WorldWideScience

Sample records for farm aggregation impact

  1. Simulation analysis of a wind farm with different aggregated models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H.; Wang, H.; Zhao, B.

    2011-01-01

    Based on a wind farm including wind turbines with squirrel cage induction generators (SCIGs), different aggregated models of a wind farm, such as a single weighted average model, a reduced-order re-scaled model, a parameter transformed model and a single weighted arithmetic model were presented, ...

  2. Aggregated Modelling for Wind Farms for Power System Transient Stability Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongzhi; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is consistently attracting great research effort and actively developed in many countries. As a result, the penetration level of wind power in the power grid is increasing as well as the size of wind farms. A large-scale wind farm may consist of hundreds of wind turbines and its total...... on a wind farm with permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbines. Simulation results of the aggregated models and the detailed model are compared and analyzed respectively to prove the effectiveness of the aggregating techniques.......Wind energy is consistently attracting great research effort and actively developed in many countries. As a result, the penetration level of wind power in the power grid is increasing as well as the size of wind farms. A large-scale wind farm may consist of hundreds of wind turbines and its total...... installed capacity could be at a level of 1000MW or even more. Consequently, the large-scale wind farm could seriously impact the operation and control of the grid. To represent a large-scale wind farm, aggregated modelling takes advantage of fast computation and simplified implementation compared...

  3. Aggregations of bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (L.) at Mediterranean coastal fish farms: seasonal presence, daily patterns and influence of farming activity

    OpenAIRE

    Arechavala-Lopez, Pablo; Izquierdo-Gomez, David; Uglem, Ingebrigt; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766), is commonly observed close to Mediterranean open-sea fish farms. It usually preys on wild fish that are attracted to farms, but also on farmed fish by biting holes in sea cages net walls. In the current telemetry study, we found that the tagged bluefish stayed close to fish farms during spring and early summer. However, most of the tagged fish disappeared from the farms during autumn, when the sea water temperature dropped. When aggregating at f...

  4. Regulation techniques for smoothing active power in aggregated wind farms distributed within Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Martinez, Sergio; Vigueras-Rodriguez, Antonio; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete (Spain). Renewable Energy Research Inst.

    2009-07-01

    With the increasing production of wind power worldwide, power fluctuations have an impact on power system operation and costs. Power systems with high wind penetration gives rise to concerns about the adverse effects of wind farms on power operations and its staability. The integration of the power produced by wind farms is evaluated through ramp rates calculated as suggested by Parson et al. The worst cases regarding the power system are the most negative ramp rates in the Wind Farm, where the Power System has to compensate such drops in the wind power production. In most onshore wind farms production fluctuates much less than in offshore farms, due to two main reasons. First, offshore wind turbines are collected in a more reduced area, so fluctuations are more correlated. In addition, offshore meteorological conditions are often different than onshore. Furthermore, the variability of wind power is reduced when looking at a large interconnected sytem with geographically dispersed wind power production. This paper deals with a comparison of the smoothed out variability of wind power production time series for the single and aggregated wind farms, parting from their wind power production. The data analyzed come from a 1 year-period measurements of 9 wind farms spread over Spain. (orig.)

  5. Biases in Farm-Level Yield Risk Analysis due to Data Aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finger, R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate biases in farm-level yield risk analysis caused by data aggregation from the farm-level to regional and national levels using the example of Swiss wheat and barley yields. The estimated yield variability decreases significantly with increasing level of aggregation, with crop yield

  6. Environmental impact assessment of fish farm hatcheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental impact assessment of fish farm hatcheries management in lower ... Environmental impact assessments were taken to determine the causes of ... Of significance of impact assessment were activities like air, traffic, noise, had ...

  7. The impact of agriculture terraces on soil organic matter, aggregate stability, water repellency and bulk density. A study in abandoned and active farms in the Sierra de Enguera, Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Burguet, Maria; Keesstra, Saskia; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Di Prima, Simone; Brevik, Erik; Novara, Agata; Jordan, Antonio; Tarolli, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion, land degradation, lack of organic matter, erodible soils, rock outcrops… are a consequence of the human abuse and misuse of the soil resources. And this is a worldwide environmental issue (Novara et al., 2011; Vanlauwe et al., 2015; Musinguzi et al., 2015; Pereira et al., 2015; Mwagno et al., 2016). Agriculture terraces are a strategy to reduce the soil erosion, improve the soil fertility and allow the ploughing (Cerdà et al., 2010; Li et al., 2014). Although this idea is well accepted there are few scientific evidences that demonstrate that soils in the terraced areas are more stable, fertile and sustainable that the soil in non terraced areas. In fact, the ploughing in comparison to the abandoned or not ploughed land results in the soil degradation (Lieskovský and Kenderessy, 2014; Gao et al., 2015; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2014). This is mainly due to the lack of vegetation that increase the surface runoff (Cerdà et al., 1998; Keesstra et al., 2007). And why is necessary to develop also in terraced landscapes soil erosion control strategies (Mekonnen et al., 2015a; Mekonnen et al., 2015b; Prosdocimi et al., 2016). Our objective was to assess the soil organic matter content (Walkley and Black, 1934), the soil bulk density (ring method), the aggregate stabilility (drop impact) and the water repellency (Water Drop Penetration Time test) in four study sites in the Sierra de Enguera. Two sites were terraced: one abandoned 40 years before the measurements and the other still active with olive crops. And two control sites non-terraced. We used the paired plot strategy to compare the impact of terracing and abandonment. At each site we collected randomly 50 soil samples at 0-2 cm, 4-6 and 8-10 cm depth. At each sampling point 100 WDPT measurements where carried out, and one sample for the bulk density, and one for the organic matter, and one for the soil aggregate stability were collected. The soil surface samples shown the largest differences. The

  8. An Embedded Database Application for the Aggregation of Farming Device Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    In order to store massive amounts of data produced by the farming devices and to keep data that spans long intervals of time for analysis, reporting and maintenance purposes; it is desirable to reduce the size of the data by maintaining the data at different aggregate levels. The older data can...... be made coarse-grained while keeping the newest data fine-grained. Considering the availability of a limited amount of storage capacity on the farm machinery, an application written in C was developed to collect the data from a CAN-BUS, store it into the embedded database efficiently and perform gradual...... data aggregation effectively. Furthermore, the aggregation is achieved by using either two ratio-based aggregation methods or a time-granularity based aggregation method. A detailed description of the embedded database technology on a tractor computer is also presented in this paper....

  9. Health impact of wind farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Mroczek, Bozena; Karakiewicz, Beata; Kassolik, Krzysztof; Andrzejewski, Waldemar

    2013-01-01

    Wind power is employed worldwide as an alternative source of energy. At the same time, however, the health effects of wind turbines have become a matter of discussion. The purpose of this study is a critical review of available reports providing arguments both for and against the construction of wind farms. The authors also attempt to propose recommendations in accordance with the Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) guidelines. In the case of exposure to wind farms, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is impossible. To obtain the highest-level recommendations, analysis of case-control studies or cohort studies with control groups should be performed. Preferably, it should include geostatistical analysis conducted with the use of variograms and the kriging technique. Combinations of key words were entered into the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge (SM) and the Internet search engine Google. SHORT DESCRIPTION OF STATE OF THE ART: The nuisance caused by wind turbines is stereotypically linked with the noise that they produce. Nevertheless, the visual aspect of wind farms, opinions about them, and sensitivity to sound seem to be of the greater importance. To date, the direct correlations between the vicinity of modern wind farms, the noise that wind turbines make, and possible consequences to health have not been described in peer reviewed articles. Health effects are more probably associated with some environmental factors leading to annoyance or frustration. All types of studies share the same conclusion: wind turbines can provoke annoyance. As with any project involving changes in the local environment, a certain level of irritation among the population can be expected. There are elected officials and government representatives who should decide what level of social annoyance is acceptable, and whether wind power advantages outweigh its potential drawbacks. The influence of wind turbines on human emotional and physical health is a relatively new field of research. Further

  10. Equivalent models of wind farms by using aggregated wind turbines and equivalent winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L.M.; Garcia, C.A.; Saenz, J.R.; Jurado, F.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the increasing wind farms penetration on power systems, the wind farms begin to influence power system, and therefore the modeling of wind farms has become an interesting research topic. In this paper, new equivalent models of wind farms equipped with wind turbines based on squirrel-cage induction generators and doubly-fed induction generators are proposed to represent the collective behavior on large power systems simulations, instead of using a complete model of wind farms where all the wind turbines are modeled. The models proposed here are based on aggregating wind turbines into an equivalent wind turbine which receives an equivalent wind of the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines. The equivalent wind turbine presents re-scaled power capacity and the same complete model as the individual wind turbines, which supposes the main feature of the present equivalent models. Two equivalent winds are evaluated in this work: (1) the average wind from the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines with similar winds, and (2) an equivalent incoming wind derived from the power curve and the wind incident on each wind turbine. The effectiveness of the equivalent models to represent the collective response of the wind farm at the point of common coupling to grid is demonstrated by comparison with the wind farm response obtained from the detailed model during power system dynamic simulations, such as wind fluctuations and a grid disturbance. The present models can be used for grid integration studies of large power system with an important reduction of the model order and the computation time

  11. THE AGGREGATE IMPACT OF ONLINE RETAIL

    OpenAIRE

    Allen Tran

    2014-01-01

    To study the impact of online retail on aggregate welfare, I use a spatial model to calculate a new measure of store level retail productivity and each store's equilibrium response to increased competitive pressure from online retailers. The model is estimated on confidential store-level data spanning the universe of US retail stores, detailed local-level demographic data and shortest-route data between locations. From counterfactual exercises mimicking improvements in shipping and increased ...

  12. Noise impact assessment of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, M.

    1993-01-01

    The noise impact assessment of a wind farm is dependent upon a number of factors pertinent to the site. The most controversial is the selection of a criterion which is acceptable to both the developer of a site, in terms of maximising the number of turbines he may operate without fear of injunction to stop, and the local residents and Environmental Health Officer who will have to enforce any agreements. A number of British Standards exist which cover noise issues. There are, however, certain reservations about their use when applied to potential wind farm developments; some of the more relevant standards are outlined. In addition, Draft Planning Guidance notes which have recently been issued are discussed. These are intended to provide an indication to local planning authorities as to what noise levels and criteria may be acceptable when considering noise emitted by wind farms. No European standard for noise emission from wind farms exists but the legislative position in Denmark, the Netherlands, Germany and Sweden is briefly considered. It is considered that when a maximum level criterion is set it should take into account the existing background noise levels based on measurements which are taken at the most sensitive dwellings to the site. A method for calculating emitted noise levels from turbine arrays is described. (UK)

  13. impacts of alternative farm policies on rural communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Michael Bowker; James W. Richardson

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe an LP/IO model for evaluating the economic impacts of alternative farm policies on rural communities and demonstrate its capabilities by analyzing the impacts of three farm policies on a rural community in Texas. Results indicate that in the noncrop sector, two groups of industries are most affected by farm policy. The first...

  14. The impact of farm size on sustainability of dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der H.A.B.; Dolman, M.A.; Jager, J.H.; Venema, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable milk production systems require economically viable, environmentally sound and socially acceptable practices. This study compared the economic, environmental and societal impact of large-scale farms with other dairy farms in the Dutch Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN). Moreover the

  15. Intra-Household Impacts of Small Farm Commercialization of Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to analyze the impacts of small farm commercialization of maize enterprise on farming households in Abia State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 150 farming households through interview schedule and analysed using tables, percentages, a 4-scale Likert-type ranking method and ordinary least ...

  16. Recycled aggregates in concrete production: engineering properties and environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddik Meddah Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycled concrete aggregate is considered as the most abundant and used secondary aggregate in concrete production, other types of solid waste are also being used in concrete for specific purposes and to achieve some desired properties. Recycled aggregates and particularly, recycled concrete aggregate substantially affect the properties and mix design of concrete both at fresh and hardened states since it is known by high porosity due to the adhered layer of old mortar on the aggregate which results in a high water absorption of the recycled secondary aggregate. This leads to lower density and strength, and other durability related properties. The use of most recycled aggregate in concrete structures is still limited to low strength and non-structural applications due to important drop in strength and durability performances generated. Embedding recycled aggregates in concrete is now a current practice in many countries to enhance sustainability of concrete industry and reduce its environmental impacts. The present paper discusses the various possible recycled aggregates used in concrete production, their effect on both fresh and hardened properties as well as durability performances. The economic and environmental impacts of partially or fully substituting natural aggregates by secondary recycled aggregates are also discussed.

  17. RESTRICTING PESTICIDE USE: THE IMPACT ON PROFITABILITY BY FARM SIZE

    OpenAIRE

    Whittaker, Gerald W.; Lin, Biing-Hwan; Vasavada, Utpal

    1995-01-01

    A sample of 226 cash grain farms in the Lake States-Corn Belt region are analyzed to estimate the impact of restricting pesticide use on profits. These 226 farms are classified into small medium, and large farms according to their sale revenues. The results suggest the existence of pest management practices that could substantially reduce pesticide use without incurring economic losses. The reductions in profit associated with gradual reduction in pesticide expenditure appear to increase with...

  18. Viral Aggregation: Impact on Virus Behavior in the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerba, Charles P; Betancourt, Walter Q

    2017-07-05

    Aggregates of viruses can have a significant impact on quantification and behavior of viruses in the environment. Viral aggregates may be formed in numerous ways. Viruses may form crystal like structures and aggregates in the host cell during replication or may form due to changes in environmental conditions after virus particles are released from the host cells. Aggregates tend to form near the isoelectric point of the virus, under the influence of certain salts and salt concentrations in solution, cationic polymers, and suspended organic matter. The given conditions under which aggregates form in the environment are highly dependent on the type of virus, type of salts in solution (cation, anion. monovalent, divalent) and pH. However, virus type greatly influences the conditions when aggregation/disaggregation will occur, making predictions difficult under any given set of water quality conditions. Most studies have shown that viral aggregates increase the survival of viruses in the environment and resistance to disinfectants, especially with more reactive disinfectants. The presence of viral aggregates may also result in overestimation of removal by filtration processes. Virus aggregation-disaggregation is a complex process and predicting the behavior of any individual virus is difficult under a given set of environmental circumstances without actual experimental data.

  19. The impact of shrimp farming on mangrove ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashton, Elizabeth Clare

    2008-01-01

    . Policy to position shrimp farms behind mangroves can be effective but also requires good institutional capacity and coordination, effective enforcement, incentives, land tenure and participation of all stakeholders for success. Better management practices have been identified which reduce impacts......Farmed shrimp production and value continue to increase with Asia producing the global majority of shrimp and the USA, Japan and Europe being the main importers. Shrimp farming systems are very diverse in their management, size and impacts. There are many causes for mangrove loss but the conversion...... of mangroves to shrimp farms has caused considerable attention. The major issues of shrimp farming include the loss of important ecological and socio-economic functions of mangrove ecosystems, changes in hydrology, salinization, introduction of non-native species and diseases, pollution from effluents...

  20. Preliminary manual of the wind farms impacts study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This document aims to present and propose tools and methods allowing the improve the environmental quality of the future wind farms projects. After a presentation of general notions on the wind farms and the economy of the wind energy, it presents the regulation and the procedures concerning the environmental impact. It proposes then the main possible effects and the impacts study themes. (A.L.B.)

  1. Assessing agro-environmental performance of dairy farms in northwest Italy based on aggregated results from indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudino, Stefano; Goia, Irene; Grignani, Carlo; Monaco, Stefano; Sacco, Dario

    2014-07-01

    Dairy farms control an important share of the agricultural area of Northern Italy. Zero grazing, large maize-cropped areas, high stocking densities, and high milk production make them intensive and prone to impact the environment. Currently, few published studies have proposed indicator sets able to describe the entire dairy farm system and their internal components. This work had four aims: i) to propose a list of agro-environmental indicators to assess dairy farms; ii) to understand which indicators classify farms best; iii) to evaluate the dairy farms based on the proposed indicator list; iv) to link farmer decisions to the consequent environmental pressures. Forty agro-environmental indicators selected for this study are described. Northern Italy dairy systems were analysed considering both farmer decision indicators (farm management) and the resulting pressure indicators that demonstrate environmental stress on the entire farming system, and its components: cropping system, livestock system, and milk production. The correlations among single indicators identified redundant indicators. Principal Components Analysis distinguished which indicators provided meaningful information about each pressure indicator group. Analysis of the communalities and the correlations among indicators identified those that best represented farm variability: Farm Gate N Balance, Greenhouse Gas Emission, and Net Energy of the farm system; Net Energy and Gross P Balance of the cropping system component; Energy Use Efficiency and Purchased Feed N Input of the livestock system component; N Eco-Efficiency of the milk production component. Farm evaluation, based on the complete list of selected indicators demonstrated organic farming resulted in uniformly high values, while farms with low milk-producing herds resulted in uniformly low values. Yet on other farms, the environmental quality varied greatly when different groups of pressure indicators were considered, which highlighted the

  2. Wave farm impact on the beach profile: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Abanades, J; Greaves, D; Iglesias, G

    2014-01-01

    If wave energy is to become a fully-fledged renewable, its environmental impacts must be fully understood. The objective of the present work is to examine the impact of a wave farm on the beach profile through a case study. The methodology is based on two coupled numerical models: a nearshore wave propagation model and a morphodynamic model, which are run in two scenarios, both with and without the wave farm. Wave data from a nearby coastal buoy are used to prescribe the boundary conditions. ...

  3. Modelling Options for Policy Impact Analysis on African Dairy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oghaiki Asaah NDAMBI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the priorities for agricultural research in Eastern and CentralAfrica concluded that milk is the most important commodity for research anddevelopment in the region, based on its potential contribution to the agriculturalGDP. It has been presumed that, the right policies, marketing systems and technicalsupport must be sought for dairy development in Africa. In order to determine theright development pattern, appropriate analytical tools must be applied. The TIPICAL(Technology Impact Policy Impact model was used to analyse the impact ofdifferent policies on two typical dairy farming systems in Uganda, which accountfor more than 70% of milk produced in the country. Seven influential policy areaswere also identified: provision of veterinary services, consumption promotion,marketing promotion, input provision, credit access improvement, milk qualityimprovement and genetic improvement. In general, the policy impacts are very littleon farms with local cows but can be magnified up to threefold, if the farms havegraded cows. Policies which improve farmers’ accessibility to markets have thegreatest impacts. The results obtained from this model were compared to thoseusing the EXTRAPOLATE model. This comparison shows that both models couldcomplement each other in analysing policy impacts on African dairy farms.However, differences in results from the models indicate that more focus should bemade on farmers’ willingness to adopt new technology.

  4. The Role of Management in Enrichment Ratio Dynamics and Resilience of Aggregate Fractions Via Raindrop Impact within Agricultural Hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacha, K.; Papanicolaou, T.; Hatfield, J.; Cambardella, C.; Abban, B. K.; Wilson, C. G.; Filley, T. R.; Hou, T.; Dold, C.

    2017-12-01

    The abundance and distribution of surface soil size fractions has been shown to be reflective of changes in management practices and landscape position. Soil size fractions exist in both un-aggregated and aggregated forms that differ in textural and biological composition, which can impact soil hydrology and aggregation processes. Soils with higher stocks of soil organic matter (SOM) promote higher biological activity, infiltration, and soil structure due to stronger, more resilient aggregates. Within ag-systems, intensive cultivation and steep gradients can negatively impact the formation/stability of aggregates and amplify erosion processes, which redistributes material along downslope flowpathways to varying degrees, based on the amount of available surface cover during a rainfall event. The innate variability in SOM composition found amongst the size fractions combined with these highly active flowpathways, produces a symphony of interactive biogeochemical and hydrologic processes, which promote spatial landscape heterogeneity. Due to this intricacy, accurately assessing changes in SOM stocks within high energy ag-systems is extremely challenging, and could greatly impact soil carbon budgets at the hillslope and greater spatial scales. To address this, in part, we utilize a systematic approach that isolates the role of management in building aggregate resilience to hydrologic forcing. Soil samples were collected from farm fields with varying slopes (1-20%) and management conditions, and then isolated into seven aggregate size fractions. Each aggregate fraction was tested for resilience to raindrop impact with corresponding SOM composition and biological activity. Rainfall simulations were conducted on plots under representative management and gradient to capture the dynamicity of the size fractions being transported during an applied rainfall event. Results found that small macroaggregate fractions were most indicative of changes in management, and erosion

  5. Temporal structure of aggregate power fluctuations in large-eddy simulations of extended wind-farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations represent a major challenge for the incorporation of electric power from large wind-farms into power grids. Wind-farm power output fluctuates strongly in time, over various time scales. Understanding these fluctuations, especially their spatio-temporal characteristics, is particularly

  6. IMPACT OF CORRUPTION ON FARM PRODUCTION AND PROFIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Reza Anik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing experiences of 210 rice farmers belonging to six villages of six different districts in Bangladesh this article estimates the impact of corruption on farm production and profit. Unlike existing literature corruption here is defined in broader term. Both explicit and implicit cost items are included while calculating the cost of corruption. Through estimating the marginal physical product of fertilizer, a relative impact of corruption on farm production is estimated. Then by hypothesizing different scenarios with different levels of corruption, changes in a farmer's benefit cost ratio is estimated. It has been observed that with reducing cost of corruption farmers observe higher benefit cost ratio and vice versa. Cost of corruption is found to be relatively higher in restricted input market situation and relatively lower when the market is more competitive. Thus our results are suggestive for competitive market policy to reduce corruption which will ultimately result in more farm production and profit.

  7. Spanish method of visual impact evaluation in wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, J.P.; Parrondo, J.L.; Blanco, E. [Universidad de Oviedo, Gijon (Spain). Dpto. de Energia; Fernandez, J. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dpto. de Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica

    2004-10-01

    The present Spanish laws on the procedure to evaluate the environmental impact of wind farms are ambiguous, especially those pertaining to visual impact. There is no specific national law but only regional laws. The main targets of these laws are the conservation of the environment (protected animals and plants), and the noise generated. The focus of this paper, the visual impact, is not taken into account in a direct way in these laws. This work develops a methodology to predict, before its construction, the visual impact that a wind farm can have. This could be used as a consulting tool to analyse and evaluate wind projects, both government-run and private. The developed methodology is quick, concise and clear. (author)

  8. Smart farming technologies - description, taxonomy and economic impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balafoutis, Athanasios T.; Beck, Bert; Tsiropoulos, Zisis

    2017-01-01

    Precision Agriculture is a cyclic optimization process where data have to be collected from the field, analysed and evaluated and finally used for decision making for site-specific management of the field. Smart farming technologies (SFT ) cover all these aspects of precision agriculture and can...... comprise the delineation of management zones, decision support systems and farm management information system s. Finally, precision application technologies embrace variable-rate application technologies, precision irrigation and weeding and machine guidance. In this chapter, the reader can find...... a technical description of the technologies included in each category accompanied by a taxonomy of all SFT in terms of farming system type, cropping system, availability, level of investment and farmers’ motives to adopt them. Finally, the economic impact that each SFT has compared to conventional...

  9. Assessing the Impact of Internet Access on Household Income and Financial Performance of Small Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Khanal, Aditya R.; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2013-01-01

    With increased focus on survival strategies for small farm businesses, we investigate the impact of Internet access on income and farm expenses of small farm business and households. Using a nation-wide farm-level data in the U.S. and non-parametric matching estimators, the study finds a significant positive impact of Internet access on total household and off-farm income.

  10. Zero-Acreage Farming in the City of Berlin: An Aggregated Stakeholder Perspective on Potential Benefits and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Specht

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available How can buildings be combined with agricultural production and what are the major potential benefits and challenges for the introduction of zero-acreage farming (ZFarming in Berlin from the relevant stakeholders’ perspectives? These questions were explored through a series of interviews and stakeholder workshops held between 2011 and 2013. The aim was to identify the most suitable building-integrated farming model for the Berlin metropolitan area and to develop guidelines for the model’s successful and sustainable implementation through a stakeholder-driven approach. This paper provides an aggregated synthesis of the outcomes derived from the qualitative interviews and stakeholder workshops. As the results reveal, the stakeholders perceive potential benefits and challenges related to the issue of ZFarming in all dimensions (economic, social, environmental and political. They largely agreed on the importance of focusing on local resources, using energy-efficient production—including social and educational aspects—and developing new market structures when introducing ZFarming to the city of Berlin. The stakeholders identified urban rooftop greenhouses (RTG as the most promising farming model for Berlin. In a joint collaboration of all stakeholders, a manual for RTG was developed within the participatory innovation process that addresses the identified problems and challenges associated with future implementation and governance of RTG in Berlin and beyond.

  11. IMPACT OF FARM SIZE AND TYPE ON COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Jeffery D.; Langemeier, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined sustained competitive advantage for a sample of Kansas farms. Whole-farm data for 224 farms with continuous data from 1982-2001 were used. Overall efficiency was computed for each farm and year. Sixty farms exhibited a sustained competitive advantage. Seventy-six farms exhibited a sustained competitive disadvantage. Farms with a competitive advantage were relatively larger, received more of their gross farm income from dairy and swine production, had significantly lower ex...

  12. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CALF MORTALITY ON DAIRY FARMS IN KUWAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. RAZZAQUE, M. BEDAIR, S. ABBAS AND T. AL-MUTAWA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to investigate the economic impact of mortality of pre-weaned calves on dairy cattle enterprise in Kuwait. Cost/benefit analysis model was applied to two different situations: in the first situation, a baseline scenario, field survey data without intervention using 1,280 newborn calves was used in first calving season. In the second situation, the intervention scenario (improved management, 665 newborn calves were used in second calving season during the following year. Calving seasons extended for 7 months from September to March. Calf performance studies were conducted from birth to weaning. Economic model was constructed on Microsoft Excel and used to evaluate the impact of calf mortality on calf enterprise. Results showed that gross margins increased from 13 to 35% as a result of implementation of intervention measures during the second calving season over baseline scenario. A significant correlation between increased veterinary expenses and an increase in revenues (r2 = 0.65, P<0.05 was observed. If the intervention measures such as colostrum feeding, nutrition and hygiene had not been implemented, the farms would have lose income from 12 to 51% of the gross revenues. Net income was influenced by costs of feeds, veterinary services and laborers. Discounted cash flow studies on a whole farm basis revealed that the impact of interventions was small (0-3%. Calf mortality could not be isolated from whole farm for assessing its impact on dairy farm economics. Economic studies demonstrated the cost/benefits of using the improved techniques of calf rearing.

