technologies have been applied to improve monitoring of dairy cow production, nutrition, fertility, health and welfare. Cows milked by robots must meet legal requirements to detect healthy milk. This review focuses on emerging technical approaches in those areas of high cost to the farmer (fertility, metabolic disorders, mastitis, lameness and calving). The availability of low cost tri-axial accelerometers and wireless telemetry has allowed accurate models of behaviour to be developed and sometimes combined with rumination activity detected by acoustic sensors to detect oestrus; other measures (milk and skin temperature, electronic noses, milk yield) have been abandoned. In-line biosensors have been developed to detect markers for ovulation, pregnancy, lactose, mastitis and metabolic changes. Wireless telemetry has been applied to develop boluses for monitoring the rumen pH and temperature to detect metabolic disorders. Udder health requires a multisensing approach due to the varying inflammatory responses collectively described as mastitis. Lameness can be detected by walk over weigh cells, but also by various types of video image analysis and speed measurement. Prediction and detection of calving time is an area of active research mostly focused on behavioural change.

  6. Climbing Mount Efficiency--small steps, not giant leaps towards higher cloning success in farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oback, Björn

    2008-07-01

    Despite more than a decade of research efforts, farm animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is still frustratingly inefficient. Inefficiency manifests itself at different levels, which are currently not well integrated. At the molecular level, it leads to widespread genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional aberrations in cloned embryos. At the organismal level, these genome-wide abnormalities compromise development of cloned foetuses and offspring. Specific molecular defects need to be causally linked to specific cloned phenotypes, in order to design specific treatments to correct them. Cloning efficiency depends on the ability of the nuclear donor cell to be fully reprogrammed into an embryonic state and the ability of the enucleated recipient cell to carry out the reprogramming reactions. It has been postulated that reprogrammability of the somatic donor cell epigenome is influenced by its differentiation status. However, direct comparisons between cells of divergent differentiation status within several somatic lineages have found no conclusive evidence for this. Choosing somatic stem cells as donors has not improved cloning efficiency, indicating that donor cell type may be less critical for cloning success. Different recipient cells, on the other hand, vary in their reprogramming ability. In bovine, using zygotes instead of oocytes has increased cloning success. Other improvements in livestock cloning efficiency include better coordinating donor cell type with cell cycle stage and aggregating cloned embryos. In the future, it will be important to demonstrate if these small increases at every step are cumulative, adding up to an integrated cloning protocol with greatly improved efficiency.

  7. Relevance of mycotoxins to product quality and animal health in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Paulsen, Hans Marten; Weißmann, Friedrich

    2002-01-01

    Organic farming is not generally more endangered by the risk of contamination of the products with mycotoxins than other farming systems. Knowledge about the influence of litter beddings on mycotoxin exposure of livestock is rare. Due to restrictions on silage additives and fungicides, organic farms are limited in their possibilities to prevent and to cure fungal diseases. But the organic production system offers several important factors for lowering infections with mycotoxin producing fungi.

  8. Mexican consumers' perceptions and attitudes towards farm animal welfare and willingness to pay for welfare friendly meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-de la Lama, G C; Estévez-Moreno, L X; Sepúlveda, W S; Estrada-Chavero, M C; Rayas-Amor, A A; Villarroel, M; María, G A

    2017-03-01

    Increasing concerns about farm animal welfare have led to an increase in the availability of welfare-friendly-products (WFP), but little is known about how much more consumers are willing-to-pay (WTP) for WFP or about their buying trends in Latin America. In this study, a survey was given to 843 meat consumers in the city of Toluca, Mexico. The results show that consumers were interested in farm animal welfare issues and their ethical, sociological and economic implications, as in Europe. The people surveyed also conveyed a high level of empathy with animal feelings and emotions, however they clearly demanded more information and regulations related to farm animal welfare. The majority of respondents expressed that they were WTP more for properly certified WFP, but mostly based on the benefits in terms of product quality and human health. If the demand for WFP begins to increase in Mexico, the supply chain should consider a certification system to guarantee product origin based on current conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Attitudes and perceptions of Dutch veterinarians on their role in the reduction of antimicrobial use in farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speksnijder, David C; Jaarsma, Debbie A C; Verheij, Theo J M; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about attitudes of veterinarians towards antibiotic use and reduction opportunities, and their interaction with farmers herein. Therefore, a questionnaire was developed and sent out to Dutch farm animal veterinarians. The response rate was 40%. Categorical Principal Component Analysis (CATPCA) was conducted on statements measuring attitudes towards the use of antibiotics and reduction opportunities in farm animals, the veterinary pharmacy and the interaction of veterinarians with farmers in improving animal health. This resulted in 3 underlying dimensions. Additionally, possible explanatory variables (main farm animal species working with, years of experience in practice) were added to the CATPCA to identify differences between veterinarians. Veterinarians working with different animal species were comparable in their opinions towards the necessity to reduce veterinary antibiotic use and the current policy to halve veterinary antibiotic consumption. Veterinarians working with ruminants - "ruminant specialists" - and veterinarians working with several different animal species - "generalists" - reported to feel more uncertainty in acting independently from farmers' and significant others' (other advisors, colleagues) demands for antibiotics or opinions than veterinarians mainly working with intensively raised animals (pigs, poultry, veal calves) - "intensive specialists". Years of experience in practice was negatively related to feelings of uncertainty in acting independently. At the other hand, years of experience was associated with being less concerned about the possible contribution of veterinary antibiotic use to antimicrobial resistance, considering it more important to keep the right to prescribe and sell antibiotics, and being less hesitant to apply antibiotics to prevent (further dissemination of) animal diseases. Intensive specialists expected most from improving feed quality and benchmarking of antibiotic prescribing and use in reducing

  10. Validation of key indicators in cattle farms at high risk of animal welfare problems: a qualitative case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, P C; More, S J; Blake, M; Higgins, I; Clegg, T; Hanlon, A

    2013-03-23

    The objective of this study was to validate four key farmer performance indicators (KFPI), identified in a previous study, as indicators of on-farm cattle welfare incidents in Ireland, through comparison of the distribution of these KPFIs in the national herd (n=109,925) and in case herds (n=18), where welfare incidents were previously studied. The KFPIs identified were late registrations, and exits from the herd by on-farm burial, by moves to knackeries and by moves to 'herd unknown'. Data were extracted from two Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine databases for the national herd and the case herds. All four KFPIs differed significantly between the case herds and the national herd, and one further KFPI was identified, namely moves to factories. The data for these KFPIs are routinely stored on national databases, which were established in order to comply with Regulation (EC) 1760/2000. Based on the results obtained in this study, it may be possible in the future to use routine data capture to improve strategy towards on-farm animal welfare. At this point, however, based on calculated specificities and sensitivities, none of these five KFPIs, at the cut-offs investigated and using several combinations, are able to distinguish herds with and without on-farm animal welfare problems at an accuracy suitable for routine national use in Ireland.

  11. Occurrence, species distribution and antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter isolates from farm and laboratory animals in Morogoro, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick V. G. Komba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the carriage and antimicrobial resistance of Thermophilic Campylobacter species in the gastrointestinal tracts of farm and laboratory animals in Morogoro, Tanzania Materials and Methods: Faecal samples were collected from farm (n=244 and laboratory (n=466 animals and were subjected to the Cape Town protocol for isolation of Campylobacter. Isolates were preliminarily identified based on potassium hydroxide string and hippurate hydrolysis tests. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was employed for confirmation of isolates. Antimicrobial resistance testing was done using disc diffusion method. Results: Of the laboratory animals 26.7% of guinea pigs (n=30 and 1.2% of rats (n=242 were colonized with Campylobacter. Four isolates from guinea pigs were Campylobacter jejuni and the other four were C. coli. From rats, two isolates were C. jejuni and one was C. coli. In farm animals thermophilic Campylobacter were detected from 31.6% of sheep (n=57 and 60% horses (n=5. Of the isolates 12 (57% were C. jejuni (10 from sheep and 2 from horses and the remaining were C. coli (8 from sheep and 1 from a horse. The isolates were frequently resistant to erythromycin, norfloxacin, colistin sulphate and nalidixic acid; whereas low levels of resistance were observed for ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Conclusion: Our study reveals carriage of antimicrobial resistant thermophilic Campylobacter in the intestines of the study animals. This highlights possibilities in involvement of these animals in the epidemiology of Campylobacter infections. Thus, there is a need to consider these animal species when planning control measures for this zoonotic bacterium.

  12. Direct and indirect effects of johne's disease on farm and animal productivity in an irish dairy herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson EKB

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Johne's disease (JD is caused by infection with the organism Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis, leading to chronic diarrhoea and ill thrift in adult cattle. JD is considered to adversely affect farm performance and profitability. This retrospective case study was undertaken on a single commercial dairy herd in the south west of Ireland. Animal production records were interrogated to assess the effect of JD on milk yield (total kg per lactation, somatic cell count (the geometric mean over the lactation, reasons for culling, cull price and changes in herd parity structure over time. JD groups were defined using clinical signs and test results. One control animal was matched to each case animal on parity number and year. Specific lactations (clinical, pre-clinical and test-positive only from 1994 to 2004 were compared between JD case and control cows. A significantly lower milk yield (1259.3 kg/lactation was noted from cows with clinical JD in comparison to their matched control group. Clinical animals had an average cull price of €516 less than animals culled without signs of clinical disease. In contrast, little effect was noted for sub-clinical infections. These direct effects of JD infections, in combination with increased culling for infertility and increasing replacement rates, had a negative impact on farm production. Results from this study provide preliminary information regarding the effects of JD status on both herd and animal-level performance in Ireland.

  13. Antibiotic Resistance in Animal and Environmental Samples Associated with Small-Scale Poultry Farming in Northwestern Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Braykov, Nikolay P.; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.; Grossman, Marissa; Lixin, Zhang; Vasco, Karla; CEVALLOS, WILLIAM; Muñoz, Diana; Acevedo,Andrés; Moser, Kara A.; Marrs, Carl F.; Foxman, Betsy; Trostle, James; Trueba, GAbriel; Levy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effects of animal agriculture on the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) are cross-cutting and thus require a multidisciplinary perspective. Here we use ecological, epidemiological, and ethnographic methods to examine populations of Escherichia coli circulating in the production poultry farming environment versus the domestic environment in rural Ecuador, where small-scale poultry production employing nontherapeutic antibiotics is increasingly common. We sampled 262 “production ...

  14. Economic contribution of draught animals to Mazahua smallholder Campesino farming systems in the highlands of Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga-Jordán, C M; Pedraza-Fuentes, A M; Velázquez-Beltrán, L G; Nava-Bernal, E G; Chávez-Mejía, M C

    2005-10-01

    The economic contribution of draught animals to smallholder Mazahua campesino systems in two mountain villages of San Felipe del Progreso, in the central highlands of Mexico, was assessed. Campesinos rely on draught animals for cultivation tasks, as pack animals, and as transport for agricultural and domestic activities. The villages were San Pablo Tlalchichilpa (SPT) and La Concepción Mayorazgo (LCM). Twelve households that possessed draught animals were monitored from July 1999 to June 2000, nine in SPT and three in LCM, in terms of animal inventories and income from their draught animals, in cash and opportunity values. Equines in SPT have substituted bulls, and are recognized for their multipurpose contribution, while in LCM bulls are still used for ploughing the land. Overall total mean gross income was US dollar 490.78 per farm per year, plus US dollar 56 as opportunity value of the fertilizer value of manure for both villages. Deducting estimated costs, owning draught animals leaves a mean net margin of US dollar 412.50/year in SPT and of US dollar 285.64/year in LCM. There is a significant correlation (p < 0.05) between ownership of draught animals and incomes, with a regression coefficient of US dollar 279.16 per year per draught animal. Besides positive economic returns, having work animals alleviates drudgery for the campesino families.

  15. Identification of key performance indicators for on-farm animal welfare incidents: possible tools for early warning and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Patricia C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to describe aspects of case study herds investigated by the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (DAFF in which animal welfare incidents occurred and to identify key performance indicators (KPIs that can be monitored to enhance the Early Warning System (EWS. Despite an EWS being in place for a number of years, animal welfare incidents continue to occur. Questionnaires regarding welfare incidents were sent to Superintending Veterinary Inspectors (SVIs, resulting in 18 herds being chosen as case study herds, 12 of which had a clearly defined welfare incident date. For each study herd, data on six potential KPIs were extracted from DAFF databases. The KPIs for those herds with a clearly defined welfare incident date were studied for a consecutive four year window, with the fourth year being the 'incident year', when the welfare incident was disclosed. For study herds without a clearly defined welfare incident date, the KPIs were determined on a yearly basis between 2001 and 2009. Results We found that the late registration of calves, the use of on-farm burial as a method of carcase disposal, an increasing number of moves to knackeries over time and records of animals moved to 'herd unknown' were notable on the case farms. Conclusion Four KPIs were prominent on the case study farms and warrant further investigation in control herds to determine their potential to provide a framework for refining current systems of early warning and prevention.

  16. Animal Health Challenges and Veterinary Aspects of Organic Livestock Farming Identified Through a 3 Year EU Network Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Padel, Susanne; Younie, David;

    2008-01-01

    of organic values and, 4) In all participating countries, a strong need for training of farmers and in particular veterinarians in animal health promotion and organic principles was identified. The article presents a summary of papers presented at the five SAFO workshops......., and creates several challenges for a harmonised regulation, 2) Implementing organic standards at farm level does not always ensure that animal health and welfare reach the high ideals of the organic principles, 3) To overcome these deficiencies, organic farmers and farmer organisations need to take ownership...

  17. Farm and personal characteristics of the clientele of a community-based animal-health service programme in northern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüttner, K; Leidl, K; Pfeiffer, D U; Jere, F B; Kasambara, D

    2001-05-01

    The social background, farm characteristics, indicators of income and self-evaluation returns of 96 randomly selected users of a Basic Animal Health Service (BAHS) programme in northern Malawi were compared with those of 96 matched past-users and 96 non-users, respectively. All 288 farms were visited between July and October 1997. Data analysis was performed using univariate and multivariate techniques. The results showed that, on average, BAHS users had larger cattle herds (16.3) than part-users (14.7) or non-users (12.4). Similarly, the annual yields of crops were higher for users compared to either of the other groups. Users occupied better houses and owned a larger number of farm and household items than did part-users or non-users. A third of all farmers were engaged in additional income generation to lessen the risk of poverty. However, analysis of the livestock management and the educational background of the farmers suggested that usage of the BAHS programme was not only determined by already existing 'wealth'. Improved livestock husbandry and management measures, which do not require capital investment, were more frequently applied by users compared to either of the other groups. Non-users and part-users had attained a lower level of education, were less open towards improved farming methods and felt less knowledgeable than BAHS users. The average straight-line distances from farms using BAHS to their respective village animal health worker (2.2 km) or veterinary assistant (2.9 km) were similar but varied according to ecological zone. Intensified extension and awareness meetings in villages will be required to get more non-users involved in BAHS.

  18. Invited review: Diagnosis of zearalenone (ZEN) exposure of farm animals and transfer of its residues into edible tissues (carry over).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänicke, Sven; Winkler, Janine

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the review was to evaluate the opportunities for diagnosing the zearalenone (ZEN) exposure and intoxication of farm animals by analyzing biological specimens for ZEN residue levels. Metabolism is discussed to be important when evaluating species-specific consequences for the overall toxicity of ZEN. Besides these toxicological facts, analytics of ZEN residues in various animal-derived matrices requires sensitive, matrix-adapted multi-methods with low limits of quantification, which is more challenging than the ZEN analysis in feed. Based on dose-response experiments with farm animals, the principle usability of various specimens as bio-indicators for ZEN exposure is discussed with regard to individual variation and practicability for the veterinary practitioner. ZEN residue analysis in biological samples does not only enable evaluation of ZEN exposure but also allows the risk for the consumer arising from contaminated foodstuffs of animal origin to be assessed. It was compiled from literature that the tolerable daily intake of 0.25 μg ZEN/kg body weight and day is exploited to approximately 8%, when a daily basket of animal foodstuffs and associated carry over factors are assumed at reported ZEN contamination levels of complete feed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Animal welfare-conforming fallow deer farming in Germany--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffer, D; von Borell, E

    2002-09-01

    Fallow deer farming for venison production on pasture and fallow land has gained importance in Germany during recent years. As fallow deer farming constitutes a relatively young farming practice, many questions concerning a welfare-conforming and ecologically sound keeping of fallow deer are still open. Based on the recommendations on the keeping of fallow deer in enclosures for the purpose of venison meat production including by-products from 2 November 1979, a critical comparative review considering the current knowledge from research and practical deer farming experience was conducted. Recommendations on measures for breeding management and administration (statistics on farms and stocks, security and control of enclosures, training and experience of stockperson, practical skills for immobilisation and killing) are proposed. The cultivation goals for the care of landscape by fallow deer farming in protected areas need to be defined precisely. Due to infection risk, mixed herds with domesticated ruminants are not recommended. Potential progress can be foreseen in preventive health measures (control of endoparasites) and by appropriate feeding and water supply, considering feeding and drinking place design, feeding behaviour and water needs. The knowledge on handling and immobilisation methods should also be applied to small herd sizes. More research is needed on transportation of fallow deer.

  20. The Challenges to Improve Farm Animal Welfare in the United Kingdom by Reducing Disease Incidence with Greater Veterinary Involvement on Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip R. Scott

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cattle Health and Welfare Group of Great Britain report (CHAWG; 2012 lists the most important cattle diseases and disorders but fails to fully acknowledge the importance of animal mental health and; in so doing; misses the opportunity to further promote animal welfare. There are effective prevention regimens; including vaccination; husbandry and management strategies for all ten listed animal health concerns in the CHAWG report; however control measures are infrequently implemented because of perceived costs and unwillingness of many farmers to commit adequate time and resources to basic farm management tasks such as biosecurity; and biocontainment. Reducing disease prevalence rates by active veterinary herd and flock health planning; and veterinary care of many individual animal problems presently “treated” by farmers; would greatly improve animal welfare. Published studies have highlighted that treatments for lame sheep are not implemented early enough with many farmers delaying treatment for weeks; and sometimes even months; which adversely affects prognosis. Disease and welfare concerns as a consequence of sheep ectoparasites could be greatly reduced if farmers applied proven control strategies detailed in either veterinary flock health plans or advice available from expert veterinary websites. Recent studies have concluded that there is also an urgent need for veterinarians to better manage pain in livestock. Where proven treatments are available; such as blockage of pain arising from ovine obstetrical problems by combined low extradural injection of lignocaine and xylazine; these are seldom requested by farmers because the technique is a veterinary procedure and incurs a professional fee which highlights many farmers’ focus on economics rather than individual animal welfare.

  1. Animal-assisted therapy with farm animals for persons with psychiatric disorders: effects on self-efficacy, coping ability and quality of life, a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braastad Bjarne O

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT for humans with mental disorders have been well-documented using cats and dogs, but there is a complete lack of controlled studies using farm animals as therapeutic agents for psychiatric patients. The study was developed in the context of Green care, a concept that involves the use of farm animals, plants, gardens, or the landscape in recreational or work-related interventions for different target groups of clients in cooperation with health authorities. The present study aimed at examining effects of a 12-week intervention with farm animals on self-efficacy, coping ability and quality of life among adult psychiatric patients with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses. Methods The study was a randomized controlled trial and follow-up. Ninety patients (59 women and 31 men with schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety, and personality disorders completed questionnaires to assess self-efficacy (Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale; GSE, coping ability (Coping Strategies Scale, and quality of life (Quality of Life Scale; QOLS-N before, at the end of intervention, and at six months follow-up. Two-thirds of the patients (N = 60 were given interventions; the remaining served as controls. Results There was significant increase in self-efficacy in the treatment group but not in the control group from before intervention (SB to six months follow-up (SSMA, (SSMA-SB; F1,55 = 4.20, p= 0.05 and from end of intervention (SA to follow-up (SSMA-SA; F1,55 = 5.6, p= 0.02. There was significant increase in coping ability within the treatment group between before intervention and follow-up (SSMA-SB = 2.7, t = 2.31, p = 0.03, whereas no changes in quality of life was found. There were no significant changes in any of the variables during the intervention. Conclusion AAT with farm animals may have positive influences on self-efficacy and coping ability among psychiatric patients with long lasting psychiatric

  2. Evaluating conceptual modeling frameworks for farm scale groundwater pathogen transport associated with animal farming and municipal wastewater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S. J.; Li, X.; Watanabe, N.; Atwill, R.; Puente, C. E.; Harter, T.

    2010-12-01

    Land applications to crops of diluted animal manure associated with concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and field discharges from municipal wastewater treatment plants are potential pathways for the contamination of shallow domestic and agricultural wells by pathogenic microorganisms. Sampling of soil and groundwater for the indicator and pathogenic microorganisms; Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella was undertaken at two CAFOs in the San Joaquin Valley, California between 2006 and 2009. Observed concentrations are highly variable in both magnitude and frequency of detection and indicated no clear relationship to field applications or seasonal effects. To investigate if the observed variability in microorganism concentrations in groundwater could be attributed to aquifer heterogeneity, we developed multiple conceptual frameworks employing nonpoint source loading functions and groundwater transport models to simulate a shallow agricultural monitoring well catchment. We developed both, homogenous and heterogeneous aquifer representations, the latter using stochastic transition probability Markov chain representation. Also, we developd homogeneous and spatio-temporally heterogeneous loading models. Model sensitivity to conceptual frameworks, transport parameters, and spatio-temporal variations in diffuse pathogen loading at the water table was determined by comparing simulated frequency of pathogen detection with measured monitoring well breakthrough curves. Model results indicate that field scale aquifer heterogeneity cannot fully account for the variation in concentrations observed in shallow monitoring wells and that microorganism loading at the water table must also be highly heterogeneous. A two dimensional Neyman-Scott cluster process was found to provide the best representation of heterogeneity in recharge concentration and is conceptually consistent with the presence of low attenuation transport pathways in the

  3. 家畜性别决定的机制及其控制的研究进展%Molecular Mechanism and Control of Farm Animal Sex Determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓华; 赵万里; 王志跃

    2001-01-01

    The paper reviews the molecular mechanism of farm animal sex determination and the progress of farm animal sex control by X/Y-bearing sperm selection and sex identification of early embryos.%家畜性别决定的分子机理以及通过实施精子分离和早期胚胎性别鉴定来进行性别控制的研究进展。

  4. Dairy farms typology and management of animal genetic resources in the peri-urban zone of Bamako (Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Toure

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facing growth in demand, dairy production in peri-urban areas of developing countries is changing rapidly. To characterise this development around Bamako (Mali, this study establishes a typology of dairy production systems with a special focus on animal genetic resources. The survey included 52 dairy cattle farms from six peri-urban sites. It was conducted in 2011 through two visits, in the dry and harvest seasons. The median cattle number per farm was 17 (range 5–118 and 42% of farmers owned cropland (8.3± 7.3 ha, minimum 1 ha, maximum 25 ha. Feeding strategy was a crucial variable in farm characterisation, accounting for about 85% of total expenses. The use of artificial insemination and a regular veterinary follow-up were other important parameters. According to breeders’ answers, thirty genetic profiles were identified, from local purebreds to different levels of crossbreds. Purebred animals raised were Fulani Zebu (45.8 %, Maure Zebu (9.2 %, Holstein (3.0 %, Azawak Zebu (1.3 %, Mere Zebu (0.5% and Kuri taurine (0.1 %. Holstein crossbred represented 30.5% of the total number of animals (19.0% Fulani-Holstein, 11.2% Maure-Holstein and 0.3% Kuri-Holstein. Montbéliarde, Normande and Limousin crossbreds were also found (6.6 %, 0.7% and 0.3 %, respectively. A multivariate analysis helped disaggregate the diversity of management practices. The high diversity of situations shows the need for consideration of typological characteristics for an appropriate intervention. Although strongly anchored on local breeds, the peri-urban dairy systems included a diversity of exotic cattle, showing an uncoordinated quest of breeders for innovation. Without a public intervention, this dynamic will result in an irremediable erosion of indigenous animal genetic resources.