  13. Recycled aggregates in concrete production: engineering properties and environmental impact

    OpenAIRE

    Seddik Meddah Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Recycled concrete aggregate is considered as the most abundant and used secondary aggregate in concrete production, other types of solid waste are also being used in concrete for specific purposes and to achieve some desired properties. Recycled aggregates and particularly, recycled concrete aggregate substantially affect the properties and mix design of concrete both at fresh and hardened states since it is known by high porosity due to the adhered layer of old mortar on the aggregate which ...

  14. Non-farm diversification and its impacts on income inequality and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-farm diversification and its impacts on income inequality and poverty: evidence from rural Ethiopia. ... Ethiopian Journal of Development Research ... non-farm sector can provide a feasible option to tackling rural poverty and vulnerabilities ...

  15. Impact of wind farms with energy storage on transient stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Douglas Allen

    Today's energy infrastructure will need to rapidly expand in terms of reliability and flexibility due to aging infrastructure, changing energy market conditions, projected load increases, and system reliability requirements. Over the few decades, several states in the U.S. are now requiring an increase in wind penetration. These requirements will have impacts on grid reliability given the inherent intermittency of wind generation and much research has been completed on the impact of wind on grid reliability. Energy storage has been proposed as a tool to provide greater levels of reliability; however, little research has occurred in the area of wind with storage and its impact on stability given different possible scenarios. This thesis addresses the impact of wind farm penetration on transient stability when energy storage is added. The results show that battery energy storage located at the wind energy site can improve the stability response of the system.

  16. Evaluating the impact of farm scale innovation at catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breda, Phelia; De Clercq, Willem; Vlok, Pieter; Querner, Erik

    2014-05-01

    responsibilities and inadequate procedures of implementing objectives. Planning for development in South Africa needs to take various factors into account. Economic and green economic growth is pursued, while social imbalances are addressed and the environment is protected against unreasonable exploitation. The term Sustainable Development is a neutral concept in the vision of many of the regulating authorities; however, the implementation of sustainability is difficult. This study considers an approach which aligns activities in a specified region to the vision and objectives of the applicable regulatory authorities, as an alternative to achieving objectives strictly through enforcing regulations. It was determined whether objectives of development planning were realistic in terms of water availability. It was established that the position of a farm in the landscape is a determining factor of the impact it has on the catchment area's water supply. For this purpose, hydrological modelling (SWAT and SIMGRO) was done for the Letaba catchment of the Limpopo Province, on two scales to also accommodate small-scale farming communities more accurately. Parallel to the modelling, the National Development Plan (NDP), the National Framework for Sustainable Development (NFSD), the Integrated Sustainable Rural Development Strategy (ISRDS) and the principles of Water Allocation Reform (WAR) were regarded. For regional categorisation, the relevant municipal Integrated Development Plan (IDP), Spatial Development Framework (SDF), Local Economic Development (LED) plan and the applicable Catchment Management Strategy (CMS) were considered. The developed Integrated Evaluation Model combined all the visions and objectives of the mentioned strategic documents to specifically assess the contribution a small-scale farm makes. The evaluation results provided insight into the alignment of activities to the ideals of a region and can be useful when formulating actions to reach a common vision. Small

  17. Lifetime Impact Identification for Continuous Improvement of Wind Farm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kristian R.; Ruitenburg, Richard J.; Madsen, Erik Skov

    2015-01-01

    in the offshore wind industry. In order to identify where to focus CI efforts, we turn to the theory of Asset Life Cycle Management which shows that a shared multidisciplinary understanding of the complete lifetime of a windfarm is critical. Based on a case study at a leading offshore wind farm company......, it is concluded that the Lifetime Impact Identification Analysis delivers such a shared understanding by bringing employees from different backgrounds together. Based on this understanding, CI priorities can be set and management may become proactive instead of having to do ‘fire-fighting’....

  18. Landscape impact assessment of wind farm development in Dyfed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, C.; White, S.; Garrad, A.D.; Morgan, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    Chris Blandford Associates, in association with Garrad Hassan and Partners, was commissioned to carry out a landscape impact assessment of wind turbine development in Dyfed. The study aims to identify those areas in Dyfed where, in terms of landscape impact, local authorities might seek either to exclude or encourage wind turbine development; provide guidelines to assist local authorities in judging the impact of wind turbine developments on the landscape; provide a basis and framework for the preparation of planning policy guidelines for acceptable wind turbine and wind farm developments in Dyfed. The study context reviews current Government energy and planning policies for the encouragement of wind turbine developments, as set out in the ''non-fossil fuel obligation'' and the draft planning policy guidance note for renewable energy published last December. (author)

  19. Participatory farm management adaptations to reduce environmental impact on commercial pilot dairy farms in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, J.; Keulen, van H.; Schils, R.L.M.; Aarts, H.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Regulations in the Netherlands with respect to nutrient use force dairy farmers to improve nutrient management at the whole-farm level. On experimental farm ‘De Marke’, a coherent set of simple measures at farm level has been implemented, which has resulted in a drastic reduction in input of

  20. STUDY ON IMPACT AND TENSILE PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE WITH COCONUT SHELL AS COARSE AGGREGATE

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ranjith*

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical properties of coconut shell aggregate concrete (CSAC) namely splitting tensile strength, impact strength have been determined and a comparison is made with conventional granite aggregate concrete (CGAC) in the 30 days short-term experimental investigation. From the test results it is observed that coconut shell aggregate concrete has considerably sufficient strength. But the splitting tensile strength of coconut shell aggregate concrete is 50 % less than that of conventional gr...

  1. Transfer of single farm payment entitlements to farm successors: impact on structural change and rental prices in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Mack

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of tradable and non-tradable single farm payment (SFP entitlements for farm successors on structural change and the lease market. Using the example of Swiss agriculture, the effects on rental-price trends and farm-exit rates are investigated. An ex-ante normative impact analysis is performed with the agent-based agricultural-sector model SWISSland, which simulates structural change processes and income trends in Swiss agriculture over a period of up to 15 years. A land market implemented at municipality level simulates the plot-by-plot leasing of land to surrounding neighbouring agents that is common in Switzerland. Allocation of plots to tenants as well as lease pricing is modelled taking into account the farm-specific land rents. The results show that personalised SFP entitlements which could not be transferred to a farm successor not only cause an intensification of structural change, but would also thus lead to a substantial reduction in rental prices. SFP entitlements which were successfully transferred to farm successors have only a slight impact on structural change and the rental prices of arable land. Only for grassland in the mountain region does a stronger shift result in a significant reduction in rental prices.

  2. Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on North Sea Stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Jeffrey R.; Merckelbach, Lucas; Callies, Ulrich; Clark, Suzanna; Gaslikova, Lidia; Baschek, Burkard

    2016-01-01

    Advances in offshore wind farm (OWF) technology have recently led to their construction in coastal waters that are deep enough to be seasonally stratified. As tidal currents move past the OWF foundation structures they generate a turbulent wake that will contribute to a mixing of the stratified water column. In this study we show that the mixing generated in this way may have a significant impact on the large-scale stratification of the German Bight region of the North Sea. This region is chosen as the focus of this study since the planning of OWFs is particularly widespread. Using a combination of idealised modelling and in situ measurements, we provide order-of-magnitude estimates of two important time scales that are key to understanding the impacts of OWFs: (i) a mixing time scale, describing how long a complete mixing of the stratification takes, and (ii) an advective time scale, quantifying for how long a water parcel is expected to undergo enhanced wind farm mixing. The results are especially sensitive to both the drag coefficient and type of foundation structure, as well as the evolution of the pycnocline under enhanced mixing conditions—both of which are not well known. With these limitations in mind, the results show that OWFs could impact the large-scale stratification, but only when they occupy extensive shelf regions. They are expected to have very little impact on large-scale stratification at the current capacity in the North Sea, but the impact could be significant in future large-scale development scenarios. PMID:27513754

  3. On-farm animal welfare assessment in beef bulls: consistency over time of single measures and aggregated Welfare Quality(®) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, M K; Schulze Westerath, H; Knierim, U; Tessitore, E; Cozzi, G; Winckler, C

    2014-03-01

    Consistency over time of (on-farm) animal welfare assessment systems forms part of reliability, meaning that results of the assessment should be representative of the longer-term welfare state of the farm as long as the housing and management conditions have not changed considerably. This is especially important if assessments are to be used for certification purposes. It was the aim of the present study to investigate consistency over time of the Welfare Quality(®) (WQ(®)) assessment system for fattening cattle at single measure level, aggregated criterion and principle scores, and overall classification across short-term (1 month) and longer-term periods (6 months). We hypothesized that consistency over time of aggregated criterion and principle scores is higher than that of single measures. Consistency was also expected to be lower with longer intervals between assessments. Data were obtained using the WQ(®) protocol for fattening cattle during three visits (months 0, 1 and 7) on 63 beef farms in Austria, Germany and Italy. Only data from farms where no major changes in housing and management had taken place were considered for analysis. At the single measure level, Spearman rank correlations between visits were >0.7 and variance was lower within farms than between farms for six and two of 19 measures after 1 month and 6 months, respectively. After aggregation of single measures into criterion and principle scores, five and two of 10 criteria and three and one of four principles were found reliable after 1 and 6 months, respectively. At the WQ(®) principle level, this was the case for three and one of four principles. Seventy-nine per cent and 75% of the farms were allocated to the same overall welfare category after 1 month and 6 months. Possible reasons for a lack of consistency are seasonal effects or short-term fluctuations that occur under normal farm conditions, low prevalence of clinical measures and probably insufficient sample size, whereas poor

  4. Wind farms impact on radar aviation interests - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poupart, G.J.

    2003-09-01

    The main objectives of the study were: to determine the effects of siting wind turbines adjacent to primary air traffic control radar; to gather the information required for the generation of guidelines by civil, military and wind farm developer stakeholders; to determine the extent to which the design of wind turbines influences their effects on radar systems and to determine the extent to which design of the radar processing influences the effects of wind turbines on radar systems. A computer model was developed to predict the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of wind turbines and understand the interaction of radar energy and turbines. The model was designed to predict and simulate the impact of wind farms on the primary radar display. Validation of the model was carried out in a full-scale trial and modelling process, with data collected from a number of sources. The model was validated against a single turbine scenario and showed an accurate prediction capability. Further validation of the model could be gained through a multiple turbine trial. The knowledge gained from the development and validation of the predictive computer model has been used to conduct a sensitivity analysis (of the sub-elements of the radar and wind farm interaction) and to compile a list of the key factors influencing the radar signature of wind turbines. The result is a more detailed quantification of the complex interactions between wind turbines and radar systems than was previously available. The key findings of how the design, size and construction materials of wind turbines affect RCS are summarised.

  5. Aggregation of Adenovirus 2 in Source Water and Impacts on Disinfection by Chlorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromeans, Theresa L.; Metcalfe, Maureen G.; Humphrey, Charles D.; Hill, Vincent R.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that viral particles in source water are likely to be found as aggregates attached to other particles. For this reason, it is important to investigate the disinfection efficacy of chlorine on aggregated viruses. A method to produce adenovirus particle aggregation was developed for this study. Negative stain electron microscopy was used to measure aggregation before and after addition of virus particles to surface water at different pH and specific conductance levels. The impact of aggregation on the efficacy of chlorine disinfection was also examined. Disinfection experiments with human adenovirus 2 (HAdV2) in source water were conducted using 0.2 mg/L free chlorine at 5 °C. Aggregation of HAdV2 in source water (≥3 aggregated particles) remained higher at higher specific conductance and pH levels. However, aggregation was highly variable, with the percentage of particles present in aggregates ranging from 43 to 71 %. Upon addition into source water, the aggregation percentage dropped dramatically. On average, chlorination CT values (chlorine concentration in mg/L × time in min) for 3-log10 inactivation of aggregated HAdV2 were up to three times higher than those for dispersed HAdV2, indicating that aggregation reduced the disinfection rate. This information can be used by water utilities and regulators to guide decision making regarding disinfection of viruses in water. PMID:26910058

  6. Impact of multivalent charge presentation on peptide–nanoparticle aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schöne

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to achieve controlled nanoparticle aggregation have gained much interest, due to the versatility of such systems and their applications in materials science and medicine. In this article we demonstrate that coiled-coil peptide-induced aggregation based on electrostatic interactions is highly sensitive to the length of the peptide as well as the number of presented charges. The quaternary structure of the peptide was found to play an important role in aggregation kinetics. Furthermore, we show that the presence of peptide fibers leads to well-defined nanoparticle assembly on the surface of these macrostructures.

  7. Impact of electric field on Hofmeister effects in aggregation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electric field; Hofmeister effects; ionic polarization; colloidal minerals; electrostatic interaction. 1. Introduction. Aggregation .... sions containing a given quantity of colloidal minerals ..... account to explain the observed Hofmeister effects. On the ...

  8. Assessment of shrimp farming impact on groundwater quality using analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggie, Bernadietta; Subiyanto, Arief, Ulfah Mediaty; Djuniadi

    2018-03-01

    Improved shrimp farming affects the groundwater quality conditions. Assessment of shrimp farming impact on groundwater quality conventionally has less accuracy. This paper presents the implementation of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method for assessing shrimp farming impact on groundwater quality. The data used is the impact data of shrimp farming in one of the regions in Indonesia from 2006-2016. Criteria used in this study were 8 criteria and divided into 49 sub-criteria. The weighting by AHP performed to determine the importance level of criteria and sub-criteria. Final priority class of shrimp farming impact were obtained from the calculation of criteria's and sub-criteria's weights. The validation was done by comparing priority class of shrimp farming impact and water quality conditions. The result show that 50% of the total area was moderate priority class, 37% was low priority class and 13% was high priority class. From the validation result impact assessment for shrimp farming has been high accuracy to the groundwater quality conditions. This study shows that assessment based on AHP has a higher accuracy to shrimp farming impact and can be used as the basic fisheries planning to deal with impacts that have been generated.

  9. Farm structure or farm management: effective ways to reduce nutrient surpluses on dairy farms and their financial impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondersteijn, C.J.M.; Beldman, A.C.G.; Daatselaar, C.H.G.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    .To control and prevent nutrient pollution from agricultural non-point sources, the Dutch government introduced the Mineral Accounting System (MINAS), a nutrient bookkeeping system which taxes farms with nutrient surpluses exceeding safe threshold values. Since the levies can be severe it is

  10. Environmental health impacts of feeding crops to farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; MacDonald, Graham K; West, Paul C; Engstrom, Peder M; Nachman, Keeve E; Lawrence, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    Half of the seafood consumed globally now comes from aquaculture, or farmed seafood. Aquaculture therefore plays an increasingly important role in the global food system, the environment, and human health. Traditionally, aquaculture feed has contained high levels of wild fish, which is unsustainable for ocean ecosystems as demand grows. The aquaculture industry is shifting to crop-based feed ingredients, such as soy, to replace wild fish as a feed source and allow for continued industry growth. This shift fundamentally links seafood production to terrestrial agriculture, and multidisciplinary research is needed to understand the ecological and environmental health implications. We provide basic estimates of the agricultural resource use associated with producing the top five crops used in commercial aquaculture feed. Aquaculture's environmental footprint may now include nutrient and pesticide runoff from industrial crop production, and depending on where and how feed crops are produced, could be indirectly linked to associated negative health outcomes. We summarize key environmental health research on health effects associated with exposure to air, water, and soil contaminated by industrial crop production. Our review also finds that changes in the nutritional content of farmed seafood products due to altered feed composition could impact human nutrition. Based on our literature reviews and estimates of resource use, we present a conceptual framework describing the potential links between increasing use of crop-based ingredients in aquaculture and human health. Additional data and geographic sourcing information for crop-based ingredients are needed to fully assess the environmental health implications of this trend. This is especially critical in the context of a food system that is using both aquatic and terrestrial resources at unsustainable rates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Cover cropping impacts on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops are a management tool which can extend the period of time that a living plant is growing and conducting photosynthesis. This is critical for soil health, because most of the soil organisms, particularly the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, are limited by carbon. Research, on-farm, and demon...

  12. Environmental impact of heifer management decisions on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, M.C.M.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Dairy farming contributes substantially to Dutch environmental problems. A dynamic heifer rearing model was used to determine the extent to which the rearing activity influences nutrient flows on a dairy farm. Based on current rearing conditions, the economic optimal rearing policy resulted in an

  13. Wind farm turbulence impacts on general aviation airports in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines and wind farms have become popular in the State of Kansas. Some general aviation pilots have expressed a concern about the : turbulence that the spinning blades are creating. If a wind farm is built near an airport, does this affect the...

  14. Impact of Formal Financial Market Participation on Farm Size and Expenditure on Variable Farm Inputs: The Case of Maize Farmers in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Awunyo-Vitor, Dadson; Al-Hassan, Ramatu M.; Sarpong, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    The study examined maize farmers’ participation in the formal financial market and its impact on farm size and expenditure on variable farm inputs. A multistage sampling method was used in selecting 595 maize farmers from the seven districts in Ashanti and Brong Ahafo Regions of Ghana. A structured questionnaire and interview schedule were used to elicit information from the respondents. The impact of formal financial market participation on farm size and expenditure on variable inputs was es...

  15. Long-Term Impact of the Farm Financial Analysis Training Curriculum on FSA Borrowers in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliet, Kenneth L.; Douglass, Mark B.; Hanson, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The Farm Financial Analysis Training (FFAT) course covers fundamental skills and concepts in liquidity, profitability, solvency, and efficiency. The research reported here identifies and measures the impacts of FFAT on participants including: 1) perceived gains in knowledge, 2) changes in management behavior, 3) changes in specific farm assets and…

  16. Impact of Public Aggregate Wind Forecasts on Electricity Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exizidis, Lazaros; Kazempour, Jalal; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Following a call to foster a transparent and more competitive market, member states of the European transmission system operator are required to publish, among other information, aggregate wind power forecasts. The publication of the latter information is expected to benefit market participants...... by offering better knowledge of the market operation, leading subsequently to a more competitive energy market. Driven by the above regulation, we consider an equilibrium study to address how public information of aggregate wind power forecasts can potentially affect market results, social welfare as well...... as the profits of participating power producers. We investigate, therefore, a joint day-ahead energy and reserve auction, where producers offer their conventional power strategically based on a complementarity approach and their wind power at generation cost based on a forecast. In parallel, an iterative game...

  17. Whole farm impact of anaerobic digestion and biogas use on a New York dairy farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion of manure for biogas production is one of many options for reducing the carbon footprint of milk production. This process reduces greenhouse gas emissions but increases the potential nitrogen and phosphorus losses from the farm. An anaerobic digester component was added to the In...

  18. High Penetrated Wind Farm Impacts on the Electricity Price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haji Bashi, Mazaher; Yousefi, G. R.; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    of the high penetrated wind farm integration into electricity markets. Then, stochastic programming approach is employed to compare the volume of trades for a typical wind farm in a high and low wind penetrated market. Although increasing price spikes and volatility was reported in the literature......Energy trading policies, intermittency of wind farm output power, low marginal cost of the production, are the key factors that cause the wind farms to be effective on the electricity price. In this paper, the Danish electricity market is studied as a part of Nord Pool. Considering the completely...... fossil fuel free overview in Danish energy policies, and the currently great share of wind power (more than 100% for some hours) in supplying the load, it is an interesting benchmark for the future electricity markets. Negative prices, price spikes, and price volatility are considered as the main effects...

  19. The Impact of Farming and Land Ownership on Soil Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Čermáková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to compare two methods of farming, especially their effect on water soil erosion. The examined methods were (1 large-scale farming, where more than 50% of the land was leased, and (2 small-scale farming, where the land was almost exclusively privately owned. The research area was 8 cadastres in the district of Hodonín, South Moravia, Czech Republic. In these cadastres 48 land blocks representing both large-scale and small-scale farming (i.e. owners and tenants were chosen. The long-term average annual soil loss caused by water erosion (G was calculated using the erosion model USLE 2D and ArcGIS 10.1. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was used for the statistical evaluation of the data. The difference between the soil loss (G on land blocks farmed by small producers (owners and large producers (tenants was significant (p < 0.05. Differences between the values of the cropping-management factor (C were not statistically significant (p = 0.054. Based on the analysis of other variables in the USLE equation it can be stated that a continuous slope length, conditioned by the size of land blocks, played an important role in the amount of soil loss caused by water erosion. Above all, to protect the soil from erosion and maintain soil quality it is necessary to reduce the size of land blocks farmed by tenants and improve the crop rotation systems.

  20. The visual impact of Taff Ely wind farm - a case study using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidner, D.B.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a project being undertaken to validate the performance of a Geographical Information System (GIS) being developed to predict, quantify and qualify the visual impact of proposed wind farm developments. In order to determine the optimal choice of terrain data model, elevation and topographic data sets, and visibility algorithms, a validation study for the Taff Ely Wind Farm has been commissioned. The issues involved in calculating and presenting visual impact are discussed, whilst a methodology for verifying the results is also described. Existing methods for presenting for visual impact of wind farms are limited and susceptible to error, whilst the interpretation of the results can often do more harm than good. The use of GIS to visualise the probable impacts is illustrated to add meaning to the results of a wind farm visibility study. (author)

  1. Bird impact study on the 10 MW wind farm of La Pena (Tarifa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cererols, N.; Martinez, A.; Ferrer, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper shows the conclusions of a 16 month study of the possible impacts on the local and migrating population of birds of a wind farm located in the passageway of migrating birds between Africa and Europe. On the whole, the wind farm did not prove to represent an important impact on the birds present in its surroundings and, on the contrary, created a new habitat for some species not present in adjacent areas. (author)

  2. Environmental impact of heavy pig production in a sample of Italian farms. A cradle to farm-gate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirlo, G., E-mail: giacomo.pirlo@crea.gov.it [Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Fodder and Dairy Production Research Centre, Via A. Lombardo 11, 26900 Lodi (Italy); Carè, S. [Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Fodder and Dairy Production Research Centre, Via A. Lombardo 11, 26900 Lodi (Italy); Casa, G. Della; Marchetti, R.; Ponzoni, G.; Faeti, V. [Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Research Unit for Swine Husbandry, Via Beccastecca 345, San Cesario sul Panaro, 41018 (Italy); Fantin, V.; Masoni, P.; Buttol, P. [ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Zerbinatti, L. [Associazione Regionale Allevatori dell' Emilia Romagna, Via Roma 89/2—Loc. Viadagola, 40057 Granarolo dell' Emilia (Italy); Falconi, F. [LCA-lab SRL, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-09-15

    Four breeding piggeries and eight growing-fattening piggeries were analyzed to estimate potential environmental impacts of heavy pig production (> 160 kg of live height at slaughtering). Life Cycle Assessment methodology was adopted in the study, considering a system from breeding phase to growing fattening phase. Environmental impacts of breeding phase and growing-fattening phase were accounted separately and then combined to obtain the impacts of heavy pig production. The functional unit was 1 kg of live weight gain. Impact categories investigated were global warming (GW), acidification (AC), eutrophication (EU), abiotic depletion (AD), and photochemical ozone formation (PO). The total environmental impact of 1 kg of live weight gain was 3.3 kg CO{sub 2}eq, 4.9 E − 2 kg SO{sub 2}eq, 3.1 E − 2 kg PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} eq, 3.7 E − 3 kg Sbeq, 1.7 E − 3 kg C{sub 2}H{sub 4}eq for GW, AC, EU, AD, and PO respectively. Feed production was the main hotspot in all impact categories. Greenhouse gases responsible for GW were mainly CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, and CO{sub 2}. Ammonia was the most important source of AC, sharing about 90%. Nitrate and NH{sub 3} were the main emissions responsible for EU, whereas P and NOx showed minor contributions. Crude oil and natural gas consumption was the main source of AD. A large spectrum of pollutants had a significant impact on PO: they comprised CH{sub 4} from manure fermentation, CO{sub 2} caused by fossil fuel combustion in agricultural operations and industrial processes, ethane and propene emitted during oil extraction and refining, and hexane used in soybean oil extraction. The farm characteristics that best explained the results were fundamentally connected with performance indicators Farms showed a wide variability of results, meaning that there was wide margin for improving the environmental performance of either breeding or growing-fattening farms. The effectiveness of some mitigation measures was evaluated and the results

  3. Environmental impact of heavy pig production in a sample of Italian farms. A cradle to farm-gate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirlo, G.; Carè, S.; Casa, G. Della; Marchetti, R.; Ponzoni, G.; Faeti, V.; Fantin, V.; Masoni, P.; Buttol, P.; Zerbinatti, L.; Falconi, F.

    2016-01-01

    Four breeding piggeries and eight growing-fattening piggeries were analyzed to estimate potential environmental impacts of heavy pig production (> 160 kg of live height at slaughtering). Life Cycle Assessment methodology was adopted in the study, considering a system from breeding phase to growing fattening phase. Environmental impacts of breeding phase and growing-fattening phase were accounted separately and then combined to obtain the impacts of heavy pig production. The functional unit was 1 kg of live weight gain. Impact categories investigated were global warming (GW), acidification (AC), eutrophication (EU), abiotic depletion (AD), and photochemical ozone formation (PO). The total environmental impact of 1 kg of live weight gain was 3.3 kg CO_2eq, 4.9 E − 2 kg SO_2eq, 3.1 E − 2 kg PO_4"3"− eq, 3.7 E − 3 kg Sbeq, 1.7 E − 3 kg C_2H_4eq for GW, AC, EU, AD, and PO respectively. Feed production was the main hotspot in all impact categories. Greenhouse gases responsible for GW were mainly CH_4, N_2O, and CO_2. Ammonia was the most important source of AC, sharing about 90%. Nitrate and NH_3 were the main emissions responsible for EU, whereas P and NOx showed minor contributions. Crude oil and natural gas consumption was the main source of AD. A large spectrum of pollutants had a significant impact on PO: they comprised CH_4 from manure fermentation, CO_2 caused by fossil fuel combustion in agricultural operations and industrial processes, ethane and propene emitted during oil extraction and refining, and hexane used in soybean oil extraction. The farm characteristics that best explained the results were fundamentally connected with performance indicators Farms showed a wide variability of results, meaning that there was wide margin for improving the environmental performance of either breeding or growing-fattening farms. The effectiveness of some mitigation measures was evaluated and the results that could be obtained by their introduction have been

  4. Impact of smart metering data aggregation on distribution system state estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qipeng; Kaleshi, Dritan; Fan, Zhong; Armour, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Pseudo medium/low voltage (MV/LV) transformer loads are usually used as partial inputs to the distribution system state estimation (DSSE) in MV systems. Such pseudo load can be represented by the aggregation of smart metering (SM) data. This follows the government restriction that distribution network operators (DNOs) can only use aggregated SM data. Therefore, we assess the subsequent performance of the DSSE, which shows the impact of this restriction - it affects the voltage angle estimatio...