  5. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  6. Limited Dissemination of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- and Plasmid-Encoded AmpC-Producing Escherichia coli from Food and Farm Animals, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börjesson, Stefan; Ny, Sofia; Egervärn, Maria; Bergström, Jakob; Rosengren, Åsa; Englund, Stina; Löfmark, Sonja; Byfors, Sara

    2016-04-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmid-encoded ampC (pAmpC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae might spread from farm animals to humans through food. However, most studies have been limited in number of isolates tested and areas studied. We examined genetic relatedness of 716 isolates from 4,854 samples collected from humans, farm animals, and foods in Sweden to determine whether foods and farm animals might act as reservoirs and dissemination routes for ESBL/pAmpC-producing Escherichia coli. Results showed that clonal spread to humans appears unlikely. However, we found limited dissemination of genes encoding ESBL/pAmpC and plasmids carrying these genes from foods and farm animals to healthy humans and patients. Poultry and chicken meat might be a reservoir and dissemination route to humans. Although we found no evidence of clonal spread of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli from farm animals or foods to humans, ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli with identical genes and plasmids were present in farm animals, foods, and humans.

  7. Economic principles for resource allocation decisions at national level to mitigate the effects of disease in farm animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, K S; Häsler, B; Stärk, K D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper originated in a project to develop a practical, generic tool for the economic evaluation of surveillance for farm animal diseases at national level by a state veterinary service. Fundamental to that process is integration of epidemiological and economic perspectives. Using a generalized example of epidemic disease, we show that an epidemic curve maps into its economic equivalent, a disease mitigation function, that traces the relationship between value losses avoided and mitigation resources expended. Crucially, elementary economic principles show that mitigation, defined as loss reduction achieved by surveillance and intervention, must be explicitly conceptualized as a three-variable process, and the relative contributions of surveillance and intervention resources investigated with regard to the substitution possibilities between them. Modelling the resultant mitigation surfaces for different diseases should become a standard approach to animal health policy analysis for economic efficiency, a contribution to the evolving agenda for animal health economics research.

  8. Celebrity-black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull; Richey, Lisa Ann

    2015-01-01

    This article studies the intersection between race, culture and celebrity in the context of Danish ‘aid celebrities’ by analysing the radicalised ‘celebrity persona’ of the Gambian-Danish A-list actress, singer, director and comedian Hella Joof. The analysis pays particular attention to her perfo...

  9. African Literature as Celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achebe, Chinua

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and…

  10. Transmission of MRSA CC398 strains between pig farms related by trade of animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinosa-Gongora, C.; Broens, E.M.; Moodley, A.; Nielsen, J.P.; Guardabassi, L.

    2012-01-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 is a genetic lineage associated with livestock, especially pigs. The authors investigated the role of pig trade in the transmission of MRSA CC398 between farms using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), a highly discrimina

  11. CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIOSA ANA RALUCA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Brands ofen use celebrities to get impact, because they are seen by the public as credible source of informationabout product or company. People aspire to the values and lifestyles of celebrities. Consumers selectively integrateperceived values and behavior of celebrities they admire, to build and communicate their own identity.Celebrity endorser is a person who enjoys high reputation and prestige, beeing known to most people. Celebrityendorsement is a relevant strategy for the product categories which improve the image (such as fashion, perfumes orcosmetics.This paper presents types, techniques and models of analysing celebrities’ efficiency in endorsingbrands/products. Celebrity endorsement has become one of the communication strategies used in marketing to buildcongruence between brand image and consumers. Famous persons exert their influence on consumer throughperceived attributes such as expertise, trustworthiness, attractiveness, familiarty and likeability.

  12. Avian-specific real-time PCR assay for authenticity control in farm animal feeds and pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegels, Nicolette; González, Isabel; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    A highly sensitive TaqMan real-time PCR assay targeting the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was developed for detection of an avian-specific DNA fragment (68bp) in farm animal and pet feeds. The specificity of the assay was verified against a wide representation of animal and plant species. Applicability assessment of the avian real-time PCR was conducted through representative analysis of two types of compound feeds: industrial farm animal feeds (n=60) subjected to extreme temperatures, and commercial dog and cat feeds (n=210). Results obtained demonstrated the suitability of the real-time PCR assay to detect the presence of low percentages of highly processed avian material in the feed samples analysed. Although quantification results were well reproducible under the experimental conditions tested, an accurate estimation of the target content in feeds is impossible in practice. Nevertheless, the method may be useful as an alternative tool for traceability purposes within the framework of feed control.

  13. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: Interaction between coping style/personality, stress, and welfare: Relevance for domestic farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolhaas, J M; Van Reenen, C G

    2016-06-01

    This paper will argue that understanding animal welfare and the individual vulnerability to stress-related disease requires a fundamental understanding of functional individual variation as it occurs in nature as well as the underlying neurobiology and neuroendocrinology. Ecological studies in feral populations of mice, fish, and birds start to recognize the functional significance of phenotypes that individually differ in their behavioral and neuroendocrine response to environmental challenge. Recent studies indicate that the individual variation within a species may buffer the species for strong fluctuations in the natural habitat. Similarly, evolutionary ancient behavioral trait characteristics have now been identified in a range of domestic farm animals including cattle, pigs, and horses. Individual variation in behavior can be summarized in a 3-dimensional model with coping style, emotionality, and sociality as independent dimensions. These dimensions can be considered trait characteristics that are stable over time and across situations within the individual. This conceptual model has several consequences. First, the coping style dimension is strongly associated with differential stress vulnerability. Social stress studies show that proactive individuals are resilient under stable environmental conditions but vulnerable when outcome expectancies are violated. Reactive individuals are, in fact, rather flexible and seem to adapt more easily to a changing environment. A second consequence relates to genetics and breeding. Genetic selection for one trait usually implies selection for other traits as well. It is discussed that a more balanced breeding program that takes into account biologically functional temperamental traits will lead to more robust domestic farm animals. Finally, the relationship between temperamental traits, animal production, fitness, and welfare is discussed.

  14. Antibiotic use in farm animals : supporting behavioural change of veterinarians and farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, D.C.

    2017-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in animals selects for resistant bacteria with a (not-quantified) transfer of antimicrobial resistance from animals to humans. Therefore, restrictive use of antibiotics in animals is of utmost importance to protect public health. In this thesis, we identified factors that

  15. Livestock-associated risk factors for pneumonia in an area of intensive animal farming in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidl, Gudrun S.; Spruijt, Ineke T.; Borlée, Floor; Smit, Lidwien A. M.; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Arianne B.; Heederik, Dick J. J.; Yzermans, Joris; van Dijk, Christel E.; Maassen, Catharina B. M.; van der Hoek, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Previous research conducted in 2009 found a significant positive association between pneumonia in humans and living close to goat and poultry farms. However, as this result might have been affected by a large goat-related Q fever epidemic, the aim of the current study was to re-evaluate this association, now that the Q-fever epidemic had ended. In 2014/15, 2,494 adults (aged 20–72 years) living in a livestock-dense area in the Netherlands participated in a medical examination and completed a questionnaire on respiratory health, lifestyle and other items. We retrieved additional information for 2,426/2,494 (97%) participants from electronic medical records (EMR) from general practitioners. The outcome was self-reported, physician-diagnosed pneumonia or pneumonia recorded in the EMR in the previous three years. Livestock license data was used to determine exposure to livestock. We quantified associations between livestock exposures and pneumonia using odds ratios adjusted for participant characteristics and comorbidities (aOR). The three-year cumulative frequency of pneumonia was 186/2,426 (7.7%). Residents within 2,000m of a farm with at least 50 goats had an increased risk of pneumonia, which increased the closer they lived to the farm (2,000m aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4–2.6; 500m aOR 4.4, 95% CI 2.0–9.8). We found no significant associations between exposure to other farm animals and pneumonia. However, when conducting sensitivity analyses using pneumonia outcome based on EMR only, we found a weak but statistically significant association with presence of a poultry farm within 1,000m (aOR: 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.7). Living close to goat and poultry farms still constitute risk factors for pneumonia. Individuals with pneumonia were not more often seropositive for Coxiella burnetii, indicating that results are not explained by Q fever. We strongly recommend identification of pneumonia causes by the use of molecular diagnostics and investigating the role of non

  16. Succession and Enhancement Mechanism of Ecosystem Productivity in the De-farming Area of the Ecotone Between Agriculture and Animal Husbandry in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xiong; ZHANG Li-feng

    2008-01-01

    The succession and enhancement mechanism of the ecosystem productivity with the characteristics of de-farming in the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry in North China was discussed in order to provide an ideaology or a technical basis for maintaining the impetus of ecological restoration and economic development in this region. A case study was applied in combination with the theoretical analysis. The results indicated that the biomass productivity of the de-farming subsystem decreased by 38.4-72.3% compared with that of farming subsystem in the ecosystem. The main function of de-farming subsystem was focused on ecological productivity, it caused the ideal beneficial recycling'de-farming → planting grass → raising animals → earn money' difficult to be realized. With the differentiation of de-farming subsystem, the natural and social resources input to the farming subsystem were accumulated. This laid a basis for the new attributes of economic productivity to be upgraded. The case study indicated that the economic productivity of the ecosystem was increased by 8.85-13.35 times due to re-coupling between the de-farming subsystem and the farming subsystem as well as coupling between microhabitat differentiation and crop production in the subsystems, where the microhabitat differentiation could enrich water and fertilizer in the same field. It was concluded that the important mechanisms to enhance the system productivity in the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry of North China included structure rebuilding and opening of the de-farming ecosystem and taking the advantage of complementary cooperative production among different regions under the market economy and rebuilding an open agro-pasture production structure.f

  17. A descriptive study of visits by animal health specialists in pig farming: type, frequency, and herd-health management factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enting, J; van de Laak, M J; Tielen, M J; Huirne, R B; Dijkhuizen, A A

    1998-10-01

    This research was carried out to analyse the visits specialists of the Dutch Animal Health Service made to growing and fattening pig farms. The type and frequency of the visits and identified herd-health management factors that did not meet accepted standards were investigated. In total 373 visit reports were studied. The majority of the visits (n = 306 of 373) were made to investigate the cause of health, welfare, and performance problems ('problem-solving visits'). Respiratory disorders were the main reason for requesting a specialist to assess farm conditions and management (n = 156). In the other 67 of 373 visit reports the specialists screened for herd-health management factors that did not meet standards for the prevention of disease ('screening visits'). For both types of visits, the main factors detected were abrupt changes in feeding regimens (e.g. changes in feed type, feed composition or feed supplier) (37%), inadequate measures to prevent introduction of pathogens by people and trucks (83%), and incorrect adjustment of the ventilation system (58-60%). The specialists focusing on housing-climate management, identified the majority of factors in an equal number irrespective of whether the visit was a problem-solving visit or a screening visit. This implies that even on farms that appear not to have health or performance problems, factors that relate to disease are present and may cause problems sooner or later. Although veterinary practitioners and other farm advisors assist farmers in their management to optimize herd health, the findings of the research suggest that advisors could provide additional support in situations where environmental and managerial factors play a role in pig health and performance. The knowledge of advisors about integrated herd-health management can be broadened by means of textbooks, courses, or computer programs.

  18. Control of Groundwater Pollution from Animal Feeding Operations: A Farm-Level Dynamic Model for Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Baerenklau, K.

    2012-12-01

    Consolidation in livestock production generates higher farm incomes due to economies of scale, but it also brings waste disposal problems. Over-application of animal waste on adjacent land produces adverse environmental and health effects, including groundwater nitrate pollution. The situation is particularly noticeable in California. In respond to this increasingly severe problem, EPA published a type of command-and-control regulation for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in 2003. The key component of the regulation is its nutrient management plans (NMPs), which intend to limit the land application rates of animal waste. Although previous studies provide a full perspective on potential economic impacts for CAFOs to meet nutrient standards, their models are static and fail to reflect changes in management practices other than spreading manure on additional land and changing cropping patterns. We develop a dynamic environmental-economic modeling framework for representative CAFOs. The framework incorporates four models (i.e., animal model, crop model, hydrologic model, and economic model) that include various components such as herd management, manure handling system, crop rotation, water sources, irrigation system, waste disposal options, and pollutant emissions. We also include the dynamics of soil characteristics in the rootzone as well as the spatial heterogeneity of the irrigation system. The operator maximizes discounted total farm profit over multiple periods subject to environmental regulations. Decision rules from the dynamic optimization problem demonstrate best management practices for CAFOs to improve their economic and environmental performance. Results from policy simulations suggest that direct quantity restrictions of emission or incentive-based emission policies are much more cost-effective than the standard approach of limiting the amount of animal waste that may be applied to fields (as shown in the figure below); reason being

  19. Use of Silver Nitrate for the Assessment of Sperm Measurements in Selected Farm and Free-Living Animal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andraszek Katarzyna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on spermatozoa of selected farm and free-living animal species, isolated post mortem from the tail of the epididymis, and stained with silver nitrate - AgNO3. The material was collected from pigs, goats, wild boar, and European roe deer. Twenty morphologically normal spermatozoa randomly selected from each animal and well visible under the microscope, were analysed. The following measurements were considered: head length, width, perimeter and area, acrosome area, mid-piece length, tail length, and overall sperm length. AgNO3 staining differentiated the acrosomal (light hue and distal (dark hue part of the sperm head, and a light-hued mid-piece was visible within the sperm tail. Silver nitrate staining revealed species and variety-related differences, particularly in reference to the sperm head. Clear-cut differentiation within the head and tail area made it possible to perform detailed morphometric measurements of the spermatozoa.

  20. 农场动物福利现状及对策%The Status and Countermeasures of Farm Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾招兵; 杨飞云; 林保忠; 刘作华

    2011-01-01

    Bad farm animal welfare has become one of the most important constraints for sustainable livestock.The basic, long-sighted and emergent work of animal welfare and the status of swine welfare were summarized in this paper. Moreover, some countermeasures were put forward to improve swine welfare.%农场动物福利水平低下,已成为制约畜牧业可持续发展的重要因素之一.概述动物福利的基础性、前瞻性和应急性工作,有助于认识和理解猪的福利现状和提出改善其福利水平的针对性措施.

  1. 英国“农庄动物小说”刍议%A Study on Engilsh Farm Animal Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国龙; 毕坤

    2015-01-01

    Farm animal novel”is one of the important genre in English animal literature. The essay is a starting point for animal images, going into more depth about the relationship between human and animals, its mental source and ethic moral. It can provide a new perspective in learning English children's literature, animal literature and even English literature.%“农庄动物小说”是英国动物文学中重要的门类。以英国“农庄动物小说”中的动物形象为切入点,深入探究英国“农庄动物小说”体现的“人与动物的关系”以及蕴藉的思想源流和伦理指向,从而为英国儿童文学、英国动物文学乃至英国文学的研究提供新的视点。

  2. How Farm Animals React and Perceive Stressful Situations Such As Handling, Restraint, and Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temple Grandin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An animal that has been carefully acclimated to handling may willingly re-enter a restrainer. Another animal may have an intense agitated behavioral reaction or refuse to re-enter the handling facility. Physiological measures of stress such as cortisol may be very low in the animal that re-enters willingly and higher in animals that actively resist restraint. Carefully acclimating young animals to handling and restraint can help improve both productivity and welfare by reducing fear stress. Some of the topics covered in this review are: How an animal perceives handling and restraint, the detrimental effects of a sudden novel event, descriptions of temperament and aversion tests and the importance of good stockmanship.

  3. Advances in ultrasonography and its applications in domestic ruminants and other farm animals reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed S. Medan; Abd El-Aty, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound techniques are becoming increasingly important in animal reproduction, offering both a mean of diagnosis and a useful therapeutic tool. Accordingly, understanding the use of ultrasound technology is critical in contemporary animal sciences, since ultrasound examinations are now a routine component of diagnostic workups in reproduction. Ultrasound technology offers the assessment of pregnancy status and foetal viability early post breeding in order to identify animals that fail to c...

  4. Performing Belonging, celebrating invisibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Serbian migrants living transnational lives consciously or unconsciously move between visibility and invisibility in their performance of migrant success stories. A case in point are public festivals, performed to make visible migrants’ successful inclusion in Danish society, i.e. celebrating...... invisibility. Meanwhile, other celebrations are consciously relegated to the invisible confines of the Serbian homeland. This article analyses celebrations in Denmark and in Serbia and shows how visible displays of ethnicity and difference tend to turn into easily palatable heritage versions of Serbian culture...... when performed in a Danish context. In turn, the visibility acquired through celebrations of migrants’ belonging in their homeland is inclined to render invisible those who did not take part in the migration experience....

  5. Celebrities in International Affairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Budabin, Alexandra Cosima

    2016-01-01

    , media, and NGOs, then considers exemplary cases of Angelina Jolie in Burma, Ben Affleck in the Democractic Republic of Congo, and Madonna in Malawi. These celebrity practices as diplomats, experts, and humanitarians in international affairs illustrate the diverse and contradictory forms of engagement......Celebrity engagement in global “helping” is not a simple matter of highly photogenic caring for needy others across borders; it is a complex relationship of power that often produces contradictory functions in relation to the goals of humanitarianism, development, and advocacy. This article argues...... that celebrities are acting as other elite actors in international affairs: investing considerable capital into processes that are highly political. It traces the emergence and practices of the elite politics of celebrities in North-South relations, an evolution made possible by recent changes in aid practices...

  6. Golden Jubilee Celebrated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Beijing Review, China’s only national English weekly news magazine, held a banquet on September 26 in Beijing, celebrating the publication’s 50th anniversary.More than 300 guests attended the gathering, including government officials,

  7. CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT STRATEGY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CHIOSA ANA RALUCA

    2012-01-01

    .... Celebrity endorsement has become one of the communication strategies used in marketing to buildcongruence between brand image and consumers. Famous persons exert their influence on consumer throughperceived attributes such as expertise, trustworthiness, attractiveness, familiarty and likeability.

  8. First detection of kobuvirus in farm animals in Brazil and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barry, A.F.; Ribeiro, J.; Alfieri, A.F.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Alfieri, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Animal kobuviruses have been described in pigs, cattle, sheep and bats in countries in Asia and Europe. The virus can be detected in fecal and serum samples of infected animals with or without diarrhea, but most of the clinical as well as epidemiological features of kobuvirus infection are still unk

  9. Talking about Animals: Studies of Young Children Visiting Zoos, a Museum and a Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Susan Dale

    The purpose of this study was to identify the content and form of the conversations and recognize the variables that are acting during visits to animal exhibits, and the influence on conversational content of both different types of locations and animal exhibits and visit rationales. Conversations of children between the ages of 3 and 12 years and…

  10. Modelling H-3 and C-14 transfer to farm animals and their products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeriu, D; Melintescu, A; Beresford, N; Crout, N; Peterson, R; Takeda, H

    2006-06-23

    The radionuclides {sup 14}C and {sup 3}H may both be released from nuclear facilities. These radionuclides differ from most others in that they are isotopes of macro-elements which form the basis of animal tissues, feed and, in the case of {sup 3}H, water. There are few published values describing the transfer of {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C from feed to animal derived food products. Approaches are described which enable the prediction of {sup 14}C and {sup 3}H transfer parameter values from readily available information on the stable H or C concentration of animal feeds, tissues and milk, water turnover rates, and feed intakes and digestibilities. It is recommended that the concentration ratio between feed and animal product activity concentrations be used as it is less variable than the transfer coefficient (ratio between radionuclide activity concentration in animal milk or tissue to the daily intake of a radionuclide).

  11. Beijing Celebrates National Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    October 1, 1994 marked the 45th anniversary of the founding of New China. On that night more than 100,000 people gathered in Tian’anmen Square to celebrate. There were 58 different celebration areas on the square where 1,800 performers from 25 art organizations danced with Beijing residents. The sound of singing, dancing and laughter could be heard far outside the square. During the day, eight large parks in

  12. Celebration of Scientific Anniversaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1997-01-01

    The discovery of the Electron 100 years ago by J.J.Thompson is celebrated. Details about the discovery is reviewed. A longer nonpublished article on the subject is available from the author.......The discovery of the Electron 100 years ago by J.J.Thompson is celebrated. Details about the discovery is reviewed. A longer nonpublished article on the subject is available from the author....

  13. Options for managing animal welfare on intensive pig farms confined by movement restrictions during an outbreak of foot and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, I J; Roche, S E; Wicks, R M; de Witte, K; Garner, M G

    2014-12-01

    An outbreak of foot and mouth disease in Australia would trigger a major disease control and eradication program that would include restriction of movement of live animals within defined disease control zones. Experiences from outbreaks in other countries show that restrictions that limit the ability to turn off stock can lead to animal welfare compromise on intensively managed farms that are not infected with the disease. Intensive pig farms are considered to be at high risk of developing welfare problems during a control program due to the imposed movement restrictions and limited space available to house growing pigs. This study was designed to investigate strategies that could be used to mitigate animal welfare problems on intensive pig farms during a simulated outbreak of foot and mouth disease in a livestock dense region of Australia. Three strategies for managing farms affected by animal welfare problems were assessed, including on-farm culling of grower and finisher pigs, on-farm culling of finisher pigs only, and permit-based movement of finisher pigs to slaughter at abattoir. Under traditional approaches of giving infected premises (IP) priority over culling of farms with welfare problems (WP), delays of up to 25 days were experienced prior to culling of WPs. Deployment of vaccination did little to reduce the delay to culling of WPs. These delays were sensitive to resources available for control, with reduced resources increasing the time until welfare problems were addressed. Assigning equal priority to all farms requiring culling regardless of status as IP or WP and culling each as they arose reduced the delay to culling of WPs to no more than 4 days without large increases in either the duration or the size of the outbreaks observed.

  14. Policing Farm Animal Welfare in Federated Nations: The Problem of Dual Federalism in Canada and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry L. Whiting

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent European animal welfare statutes, human actions injurious to animals are new “offences” articulated as an injury to societal norms in addition to property damage. A crime is foremost a violation of a community moral standard. Violating a societal norm puts society out of balance and justice is served when that balance is returned. Criminal law normally requires the presence of mens rea, or evil intent, a particular state of mind; however, dereliction of duties towards animals (or children is usually described as being of varying levels of negligence but, rarely can be so egregious that it constitutes criminal societal injury. In instrumental justice, the “public goods” delivered by criminal law are commonly classified as retribution, incapacitation and general deterrence. Prevention is a small, if present, outcome of criminal justice. Quazi-criminal law intends to establish certain expected (moral standards of human behavior where by statute, the obligations of one party to another are clearly articulated as strict liability. Although largely moral in nature, this class of laws focuses on achieving compliance, thereby resulting in prevention. For example, protecting the environment from degradation is a benefit to society; punishing non-compliance, as is the application of criminal law, will not prevent the injury. This paper will provide evidence that the integrated meat complex of Canada and the USA is not in a good position to make changes to implement a credible farm animal protection system.

  15. Policing Farm Animal Welfare in Federated Nations: The Problem of Dual Federalism in Canada and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Terry L

    2013-12-02

    In recent European animal welfare statutes, human actions injurious to animals are new "offences" articulated as an injury to societal norms in addition to property damage. A crime is foremost a violation of a community moral standard. Violating a societal norm puts society out of balance and justice is served when that balance is returned. Criminal law normally requires the presence of mens rea, or evil intent, a particular state of mind; however, dereliction of duties towards animals (or children) is usually described as being of varying levels of negligence but, rarely can be so egregious that it constitutes criminal societal injury. In instrumental justice, the "public goods" delivered by criminal law are commonly classified as retribution, incapacitation and general deterrence. Prevention is a small, if present, outcome of criminal justice. Quazi-criminal law intends to establish certain expected (moral) standards of human behavior where by statute, the obligations of one party to another are clearly articulated as strict liability. Although largely moral in nature, this class of laws focuses on achieving compliance, thereby resulting in prevention. For example, protecting the environment from degradation is a benefit to society; punishing non-compliance, as is the application of criminal law, will not prevent the injury. This paper will provide evidence that the integrated meat complex of Canada and the USA is not in a good position to make changes to implement a credible farm animal protection system.

  16. Strategies to promote farm animal welfare in Latin America and their effects on carcass and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Mateus J R Paranhos; Huertas, Stella M; Gallo, Carmen; Dalla Costa, Osmar A

    2012-11-01

    Several initiatives, including research and development, increasing stakeholders' awareness and application of legislation and recommendation, have been carried out in Latin America to promote animal welfare and meat quality. Most activities focused on the impact of pre-slaughter conditions (facilities, equipment and handling procedures) on animal welfare and meat quality. The results are encouraging; data from Brazil, Chile and Uruguay showed that the application of the improved pre-slaughter handling practices reduced aggressive handling and the incidence of bruised carcasses at slaughter in cattle and pigs. These outcomes stimulated some to apply animal welfare concepts in livestock handling within the meat production chain as shown by the increasing demand for personnel training on the best. To attend this demand is important to expand local studies on farm animal welfare and to set up (or maintain) an efficient system for knowledge transfer to all stakeholders in the Latin America meat production chains. However, it is clear that to promote the long-term progress in this field is important to deliver practical solutions, assuring that they match the technical and financial conditions of those who are the target of training programs.