  5. Preliminary manual of the wind farms impacts study; Manuel preliminaire de l'etude d'impact des parcs eoliens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    This document aims to present and propose tools and methods allowing the improve the environmental quality of the future wind farms projects. After a presentation of general notions on the wind farms and the economy of the wind energy, it presents the regulation and the procedures concerning the environmental impact. It proposes then the main possible effects and the impacts study themes. (A.L.B.)

  6. Impact of morphology on the radiative properties of fractal soot aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doner, Nimeti; Liu, Fengshan

    2017-01-01

    The impact of morphology on the radiative properties of fractal soot aggregates was investigated using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA). The optical properties of four different types of aggregates of freshly emitted soot with a fractal dimension D f =1.65 and a fractal pre-factor k f =1.76 were calculated. The four types of aggregates investigated are formed by uniform primary particles in point-touch, by uniform but overlapping primary particles, by uniform but enlarged primary particles in point-touch, and formed by point-touch and polydisperse primary particles. The radiative properties of aggregates consisting of N=20, 56 and 103 primary particles were numerically evaluated for a given refractive index at 0.532 and 1.064 μm. The radiative properties of soot aggregates vary strongly with the volume equivalent radius a eff and wavelength. The accuracy of DDA was evaluated in the first and fourth cases against the generalized multi-sphere Mie (GMM) solution in terms of the vertical–vertical differential scattering cross section (C vv ). The model predicted the average relative deviations from the base case to be within 15–25% for C vv , depending on the number of particles for the aggregate. The scattering cross sections are only slightly affected by the overlapping but more significantly influenced by primary particle polydispersity. It was also found that the enlargement of primary particles by 20% has a strong effect on soot aggregate radiative properties. - Highlights: • The radiative properties of aggregates of N=20, 56 and 103 primary particles were investigated. • Four different cases, formed by point-touch, overlapping, aggregate expansion and polydispersion, were studied. • The effects of overlapping and aggregate expansion on morphology are found to be the same.

  7. The impact of biogas technology adoption for farm households – empirical evidence from mixed crop and livestock farming systems in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya; Liu, Zhen; Lund, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to study the impact of biogas technology adoption as a livestock waste technology to support Mixed Crop and Livestock (MCL) farming among smallholder farmers in Indonesia. A cross sectional survey was conducted to collect data from 351 farm households (171 biogas adopters and 180...

  8. Pathogens in Dairy Farming: Source Characterization and Groundwater Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwill, E. R.; Watanabe, N.; Li, X.; Hou, L.; Harter, T.; Bergamaschi, B.

    2007-12-01

    Intense animal husbandry is of growing concern as a potential contamination source of enteric pathogens as well as antibiotics. To assess the public health risk from pathogens and their hydrologic pathways, we hypothesize that the animal farm is not a homogeneous diffuse source, but that pathogen loading to the soil and, therefore, to groundwater varies significantly between the various management units of a farm. A dairy farm, for example, may include an area with calf hutches, corrals for heifers of various ages, freestalls and exercise yards for milking cows, separate freestalls for dry cows, a hospital barn, a yard for collection of solid manure, a liquid manure storage lagoon, and fields receiving various amounts of liquid and solid manure. Pathogen shedding and, hence, therapeutic and preventive pharmaceutical treatments vary between these management units. We are implementing a field reconnaissance program to determine the occurrence of three different pathogens ( E. coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter) and one indicator organism ( Enterococcus) at the ground-surface and in shallow groundwater of seven different management units on each of two farms, and in each of four seasons (spring/dry season, summer/irrigation season, fall/dry season, winter/rainy season). Initial results indicate that significant differences exist in the occurrence of these pathogens between management units and between organisms. These differences are weakly reflected in their occurrence in groundwater, despite the similarity of the shallow geologic environment across these sites. Our results indicate the importance of differentiating sources within a dairy farm and the importance of understanding subsurface transport processes for these pathogens.

  9. Impacts of large-scale offshore wind farm integration on power systems through VSC-HVDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongzhi; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    The potential of offshore wind energy has been commonly recognized and explored globally. Many countries have implemented and planned offshore wind farms to meet their increasing electricity demands and public environmental appeals, especially in Europe. With relatively less space limitation......, an offshore wind farm could have a capacity rating to hundreds of MWs or even GWs that is large enough to compete with conventional power plants. Thus the impacts of a large offshore wind farm on power system operation and security should be thoroughly studied and understood. This paper investigates...... the impacts of integrating a large-scale offshore wind farm into the transmission system of a power grid through VSC-HVDC connection. The concerns are focused on steady-state voltage stability, dynamic voltage stability and transient angle stability. Simulation results based on an exemplary power system...

  10. Impacts of fish farm pollution on ecosystem structure and function of tropical headwater streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Rodrigo dos Santos; Aguiar, Anna Carolina Fornero; Boëchat, Iola Gonçalves; Gücker, Björn

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the impacts of effluent discharge from small flow-through fish farms on stream water characteristics, the benthic invertebrate community, whole-system nitrate uptake, and ecosystem metabolism of three tropical headwater streams in southeastern Brazil. Effluents were moderately, i.e. up to 20-fold enriched in particulate organic matter (POM) and inorganic nutrients in comparison to stream water at reference sites. Due to high dilution with stream water, effluent discharge resulted in up to 2.0-fold increases in stream water POM and up to 1.8-fold increases in inorganic nutrients only. Moderate impacts on the benthic invertebrate community were detected at one stream only. There was no consistent pattern of effluent impact on whole-stream nitrate uptake. Ecosystem metabolism, however, was clearly affected by effluent discharge. Stream reaches impacted by effluents exhibited significantly increased community respiration and primary productivity, stressing the importance of ecologically sound best management practices for small fish farms in the tropics. -- Highlights: ► Fish farm effluent discharge had moderate effects on stream water quality. ► Impacts on the benthic invertebrate community occurred at one stream. ► Whole-stream nitrate uptake showed no consistent impact pattern. ► Effluents caused considerable increases in stream ecosystem metabolism. ► Compliance with best management practices is important for small fish farms. -- Moderate water pollution by small fish farms caused considerable eutrophication responses in tropical headwater streams

  11. Impact of aging on leaching characteristics of recycled concrete aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, Aiyoub; Tanyu, Burak F; Cetin, Bora

    2016-10-01

    The focus of this study was to evaluate the effects of stockpiling (aging) on leaching of elements in recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) that may contribute to tufaceous constituent formation. Speciation and leaching controlling mechanisms of these elements were identified via geochemical modeling. The effects of stockpiling were simulated by comparing freshly produced RCA with RCA aged as part of this study for 1 year both in the laboratory and in the field. Leachate samples were generated following batch water leach test (WLT) and US Geological Survey leach test (USGSLT) methods. USGSLTs were conducted both on the laboratory and field samples while WLT was only conducted on laboratory samples. During the laboratory aging, it is observed that the carbonate content of RCA, measured as calcite equivalent, increased 20 % (i.e., from ∼100 to 120 mg/g) within a year time frame. The leachate extracted from RCA showed minor changes in pH and more significant decreases in electrical conductivity (i.e., ∼300 to 100 μS/cm). A comparison between laboratory and field samples revealed that the RCA aged much slower in the field than in the laboratory within a year. Comparisons between two leach extraction methods on the laboratory conditions showed that the total leached concentrations (TLCs) of most of the constituents from USGSLT were appreciably lower than the ones measured via WLT method. The results of geochemical modeling analyses showed that Al, Si, Fe, Ca, Mg, and Cu exist in their oxidized forms as Al 3+ , Fe 3+ , Si 4+ , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , and Cu 2+ and results revealed that these elements are primarily controlled by the solubility of gibbsite, hematite, silica gel, calcite, magnesite, and tenorite solid phases, respectively. One of the significant findings of the study was to identify the changes in leaching behavior of Ca, Si, Mg, Al, Fe, and Cu due to carbonation.

  12. Assessing the impact of marine wind farms on birds through movement modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Masden, Elizabeth A.; Reeve, Richard; Desholm, Mark; Fox, Anthony D.; Furness, Robert W.; Haydon, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in technology and engineering, along with European Union renewable energy targets, have stimulated a rapid growth of the wind power sector. Wind farms contribute to carbon emission reductions, but there is a need to ensure that these structures do not adversely impact the populations that interact with them, particularly birds. We developed movement models based on observed avoidance responses of common eider Somateria mollissima to wind farms to predict, and identify potential measu...

  13. Environmental impact of heavy pig production in a sample of Italian farms. A cradle to farm-gate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirlo, G; Carè, S; Casa, G Della; Marchetti, R; Ponzoni, G; Faeti, V; Fantin, V; Masoni, P; Buttol, P; Zerbinatti, L; Falconi, F

    2016-09-15

    Four breeding piggeries and eight growing-fattening piggeries were analyzed to estimate potential environmental impacts of heavy pig production (>160kg of live height at slaughtering). Life Cycle Assessment methodology was adopted in the study, considering a system from breeding phase to growing fattening phase. Environmental impacts of breeding phase and growing-fattening phase were accounted separately and then combined to obtain the impacts of heavy pig production. The functional unit was 1kg of live weight gain. Impact categories investigated were global warming (GW), acidification (AC), eutrophication (EU), abiotic depletion (AD), and photochemical ozone formation (PO). The total environmental impact of 1kg of live weight gain was 3.3kg CO2eq, 4.9E-2kg SO2eq, 3.1E-2kg PO4(3-)eq, 3.7E-3kg Sbeq, 1.7E-3kg C2H4eq for GW, AC, EU, AD, and PO respectively. Feed production was the main hotspot in all impact categories. Greenhouse gases responsible for GW were mainly CH4, N2O, and CO2. Ammonia was the most important source of AC, sharing about 90%. Nitrate and NH3 were the main emissions responsible for EU, whereas P and NOx showed minor contributions. Crude oil and natural gas consumption was the main source of AD. A large spectrum of pollutants had a significant impact on PO: they comprised CH4 from manure fermentation, CO2 caused by fossil fuel combustion in agricultural operations and industrial processes, ethane and propene emitted during oil extraction and refining, and hexane used in soybean oil extraction. The farm characteristics that best explained the results were fundamentally connected with performance indicators Farms showed a wide variability of results, meaning that there was wide margin for improving the environmental performance of either breeding or growing-fattening farms. The effectiveness of some mitigation measures was evaluated and the results that could be obtained by their introduction have been presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  14. Impact Resistance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete with Single and Hybrid Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Sallehan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a recycled aggregate concrete (RAC mix that has been modified by adding treated recycled concrete aggregate (RCA and various types of fiber-reinforced systems. The effectiveness of these modifications in terms of energy absorption and impact resistance was evaluated and compared with that of the corresponding regular concrete, as well as with unmodified RAC specimens. Results clearly indicate that although modification of the RAC mix with treated RCA significantly enhances the impact resistance of RAC, further diversification with additional fiber, particularly those in hybrid form, can optimize the results.

  15. The impact of a central Apennine wind-farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Forconi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We monitored raptors and investigated collision rate of birds with 2 turbines of a central Apennine wind-farm. We detected 1,18/raptors/km2/h. We have not found bird fatalities with turbines. We found 2 carcasses: one Subalpine Warbler, Sylvia cantillans, died by collision with a close communication tower and a Kestrel, Falco tinnunculus, died by electrocution with an MT power-line starting from the communication tower.

  16. A review of the ecological impacts of wind farms in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The number of wind farm developments in the UK has grown rapidly in recent years. While, on a global scale, the benefits of utilising renewable energy resources are generally accepted, wind energy developments may cause local impacts to the ecological environment. In some cases, these may be potentially of significance in nature conservation terms. This report considers the potential impacts of wind farms on hydrology, soils, vegetation and fauna other than birds. Habitats and species most likely to be sensitive to impacts are discussed, and the causes of the impacts are considered. Recurrent gaps in wind farm environmental assessments are identified and new subject matter is suggested for inclusion in future evaluations and monitoring programmes. (author)

  17. A review of the possible impacts of wind farms on birds and other wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockford, N J

    1992-02-03

    This review considers the local environmental impacts on wildlife, especially birds, of using wind turbine generators to harness wind energy of wind farms. It is hoped that this review will assist conservation bodies in commenting on planning applications for the sixty odd wind installations which have been contracted in the United Kingdom to date. Recommendations are made on further research which is needed to determine the effects of wind turbines on wildlife and on the ecological scope of the Environmental Impact Assessments for wind farms. Measures to minimise the ecological impact of the wind power industry in Britain are proposed. (U.K.)

  18. A review of the possible impacts of wind farms on birds and other wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crockford, N.J.

    1992-01-01

    This review considers the local environmental impacts on wildlife, especially birds, of using wind turbine generators to harness wind energy of wind farms. It is hoped that this review will assist conservation bodies in commenting on planning applications for the sixty odd wind installations which have been contracted in the United Kingdom to date. Recommendations are made on further research which is needed to determine the effects of wind turbines on wildlife and on the ecological scope of the Environmental Impact Assessments for wind farms. Measures to minimise the ecological impact of the wind power industry in Britain are proposed. (U.K.)

  19. On-farm impact of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Evidence and knowledge gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, E.D.; Glover, D.B.A.; Kuyvenhoven, A.

    2015-01-01

    The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is being promoted worldwide, but relatively little is yet known about its impacts at farm level. This article reviews available evidence on the impact of SRI practices in terms of yield and productivity. Adoption of SRI practices necessarily changes the mix

  20. Aggregation in particle rich environments: a textural study of examples from volcanic eruptions, meteorite impacts, and fluidized bed processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sebastian B.; Kueppers, Ulrich; Huber, Matthew S.; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Poesges, Gisela; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2018-04-01

    Aggregation is a common process occurring in many diverse particulate gas mixtures (e.g. those derived from explosive volcanic eruptions, meteorite impact events, and fluid bed processing). It results from the collision and sticking of particles suspended in turbulent gas/air. To date, there is no generalized model of the underlying physical processes. Here, we investigate aggregates from 18 natural deposits (16 volcanic deposits and two meteorite impact deposits) as well as aggregates produced experimentally via fluidized bed techniques. All aggregates were analyzed for their size, internal structuring, and constituent particle size distribution. Commonalities and differences between the aggregate types are then used to infer salient features of the aggregation process. Average core to rim ratios of internally structured aggregates (accretionary lapilli) is found to be similar for artificial and volcanic aggregates but up to an order of magnitude different than impact-related aggregates. Rim structures of artificial and volcanic aggregates appear to be physically similar (single, sub-spherical, regularly-shaped rims) whereas impact-related aggregates more often show multiple or irregularly shaped rims. The particle size distributions (PSDs) of all three aggregate types are similar (< 200 μm). This proves that in all three environments, aggregation occurs under broadly similar conditions despite the significant differences in source conditions (particle volume fraction, particle size distribution, particle composition, temperature), residence times, plume conditions (e.g., humidity and temperature), and dynamics of fallout and deposition. Impact-generated and volcanic aggregates share many similarities, and in some cases may be indistinguishable without their stratigraphic context.

  1. Monitoring, modeling and mitigating impacts of wind farms on local meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidya Roy, Somnath; Traiteur, Justin; Kelley, Neil

    2010-05-01

    Wind power is one of the fastest growing sources of energy. Most of the growth is in the industrial sector comprising of large utility-scale wind farms. Recent modeling studies have suggested that such wind farms can significantly affect local and regional weather and climate. In this work, we present observational evidence of the impact of wind farms on near-surface air temperatures. Data from perhaps the only meteorological field campaign in an operational wind farm shows that downwind temperatures are lower during the daytime and higher at night compared to the upwind environment. Corresponding radiosonde profiles at the nearby Edwards Air Force Base WMO meteorological station show that the diurnal environment is unstable while the nocturnal environment is stable during the field campaign. This behavior is consistent with the hypothesis proposed by Baidya Roy et al. (JGR 2004) that states that turbulence generated in the wake of rotors enhance vertical mixing leading to a warming/cooling under positive/negative potential temperature lapse rates. We conducted a set of 306 simulations with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to test if regional climate models can capture the thermal effects of wind farms. We represented wind turbines with a subgrid parameterization that assumes rotors to be sinks of momentum and sources of turbulence. The simulated wind farms consistently generated a localized warming/cooling under positive/negative lapse rates as hypothesized. We found that these impacts are inversely correlated with background atmospheric boundary layer turbulence. Thus, if the background turbulence is high due to natural processes, the effects of additional turbulence generated by wind turbine rotors are likely to be small. We propose the following strategies to minimize impacts of wind farms: • Engineering solution: design rotors that generate less turbulence in their wakes. Sensitivity simulations show that these turbines also increase the

  2. Impact of preparing for OSHA local emphasis program inspections of New York dairy farms: Case studies and financial cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, Anne M; Vargha, Marybeth; Tallman, Nancy; Scribani, Melissa B; Kelsey, Timothy W

    2016-03-01

    OSHA inspection of dairy farms began in July 1, 2014 in New York State. As of September 2014, a total of eight farms were randomly selected for inspection. This case study addresses how dairy farm managers prepared for these inspections, and identifies farm level costs preparing for inspection and/or being inspected. Four farms that were OSHA inspected and 12 farms that were not inspected were included in this mixed method evaluation using a multimodal (telephone, email, or mail) survey. Descriptive analysis was carried out using frequencies, proportions, means, and medians. Overall, the impact of OSHA inspections was positive, leading to improved safety management and physical changes on the farm and worker trainings, although the farmers' perspectives about OSHA inspection were mixed. The cost of compliance was low relative to estimated overall production costs. Clarifications and engineering solutions for specific dairy farm hazard exposures are needed to facilitate compliance with OSHA regulations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Assessing the impact of marine wind farms on birds through movement modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masden, Elizabeth A; Reeve, Richard; Desholm, Mark; Fox, Anthony D; Furness, Robert W; Haydon, Daniel T

    2012-09-07

    Advances in technology and engineering, along with European Union renewable energy targets, have stimulated a rapid growth of the wind power sector. Wind farms contribute to carbon emission reductions, but there is a need to ensure that these structures do not adversely impact the populations that interact with them, particularly birds. We developed movement models based on observed avoidance responses of common eider Somateria mollissima to wind farms to predict, and identify potential measures to reduce, impacts. Flight trajectory data that were collected post-construction of the Danish Nysted offshore wind farm were used to parameterize competing models of bird movements around turbines. The model most closely fitting the observed data incorporated individual variation in the minimum distance at which birds responded to the turbines. We show how such models can contribute to the spatial planning of wind farms by assessing their extent, turbine spacing and configurations on the probability of birds passing between the turbines. Avian movement models can make new contributions to environmental assessments of wind farm developments, and provide insights into how to reduce impacts that can be identified at the planning stage.

  4. Impacts of Alternative Implementations of the Single Farm Payment on Organi-cally and Conventionally Producing Farms in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Erwin; Sinabell, Franz

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the Common Agricultural Policy underwent a substantial reform. Direct pay-ments that were linked to the production of certain crops and livestock were abolished. Alternatively, the Single Farm Payment was introduced in EU-15 Member States. We investigate the distributional consequences of alternative implementation choices for organic farms in Austria. Results show that net-returns of farms and the distribution of farm revenues depend on the particular implementation of the reform.

  5. Impact of absorptivity and wavelength on the optical properties of aggregates with sintering necks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yujia; Huang, Yong; He, Beichen

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we constructed sintered aggregates based on the particle superposition model and apply the ball-necking factor η to characterize the sintering degree. The impact of the absorptivity characterized by the complex refractive index m and the wavelength of the incident light λ on the optical properties of aggregates with different η were compared and investigated. The results indicate that for different m and λ, the light scattering characteristics exhibit regular changes in the values, the peak locations and the size trends. Further, the deviation of 1 - S22/S11 caused by various η is noteworthy and considerable so that it can be used as a probe sensor parameter in the detection of the sintered aggregates configuration.

  6. Preference to use aggregators rather than individual deal sites: Impact of Big Five Inventory personality traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Pavlicek, Antonin

    2017-01-01

    Deal sites are widely used for some time and there is a growing body of knowledge on them. There exists literature on infomediaries. But there is a gap when it comes to infomediaties focused on deal sites, i.e. aggregators of deal site offers. The research focused on impact of Big Five Inventory...... personality traits on whether respondents prefer visiting individual deal sites, or aggregators, or they do not have any preference and visit both. Gender was used as a control variable. With regards, to the results, conscientiousness agreeableness, and openness to experi-ence influence the preference. Higher...... the values of all three variables, more likely it is that a person prefers aggregators....

  7. Review report 2004. The Danish offshore wind farm demonstration project: Horns Rev and Nysted offshore wind farms. Environmental impact assessment and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-15

    The present review report presents the two wind farms Horns Rev and Nysted with regard to environmental characteristics and the results of the environmental studies carried out in connection with the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the baseline and monitoring programmes at the two sites. The descriptions of the programmes are based on extracts from the individual annual reports. Detailed information on method, programmes and conclusions can be found in these reports (see Appendix 1). This review report is divided into two parts. The first part contains a description of the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind farms and the potentially affected part of the environment. The second part includes a description of Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and the environmental studies carried out here until the end of 2003. Appendix I is a list of the literature published on the studies carried out at Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm. Appendix II is a list of some of the literature relevant to the demonstration projects but not directly related to the projects. The offshore wind farm situated in the Roedsand area is officially denoted Nysted Offshore Wind Farm, and in the present report the denotation 'Nysted' will be used as well when referring to Nysted Offshore Wind Farm. The denotation Roedsand will be used when referring to the actual area Roedsand. (au)

  8. Review report 2003. The Danish offshore wind farm demonstration project: Horns Rev and Nysted offshore wind farms. Environmental impact assessment and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-15

    The present review report presents the two wind farms Homs Rev and Nysted, with regard to environmental characteristics and the results of the environmental studies carried out in connection with the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the baseline and monitoring programmes at the two sites. The descriptions of the programmes are based on extracts from the individual annual reports. Detailed information on methods, programmes and conclusions can be found in these reports. This review report is divided into two parts. The first part contains a description of the potential environmentally impacts of offshore wind farms and the potentially affected part of the environment. The second part includes a description of Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and the environmental studies carried out here until the end of 2003. Appendix I is a list of the literature published on the studies carried out at Hors Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm. Appendix II is a list of some of the literature relevant to the demonstration projects but not directly related to the projects. The offshore wind farm situated at the bdsand area is officially denoted Nysted Offshore Wind Farm, and in the present report the denotation 'Nysted' will be used as well when referring to Nysted Offshore Wind Farm. The denotation Roedsand will be used when referring to the actual area Roedsand. (au)

  9. Review report 2004. The Danish offshore wind farm demonstration project: Horns Rev and Nysted offshore wind farms. Environmental impact assessment and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-15

    The present review report presents the two wind farms Horns Rev and Nysted with regard to environmental characteristics and the results of the environmental studies carried out in connection with the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the baseline and monitoring programmes at the two sites. The descriptions of the programmes are based on extracts from the individual annual reports. Detailed information on method, programmes and conclusions can be found in these reports (see Appendix 1). This review report is divided into two parts. The first part contains a description of the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind farms and the potentially affected part of the environment. The second part includes a description of Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and the environmental studies carried out here until the end of 2003. Appendix I is a list of the literature published on the studies carried out at Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm. Appendix II is a list of some of the literature relevant to the demonstration projects but not directly related to the projects. The offshore wind farm situated in the Roedsand area is officially denoted Nysted Offshore Wind Farm, and in the present report the denotation 'Nysted' will be used as well when referring to Nysted Offshore Wind Farm. The denotation Roedsand will be used when referring to the actual area Roedsand. (au)

  10. Small farm dams: impact on river flows and sustainability in a context of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, F.; Philippe, E.; Martin, E.; David, C. H.; Leseur, F.

    2014-10-01

    The repetition of droughts in France has led to a growing demand for irrigation water and consequently to an increase in requests for the construction of small farm dams. Although such dams are small, their accumulation in a basin affects river flows, because the water collected in these small farm dams is used for irrigation and thus does not contribute to river flow. In order to gain more insight into their impact on the annual and monthly discharges, especially during dry years, a small farm dam model was built and connected to a hydrometeorological model. Several scenarios with different volume capacities, filling catchment sizes and filling periods were tested for such dams. The results were analysed in a small basin in western France, where the pressure for building such dams is high, and then extended to the entire country. It was found that, due to the hydrometeorological conditions (mainly low precipitation compared to other regions in France), the development of small farm dams in north-western France would result in greater decreases in river flows and less efficient filling of small farm dams than in other regions. Therefore, such dams might not be as efficient as expected in supplying water to farmers when needed. Moreover, the ability to fill small farm dams is projected to decrease in a context of climate change, despite the uncertainty on the evolution of precipitation, thus worsening the situation.

  11. Role of water repellency in aggregate stability of cultivated soils under simulated raindrop impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kořenková, Lucia; Matúš, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Soil aggregate stability (AS) is an important indicator of soil physical quality. For the purpose of this research it was hypothesized that particular properties such as water repellency (WR) influence soil aggregation and AS. Directly after sampling, WR was detected for three soils, after a week of air-drying two of these soils still showed some resistance to penetration by a water drop placed on the surface (WDPT test). The study examines AS of air-dried texturally different aggregates of size 0.25-0.5 mm taken from surface layers (5-15 cm depth) of six agriculturally used soils. The procedure involves exposure of soil aggregates to direct impact of water drops. Results showed that soil AS increases in order: cutanic Luvisol (siltic) Chernozem < calcic mollic Fluvisol < mollic grumic Vertisol (pellic) < mollic Fluvisol (calcaric) < gleyic Fluvisol (eutric). Gradual increase in AS can be explained by the increase in soil organic matter content and its hydrophobic properties. Although WR has been most commonly observed in soils under forests and grass cover, the results confirmed that cultivated soils may also create water-stable aggregates, especially in the case when their organic matter induces WR under particular moisture conditions.

  12. Measuring cognitive change with ImPACT: the aggregate baseline approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Jared M; Echemendia, Ruben J; Meeuwisse, Willem; Hutchison, Michael G; Aubry, Mark; Comper, Paul

    2017-11-01

    The Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) is commonly used to assess baseline and post-injury cognition among athletes in North America. Despite this, several studies have questioned the reliability of ImPACT when given at intervals employed in clinical practice. Poor test-retest reliability reduces test sensitivity to cognitive decline, increasing the likelihood that concussed athletes will be returned to play prematurely. We recently showed that the reliability of ImPACT can be increased when using a new composite structure and the aggregate of two baselines to predict subsequent performance. The purpose of the present study was to confirm our previous findings and determine whether the addition of a third baseline would further increase the test-retest reliability of ImPACT. Data from 97 English speaking professional hockey players who had received at least 4 ImPACT baseline evaluations were extracted from a National Hockey League Concussion Program database. Linear regression was used to determine whether each of the first three testing sessions accounted for unique variance in the fourth testing session. Results confirmed that the aggregate baseline approach improves the psychometric properties of ImPACT, with most indices demonstrating adequate or better test-retest reliability for clinical use. The aggregate baseline approach provides a modest clinical benefit when recent baselines are available - and a more substantial benefit when compared to approaches that obtain baseline measures only once during the course of a multi-year playing career. Pending confirmation in diverse samples, neuropsychologists are encouraged to use the aggregate baseline approach to best quantify cognitive change following sports concussion.

  13. Analysis of winter weather conditions and their potential impact on wind farm operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovskaia, E.; Treinish, L. A.; Praino, A.

    2009-12-01

    Severe weather conditions have two primary impacts on wind farm operations. The first relates to understanding potential damage to the turbines themselves and what actions are required to mitigate the effects. The second is recognizing what conditions may lead to a full or partial shutdown of the wind farm with sufficient lead time to determine the likely inability to meet energy generation committments. Ideally, wind forecasting suitable for wind farm operations should be of sufficient fidelity to resolve features within the boundary layer that lead to either damaging conditions or useful power generation. Given the complexity of the site-specific factors that effect the boundary layer at the scale of typical land-based wind farm locations such as topography, vegetation, land use, soil conditions, etc., which may vary with turbine design and layout within the farm, enabling reliable forecasts of too little or too much wind is challenging. A potential solution should involve continuous updates of alert triggering criteria through analysis of local wind patterns and probabilistic risk assessment for each location. To evaluate this idea, we utilize our operational mesoscale prediction system, dubbed “Deep Thunder”, developed at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center. In particular, we analyze winter-time near-surface winds in upstate New York, where four similar winds farms are located. Each of these farms were built at roughly the same time and utilize similar turbines. Given the relative uncertainty associated with numerical weather prediction at this scale, and the difference in risk assessment due to the two primary impacts of severe weather, probabilistic forecasts are a prerequisite. Hence, we have employed ensembles of weather scenarios, which are based on the NCAR WRF-ARW modelling system. The set of ensemble members was composed with variations in the choices of physics and parameterization schemes, and source of background fields for initial

  14. Integrated impact assessment of climate and socio-economic change on dairy farms in a watershed in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paas, Wim; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Ven, van de Gerrie; Reidsma, Pytrik

    2016-01-01

    Climate and socio-economic change will affect the land use and the economic viability of Dutch dairy farms. Explorations of future scenarios, which include different drivers and impacts, are needed to perform ex-ante policy assessment. This study uses a bio-economic farm model to assess impacts

  15. Scenarios of long-term farm structural change for application in climate change impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandryk, M.; Reidsma, P.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Towards 2050, climate change is one of the possible drivers that will change the farming landscape, but market, policy and technological development may be at least equally important. In the last decade, many studies assessed impacts of climate change and specific adaptation strategies. However,

  16. Planning and development of wind farms: Environmental impact and grid connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels-Erik

    These course notes are intended for the three-week course 46200 Planning and Development of Wind Farms given by DTUWind Energy, Technical University of Denmark. The purpose of the course notes is to give an introduction to planning procedures, environmental impact assessments, and grid connection....

  17. Farm-level adoption and impact of agricultural technology: the case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings are reported of a study undertaken to describe the adoption and impact of Russian wheat aphid (RWA) resistant cultivars developed by the South African Agricultural Research Council. The analyses employed farm-level data from surveys conducted in 1997 in the Central and Eastern Free State of South Africa.

  18. Environmental impact assessment of offshore wind farms: a simulation-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Lapena, Blanca; Wijnberg, Kathelijne Mariken; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Stein, A.

    2010-01-01

    1.  Assessing and monitoring the impact of offshore wind farms on marine fauna is vital if we want to achieve ecologically sustainable development of this renewable energy resource. Given the complexity of the marine environment, a method capable of accommodating spatio-temporal behaviour of

  19. Socioeconomic impact of widespread adoption of precision farming and controlled traffic systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    2012-01-01

    and the Danish society as a whole. At the farm level, the findings from the study indicate that an implementation of CTF systems may have a significant impact on fuel savings due to a reduced overlap with auto guidance systems and easier movement with tractors and tools in the field. The PF site-specific weed...

  20. Impact of an offshore wind farm on wave conditions and shoreline development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Deigaard, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    the shoreline’s sensitivity to the distance from the OWF to the shoreline was studied. The effect of the reduced wind speed inside and on the lee side of the offshore wind farm was incorporated in a parameterized way in a spectral wind wave model. The shoreline impact was studied with a one-line model....

  1. Experimental Study on Stress Monitoring of Sand-Filled Steel Tube during Impact Using Piezoceramic Smart Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guofeng; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Jicheng; Song, Gangbing

    2017-08-22

    The filling of thin-walled steel tubes with quartz sand can help to prevent the premature buckling of the steel tube at a low cost. During an impact, the internal stress of the quartz sand-filled steel tube column is subjected to not only axial force but also lateral confining force, resulting in complicated internal stress. A suitable sensor for monitoring the internal stress of such a structure under an impact is important for structural health monitoring. In this paper, piezoceramic Smart Aggregates (SAs) are embedded into a quartz Sand-Filled Steel Tube Column (SFSTC) to monitor the internal structural stress during impacts. The piezoceramic smart aggregates are first calibrated by an impact hammer. Tests are conducted to study the feasibility of monitoring the internal stress of a structure. The results reflect that the calibration value of the piezoceramic smart aggregate sensitivity test is in good agreement with the theoretical value, and the output voltage value of the piezoceramic smart aggregate has a good linear relationship with external forces. Impact tests are conducted on the sand-filled steel tube with embedded piezoceramic smart aggregates. By analyzing the output signal of the piezoceramic smart aggregates, the internal stress state of the structure can be obtained. Experimental results demonstrated that, under the action of impact loads, the piezoceramic smart aggregates monitor the compressive stress at different locations in the steel tube, which verifies the feasibility of using piezoceramic smart aggregate to monitor the internal stress of a structure.

  2. Cumulative impact assessments and bird/wind farm interactions: Developing a conceptual framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masden, Elizabeth A.; Fox, Anthony D.; Furness, Robert W.; Bullman, Rhys; Haydon, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    The wind power industry has grown rapidly in the UK to meet EU targets of sourcing 20% of energy from renewable sources by 2020. Although wind power is a renewable energy source, there are environmental concerns over increasing numbers of wind farm proposals and associated cumulative impacts. Individually, a wind farm, or indeed any action, may have minor effects on the environment, but collectively these may be significant, potentially greater than the sum of the individual parts acting alone. EU and UK legislation requires a cumulative impact assessment (CIA) as part of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA). However, in the absence of detailed guidance and definitions, such assessments within EIA are rarely adequate, restricting the acquisition of basic knowledge about the cumulative impacts of wind farms on bird populations. Here we propose a conceptual framework to promote transparency in CIA through the explicit definition of impacts, actions and scales within an assessment. Our framework requires improved legislative guidance on the actions to include in assessments, and advice on the appropriate baselines against which to assess impacts. Cumulative impacts are currently considered on restricted scales (spatial and temporal) relating to individual development EIAs. We propose that benefits would be gained from elevating CIA to a strategic level, as a component of spatially explicit planning.

  3. A review of the impacts of wind farms on birds in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The number of wind farm developments in the UK has grown rapidly in recent years. While, on a global scale, the benefits of utilising renewable energy resources are generally accepted, wind energy developments may cause local impacts to the ecological environment. In some cases, these may potentially be of significance in nature conservation terms. A major focus of the concern over such impacts has related to the extent to which wind farms affect bird life. This report reviews the present state of knowledge of this issue, drawing upon studies conducted in both the UK and elsewhere. The potential types of impact are discussed and the variables which determine the scale of such impacts are described. Recommendations are made with regard to future monitoring programmes in the UK. (author)

  4. Impact of thermostatically controlled loads' demand response activation on aggregated power: A field experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Marinelli, Mattia; Kosek, Anna Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    activation. The outcome of this experimental study quantifies the actual flexibility of household TCLs and the consequence for the different parties with respect to power behaviour. Each DR activation method adopts different scenarios to meet the power reduction, and has different impacts on the parameters......This paper describes the impacts of different types of DR (demand response) activation on TCLs' (thermostatically controlled loads) aggregated power. The different parties: power system operators, DR service providers (or aggregators) and consumers, have different objectives in relation to DR....... The experiments are conducted with real domestic refrigerators representing TCL. Activating refrigerators for DR with a delay reduces the ISE (integral square error) in power limitation by 28.46%, overshoot by 7.69%. The delay in refrigerator activation causes reduction in power ramp down rate by 39.90%, ramp up...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF FISH FARMING IN FLOATING CAGES IN ISLA ARENA, CAMPECHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadira Silva-Cruz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mariculture is the cultivation of marine species of commercial importance. This activity has intensified in recent decades due to the need for food production. The present study evaluated the impact of Rachycentron canadum (Cobia and Sciaenops ocellatus (Red Drum farming in floating cages along the coasts of Campeche, Mexico. The impact of this mariculture system was evaluated through the physicochemical analysis of the sediment from underneath the cages and the analysis of the quality of the water from the farming area. Results showed high concentrations of nitrogen (> 0.5 % and organic matter (> 80 %, both in the farming area and in the control sites. The concentration of fine sediment showed no spatial or temporal changes. There were no detectable concentrations of nitrites, nitrates, ammonium and phosphates in the water, in a range of 0.1 to 100 mg L-1. The impact caused by this farming system appeared to be non significant, at least in the area of study, due to the constant movement of the water caused by ocean currents which, very likely, carried the waste from the cages to other places.

  6. IMPACT OF THE EU FUNDS SUPPORTING FARM MODERNISATION ON THE CHANGES OF THE ASSETS IN POLISH FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawrzyniec Czubak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the analysis of the changes in the production potential of Polish farms after implementing CAP mechanisms (2004-2011. Two criteria were used to share the farms: investment activity and economic size. Only those farms were selected, which continuously conducted the agricultural accounting FADN system in 2004--2011. Based on the analysis it was found that in the base period, farms making the most complex investments (supported by EU funds or financed on the basin of own financial resources, had greater production potential – in the matter of area and volume of assets. The investment activities contributed to the increase in disparities between groups of farms. Especially the non-investment farms were able to preserve the area of agricultural land, but the value of their assets was significantly reduced.

  7. Testing the potential for improving quality of sediments impacted by mussel farms using bioturbating polychaete worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Per; Carlsson, Marita S; Lindegarth, Mats

    2017-01-01

    Biodeposits from farmed mussels severely influence the biogeochemistry of sediments by increasing the levels of organic matter (OM). Mitigation of such negative impacts is important for the development of sustainable aquaculture operations. As a step towards developing methods for remediation...... of coastal sediments affected by mussel farming, the effects of the polychaete, Hediste diversicolor was evaluated experimentally. In a series of field- and laboratory experiments we tested hypotheses about the effects of polychaetes on sediment oxygen consumption, nutrient fluxes and sulphide pools under...... different polychaete densities and sedimentation regimes. The experimental results support the idea that polychaetes can mitigate negative effects on the benthic environment beneath mussel farms. H. diversicolor oxidized the sediment and generally enhanced the oxygen consumption, and thus the decomposition...

  8. The Impact of Values Concerning Nature on Practice and Knowledge in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Pernille

    1997-01-01

    that the view of nature influence practise: The focus of the organic farmers on environmental concerns, product quality concerns, earth-fertility concerns, utilitarian ethics or bioethics means different practical choices. Four paradigms of knowledge related to organic farming has further more been identified...... impact on the development of the organic farming and on the conceptualising of environmental issues in society and thereby the initiatives taken: Priority is given to the more conventional ways of understanding: obtaining sustainability by not using poison, treating manure as a question of optimising...... nitrogen and the other nutrients. On the other hand learning processes take place in and around the organic farms extending the farmers concepts of sustainability....

  9. Using a whole farm model to determine the impacts of mating management on the profitability of pasture-based dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukes, P C; Burke, C R; Levy, G; Tiddy, R M

    2010-08-01

    An approach to assessing likely impacts of altering reproductive performance on productivity and profitability in pasture-based dairy farms is described. The basis is the development of a whole farm model (WFM) that simulates the entire farm system and holistically links multiple physical performance factors to profitability. The WFM consists of a framework that links a mechanistic cow model, a pasture model, a crop model, management policies and climate. It simulates individual cows and paddocks, and runs on a day time-step. The WFM was upgraded to include reproductive modeling capability using reference tables and empirical equations describing published relationships between cow factors, physiology and mating management. It predicts reproductive status at any time point for individual cows within a modeled herd. The performance of six commercial pasture-based dairy farms was simulated for the period of 12 months beginning 1 June 2005 (05/06 year) to evaluate the accuracy of the model by comparison with actual outcomes. The model predicted most key performance indicators within an acceptable range of error (residualprofitability of changes in farm "set-up" (farm conditions at the start of the farming year on 1 June) and mating management from 05/06 to 06/07 year. Among the six farms simulated, the 4-week calving rate emerged as an important set-up factor influencing profitability, while reproductive performance during natural bull mating was identified as an area with the greatest opportunity for improvement. The WFM presents utility to explore alternative management strategies to predict likely outcomes to proposed changes to a pasture-based farm system. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Environmental impact assessment of sea bottom and marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, S.B.

    2000-03-15

    An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of a planned 150 MW offshore wind farm at Horns Rev has been carried out for the marine biology and sea bottom in the area, and includes vegetation and benthic fauna. The study forms part of a total EIA of the planned offshore wind farm. This EIA study has been drawn up in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the Ministry of Environment and Energy in the publication, 'Guidelines for preparation of EIAstudies for offshore wind farms. Horns Rev is situated off Blaevands Huk, which is Denmark's most westerly point. It is a shallow reef with water depths between 2 and 9 metres and is primarily composed of sand, gravel and pebbles. The area designated for the wind farm lies directly south of Horns Rev and is dominated by sand with a median particle size of 0.3 mm. Along the edges, towards areas of greater depth, the particle size increases. There are areas of fine sand in the deepest area, and in isolated pockets within the proposed wind farm site. The sediment is characterised by a very low (<1%) organic matter content. On the basis of the expected impact from the establishment of the wind farm, it is not deemed necessary to carry out special programmes during the construction phase for monitoring of the environmental-biological conditions. A monitoring and control programme is recommended during the production phase in order to follow the copper concentration in bivalves, or alternatively to initiate recovery or elimination of the copper-laden waste. A control programme is recommended during the production phase in order to follow the establishment and succession of the fouling community on the wind turbine foundations and scour-protecting revetments. (BA)

  11. Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Environmental impact assessment of sea bottom and marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, S B

    2000-03-15

    An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of a planned 150 MW offshore wind farm at Horns Rev has been carried out for the marine biology and sea bottom in the area, and includes vegetation and benthic fauna. The study forms part of a total EIA of the planned offshore wind farm. This EIA study has been drawn up in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the Ministry of Environment and Energy in the publication, 'Guidelines for preparation of EIAstudies for offshore wind farms. Horns Rev is situated off Blaevands Huk, which is Denmark's most westerly point. It is a shallow reef with water depths between 2 and 9 metres and is primarily composed of sand, gravel and pebbles. The area designated for the wind farm lies directly south of Horns Rev and is dominated by sand with a median particle size of 0.3 mm. Along the edges, towards areas of greater depth, the particle size increases. There are areas of fine sand in the deepest area, and in isolated pockets within the proposed wind farm site. The sediment is characterised by a very low (<1%) organic matter content. On the basis of the expected impact from the establishment of the wind farm, it is not deemed necessary to carry out special programmes during the construction phase for monitoring of the environmental-biological conditions. A monitoring and control programme is recommended during the production phase in order to follow the copper concentration in bivalves, or alternatively to initiate recovery or elimination of the copper-laden waste. A control programme is recommended during the production phase in order to follow the establishment and succession of the fouling community on the wind turbine foundations and scour-protecting revetments. (BA)

  12. Environmental impacts of coastal fish farming; Carbon and Nitrogen budgets for trout farming in Kaldbacksfjord, Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordi, Gunnvor A; Glud, Ronnie N.; Gaard, Eilif

    2011-01-01

    Flow of organic carbon (OC) and nitrogen through a sea cage trout farm was calculated on the basis of detailed studies of the farming operation, water circulation, OC and nutrient transport and recycling processes in sediment. A third of the OC and nitrogen provided by fish food was incorporated......% of nitrogen derived from fish food settled on the seabed, where it was either mineralized or accumulated in the sediment. Based on transect measurements of diagenetic activity, the farm footprint was found to cover an area similar to 10 times the farm area. OC mineralization in the sediment increased linearly...

  13. Impact of Use of Chemical Fertiliser on Farm Households' Risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper explored the impact of chemical fertiliser on smallholder farmers' risk behaviour and food security. The findings show that the severity of food security is lower for farmers who adopted chemical fertiliser (15%) than those who didn't adopt (27%). Risk taking behaviour is predominantly associated with farmers who ...

  14. Impact of Wind Farms on the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Patrick J.H.; Hall, Alex; Capps, Scott B.

    The presented work is part of a study sponsored by the California Institute of Energy and Environment, in which the impact of the aimed increasing contribution of clean alternative energy sources in the next 30 years will be investigated. Due to the huge wind energy potential along the California...

  15. Effects of offshore wind farms on marine wildlife-a generalized impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrom, L.; Kautsky, L.; Malm, T.

    2014-01-01

    study synthesizes the current state of understanding on the effects of offshore wind farms on marine wildlife, in order to identify general versus local conclusions in published studies. The results were translated into a generalized impact assessment for coastal waters in Sweden, which covers a range......, and level of certainty. Research on the environmental effects of offshore wind farms has gone through a rapid maturation and learning process, with the bulk of knowledge being developed within the past ten years. The studies showed a high level of consensus with respect to the construction phase, indicating...... that potential impacts on marine life should be carefully considered in marine spatial planning. Potential impacts during the operational phase were more locally variable, and could be either negative or positive depending on biological conditions as well as prevailing management goals. There was paucity...

  16. Environmental health impacts of tobacco farming: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecours, Natacha; Almeida, Guilherme E G; Abdallah, Jumanne M; Novotny, Thomas E

    2012-03-01

    To review the literature on environmental health impacts of tobacco farming and to summarise the findings and research gaps in this field. A standard literature search was performed using multiple electronic databases for identification of peer-reviewed articles. The internet and organisational databases were also used to find other types of documents (eg, books and reports). The reference lists of identified relevant documents were reviewed to find additional sources. The selected studies documented many negative environmental impacts of tobacco production at the local level, often linking them with associated social and health problems. The common agricultural practices related to tobacco farming, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, lead to deforestation and soil degradation. Agrochemical pollution and deforestation in turn lead to ecological disruptions that cause a loss of ecosystem services, including land resources, biodiversity and food sources, which negatively impact human health. Multinational tobacco companies' policies and practices contribute to environmental problems related to tobacco leaf production. Development and implementation of interventions against the negative environmental impacts of tobacco production worldwide are necessary to protect the health of farmers, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Transitioning these farmers out of tobacco production is ultimately the resolution to this environmental health problem. In order to inform policy, however, further research is needed to better quantify the health impacts of tobacco farming and evaluate the potential alternative livelihoods that may be possible for tobacco farmers globally.

  17. Physiological responses of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica as indicators of fish farm impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Marta; Garcia, Tania; Invers, Olga; Ruiz, Juan Manuel

    2008-01-01

    The development of aquaculture along the Mediterranean coastline degrades the marine environment, in particular Posidonia oceanica meadows, which, in extreme cases, show high mortality. Here we studied the effects of organic matter and nutrient input from the effluents of three fish farms, located along the Mediterranean coast, on P. oceanica physiology. For this purpose, we measured physiological variables such as total nitrogen (N) content, free amino acid (FAA) concentration and composition, N stable isotope ratio (δ 15 N), total phosphorus (P) content and total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) content in plant tissues and epiphytes affected by organic discharges (highly impacted stations: HI, and less impacted stations: LI) and compared these results with those obtained in references sites (control stations: C). For all the descriptors analyzed in P. oceanica epiphytes, the values recorded in the vicinity of cages were, in general, much higher than those in C. Leaves did not respond consistently in any case. Total N content and δ 15 N in epiphytes together with the total P content in rhizomes and epiphytes were the physiological descriptors that showed the most consistent responses to fish farm effluents. On the basis of these observations, we conclude that fish farm activities strongly affect the physiological parameters of nearby P. oceanica meadows. We propose that changes in these physiological parameters may be useful indicators of marine environmental degradation in studies that monitor the effects of fish farming

  18. Physiological responses of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica as indicators of fish farm impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Marta [Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona Avda. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, Tania [Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona Avda. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: irulagun@hotmail.com; Invers, Olga [Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona Avda. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Juan Manuel [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia C/Varadero 1, 30740 San Pedro del Pinatar, Murcia (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    The development of aquaculture along the Mediterranean coastline degrades the marine environment, in particular Posidonia oceanica meadows, which, in extreme cases, show high mortality. Here we studied the effects of organic matter and nutrient input from the effluents of three fish farms, located along the Mediterranean coast, on P. oceanica physiology. For this purpose, we measured physiological variables such as total nitrogen (N) content, free amino acid (FAA) concentration and composition, N stable isotope ratio ({delta}{sup 15}N), total phosphorus (P) content and total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) content in plant tissues and epiphytes affected by organic discharges (highly impacted stations: HI, and less impacted stations: LI) and compared these results with those obtained in references sites (control stations: C). For all the descriptors analyzed in P. oceanica epiphytes, the values recorded in the vicinity of cages were, in general, much higher than those in C. Leaves did not respond consistently in any case. Total N content and {delta}{sup 15}N in epiphytes together with the total P content in rhizomes and epiphytes were the physiological descriptors that showed the most consistent responses to fish farm effluents. On the basis of these observations, we conclude that fish farm activities strongly affect the physiological parameters of nearby P. oceanica meadows. We propose that changes in these physiological parameters may be useful indicators of marine environmental degradation in studies that monitor the effects of fish farming.

  19. Impacts of shrimp farming cultivation cycles on macrobenthic assemblages and chemistry of sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Luisa F.; Eça, Gilmara F.; Barros, Francisco; Hatje, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a shrimp farm cultivation cycle in the composition of sediments and on the structure of macrobenthic assemblages. Concentrations of nutrients, Zn and Cu were significantly higher in impact than control areas. In general, the level of contaminants was highest during the harvesting period and in sites closest to the discharge of effluents. Abundances and number of taxa of benthic invertebrates were at least one order of magnitude smaller in impacted areas than in controls. The structure of the benthic assemblages was significantly different at these two treatments. The combined use of biological and chemical data showed to be efficient to provide precise answers regarding the extent of impacts caused by shrimp cultivation. The results provide the basis for a better understanding of impacts of this activity and can subsidize the development of better management practices for coastal areas. - Highlights: • Aquaculture impacts significantly the ecosystems that surround a shrimp farm. • Negative impacts were observed through contamination and benthic macrofauna. • Concentrations of metals and nutrients were higher in impact than control sites. • Negative impacts changed the structure of benthic assemblages. • Regulation is urgently needed to avoid the jeopardizing of ecosystem services. - The combined use of biological and chemical data showed to be efficient to provide precise answers regarding the extent of temporal and spatial impacts caused by shrimp cultivation.

  20. Parameters affecting the environmental impact of a range of dairy farming systems in Denmark, Germany and Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerci, Matteo; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Bava, L.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental impact of 12 dairy farms in Denmark, Germany and Italy was evaluated using an LCA approach and the most important parameters influencing their environmental sustainability were identified. The farms represent different production methods (organic vs. conventional), summer feeding...... intensive Italian farming system with very similar environmental impact values. However, a sensitivity analysis showed that when emissions relating to direct land use change of soybean production were included in the assessment, the GWP changed considerably for the conventional farms due to the inclusion...... of conventional soymeal in the feed concentrate. There were strong and positive correlations between the four impact categories, and overall the results indicate that improving greenhouse gas emissions would improve the general environmental sustainability of the dairy farm. The land occupation was lowest...