  17. Farm to abattoir conditions, animal factors and their subsequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and beef quality — A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njisane, Yonela Zifikile; Muchenje, Voster

    2017-01-01

    The current review seeks to highlight the concerns that have been raised on pre-slaughter stress, contributing factors and its consequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and the quality of beef; inter-linking the activities involved from birth to slaughter. Such information is crucial in light of the consumer concerns on overall animal welfare, quality of meat and food security. Slaughter animals are exposed to different conditions during production and transportation to abattoirs on a daily basis. However; the majority of studies that have been done previously singled out different environments in the meat production chain, while conclusions have been made that the welfare of slaughter animals and the quality of meat harvested from them is dependent on the whole chain. Behaviour is a critical component used to evaluate the animals’ wellbeing and it has been reported to have an effect on product quality. Apart from the influence of on-farm, transportation and abattoir conditions, the genetic background of the animal also affects how it perceives and responds to certain encounters. Stress activates the animals’ hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, triggering release of various stress hormones such as catecholamines and cortisol, thus glycogen depletion prior slaughter, elevated ultimate pH and poor muscle-meat conversion. Pre-slaughter stress sometimes results to cattle attaining bruises, resulting to the affected parts of the carcass being trimmed and condemned for human consumption, downgrading of the carcass and thus profit losses. PMID:27608639

  18. Paving the way for farm animal welfare in international relations: an EU–Brazil case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maciel, C.; Mol, A.P.J.; Bock, B.B.

    2015-01-01

    As a sensitive area in international trade, animal welfare measures have encountered resistance in negotiations at the World Trade Organization (WTO). Consequently, alternative avenues have been pursued to reach international trade policy convergence. To further understand the contemporary trade pol

  19. Advances in ultrasonography and its applications in domestic ruminants and other farm animals reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Medan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound techniques are becoming increasingly important in animal reproduction, offering both a mean of diagnosis and a useful therapeutic tool. Accordingly, understanding the use of ultrasound technology is critical in contemporary animal sciences, since ultrasound examinations are now a routine component of diagnostic workups in reproduction. Ultrasound technology offers the assessment of pregnancy status and foetal viability early post breeding in order to identify animals that fail to conceive, improving reproductive efficiency; early identification of animals carrying twin foetuses, allowing for the implementation of differential management strategies to avoid the negative effects of twinning on general health of the mother animal and also at parturition; and the visualisation of ovarian and uterine pathologies not accurately detected via rectal palpation, allowing appropriate therapies to be implemented. In addition, determination of foetal sex in utero can be done by ultrasonography. The new information that has been generated through ultrasound has thrown light on therapeutic uses, thereby opening up new areas for research. Moreover, ultrasound-guided interventional techniques can be used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. In this review, advances and applications of ultrasonography in domestic animal reproduction are reviewed.

  20. Vaccination of adult animals with a reduced dose of Brucella abortus S19 vaccine to control brucellosis on dairy farms in endemic areas of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Puran; Chhabra, Rajesh; Nagra, Juhi

    2015-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis is an economically important disease which seriously affects dairy farming by causing colossal losses. It can be controlled by practicing vaccination of animals with Brucella abortus S19 vaccine (S19 vaccine). In the present study, adult bovines were vaccinated on seven dairy farms with a reduced dose of S19 vaccine to control brucellosis. Serological screening of adult animals (N = 1,082) by Rose Bengal test (RBT) and ELISA prior to vaccination revealed the presence and absence of brucellosis on five and two farms, respectively. The positive animals (N = 171) were segregated and those which tested negative (N = 911) were vaccinated by conjunctival route with a booster after 4 months. The conjunctival vaccination induced weak antibody response in animals, which vanished within a period of 9 to 12 weeks. Abortion in 12 animals at various stages of pregnancy and post-vaccination was recorded, but none was attributed to S19 vaccine. However, virulent B. abortus was incriminated in six heifers, and the cause of abortion could not be established in six animals. The six aborted heifers perhaps acquired infection through in utero transmission or from the environment which remained undetected until abortion. These findings suggested that vaccination of adult animals with a reduced dose of S19 vaccine by conjunctival route did not produce adverse effects like abortion in pregnant animals and persistent vaccinal antibody titers, which are the major disadvantages of subcutaneous vaccination of adult animals.

  1. Regulation of lipid deposition in farm animals: Parallels between agriculture and human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Werner G; Brandebourg, Terry D

    2016-06-01

    For many years, clinically oriented scientists and animal scientists have focused on lipid metabolism and fat deposition in various fat depots. While dealing with a common biology across species, the goals of biomedical and food animals lipid metabolism research differ in emphasis. In humans, mechanisms and regulation of fat synthesis, accumulation of fat in regional fat depots, lipid metabolism and dysmetabolism in adipose, liver and cardiac tissues have been investigated. Further, energy balance and weight control have also been extensively explored in humans. Finally, obesity and associated maladies including high cholesterol and atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and health outcomes have been widely studied. In food animals, the emphasis has been on regulation of fatty acid synthesis and lipid deposition in fat depots and deposition of intramuscular fat. For humans, understanding the regulation of energy balance and body weight and of prevention or treatment of obesity and associated maladies have been important clinical outcomes. In production of food animals lowering fat content in muscle foods while enhancing intramuscular fat (marbling) have been major targets. In this review, we summarize how our laboratories have addressed the goal of providing lean but yet tasty and juicy muscle food products to consumers. In addition, we here describe efforts in the development of a new porcine model to study regulation of fat metabolism and obesity. Commonalities and differences in regulation of lipid metabolism between humans, rodents and food animals are emphasized throughout this review.

  2. After Dolly--ethical limits to the use of biotechnology on farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Jesper; Gjerris, Mickey; Sandøe, Peter

    2006-03-15

    The cloning of Dolly the sheep gave rise to a widespread call for limits on interference with life. Until recently, the main limits were technical: what it is possible to do. Now scientists are faced with ethical limits as well: what it is acceptable to do. In this context, we take ethics to involve systematic and rational reflection on moral issues raised in the public sphere. The concerns of the general public are not necessarily valid, but they are the best point of departure if the discussion is to lead to a socially robust framework for setting limits to the use of animal biotechnology. To assess public understanding, we examine two sources of data: Eurobarometer surveys from 1991 to 2002 and a qualitative interview study carried out in Denmark in 2000. Based on these sources, we formulate, and then discuss closely, the following concerns: dangers to human health and the environment, animal welfare, animal integrity, and usefulness. In the final part of the article, it is proposed that a principle of proportionality should be the foundation for socially robust applications of animal biotechnology. Only in cases where the usefulness of the technology can be said to outweigh countervailing moral concerns, as in biomedical research, will applications of animal biotechnology stand up to scrutiny in the public sphere.

  3. Ethical, legal, and social aspects of farm animal cloning in the 6th Framework Programme for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, John; Sachez, Elena; Matthiessen-Guyader, Line

    2004-01-01

    Cloned livestock have potential importance in the provision of improved medicine as well as in the development of livestock production. The public is, however, increasingly concerned about the social and ethical consequences of these advances in knowledge and techniques. There is unevenness throughout Europe in different Member States' attitudes to research into livestock cloning. Although there is EU legislation controlling the use of animals for research purposes, there is no legislation specifically governing cloning in livestock production. The main EU reference is the 9th Opinion of the European Group on Ethics, which states "Cloning of farm animals may prove to be of medical and agricultural as well as economic benefit. It is acceptable only when the aims and methods are ethically justified and when carried out under ethical conditions." The ethical justification includes the avoidance of suffering, the use of the 3Rs principle and a lack of better alternatives. The Commission addresses these issues in the 6th Framework Programme by promoting the integration of ethical, legal and social aspects in all proposals where they are relevant, by fostering ethical awareness and foresight in the proposals, by encouraging public dialogue, and by supporting specific actions to promote the debate. Research must respect fundamental ethical principles, including animal welfare requirements.

  4. Sampling cows to assess lying time for on-farm animal welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, E; Rushen, J; Haley, D B; de Passillé, A M

    2012-09-01

    The time that dairy cows spend lying down is an important measure of their welfare, and data loggers can be used to automatically monitor lying time on commercial farms. To determine how the number of days of sampling, parity, stage of lactation, and production level affect lying time, electronic data loggers were used to record lying time for 10 d consecutively, at 3 stages of lactation [early: when cows were at 10-40 d in milk (DIM), mid: 100-140 DIM, late: 200-240 DIM] of 96 Holstein cows in tiestalls (TS) and 127 in freestalls (FS). We calculated daily duration of lying, bout frequency, and mean bout duration. We observed complex interactions between parity and stage of lactation, which differed somewhat between tiestalls and freestalls. First-parity cows had higher bout frequency and shorter lying bouts than older cows but bout frequency decreased and mean bout duration increased as DIM increased. We found that individual cows were not consistent in time spent lying between early and mid lactation (Pearson coefficient, TS: r = 0.1, FS: r = 0.2), whereas cows seemed to be more consistent in time spent lying between mid and late lactation (TS: r = 0.7, FS: r = 0.3). For both TS and FS cows, daily milk production was significantly, but slightly negatively, correlated with lying time across the lactation (range, r: -0.2 to -0.4), whereas parity was slightly to moderately positively correlated with mean bout duration across the lactation (r: +0.2 to +0.6) and negatively with bout frequency (r: -0.2 to -0.5). To estimate how the duration of the time sample affected the estimates of lying time subsets of data subsets consisting of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 d per cow were created, and the relationship between the overall mean (based on 10 d) and the mean of each subset was tested by regression. For both TS and FS, lying time based on 4 d of sampling provided good estimates of the average 10-d estimate (90% of accuracy). Automated monitoring of lying time has

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated from food animals on farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostridium difficile is commonly associated with a spectrum of disease in humans referred to as C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD) and use of antimicrobials is considered a risk factor for development of disease in humans. Clostridium difficile can also inhabit healthy food animals and transmi...

  6. Analysis of factors associated with hesitation to restart farming after depopulation of animals due to 2010 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    KADOWAKI, Hazumu; KAYANO, Taishi; TOBINAGA, Takaharu; TSUTSUMI, Atsuro; WATARI, Michiko; MAKITA, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) occurred in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan, in 2010. This epidemic was controlled with culling and vaccination, and resulted in the death of nearly 290,000 animals. This paper describes the factors associated with hesitation to restart farming after the epidemic. A questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the mental health of farmers one year after the end of the FMD epidemic in affected areas, and univariate and multivariable analyses were performed. Of 773 farms which had answered the question about restart farming, 55.4% (428/773) had resumed or were planning to resume operation. The farms hesitated restarting were characterized by small scale (P=0.06) and having multiple sources of income (P<0.01). Personal attributes associated with hesitation to restart were advanced age of the owner (P<0.01), with someone with bad physical conditions (P=0.04) and small family size (P<0.01). Factors related to disease control during the epidemic that were associated with hesitation to restart were vaccination of animals (P<0.01), not assisting with culling on other farms (P<0.01), and higher satisfaction with information provided by the government (P=0.02). We found that farmers hesitated to resume farming because they had a limited labor force, had an alternative business or were mentally distressed during disease control. PMID:27149890

  7. Perfluoroalkylated substances in edible livers of farm animals, including depuration behaviour in young sheep fed with contaminated grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Vassiliadou, Irene; Costopoulou, Danae; Leondiadis, Leondios; Schafft, Helmut A; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2016-08-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) present a potential health risk for consumers. In animals these compounds are known to accumulate in livers. In order to determine potential PFASs contamination in commercially available livers, samples from farmed sheep, horses, cows, pigs and chicken were collected from the Dutch market. PFOS was the only detectable PFAS and its concentration was higher in free ranging animals like cows and sheep. The detected levels of PFOS in the liver samples were very low (up to 4.5 ng g(-1) ww). To further study the kinetic behaviour in foraging animals, samples from a study in which sheep were fed with grass obtained from a river floodplain, were examined. PFOS was the only detectable PFAS in the contaminated grass pellets, showing a level of about 0.5 μg kg(-1). Young blackhead sheep were fed with either clean or contaminated grass for a period up to 112 days. A time-dependent increase in liver PFOS concentrations was observed from 2.4 to 10.9 ng g(-1) ww after 8 and 112 days respectively. A time-dependent depuration was observed in livers of animals switched to clean grass after 56 days of exposure, from 9.2 to 4.7 ng g(-1) ww after 64 and 112 days respectively. The percentage of PFOS ingested from the grass and retained in the liver was estimated to be 12% at day 56, and decreased gradually to 6% after 56 days on clean grass, showing that the decrease in levels is not only caused by an increase in liver weight. Levels detected in commercial livers but also those in the sheep study would not lead to exceedance of the current TDI for PFOS set by EFSA. Therefore, it can be assumed that they do not present a risk for human health.

  8. Parasitology and urban livestock farming in Nigeria : prevalence of ova in faecal and soil samples and animal ectoparasites in Makurdi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Omudu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Domestic environmental pollution resulting from urban livestock farming was investigated in Makurdi using parasitological techniques. The test tube flotation technique was used for the parasitological analysis of animal faecal matter and soil samples collected from residential premises. Ectoparasitic fauna of dogs, goats, sheep and cattle cohabiting with humans within the same residential compound were also collected and identified. The hand-picking and body brushing methods were employed to search for ticks, fleas, lice and mites. Of the 150 soil samples examined, 55 (36.7 % were positive for 1 or more eggs of helminth parasites. There was no significant difference in the distribution of eggs in the soil samples from the 3 areas sampled (c2=0.046, df=2, P>0.05. Ascaris species were the dominant parasite eggs found. Of the 180 faecal samples examined, 107 (59.4 % were positive for 1 or more eggs of helminth parasites. Chi-square analysis showed no significant difference in the level of infection of different animal faeces sampled (c2=5.74, df=4, P>0.05. Ascaris species were again the dominating helminth parasite eggs found. There was also no significant difference in the prevalence of helminth eggs in the animal faecal samples from the 3 areas sampled (c2=5.99, df=4, P>0.05. A total of 1908 ectoparasites was recovered (ticks: 32.80 %; lice: 22.43 %; fleas: 22.06% and mite: 22.69 %. There was no significant difference in infestation animals between sexes (c2=0.10, df=4, P>0.05. The predominant genus encountered for ticks were Amblyomma, while Linognathus (43.90%, Ctenocephalides (97.38% and Sarcoptes (58.89 % were most predominant for lice, fleas and mites respectively. The public health implications of the findings, especially as these relate to the increasing incidence and prevalence of zoonotic infections, are discussed.

  9. The effect of steps to promote higher levels of farm animal welfare across the EU. Societal versus animal scientists’ perceptions of animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Averós, X.; Aparicio, M.A.; Ferrari, P.; Guy, J.H.; Hubbard, C.; Schmid, O.; Ilieski, V.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific relevanc

  10. Kisspeptins and the reproductive axis: potential applications to manage reproduction in farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraty, A; Decourt, C; Briant, C; Beltramo, M

    2012-08-01

    Kisspeptins (Kp) are a family of neuropeptides produced mainly by two hypothalamic neuronal cell populations. They have recently emerged as a major regulator of the gonadotropin axis and their action is located upstream of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) cell population. In less than 10 yr a growing body of literature has demonstrated the involvement of these peptides in most, if not all, aspects of reproductive axis maturation and function. In contrast to these abundant basic research studies, few experiments have evaluated the potential application of Kp as tools to manipulate reproduction in domestic animals. In mammals, exogenous Kp administration potently stimulates gonadotropin secretion. This action is exerted mainly, if not exclusively, through the stimulation of GnRH release. Intravenous, intraperitoneal, or subcutaneous administration of Kp induced a robust and rapid increase in plasma gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone [LH] and follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]). However, this stimulatory effect is of short duration. Prolonged LH and FSH release over several hours can be achieved only when Kp are given as repeated multiple bolus or as an infusion. Kp administration was used in two experimental models, ewe and pony mare, with the aim of inducing well-timed and synchronized ovulations. During the breeding season, progesterone-synchronized ewes were given an intravenous infusion of Kp starting 30 h after the removal of progesterone implants. An LH surge was induced in all Kp-treated animals within 2 h of infusion onset. In contrast, in pony mares a constant infusion of Kp for 3 d in the the late follicular phase was unable to induce synchronized ovulation. Another set of studies showed that Kp could be used to activate reproductive function in acyclic animals. Pulsatile administration of Kp in prepubertal ewe lambs was shown to activate ovarian function, leading to enhanced ovarian steroidogenesis, stimulation of LH preovulatory surge, and

  11. Young People's Uses of Celebrity: Class, Gender and "Improper" Celebrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kim; Mendick, Heather

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we explore the question of how celebrity operates in young people's everyday lives, thus contributing to the urgent need to address celebrity's social function. Drawing on data from three studies in England on young people's perspectives on their educational and work futures, we show how celebrity operates as a classed and…

  12. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena, E-mail: cecilia.lalander@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Komakech, Allan John [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Agricultural & Bio-systems Engineering, Makerere University, Kampala (Uganda); Vinnerås, Björn [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies.

  13. After Dolly - ethical limits to the use of biotechnology on farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper; Gjerris, Mickey; Sandøe, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The cloning of Dolly the sheep gave rise to a widespread call for limits on interference with life. Until recently, the main limits were technical: what it is possible to do. Now scientists are faced with ethical limits as well: what it is acceptable to do. In this context, we take ethics...... to involve systematic and rational reflection on moral issues raised in the public sphere. The concerns of the general public are not necessarily valid, but they are the best point of departure if the discussion is to lead to a socially robust framework for setting limits to the use of animal technology...

  14. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMMUNOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF CAPSULAR POLYSACCHARIDE OF KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE ISOLATED FROM FARM ANIMALS AT TAIF GOVERNORATE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed M.A. Mansour; Hoda M. Zaki; Nibal A. Hassan; Abdulrahman A. Al-Humiany

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative enterobacterium that has historically been and currently remains, a significant cause of human disease and several kinds of infections in animals. In the present work, trials for the isolation of Klebsiella pneumoniae from diseased and apparently healthy farm animals (cows, sheep, goats and camels) were done for recognition of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies. It was noticed that there was a marked variation between incidences of Klebsiella pneumoniae ...

  15. Antibiotic Resistance in Animal-waste-impacted Farm Soil: From Molecular Mechanisms to Microbial Evolution and Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y.; Ward, M. J.; Hilpert, M.

    2012-12-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem worldwide and the routine use of antibiotics in industrial animal production has sparked debate on whether this practice might constitute an environmental and public health concern. At a broiler farm, electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveying assisted soil sampling from a chicken-waste-impacted site and a marginally affected site. Consistent with the EMI survey, disparity existed between the two sites with regard to soil pH, tetracycline resistance (TcR) levels among heterotrophic culturable soil bacteria, and the incidence/prevalence of a number of tet and erm genes in the soils. No significant difference was observed in these aspects between the marginally affected site and several sites in a regional state forest that has not been in agricultural use for decades. Shortly after our sampling, the farm closed down and all the waste was removed. This unique change in situation offered us an unusual opportunity to examine the reversibility of any impact of the chicken waste on the soil microbial community. Two years after the event, several antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were still detected in the waste-impacted soil, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) data showed that their relative abundance remained at substantial levels. A mobilizable tet(L)-carrying plasmid, pSU1, was identified in several chicken-waste-exposed soil bacteria of three different genera. Quantification of the plasmid's mobilization gene suggested that pSU1 had contributed to the prevalence and persistence of tet(L) in the waste-impacted soil. A second mobilizable tet(L)-carrying plasmid, pBSDMV9, isolated from the same soil, contained a region with 98.8% nucleotide identity to pSU1. The mosaic structure of the plasmids and the highly conserved nature of the tet(L) genes suggested that plasmid rearrangement favoring the acquisition of tet(L) may have occurred in the soil relatively recently. Additionally, in one chicken

  16. Evaluation of Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia Caused by Zoonotic Pathogens in an Area with a High Density of Animal Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijskens, E. G .W.; Smit, L. A. M.; Rossen, J. W. A.; Heederik, D; Koopmans, M

    2015-01-01

    Intensive animal farming could potentially lead to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Clinicians are at the forefront of detecting unusual diseases, but the lack of specificity of zoonotic disease symptoms makes this a challenging task. We evaluated patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) wi

  17. Evaluation of Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia Caused by Zoonotic Pathogens in an Area with a High Density of Animal Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijskens, E G W; Smit, L A M; Rossen, J W A; Heederik, D; Koopmans, M

    2016-01-01

    Intensive animal farming could potentially lead to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Clinicians are at the forefront of detecting unusual diseases, but the lack of specificity of zoonotic disease symptoms makes this a challenging task. We evaluated patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) wi

  18. Early life exposures to home dampness, pet ownership and farm animal contact and neuropsychological development in 4 year old children: a prospective birth cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, L.; Torrent, M.; Zock, J.P.; Doekes, G.; Forns, J.; Guxens, M.; Täubel, M.; Heinrich, J.; Sunyer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to biocontaminants is associated with behavioural problems and poorer cognitive function. Our study assesses the associations between early life exposure to home dampness, pets and farm animal contact and cognitive function and social competences in 4-year old children, and the associations

  19. Evaluation of Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia Caused by Zoonotic Pathogens in an Area with a High Density of Animal Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijskens, E G W; Smit, L A M; Rossen, J W A; Heederik, D; Koopmans, M

    Intensive animal farming could potentially lead to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Clinicians are at the forefront of detecting unusual diseases, but the lack of specificity of zoonotic disease symptoms makes this a challenging task. We evaluated patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)

  20. Antibiotic Resistance in Animal and Environmental Samples Associated with Small-Scale Poultry Farming in Northwestern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braykov, Nikolay P; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Grossman, Marissa; Zhang, Lixin; Vasco, Karla; Cevallos, William; Muñoz, Diana; Acevedo, Andrés; Moser, Kara A; Marrs, Carl F; Foxman, Betsy; Trostle, James; Trueba, Gabriel; Levy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The effects of animal agriculture on the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) are cross-cutting and thus require a multidisciplinary perspective. Here we use ecological, epidemiological, and ethnographic methods to examine populations of Escherichia coli circulating in the production poultry farming environment versus the domestic environment in rural Ecuador, where small-scale poultry production employing nontherapeutic antibiotics is increasingly common. We sampled 262 "production birds" (commercially raised broiler chickens and laying hens) and 455 "household birds" (raised for domestic use) and household and coop environmental samples from 17 villages between 2010 and 2013. We analyzed data on zones of inhibition from Kirby-Bauer tests, rather than established clinical breakpoints for AR, to distinguish between populations of organisms. We saw significantly higher levels of AR in bacteria from production versus household birds; resistance to either amoxicillin-clavulanate, cephalothin, cefotaxime, and gentamicin was found in 52.8% of production bird isolates and 16% of household ones. A strain jointly resistant to the 4 drugs was exclusive to a subset of isolates from production birds (7.6%) and coop surfaces (6.5%) and was associated with a particular purchase site. The prevalence of AR in production birds declined with bird age (P Ecuador, where such backyard poultry operations have become established over the past decade. Our previous research in the region suggests that introduction of AR bacteria through travel and commerce may be an important source of AR in villages of this region. This report extends the prior analysis by examining small-scale production chicken farming as a potential source of resistant strains. Our results suggest that AR strains associated with poultry production likely originate from sources outside the study area and that these outside sources might be a better place to target control efforts than local management practices.

  1. Veterinarian challenges to providing a multi-agency response to farm animal welfare problems in Ireland: responding to the human factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, C; Kelly, P; Blake, M; Hanlon, A; More, S J

    2013-12-01

    In 2012, the authors undertook a study of the challenges facing government and private veterinarians in responding to the human element of farm animal welfare incidents (i.e. the personal problems and difficulties of farmers that can result in farm animal neglect). This paper reports their findings and examines the role of veterinarians in responding to the difficulties of farmers. It also looks at their experiences of attempting to build a multi-agency approach involving veterinary and human support services. This paper builds on a study whereby the authors considered how social, health and attitudinal factors, as well as mental health problems, contribute to farm animal welfare incidents in Ireland. An early warning system involving relevant agencies is in place to identify and prevent farm animal welfare problems before they become critical. The literature provides examples of private veterinarians combining with support services where there are indicators of animal and human abuse. Yet there are no research examples of government or private veterinarians linking with support services to resolve farm animal welfare cases where there are social, health, and/or mental health difficulties with the herd owner. Four focus groups were conducted with government veterinarians (n = 18) and three with private veterinarians (n = 12). Government veterinarians made contact with support services to seek advice on how best to respond to the human element of farm animal welfare incidents, and/or to seek support for the herd owner. Contact between government and private veterinarians was driven by the former. Communication between agencies was influenced by individual efforts and personal contacts. Formal structures and guidelines, perceived professional capabilities in determining herd owner needs, and client confidentiality concerns among support services and private veterinarians were less influential. The fear of losing clients and the financial implications of this were

  2. A Day to Celebrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Participating countries at the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai can choose a day as their National Pavilion Day.The day is usually celebrated with ceremonies and performances,which bring the nation’s culture and its character to life.