  1. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS, AGGREGATE STABILITY AND AGGREGATE ASSOCIATED-C: A MECHANISTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Guidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the identification of C pools involved in soil aggregation, a physically-based aggregate fractionation was proposed, and  additional pretreatments were used in the measurement of the 1-2 mm aggregate stability in order to elucidate the relevance of the role of soil microorganisms with respect to the different aggregate breakdown mechanisms. The study was carried out on three clay loam Regosols, developed on calcareous shales, known history of organic cultivation.Our results showed that the soil C pool controlling the process of stabilisation of aggregates was related to the microbial community. We identified the resistance to fast wetting as the major mechanism of aggregate stability driven by microorganims. The plausible hypothesis is that organic farming promotes fungi growth, improving water repellency of soil aggregates by fungal hydrophobic substances. By contrast, we failed in the identification of C pools controlling the formation of aggregates, probably because of the disturbance of mechanical tillage which contributes to the breakdown of soil aggregates.The physically-based aggregate fractionation proposed in this study resulted useful in the  mechanistically understanding of the role of microorganisms in soil aggregation and it might be suggested for studying the impact of management on C pools, aggregates properties and their relationships in agricultural soils.

  2. THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF MARINE FISH CAGE FARMS IN THE EASTERN ADRIATIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Katavić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Mariculture in Croatia could play a more important role in development of rural communities along coastline. However, by increase of fish farming, public concern over environmental issues has been raised, and the need for more responsible mariculture development and management has been asked. There are opportunities and challenges for effectively integrating mariculture into coastal zone management with equal rights and obligations. This is primarily because of its social and economic mission consisting in preventing de-population of rural coastal areas and islands and meeting the growing needs of tourist market for seafood. Although intensive mariculture production is accused of producing negative environmental effects, many of these effects still need to be scientifically documented. The effect of nitrogen and phosphorous releases from farmed fish faeces or uneaten food is not of significant issues for marine ecosystem, and it is generally of little importance compared to the inflow of nutrients from other coastal sources. The impact on sediment and benthic communities is mainly local and short-term ones, and depends on the number and extent of the farms and their location. Recovery of some benthic communities after the cessation of farming activities may be delayed over several years (i. e. Posidonia beds due to the accumulated organic matter. Bluefin tuna farming if not properly located and managed might cause pollution problems, either from uneaten feed and metabolic waste or from harvesting and processing the fish. In most cases the problem comes from smell pollution during the summer time and the oily water surface that may be widespread much outside of the farm areas. It will be important for sustainable development of Croatian mariculture to offer a healthy and good quality product in the quantities required by the market, while not degrading the marine environment.

  3. Regional climate model simulations indicate limited climatic impacts by operational and planned European wind farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautard, Robert; Thais, Françoise; Tobin, Isabelle; Bréon, François-Marie; Devezeaux de Lavergne, Jean-Guy; Colette, Augustin; Yiou, Pascal; Ruti, Paolo Michele

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of wind energy has raised concerns about environmental impacts. Temperature changes are found in the vicinity of wind farms and previous simulations have suggested that large-scale wind farms could alter regional climate. However, assessments of the effects of realistic wind power development scenarios at the scale of a continent are missing. Here we simulate the impacts of current and near-future wind energy production according to European Union energy and climate policies. We use a regional climate model describing the interactions between turbines and the atmosphere, and find limited impacts. A statistically significant signal is only found in winter, with changes within ±0.3 °C and within 0-5% for precipitation. It results from the combination of local wind farm effects and changes due to a weak, but robust, anticyclonic-induced circulation over Europe. However, the impacts remain much weaker than the natural climate interannual variability and changes expected from greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. Modelling impacts of offshore wind farms on trophic web: the Courseulles-sur-Mer case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoux, Aurore; Pezy, Jean-Philippe; Dauvin, Jean-Claude; Tecchio, samuele; Degraer, Steven; Wilhelmsson, Dan; Niquil, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    The French government is planning the construction of three offshore wind farms in Normandy. These offshore wind farms will integrate into an ecosystem already subject to a growing number of anthropogenic disturbances such as transportation, fishing, sediment deposit, and sediment extraction. The possible effects of this cumulative stressors on ecosystem functioning are still unknown, but they could impact their resilience, making them susceptible to changes from one stable state to another. Understanding the behaviour of these marine coastal complex systems is essential in order to anticipate potential state changes, and to implement conservation actions in a sustainable manner. Currently, there are no global and integrated studies on the effects of construction and exploitation of offshore wind farms. Moreover, approaches are generally focused on the conservation of some species or groups of species. Here, we develop a holistic and integrated view of ecosystem impacts through the use of trophic webs modelling tools. Trophic models describe the interaction between biological compartments at different trophic levels and are based on the quantification of flow of energy and matter in ecosystems. They allow the application of numerical methods for the characterization of emergent properties of the ecosystem, also called Ecological Network Analysis (ENA). These indices have been proposed as ecosystem health indicators as they have been demonstrated to be sensitive to different impacts on marine ecosystems. We present here in detail the strategy for analysing the potential environmental impacts of the construction of the Courseulles-sur-Mer offshore wind farm (Bay of Seine) such as the reef effect through the use of the Ecopath with Ecosim software. Similar Ecopath simulations will be made in the future on the Le Tréport offshore wind farm site. Results will contribute to a better knowledge of the impacts of the offshore wind farms on ecosystems. They also allow to

  5. Review of Offshore Wind Farm Impact Monitoring and Mitigation with Regard to Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfuss, Ursula K; Sparling, Carol E; Arnot, Charlie; Judd, Adrian; Coyle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and mitigation reports from 19 UK and 9 other European Union (EU) offshore wind farm (OWF) developments were reviewed, providing a synthesis of the evidence associated with the observed environmental impact on marine mammals. UK licensing conditions were largely concerned with mitigation measures reducing the risk of physical and auditory injury from pile driving. At the other EU sites, impact monitoring was conducted along with mitigation measures. Noise-mitigation measures were developed and tested in UK and German waters in German government-financed projects. We highlight some of the review's findings and lessons learned with regard to noise impact on marine mammals.

  6. [Impact of land use type on stability and organic carbon of soil aggregates in Jinyun Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Lin; Jiang, Chang-Sheng; Hao, Qing-Ju

    2014-12-01

    Soil aggregates have the important effect on soil fertility, soil quality and the sustainable utilization of soil, and they are the mass bases of water and fertilizer retention ability of soil and the supply or release of soil nutrients. In this paper, in order to study the impact of land use type on stability and organic carbon of soil aggregates in Jinyun Mountain, we separated four land use types of soil, which are woodland, abandoned land, orchard and sloping farmland by wet sieving method, then we got the proportion of large macroaggregates (> 2 mm), small macroaggregates (0.25-2 mm), microaggregates (53 μm-0.25 mm) and silt + clay (soil depth of 0-60 cm and calculated the total content of organic carbon of all aggregates fraction in each soil. The results showed that reclamation of woodland will lead to fragmentation of macroaggregates and deterioration of soil structure, and the proportion of macroaggrgates (> 0.25 mm) were 44.62% and 32.28% respectively in the soils of orchard and sloping farmland, which reduced 38.58% (P soil fraction from silt + clay to large macroaggregates and small macroaggregates, so it will improve the soil structure. MWD (mean weight diameter) and GMD (geometric mean diameter) are important indicators of evaluating the stability of soil aggregates. We found the MWD and GWD in soil depth of 0-60 cm in orchards and sloping farmland were significantly lower than those in woodland (P soil aggregates, and they will be separated more easily by water. However, after changing the sloping farmland to abandoned land will enhance the stability of soil aggregates, and improve the ability of soil to resist external damage. The organic carbon content in each soil aggregate of four land use types decreased with the increase of soil depth. In soil depth of 0-60 cm, the storage of organic carbon of large macroaggregates in each soil are in orders of woodland (14.98 Mg x hm(-2)) > abandoned land (8.71 Mg x hm(-2)) > orchard (5.82 Mg x hm(-2

  7. Proposing an approach for the assessment of environmental impacts of offshore wind farms in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luedeke, Jens

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Analyses of numerous EIS and EIA in the chosen countries, which have been worked out by the authors, have documented that the assessments failed to standardize both the prognosis and the assessment method. The assessment and the relevance of the manifold provided data tends to remain vague and can only hardly been used by the authorizing bodies. Thus, decision makers need an appropriate, transparent and comparable decision-making 'portfolio' to provide at best bullet-proofed EIA documents, based on a systematic analysis of research results, baseline surveys and a prognosis of the expected impacts. A satisfactory state of research or good practice for the assessment of the environmental impacts, which also enables comparability and cumulative considerations of the impacts of offshore wind farms in an international context, should be reached. A transparent evaluation approach of data for the analysis of the relevant issues therefore was essential. Carrying this in mind the Technische Universitaet Berlin developed proposals for semi-quantitative assessment models for migratory birds, sea and resting birds and harbour porpoises that, if used within the EIA, could provide the permit requirements more transparent with relevant data and assessments to the necessary decision-making basics. Because of the differences of impact correlations between the diverse natural assets and the offshore wind farms, individual models have been developed for several impact correlations, which have been identified as especially significant for the real decision making process. The numerous influencing factors of each impact therefore have been compiled. With the elaborated models these factors are linked systematically. The obtained data can be used for a comparison with the social given objectives (in form of legal thresholds). Therefore the presented models have to be established inside the EIS as well as in the approval system. So it could bring advantages in the

  8. IMPACT OF ROW-PLANTING ADOPTION ON PRODUCTIVITY OF RICE FARMING IN NORTHERN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel DONKOR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper employed the endogenous switching regression and propensity score matching methods to analyse the impact of row-planting technology on rice productivity using 470 rice farms in Northern Ghana. The empirical findings showed that the adoption of row-planting technology exerted greater positive impact on rice yields of smallholder farmers. In addition, rice yields of adopters and non-adopters are driven by farm inputs, socioeconomic, institutional and technological factors. We suggest that achieving self-sufficiency in rice and rural economic transformation in sub-Saharan Africa requires promotion of agricultural technologies including row-planting. Different specific policy interventions are also required to promote rice yields for adopters and non-adopters.

  9. IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION AT THE HANFORD SITE SX TANK FARM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KHALEEL R

    2007-01-01

    The USDOE has initiated an impact assessment of existing vadose zone contamination at the Hanford Site SX tank farm in southeastern Washington State. The assessment followed the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action process to address the impacts of past tank waste releases to the vadose zone at the single-shell tank farm. Numerical models were developed that consider the extent of contamination presently within the vadose zone and predict contaminant movement through the vadose zone to groundwater. The transport of representative mobile (technetium-99) and immobile (cesium-137) constituents was evaluated in modeling. The model considered the accelerated movement of moisture around and beneath single-shell tanks that is attributed to bare, gravel surfaces resulting from the construction of the underground storage tanks. Infiltration, possibly nearing 100 mm yr -1 , is further amplified in the tank farm because of the umbrella effect created by percolating moisture being diverted by the impermeable, sloping surface of the large, 24-m-diameter, buried tank domes. For both the base case (no-action alternative) simulation and a simulation that considered placement of an interim surface barrier to minimize infiltration, predicted, groundwater concentrations for technetium-99 at the SX tank farm boundary were exceedingly high, on the order of 10 6 pCi L -1 . The predicted concentrations are, however, somewhat conservative because of our use of two-dimensional modeling for a three-dimensional problem. A series of simulations were performed, using recharge rates of 50, 30, and 10 mm yr -1 , and compared to the basecase(100 mm yr -1 ) results. As expected, lowering meteoric recharge delayed peak arrival times and reduced peak concentrations at the tank farm boundary

  10. Impact Assessment of Existing Vadose Zone Contamination at the Hanford Site SX Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaleel, Raziuddin; White, Mark D.; Oostrom, Martinus; Wood, Marcus I.; Mann, Frederick M.; Kristofzski, John G.

    2007-01-01

    The USDOE has initiated an impact assessment of existing vadose zone contamination at the Hanford Site SX tank farm in southeastern Washington State. The assessment followed the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action process to address the impacts of past tank waste releases to the vadose zone at the single-shell tank farm. Numerical models were developed that consider the extent of contamination presently within the vadose zone and predict contaminant movement through the vadose zone to groundwater. The transport of representative mobile (technetium-99) and immobile (cesium-137) constituents was evaluated in modeling. The model considered the accelerated movement of moisture around and beneath single-shell tanks that is attributed to bare, gravel surfaces resulting from the construction of the underground storage tanks. Infiltration, possibly nearing 100 mm yr -1 , is further amplified in the tank farm because of the umbrella effect created by percolating moisture being diverted by the impermeable, sloping surface of the large, 24-m-diameter, buried tank domes. For both the base case (no-action alternative) simulation and a simulation that considered placement of an interim surface barrier to minimize infiltration, predicted groundwater concentrations for technetium-99 at the SX tank farm boundary were exceedingly high, on the order of 106 pCi L-1. The predicted concentrations are, however, somewhat conservative because of our use of two-dimensional modeling for a three-dimensional problem. A series of simulations were performed, using recharge rates of 50, 30, and 10 mm yr -1 , and compared to the base case (100 mm yr -1 ) results. As expected, lowering meteoric recharge delayed peak arrival times and reduced peak concentrations at the tank farm boundary.

  11. Assessing the impact on birds of prey of nine established wind farms in Thrace, NE Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kret, Elzbieta; Carcamo, Beatriz; Zografou, Christina; Vasilakis, Dimitris

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In this study, we evaluate the impact on birds of prey of nine already established wind farms in Thrace, where a large scale wind farm development project of at least 930 MW is under development. Moreover, the area is acknowledged as of high ornithological interest, used for nesting, wintering and passage by rare territorial birds of prey, including the Near Threatened black vultures that use it for foraging. Finally, ca 50% of the wind farm development project area is covered by Natura 2000 sites. During the monitoring (2008-2010), carcass surveys were carried out in order to estimate mortality. In addition, avian space use surveys were carried out, in order to calculate indexes and to establish comparisons with a previous monitoring study run in 2004-05. In total, 14 birds of prey were found dead (one black vulture, four griffon vultures, one booted eagle, two short-toed eagles, one western marsh harrier, one Eurasian sparrow hawk, three common buzzards, one hawk species). The estimated mortality rate was 0.152 birds of prey (including vultures/turbine/year). Griffon vultures, black vultures and common buzzards comprised more than 50% of observations in the study area. Crossing densities between wind turbines were positively correlated with east exposition and the inclination of the slope, and the length of the wind turbines. gaps, while it was negatively correlated with north exposition. The use of the area was more intensive four years after the initial monitoring, but numbers of common buzzard observations drastically decreased. We suggest that during the planning phase of wind farms it is important to avoid steep slopes, east expositions and to take into account the distance between consecutive wind turbines. Our findings indicate that running a post-construction monitoring during only one year may not be enough to properly assess the impact of wind farms on birds of prey. (Author)

  12. Economic and agricultural transformation through large-scale farming : impacts of large-scale farming on local economic development, household food security and the environment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined impacts of large-scale farming in Ethiopia on local economic development, household food security, incomes, employment, and the environment. The study adopted a mixed research approach in which both qualitative and quantitative data were generated from secondary and primary

  13. Impacts of a large array of offshore wind farms on precipitation during hurricane Harvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.; Archer, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey brought to the Texas coast possibly the heaviest rain ever recorded in U.S. history, which then caused flooding at unprecedented levels. Previous studies have shown that large arrays of offshore wind farms can extract kinetic energy from a hurricane and thus reduce the wind and storm surge. This study will quantitatively test weather the offshore turbines may also affect precipitation patterns. The Weather Research Forecast model is employed to model Harvey and the offshore wind farms are parameterized as elevated drag and turbulence kinetic energy sources. The turbines (7.8 MW Enercon-126 with rotor diameter D=127 m) are placed along the coast of Texas and Louisiana within 100 km from the shore, where the water depth is below 200 meters. Three spacing between turbines are considered (with the number of turbines in parenthesis): 7D×7D (149,936), 9D×9D (84,339), and 11D×11D (56,226). A fourth case (9D×9D) with a smaller area and thus less turbines (33,363) is added to the simulations to emphasize the impacts of offshore turbines installed specifically to protect the city of Houston, which was flooded heavily during hurricane Harvey. The model is integrated for 24 hours from 00UTC Aug 26th, 2017 to 00UTC Aug 27th, 2017. Model results indicate that the offshore wind farms have a strong impact on the distribution of 24-hour accumulated precipitation, with an obvious decrease onshore, downstream of the wind farms, and an increase in the offshore areas, upstream of or within the wind farms. A sector covering the metro-Houston area is chosen to study the sensitivity of the four different wind farm layouts. The spatial-average 24-hour accumulated precipitation is decreased by 37%, 28%, 20% and 25% respectively for the four cases. Compared with the control case with no wind turbines, increased horizontal wind divergence and lower vertical velocity are found where the precipitation is reduced onshore, whereas increased horizontal wind convergence and

  14. Impact of Small Holder Dairy Farm on the Air Quality in Gunungpati District, Semarang Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti, E.; Kustono; Adiarto; Nurliyani; Sugiharto, S.

    2018-02-01

    The study aimed to investigate the impact of small holder dairy farm on the air quality in the farm and surrounding area. The study was conducted in three farmer groups in the District of Gunungpati, including the farmer groups in the villages of Nangkasawit, Plalangan and Sumurejo. Samplings of air quality were conducted in four points (locations), i.e., inside the barn, 100 m, 200 m and 300 m from the area of farm. Parameters observed were emission of NH3 CO2, H2S and CH4. Results showed that the levels of NH3 in the barn, 100 m, 200 m and 300 m from the farm area in Nangkasawit village were 0.211, 0.107, 0.104 and 0,035 ppm, respectively. The levels of NH3 in Plalangan village were 0.289, 0.231, 0.13 and 0.108 ppm, respectively, and in Sumurejo village were 0.109, 0.110, 0.082 and 0.046 ppm, respectively. The levels of H2S in Nangkasawit, Plalangan and Sumurejo villages at the entire points of observations were air quality was better (lower contamination) with the farther distance of locations from the barn.

  15. Impacts of Wind Farms on Cumulus Cloud Development in the Central Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, L. C.; Wagner, T. J.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Kulie, M.

    2014-12-01

    Cumulus clouds have a net cooling effect on the surface radiative balance by reflecting more downwelling solar radiation than absorbing upwelling terrestrial radiation. As boundary layer cumuli form from buoyant, moist plumes ascending from the surface, their growth may be hindered by the turbulent deformation of the plume by wind farms. A natural laboratory to study the impact of wind farms on cumulus formation are the states of Iowa and Nebraska. Despite their prime location for wind resources and similar synoptic forcings, regulatory issues cause these two states to vary vastly in their wind power offerings. In 2013, Iowa ranked 3rd in the nation for total megawatts installed and generates over a quarter of its electricity from wind energy, more than any other state. In contrast, Nebraska has an order of magnitude fewer turbines installed, and less than five percent of the state's electrical load is wind-generated. This variance in wind power in close proximity makes Iowa and Nebraska a prime area for initial research. This study uses Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) visible satellite imagery from the summer of 2009 to 2013 to investigate cumulus development in these adjacent states, as the majority of large-scale wind farms in Iowa were completed by 2009. Image reflectances in Nebraska and Iowa are compared to determine the magnitude of cumulus growth. Preliminary analysis indicates a reduction in cumulus development near the existing wind farms; a synoptic investigation of these cases will be completed to determine causality.

  16. On the Impact of Wind Farms on a Convective Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hao; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    With the rapid growth in the number of wind turbines installed worldwide, a demand exists for a clear understanding of how wind farms modify land-atmosphere exchanges. Here, we conduct three-dimensional large-eddy simulations to investigate the impact of wind farms on a convective atmospheric boundary layer. Surface temperature and heat flux are determined using a surface thermal energy balance approach, coupled with the solution of a three-dimensional heat equation in the soil. We study several cases of aligned and staggered wind farms with different streamwise and spanwise spacings. The farms consist of Siemens SWT-2.3-93 wind turbines. Results reveal that, in the presence of wind turbines, the stability of the atmospheric boundary layer is modified, the boundary-layer height is increased, and the magnitude of the surface heat flux is slightly reduced. Results also show an increase in land-surface temperature, a slight reduction in the vertically-integrated temperature, and a heterogeneous spatial distribution of the surface heat flux.

  17. Farm income and production impacts of using GM crop technology 1996–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper provides an assessment of the value of using genetically modified (GM) crop technology in agriculture at the farm level. It follows and updates earlier annual studies which examined impacts on yields, key variable costs of production, direct farm (gross) income and impacts on the production base of the 4 main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialisation of GM crops has occurred at a rapid rate since the mid 1990s, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2015. This annual updated analysis shows that there continues to be very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $15.4 billion in 2015 and $167.8 billion for the 20 year period 1996–2015 (in nominal terms). These gains have been divided 49% to farmers in developed countries and 51% to farmers in developing countries. About 72% of the gains have derived from yield and production gains with the remaining 28% coming from cost savings. The technology has also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the 4 main crops, having, for example, added 180 million tonnes and 358 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid 1990s. PMID:28481684

  18. An aggregated indicator of air-pollution impacts involved by transports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goger, Th.

    2006-11-01

    We intend to build a global environmental impact indicator of air pollution to assess transport infrastructures, technologies or flows. This indicator tries to be simple and transparent to facilitate its use in decision-making. The intention is for the indicator to be like the Global Warming Potential (GWP), which establishes a relationship between the emission of six greenhouse gases and the average temperature increase of the Earth. The indicator therefore allows estimating the global environmental impact of transport-generated air pollution, while simultaneously conserving the value of the environmental impact of each type of air pollution and the emission assessment. This work is based on an environmental impact typology, a set of indicators, and aggregation architecture of atmospheric pollution. The typology is established as a function of the specific and homogenous characteristics of each type of pollution in terms of pollutants, impact mechanisms, targets and environmental impacts. To ensure exhaustiveness and non-redundancy, 10 types of air pollution impact are proposed: greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, direct eco-toxicity (this type of pollution excludes greenhouse effects on nature, ozone depletion, eutrophication, acidification and photochemical pollution), eutrophication, acidification, photochemical pollution, restricted direct health effects (not taking into account welfare, and excluding the effects on health of the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, acidification and photochemical pollution), sensitive pollution (annoyance caused by odours and fumes), and degradation of common and historical man-made heritage. Indicators similar to GWP can be identified in the literature for each type of atmospheric pollution, except for the degradation of common and historical man-made heritage, for which none indicator have been suggested. However, these indicators do not seem to have achieved wide scientific consensus, except for GWP, which may make it

  19. Horns Rev offshore wind power farm. Environmental impact assessment on water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Per

    2000-05-01

    As part of an overall Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) undertaken in connection with a planned 150 MW offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, an assessment was made of the effects the wind farm would have on the water quality in the area. This EIA study was drawn up in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy in the publication 'Guidelines for the preparation of EIA studies for offshore wind farms'. Horns Rev is situated off Blaevands Huk, which is Denmark's most westerly point. It is a shallow reef with water depths between 2 and 9 metres and is primarily composed of sand, gravel and pebbles. Only local and minor changes are anticipated in connection with the currents, sediments and wave conditions during the production phase. These will occur in the immediate vicinity of the individual foundations. For these reasons, no changes are expected in the water quality. This also includes also the pelagic primary production and the occurrence of plankton in the area. Increased local copper contamination of phytoplankton and zooplankton may be expected during the production phase, as a result of the total annual discharge of 206 kg copper from the slip-rings in the wind turbines. The contamination will potentially result in a local reduction of the pelagic primary production and changes in the species composition of the plankton. The wind turbines will be sandblasted and painted once during their lifetime, as part of the routine maintenance. The sandblasting and painting will lead to a temporary spill of paint, paint waste and sand. The impacts on water quality and plankton production are unknown. It is recommended that factors such as the toxicity of the paint be investigated, and that spills and the impact of waste be reduced as much as possible. The water quality and the plankton in the wind farm area and along the cable line's passage to shore through the international protected area, will only be affected in a minor way

  20. An Amyloidogenic Sequence at the N-Terminus of the Androgen Receptor Impacts Polyglutamine Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Oppong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The human androgen receptor (AR is a ligand inducible transcription factor that harbors an amino terminal domain (AR-NTD with a ligand-independent activation function. AR-NTD is intrinsically disordered and displays aggregation properties conferred by the presence of a poly-glutamine (polyQ sequence. The length of the polyQ sequence as well as its adjacent sequence motifs modulate this aggregation property. AR-NTD also contains a conserved KELCKAVSVSM sequence motif that displays an intrinsic property to form amyloid fibrils under mild oxidative conditions. As peptide sequences with intrinsic oligomerization properties are reported to have an impact on the aggregation of polyQ tracts, we determined the effect of the KELCKAVSVSM on the polyQ stretch in the context of the AR-NTD using atomic force microscopy (AFM. Here, we present evidence for a crosstalk between the amyloidogenic properties of the KELCKAVSVSM motif and the polyQ stretch at the AR-NTD.

  1. Universal scaling and nonlinearity of aggregate price impact in financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, Felix; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2018-01-01

    How and why stock prices move is a centuries-old question still not answered conclusively. More recently, attention shifted to higher frequencies, where trades are processed piecewise across different time scales. Here we reveal that price impact has a universal nonlinear shape for trades aggregated on any intraday scale. Its shape varies little across instruments, but drastically different master curves are obtained for order-volume and -sign impact. The scaling is largely determined by the relevant Hurst exponents. We further show that extreme order-flow imbalance is not associated with large returns. To the contrary, it is observed when the price is pinned to a particular level. Prices move only when there is sufficient balance in the local order flow. In fact, the probability that a trade changes the midprice falls to zero with increasing (absolute) order-sign bias along an arc-shaped curve for all intraday scales. Our findings challenge the widespread assumption of linear aggregate impact. They imply that market dynamics on all intraday time scales are shaped by correlations and bilateral adaptation in the flows of liquidity provision and taking.

  2. A farm-level analysis of economic and agronomic impacts of gradual climate warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, H.M.; Sampath, R.; Riha, S.J.; Wilks, D.S.; Rossiter, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The potential economic and agronomic impacts of gradual climate warming are examined at the farm level. Three models of the relevant climatic, agronomic, and economic processes are developed and linked to address climate change impacts and agricultural adaptability. Several climate warming severity. The results indicate that grain farmers in southern Minnesota can effectively adapt to a gradually changing climate (warmer and either wetter or drier) by adopting later maturing cultivars, changing crop mix, and altering the timing of field operations to take advantage of a longer growing season resulting from climate warming

  3. Aggregating field-scale knowledge into farm-scale models of African smallholder systems: Summary functions to simulate crop production using APSIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikowo, R.; Corbeels, M.; Tittonell, P.A.; Vanlauwe, B.; Whitbread, A.M.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency with which applied resources are utilized in sub-Saharan African cropping systems is especially critical as the resources are generally scarce. Research efforts to improve farm productivity increasingly focus on resource interactions and trade-offs operating at farm-scale. Farm-scale

  4. Impact simulation of shrimp farm effluent on BOD-DO in Setiu River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Michael Sueng Lock; Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2017-08-01

    Release of effluent from intensive aquaculture farms into a river can pollute the receiving river and exert negative impacts on the aquatic ecosystem. In this paper, we simulate the effects of effluent released from a marine shrimp aquaculture farm into Sg Setiu, focusing on two critical water quality parameters i.e. DO (dissolved oxygen) and BOD (biochemical oxygen demand). DO is an important constituent in a river in sustaining water quality, with levels of DO below 5 mg/L deemed undesirable. DO levels can be depressed by the presence of BOD and other organics that consume DO. Water quality simulations in conjunction with management of effluent treatment can suggest mitigation measures for reducing the adverse environmental impact. For this purpose, an in-house two-dimensional water quality simulation model codenamed TUNA-WQ will be used for these simulations. TUNA-WQ has been undergoing regular updates and improvements to broaden the applicability and to improve the robustness. Here, the model is calibrated and verified for simulation of DO and BOD dynamics in Setiu River (Sg Setiu). TUNA-WQ simulated DO and BOD in Setiu River due to the discharge from a marine shrimp aquaculture farm will be presented.

  5. Evaluating environmental impacts of contrasting pig farming systems with life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourmad, J Y; Ryschawy, J; Trousson, T; Bonneau, M; Gonzàlez, J; Houwers, H W J; Hviid, M; Zimmer, C; Nguyen, T L T; Morgensen, L

    2014-12-01

    Environmental impacts of 15 European pig farming systems were evaluated in the European Union Q-PorkChains project using life cycle assessment. One conventional and two non-conventional systems were evaluated from each of the five countries: Denmark, The Netherlands, Spain, France and Germany. The data needed for calculations were obtained from surveys of 5 to 10 farms from each system. The systems studied were categorised into conventional (C), adapted conventional (AC), traditional (T) and organic (O). Compared with C systems, AC systems differed little, with only minor changes to improve meat quality, animal welfare or environmental impacts, depending on the system. The difference was much larger for T systems, using very fat, slow-growing traditional breeds and generally outdoor raising of fattening pigs. Environmental impacts were calculated at the farm gate and expressed per kg of pig live weight and per ha of land used. For C systems, impacts per kg LW for climate change, acidification, eutrophication, energy use and land occupation were 2.3 kg CO2-eq, 44.0 g SO2-eq, 18.5 g PO4-eq, 16.2 MJ and 4.1 m2, respectively. Compared with C, differences in corresponding mean values were +13%, +5%, 0%, +2% and +16% higher for AC; +54%, +79%, +23%, +50% and +156% for T, and +4%, -16%, +29%, +11% and +121% for O. Conversely, when expressed per ha of land use, mean impacts were 10% to 60% lower for T and O systems, depending on the impact category. This was mainly because of higher land occupation per kg of pig produced, owing to feed production and the outdoor raising of sows and/or fattening pigs. The use of straw bedding tended to increase climate change impact per kg LW. The use of traditional local breeds, with reduced productivity and feed efficiency, resulted in higher impacts per kg LW for all impact categories. T systems with extensive outdoor raising of pigs resulted in markedly lower impact per ha of land used. Eutrophication potential per ha was substantially

  6. National program of family farm credit and impact on local economies in the state of Parana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Lopes Antunes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of the national credit for family farmers (PRONAF in savings of 60 municipal districts that hired credit between 2000 and 2005. The development of rural credit shows that from the 1990s, there is an expansion of contracts and resources, intensification occurs after 1999, when he introduces the distinction between family farmers. Family farming has great importance for the state economy, accounting for 45% of the production of major crops and 65% of animals. The study is empirical in nature econometric cross-section, is to determine the effect of PRONAF resources on social, tax and productive state. We conclude that there are statistically significant relationships between PRONAF and the variables selected for analysis and that after 13 years of its institutionalization, continues to fulfill the objective of promoting the development of family farming.

  7. Simulation Based Investigation of the Impact of Information Sharing on the Offshore Wind Farm Installation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Quandt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the introduction of a sustainable and green energy infrastructure, and, by this, the reduction of emissions caused by fossil energy generation, has been focused on by industry-oriented nations worldwide. Among the technologies of renewable energy generation, wind energy has the highest deployment rate, due to the high wind resource availability and the high technology maturity reached mainly by the onshore installation of wind turbines. However, the planning and the installation of offshore wind farms are a challenging task, because of harsh weather conditions and limited resource availability. Due to the current practice of decentralised information acquisition by the supply chain partners, we investigate the impact of sharing information on the installation process of offshore wind farms by means of a simulation model. Therefore, relevant information items will be identified in order to improve the installation process.

  8. Effect of shape and surface texture of aggregates during high intensity vertical shaft impact autogeneous crushing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samayamutthirian Palaniandy; Khairun Azizi Mohd Azizli

    2002-01-01

    The demand for quarry industry to produce high quality aggregates is increasing parallel with the demand of high strength concrete. Focus on the high quality aggregates production is very essential as 70% of the concrete consist of aggregates. High quality aggregate is characterised according to its shape, surface texture and its size distribution. The cubical and more equidimensional aggregates are characterised as high quality aggregates. Besides photomicrograph of aggregates, Flakiness and Elongation indices are important empirical measurements to determine the quality of the aggregates. The Barmac Rock On Rock Vertical Shaft Impactor proved that the shape of the aggregates can be improved by various crushing mechanisms as the EI and FI values were low and 75% of the cubical particles were observed in the crushed aggregates. (Author)

  9. Environmental impacts of alternative agricultural uses of poorly drained farm land in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pooja; Humphreys, James; Holden, Nicholas M

    2018-05-07

    Abolition of the milk quota in the European Union and favourable market conditions have stimulated the expansion of the dairy sector in Ireland, causing more milk to be produced from poorly drained land. This work evaluated the environmental impacts of alternative agricultural uses for poorly drained farm land in Ireland using life cycle assessment (LCA). The avoided burden of the displaced product was used to calculate the net environmental consequences in the context of regional or global markets. The impact categories evaluated were climate change, eutrophication and acidification, all expressed per hectare of land for the alternative land uses, which were pasture-based milk, suckler beef and lowland sheep production and coniferous forestry. Beef had the lowest net climate change impact with global marginal and average product substitution while sheep had the lowest net climate change impact with European displaced product. For net eutrophication and acidification, dairy had the lowest impacts with European and global average displaced product. With global marginal displaced product, forestry had the lowest net eutrophication impact and sheep had the lowest net acidification impact. From an Irish perspective, forestry would generate the lowest environmental impacts and would also increase soil carbon stock, but this was not the best land use option from global perspective. Overall it can be concluded that a pasture based dairy or sheep system would have the greatest net global impact reduction (i.e. greatest global benefit) as land use options for farms with poorly drained soils. Prioritizing climate change, suckler beef system would perhaps be more favourable. It is clear that the choice of the displaced regional or global co-product from the market has a great influence on the results and there is a need to consider more detailed consumption modelling to better understand the substitution process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bandwidth Impacts of Localizing Peer-to-Peer IP Video Traffic in Access and Aggregation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerpez Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the burgeoning impact of peer-to-peer (P2P traffic IP video traffic. High-quality IPTV or Internet TV has high-bandwidth requirements, and P2P IP video could severely strain broadband networks. A model for the popularity of video titles is given, showing that some titles are very popular and will often be available locally; making localized P2P attractive for video titles. The bandwidth impacts of localizing P2P video to try and keep traffic within a broadband access network area or within a broadband access aggregation network area are examined. Results indicate that such highly localized P2P video can greatly lower core bandwidth usage.

  11. Bandwidth Impacts of Localizing Peer-to-Peer IP Video Traffic in Access and Aggregation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Kerpez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the burgeoning impact of peer-to-peer (P2P traffic IP video traffic. High-quality IPTV or Internet TV has high-bandwidth requirements, and P2P IP video could severely strain broadband networks. A model for the popularity of video titles is given, showing that some titles are very popular and will often be available locally; making localized P2P attractive for video titles. The bandwidth impacts of localizing P2P video to try and keep traffic within a broadband access network area or within a broadband access aggregation network area are examined. Results indicate that such highly localized P2P video can greatly lower core bandwidth usage.

  12. The Brazilian energy matrix: Evolution analysis and its impact on farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamas, Wendell de Queiroz; Giacaglia, Giorgio Eugenio Oscare

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes a technical and economic analysis of the Brazilian matrix energy evaluation, aiming at the evaluation of impacts inherent to technological innovation involved on energy matrix and the sectoral development. Particular attention is given to biomass energy, natural gas, and conventional fuels, considering their impacts on agricultural activity, identifying the highest potential for investment in this sector. As a result, a clear view of the importance of agricultural sector participation in the context of the Brazilian energy is obtained, not only as a consumer, but mainly through self-production energy policy of waste reuse as biomass and of biofuels. - Highlights: • We analyze the impact of Brazilian energy matrix on farming. • We highlight the socio-political-economic impact on the agricultural sector. • We highlight the biofuels potential

  13. On the development and use of farm models for policy impact assessment in the European Union – A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Pytrik; Janssen, Sander; Jansen, Jacques; Ittersum, van Martin K.

    2018-01-01

    Farm models are potentially relevant tools for policy impact assessment. Governments and international organizations use impact assessment (IA) as an ex-ante policy process and procedure to evaluate impacts of policy options as part of the introduction of new policies. IA is increasingly used. This

  14. The Physics of Protoplanetesimal Dust Agglomerates. IX. Mechanical Properties of Dust Aggregates Probed by a Solid-projectile Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuragi, Hiroaki; Blum, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic characterization of mechanical properties of dust aggregates has been one of the most important problems to quantitatively discuss the dust growth in protoplanetary disks. We experimentally investigate the dynamic properties of dust aggregates by low-speed (≤slant 3.2 m s-1) impacts of solid projectiles. Spherical impactors made of glass, steel, or lead are dropped onto a dust aggregate with a packing fraction of ϕ = 0.35 under vacuum conditions. The impact results in cratering or fragmentation of the dust aggregate, depending on the impact energy. The crater shape can be approximated by a spherical segment and no ejecta are observed. To understand the underlying physics of impacts into dust aggregates, the motion of the solid projectile is acquired by a high-speed camera. Using the obtained position data of the impactor, we analyze the drag-force law and dynamic pressure induced by the impact. We find that there are two characteristic strengths. One is defined by the ratio between impact energy and crater volume and is ≃120 kPa. The other strength indicates the fragmentation threshold of dynamic pressure and is ≃10 kPa. The former characterizes the apparent plastic deformation and is consistent with the drag force responsible for impactor deceleration. The latter corresponds to the dynamic tensile strength to create cracks. Using these results, a simple model for the compaction and fragmentation threshold of dust aggregates is proposed. In addition, the comparison of drag-force laws for dust aggregates and loose granular matter reveals the similarities and differences between the two materials.

  15. Financial Impact of Foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks on pig farms in the Republic of Korea, 2014/2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hachung; Jeong, Wooseog; Han, Jun-Hee; Choi, Jida; Kang, Yong-Myung; Kim, Yong-Sang; Park, Hong-Sig; Carpenter, Tim E

    2018-01-01

    The financial impact of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) that occurred in 180 piggeries (100 farrow-to-finish and 80 fattening farms) confirmed infected during the 2014/2015 epidemic in the Republic of Korea was estimated at the farm level. The median loss due to slaughtering of pigs prior to their expected market weights was US$ 71.8 (uncovered compensation-compensation loss) plus US$ 57.3 (foregone net gain) per pig. Median loss per farm was US$ 27,487 (55.6% of total loss) for compensation and US$ 15,925 (44.4%) for foregone net gain. The total loss per farm (median, 25th-75th percentile) was US$ 43,822 (9,767-115,893), which represented 49.4% (11.5-112.8) of the annual net gain of pig farms. The total financial loss in 180 FMD outbreak pig farms was US$ 25.2 million, which was nearly one-half of the control cost (US$ 58.3 million) spent by the Korean government on this epidemic. The findings in this study should help planning to help reduce the impact at the farm level in the Republic of Korea in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Do Farm Programs Explain Mean and Variance of Technical Efficiency? Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan, Rahul; Shaik, Saleem; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2010-01-01

    Past literature has examined the importance of farm programs on the volatility and returns on general and agriculture economic growth. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of farm program payments on technical efficiency. The study used aggregate state level panel data from the U.S agricultural sector. Results indicate production increasing with increasing units of inputs. Results from this study indicate that farm program payments play an important role in technical efficienc...

  17. Impact assessment of on-farm research in canal command of Eastern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.S.; Sharma, R.B.; Khan, A.R.

    2001-05-01

    The Gandak irrigation project initiated in 1964 is one of India's biggest irrigation projects with a culturable command area of 0.96 and 0.44 million ha, respectively in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh states of India and 44100 ha in neighbouring Nepal. The impact assessment of on-farm research/demonstration projects made two to four years after their initiation at three different irrigation minors have shown considerable changes in the cropping patterns in these areas. The lands that were left fallow before the initiation of these projects have now been brought under cultivation resulting in enhanced productivity of major crops

  18. Preliminary manual of the wind farms impacts study; Manuel preliminaire de l'etude d'impact des parcs eoliens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    This document aims to present and propose tools and methods allowing the improve the environmental quality of the future wind farms projects. After a presentation of general notions on the wind farms and the economy of the wind energy, it presents the regulation and the procedures concerning the environmental impact. It proposes then the main possible effects and the impacts study themes. (A.L.B.)

  19. On-farm impact of cattle slurry manure management on biological soil quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, de R.G.M.; Brussaard, L.; Akkermans, A.D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of dairy cattle slurry management on soil biota, soil respiration and nitrogen (N) mineralization were evaluated in a farm trial across 12 farms and a field experiment on 2 farms located in a dairy farming area in the north of the Netherlands. The slurry management consisted of slit

  20. Analysis of Goat Farming on Integrated Farming System in Banyumas

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayat, NN

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research were : 1) to find out the income generated from goat farming and its contribution to farmer income in several farming combination, 2) to find out the economic efficiency in goat farming with paddy and fish production, 3) to determine factors affecting level of production and income in different farming system, partially and aggregately, and 4) to determine the best combination of farming which generated maximum income. Household farmer survey method was performe...

  1. Bio-economic modelling to assess the impact of water pricing policies at the farm level in the Oum Zessar watershed, southern Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeder, H.; Sghaier, M.; Louhchi, P.; Reidsma, P.

    2014-01-01

    For integrated assessment at farm level, the Farm System SIMulator model (FSSIM) was used. FSSIM is a bio-economic model developed for the European context, and was adapted and tested for Tunisian conditions to assess, ex-ante, impacts of water pricing policies at the farm level to the year 2015.

  2. Impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo state Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iheke, O.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was on the impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo State Nigeria. Multi-stage random sampling and purposive sampling technique was used in choosing the samples used for the study. Data collections were by the use of structured questionnaire and interview schedules and data analysis involved the computation per capital household food expenditure and mean per capita household expenditure so as to draw the poverty line and hence derive the poverty status of the respondents, regression analysis as well as computation of the Chow’s statistic. The results of data analysis revealed that poverty is more pronounced with the farm households that are not practicing agricultural intensification. The significant factors influencing the poverty level of the farmers practicing agricultural intensification were sex of household head, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income; while for the farmers not practicing intensification, household size, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. For the two households, age, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. Education, income and the dummy variable indicating intensification status were the significant factors influencing their poverty level for the entire household with a dummy introduced. The Chow’s test revealed that agricultual intensification has a positive and significant impact on poverty reduction. Therefore, creation of awareness and persuading rural farming households to practice more of intensified agriculture would lead increase in productivity and income with a multiplier effect on poverty reduction.

  3. Effects of offshore wind farms on marine wildlife—a generalized impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergström, Lena; Kautsky, Lena; Malm, Torleif; Åstrand Capetillo, Nastassja; Rosenberg, Rutger; Wahlberg, Magnus; Wilhelmsson, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Marine management plans over the world express high expectations to the development of offshore wind energy. This would obviously contribute to renewable energy production, but potential conflicts with other usages of the marine landscape, as well as conservation interests, are evident. The present study synthesizes the current state of understanding on the effects of offshore wind farms on marine wildlife, in order to identify general versus local conclusions in published studies. The results were translated into a generalized impact assessment for coastal waters in Sweden, which covers a range of salinity conditions from marine to nearly fresh waters. Hence, the conclusions are potentially applicable to marine planning situations in various aquatic ecosystems. The assessment considered impact with respect to temporal and spatial extent of the pressure, effect within each ecosystem component, and level of certainty. Research on the environmental effects of offshore wind farms has gone through a rapid maturation and learning process, with the bulk of knowledge being developed within the past ten years. The studies showed a high level of consensus with respect to the construction phase, indicating that potential impacts on marine life should be carefully considered in marine spatial planning. Potential impacts during the operational phase were more locally variable, and could be either negative or positive depending on biological conditions as well as prevailing management goals. There was paucity in studies on cumulative impacts and long-term effects on the food web, as well as on combined effects with other human activities, such as the fisheries. These aspects remain key open issues for a sustainable marine spatial planning. (paper)

  4. Effects of offshore wind farms on marine wildlife—a generalized impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Lena; Kautsky, Lena; Malm, Torleif; Rosenberg, Rutger; Wahlberg, Magnus; Åstrand Capetillo, Nastassja; Wilhelmsson, Dan

    2014-03-01

    Marine management plans over the world express high expectations to the development of offshore wind energy. This would obviously contribute to renewable energy production, but potential conflicts with other usages of the marine landscape, as well as conservation interests, are evident. The present study synthesizes the current state of understanding on the effects of offshore wind farms on marine wildlife, in order to identify general versus local conclusions in published studies. The results were translated into a generalized impact assessment for coastal waters in Sweden, which covers a range of salinity conditions from marine to nearly fresh waters. Hence, the conclusions are potentially applicable to marine planning situations in various aquatic ecosystems. The assessment considered impact with respect to temporal and spatial extent of the pressure, effect within each ecosystem component, and level of certainty. Research on the environmental effects of offshore wind farms has gone through a rapid maturation and learning process, with the bulk of knowledge being developed within the past ten years. The studies showed a high level of consensus with respect to the construction phase, indicating that potential impacts on marine life should be carefully considered in marine spatial planning. Potential impacts during the operational phase were more locally variable, and could be either negative or positive depending on biological conditions as well as prevailing management goals. There was paucity in studies on cumulative impacts and long-term effects on the food web, as well as on combined effects with other human activities, such as the fisheries. These aspects remain key open issues for a sustainable marine spatial planning.

  5. Impact of farm dams on river flows; A case study in the Limpopo River basin, Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Querner, E.P.; Boesveld, H.

    2013-01-01

    The study analysed the impact of a farm dam on the river flow in the Limpopo River basin. Two methods are used to calculate the water inflow: one uses the runoff component from the catchment water balance; the other uses the drainage output of the SIMFLOW model. The impact on the flow in a

  6. Using Milk Urea Nitrogen to Evaluate Diet Formulation and Environmental Impact on Dairy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Jonker

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing nitrogen (N excretion by dairy cattle is the most effective means to reduce N losses (runoff, volatilization, and leaching from dairy farms. The objectives of this review are to examine the use of milk urea nitrogen (MUN to measure N excretion and utilization efficiency in lactating dairy cows and to examine impacts of overfeeding N to dairy cows in the Chesapeake Bay drainage basin. A mathematical model was developed and evaluated with an independent literature data set to integrate MUN and milk composition to predict urinary and fecal excretion, intake, and utilization efficiency for N in lactating dairy cows. This model was subsequently used to develop target MUN concentrations for lactating dairy cattle fed according to National Research Council (NRC recommendations. Target values calculated in this manner were 8 to 14 mg/dl for a typical lactation and were most sensitive to change in milk production and crude protein intake. Routine use of MUN to monitor dairy cattle diets was introduced to dairy farms (n = 1156 in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Participating farmers (n = 454 were provided with the results of their MUN analyses and interpretive information monthly for a period of 6 months. The average MUN across all farms in the study increased in the spring, but the increase was 0.52 mg/dl lower for farmers receiving MUN results compared to those who did not participate in the program. This change indicated that participating farmers reduced N feeding compared to nonparticipants. Average efficiency of feed N utilization (N in milk / N in feed x 100 was 24.5% (SD = 4.5. On average, farmers fed 6.6% more N than recommended by the NRC, resulting in a 16% increase in urinary N and a 2.7% increase in fecal N compared to feeding to requirement. N loading to the Chesapeake Bay from overfeeding protein to lactating dairy cattle was estimated to be 7.6 million kg/year. MUN is a useful tool to measure diet adequacy and environmental impact

  7. Understanding the Impacts of Soil, Climate, and Farming Practices on Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration: A Simulation Study in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godde, Cécile M; Thorburn, Peter J; Biggs, Jody S; Meier, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils has the capacity to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, as well as to improve soil biological, physical, and chemical properties. The review of literature pertaining to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics within Australian grain farming systems does not enable us to conclude on the best farming practices to increase or maintain SOC for a specific combination of soil and climate. This study aimed to further explore the complex interactions of soil, climate, and farming practices on SOC. We undertook a modeling study with the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator modeling framework, by combining contrasting Australian soils, climates, and farming practices (crop rotations, and management within rotations, such as fertilization, tillage, and residue management) in a factorial design. This design resulted in the transposition of contrasting soils and climates in our simulations, giving soil-climate combinations that do not occur in the study area to help provide insights into the importance of the climate constraints on SOC. We statistically analyzed the model's outputs to determinate the relative contributions of soil parameters, climate, and farming practices on SOC. The initial SOC content had the largest impact on the value of SOC, followed by the climate and the fertilization practices. These factors explained 66, 18, and 15% of SOC variations, respectively, after 80 years of constant farming practices in the simulation. Tillage and stubble management had the lowest impacts on SOC. This study highlighted the possible negative impact on SOC of a chickpea phase in a wheat-chickpea rotation and the potential positive impact of a cover crop in a sub-tropical climate (QLD, Australia) on SOC. It also showed the complexities in managing to achieve increased SOC, while simultaneously aiming to minimize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate leaching in farming systems. The transposition of contrasting soils and climates in

  8. Understanding the Impacts of Soil, Climate and Farming Practices on Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration: a Simulation Study in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Marie Godde

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils has the capacity to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, as well as to improve soil biological, physical and chemical properties. The review of literature pertaining to soil organic carbon (SOC dynamics within Australian grain farming systems does not enable us to conclude on the best farming practices to increase or maintain SOC for a specific combination of soil and climate. This study aimed to further explore the complex interactions of soil, climate and farming practices on SOC. We undertook a modeling study with the APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator modeling framework, by combining contrasting Australian soils, climates and farming practices (crop rotations, and management within rotations, such as fertilization, tillage and residue management in a factorial design. This design resulted in the transposition of contrasting soils and climates in our simulations, giving soil-climate combinations that do not occur in the study area to help provide insights into the importance of the climate constraints on SOC. We statistically analyzed the model’s outputs to determinate the relative contributions of soil parameters, climate and farming practices on SOC. The initial SOC content had the largest impact on the value of SOC, followed by the climate and the fertilization practices. These factors explained 66%, 18% and 15% of SOC variations, respectively, after 80 years of constant farming practices in the simulation. Tillage and stubble management had the lowest impacts on SOC. This study highlighted the possible negative impact on SOC of a chickpea phase in a wheat-chickpea rotation and the potential positive impact of a cover crop in a sub-tropical climate (Queensland on SOC. It also showed the complexities in managing to achieve increased SOC, while simultaneously aiming to minimize nitrous oxide (N2O emissions and nitrate leaching in farming systems. The transposition of contrasting soils

  9. Evaluating aggregate terrestrial impacts of road construction projects for advanced regional mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, James H; Girvetz, Evan H; McCoy, Michael C

    2009-05-01

    This study presents a GIS-based database framework used to assess aggregate terrestrial habitat impacts from multiple highway construction projects in California, USA. Transportation planners need such impact assessment tools to effectively address additive biological mitigation obligations. Such assessments can reduce costly delays due to protracted environmental review. This project incorporated the best available statewide natural resource data into early project planning and preliminary environmental assessments for single and multiple highway construction projects, and provides an assessment of the 10-year state-wide mitigation obligations for the California Department of Transportation. Incorporation of these assessments will facilitate early and more strategic identification of mitigation opportunities, for single-project and regional mitigation efforts. The data architecture format uses eight spatial scales: six nested watersheds, counties, and transportation planning districts, which were intersected. This resulted in 8058 map planning units statewide, which were used to summarize all subsequent analyses. Range maps and georeferenced locations of federally and state-listed plants and animals and a 55-class landcover map were spatially intersected with the planning units and the buffered spatial footprint of 967 funded projects. Projected impacts were summarized and output to the database. Queries written in the database can sum expected impacts and provide summaries by individual construction project, or by watershed, county, transportation district or highway. The data architecture allows easy incorporation of new information and results in a tool usable without GIS by a wide variety of agency biologists and planners. The data architecture format would be useful for other types of regional planning.

  10. Evaluating Aggregate Terrestrial Impacts of Road Construction Projects for Advanced Regional Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, James H.; Girvetz, Evan H.; McCoy, Michael C.

    2009-05-01

    This study presents a GIS-based database framework used to assess aggregate terrestrial habitat impacts from multiple highway construction projects in California, USA. Transportation planners need such impact assessment tools to effectively address additive biological mitigation obligations. Such assessments can reduce costly delays due to protracted environmental review. This project incorporated the best available statewide natural resource data into early project planning and preliminary environmental assessments for single and multiple highway construction projects, and provides an assessment of the 10-year state-wide mitigation obligations for the California Department of Transportation. Incorporation of these assessments will facilitate early and more strategic identification of mitigation opportunities, for single-project and regional mitigation efforts. The data architecture format uses eight spatial scales: six nested watersheds, counties, and transportation planning districts, which were intersected. This resulted in 8058 map planning units statewide, which were used to summarize all subsequent analyses. Range maps and georeferenced locations of federally and state-listed plants and animals and a 55-class landcover map were spatially intersected with the planning units and the buffered spatial footprint of 967 funded projects. Projected impacts were summarized and output to the database. Queries written in the database can sum expected impacts and provide summaries by individual construction project, or by watershed, county, transportation district or highway. The data architecture allows easy incorporation of new information and results in a tool usable without GIS by a wide variety of agency biologists and planners. The data architecture format would be useful for other types of regional planning.