  3. E-Music Celebration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's first e-music festival, featuring online tunes and awards, is soon to become a reality in Dujiangyan City, Sichuan Province. Sponsored by the Chengdu Municipal Government and China Record Corp., in association with the Dujiangyan local government, China Business Times, Beijing Review and CRC Huaxia Performing Management Co. Ltd., the celebration will be held on August 8-

  4. CERN celebrates another milestone

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) recently celebrated the lowering of the gigantic toroid magnet end-cap, using an EOT crane, onto the cavern floor. After a two-hour operation, the installation teams from ATLAS, PH-ATI and TS could finally breath a sigh of relief." (1/2 page)

  5. APPLICATION OF MOLECULAR MARKERS IN FARM ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. EBEGBULEM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of genetic polymorphism at the DNA sequence level has been exploited as markers to explain the observed phenotypic variability in animals. Molecular markers have proven to be more reliable than other forms of genetic markers. The overview of the applications of molecular markers in the areas of genetic diversity conservation, identification of disease carriers, parentage determination, marker-assisted selection, transgenesis, sex-determination; and the enumeration of some challenges to the application of these markers in the developing countries, especially Nigeria, form the crux of this paper. Some of the challenges include economic factors, mechanical and logistics factors, lack of funding/grants for research, IPR issues and lack of adequately trained personnel in areas of molecular genetics.

  6. Multiresistance of Bacteria to Veterinary Antibiotics in Dung and Manure Samples of Farm Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Danilova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are used in animal husbandry for treating and preventing diseases and as growth stimulators. Being disposed in the environment with dung and manure, they contribute to the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance genes. In this study, the level of contamination of cattle manure and poultry dung by genes resistant to tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and macrolides (erythromycin has been investigated based on 19 samples. The polymerase chain reaction with specific primers for tet(X, sul1, and ereA genes has been used to reveal the resistance genes. It has been found that 18 samples contained genes encoding for the resistance to antibiotics. Furthermore, four samples have turned out to be simultaneously contaminated by all three genes. It has been revealed that gene tet(X encoding tetracycline resistance is the most abundant one.

  7. Winter cereal yields as affected by animal manure and green manure in organic arable farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2009-01-01

    left on the soil as mulch. Animal manure was applied as slurry to the cereal crops in the rotation in rates corresponding to 40% of the N demand of the cereal crops. Application of 50 kg NH4-N ha-' in manure increased average wheatgrain yield by 0.4-0.9 Mg DM ha-1, whereas the use of catch crops did...... not significantly affect yield. The use of catch crops interacts with other management factors, including row spacing and weed control, and this may have contributed to the negligible effects of catch crops. There was considerable variation in the amount of N (100-600 kg N ha-1 year-1) accumulated in the mulched...

  8. The development of a modular system to burn farm animal waste to generate heat and power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virr, M.J. [Spinheat Ltd., Pottsville, PA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents an internally circulating fluid bed (ICFB) boiler that can burn poultry litter or other waste fuels. The disposal of animal waste is a significant problem for many poultry producers in the Chesapeake Bay area where poultry waste has contaminated local watersheds and the unpleasant odour has offended the local population. ICFB boilers can be made in the range of 3,000 to 23,000 kg/hr. Spinheat Ltd. has designed a complete modular small co-generating power plant in the range of 100 to 1,000 kW electrical generation with equivalent steam output. The co-generating power unit fits on the processor's premises to supply electricity and steam for process use by burning the poultry litter. The unit has been tested for poultry litter combustion and for emissions. This paper illustrates the complete design of the modular plants in the 100, 150, 200, 580 kW range as well as the 1 MW size. This new co-generating unit solves the waste management problem for poultry producers, as it can result in half the amount of poultry litter being spread on land as fertilizer. The cost of building the co-generation plant was reported in this paper along with the running costs of the plant. 1 tab., 8 figs.

  9. Air quality standards for the protection of farm animals from fluorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suttie, J.W.

    1969-04-01

    The ingestion of forages contaminated with inorganic fluorides from industrial sources constitutes an air pollution problem for domestic livestock. In cattle, which have been studied most extensively, the syndrome is characterized by dental and skeletal lesions, lameness, chemical evidence of increased fluoride ingestion, and in severe cases by effects on appetite and milk production. The only practical basis for a standard appears to be one based on forage fluoride concentrations. It is concluded that a standard should protect cattle from loss of milk production and from severe dental fluorosis, but need not be set so low that the animals will be protected against any discernible deviations from normal which do not influence their general health, productive ability, or the soundness and wearing quality of their dentition. As there may be wide seasonal variations in forage fluoride concentrations, the basic standard should be expressed as a yearly average of the forage fluoride concentration. However, as the developing teeth may be adversely influenced by short periods of high exposure, the standard should contain a provision which limits both the extent and duration of time that high concentrations may be tolerated even though they are balanced by lower values at other months. Based on these criteria, a tentative standard which limits forage fluoride to an average of 40 ppm, and limits the time that forage concentrations may exceed 60 to 80 ppm F is proposed.

  10. Early Determination of Animals with Favorable Genes in Milk Production for Profitable Private Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela E. Ilie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of dairy industry has been to identify an efficient and economical way of increasing milk production and its constituents without increasing the size of the dairy herd. The use of milk protein polymorphisms as detectable molecular markers has been studied intensively because of their effect on the yield and processing properties of milk and its products. Thus, molecular markers are promising alternative to the current methods of trait selection once these genes are proven to be associated with traits of interest in animals. Kappa-casein (CSN3 and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG are two of the most important proteins in the milk of mammals that play a crucial role in the milk quality and coagulation, an essential process for cheese and butter. The A and B variant of k-casein and β-lactoglobulin were distinguished by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis in 108 Romanian Simmental and 60 Holstein Friesian cattle.

  11. SHORT, MEDIUM AND LONG-TERM OPPORTUNITIES AND NEEDS FOR RESEARCH FOR SUSTAINABLE FARM ANIMAL BREEDING AND REPRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kompan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The European landscape is characterised by a range of diverse farming systems. These relate not only to varied geographical environments, but also to different social and cultural environments for farming and food production. This diversity is unique to Europe and underlines the importance of European agriculture. Animal breeding is a knowledge intensive sector, and for the future competitiveness of animal breeding and animal production, high level European research is indispensable. The preparation of Strategic Research Agenda were in a full process: opportunities and problems, gaps, short, medium and long term opportunities and needs for research. Each country experts from different group have opportunity to help define his country dimension of animal breeding in its regional and country context, and also in relation to European and global developments. The Farm Animal Breeding and Reproduction European Technology Platform, brings together a wide range of interested parties to produce a vision of how livestock breeding might develop in the next 20 years, and constitutes the first step in achieving that vision.

  12. Do colours affect 'normal' behaviour of laboratory and farm animals? Instantaneous change of behaviour by presentation of red in the Peach-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebes, H D

    1979-06-01

    In spite of genetic and environmental standardisation in farm and laboratory animal science, a considerable amount of variation in the results of comparable experiments remains. This presumably depends upon the individual variability within a species, and upon differences of various species in their specific demands to the environment in captivity. Due to a discovery in the Southwest-African lovebird species Agapornis roseicollis, used as a conventional laboratory animal in bioacoustic research, the phenomenon of instantaneous fear expressed in a number of different displays in connection with the presence or presentation of red objects is described and compared to earlier observations of instantaneous phobias, aggressions, and preferences towards colours, in other bird species. Consequently it is suggested that investigation of the chromatophobe and chromatophile behaviour of typical laboratory and farm animals be undertaken to ensure the adequate design of lodging and experimental environments.

  13. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMMUNOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF CAPSULAR POLYSACCHARIDE OF KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE ISOLATED FROM FARM ANIMALS AT TAIF GOVERNORATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M.A. Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative enterobacterium that has historically been and currently remains, a significant cause of human disease and several kinds of infections in animals. In the present work, trials for the isolation of Klebsiella pneumoniae from diseased and apparently healthy farm animals (cows, sheep, goats and camels were done for recognition of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies. It was noticed that there was a marked variation between incidences of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies in examined animals as regards to health condition. The frequency was greater among samples collected from diseased animals 25.2% as compared with apparently healthy one 5.5%. It was found that there was great difference between the prevalence of Klebsiella isolated from various animal origins. On biochemical identification Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae was the most prevalent followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae and Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. Rhinoscleromatis. Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis was not isolated from apparently healthy animals. The in vitro sensitivity of isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies recovered from different animal species to 23 antimicrobial agents was tested. It was found that were resistance to cefoxitin, cefotaxime, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, aztreonam, amoxicillin and ampicillin. The most potent antibiotics showing 100% activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. isolated in this study were imipenem, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, gentamicin and kanamycin. While 96.2% of all examined isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ticarcillin/clavulanic acid. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that CPSs of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies contained wide variety of different molecular weights which ranged from 15.52 kDa to106.29 kDa and gave 10-13 bands. Evaluation of humoral immune response of mice immunized with CPSs was done using ELISA. It was found that the

  14. Challenges in Translation of Proper Nouns: A Case Study in Persian Translation of George Orwell’s Animal Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Askari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the important problems in translation field will be Translation of Proper Nouns. This is an arduous task in Translation Studies to convey the main essence of the nouns amongst cultures. This is somehow due to the fact that every culture has its own system of rendering of proper nouns. Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (Richards & Schmidt, 2002, p.429 defines the proper name as "a name which is the name of a particular person, place, or thing. Proper nouns have disparate allusions such as age, sex, specific connotations, and geographical regions. This study scrutinized two major translations of Animal Farm of George Orwell. The first rendering is pertained to Amirshahi (2010 and the second one Firuzbakht (1988. Finally, this study seeks to investigate the translation procedures of proper nouns in accordance with Newmark and Vermeer’s (Skopos theories of translation. This study shows that Newmark mostly peruses proper noun artificially to saturate the taste of the reader. While, Vermeer sets up the mutual agreement between the reader as the client and the translator in this process.

  15. WRN conditioned media is sufficient for in vitro propagation of intestinal organoids from large farm and small companion animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin H. Powell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen significant developments in the ability to continuously propagate organoids derived from intestinal crypts. These advancements have been applied to mouse and human samples providing models for gastrointestinal tissue development and disease. We adapt these methods for the propagation of intestinal organoids (enteroids from various large farm and small companion (LF/SC animals, including cat, dog, cow, horse, pig, sheep and chicken. We show that LF/SC enteroids propagate and expand in L-WRN conditioned media containing signaling factors Wnt3a, R-spondin-3, and Noggin (WRN. Multiple successful isolations were achieved for each species, and the growth of LF/SC enteroids was maintained to high passage number. LF/SC enteroids expressed crypt stem cell marker LGR5 and low levels of mesenchymal marker VIM. Labeling with EdU also showed distinct regions of cell proliferation within the enteroids marking crypt-like regions. The ability to grow and maintain LF/SC enteroid cell lines provides additional models for the study of gastrointestinal developmental biology as well as platforms for the study of host-pathogen interactions between intestinal cells and zoonotic enteric pathogens of medical importance.

  16. Impact of animal health and welfare planning on medicine use, herd health and production in European organic dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivemeyer, S; Smolders, G; Brinkmann, J

    2012-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining high herd health and welfare status and low veterinary medicine inputs are important aims in organic livestock farming. Therefore, an on-farm intervention study (CORE Organic ANIPLAN) was conducted on 128 organic dairy farms in seven European countries aiming at minimising...... generated in Stable Schools (adapted Farmer Field Schools) or using face-to-face advice but following similar principles. Most frequently chosen focus areas were metabolic disorders (66% of farms), udder health (58%), lameness (47%), and fertility (39%). General linear models for repeated measures were used...

  17. Celebrity and contemporary context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Guimarães Simões

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the hermeneutic power of a celebrity (seen from the concept of event, seeking to understand what it reveals about the contemporary context. Based on this premise, we attempt to recognize some aspects of contemporary social life that emerge from the trajectory of a specific celebrity: the former soccer player Ronaldo Fenômeno. This analysis brings to light the hermeneutic power of Ronaldo, i.e., how his life story reveals characteristics of contemporary social life. Individualism, machismo, emphasis on a heteronormative ideal, shifts in the construction of romantic relationships, and the overlapping spheres of public and private life, are some important aspects of contemporary society revealed by this analysis.

  18. Analysis of Celebrity Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高妙永

    2012-01-01

    With the development of market economy, brand has be- come an important means of marketing. The phenomenon that enter- prises hire stars as their spokespeople is increasingly common. Thus, the word celebrity effect came into being. At the same time, the nega- tive influence of celebrity effect also becomes a controversial topic. This paper plans to analyze celebrity effect, its universality in daily life, as well as the positive and negative aspects of this phnomenon and put forward in terms of law and moral standards, in order to achieve a comprehensive interpretation of celebrity effect.%随着市场经济的发展,品牌已成为市场营销的重要手段。企业聘请明星作为广告代言人的现象日益普遍,“明星效应”这个词应运而生。同时,明星效应带来的负面影响也成为颇受争议的话题。本文从明星效应现象的形成及其在日常生活中的普遍性展开分析,探讨了明星效应的积极作用及其存在的弊端,并从法律及道德层面为这些弊端提出相应的对策,以达到全面解读明星效应现象的目的。

  19. On-farm animal welfare assessment in beef bulls: consistency over time of single measures and aggregated Welfare Quality(®) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, M K; Schulze Westerath, H; Knierim, U; Tessitore, E; Cozzi, G; Winckler, C

    2014-03-01

    Consistency over time of (on-farm) animal welfare assessment systems forms part of reliability, meaning that results of the assessment should be representative of the longer-term welfare state of the farm as long as the housing and management conditions have not changed considerably. This is especially important if assessments are to be used for certification purposes. It was the aim of the present study to investigate consistency over time of the Welfare Quality(®) (WQ(®)) assessment system for fattening cattle at single measure level, aggregated criterion and principle scores, and overall classification across short-term (1 month) and longer-term periods (6 months). We hypothesized that consistency over time of aggregated criterion and principle scores is higher than that of single measures. Consistency was also expected to be lower with longer intervals between assessments. Data were obtained using the WQ(®) protocol for fattening cattle during three visits (months 0, 1 and 7) on 63 beef farms in Austria, Germany and Italy. Only data from farms where no major changes in housing and management had taken place were considered for analysis. At the single measure level, Spearman rank correlations between visits were >0.7 and variance was lower within farms than between farms for six and two of 19 measures after 1 month and 6 months, respectively. After aggregation of single measures into criterion and principle scores, five and two of 10 criteria and three and one of four principles were found reliable after 1 and 6 months, respectively. At the WQ(®) principle level, this was the case for three and one of four principles. Seventy-nine per cent and 75% of the farms were allocated to the same overall welfare category after 1 month and 6 months. Possible reasons for a lack of consistency are seasonal effects or short-term fluctuations that occur under normal farm conditions, low prevalence of clinical measures and probably insufficient sample size, whereas poor

  20. A worthy celebration

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    What a couple of weeks this has been, with events ranging from cinema through music to TEDxCERN and the culminating celebration on Monday, the day that CERN turned 60. It has been a remarkable 60 years for CERN and the countries that support it. I think it is fair to say that we marked the milestone with dignity, passing the message of science as a driving force for peace.   Now that the anniversary month is over, the first thing I would like to do is say thank you. Thank you to all the people in the CERN community who contributed, and are still contributing, to marking the anniversary with events at CERN and around our Member States. We formally kicked off the celebrations in July with an event at UNESCO in Paris. For those who missed it, you can still watch it here. And the celebrations reached a magnificent conclusion with a fitting ceremony here at CERN on Monday. There were speeches that touched our hearts and minds, and a fantastic performance from the European Union Youth Orchestra, s...

  1. Students Perceptions about Celebrity Endorsement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mersid Poturak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The instrument of celebrity endorsement has nowadays become a pervasive element in advertising and communication management. It is unanimously accepted that celebrity endorsement can grant extraordinary characteristics to a product or service that may have lacked otherwise. The great number of celebrities endorsing brands has been increasing over the past decades. The purpose of this study is to examine perceptions of the student population in Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereafter named BiH about the celebrity endorsement. Questionnaire is designed and used to survey a randomly selected sample of university students and 125 usable responses were obtained. During the research, five hypotheses have been tested. Data were analyzed by performing descriptive statistics and Chi-Square test. Chi-Square test was used to analyze relationship between nationality of respondents and factors that influence decision of choosing celebrity endorser by firm. Findings show that students perceive celebrities as a very important factor in advertisements.

  2. Microbial Indicators, Pathogens, and Antibiotic Resistance in Groundwater Impacted by Animal Farming: Field Scale to Basin Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Li, X.; Atwill, E. R.; Packman, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    Several surveys of microbial indicators and pathogens were conducted to determine the impact of confined animal farming operations (CAFOs) on shallow, local, and regional groundwater quality in the Central Valley aquifer system, California. The aquifer system consists of highly heterogeneous, alluvial, unconsolidated coarse- to fine-grained sediments and is among the largest aquifers in the U.S.. Overlying landuse includes 3 million ha of irrigated agriculture and 1.7 million mature dairy cows in nearly 1,500 CAFOs. A multi-scale survey of water-borne indicator pathogens (Enterococcus spp. and generic E. coli) and of three water-borne pathogens (Campylobacter, Salmonella, and E. coli O157:H7) was conducted at five different spatial scales, increasing with distance from animal sources of these enteric microbial organisms: moist surfaces within individual CAFO sub-systems (calf-hutches, heifer corrals, mature cow stalls, hospital barn etc.), first encountered (shallow) groundwater immediately below these sub-systems, production aquifer below CAFOs, production aquifer near CAFOs, and production aquifer away from CAFOs. Where found, indicator pathogens were tested for antibiotic resistance. Hundreds of samples were collected at each scale: continuously during irrigation events and seasonally over a multi-year period at the three smaller site-scales; and in a one-time survey at the two larger, regional scales. All three pathogens were frequently detected in moist surface samples across CAFO sub-systems, albeit at concentrations several orders of magnitude lower than enteric indicators. Two of the three pathogens (but not Campylobacter) were also detected in first encountered groundwater, at 3-9 m below ground surface, in 1% of samples. No pathogens were found at the production aquifer scales. Generic E. coli was detected in ¼ of first encountered groundwater samples, and in 4% of production aquifer samples, while Enterococcus spp. was ubiquitously present across the

  3. A Prototype Tool to Enable Farmers to Measure and Improve the Welfare Performance of the Farm Animal Enterprise: The Unified Field Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Colditz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Schemes for the assessment of farm animal welfare and assurance of welfare standards have proliferated in recent years. An acknowledged short-coming has been the lack of impact of these schemes on the welfare standards achieved on farm due in part to sociological factors concerning their implementation. Here we propose the concept of welfare performance based on a broad set of performance attributes of an enterprise and describe a tool based on risk assessment and benchmarking methods for measuring and managing welfare performance. The tool termed the Unified Field Index is presented in a general form comprising three modules addressing animal, resource, and management factors. Domains within these modules accommodate the principle conceptual perspectives for welfare assessment: biological functioning; emotional states; and naturalness. Pan-enterprise analysis in any livestock sector could be used to benchmark welfare performance of individual enterprises and also provide statistics of welfare performance for the livestock sector. An advantage of this concept of welfare performance is its use of continuous scales of measurement rather than traditional pass/fail measures. Through the feedback provided via benchmarking, the tool should help farmers better engage in on-going improvement of farm practices that affect animal welfare.

  4. A Prototype Tool to Enable Farmers to Measure and Improve the Welfare Performance of the Farm Animal Enterprise: The Unified Field Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Ian G; Ferguson, Drewe M; Collins, Teresa; Matthews, Lindsay; Hemsworth, Paul H

    2014-07-15

    Schemes for the assessment of farm animal welfare and assurance of welfare standards have proliferated in recent years. An acknowledged short-coming has been the lack of impact of these schemes on the welfare standards achieved on farm due in part to sociological factors concerning their implementation. Here we propose the concept of welfare performance based on a broad set of performance attributes of an enterprise and describe a tool based on risk assessment and benchmarking methods for measuring and managing welfare performance. The tool termed the Unified Field Index is presented in a general form comprising three modules addressing animal, resource, and management factors. Domains within these modules accommodate the principle conceptual perspectives for welfare assessment: biological functioning; emotional states; and naturalness. Pan-enterprise analysis in any livestock sector could be used to benchmark welfare performance of individual enterprises and also provide statistics of welfare performance for the livestock sector. An advantage of this concept of welfare performance is its use of continuous scales of measurement rather than traditional pass/fail measures. Through the feedback provided via benchmarking, the tool should help farmers better engage in on-going improvement of farm practices that affect animal welfare.

  5. Evaluation of Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia Caused by Zoonotic Pathogens in an Area with a High Density of Animal Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijskens, E G W; Smit, L A M; Rossen, J W A; Heederik, D; Koopmans, M

    2016-03-01

    Intensive animal farming could potentially lead to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Clinicians are at the forefront of detecting unusual diseases, but the lack of specificity of zoonotic disease symptoms makes this a challenging task. We evaluated patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with known and unknown aetiology in an area with a high livestock density and a potential association with animal farms in the proximity. Between 2008 and 2009, a period coinciding with a large Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands, patients with CAP were tested for the presence of possible respiratory pathogens. The presence and number of farm animals within 1 km of the patients' home address were assessed using geographic information system (GIS) and were compared between cases and age-matched control subjects. Of 408 patients with CAP, pathogens were detected in 275 (67.4%) patients. The presence of sheep and the number of goats were associated with CAP caused by Coxiella burnetii in a multiple logistic regression model (P 0.10). The use of GIS in combination with aetiology of CAP could be potentially used to target diagnostics and to identify outbreaks of rare zoonotic disease. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in Veal Calf Farming : Human MRSA Carriage Related with Animal Antimicrobial Usage and Farm Hygiene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, Haitske; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Heesterbeek, Hans; Mevius, Dik; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Heederik, Dick

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Recently a specific MRSA sequence type, ST398, emerged in food production animals and farmers. Risk factors for carrying MRSA ST398 in both animals and humans have not been fully evaluated. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated factors associated with MRSA colonization in veal

  7. Assessment of the welfare of dairy cattle using animal-based measurements: direct observations and investigation of farm records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whay, H R; Main, D C J; Green, L E; Webster, A J F

    2003-08-16

    A protocol was developed by consultation with experts on the welfare of cattle to use direct observations of cattle and an examination of farm records to assess welfare. Fifty-three dairy farms in England were visited and assessed during the winter of 2000/01. The findings were compiled and the results of the welfare measurements were examined by 50 experts who indicated at what level they considered that improvement was required. More than 75 per cent of them considered that 32 of the 53 farms needed to take action to reduce the incidence of mastitis, and that at least 42 of the farms needed to take action to reduce the prevalence of lameness, overgrown claws, swollen and ulcerated hocks, and injuries from the environment.

  8. ICTP celebrates 50 years

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    CERN is not the only scientific organisation to be celebrating a significant anniversary in 2014. Earlier this year, ESA turned 50, and last week it was the turn of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, ICTP, to blow out its 50 candles. I had the pleasure to be there for the occasion, and to take part in the first day of a four-day scientific celebration in which the true value of ICTP came to the fore.   Nobel Prize winning Pakistani physicist Abdus Salam established the ICTP in 1964, and went on to become its first director. The Centre’s mission was and remains to foster the development of international scientific cooperation and to promote scientific excellence with an emphasis on the developing world. Established outside Trieste, Italy, and operated under a tripartite agreement between the Italian government, the IAEA and UNESCO, the ICTP has proven itself true to that mandate and become a driving force for advancing scientific expertise around the globe....

  9. Celebrating with our neighbours

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    CERN’s 60th anniversary is all about celebrating 60 years of science for peace with people who matter to us. High on that list are our neighbours, and that’s why we’ve devoted two days just for them on 24 and 25 May. There will also be a special day of visits to CMS for local schools, and we’ll be taking part in the celebrations for the 200th anniversary of Geneva’s entry to the Swiss Confederation.   It is without doubt that over our 60 years, CERN has had a significant impact on the region. We are a vital part of international Geneva, our economic impact on the region is significant, and our people are involved in all walks of life in the French and Swiss communities where they live. Over recent years, we have stepped up our efforts to engage more strongly with our neighbours, and share with them the passion and excitement of our research. Our Open Days were originally conceived for the local community. Since 2009, we have invited represent...