  11. Modeled Impacts of Farming Practices and Structural Agricultural Changes on Nitrogen Fluxes in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim de Vries

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands, nutrient emissions from intensive animal husbandry have contributed to decreased species diversity in (semi natural terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, pollution of groundwater, and possibly global warming due to N2O emissions. This paper presents the results of a modelling study presenting the impacts of both structural measures and improved farming practices on major nitrogen (N fluxes, including NH3 and N2O emission, uptake, leaching, and runoff, in the Netherlands, using input data for the year 2000. Average annual fluxes (Gg N year–1 for the year 2000 were estimated at 132 for NH3 emission (160 Gg NH3 year–1, 28 for N2O emission, 50 for N inflow to groundwater, and 15 for N inflow to surface water at a total N input of 1046. At this input, nitrate (NO3 concentrations in groundwater often exceeded the target of 50 mg NO3 l–1, specifically in well-drained sandy soils. The ammonia (NH3 emissions exceeded emission targets that were set to protect the biodiversity of nonagricultural land. Improved farming practices were calculated to lead to a significant reduction in NH3 emissions to the atmosphere and N leaching and runoff to groundwater and surface water, but these improvements were not enough to reach all the targets set for those fluxes. Only strong structural measures clearly improved the situation. The NH3 emission target of 30 Gg NH3 year–1, suggested for the year 2030, could not be attained, however, unless pig and poultry farming is completely banned in the Netherlands and all cattle stay almost permanently in low emission stables.

  12. The economic impact of infection with Eimeria spp. in broiler farms from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Györke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A survey was conducted on chicken broiler farms from Romania in August-November 2010 to evaluate economic losses due to coccidiosis. Data were collected from six broiler farms of different capacity regarding chemoprophylaxis program, weight gain, feed conversion, and mortality, for two previous flocks in two houses of each farm, and finally we evaluated the economic losses. Also, faeces samples were collected and oocysts were classified according to their size, and virulence of each Eimeria spp. field isolate was determined by lesion scoring. Correlations between economic performance, oocysts category, and virulence of Eimeria were assessed by multiple linear regression. Total economic losses per 24 flocks of 18,000 chicks each were about €37,948.2, with an average of €3,162.4 per flock, and they were caused by mortality (34.8% and poor feed conversion (65.2%. Poor body weight gain was associated with AM oocyst category (presumptively E. acervulina and/or E. mitis, high lesion score in the duodenum, and coccidiostat used for chemoprophylaxis. Feed conversion ratio was linked to the same parameters as body weight gain, minus chemoprophylaxis programme, plus total lesion score. The percentage of mortality was influenced by the lesion score in the caecum and total lesion score. Statistical analysis showed that epidemiological survey of broiler flocks during the grower period can help the farmer to avoid important economic losses due to coccidiosis. As in other countries, the economic losses caused by coccidiosis in Romania are important, and a good prophylaxis programme can reduce the economic impact of coccidiosis.

  13. Economic impacts of climate change: Methods of estimating impacts at an aggregate level using Hordaland as an illustration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaheim, Asbjoern

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses methods for calculating economic impacts of climate change, and uses Hordaland county in Norway as an illustrative example. The calculations are based on estimated climate changes from the RegClim project. This study draws from knowledge of the relationship between economic activity and climate at a disaggregate level and calculates changes in production of and demand for goods and services within aggregate sectors, which are specified in the county budget for Hordaland. Total impacts for the county thus are expressed through known values from the national budget, such as the county's ''national product'', total consumption, and investments. The estimates of impacts of climate changes at a disaggregate level in Hordaland are quantified only to small degree. The calculations made in this report can thus only be considered appropriate for illustrating methods and interpretations. In terms of relative economic significance for the county, however, it is likely that the hydropower sector will be the most affected. Increased precipitation will result in greater production potential, but profitability will largely depend on projected energy prices and investment costs associated with expansion. Agriculture and forestry will increase their production potential, but they are relatively small sectors in the county. Compared with the uncertainty about how climate change will affect production, however, the uncertainty about changes in demand is far greater. The demand for personal transportation and construction in particular can have significant consequences for the county's economy. (author)

  14. Impactos ambientais da carcinicultura de águas interiores Environmental impacts of the inland shrimp farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cléa Brito de Figueirêdo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é identificar os principais aspectos e impactos ambientais relacionados à carcinicultura em águas interiores, através da análise das etapas do processo e dos diferentes tipos de cultivo, em 32 fazendas localizadas nas bacias do Médio e Baixo Jaguaribe, Ceará, Brasil. Essa avaliação foi realizada aplicando-se questionários e realizando-se a caracterização dos efluentes e do solo de 3 viveiros selecionados. Os principais impactos ambientais estão relacionados à ocupação de áreas de preservação permanente pelos viveiros de engorda, conflitos pelo uso da água em região semi-árida, contaminação de corpos hídricos que são fonte de abastecimento humano para os municípios da região e aumento de doenças entre os trabalhadores rurais pela manipulação inadequada de produtos químicos durante o cultivo. Esses impactos podem ser reduzidos a níveis compatíveis com a capacidade de suporte do meio, quando respeitada a legislação e adotada boas práticas de manejo. Recomenda-se também a condução de estudos que avaliem a capacidade de suporte da bacia hidrográfica, visando balizar o licenciamento ambiental e a concessão de outorgas de água para o desenvolvimento da atividade.This work aims to identify the main environmental aspects and impacts of the inland shrimp farming, through the analysis of the process stages and different cultivation techniques in farms located in the Baixo Jaguaribe region, Ceará State, Brazil. This evaluation was done applying questionnaires along with all farm owners or managers and making physical-chemical analysis of the effluents and the tanks soil in three selected farms. The main environmental impacts identified are related to the occupation of preservation areas by the shrimp tanks, greater conflicts between water users, contamination of the water resources that are also the main source of drinking water to the municipalities and the increase of diseases among

  15. Impacts of glycolate and formate radiolysis and thermolysis on hydrogen generation rate calculations for the Savannah River Site tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-14

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) personnel requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluate available data and determine its applicability to defining the impact of planned glycolate anion additions to Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) on Tank Farm flammability (primarily with regard to H2 production). Flammability evaluations of formate anion, which is already present in SRS waste, were also needed. This report describes the impacts of glycolate and formate radiolysis and thermolysis on Hydrogen Generation Rate (HGR) calculations for the SRS Tank Farm.

  16. Impacts on the environment and landscape of new energy productions on farm parcels and buildings, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointereau, Ph.; Bochu, J.L.; Couturier, Ch.; Coulon, F.; Arnal, A.; Giorgis, S.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims at identifying positive and negative impacts of new energy productions implemented in farms on the environment (water, soil, biodiversity, space occupancy) and on landscapes, and at proposing techniques and regulations to strengthen positive consequences and to limit possible problems created by these energy productions. The considered productions are: trees apart from forest (hedges and copses), new farm energetic crops (Miscanthus for example), solar equipment (photovoltaic mounted on buildings or on ground, solar hot water and solar dryers), biogas production equipment, hydraulic micro-plants. The authors addressed the following environmental impacts: water (in quantity and quality), soils (quality, erosion risks), biodiversity, space occupancy (with respect to other activities), and landscape

  17. Environmental impact of sea bass cage farming in the north Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lanari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research was to reduce the organic and nutrient load under the net pen fish farms. An exper- iment was conducted to study the effects of artificial barriers fixed under a set of sea cages in order to reduce the envi- ronmental impact. The artificial barriers were made of four submerged galvanized steel pipes coated with plastic and placed on the sea floor (10 m depth in the Trieste gulf. The experimental design was as follows: control (C, cages with barriers (B, cages without barriers (WB. Measurements were taken on the surface as well as at 4 and 8m of depth. The trial lasted from the end of June 2000 to December 2001. Water quality parameters were not significantly influenced by the fish cages. Surface samples were characterised by lower levels of salinity and higher levels of oxygen and nitrate compared to those taken at 4 and 8 m. The artificial barriers favoured the establishment of a rich epiphytic fauna that took advantage of the presence of organic matter derived from fish cages. The two species Nucula nucleusand Neanthes caudataand the total bacterial counts were identified as potential indicators of pollution under the fish cage farms.

  18. Farmed fish welfare-suffering assessment and impact on product quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Maria Poli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish welfare, suffering and the perception of pain were debated, together with several factors reducing infra vitam welfare of farmed fish (genetic, environment, density, malnutrition, starvation, cataracts, deformities, vaccination side effects, transport, handling, confinement, crowding, harvesting, killing method. Behavioural and physiological stress responses were considered as indicators of welfare reduction. The effects of pre-slaughter management practices, and the most commonly used stunning/slaughtering methods on welfare and quality reduction of farmed fish were discussed. A number of indicators can be used to assess fish welfare-suffering, both in a scientific and practical context, such as behavioural, haematic, cellular, tissue post mortem fish stress and quality indicators, but none of them are optimal. The best strategy for a reliable assessment of fish welfare/suffering and their impact on product quality is a multidisciplinary approach that takes into account animal behaviour and the different biochemical and physiological ante mortem and post mortem processes involved: several components, all influenced in a similar way by the same condition, suggest real welfare and quality reduction.

  19. Life Cycle Environmental Impact of Onshore and Offshore Wind Farms in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesuina Chipindula

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The last decade witnessed a quantum increase in wind energy contribution to the U.S. renewable electricity mix. Although the overall environmental impact of wind energy is miniscule in comparison to fossil-fuel energy, the early stages of the wind energy life cycle have potential for a higher environmental impact. This study attempts to quantify the relative contribution of individual stages toward life cycle impacts by conducting a life cycle assessment with SimaPro® and the Impact 2002+ impact assessment method. A comparative analysis of individual stages at three locations, onshore, shallow-water, and deep-water, in Texas and the gulf coast indicates that material extraction/processing would be the dominant stage with an average impact contribution of 72% for onshore, 58% for shallow-water, and 82% for deep-water across the 15 midpoint impact categories. The payback times for CO2 and energy consumption range from 6 to 14 and 6 to 17 months, respectively, with onshore farms having shorter payback times. The greenhouse gas emissions (GHG were in the range of 5–7 gCO2eq/kWh for the onshore location, 6–9 CO2eq/kWh for the shallow-water location, and 6–8 CO2eq/kWh for the deep-water location. A sensitivity analysis of the material extraction/processing stage to the electricity sourcing stage indicates that replacement of lignite coal with natural gas or wind would lead to marginal improvements in midpoint impact categories.

  20. Nematodes as indicators of shrimp farm impact on an amazonian estuary (Curuçá, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virag Venekey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Shrimp farming reduces demand on wild fishery stocks and avoids environmental damage resulting from fishing practices, however, it has the potential to affect the water quality if not properly managed. In this study the impacts of a shrimp farm in an Amazonian estuary were evaluated, focusing on changes in nematodes regarding taxonomic composition, richness, density and diversity. Sampling was conducted in August 2004 (dry season and January 2005 (rainy season in the river at stations situated upstream and downstream at different distances from the main source of farm effluent discharge. Thirty-eight genera were recorded with Terschellingia dominating in the dry season and Terschellingia, Daptonema, Ptycholaimellus and Gomphionema in the rainy season. Abundances were within the range recorded in other estuaries and together with genera richness and diversity showed a strong temporal pattern with significantly higher values in the rainy season. No clear patterns of changes were observed at the stations. Some signs of organic enrichment were detected but they were not yet intense, probably a consequence of the strong local hydrodynamics and the age of the shrimp farm, which was just starting its operation. We recommend that in future studies on farming impacts a combination of factors, beyond the physical and chemical parameters of the water and sediments or taxonomic refinement, should be taken into account - such as the duration of the operation of the farm, the area occupied by ponds and the farm's production. Furthermore, we also believe that nematodes are a useful tool for evaluating aquaculture impacts due to the ease of sampling and because they are organisms at the base of marine food chain.

  1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  2. The impact of biogas production on the circularity of nitrogen flows around a dairy farm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Dieu Linh; Davis, Christopher Bryan; Nonhebel, Sanderine; Dijkema, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Dairy farms require a significant amount of nitrogen to enter the production system via cattle fodder, which in intensive farming can be traced back to artificial fertilizers. As a by-product of dairy farms, cattle manure contains undigested nitrogen that allows the farmers to reuse it for their

  3. Unstructured grid modelling of offshore wind farm impacts on seasonally stratified shelf seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Pierre William; Torres, Ricardo; Allen, J. Icarus

    2016-06-01

    Shelf seas comprise approximately 7% of the world's oceans and host enormous economic activity. Development of energy installations (e.g. Offshore Wind Farms (OWFs), tidal turbines) in response to increased demand for renewable energy requires a careful analysis of potential impacts. Recent remote sensing observations have identified kilometre-scale impacts from OWFs. Existing modelling evaluating monopile impacts has fallen into two camps: small-scale models with individually resolved turbines looking at local effects; and large-scale analyses but with sub-grid scale turbine parameterisations. This work straddles both scales through a 3D unstructured grid model (FVCOM): wind turbine monopiles in the eastern Irish Sea are explicitly described in the grid whilst the overall grid domain covers the south-western UK shelf. Localised regions of decreased velocity extend up to 250 times the monopile diameter away from the monopile. Shelf-wide, the amplitude of the M2 tidal constituent increases by up to 7%. The turbines enhance localised vertical mixing which decreases seasonal stratification. The spatial extent of this extends well beyond the turbines into the surrounding seas. With significant expansion of OWFs on continental shelves, this work highlights the importance of how OWFs may impact coastal (e.g. increased flooding risk) and offshore (e.g. stratification and nutrient cycling) areas.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF LIMITATION ON USE OUTFLOW POLLUTION WITH RURAL FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Szymczyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of the movement of mineral and organic substances in the agro-forestry catchment is decisive influenced by weather conditions. Intensive drainage caused an increase in the outflow of the substances of the farmstead. Rural farm located on light soils is a major source of groundwater contamination by organic and mineral substances. An important role in the through of pollutants migration played an ecological area, which contributed to a significant reduction in the concentration of the ash components, chlorides and sulfates in groundwater, and consequently reduced the negative impact of farmstead on the water quality in a nearby pond. Periodically functioning supply of forest area by groundwater of the midfield pond contributed to the deterioration of groundwater quality in the forest.

  5. Reduced carbon sequestration in a Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) ecosystem impacted by fish farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apostolaki, E; Holmer, Marianne; Marbà, N

    2011-01-01

    We studied the relationship between sediment nutrient enrichment and carbon sequestration, using the ratio of gross primary production to respiration (P/R), in a fish-farming impacted and an unaffected Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) ecosystem in the Aegean Sea, Greece. Carbon (C......), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sedimentation, nutrient pools in sediment and dissolved nutrients in pore water were significantly and positively intercorrelated, indicating close linkage between sedimentation and sediment nutrient pools in seagrass meadows. C, N and P sediment pools were significantly...... nutrient enrichment. Threshold values are given for C, N and P sedimentation rates and sediment pools, and for N and P concentrations in pore waters, after which P/R ratio in the seagrass meadow decreases below 1, indicating a shift from autotrophy to heterotrophy with sediment nutrient enrichment...

  6. 45 CFR 2526.55 - What is the impact of the aggregate value of education awards received on an individual's ability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... value of education awards received on an individual's ability to serve in subsequent terms of service? The aggregate value of education awards an individual has received will not impact an individual's... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the impact of the aggregate value of...

  7. Platelet indices as markers of platelet turnover and aggregation: pathophysiological interpretation, clinical impact, perspectives in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinova L.I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the review is to characterize existing in open access bibliographical databases such as eLibrary and PubMed evidence on clinical impact of morphometric platelet indices as markers of platelet aggregation ability and turnover as a methodology and theoretical framework of further investigation. Studies results were pooled from open access bibliographic databases (eLibrary, and PubMed according to modified PRISMA algorithm. Relevant studies were identified by systematic searches of the original studies published during the last 10 years in the Russian and English languages. Results of 96 original studies in accordance with inclusion criteria were published during the last 10 years in scientific journals indexed in eLibrary, and PubMed. The majority of publications (64.58% consist of evidence pro diagnostic and prognostic significance of platelet indices. Studies demonstrating the significance of platelet indices as possible risk markers of thrombotic events in cardiovascular patients were predominating among "pro" publications. In 15.63% published results contradict concept of platelet indices usefulness as diagnostic and prognostic markers in clinical practice. Morphometric platelet indices can be considered as useful diagnostic and prognostic markers of thrombotic events in cardiovascular patients. Existing gaps in evidence suggest the need of further investigations.

  8. Carbonated miscanthus mineralized aggregates for reducing environmental impact of lightweight concrete blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courard Luc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At a time when the cement industry is largely responsible for the production of CO2 in the construction sector, it is useful to make this production a reverse phenomenon: that is CO2 capture. The CO2 absorption process called carbonation, improves specific properties of the concrete during the conversion of carbon dioxide CO2 into calcium carbonate CaCO3. Current environmental concerns motivate the study of carbonation in order to maximize the absorption of carbon dioxide. Moreover, lightweight concrete with bio-based products knows an interesting development in the construction field, especially as thermal insulation panels for walls in buildings. Before identifying and quantifying the basic physical characteristics of concrete made from miscanthus, it is necessary to optimize the composition of the product. The long-term stability as well as the reinforcement may be obtained by means of a mineralization process of the natural product: a preparation with a lime and/or cement-based material is necessary to reinforce the cohesion of the bio-based product. Mineralization process is described as well as the way of producing blocks for CO2 capture by means of accelerated carbonation. Finally, concrete blocks produced with miscanthus mineralized aggregates offer interesting mechanical properties and minimal environmental impact.

  9. Marine environmental impact assessment of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, cage farm in Wan-do, Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Taik; Jung, Rae-Hong; Cho, Yoon-Sik; Hwang, Dong-Woon; Yi, Yong-Min

    2015-12-01

    To assess the marine environmental impacts of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, cage farms in Wan-do, we monitored the benthic environment on top of the sediment underneath cage farm stations and reference stations. We applied two methods for this assessment. One was the A- and B-investigation of the MOM system (Modeling-On fish farm-Monitoring) developed in Norway. The other was a general environmental monitoring method which is widely used. In this study, we found benthic animals in all samples that belonged to condition 1 which were based on group 1(presence of macrofauna) of the B-investigation method. The values of redox potential (group 2-pH, redox potential) in all samples were above +65 mV belonging to condition 1. Based on sensory results (group 3-gas, color, odor, thickness of deposits), five out of seven experiment samples showed condition 1 while stations 2 and 7 showed condition 2, which have been cultured for 10 years in semi-closed waters. As group 2 takes precedence over group 3, the level of the conditions for B-investigation results consequently showed condition 1 in all stations. We found that pollutants and trace metals in the sediment underneath cage farms were lower than the pollution standard. This led us to conclude that the environmental impacts of the cage farms in this study were not significant.

  10. The visual impact and design of wind farms in the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, C.

    1995-01-01

    Most windfarm proposals within the United Kingdom have faced a degree of public contention. This has often resulted from a lack of detailed information on the potential impact of windfarms. The support and trust of the public will only be obtained if windfarms are designed to the highest possible standards in all instances. For this to be possible, there is a need for detailed guidelines on windfarm design. To develop such guidelines this study examined the visual impact of a number of existing windfarms within the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Denmark, to analyse the relationship between the windfarm location, design and the nature of its visual impact. Wind farm development was found to be visually viable in most areas where technically practical. The ideal type of development, however, varies greatly with the individual characteristics of a landscape. This means that although strategic planning control of windfarms is necessary, detailed landscape assessment specific to windfarms, together with design exploration, is more appropriate for determining windfarm location and type, than landscape designation. (Author)

  11. Assessing environmental impacts of offshore wind farms: lessons learned and recommendations for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Helen; Brookes, Kate L; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind power provides a valuable source of renewable energy that can help reduce carbon emissions. Technological advances are allowing higher capacity turbines to be installed and in deeper water, but there is still much that is unknown about the effects on the environment. Here we describe the lessons learned based on the recent literature and our experience with assessing impacts of offshore wind developments on marine mammals and seabirds, and make recommendations for future monitoring and assessment as interest in offshore wind energy grows around the world. The four key lessons learned that we discuss are: 1) Identifying the area over which biological effects may occur to inform baseline data collection and determining the connectivity between key populations and proposed wind energy sites, 2) The need to put impacts into a population level context to determine whether they are biologically significant, 3) Measuring responses to wind farm construction and operation to determine disturbance effects and avoidance responses, and 4) Learn from other industries to inform risk assessments and the effectiveness of mitigation measures. As the number and size of offshore wind developments increases, there will be a growing need to consider the population level consequences and cumulative impacts of these activities on marine species. Strategically targeted data collection and modeling aimed at answering questions for the consenting process will also allow regulators to make decisions based on the best available information, and achieve a balance between climate change targets and environmental legislation.

  12. Climate change impact and adaptation research requires integrated assessment and farming systems analysis: a case study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Wolf, J.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Schaap, B.F.; Mandryk, M.; Verhagen, J.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Rather than on crop modelling only, climate change impact assessments in agriculture need to be based on integrated assessment and farming systems analysis, and account for adaptation at different levels. With a case study for Flevoland, the Netherlands, we illustrate that (1) crop models cannot

  13. Economic and Environmental Impacts of Improving Growth Rate and Feed Efficiency in Fish Farming Depend on Nitrogen and Density Limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besson, M.; Komen, H.; Vandeputte, M.; Aubin, J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of fish breeding is to increase profit by producing faster growing fish with lower feed intake. However, little is known about the economic and environmental impacts of selective breeding programs for fish. We modelled a fish farm producing African catfish in a Recirculating Aquaculture

  14. Assessing the risk of impact of farming intensification on calcareous grasslands in Europe: a quantitative implementation of the MIRABEL framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit, S.; Elbersen, B.S.

    2006-01-01

    Intensification of farming practices is still a major driver of biodiversity loss in Europe, despite the implementation of policies that aim to reverse this trend. A conceptual framework called MIRABEL was previously developed that enabled a qualitative and expert-based assessment of the impact of

  15. Impact of Spatial Soil and Climate Input Data Aggregation on Regional Yield Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Holger; Zhao, Gang; Asseng, Senthold; Bindi, Marco; Biernath, Christian; Constantin, Julie; Coucheney, Elsa; Dechow, Rene; Doro, Luca; Eckersten, Henrik; Gaiser, Thomas; Grosz, Balázs; Heinlein, Florian; Kassie, Belay T; Kersebaum, Kurt-Christian; Klein, Christian; Kuhnert, Matthias; Lewan, Elisabet; Moriondo, Marco; Nendel, Claas; Priesack, Eckart; Raynal, Helene; Roggero, Pier P; Rötter, Reimund P; Siebert, Stefan; Specka, Xenia; Tao, Fulu; Teixeira, Edmar; Trombi, Giacomo; Wallach, Daniel; Weihermüller, Lutz; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Ewert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We show the error in water-limited yields simulated by crop models which is associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate input data. Crop simulations at large scales (regional, national, continental) frequently use input data of low resolution. Therefore, climate and soil data are often generated via averaging and sampling by area majority. This may bias simulated yields at large scales, varying largely across models. Thus, we evaluated the error associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate data for 14 crop models. Yields of winter wheat and silage maize were simulated under water-limited production conditions. We calculated this error from crop yields simulated at spatial resolutions from 1 to 100 km for the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Most models showed yields biased by <15% when aggregating only soil data. The relative mean absolute error (rMAE) of most models using aggregated soil data was in the range or larger than the inter-annual or inter-model variability in yields. This error increased further when both climate and soil data were aggregated. Distinct error patterns indicate that the rMAE may be estimated from few soil variables. Illustrating the range of these aggregation effects across models, this study is a first step towards an ex-ante assessment of aggregation errors in large-scale simulations.

  16. Impact of Spatial Soil and Climate Input Data Aggregation on Regional Yield Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Hoffmann

    Full Text Available We show the error in water-limited yields simulated by crop models which is associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate input data. Crop simulations at large scales (regional, national, continental frequently use input data of low resolution. Therefore, climate and soil data are often generated via averaging and sampling by area majority. This may bias simulated yields at large scales, varying largely across models. Thus, we evaluated the error associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate data for 14 crop models. Yields of winter wheat and silage maize were simulated under water-limited production conditions. We calculated this error from crop yields simulated at spatial resolutions from 1 to 100 km for the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Most models showed yields biased by <15% when aggregating only soil data. The relative mean absolute error (rMAE of most models using aggregated soil data was in the range or larger than the inter-annual or inter-model variability in yields. This error increased further when both climate and soil data were aggregated. Distinct error patterns indicate that the rMAE may be estimated from few soil variables. Illustrating the range of these aggregation effects across models, this study is a first step towards an ex-ante assessment of aggregation errors in large-scale simulations.

  17. Impact of Aggregates Size and Fibers on basic Mechanical Properties of Asphalt Emulsion—Cement Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jun; Liu, Zhihong; Liu, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Asphalt Emulsion—Cement Concrete (AECC) is currently considered as a typical semi-flexibility material. One of the disadvantages of this material is brittle fracture and lacking ductility. This study aims at accelerating the basic mechanical properties of AECC using fibers and different aggregates size. The mix of AECC was introduced and the different content of fibers and aggregates size were studied. The results showed that the smaller aggregates size could improve the young’s modulus and compressive strength as well as fiber. The modulus-compressive strength ratio of fiber reinforced AECC is always below 500.