  10. LaserFest Celebration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Alan Chodos; Elizabeth A. Rogan

    2011-08-25

    LaserFest was the yearlong celebration, during 2010, of the 50th anniversary of the demonstration of the first working laser. The goals of LaserFest were: to highlight the impact of the laser in its manifold commercial, industrial and medical applications, and as a tool for ongoing scientific research; to use the laser as one example that illustrates, more generally, the route from scientific innovation to technological application; to use the laser as a vehicle for outreach, to stimulate interest among students and the public in aspects of physical science; to recognize and honor the pioneers who developed the laser and its many applications; to increase awareness among policymakers of the importance of R&D funding as evidenced by such technology as lasers. One way in which LaserFest sought to meet its goals was to encourage relevant activities at a local level all across the country -- and also abroad -- that would be identified with the larger purposes of the celebration and would carry the LaserFest name. Organizers were encouraged to record and advertise these events through a continually updated web-based calendar. Four projects were explicitly detailed in the proposals: 1) LaserFest on the Road; 2) Videos; 3) Educational material; and 4) Laser Days.

  11. Schools Celebrate National Anthem Anniversary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music Educators Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Roger Lacher, instrumental music director at Murray Middle School in Ridgecrest, California, spearheaded a celebration of the national anthem attended by a descendant of Francis Scott Key. In a press release Lacher sent to the local media, he wrote: "Murray Middle School celebrated this event. We are blessed with having the great, great,…

  12. Virulence Profiling of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Recovered from Domestic Farm Animals in Northwestern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Anabel Amézquita-López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC is a zoonotic enteric pathogen that causes human gastrointestinal illnesses. The present study characterized the virulence profiles of O157 and non-O157 STEC strains, recovered from domestic animals in small rural farms within the agricultural Culiacan Valley in Mexico. Virulence genes coding for adhesins, cytotoxins, proteases, subtypes of Shiga toxin (Stx, and other effectors were identified in the STEC strains by PCR. The genotyping analysis revealed the presence of the effectors nleA, nleB, nleE and nleH1-2, espK, and espN in the O157:H7 and O111:H8 STEC strains. Furthermore, the genes encoding the autoagglutinating adhesin (Saa and subtilase (SubA were exclusively identified in the O8:H19 eae-negative strains. The adhesin (iha and the silent hemolysin (sheA genes were detected in 79% of the O157 and non-O157 strains. To examine the relative toxicities of the STEC strains, a fluorescent Vero cell line, Vero-d2EGFP, was employed to measure the inhibition of protein synthesis by Stx. Analysis of culture supernatants from serotype O8:H19 strains with the stx gene profile stx1a, stx2a and stx2c and serotypes O75:H8 and O146:H8 strains with the stx gene profile stx1a, stx1c and stx2b, resulted in a significant reduction in the Vero-d2EGFP fluorescent signal. These observations suggest that these non-O157 strains may have an enhanced ability to inhibit protein synthesis in Vero cells. Interestingly, analysis of the stx2c-positive O157:H7 strains resulted in a high fluorescent signal, indicating a reduced toxicity in the Vero-d2EGFP cells. These findings indicate that the O157 and non-O157 STEC strains, recovered in the Culiacan Valley, display distinct virulence profiles and relative toxicities in mammalian cells and have provided information for evaluating risks associated with zoonotic STEC in this agricultural region in Mexico.

  13. Towards a ‘Good Life’ for Farm Animals: Development of a Resource Tier Framework to Achieve Positive Welfare for Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. J. Main

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a ‘good life’ recognises the distinction that an animal’s quality of life is beyond that of a ‘life worth living’, representing a standard of welfare substantially higher than the legal minimum (FAWC, 2009. We propose that the opportunities required for a ‘good life’ could be used to structure resource tiers that lead to positive welfare and are compatible with higher welfare farm assurance schemes. Published evidence and expert opinion was used to define three tiers of resource provision (Welfare +, Welfare ++ and Welfare +++ above those stipulated in UK legislation and codes of practice, which should lead to positive welfare outcomes. In this paper we describe the principles underpinning the framework and the process of developing the resource tiers for laying hens. In doing so, we summarise expert opinion on resources required to achieve a ‘good life’ in laying hens and discuss the philosophical and practical challenges of developing the framework. We present the results of a pilot study to establish the validity, reliability and feasibility of the draft laying hen tiers on laying hen production systems. Finally, we propose a generic welfare assessment framework for farm animals and suggest directions for implementation, alongside outcome parameters, that can help define and promote a future ‘good life’ for farm animals.

  14. Dynamics and Diversity of Escherichia coli in Animals and System Management of the Manure on a Commercial Farrow-to-Finish Pig Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the dynamics and diversity of Escherichia coli populations in animal and environmental lines of a commercial farrow-to-finish pig farm in Spain along a full production cycle (July 2008 to July 2009), with special attention to antimicrobial resistance and the presence of integrons. In the animal line, a total of 256 isolates were collected from pregnant sows (10 samples and 20 isolates), 1-week-old piglets (20 samples and 40 isolates), unweaned piglets (20 samples and 38 isolates), growers (20 samples and 40 isolates), and the finishers' floor pen (6 samples and 118 isolates); from the underfloor pits and farm slurry tank environmental lines, 100 and 119 isolates, respectively, were collected. Our results showed that E. coli populations in the pig fecal microbiota and in the farm environment are highly dynamic and show high levels of diversity. These issues have been proven through DNA-based typing data (repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR [REP-PCR]) and phenotypic typing data (antimicrobial resistance profile comprising 19 antimicrobials). Clustering of the sampling groups based on their REP-PCR typing results showed that the spatial features (the line) had a stronger weight than the temporal features (sampling week) for the clustering of E. coli populations; this weight was less significant when clustering was performed based on resistotypes. Among animals, finishers harbored an E. coli population different from those of the remaining animal populations studied, considering REP-PCR fingerprints and resistotypes. This population, the most important from a public health perspective, demonstrated the lowest levels of antimicrobial resistance and integron presence. PMID:23160136

  15. Multiple ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli Sequence Types Carrying Quinolone and Aminoglycoside Resistance Genes Circulating in Companion and Domestic Farm Animals in Mwanza, Tanzania, Harbor Commonly Occurring Plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seni, Jeremiah; Falgenhauer, Linda; Simeo, Nabina; Mirambo, Mariam M; Imirzalioglu, Can; Matee, Mecky; Rweyemamu, Mark; Chakraborty, Trinad; Mshana, Stephen E

    2016-01-01

    The increased presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in humans, animals, and their surrounding environments is of global concern. Currently there is limited information on ESBL presence in rural farming communities worldwide. We performed a cross-sectional study in Mwanza, Tanzania, involving 600 companion and domestic farm animals between August/September 2014. Rectal swab/cloaca specimens were processed to identify ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. We detected 130 (21.7%) animals carrying ESBL-producing bacteria, the highest carriage being among dogs and pigs [39.2% (51/130) and 33.1% (43/130), respectively]. The majority of isolates were Escherichia coli [93.3% (125/134)] and exotic breed type [OR (95%CI) = 2.372 (1.460-3.854), p-value ESBL carriage among animals. Whole-genome sequences of 25 ESBL-producing E. coli were analyzed for phylogenetic relationships using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and core genome comparisons. Fourteen different sequence types were detected of which ST617 (7/25), ST2852 (3/25), ST1303 (3/25) were the most abundant. All isolates harbored the bla CTX-M-15 allele, 22/25 carried strA and strB, 12/25 aac(6')-lb-cr, and 11/25 qnrS1. Antibiotic resistance was associated with IncF, IncY, as well as non-typable plasmids. Eleven isolates carried pPGRT46-related plasmids, previously reported from isolates in Nigeria. Five isolates had plasmids exhibiting 85-99% homology to pCA28, previously detected in isolates from the US. Our findings indicate a pan-species distribution of ESBL-producing E. coli clonal groups in farming communities and provide evidence for plasmids harboring antibiotic resistances of regional and international impact.

  16. Antibiotic use and resistance in animal farming: a quantitative and qualitative study on knowledge and practices among farmers in Khartoum, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltayb, A; Barakat, S; Marrone, G; Shaddad, S; Stålsby Lundborg, C

    2012-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a major emerging global public health threat. Farmers in the Khartoum state are believed to misuse antibiotics in animal farming leading to daily exposure to resistant bacteria and antibiotic residues. Hence, farmers are at potential risk exposure to bacteria, zoonotic infection and toxicity. We hypothesized that farmers' misuse of antibiotics could be due to their ignorance of the importance of optimal use of antibiotics, the potential health hazards and the economical waste associated with antibiotic misuse practices. In the present study, we investigated knowledge and practices among farmers regarding antibiotic use and resistance. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Khartoum state where data were collected from 81 farmers using structured interviews. Data were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Fifty-two per cent of farmers were uneducated or had studied for antibiotic use for treatment and prevention while only 5% stated use for growth promotion. Antibiotic group treatment for both sick and healthy animals was commonly practiced among most farmers. The most commonly used group of antibiotics was the quinolones, which was reported by one-third. Only 30% of the farmers had heard of antibiotic resistance and provided their definition. Almost half were not aware of the commonly transferred zoonotic infections between humans and animals. The farmers consume 1-2 meals/day from their own farm products. A significant association between low education, poor knowledge of farmers on antibiotic use, antibiotic resistance and zoonotic infections was found. This association may play a vital role in the present practiced misuse of antibiotics. Our findings on farmers' practices could be used as baseline information in defining the gaps related to antibiotic use and resistance in animal farming in Sudan. It can thus serve as a foundation for future interventions. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Selection of Celebrity Endorsers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Schimmelpfennig, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - This research aims at shedding some light on the various avenues marketers can undertake until finally an endorsement contract is signed. The focus of the study lies on verifying the generally held assumption that endorser selection is usually taken care of by creative agencies, vetting....... Practical implications – Conducted case studies indicate that there are various avenues how brands come to their endorser. We could not find evidence of a best practice strategy....... several candidates by means of subtle evaluation procedures. Design/methodology/approach – A case study research has been carried out among companies experienced in celebrity endorsements to learn more about the endorser selection process in practise. Based on these cases theory is inductively developed...

  18. Selection of Celebrity Endorsers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Schimmelpfennig, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - This research aims at shedding some light on the various avenues marketers can undertake until finally an endorsement contract is signed. The focus of the study lies on verifying the generally held assumption that endorser selection is usually taken care of by creative agencies, vetting...... several candidates by means of subtle evaluation procedures. Design/methodology/approach – A case study research has been carried out among companies experienced in celebrity endorsements to learn more about the endorser selection process in practise. Based on these cases theory is inductively developed....... Findings – Our research suggests that generally held assumption that endorsers being selected and thoroughly vetted by a creative agency may not be universally valid. A normative model to illustrate the continuum of the selection process in practise is suggested and the two polar case studies (Swiss brand...

  19. Sustainable innovation in intensive animal husbandry; policy and public protests towards a mega-farm in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, L.G.; Hinssen, J.P.P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the planning and implementation of a specific mega-farm in the Netherlands is discussed, the so called ‘New Mixed Business’ (NMB). The central question is: how did communication, contestation and controversies play a role in the implementation of this innovative concept for sustainable

  20. Sustainable innovation in intensive animal husbandry; policy and public protests towards a mega-farm in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, L.G.; Hinssen, J.P.P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the planning and implementation of a specific mega-farm in the Netherlands is discussed, the so called ‘New Mixed Business’ (NMB). The central question is: how did communication, contestation and controversies play a role in the implementation of this innovative concept for sustainable

  1. The welfare of farmed mink should be easy to assess in a correct way and lead to animal welfare improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Britt

    2015-01-01

    periods have the same effect of date of assessment. The study also found that mink farmers are generally positive towards the structural way of working in stable schools and that including a discussion of the WelFur results related to the different farms in a stable school will make the feedback...

  2. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CELEBRITY AND NON-CELEBRITY ADVERTISEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Asad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is undertaken to make a comparative analysis of celebrity advertisement and non-celebrity advertisement with respect to attitude toward advertisement, attitude toward brand, purchase intentions, and advertising attributes. For this purpose, a simple random sample of 200 students studying four different disciplines was taken from the Private University in Lahore. For econometric proof, reliability analysis, descriptive analysis, and independent sample T-test was used to interpret the results. Our findings show that there is no significant difference between celebrity and non-celebrity advertisement with respect to attitude toward advertisement, attitude toward brand, purchasing intentions, and advertising attributes. The limitations and recommendations of this research are also given.

  3. Kinetics and metabolism of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol in farm animals: consequences for diagnosis of exposure and intoxication and carry over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänicke, Sven; Brezina, Ulrike

    2013-10-01

    The knowledge of factors influencing the kinetics, metabolism and bioavailability of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a basic prerequisite for evaluation of the transfer (carry over) of the toxin and its metabolites into edible tissues, and for a physiological specimen-based diagnosis of intoxication. These aspects are addressed in the present review, and potentials and pitfalls of the suitability of analysis of physiological samples for evaluation of the DON exposure as a veterinary tool are discussed. For example, the farm animal species was shown to be a determining factor influencing the metabolic profile and the bioavailability of DON. Although linear relationships were derived between DON exposure of ad libitum and restrictively fed animals and DON or de-epoxy-DON concentration in the blood of pigs, dairy cows and sheep, it has to be considered that individual values might markedly deviate from these relationships, which makes interpretation of measured concentrations of DON and its metabolites difficult. The situation is further complicated by the lack of established relationships between DON residues in physiological matrices and the adverse effects of DON on the health and performance of farm animals.

  4. Early life exposures to home dampness, pet ownership and farm animal contact and neuropsychological development in 4 year old children: a prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Torrent, Maties; Zock, Jan-Paul; Doekes, Gert; Forns, Joan; Guxens, Mònica; Täubel, Martin; Heinrich, Joachim; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to biocontaminants is associated with behavioural problems and poorer cognitive function. Our study assesses the associations between early life exposure to home dampness, pets and farm animal contact and cognitive function and social competences in 4-year old children, and the associations between these indoor factors and microbial compounds (bacterial endotoxin and fungal extracellular polysaccharides). A Spanish population-based birth-cohort enrolled 482 children, and 424 of them underwent psychometric testing at 4 years of age, including the McCarthy Scales of Child Abilities (MSCA) and the California Preschool Social Competence Scale (CPSCS). Information on pet ownership, farm animal contact and home dampness was periodically reported by the parents through questionnaires. Microbial compounds were measured in living room sofa dust collected at the age of 3 months. Persistent home dampness during early life significantly decreased the general score of MSCA by 4.9 points (95% CI: -8.9; -0.8), and it decreased the CPSCS by 6.5 points (95% CI: -12.2; -0.9) in the child's bedroom. Cat or dog ownership were not associated with the outcomes, but occasional farm animal contact increased the general cognitive score of MSCA by 5.6 points (95% CI: 1.8; 9.3). Cat and dog ownership were associated with higher levels of endotoxins in home dust. None of the measured microbial compounds were related with the psychometric tests scores. In conclusion, damp housing in early life may have adverse effects on neuropsychological development at 4 years old. More research is needed to explore the possible involvement of mycotoxins in the observed results.

  5. Young people's uses of celebrity: Class, gender and 'improper' celebrity

    OpenAIRE

    Mendick, H.

    2013-01-01

    This is an Author's Accepted Manuscript of an article published in Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 34(1), 2013, copyright Taylor & Francis, available online at: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/01596306.2012.698865. In this article, we explore the question of how celebrity operates in young people's everyday lives, thus contributing to the urgent need to address celebrity's social function. Drawing on data from three studies in England on young people's pe...

  6. Building "Cowshed Cultures": A Cultural Perspective on the Promotion of Stockmanship and Animal Welfare on Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Rob J. F.; Peoples, Sue; Cooper, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Improving animal welfare is an important part of the development of the agricultural industry, particularly at a time when intensification and the encroachment of factory-style production systems is making the maintenance of human-animal relations increasingly difficult. Animal science deals with the issue of improving stockmanship by focusing on…

  7. Celebrity-led Development Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budabin, Alexandra Cosima; Rasmussen, Louise Mubanda; Richey, Lisa Ann

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has seen a frontier open up in international development engagement with the entrance of new actors such as celebrity-led organisations. We explore how such organisations earn legitimacy with a focus on Madonna’s Raising Malawi and Ben Affleck’s Eastern Congo Initiative. The study...... for funding, endorsements, and expertise. We argue that the ways in which celebrity-led organisations establish themselves as legitimate development actors illustrate broader dynamics of the machinery of development....

  8. Feasibility and validity of animal-based indicators for on-farm welfare assessment of thermal stress in dairy goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, Monica; Barbieri, Sara; Fioni, Luna; Mattiello, Silvana

    2016-02-01

    This investigation tested the feasibility and validity of indicators of cold and heat stress in dairy goats for on-farm welfare assessment protocols. The study was performed on two intensive dairy farms in Italy. Two different 3-point scale (0-2) scoring systems were applied to assess cold and heat stress. Cold and heat stress scores were visually assessed from outside the pen in the morning, afternoon and evening in January-February, April-May and July 2013 for a total of nine sessions of observations/farm. Temperature (°C), relative humidity (%) and wind speed (km/h) were recorded and Thermal Heat Index (THI) was calculated. The sessions were allocated to three climatic seasons, depending on THI ranges: cold (65). Score 2 was rarely assessed; therefore, scores 1 and 2 were aggregated for statistical analysis. The amount of goats suffering from cold stress was significantly higher in the cold season than in neutral ( P < 0.01) and hot ( P < 0.001) seasons. Signs of heat stress were recorded only in the hot season ( P < 0.001). The visual assessment from outside the pen confirms the on-farm feasibility of both indicators: No constraint was found and time required was less than 10 min. Our results show that cold and heat stress scores are valid indicators to detect thermal stress in intensively managed dairy goats. The use of a binary scoring system (presence/absence), merging scores 1 and 2, may be a further refinement to improve the feasibility. This study also allows the prediction of optimal ranges of THI for dairy goat breeds in intensive husbandry systems, setting a comfort zone included into 55 and 70.

  9. Celebrating women in physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Rolf Heuer

    2010-01-01

    Next Monday the 8th of March is International Women’s Day. In an ideal world, there would be no need for such an event – equality would be taken as read. But since the world is not there yet, let’s take the opportunity to celebrate women in physics, and indeed the full cultural diversity of our field. Perceived as a discipline dominated by men, reality has been diverging from that perception for a long time. Today at CERN, women play key roles in every aspect of the Organization’s activities.   On Women’s Day, we will be sending a clear message to all young women interested in science and engineering that this is also a field for them. In the CERN Control Centre, half of the Engineers-in-Charge who take responsibility for operating the world’s most powerful particle accelerator are women. In the experiments, in all CERN departments and in the management, women are increasingly represented. That’s because at CERN, and in particl...

  10. 60 years of celebrations

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The first celebration of CERN's anniversary featured in the CERN Bulletin, 1979. As CERN wraps up a month of events surrounding its 60th anniversary, the Bulletin looks back on September 29ths that have come and gone. What was hitting the CERN headlines when the Organization turned 15 - 30 - 45? Brace yourselves for a trip back in time with previous birthday editions of the CERN (a.k.a. "Weekly") Bulletin.      Bulletin Issue No.1/1965  - Bulletin Issue No. 40/1969 The very first edition of the Weekly Bulletin arrived on CERN desktops on 29 March 1965. The Organization was only just out of its first decade, but it was already a hub of activity, as demonstrated by the various seminars and training events that graced the cover of the first Bulletin. By the time CERN turned 15 in 1969, the Organization was preparing for its second Open Day. Discussion of the event made the cover of the Bulletin, announcing that sections of the ISR were to be ...

  11. IYL 2015 celebrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Aaron Morgan; Beasley, Gary

    2016-09-01

    The International Year of Light 2015 was designed to raise awareness of light sciences. In order to raise awareness, events were encouraged to get the public involved. Both Central Carolina Community College (CCCC) and Indian River State College (IRSC) held a total of three lectures in 2015 celebrating the IYL 2015. IRSC hosted lectures on March 6th and June 11th. CCCC hosted a lecture on November 17th. These lectures drew a total of over 400 attendees. Lectures revolved around their own unique themes relating to light sciences in industry and academia. With great support from Laser-Tec, SPIE, and NSF, these lectures were successful at exposing and advertising the optics field to the public, as well as promising up-and-coming students. These lectures hosted several keynote speakers on behalf of both industry and academia. The speakers were successful at keeping the audience engaged through presentations and question-and-answer sessions. In addition, lab tours allowed the attendees a chance to see the programs in action. Many takeaways will prove to be invaluable when pursuing such events in the future. This paper will not only speak to the tremendous success of these lectures, but will take an honest look at the areas for improvement. It is important to note that independent events can be held for the expansion of local programs leading to national, if not global, increase in communal awareness and participation. These events will serve as a continuation for what the IYL 2015 was designed.

  12. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  13. A theoretical reflection of celebrity endorsement in Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milford I Udo; Nwulu; Chinyere Stella

    2015-01-01

    .... This instigated the researchers to theoretically examine what celebrity endorsement is all about, celebrity-worship relationship and endorser effects, risks associated with the use of celebrity...

  14. Product differentiation under the WTO; An analysis of labelling and tariff or tax measures concerning farm animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eaton, D.J.F.; Bourgeois, J.; Achterbosch, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    This report examines the possibility of giving preferential treatment to imports of meat products that meet improved standards in terms of animal welfare in production. Three specific forms of preferential treatment are considered here as possible measures for increasing levels of animal welfare in

  15. Conceptualization and measurement of celebrity worship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Lynn E; Lange, Rense; Houran, James

    2002-02-01

    Celebrity worship has been conceptualized as having pathological and nonpathological forms. To avoid problems associated with item-level factor analysis, 'top-down purification' was used to test the validity of this conceptualization. The respondents (N = 249) completed items modelled after existing celebrity worship questionnaires. A subset of 17 unidimensional and Rasch scalable items was discovered (the local reliability ranged from.71 to.96), which showed no biases related to age and gender. This subset was dubbed the Celebrity Worship Scale (CWS). The items also showed no celebrity bias, indicating that CWS applies equally to acting, music, sports, and 'other' celebrities. The Rasch nature of the items defines celebrity worship as consisting of three qualitatively different stages. Low worship involves individualistic behaviours such as watching and reading about a celebrity. At slightly higher levels, celebrity worship takes on a social character. Lastly, the highest levels are characterized by a mixture of empathy with the celebrity's successes and failures, over-identification with the celebrity, compulsive behaviours, as well as obsession with details of the celebrity's life. Based on these findings, the authors propose a model of celebrity worship based on psychological absorption (leading to delusions of actual relationships with celebrities) and addiction (fostering the need for progressively stronger involvement to feel connected with the celebrity).

  16. Integrating animal manure-based bioenergy production with invasive species control: A case study at Tongren Pig Farm in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jianbo; Zhu, Lei [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hu, Guoliang [Rural Energy Section, Agricultural Bureau of Haining City, Zhejiang Province 314400 (China); Wu, Jianguo [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); School of Life Sciences and Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Integrated approach and bioresource engineering are often required to deal with multiple and interactive environmental problems for sustainable development at local and regional scales. Pig farming has flourished with fast growing economy and increasing human demands for meat in China. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a noxious invasive species, has encroached into most of the local rivers and lakes. Both the wastes from the booming pig farms as well as the massive plant materials of water hyacinth have caused a range of serious ecological and environmental problems. Here we present an integrated sustainable, ecological and experimental study that was designed to deal with these two problems simultaneously. Our experimental results showed that the mixtures of water hyacinth with pig manure consistently had much higher biogas production than pig manure alone, and that the highest biogas production was achieved when 15% of the fermentation substrates were water hyacinth. Our analysis further revealed that the changing C/N ratio and the lignin content in the fermentation feedstock due to the addition of water hyacinth might be two important factors affecting the biogas production. We also found that the solar-powered water-heating unit significantly increased the biogas production (especially in winter time). Overall, the project proved to be successful ecologically and socially. Through such an integrated approach and bioresource engineering, wastes are treated, energy is harvested, and the environment is protected. (author)

  17. Antimicrobial resistance profiles of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and Non-O157 recovered from domestic farm animals in rural communities in Northwestern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca A. Amézquita-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC O157 and non-O157 is a matter of increasing concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance profiles of STEC O157 and non-O157 recovered from feces of domestic farm animals in the agricultural Culiacan Valley in Northwestern Mexico. Findings All of the examined STEC strains showed susceptibility to five antimicrobials, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. However, resistance to the four antimicrobials, ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, and kanamycin was commonly observed. Interestingly, non-susceptibility to cephalothin was predominant among the examined STEC strains, corresponding to 85 % (22/26 of the O157:H7 from cattle, sheep and chicken and 73 % (24/33 of the non-O157 strains from cattle and sheep. Statistical analyses revealed that resistance to ampicillin was significantly correlated to 38 % (10/26 of STEC O157:H7 strains from multiple animal sources. Another significant correlation was found between serotype, source, and antimicrobial resistance; all of the O20:H4 strains, recovered from sheep, were highly resistant to tetracycline. Multidrug resistance profiles were identified in 42 % (22/53 of the non-susceptible STEC strains with clinically-relevant serotypes O8:H9, O75:H8, O146:H21, and O157:H7. Conclusions STEC O157 and non-O157 strains, recovered from domestic farm animals in the Culiacan Valley, exhibited resistance to classes of antimicrobials commonly used in Mexico, such as aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, cephalosporins and penicillin but were susceptible to fluoroquinolones, quinolones, and sulfonamides. These findings provide fundamental information that would aid in the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in an important agricultural region in Northwestern Mexico.

  18. Celebrating the Tevatron legacy

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Fermilab hosted an exceptional event on 11 June: the Tevatron Impact symposium. More than 800 people attended to hear how the Tevatron advanced our understanding of fundamental physics.   A version of this "Director's Corner" by Pier Oddone first appeared in Fermilab Today on 12 June.   The development of accelerator technology for the Tevatron has influenced every subsequent major hadron accelerator. We heard reviews on the detector technologies and trigger systems developed with the Tevatron that are essential today for high-luminosity machines like the LHC. There were also talks on the superconducting-wire industry that made MRI magnets ubiquitous, and we discussed the major computational systems that use large farms of Linux-based commodity processors. Researchers who worked on the Tevatron also established multivariate analysis techniques that now allow us to squeeze the maximum information from complex data sets. One focus of the symposium was the ...

  19. To inspect, to motivate - or to do both? - A dilemma for on-farm inspections of animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger; Vaarst, Mette; Sandøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    offenders should be treated equally. On the other hand, it may be argued that an important component of inspections is to enter into dialogue with farmers. This may be based on a more forward-looking view aimed at motivating farmers to look after the welfare of the animals in their care. In European......The ultimate aim of this paper is to study and discuss a central dilemma within inspection of animal welfare. On the one hand, it may be argued that controllers should check only whether farmers comply or not with animal welfare regulation. Here, the key value is the rule of law, and that all...... inspector. This paper presents the results of an interview-study into how Danish animal welfare inspectors view their own role and tasks. In the main results, a theme of disagreement presented itself and revealed different attitudes in terms of the possibility of engaging in a dialogue with the farmers...

  20. Statutory Management Requirements on "Animal Identification and Registration" (Act A7, Act A8: monitoring methods for compliance and related costs in four Italian farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisanna Speroni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The European and national laws concerning the identification and registration of livestock are meant to make possible their traceability and facilitate food safety and animal health, especially in case of a disease outbreak; such rules have also become prerequisites that farmers must meet to obtain single farm payments under the common agricultural policy. Failure to comply with these obligations entails the reduction or exclusion from direct payments. Act A7, reports the obligations imposed by the EC Regulation 1760/2000 establishing a system for the identification and registration of bovine animals and regarding the labelling of beef and beef products; Act A8, report the obligations established by the EC Reg. 21/2004 establishing a system for the identification and registration of sheep and goats. The project MO.NA.CO. monitored the application of rules for identification and registration of cattle, sheep and goats and their costs. The system of identification and registration of dairy cows resulted well organized with a good level of coordination between the involved actors in both farms. The activities necessary for compliance with rules of identification and registration of cattle are distributed throughout the year, but vary from day to day. The average total cost for annual obligations amounted to € 533.34 year-1 while the average cost for individual fulfilment in the monitoring period amounted to € 4.10. Even in the case of sheep and goats, the monitoring showed a good cooperation between farms and technicians. However, some difficulties were detected, mainly due to the size of the rumen boluses and the limited effectiveness of the ear tags. The operators suggested using smaller rumen boluses and tattoo instead of ear tags; they also suggest to extend the period within which the animals have to be labelled from the current 6 months to 9 months. The cost of compliance amounted to € 5.27 head-1 for sheep and € 4.90 head-1 for

  1. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  2. Comparison of Technical Efficiency and Socio-economic Status in Animal-crop Mixed Farming Systems in Dry Lowland Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upul Yasantha Nanayakkara Vithanage

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pre-tested, structured questionnaires covered management aspects, inputs, outputs, socio-economic situations and constraints in dairy farming among Semi-intensive (SIFS and Extensive farming systems (EFS in dry-lowland Sri Lanka. Parametric data were analyzed using two-tailed‘t’ and ‘Z’ tests, and non-parametric values were analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher’s extract tests. Cobb-Douglas model was used to calculate meta-frontier and system-specific frontiers. Returns in SIFS are lower than EFS. Labor costs are 91.72% and 87.26% in EFS and SIFS respectively. Counting family labor, SIFS has no comparative surplus. Excluding this, dairying is profitable even in SIFS. Dairying provides EFS family insurance where selling animals increases income. Discouragement of this in SIFS impacts negatively on sustainable income. Integration is comparatively minimal in EFS. Established with the best practices and technologies available, SIFS requires external resources to enhance efficiencies. If all EFS farmers achieved best farmer TE, output could increase by 45.09%. Similarly, SIFS output could increase by 57.08%. Farmer education and training programs contribute to improved production efficiency. Grassland scarcity and low productivity affect output adversely; poor veterinary and extension services are major constraints. Farmers consider dairying as profitable, which secures its future. Contrastingly, 35.19% of farmers believe it is low status, preferring professional jobs despite lower comparative incomes.

  3. Swine and rabbits are the main reservoirs of hepatitis E virus in China: detection of HEV RNA in feces of farmed and wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Junke; Zeng, Hang; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Yulin; Liu, Peng; Geng, Jiabao; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is recognized as a zoonosis. The prevalence of HEV RNA and anti-HEV antibodies in many animal species has been reported, but the host range of HEV is unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate HEV infection in various animal species and to determine the reservoirs of HEV. Eight hundred twenty-two fecal samples from 17 mammal species and 67 fecal samples from 24 avian species were collected in China and tested for HEV RNA by RT-nPCR. The products of PCR were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. The positive rates of HEV RNA isolated from pigs in Beijing, Shandong, and Henan were 33%, 30%, and 92%, respectively, and that from rabbits in Beijing was 5%. HEV RNA was not detectable in farmed foxes, sheep or sika deer, or in wild animals in zoos, including wild boars, yaks, camels, Asiatic black bears, African lions, red pandas, civets, wolves, jackals and primates. Sequence analysis revealed that swine isolates had 97.8%-98.4% nucleotide sequence identity to genotype 4d isolates from patients in Shandong and Jiangsu of China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that swine HEV isolates belong to genotype 4, including subgenotype 4h in Henan and 4d in Beijing and Shandong. The rabbit HEV strains shared 93%-99% nucleotide sequence identity with rabbit strains isolated from Inner Mongolia. In conclusion, swine and rabbits have been confirmed to be the main reservoirs of HEV in China.

  4. ABOUT SPONGE FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Pećarević

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Sponges are the simplest multicellular animals. Farming of sponges is facilitated by their asexual reproduction and great ability of regeneration. Farming of filter-feeding sponges is environment friendly, and it can positively influence on environmental impact of other aquaculture activities. Natural populations of sponges in Mediterranean Sea are endangered by inappropriate overfishing. Farming of sponges is possible solution for regeneration and protection of natural populations.

  5. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  6. THE USE OF CHEMICALS IN THE FIELD OF FARM ANIMAL HEALTH (NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, PATHOLOGY). AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDIES, THIS MODULE IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE OF THIS MODULE IS TO PREPARE TECHNICIANS IN THE FIELD OF THE USE OF CHEMICALS FOR ANIMAL HEALTH. SECTIONS INCLUDE -- (1)…

  7. Surveillance and characterisation by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of Cronobacter spp. in farming and domestic environments, food production animals and retail foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Catherine; Cagney, Claire; O'Brien, Stephen; Iversen, Carol; Fanning, Séamus; Duffy, Geraldine

    2009-12-31

    Cronobacter spp. (formally Enterobacter sakazakii) has been linked to illness in infants from contaminated powdered infant formula, however, there is limited information on the environmental sources and potential transmission routes of this pathogen. The aim of this study was to establish if food production animals (cattle, pigs), and the wider farm environment were playing a role in the transmission of Cronobacter spp. and also to assess the risk of cross contamination in the home where infant formula is prepared, from the presence of the pathogen on other foods and the general domestic environment. A wide range of samples (n=518) was collected at dairy farms, meat abattoirs, retail food stores and domestic environs and examined for the pathogen using an adapted ISO/DTS 22964 cultural protocol. The modified method included incubation at 42 degrees C instead of 44 degrees C and serial dilution of the enriched media prior to plating on Druggan-Forsythe-Iversen agar. Presumptive Cronobacter spp. colonies were confirmed by Real Time PCR targeting the dnaG on the MMS operon. All Cronobacter spp. isolated were speciated using biochemical tests, tested for resistance to 8 antibiotics and characterised using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Cronobacter spp. was not recovered from cattle faeces, farm soil or trough water but isolates (n=33) were recovered from a variety of other sample types including cattle feed, pork and beef cuts, beef burgers and beef mince, green vegetables as well as organic breakfast cereals and domestic vacuum cleaner dust. The species recovered included C. Sakazakii (n=21), C. malonaticus (n=1) and C. turicensis (n=1). Of the 33 isolates 51% were resistant to Cephalothin but sensitive to all other 7 tested antibiotics. Sub-typing of the recovered isolates by PFGE showed considerable clonal diversity, though a number of persistent PFGE profiles were observed. In conclusion the study showed that Cronobacter spp. was not carried by food production

  8. Studies of transport pathways of Th, U, rare earths, Ra-228, and Ra-226 from soil to plants and farm animals: Final progress report, 1983-1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linsalata, P

    1988-07-01

    This report consists of three parts. Part 1 discusses a field study conducted in an area of enhanced, natural radioactivity to assess the soil to edible vegetable concentration ratios (CR = concentration in dry vegetable/concentration in dry soil) of Th-232, Th-230, Ra-226, Ra-228, and the light rare earth elements (REE's), La, Ce, and Nd. Twenty-eight soil, and approximately 42 vegetable samples consisting of relatively equal numbers of seven varieties, were obtained from 11 farms on the Pocos de Caldas Plateau in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This region is the site of a major natural analogue study to assess the mobilization and retardation processes affecting thorium and the REE's at the Morro do Ferro ore body, and uranium series radionuclides at the Osamu Utsumi open pit uranium mine. Thorium (IV) serves as a chemical analogue for quadrivalent plutonium, the light REE's (III) as chemical analogues for trivalent americium and curium, and uranium (VI) as an analogue for transuranics with stable oxidation states above IV, e.g., Pu(VI). Part 2 includes our final measurement results for naturally occurring light rare earth elements (REE's include La, Ce, Nd, and SM), U-series and Th-series radionuclides in adult farm animal tissues, feeds and soils. Our findings on soil-to-tissue concentration ratios (CR's) and the comparative behavior of these elements in farm animals raised under natural conditions by local farmers are presented. Part 3 summarizes our findings to date on the distribution and mobilization of Th-232, light rare earth elements (LREE), U-238 and Ra-228 in the MF basin. Estimates of first order, present day, mobilization rate constants resulting from ground water solubilization and seepage/stream transport are calculated using revised inventory estimates for the occurrence of these elements in the ore body and annual flux estimates for the transport of these elements away from the ore body. 151 refs., 20 figs., 40 tabs.

  9. Significant Decline in Celebrity Usage in Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schimmelpfennig, Christian; Hollensen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    Over the decades, the use of celebrities in advertising has increased. Research suggests that in western countries between 20% and 30% of all advertising used celebrities in the late 1990s. During the past 10 years, however, the use of celebrities in advertising has plunged. This paper discusses...

  10. Why do Adolescent Girls Idolize Male Celebrities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Yuna; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Girls often idolize male celebrities, but this phenomenon has been studied little. The authors therefore assessed celebrity idolization among 142 junior high school girls and found that girls who strongly idolized a male celebrity had more experience dating, reported secure and preoccupied attachments to same-age boys, and were rated higher in…

  11. Genotypic analyses of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 recovered from feces of domestic animals on rural farms in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amézquita-López, Bianca A; Quiñones, Beatriz; Cooley, Michael B; León-Félix, Josefina; Castro-del Campo, Nohelia; Mandrell, Robert E; Jiménez, Maribel; Chaidez, Cristóbal

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are zoonotic enteric pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. Cattle and small ruminants are important animal reservoirs of STEC. The present study investigated animal reservoirs for STEC in small rural farms in the Culiacan Valley, an important agricultural region located in Northwest Mexico. A total of 240 fecal samples from domestic animals were collected from five sampling sites in the Culiacan Valley and were subjected to an enrichment protocol followed by either direct plating or immunomagnetic separation before plating on selective media. Serotype O157:H7 isolates with the virulence genes stx2, eae, and ehxA were identified in 40% (26/65) of the recovered isolates from cattle, sheep and chicken feces. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis grouped most O157:H7 isolates into two clusters with 98.6% homology. The use of multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) differentiated isolates that were indistinguishable by PFGE. Analysis of the allelic diversity of MLVA loci suggested that the O157:H7 isolates from this region were highly related. In contrast to O157:H7 isolates, a greater genotypic diversity was observed in the non-O157 isolates, resulting in 23 PFGE types and 14 MLVA types. The relevant non-O157 serotypes O8:H19, O75:H8, O111:H8 and O146:H21 represented 35.4% (23/65) of the recovered isolates. In particular, 18.5% (12/65) of all the isolates were serotype O75:H8, which was the most variable serotype by both PFGE and MLVA. The non-O157 isolates were predominantly recovered from sheep and were identified to harbor either one or two stx genes. Most non-O157 isolates were ehxA-positive (86.5%, 32/37) but only 10.8% (4/37) harbored eae. These findings indicate that zoonotic STEC with genotypes associated with human illness are present in animals on small farms within rural communities in the Culiacan Valley and emphasize the need for the development of control

  12. Celebrity endorsements of cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robin J; Woloshin, Steven; Schwartz, Lisa M; Welch, H Gilbert

    2005-05-04

    Celebrities often promote cancer screening by relating personal anecdotes about their own diagnosis or that of a loved one. We used data obtained from a random-digit dialing survey conducted in the United States from December 2001 through July 2002 to examine the extent to which adults of screening age without a history of cancer had seen or heard or been influenced by celebrity endorsements of screening mammography, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. The survey response rate was 72% among those known to be eligible and 51% among potentially eligible people accounting for those who could not be contacted. A total of 360 women aged 40 years or older and 140 men aged 50 years or older participated in the survey. Most respondents reported they "had seen or heard a celebrity talk about" mammography (73% of women aged 40 years or older), PSA testing (63% of men aged 50 years or older), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (52% of adults aged 50 years or older). At least one-fourth of respondents who had seen or heard a celebrity endorsement said that the endorsement made them more likely to undergo mammography (25%), PSA testing (31%), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (37%).

  13. Celebrating Mathematics All Year 'Round

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daire, Sandra Arguelles

    2010-01-01

    Celebrating mathematics should be a yearlong event in which students in mathematics classes of all levels engage in mathematics activities and competitions that will encourage growth in mathematical knowledge, enthusiasm for the subject, and collaboration among students of different abilities and backgrounds. Pi Day and Pi Week festivities--a good…

  14. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggett, N.V. (ed.)

    1980-05-22

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume.

  15. Council celebrates CERN Control Centre

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    With the unveiling of its new sign, the CERN Control Centre was officially inaugurated on Thursday 16 March. To celebrate its startup, CERN Council members visited the sleek centre, a futuristic-looking room filled with a multitude of monitoring screens.

  16. Celebrity Humanitarianism and North-South Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Discussion over celebrity engagement is often limited to theoretical critique or normative name-calling, without much grounded research into what it is that celebrities are doing, the same or differently throughout the world. Crucially, little attention has been paid to the Global South, either...... as a place where celebrities intervene into existing politics and social processes, or as the generator of Southern celebrities engaged in ‘do-gooding’. This book examines what the diverse roster of celebrity humanitarians are actually doing in and across North and South contexts. Celebrity humanitarianism...... is an effective lens for viewing the multiple and diverse relationships that constitute the links between North and South. New empirical findings on celebrity humanitarianism on the ground in Thailand, Malawi, Bangladesh, South Africa, China, Haiti, Congo, US, Denmark and Australia illustrate the impact...

  17. Impact of Celebrity Credibility on Advertising Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Aziz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Advertisers often make use of endorsers or representatives as trustworthy sources of persuasion for consumers' attitudes. Promotion of products through celebrities is a trendy advertising practice around the world. The present study judged the impact of celebrity credibility on advertising effectiveness in terms of consumer’s attitude towards the advertisement, attitude towards the brand and their purchase intention. This study also explored the differences of respondent’s responses towards the advertisements of brand through famous celebrities as well as unknown celebrities. Different TV advertisements were used for the experiment. Several statistical tools were applied to test the hypotheses and identify significant differences & the proposed relationships among the variables. Overall findings suggests that the respondents considered the famous celebrities of the brand as the most credible celebrities, having positive impact on consumers attitude towards the advertisement, attitude to the brand and their favorable purchase intentions as compare to the unknown celebrity with less credibility.

  18. The Cosmic Mandala: Celebrating Tibetan Cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristine

    2008-05-01

    The past decade has seen an increased establishment of Tibetan cultural centers in North America and increased public interest in and media coverage of Tibetan culture. As a result, interest has grown in all aspects of this rich tradition. Astronomy has long played an important role in the lives of the Tibetan people, from their unique luni-solar calendar to their tradition of combining what they call "astro-science" and medicine. To this day, nomads in northern Tibet will ask the North Star - the "Stable Star of the North" - to protect a wayward animal for the night in the expectation that the star will aid in the animal's return in the morning. In Tibetan cosmology, our universe is symbolized as a series of parallel disks centered around Mount Meru, with the heavenly bodies orbiting around it. Central to this cosmology is the concept that time and space have no absolute beginning or end (paralleling the concept of eternal human reincarnation), but that at any given time there exist a billionfold impermanent universes, each one involved in its own independent 4-stage cycle of emptiness, becoming, unfolding, and dissolution. Two distinct symbolic cosmology systems, the Abhidharma ("Topics of special knowledge") and Kalachakra ("Wheel of time"), are recognized in Tibetan culture. These cosmologies also differ in their geographical description of Mount Meru and the "continents" as well as the specifics of the 4-stage cosmological cycle. This poster will celebrate the richness of Tibetan "astro-science", including the calendar, star names, traditional cosmological systems, and astronomical artwork, and demonstrate ways that this tradition can be directly utilized to celebrate and teach cultural cosmologies during the IYA.

  19. The effectiveness of celebrities in conservation marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Elizabeth; Veríssimo, Diogo; Keane, Aidan; Knight, Andrew T

    2017-01-01

    Celebrities are frequently used in conservation marketing as a tool to raise awareness, generate funding and effect behaviour change. The importance of evaluating effectiveness is widely recognised in both marketing and conservation but, to date, little research into the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement as a tool for conservation marketing has been published. Using a combination of interviews and an online choice survey instrument, we investigated the extent to which a sample of UK-based conservation organisations, and other charities, evaluate their own usage of celebrity endorsement, and then carried out an experimental evaluation of a hypothetical marketing campaign. This experiment compared participants' willingness-to-engage (WTE) with, and recall of, a conservation message presented in versions of an advert featuring one of three prominent UK celebrities (David Beckham, Chris Packham or HRH Prince William) or a non-celebrity control treatment (featuring Crawford Allan, a director of TRAFFIC USA). We find that the organisations we interviewed did not routinely evaluate their marketing campaigns featuring celebrities. Furthermore, our experiment provides evidence that celebrity endorsement can produce both positive and negative effects. Participants were more willing to engage when presented with an advert featuring one of the three celebrities than the non-celebrity control, and WTE varied according to the characteristics of the celebrity and the respondent. However, celebrities were less effective at generating campaign message recall than non-celebrities. These findings suggest that celebrity endorsement should be used carefully. Further work is required to fully understand the role celebrity endorsers can play in conservation but, drawing on best practice from the field of marketing, this study introduces an approach to evaluation which could be applied more widely to improve the effectiveness of conservation marketing.

  20. Dissemination of cephalosporin resistance genes between Escherichia coli strains from farm animals and humans by specific plasmid lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark de Been

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Third-generation cephalosporins are a class of β-lactam antibiotics that are often used for the treatment of human infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, especially Escherichia coli. Worryingly, the incidence of human infections caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant E. coli is increasing worldwide. Recent studies have suggested that these E. coli strains, and their antibiotic resistance genes, can spread from food-producing animals, via the food-chain, to humans. However, these studies used traditional typing methods, which may not have provided sufficient resolution to reliably assess the relatedness of these strains. We therefore used whole-genome sequencing (WGS to study the relatedness of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from humans, chicken meat, poultry and pigs. One strain collection included pairs of human and poultry-associated strains that had previously been considered to be identical based on Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, plasmid typing and antibiotic resistance gene sequencing. The second collection included isolates from farmers and their pigs. WGS analysis revealed considerable heterogeneity between human and poultry-associated isolates. The most closely related pairs of strains from both sources carried 1263 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs per Mbp core genome. In contrast, epidemiologically linked strains from humans and pigs differed by only 1.8 SNPs per Mbp core genome. WGS-based plasmid reconstructions revealed three distinct plasmid lineages (IncI1- and IncK-type that carried cephalosporin resistance genes of the Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL- and AmpC-types. The plasmid backbones within each lineage were virtually identical and were shared by genetically unrelated human and animal isolates. Plasmid reconstructions from short-read sequencing data were validated by long-read DNA sequencing for two strains. Our findings failed to demonstrate evidence for recent clonal transmission of

  1. Celebrating Abdus Salam Nobel Laureate

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    Abdus Salam shared with Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg the 1979 Nobel Prize for Physics. A celebration took place in CERN within few days from his nomination. It was at CERN that the heavy liquid chamber Gargamelle first saw the neutral current interaction predicted by the electroweak theory. The photo shows Abdus Salam with Tom Ball and Paul Musset (right). See CERN Courier 19 (1979) 395.

  2. Celebrating 25 Years of Discovery

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    As ATLAS celebrates 25 years of discovery, we invite you to explore the collaboration's history and achievements. --- Music: Start of something beautiful by Ketsa is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. Am-Trans by Podington Bear is licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 International License. Corporate (Advertisement) by Scott Holmes is licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial License.

  3. Serodiagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in farm animals (horses, swine, and sheep) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using chimeric antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferra, Bartłomiej; Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna; Kur, Józef

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects all warm-blooded animals including humans, causing serious public health problems and great economic loss in the animal husbandry. Commonly used serological tests for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis involve preparation of whole Toxoplasma lysate antigen (TLA) from tachyzoites. The production of this antigen is associated with high costs and lengthy preparation and the possibility of staff infection. There are also some difficulties in the standardization of such tests. One approach in order to improve the diagnosis of T. gondii infection is to use recombinant chimeric antigens in place of the TLA, which was confirmed by studies in the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis in humans. In this paper, we assess, for the first time, the diagnostic utility of five T. gondii recombinant chimeric antigens (MIC1-MAG1-SAG1S, SAG1L-MIC1-MAG1, SAG2-GRA1-ROP1S, SAG2-GRA1-ROP1L, and GRA1-GRA2-GRA6) in immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (IgG ELISAs) with sera from three different groups of livestock animals (horses, pigs, and sheep). The reactivity of individual chimeric antigens was analyzed in relation to the results obtained in IgG ELISAs based on a mixture of three antigens (M1: rSAG1+rMIC1+rMAG1, M2: rSAG2+rGRA1+rROP1, and M3: rGRA1+rGRA2+rGRA6) and referenced to TLA. All chimeric antigens were characterized by high specificity (100%), and the sensitivity of the IgG ELISAs based on chimeric antigens was variable (between 28.4% and 100%) and mainly dependent on the animal species. The chimeric antigens were generally more reactive than mixtures of three antigens. The most effective for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was SAG2-GRA1-ROP1L, which can detect specific anti-T. gondii antibodies in 100%, 93.8%, and 100% of positive serum samples from horses, pigs, and sheep, respectively. The present study shows that recombinant chimeric antigens can be successfully used to diagnose T. gondii infection in farm animals, and can replace the commonly

  4. Kids Sell: Celebrity Kids’ Right to Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Choul Hong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The lives of celebrities are often spotlighted in the media because of their newsworthiness; however, many celebrities argue that their right to privacy is often infringed upon. Concerns about celebrity privacy are not limited to the celebrities themselves and often expand to their children. As a result of their popularity, public interest has pushed paparazzi and journalists to pursue trivial and private details about the lives of both celebrities and their children. This paper investigates conflicting areas where the right to privacy and the right to know collide when dealing with the children of celebrities. In general, the courts have been unsympathetic to celebrity privacy claims, noting their newsworthiness and self-promoted characteristic. Unless the press violates news-gathering ethics or torts, the courts will often rule in favor of the media. However, the story becomes quite different when related to an infringement on the privacy of celebrities’ children. This paper argues that all children have a right to protect their privacy regardless of their parents’ social status. Children of celebrities should not be exempt to principles of privacy just because their parents are a celebrity. Furthermore, they should not be exposed by the media without the voluntary consent of their legal patrons. That is, the right of the media to publish and the newsworthiness of children of celebrities must be restrictedly acknowledged.

  5. Whole Farm Nutrient Balance Calculator for New York Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberon, Melanie A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Rasmussen, Caroline N.; Czymmek, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient loss and accumulation as well as associated environmental degradation have been a concern for animal agriculture for many decades. Federal and New York (NY) regulations apply to Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and a comprehensive nutrient management plan (CNMP) is required for regulated farms. The whole farm nutrient mass balance…

  6. Whole Farm Nutrient Balance Calculator for New York Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberon, Melanie A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Rasmussen, Caroline N.; Czymmek, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient loss and accumulation as well as associated environmental degradation have been a concern for animal agriculture for many decades. Federal and New York (NY) regulations apply to Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and a comprehensive nutrient management plan (CNMP) is required for regulated farms. The whole farm nutrient mass balance…

  7. Invited review: Pre- and postnatal adipose tissue development in farm animals: from stem cells to adipocyte physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, I; Perruchot, M-H; Bonnet, M; Gondret, F

    2016-11-01

    Both white and brown adipose tissues are recognized to be differently involved in energy metabolism and are also able to secrete a variety of factors called adipokines that are involved in a wide range of physiological and metabolic functions. Brown adipose tissue is predominant around birth, except in pigs. Irrespective of species, white adipose tissue has a large capacity to expand postnatally and is able to adapt to a variety of factors. The aim of this review is to update the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with pre- and postnatal adipose tissue development with a special focus on pigs and ruminants. In contrast to other tissues, the embryonic origin of adipose cells remains the subject of debate. Adipose cells arise from the recruitment of specific multipotent stem cells/progenitors named adipose tissue-derived stromal cells. Recent studies have highlighted the existence of a variety of those cells being able to differentiate into white, brown or brown-like/beige adipocytes. After commitment to the adipocyte lineage, progenitors undergo large changes in the expression of many genes involved in cell cycle arrest, lipid accumulation and secretory functions. Early nutrition can affect these processes during fetal and perinatal periods and can also influence or pre-determinate later growth of adipose tissue. How these changes may be related to adipose tissue functional maturity around birth and can influence newborn survival is discussed. Altogether, a better knowledge of fetal and postnatal adipose tissue development is important for various aspects of animal production, including neonatal survival, postnatal growth efficiency and health.

  8. Celebrity chav : fame, femininity and social class.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    There is nothing new about celebrity culture. It is an intrinsic feature of a world structured by mechanical reproduction. However, what has been visible over the last few years in Britain is a modulation of representations of celebrity figures in entertainment and news media through reality TV series, newspapers and gossip magazines. In this article, we argue that celebrity is an increasingly significant means by which reactionary class attitudes, allegiances and judgements are communicated....

  9. 50 years CERN Courier Celebration

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    The 50th anniversary of the first publication of the CERN Courier provided the opportunity for a modest celebration on 2 September 2009. All six of the principal editors that the magazine has had over its 50-years history met together for the first time. After getting acquainted and reacquainted over lunch, they gathered in the library at CERN to answer questions about the production of the magazine over the years. From left to right, from the present editor to the first one: Christine Sutton, James Gillies, Gordon Fraser, Brian Southworth, Alec Hester and Roger Anthoine.

  10. CELEBRATING 50 YEARS AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    To thank you all for your custom, for each "plat du jour" purchased on 18 June 2008 in CERN restaurants 1 and 2, Carlson Wagonlit Travel will be pleased to treat you to a dessert. Carlson Wagonlit Travel is celebrating the event with a grand prize draw open to all (personnel of CERN and its subcontractors): gift vouchers to a value of over 8,000 Swiss francs to be won. Entry forms can be obtained from our offices in the Main Building from 13 May to 17 June and should be placed in the box by 17 June. The draw will take place on 18 June. Good luck to you all !

  11. Christmas Celebrations Around the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翔

    2005-01-01

    It is interesting to see how different countries celebrate Christm as. W e asked som e ofour friends to explain whathappens in their countries. This is whatthey told us: France In France, Christm as is always called Noёl. Everyone has a Christm as tree,som etim es decorated in the old way with red ribbons and realwhite wax candles. Fir trees in the garden are often decorated too, with lights on allnight. G erm any Germ ans love to decorate their houses at Christm as. M any houses willhave little wooden fram...

  12. Bosons & More: Celebrating CERN / Part 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Team, CERN

    2013-01-01

    The "Bosons & More" event for CERN people this evening celebrated the success of the Open Days, and the exceptional achievements of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The British progressive rock band the Alan Parsons Live Project lead the celebrations until late in the night.

  13. Girls make sense: girls, celebrities and identities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duits, L.; van Romondt Vis, P.

    2009-01-01

    Combining intertextual, audience and feminist perspectives, this article investigates how young girls make meaning from celebrities. Based on focus group interviews with Dutch girls aged 12—13, it argues that girls' talk about celebrities functions as an identity tool in the reflexive project of the

  14. Celebrating Multiple Literacies with Harry Potter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arter, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The secret to a good celebration is to involve as many students as possible and to give them genuine responsibilities and encouragement to be creative. Literacy celebrations offer students, and teachers, the opportunity to have fun and show off what they have learned during their deeper exploration of various literacy studies. The author conjures…

  15. Celebrating Multiple Literacies with Harry Potter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arter, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The secret to a good celebration is to involve as many students as possible and to give them genuine responsibilities and encouragement to be creative. Literacy celebrations offer students, and teachers, the opportunity to have fun and show off what they have learned during their deeper exploration of various literacy studies. The author conjures…

  16. 意识形态对翻译出版的影响研究--以Animal Farm 在国内的翻译出版为例%The Influence of Ideology on the Translation Publication--Taking the Chinese Translation of Animal Farm as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洋睿

    2014-01-01

    Animal Farm是英国著名作家乔治•奥威尔的一部经典小说,在中国翻译出版的中文译本已达36本。本文试图从意识形态的角度分析该小说在中国不同时期翻译出版的情况。通过研究表明,因为受到了不同时期意识形态的影响,该小说翻译出版的情况表现不同。%Animal Farm is a classic novel written by famous English writer George Orwell, the number of whose Chinese translation versions is 36. This paper tends to analyze the publication of its Chinese translations in different times of China from the perspective of ideology. After the research, it shows that the situation of the publication varies because of the manipulation of different ideologies in different times.

  17. CELEBRATING 50 YEARS AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    To thank you all for your custom, for each ‘plat du jour’ purchased on 18 June 2008 in CERN restaurants 1 and 2, Carlson Wagonlit Travel will be pleased to treat you to a dessert. Carlson Wagonlit Travel is celebrating the event with a grand prize draw open to all (personnel of CERN and its subcontractors): gift vouchers to a value of over 8,000 Swiss francs are to be won. Entry forms can be obtained from our offices in the Main Building from 13 May to 17 June and should be placed in the box by 17 June. The draw will take place on 18 June. Good luck to you all !

  18. CERN celebrates a double anniversary

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A symposium will celebrate the double anniversary of the observation of neutral currents in 1973 and the discovery of W and Z bosons in 1983. The symposium will also provide an opportunity to discuss future discoveries at CERN. The symposium will be held on 16 September in the Main Auditorium from 9:00 hrs and will be open to the public. If you cannot access the Main Auditorium, the symposium will be broadcast live in the following conference rooms: AB Auditorium II (Bldg 864) in Prévessin IT Auditorium (Bldg 31) AT Auditorium (Bldg 30) You can also follow it online with the Webcast accessible from the CERN home page. See the complete programme under Seminars.

  19. Breeding against infectious diseases in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rashidi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases in farm animals are of major concern because of animal welfare, production costs, and public health. Farms undergo huge economic losses due to infectious disease. The costs of infections in farm animals are mainly due to production losses, treatment of infected animals, and

  20. Antarctica Day: An International Celebration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, A.; Hambrook Berkman, J.; Berkman, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    For more than half a century, the 1959 Antarctic Treaty continues to shine as a rare beacon of international cooperation. To celebrate this milestone of peace in our civilization with hope and inspiration for future generations, Antarctica Day is celebrated each year on December 1st , the anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty signing. As an annual event - initiated by the Foundation for the Good Governance of International Spaces (www.internationalspaces.org/) in collaboration with the Association of Polar Early Carer Scientists (www.apecs.is) - Antarctica Day encourages participation from around the world. The Antarctic Treaty set aside 10% of the earth, 'forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes in the interest of mankind.' It was the first nuclear arms agreement and the first institution to govern all human activities in an international region beyond sovereign jurisdictions. In this spirit, Antarctica Day aims to: - Demonstrate how diverse nations can work together peacefully, using science as a global language of cooperation for decision making beyond national boundaries, - Provide strategies for students learning about Antarctica through art, science and history at all school levels, - Increase collaboration and communication between classrooms, communities, researchers and government officials around the world, and - Provide a focus for polar educators to build on each year. Through close collaboration with a number of partners. Antarctica Day activities have included: a Polar Film Festival convened by The Explorers Club; live sessions connecting classrooms with scientists in Antarctica thanks to PolarTREC and ARCUS; an international activity that involved children from 13 countries who created over 600 flags which exemplify Antarctica Day (these were actually flown in Antarctica with signed certificates then returned to the classes); a map where Antarctica Day participants all over the world could share what they were doing; an Antarctic bird count

  1. Intimate relationships and attitudes toward celebrities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCutcheon, Lynn E; Gillen, Meghan M; Browne, Blaine L; Murtagh, Michael P; Collisson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    ... from the “Celebrity Attitude Scale” (CAS). We predicted that persons whose scores on these measures of intimate relationships indicated a troubled, anxious, or poor quality relationship would have higher scores on the CAS, especially...

  2. Celebrate Klubb Rouge’s First Birthday

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To celebrate its first birthday,Klubb Rouge is holding "experience night- life at Klubb Rouge" promotion in Beijing.To reward its patrons,Klubb Rouge will partner with various retailers in offering a one-month discount

  3. Are Celebrities Criminally Responsible For Deceptive Advertising?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The State Administration for Industry and Commerce recently said it has suggested the addition of an article in the Advertising Law to make celebrities who represent fake products in deceptive advertising criminally responsible for their actions if it is confirmed

  4. Celebrities Gather to Fight Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Celebrities Gather to Fight Heart Disease Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Kit to offer community education programs on women's heart disease. Organize heart-health screening events and health fairs ...

  5. Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine Friends of the ... a Distinguished Medical Science Award for his global leadership in cancer research and the development of combination ...

  6. Celebrated Scriptwriter as Art Adviser to Hangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Zhongyou

    2010-01-01

    @@ Hangzhou,the capital of eastern China's coastal Zhejiang Province,has engaged a team of art and literary celebrities as cultural and art advisors.These celebrities include novelists,actors,directors and painters.On June 8th,2010,the city held a forum in Hangzhou for these advisers to brainstorm for ideas that can boost the progress of the city's cultural and art undertakings in the next decade.

  7. The Face Management Challenges of Sport Celebrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Luiza DUMITRIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While gaining centrality within the sport field, media accelerated its commodification process and facilitated sport actors becoming competitive on the celebrity market. The aim of this paper is to discuss the reconfiguration that the celebrity logic brought in terms of the mere condition of the sport actor and the face management challenges and remedial strategies that he has to cope with. I will thus focus on two main dimensions that I find to be constitutive for the celebrity status: one related to the augmented media exposure that sport stars are subject to and to the corollary symbolic reconfiguration of the boundaries between his public and his private life, and the second one related to the vulnerability that comes along with the new visibility of the complex repertoire of identities and social roles performed by the sport actors. Within this last dimension of the sport-related celebrity cycle of promotion, I will lay stress not only on the face threatening aspects for the sport stars, but also on the vulnerability transfer within the affinal branding network and the challenges it could bring for the brands that chose to associate their image with a sport celebrity. Thus, I argue that the kaleidoscopic public figures of sport celebrities requires high impression management involvement on their part, as well as more caution on the marketeers part.

  8. A vintage celebration for CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Maurice Dupraz, a winegrower from the Etat de Genève vineyards, explains the characteristics of the Vigne des Nations to Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, and Robert Cramer, Conseiller d'Etat. As part of the fiftieth anniversary celebrations, CERN was the guest of honour at the Vigne des Nations ceremony organised by the Etat de Genève on 7 May. My Organization is greatly honoured to have the Vigne des Nations dedicated to it, said Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, at the ceremony held on the slopes of the Lully vineyards at Bernex on 7 May. Invited by Robert Cramer, President of Geneva's Conseil d'Etat, he spoke of the special links that have been forged over the last fifty years between CERN and the Canton of Geneva, where the Organization has its headquarters. Both of them paid tribute to Maurice Bourquin, former rector of the University of Geneva and Swiss delegate to the CERN Council since 1994, who became the first Swiss President of the CERN Council in 2000. The Vigne des Nations ceremony,...

  9. What has made deer farming in New Zealand so successful? The importance of venison quality, understanding the industry, the market and the biology of the animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Pearse

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available In summarising these aspects of success within the NZ deer industry we can note: (1 NZ traditional farming skills of pasture based production have been readily adapted to deer farming. (2 The industry has grown with strength through the diversity of its participants, leading farmers, innovative researchers, business investors and leaders and the NZDFA and its membership. All are united in their determination that market signals, rather than farm production demands should shape the development of venison supply and presentation. (3 The frank and rapid exchange of research results, farmer innovation, market information and exchange of experience and ideas within the industry. (4 The overwhelming commitment to quality production. Biologically, deer has their own contributing attributes: (a they are intelligent and easy to farm; (b they are efficient converters of pasture and supplements to venison or to progeny; (c they thrive throughout NZ varied agricultural terrain on native grasses or improved pasture, and have a healthy and long productive life; (d they have enormous climatic and environmental tolerance, a defined breeding season and predictable calving pattern; (e they are immensely seasonal, and now, when feeding and breeding requirements are well understood in terms of that seasonality, productive growth targets are readily set and achieved to accommodate the market signal; (f they are simple to manage with a minimum of labour and physical inputs.

  10. Celebrating Science with the Community: An Approach to Science Fairs Intended to Create Learning Celebrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Learning celebrations are increasingly common in schools looking to put more emphasis on community and efficacy in place formulaic science fair projects. The celebration aspect is in the community's participation and interaction with the learners. Students are the main event, performing as they would in a school play or applying acquired knowledge…

  11. Celebrities: From Teachers to Friends : A Test of Two Hypotheses on the Adaptiveness of Celebrity Gossip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Nelissen, Mark; Vyncke, Patrick; Braeckman, Johan; McAndrew, Francis T

    2007-12-01

    In this paper we present two compatible hypotheses to explain interest in celebrity gossip. The Learning Hypothesis explains interest in celebrity gossip as a by-product of an evolved mechanism useful for acquiring fitness-relevant survival information. The Parasocial Hypothesis sees celebrity gossip as a diversion of this mechanism, which leads individuals to misperceive celebrities as people who are part of their social network. Using two preliminary studies, we tested our predictions. In a survey with 838 respondents and in-depth interviews with 103 individuals, we investigated how interest in celebrity gossip was related to several dimensions of the participants' social lives. In support of the Learning Hypothesis, age proved to be a strong predictor of interest in celebrities. In partial support of the Parasocial Hypothesis, media exposure, but not social isolation, was a strong predictor of interest in celebrities. The preliminary results support both theories, indicate that across our life span celebrities move from being teachers to being friends, and open up a list of future research opportunities.

  12. WelFur-mink: on-farm welfare assessment of mink (Neovision vision) - effect of sample size on animal based measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Tine; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    " in validity, reliability as well as feasibility - the latter both as regards time and economy costs. This paper based on empiric data addressed the questions on needed sample size for a robust herd assessment of animal based measures. The animal based part of the full WelFur protocol including 9 animal based...... in herd prevalence of the mentioned parameters. Statistical analyses showed that a sample size of 125 adult mink was a robus estimate of the herd level of animal based measures....

  13. Disease spread models to estimate highly uncertain emerging diseases losses for animal agriculture insurance policies: an application to the U.S. farm-raised catfish industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagmutt, Francisco J; Sempier, Stephen H; Hanson, Terril R

    2013-10-01

    Emerging diseases (ED) can have devastating effects on agriculture. Consequently, agricultural insurance for ED can develop if basic insurability criteria are met, including the capability to estimate the severity of ED outbreaks with associated uncertainty. The U.S. farm-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) industry was used to evaluate the feasibility of using a disease spread simulation modeling framework to estimate the potential losses from new ED for agricultural insurance purposes. Two stochastic models were used to simulate the spread of ED between and within channel catfish ponds in Mississippi (MS) under high, medium, and low disease impact scenarios. The mean (95% prediction interval (PI)) proportion of ponds infected within disease-impacted farms was 7.6% (3.8%, 22.8%), 24.5% (3.8%, 72.0%), and 45.6% (4.0%, 92.3%), and the mean (95% PI) proportion of fish mortalities in ponds affected by the disease was 9.8% (1.4%, 26.7%), 49.2% (4.7%, 60.7%), and 88.3% (85.9%, 90.5%) for the low, medium, and high impact scenarios, respectively. The farm-level mortality losses from an ED were up to 40.3% of the total farm inventory and can be used for insurance premium rate development. Disease spread modeling provides a systematic way to organize the current knowledge on the ED perils and, ultimately, use this information to help develop actuarially sound agricultural insurance policies and premiums. However, the estimates obtained will include a large amount of uncertainty driven by the stochastic nature of disease outbreaks, by the uncertainty in the frequency of future ED occurrences, and by the often sparse data available from past outbreaks.

  14. Investigation of sensitivity and resistance to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics in E. coli strains isolated from animals bred in intensive farming conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Being an important pathogenic and indicator microorganism, E. coli has been included in all the resistance follow up programs worldwide. We carried out sampling on 42 cattle, pig and poultry farms. After sampling the material was delivered to the laboratories, where it was exposed to standard treatment and streaking by standard methods of microbiological diagnostics with the aim to isolate and identify E. coli strains. On the selected isolated E. coli strains an investigation of its sensitivi...

  15. Perception of College Students about Celebrity Endorsement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Renganathan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is one of the very important promotional tools for any marketer. Marketers are spending enormous money for advertisement worldwide. Celebrity endorsement plays a vital role in advertising. Celebrity endorsement creates some impact on the buying decision of any customer. In India celebrities from cinema industry and sports are endorsing various products. In this study, importance of Shahrukh Khan as a brand endorser and his impact on various advertisements for goods and services are studied. Two hundred and twenty five college students from various disciplines at Thanjavur were included for primary data collection. College students’ opinion about celebrity endorsement in general and also particularly about the various advertisement endorsed by Bollywood actor Shrukhkhan were studied. Findings of this study reveal that celebrity endorsement is indeed useful to brand recall and sales of goods and services. In India Sharukh khan really play a vital role in the Ad industry and create both positive as well as negative impacts among college students. Findings of the study also reveal that SRK can raise the sale of any product and he can convert the mass brand to class brand.

  16. Farm Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Debra

    2001-01-01

    Describes a Philadelphia high school in which urban students study agricultural sciences to prepare for college and careers. The campus has a complete working farm, and students are exposed to a wide range of agricultural career opportunities while also studying core academic subjects. The school's farm units are real businesses, so students are…

  17. Overview of differences between microbial feed additives and probiotics for food regarding regulation, growth promotion effects and health properties and consequences for extrapolation of farm animal results to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardeau, M; Vernoux, J-P

    2013-04-01

    For many years, microbial adjuncts have been used to supplement the diets of farm animals and humans. They have evolved since the 1990s to become known as probiotics, i.e. functional food with health benefits. After the discovery of a possible link between manipulation of gut microflora in mice and obesity, a focus on the use of these beneficial microbes that act on gut microflora in animal farming was undertaken and compared with the use of probiotics for food. Beneficial microbes added to feed are classified at a regulatory level as zootechnical additives, in the category of gut flora stabilizers for healthy animals and are regulated up to strain level in Europe. Intended effects are improvement of performance characteristics, which are strain dependent and growth enhancement is not a prerequisite. In fact, increase of body weight is not commonly reported and its frequency is around 25% of the published data examined here. However, when a Body Weight Gain (BWG) was found in the literature, it was generally moderate (lower than or close to 10%) and this over a reduced period of their short industrial life. When it was higher than 10%, it could be explained as an indirect consequence of the alleviation of the weight losses linked to stressful intensive rearing conditions or health deficiency. However, regulations on feed do not consider the health effects because animals are supposed to be healthy, so there is no requirement for reporting healthy effects in the standard European dossier. The regulations governing the addition of beneficial microorganisms to food are less stringent than for feed and no dossier is required if a species has a Qualified Presumption of Safety status. The microbial strain marketed is not submitted to any regulation and its properties (including BWG) do not need to be studied. Only claims for functional or healthy properties are regulated and again growth effect is not included. However, recent studies on probiotic effects showed that BWG

  18. What We Know about the Public’s Level of Concern for Farm Animal Welfare in Food Production in Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Amelia; Raubenheimer, David; McGreevy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The production of food from animals poses many ethical challenges. This review explores what we know about different levels of concern for animal welfare in food production by such stakeholders as veterinarians, farmers, and the general public. Despite the general public’s level of concern for animal welfare in food production being high, their understanding and knowledge is poor. Thus, it is suggested that through widespread consciousness raising we can encourage the public to accurately translate their concerns into market drivers, in turn improving the welfare of billions of animals. Abstract Population growth and rising consumption of meat, dairy, eggs and fish are forcing the world to face the intersecting challenges of how to sustainably feed a population expected to exceed 9 billion by 2050, while also controlling the impact of food production on the planet, on people and on animals. This review acknowledges the absence of a globally accepted definition of animal welfare and then explores the literature regarding different levels of concern for animal welfare in food production by such stakeholders as veterinarians, farmers, and the general public. It focuses on the evidence that the general public’s level of concern for animal welfare is linked to various demographic and personal characteristics, such as age, gender, religion, location, meat eating, and knowledge of animal welfare. Certain animals have characteristics that influence concern for their welfare, with those species that are considered more intelligent being afforded more concern. There is compelling evidence that the general public’s understanding of animal welfare in food production is poor. Acknowledging that public concern can be a driving force to change current production methods, the authors suggest widespread consciousness raising to redefine socially acceptable methods of food production from animals and to ensure that it remains in step with societal concerns. PMID

  19. CERN 60: celebrating with the UN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    A special event to celebrate CERN’s anniversary will be held Monday 20 October at the United Nations Headquarters in New York, US. High-profile speakers from the world of politics, diplomacy and science will celebrate their common values: inclusion, peaceful co-operation and universality.   CERN’s relations with intergovernmental organisations are part of CERN’s engagement with key stakeholders, which include, among others, the Member States, the scientific community, and the Host States. In recent years, the Laboratory has grown from European to global and it is actively engaged in several collaborations with other intergovernmental organisations, including the UN and some of its agencies (UNESCO, UNITAR, WHO, WIPO, WMO, etc.). “It seemed natural for us to organise an event to celebrate CERN's 60th anniversary with this international community,” explains Maurizio Bona, advisor to the Director-General in charge of relations with interna...

  20. Enrico Fermi Symposium at CERN : opening celebration

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2002-01-01

    You are cordially invited to the opening celebration on Thursday 12 September at 16:00 (Main Building, Council Chamber), which will include speechs from: Luciano Maiani - Welcome and Introduction Antonino Zichichi - The New 'Centro Enrico Fermi' at Via Panisperna Ugo Amaldi - Fermi at Via Panisperna and the birth of Nuclear Medicine Jack Steinberger - Fermi in Chicago Valentin Telegdi - A Close-up of Fermi Arnaldo Stefanini - Celebrating Fermi's Centenary in Documents and Pictures and the screening of a documentary video about Fermi: Scienziati a Pisa: Enrico Fermi (Scientists at Pisa: Enrico Fermi) created by Francesco Andreotti for La Limonaia from early film, photographs and sound recordings (English version - c. 30 mins).

  1. China celebrates the International Year of Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Zi-Ling

    2011-01-01

    China played an active role in the establishment of the International Year of Chemistry (IYC) 2011.Year-around programs in the country have celebrated the wonderful changes in our lives brought about by advances in chemical sciences.Chemists,chemical engineers,students,and the general public have used a range of interactive,entertaining,and educational activities around the country to celebrate the achievements of chemistry and its contributions to society.These have been reported on the IYC China websites at http://www.iyc2011.cn/(Chinese) and http://iyc2011.casad.cas.cn/iyc2011/(English) and newspaper and TV accounts.

  2. What We Know about the Public’s Level of Concern for Farm Animal Welfare in Food Production in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Cornish

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and rising consumption of meat, dairy, eggs and fish are forcing the world to face the intersecting challenges of how to sustainably feed a population expected to exceed 9 billion by 2050, while also controlling the impact of food production on the planet, on people and on animals. This review acknowledges the absence of a globally accepted definition of animal welfare and then explores the literature regarding different levels of concern for animal welfare in food production by such stakeholders as veterinarians, farmers, and the general public. It focuses on the evidence that the general public’s level of concern for animal welfare is linked to various demographic and personal characteristics, such as age, gender, religion, location, meat eating, and knowledge of animal welfare. Certain animals have characteristics that influence concern for their welfare, with those species that are considered more intelligent being afforded more concern. There is compelling evidence that the general public’s understanding of animal welfare in food production is poor. Acknowledging that public concern can be a driving force to change current production methods, the authors suggest widespread consciousness raising to redefine socially acceptable methods of food production from animals and to ensure that it remains in step with societal concerns.

  3. The Cosmic Mandala: Celebrating Tibetan Astronomy and Cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, K.

    2008-11-01

    This poster celebrates the richness of Tibetan ``astro-science,'' including the calendar, traditional cosmological systems, and astronomical artwork, and demonstrate ways that this tradition can be utilized to celebrate and teach cultural cosmologies during the IYA.

  4. Local Celebrity Endorsement : Can You Go Far by Staying Close?

    OpenAIRE

    Ekberg, Sara; Mellgård, Linn; Micko, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    Celebrity endorsement consists of a written or spoken statement from a publicly known person, proclaiming the benefits of some product or service. Previous research on celebrity endorsement has proved it very successful in promoting brands or companies. Even though many marketing strategies exist, it can be especially effective for newly started ventures to apply celebrity endorsement in their approach. While celebrity endorsement may be a good way to overcome weaknesses, such as liability of...

  5. The Construction of Consumers’ Self-esteem through Celebrity Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Xenophontos, Eleonora

    2011-01-01

    This thesis offers a new perspective to consumers and their connection to celebrities. Consumers’ inner psychology, their sense of self and more particularly their self-esteem is examined as to how it can relate to the world of celebrities. The central question to this was whether there is indeed an association between consumers and the luxurious lives of stars. According to this research, celebrity endorsements and negative celebrity images do not fully influence the decision making or the c...

  6. Drug-related celebrity deaths: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Just, Johannes M.; Bleckwenn, Markus; Schnakenberg, Rieke; Skatulla, Philipp; Weckbecker, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Background Celebrities are at risk for premature mortality as well as drug-related death. Despite being a vulnerable patient group, celebrities influence people’s health behaviours through biological, psychological and social processes. Therefore, celebrity endorsement of the topic could be one way to challenge the current “opioid endemic”. Our aim was to better understand the factors surrounding drug-related celebrity deaths by investigating the incidence as well as substances used between 1...

  7. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  8. 22 CFR 52.1 - Celebration of marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Celebration of marriage. 52.1 Section 52.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS MARRIAGES § 52.1 Celebration of marriage. Foreign Service officers are forbidden to celebrate marriages....

  9. 15 Minutes of Shame? Copyright Issues in Celebrity Sex Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenfeld, Shelly

    2013-01-01

    It's the tape that launched a thousand clips Paris Hilton's Celebrity Sex Video became a form of "Must See TV". Celebrities are used to performing for the camera. But when Hilton was caught on video, she reacted as many participants do when their celebrity sex tapes are revealed they file a lawsuit. This article explores the vario...

  10. Materialities of Law: Celebrity Production and the Public Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Milne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Celebrity production and consumption are powerful socio-economic forces. The celebrity functions as a significant economic resource for the commercial sector and plays a fundamental symbolic role within culture by providing a shared ‘vocabulary’ through which to understand contemporary social relations. A pivotal element of this allure is the process by which the celebrity figure is able to forge an intimate link with its audience, often producing public expressions of profound compassion, respect or revulsion. This process, however, is complicated by emerging participatory media forms whose impact is experienced as new conditions of possibility for celebrity production and consumption. As Marshall argues, video mash-ups of celebrity interviews, such as those of Christian Bale or Tom Cruise, are dramatically changing the relation between celebrity and audience (Marshall, 2006: 640. Meanings produced by these audience remixes challenge the extent to which a celebrity might control her image. So is the celebrity personality, therefore, a public or private commodity? Who owns the celebrity image within remix culture? Although the celebrity figure has been thoroughly researched in relation to its patterns of consumption; semiotic power; and industry construction; less attention has been focused on the forms of celebrity governance enabled by legislative and case law settings. How might the law deal with the significant economic and cultural power exercised within celebrity culture?

  11. Celebrity Politics: Correlates of Voting for Celebrities in Philippine Presidential Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa C. David

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is common in the Philippines for celebrities in entertainment, news, and sports to run for public office and win, even with little experience in political life and limited education. The preponderance of celebrities in politics is often identif ied in the public discourse as a problem with important implications on national policy. This paper examines empirical correlates of voter preference for celebrity Presidential candidates with data from a nationally-representative survey. It finds support for the hypotheses that the likelihood of voting for celebrity candidates for President and Vice President is associated with education, television exposure, and residence in the capital city. The findings are discussed in the context of political knowledge and its role in shaping voter preferences.

  12. Global Branding and the Celebrity University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothblatt, Sheldon

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author is concerned about the potential for increased stratification. As he considers the recent phenomenon of "branding," whereby efforts to enhance reputation and prestige culminate in the creation of the "celebrity university," the author notes the irony that even as the branded institutions declare their commitment to…

  13. Stennis Space Center celebrates Native American culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Famie Willis (left), 2009-2010 Choctaw Indian Princess, displays artifacts during Native American Heritage Month activities at Stennis Space Center on Nov. 24. The celebration featured various Native American cultural displays for Stennis employees to view. Shown above are (l to r): Willis, Elaine Couchman of NASA Shared Services Center, John Cecconi of NSSC and Lakeisha Robertson of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  14. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.

  15. Multicultural Titles for Holidays and Celebrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Powell, Brenda

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography (14 sources) of holiday-oriented titles provides resources for school, library, and home use that present engaging perspectives on cultural celebrations, informative content, and potential for interactive use. All incorporate diversity as an everyday way of life rather than a special occasion posture. (SLD)

  16. Are Celebrities Criminally Responsible For Deceptive Advertising?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The State Administration for Industry and Commerce recently said it has suggested the addition of an article in the Advertising Law to make celebrities who represent fake products in deceptive advertising criminally responsible for their actions if it is confirmed as a crime.Up to now,those who have endorsed products have only been required to bear administrative and civil responsibilities.

  17. Four lives a celebration of Raymond Smullyan

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenhouse, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This ""best of"" collection of works by Raymond Smullyan features excerpts from his published writings, including logic puzzles, explorations of mathematical logic and paradoxes, retrograde analysis chess problems, jokes and anecdotes, and meditations on the philosophy of religion. In addition, numerous personal tributes salute this celebrated professor, author, and logic scholar who is also a magician and musician.

  18. Caring Dairy: A Sustainable Dairy Farming Initiative in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, van K.J.; Hooch Antink, R.H.J.; Beldman, A.C.G.; Mauser, A.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in the concept of sustainability in dairy farming has grown as a result of the continuous pressure on farm incomes, occurrence of animal diseases with a major impact on the image of dairy farming, concerns about animal welfare, and environmental problems caused by agriculture. There are,

  19. Caring Dairy: A Sustainable Dairy Farming Initiative in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, van K.J.; Hooch Antink, R.H.J.; Beldman, A.C.G.; Mauser, A.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in the concept of sustainability in dairy farming has grown as a result of the continuous pressure on farm incomes, occurrence of animal diseases with a major impact on the image of dairy farming, concerns about animal welfare, and environmental problems caused by agriculture. There are, ho

  20. Investigation and Analysis on the Public Recognition of Replacing Antibiotic by Chinese Medicine in Animal Farming%大众对养殖业以中药代替抗生素认识度的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明月; 杨葛巍; 刘静; 李佩佩; 吴元洁

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解大众对养殖业以中药代替抗生素的认知度.方法:以问卷调查表对安徽部分地区500名普通消费者对养殖业以中药代替抗生素的认知度进行调查.结果:大众对养殖业以中药代替抗生素的认知度不高,仅有37.73%的人了解,其中完全了解的仅占4.46%.大众对中药代替抗生素应用于养殖业的支持度很高,有49%的人支持,还有54%的人认为政府应给予支持.结论:大众对养殖业使用抗生素以及以中药代替抗生素的优缺点不够了解,应开展相应的宣传,普及相关知识,同时应加大抗生素的监管力度,并规范中药生产和管理制度,从根源上提高大众对中药产品在养殖业应用的信任感.%Objective:To learn about the public recognition of re-placing antibiotic by Chinese medicine in animal farming. Method:With questionnaires, the recognition of 500 Anhui con-sumers on replacing antibiotic by Chinese medicine was investi-gated. Result: The public recognition of replacing antibiotic by Chinese medicine is low with only 37.73%of them know about it and only 4.46%completely know about it. The public support for the replacement of antibiotic by Chinese medicine is high with 49%of them support it and 54%hold that the government should support it. Conclusion:The public knows little about the advan-tages and disadvantages of replacing antibiotic by Chinese medicine in animal farming, so corresponding propaganda should be launched to popularize relevant knowledge, and meanwhile, the supervision and control of antibiotic should be enhanced and the production and management system of Chinese medicine should be regulated, so as to fundamentally improve the public trust in the application of Chinese medicine productions in ani-mal farming.

  1. Effect of Active Organic Matter of Long-term Combination of Farming with Animal Husbandry on Meadow Alkali Soil%长期农牧结合对碱化草甸土活性有机质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑余; 周连仁; 傅博思远; 依洪涛

    2013-01-01

    通过测定长期农牧结合不同培肥年限条件下,彻底改良各活性有机质的含量,探讨不同改良年限处理对活性有机质的影响.结果表明,长期农牧结合能够提升各活性有机质的含量,改良15年中逐年增长;改良1~15年中,农牧结合改良对中活性有机质的增加较为敏感.3种活性有机质之间都呈显著或极显著相关,其中,高活性有机质与中活性有机质相关系数为0.981*,高活性有机质与活性有机质相关系数为0.984*,中活性有机质与活性有机质相关系数为0.954*.3种活性有机质与总有机质的相关性说明,活性有机质虽然区别于总有机质,但又与总有机质紧密相连,它们是土壤总有机质的一部分.%Through the determination of long-term combination of farming with animal husbandry, completely improve the content of different labile organic matter in soil and then, the influence of improved treatment to them on the different fixed number of year was discussed. The test results show that, long-term combination of farming with animal husbandry can improve the content of soil labile organic matter, which improves year by year in 1 year to 15-year improved treatment. The treatment for 1 — 15 years, combination of farming with animal husbandry is sensitive to the improvement of soil labile organic matter. The three kinds of labile organic matter have significant correlation or high significant correlation, whose correlation coefficient are respectively highly labile organic matter and middle labile organic matter in 0. 981* * , highly labile organic matter and labile organic matter in 0. 984* * , middle labile organic matter and labile organic matter in 0. 954* * . The correlations among these three labile organic matters and total organic matter show that, though it's different from total organic matter, labile organic matter is closely linked, whose are one part of total organic matter.

  2. 对特种养殖业发展机遇及风险防范的分析与探讨%Study on the Development Opportunity and Risk Prevention of Special Animal Farming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立尧; 骆颉

    2011-01-01

    从国家政策、市场需求、产品开发等不同角度分析了特种养殖业的发展机遇,阐述了客观看待企业宣传、充分进行市场调研、遵循特种养殖规律、加强科学饲养管理对于风险防范的重要作用,并对行业的健康发展有一定的借鉴和指导意义。%From the national policy ,market demand ,product development and other perspectives ,the development opportunities of special animal farming were analyzed. The important effects on the risk prevention were discussed, from objectively looking upon the enterprises propaganda,fully performing the market research,following the rules of special farming and strengthening the scientific raising management, which had certain reference and guidance significance for the healthy development of this industry.

  3. Mutations in the bovine ABCG2 and the ovine MSTN gene added to the few quantitative trait nucleotides identified in farm animals: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunschweig, M H

    2010-01-01

    The progress in molecular genetics in animal breeding is moderately effective as compared to traditional animal breeding using quantitative genetic approaches. There is an extensive disparity between the number of reported quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and their linked genetic variations in cattle, pig, and chicken. The identification of causative mutations affecting quantitative traits is still very challenging and hampered by the cloudy relationship between genotype and phenotype. There are relatively few reports in which a successful identification of a causative mutation for an animal production trait was demonstrated. The examples that have attracted considerable attention from the animal breeding community are briefly summarized and presented in a table. In this mini-review, the recent progress in mapping quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) are reviewed, including the ABCG2 gene mutation that underlies a QTL for fat and protein content and the ovine MSTN gene mutation that causes muscular hypertrophy in Texel sheep. It is concluded that the progress in molecular genetics might facilitate the elucidation of the genetic architecture of QTLs, so that also the high-hanging fruits can be harvested in order to contribute to efficient and sustainable animal production.

  4. Probability of detecting antibodies to bovine herpesvirus 1 in bulk milk after the introduction of a positive animal on to a negative farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankena, K; Franken, P; Vandehoek, J; Koskamp, G; Kramps, J A

    1997-01-25

    The purpose of this study was to assess the probability that the introduction of one or more bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1)-seropositive animals would result in the bulk milk of a clean herd becoming BHV-1-positive. Probability calculations (stochastic and deterministic) were based on the distribution of the log(titre) of 828 positive animals and the daily milk production of the herds and of the individual cows. They showed that the probability in average sized herds of 45 dairy cows is only between 10 and 25 per cent and that even in small herds of 25 cows the introduction of a positive animal would go undetected in the majority of cases. It is concluded that if the bulk milk has become BHV-1-positive it is most likely that the infection has spread.

  5. Students Involved in Animal Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Emilia Cadar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In last decade, Romanian agriculture does not follow entirely the European and programs as concerns land exploitation and animal farming (SAPARD. Restrictive development projects (POS-MEDIU, POS-DRU, POS-CCE were active only in large private farms, which represent only 10.7% of the total registered farms in Romania. Was used a questionnaire for 36 students of our faculty, which have animal farms in 7 counties in Northwest of Transylvania. The study want to put into evidence the current problems of farmers in conditions of some private farms with small and middle number of animals. As small farms, they do not obtain important productions because of financial resource absence, limited professional education and absence of association in bigger exploitation farms. In these situations, the government must react providing a legal frame for rural agricultural development, supporting and supervising these small exploitations.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 isolated from feces of domestic farm animals in Culiacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial resistance in E. coli O157 and non-O157 strains is a matter of increasing concern, and the association with some virulence traits in the same bacteria remains unclear. Inappropriate antimicrobial use in human and animal therapy has been associated with selective pressure in enteric mi...

  7. Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 recovered from feces of domestic farm animals in Northwestern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial resistance in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and non-O157 is a matter of increasing concern. Inappropriate antimicrobial use in human and animal therapy has been associated with an acquired resistance in enteric microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to de...

  8. Farm Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Nielsen, Niels Christian; Nissen, Kathrine Aae

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on a study of one specific type of small tourism enterprises (i.e. farm tourism enterprises) and argues that these enterprises differ from other enterprises in relation to a series of issues other than merely size. The analysis shows that enterprises such as these are characterized...... by blurriness of boundaries between „home spheres‟ and work situations as well as by a unique blend of commercial and private hospitality. Furthermore, the study shows that „social‟ motivations and non-monetary benefits gained through host-guest interactions are of great importance to the hosts. In particular......, our study suggests that it is problematic to threat farm tourism enterprises as if they have much in common with both larger corporations and other types of SMTEs. Farm tourism enterprises seem to differ significantly from other enterprises as the hosts are not in the tourism business because...

  9. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to ... and wildlife, minilivestock, livestock farming systems and other disciplines. ... Selenium and tocopherol effects on parasitaemia, organ weights and ...

  10. CRISPR/Cas9基因组编辑技术在农业动物中的应用%Application of CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome editing in farm animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    幸宇云; 杨强; 任军

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR(Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas(CRISPR associated proteins)是在细菌和古细菌中发现的一种用来抵御病毒或质粒入侵的获得性免疫系统.目前已发现的CRISPR/Cas系统包括Ⅰ、Ⅱ和Ⅲ型,其中Ⅱ型系统的组成较简单,由其改造成的CRISPR/Cas9技术已成为一种高效的基因组编辑工具.自2013年CRISPR/Cas9技术成功用于哺乳动物基因组定点编辑以来,应用该技术进行基因组编辑的报道呈现出爆发式的增长.农业动物不仅是重要的经济动物,也是人类疾病和生物医药研究的重要模式动物.本文综述了CRISPR/Cas9技术在农业动物中的研究和应用进展,简述了该技术的脱靶效应及减少脱靶的主要方法,并展望了该技术的应用前景.%CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas (CRISPR associated proteins) is an acquired immune system found in bacteria and archaea that fight against invasion of viruses or plasmids. CRISPR/Cas systems are currently classified into three main types: Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ, of which type Ⅱ has relatively sim-ple components. The CRISPR/Cas9 technology modified from type II CRISPR/Cas system has been developed as an efficient genome editing tool. Since the initial application of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in mammals in 2013, the reports of this system for genomic editing has skyrocketed. Farm animals are not only economically important ani-mals, but also ideal animal models for human diseases and biomedical studies. In this review, we summarize the ap-plications of CRISPR/Cas9 in farm animals, briefly describe the off-target effects and the main solutions, and finally highlight the future perspectives of this technology.

  11. Ant Farm

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Publié à l’occasion de l’exposition d’Ant Farm au Frac Centre du 12 au 23 décembre 2007, ce très beau catalogue, qui fait état des dix ans de création du collectif californien, propose un nombre important de documents iconographiques, de notices et de textes concernant leurs différents projets. Fondé en 1968 par Doug Michels et Chip Lord, rejoints par la suite par Curtis Schreier, Hudson Marquez, Douglas Hurr et d’autres encore, le collectif Ant Farm a marqué les esprits par quelques œuvres s...

  12. Antecedents of Taiwanese adolescents' purchase intention toward the merchandise of a celebrity: the moderating effect of celebrity adoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Jyh-Shen; Huang, Chien-Yi; Chuang, Min-Chieh

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relative importance of adolescents' attitude toward an act (the degree to which the person had a favorable or unfavorable evaluation or appraisal of the act's behavior in question), perceived norm, and perceived behavioral control in predicting Taiwanese adolescents' intention to purchase the merchandise of a celebrity when they had different levels of celebrity adoration. The present results showed that the relative strengths of attitude toward the act and the perception of behavioral control in predicting purchase intention toward the merchandise of a celebrity were stronger for adolescents in the celebrity adoration group than for adolescents in the celebrity nonadoration group. On the other hand, the relative importance of the perceived norm in predicting the attitude toward the act and the purchase intention was stronger for adolescents in the celebrity nonadoration group than for adolescents in the celebrity adoration group.

  13. [Transgenic animals bioreactors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Ke-Mian; An, Xiao-Rong; Tian, Jian-Hui; Chen, Yong-Fu

    2002-01-01

    The production of human recombinant proteins in milk of transgenic farm animals offers a safe, very cost-effective source of commercially important proteins that cannot be produced as efficiently in adequate quantities by other methods. This review has summarized the current status of gene selection, vector construct, transgenic methods, economics, and obvious potential in transgenic animals bioreactors. Recently, a more powerful approach was adopted in the transgenic animals founded on the application of nuclear transfer. As we will illustrate, this strategy presents a breakthrough in the overall efficiency of generating transgenic farm animals, product consistency, and time of product development. The successful adaptation of Cre-/lox P-mediated site-specific DNA recombination systems in farm animals will offer unprecedented possibilities for generating transgenic animals.

  14. 65 Year Birthday Celebration's Prof. John Ellis.

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Jeannet

    2011-01-01

    On 13 September, physicists from around the world joined John Ellis at a colloquium to celebrate his 65th birthday, and as he ended his long career as a distinguished CERN staff member and joins King’s College London. Here he is in the audience with fellow theorists, Nobel laureate Gerard ’t Hooft and Chris Llewellyn Smith, former director-general of CERN.

  15. Kelvin on an old, celebrated hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Edward

    1986-07-01

    Lord Kelvin in 1901 tested an ``old and celebrated hypothesis'' that if we could see far enough into space the whole sky would be occupied with stellar disks all of perhaps the same brightness as the Sun. Kelvin was the first to solve quantitatively and correctly the riddle of a dark night sky, a riddle that had been previously solved qualitatively by Edgar Allan Poe, and is now known as Olbers' paradox.

  16. HIE-ISOLDE Phase I celebration

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien

    2016-01-01

    HIE-Isolde celebration hosted by Belgian State Secretary E. Sleurs for Combating Poverty, for Equal Opportunities, for Disabled People and for Science Policy, in charge of Larger Towns, attached to the Minister of Finance, Ms Elke Sleurs State Secretary for Combating Poverty, for Equal Opportunities, for Disabled People and for Science Policy, in charge of Larger Towns, attached to the Minister of Finance Kingdom of Belgium

  17. Centennial of general relativity a celebration

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    It has been over 100 years since the presentation of the Theory of General Relativity by Albert Einstein, in its final formulation, to the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences. To celebrate 100 years of general relativity, World Scientific publishes this volume with a dual goal: to assess the current status of the field of general relativity in broad terms, and discuss future directions. The volume thus consists of broad overviews summarizing major developments over the past decades and their perspective contributions.

  18. Pioneering CERN lab celebrates 50 years

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In a bid to raise local awareness and to celebrate its 50-year anniversary, CERN, a publicly-funded laboratory grouping scientists from 85 different countries, will hold a one-off open day in October for the general public. "We have added a lot to mankind's knowledge of the universe and that is what we were founded for", said CERN's chief spokesman James Gillies

  19. Intimate Relationships and Attitudes Toward Celebrities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn E. McCutcheon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that persons who self-report a high level of preoccupation with celebrities tend to have lower levels of well-being. We administered the “Romantic Partner Conflict Scale”, the “Love Attitudes Scale”, the soulmate subscale from the “Relationship Theories Questionnaire”, and the anxiety subscale from the “Experiences in Close Relationships Scale” to 330 students from four universities to see how well scores on these measures would predict scores on each of the three subscales from the “Celebrity Attitude Scale” (CAS. We predicted that persons whose scores on these measures of intimate relationships indicated a troubled, anxious, or poor quality relationship would have higher scores on the CAS, especially on its two problematic subscales. In three multiple regressions, specific measures of behavior during conflict with a romantic partner and certain love styles significantly predicted scores on all three of the CAS subscales. We discuss the implications of being a celebrity worshiper on one’s relationship with an intimate partner.

  20. National Farm Medicine Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Areas Applied Sciences Biomedical Informatics Clinical Research Epidemiology Farm Medicine Human Genetics Oral-Systemic Health Clinical ... Consulting Agritourism Farm MAPPER Lyme Disease ROPS Rebate Zika Virus National Farm Medicine Center The National Farm ...