  18. Impacts of Cropping Systems on Aggregates Associated Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in a Semiarid Highland Agroecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashu Chu

    Full Text Available The effect of cropping system on the distribution of organic carbon (OC and nitrogen (N in soil aggregates has not been well addressed, which is important for understanding the sequestration of OC and N in agricultural soils. We analyzed the distribution of OC and N associated with soil aggregates in three unfertilized cropping systems in a 27-year field experiment: continuously cropped alfalfa, continuously cropped wheat and a legume-grain rotation. The objectives were to understand the effect of cropping system on the distribution of OC and N in aggregates and to examine the relationships between the changes in OC and N stocks in total soils and in aggregates. The cropping systems increased the stocks of OC and N in total soils (0-40 cm at mean rates of 15.6 g OC m-2 yr-1 and 1.2 g N m-2 yr-1 relative to a fallow control. The continuous cropping of alfalfa produced the largest increases at the 0-20 cm depth. The OC and N stocks in total soils were significantly correlated with the changes in the >0.053 mm aggregates. 27-year of cropping increased OC stocks in the >0.053 mm size class of aggregates and N stocks in the >0.25 mm size class but decreased OC stocks in the 0.25 mm aggregate size class accounted for more than 97% of the total increases in the continuous wheat and the legume-grain rotation systems. These results suggested that long-term cropping has the potential to sequester OC and N in soils and that the increases in soil OC and N stocks were mainly due to increases associated with aggregates >0.053 mm.

  19. Impact of Spatial Soil and Climate Input Data Aggregation on Regional Yield Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Holger; Zhao, Gang; Asseng, Senthold; Bindi, Marco; Biernath, Christian; Constantin, Julie; Coucheney, Elsa; Dechow, Rene; Doro, Luca; Eckersten, Henrik; Gaiser, Thomas; Grosz, Balázs; Heinlein, Florian; Kassie, Belay T.; Kersebaum, Kurt-Christian; Klein, Christian; Kuhnert, Matthias; Lewan, Elisabet; Moriondo, Marco; Nendel, Claas; Priesack, Eckart; Raynal, Helene; Roggero, Pier P.; Rötter, Reimund P.; Siebert, Stefan; Specka, Xenia; Tao, Fulu; Teixeira, Edmar; Trombi, Giacomo; Wallach, Daniel; Weihermüller, Lutz; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Ewert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We show the error in water-limited yields simulated by crop models which is associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate input data. Crop simulations at large scales (regional, national, continental) frequently use input data of low resolution. Therefore, climate and soil data are often generated via averaging and sampling by area majority. This may bias simulated yields at large scales, varying largely across models. Thus, we evaluated the error associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate data for 14 crop models. Yields of winter wheat and silage maize were simulated under water-limited production conditions. We calculated this error from crop yields simulated at spatial resolutions from 1 to 100 km for the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Most models showed yields biased by data. The relative mean absolute error (rMAE) of most models using aggregated soil data was in the range or larger than the inter-annual or inter-model variability in yields. This error increased further when both climate and soil data were aggregated. Distinct error patterns indicate that the rMAE may be estimated from few soil variables. Illustrating the range of these aggregation effects across models, this study is a first step towards an ex-ante assessment of aggregation errors in large-scale simulations. PMID:27055028

  20. Global Farm Animal Production and Global Warming: Impacting and Mitigating Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Koneswaran, Gowri; Nierenberg, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Background The farm animal sector is the single largest anthropogenic user of land, contributing to many environmental problems, including global warming and climate change. Objectives The aim of this study was to synthesize and expand upon existing data on the contribution of farm animal production to climate change. Methods We analyzed the scientific literature on farm animal production and documented greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as various mitigation strategies. Discussions An a...

  1. Proposed Columbia Wind Farm number-sign 1. Joint NEPA/SEPA draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) addresses the Columbia Wind Farm number-sign 1 (Project) proposal for construction and operation of a 25 megawatt (MW) wind power project in the Columbia Hills area southeast of Goldendale in Klickitat County, Washington. The Project would be constructed on private land by Conservation and Renewable Energy System (CARES) (the Applicant). An Environmental Impact Statement is required under both NEPA and SEPA guidelines and is issued under Section 102 (2) (C) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) at 42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq and under the Washington State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) as provided by RCW 43.21C.030 (2) (c). Bonneville Power Administration is the NEPA lead agency; Klickitat County is the nominal SEPA lead agency and CARES is the SEPA co-lead agency for this DEIS. The Project site is approximately 395 hectares (975 acres) in size. The Proposed Action would include approximately 91 model AWT-26 wind turbines. Under the No Action Alternative, the Project would not be constructed and existing grazing and agricultural activities on the site would continue

  2. INTEGRATED DESEASE MANAGEMENT FOR CHILI FARMING IN BREBES AND MAGELANG - CENTRAL JAVA: SOCIAL ECONOMIC IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Mariyono

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the impact of an integrated disease management (IDM on chilli. Chili disease control technologies that include crop barrier with corn and Crotalaria, and compost tea have been introduced to farmers in Magelang and Brebes. A qualitative approach was used to assess and estimate the socio-economic impact of agricultural research. The study was conducted in 2011. The results showed that based on land use chili, the net economic benefits generated was relatively low. There were only a few farmers who have adopted the technology on chili peppers. Furthermore, the survey also illustrates that three years after its introduction in 2007 the technology status at farm level was just at consciousness phase. Learning of this fact, a thorough evaluation of the technology on chili pepper should be done immediately. Research institutions which have developed the technology should encourage bottom-up initiatives and build a shared commitment to complete the implementation of a clear strategic plan. The adoption of the strategic plan should include the integration of research activities with promotional activities for example by revitalizing participatory approaches to awareness of farmers.

  3. Proposed Columbia Wind Farm No. 1 : Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Joint NEPA/SEPA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Klickitat County (Wash.)

    1995-03-01

    This Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) addresses the Columbia Wind Farm {number_sign}1 (Project) proposal for construction and operation of a 25 megawatt (MW) wind power project in the Columbia Hills area southeast of Goldendale in Klickitat County, Washington. The Project would be constructed on private land by Conservation and Renewable Energy System (CARES) (the Applicant). An Environmental Impact Statement is required under both NEPA and SEPA guidelines and is issued under Section 102 (2) (C) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) at 42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq and under the Washington State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) as provided by RCW 43.21C.030 (2) (c). Bonneville Power Administration is the NEPA lead agency; Klickitat County is the nominal SEPA lead agency and CARES is the SEPA co-lead agency for this DEIS. The Project site is approximately 395 hectares (975 acres) in size. The Proposed Action would include approximately 91 model AWT-26 wind turbines. Under the No Action Alternative, the Project would not be constructed and existing grazing and agricultural activities on the site would continue.

  4. Learning from the Neighbors: Economic and Environmental Impacts from Intensive Shrimp Farming in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuy T.H. Nguyen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Intensive shrimp farming is a lucrative and highly risky business. Before entering this industry, most farmers spend time observing the operation of pilot farms. This stage is important to master essential techniques and judge the profitability and risk associated with shrimp farming. Learning is a complex process that leads to misconceptions about the nature of short-term and long-term risks. This paper uses computer simulation to illuminate the dynamic nature of the learning processes, land conversion, shrimp production and environmental contamination. The model is based on conditions of the Dai Hoa Loc Commune in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Initial simulations match statistical data by revealing the high risk: high initial profits from the pilot farms followed by conversion from rice land to shrimp farms. When rapid conversion occurs, the region is vulnerable to excessive accumulation of nutrients, a decline in shrimp yields and financial failure. In contrast, low stock densities deliver a lower profit which is insufficient to stimulate mass land conversion. The paper concludes with testing recovery strategies for farmers who have suffered the longer term impacts of high stocking density. Results show that yield recovery is possible by improving the channel and imposing regulatory control over stocking density.

  5. The 2007-2009 Financial Crisis: Changing Market Dynamics and the Impact of Credit Supply and Aggregate Demand Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Theoharry Grammatikos; Robert Vermeulen

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the impact of credit supply and aggregate demand sensitivity on 91 US industries' stock performance during the 2007-2009 financial crisis. We account explicitly for changes in the market model and investigate, next to stock returns, the changes in systematic risk and idiosyncratic return induced by the financial crisis. The results show that leverage has a significantly positive effect on systematic risk changes during the financial crisis. After accounting for the chang...

  6. Organic Farming: Biodiversity Impacts Can Depend on Dispersal Characteristics and Landscape Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feber, Ruth E.; Johnson, Paul J.; Bell, James R.; Chamberlain, Dan E.; Firbank, Leslie G.; Fuller, Robert J.; Manley, Will; Mathews, Fiona; Norton, Lisa R.; Townsend, Martin; Macdonald, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming, a low intensity system, may offer benefits for a range of taxa, but what affects the extent of those benefits is imperfectly understood. We explored the effects of organic farming and landscape on the activity density and species density of spiders and carabid beetles, using a large sample of paired organic and conventional farms in the UK. Spider activity density and species density were influenced by both farming system and surrounding landscape. Hunting spiders, which tend to have lower dispersal capabilities, had higher activity density, and more species were captured, on organic compared to conventional farms. There was also evidence for an interaction, as the farming system effect was particularly marked in the cropped area before harvest and was more pronounced in complex landscapes (those with little arable land). There was no evidence for any effect of farming system or landscape on web-building spiders (which include the linyphiids, many of which have high dispersal capabilities). For carabid beetles, the farming system effects were inconsistent. Before harvest, higher activity densities were observed in the crops on organic farms compared with conventional farms. After harvest, no difference was detected in the cropped area, but more carabids were captured on conventional compared to organic boundaries. Carabids were more species-dense in complex landscapes, and farming system did not affect this. There was little evidence that non-cropped habitat differences explained the farming system effects for either spiders or carabid beetles. For spiders, the farming system effects in the cropped area were probably largely attributable to differences in crop management; reduced inputs of pesticides (herbicides and insecticides) and fertilisers are possible influences, and there was some evidence for an effect of non-crop plant species richness on hunting spider activity density. The benefits of organic farming may be greatest for taxa with lower

  7. Organic Farming: Biodiversity Impacts Can Depend on Dispersal Characteristics and Landscape Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E Feber

    Full Text Available Organic farming, a low intensity system, may offer benefits for a range of taxa, but what affects the extent of those benefits is imperfectly understood. We explored the effects of organic farming and landscape on the activity density and species density of spiders and carabid beetles, using a large sample of paired organic and conventional farms in the UK. Spider activity density and species density were influenced by both farming system and surrounding landscape. Hunting spiders, which tend to have lower dispersal capabilities, had higher activity density, and more species were captured, on organic compared to conventional farms. There was also evidence for an interaction, as the farming system effect was particularly marked in the cropped area before harvest and was more pronounced in complex landscapes (those with little arable land. There was no evidence for any effect of farming system or landscape on web-building spiders (which include the linyphiids, many of which have high dispersal capabilities. For carabid beetles, the farming system effects were inconsistent. Before harvest, higher activity densities were observed in the crops on organic farms compared with conventional farms. After harvest, no difference was detected in the cropped area, but more carabids were captured on conventional compared to organic boundaries. Carabids were more species-dense in complex landscapes, and farming system did not affect this. There was little evidence that non-cropped habitat differences explained the farming system effects for either spiders or carabid beetles. For spiders, the farming system effects in the cropped area were probably largely attributable to differences in crop management; reduced inputs of pesticides (herbicides and insecticides and fertilisers are possible influences, and there was some evidence for an effect of non-crop plant species richness on hunting spider activity density. The benefits of organic farming may be greatest for

  8. An aggregate model of grid-connected, large-scale, offshore wind farm for power stability investigations-importance of windmill mechanical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Knudsen, H.

    2002-01-01

    . Because the shaft system gives a soft coupling between the rotating wind turbine and the induction generator, the large-scale wind farm cannot always be reduced to one-machine equivalent and use of multi-machine equivalents will be necessary for reaching accuracy of the investigation results....... This will be in cases with irregular wind distribution over the wind farm area. The torsion mode of the shaft systems of large wind turbines is commonly in the range of 1-2 Hz and close to typical values of the electric power grid eigenfrequencies why there is a risk of oscillation between the wind turbines...... and the entire network. All these phenomena are different compared to previous experiences with modelling of conventional power plants with synchronous generators and stiff shaft systems....

  9. Quantifying the Impact of Wind Turbine Wakes on Power Output at Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Pryor, Sara; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs

    2010-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop and optimize tools for designing large wind farm arrays for deployment offshore. This research is focused on improving the understanding of, and modeling of, wind turbine wakes in order to make more accurate power output predictions for large offshore wind farms...

  10. Wind farm turbulence impacts on general aviation airports in Kansas : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines and wind farms have become popular in the State of Kansas. Some general aviation : pilots have expressed a concern about the turbulence that the spinning blades are creating. If a : wind farm is built near an airport, does this affect t...

  11. Impact of Long Farm Working Hours on Child Safety Practices in Agricultural Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlenga, Barbara; Pahwa, Punam; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James; Pickett, William

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize working hours of adult farm owner-operators and their spouses by season, and to examine associations between working hours and farm safety practices affecting children. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data collected as part of an existing study of injury and its determinants.…

  12. Agricultural policy and its impact on fuel usage: Empirical evidence from farm household analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hung-Hao [Department of Agricultural Economics, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Roosevelt Rd., Sec. 4, Taipei 10617 (China); Mishra, Ashok K. [Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, Louisiana State University, Ag Center (United States); Livingston, Michael [Production Economics and Technology Branch, Economic Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, 1800 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20036-5831 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Off-farm work is a growing reality in the US agricultural sector as a whole. Another staple program in the US agriculture is the use of crop insurance. This paper assesses hitherto unaddressed issues of fuel consumption and hence pollution generated by farm households associated with off-farm work and crop insurance. We applied a quantile regression method on a unique national farm-level survey data to address the fuel consumption issues. Results indicate that off-farm work by operators tends to decrease fuel expenses. In contrast, households with crop insurance had higher fuel consumption thereby increasing fuel usage. Finally, our study shows that the net effect of these two activities resulted in an increase in the pollution level. (author)

  13. Impacts of Government Debt, the Exchange Rate and Other Macroeconomic Variables on Aggregate Output in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hsing

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Applying aggregate demand/aggregate supply analysis and based on a quarterly sample during 2000.Q4–2015.Q4, this paper finds that Croatia’s aggregate output is positively associated with government debt as percent of GDP during 2000.Q4–2008.Q4, real appreciation of the kuna, the real stock price, German real GDP, the real oil price and real wages and negatively influenced by government debt as percent of GDP during 2009.Q1–2015.Q4, the real lending rate and the expected inflation rate. The dynamic relationships between real GDP and government debt as percent of GDP suggest that fiscal discipline needs to be exercised in pursuing expansionary macroeconomic policy in the future.

  14. Experimental study of the impact of large-scale wind farms on land–atmosphere exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Markfort, Corey D; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale wind farms, covering a significant portion of the land and ocean surface, may affect the transport of momentum, heat, mass and moisture between the atmosphere and the land locally and globally. To understand the wind-farm–atmosphere interaction, we conducted wind-tunnel experiments to study the surface scalar (heat) flux using model wind farms, consisting of more than ten rows of wind turbines—having typical streamwise and spanwise spacings of five and four rotor diameters—in a neutral boundary layer with a heated surface. The spatial distribution of the surface heat flux was mapped with an array of surface heat flux sensors within the quasi-developed regime of the wind-farm flow. Although the overall surface heat flux change produced by the wind farms was found to be small, with a net reduction of 4% for a staggered wind farm and nearly zero change for an aligned wind farm, the highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of the surface heat flux, dependent on the wind-farm layout, was significant. The difference between the minimum and maximum surface heat fluxes could be up to 12% and 7% in aligned and staggered wind farms, respectively. This finding is important for planning intensive agriculture practice and optimizing farm land use strategy regarding wind energy project development. The well-controlled wind-tunnel experiments presented in this study also provide a first comprehensive dataset on turbulent flow and scalar transport in wind farms, which can be further used to develop and validate new parameterizations of surface scalar fluxes in numerical models. (letter)

  15. Determinants of Aggregate Agricultural Productivity among High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Determinants of Aggregate Agricultural Productivity among High External Input Technology Farms in a ... of aggregate agricultural productivity in an environment where policy on ... to increase the farm sizes through re-examination of the existing land laws.

  16. Guide of the environmental impact of the wind farms; Guide de l'etude d'impact sur l'environnement des parcs eoliens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This guide provides a general approach and a methodology of implementing environmental evaluations of the wind farms: the regulatory framework of the impact study, the methodology of the study, the natural areas, landscape and heritage, noise and public health and the specific case of offshore wind turbines. (A.L.B.)

  17. Guide of the environmental impact of the wind farms; Guide de l'etude d'impact sur l'environnement des parcs eoliens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This guide provides a general approach and a methodology of implementing environmental evaluations of the wind farms: the regulatory framework of the impact study, the methodology of the study, the natural areas, landscape and heritage, noise and public health and the specific case of offshore wind turbines. (A.L.B.)

  18. Basalt Fiber for Volcanic Slag Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Research on the Impact of Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li-guang; Li, Gen-zhuang

    2018-03-01

    In order to study the effect of basalt fiber on the mechanical properties and durability of volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete, the experimental study on the flexural strength, compressive strength and freeze-thaw resistance of volcanic slag concrete with different basalt fiber content were carried out, the basalt fiber was surface treated with NaOH and water glass, the results show that the surface treatment of basalt fiber can significantly improve the mechanical properties, durability and other properties of volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete.

  19. Impact of Organic and Conventional Systems of Coffee Farming on Soil Properties and Culturable Microbial Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmourougane, Kulandaivelu

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken with an objective of evaluating the long-term impacts of organic (ORG) and conventional (CON) methods of coffee farming on soil physical, chemical, biological, and microbial diversity. Electrical conductivity and bulk density were found to increase by 34% and 21%, respectively, in CON compared to ORG system, while water holding capacity was found decreased in both the systems. Significant increase in organic carbon was observed in ORG system. Major nutrients, nitrogen and potassium, levels showed inclination in both ORG and CON system, but the trend was much more pronounced in CON system. Phosphorus was found to increase in both ORG and CON system, but its availability was found to be more with CON system. In biological attributes, higher soil respiration and fluorescein diacetate activity were recorded in ORG system compared to CON system. Higher soil urease activity was observed in CON system, while dehydrogenase activity does not show significant differences between ORG and CON systems. ORG system was found to have higher macrofauna (31.4%), microbial population (34%), and microbial diversity indices compared to CON system. From the present study, it is accomplished that coffee soil under long-term ORG system has better soil properties compared to CON system.

  20. Reducing the environmental impact of methane emissions from dairy farms by anaerobic digestion of cattle waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón, E; Salter, A M; Castrillón, L; Heaven, S; Fernández-Nava, Y

    2011-08-01

    Four dairy cattle farms considered representative of Northern Spain milk production were studied. Cattle waste was characterised and energy consumption in the farms was inventoried. Methane emissions due to slurry/manure management and fuel consumption on the farms were calculated. The possibility of applying anaerobic digestion to the slurry to minimise emissions and of using the biogas produced to replace fossil fuels on the farm was considered. Methane emissions due to slurry management (storage and use as fertiliser) ranged from 34 to 66kg CH(4)cow(-1)year(-1) for dairy cows and from 13 to 25kg CH(4)cow(-1)year(-1) for suckler calves. Cattle on these farms are housed for most of the year, and the contribution from emissions from manure dropped in pastures is insignificant due to the very low methane conversion factors. If anaerobic digestion were implemented on the farms, the potential GHG emissions savings per livestock unit would range from 978 to 1776kg CO(2)eq year(-1), with the main savings due to avoided methane emissions during slurry management. The methane produced would be sufficient to supply digester heating needs (35-55% of the total methane produced) and on-farm fuel energy requirements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of crushed mineral aggregate on the pumpability of concrete during transport and placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topličić-Ćurčić Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the spirit of the sustainable buildings, and with the goal of protection of river courses, in the near future an already announced directive ordering closing down of a large number of river aggregate dredging operations will be adopted. For that reason, usage of crushed mineral aggregate in concrete mixes is increasing. Irrespective of downsides of the fined crushed mineral aggregate, such as the presence of fine particles bordering the upper permissible limit and the unfavorable shape of the grain of the course aggregate for obtaining liquid consistency required for the pumpable concrete, the demanded pumpability of concrete during transport and placement has been achieved. By adding admixtures to concrete, the required concrete properties, such as: frost resistance, simultaneous frost and salt resistance and water tightness have been achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 36017: Utilization of by - products and recycled waste materials in concrete composites in the scope of sustainable construction development in Serbia: investigation and environmental assessment of possible applications

  2. Strong impact of ionic strength on the kinetics of fibrilar aggregation of bovine beta-lactoglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaudov, L.N.; Vries, de R.J.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effect of ionic strength on the kinetics of heat-induced fibrilar aggregation of bovine -lactoglobulin at pH 2.0. Using in situ light scattering we find an apparent critical protein concentration below which there is no significant fibril formation for all ionic strengths studied.

  3. How to mitigate impacts of wind farms on bats? A review of potential conservation measures in the European context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peste, Filipa; Paula, Anabela; Silva, Luís P. da; Bernardino, Joana; Pereira, Pedro; Mascarenhas, Miguel; Costa, Hugo; Vieira, José; Bastos, Carlos; Fonseca, Carlos; Pereira, Maria João Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Wind energy is growing worldwide as a source of power generation. Bat assemblages may be negatively affected by wind farms due to the fatality of a significant number of individuals after colliding with the moving turbines or experiencing barotrauma. The implementation of wind farms should follow standard procedures to prevent such negative impacts: avoid, reduce and offset, in what is known as the mitigation hierarchy. According to this approach avoiding impacts is the priority, followed by the minimisation of the identified impacts, and finally, when residual negative impacts still remain, those must be offset or at least compensated. This paper presents a review on conservation measures for bats and presents some guidelines within the compensation scenario, focusing on negative impacts that remain after avoidance and minimisation measures. The conservation strategies presented aim at the improvement of the ecological conditions for the bat assemblage as a whole. While developed under the European context, the proposed measures are potentially applicable elsewhere, taking into consideration the specificity of each region in terms of bat assemblages present, landscape features and policy context regarding nature and biodiversity conservation and management. An analysis of potential opportunities and constraints arising from the implementation of offset/compensation programmes and gaps in the current knowledge is also considered. - Highlights: • Wind energy impacts bat populations in ways not yet fully understood. • As the use of windfarms is growing worldwide greater impacts on bat populations are also expected. • Mitigation hierarchy provides a way to reduce impacts from new wind farm facilities. • Compensation measures may be used to reduce the residual effects on bat populations. • Identify bats ecological needs and compensate according to the existing surroundings

  4. How to mitigate impacts of wind farms on bats? A review of potential conservation measures in the European context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peste, Filipa, E-mail: filipapeste@gmail.com [Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) (Portugal); Department of Biology, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Paula, Anabela [Bioinsight - Ambiente e Biodiversidade, Lda. Lisboa (Portugal); Silva, Luís P. da [Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) (Portugal); Department of Biology, University of Aveiro (Portugal); MARE and CEF, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra (Portugal); Bernardino, Joana; Pereira, Pedro [Bio3 - Estudos e Projectos em Biologia e Recursos Naturais, Lda. Almada (Portugal); Mascarenhas, Miguel [Bioinsight - Ambiente e Biodiversidade, Lda. Lisboa (Portugal); Costa, Hugo [Bio3 - Estudos e Projectos em Biologia e Recursos Naturais, Lda. Almada (Portugal); Vieira, José; Bastos, Carlos [Department of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics / IEETA, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Fonseca, Carlos [Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) (Portugal); Department of Biology, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, Maria João Ramos [Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) (Portugal); PPGBAN, Department of Zoology, Institute of Biosciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); PPGEC, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    Wind energy is growing worldwide as a source of power generation. Bat assemblages may be negatively affected by wind farms due to the fatality of a significant number of individuals after colliding with the moving turbines or experiencing barotrauma. The implementation of wind farms should follow standard procedures to prevent such negative impacts: avoid, reduce and offset, in what is known as the mitigation hierarchy. According to this approach avoiding impacts is the priority, followed by the minimisation of the identified impacts, and finally, when residual negative impacts still remain, those must be offset or at least compensated. This paper presents a review on conservation measures for bats and presents some guidelines within the compensation scenario, focusing on negative impacts that remain after avoidance and minimisation measures. The conservation strategies presented aim at the improvement of the ecological conditions for the bat assemblage as a whole. While developed under the European context, the proposed measures are potentially applicable elsewhere, taking into consideration the specificity of each region in terms of bat assemblages present, landscape features and policy context regarding nature and biodiversity conservation and management. An analysis of potential opportunities and constraints arising from the implementation of offset/compensation programmes and gaps in the current knowledge is also considered. - Highlights: • Wind energy impacts bat populations in ways not yet fully understood. • As the use of windfarms is growing worldwide greater impacts on bat populations are also expected. • Mitigation hierarchy provides a way to reduce impacts from new wind farm facilities. • Compensation measures may be used to reduce the residual effects on bat populations. • Identify bats ecological needs and compensate according to the existing surroundings.

  5. Impact of environmental conditions on aggregation kinetics of hematite and goethite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Chen-yang; Deng, Kai-ying; Li, Jiu-yu; Xu, Ren-kou

    2015-01-01

    Hematite and goethite nanoparticles were used as model minerals to investigate their aggregation kinetics under soil environmental conditions in the present study. The hydrodynamic diameters of hematite and goethite nanoparticles were 34.4 and 66.3 nm, respectively. The positive surface charges and zeta potential values for goethite were higher than for hematite. The effective diameter for goethite was much larger than for hematite due to anisotropic sticking of needle-shaped goethite during aggregation. Moreover, the critical coagulation concentration (CCC) values of nanoparticles in solutions of NaNO 3 , NaCl, NaF, and Na 2 SO 4 were 79.2, 75.0, 7.8, and 0.5 mM for hematite and they were 54.7, 62.6, 5.5, and 0.2 mM for goethite, respectively. The disparity of anions in inducing hematite or goethite aggregation lay in the differences in interfacial interactions. NO 3 − and Cl − could decrease the zeta potential and enhance aggregation mainly through increasing ionic strength and compressing electric double layers of hematite and goethite nanoparticles. F − and SO 4 2− highly destabilized the suspensions of nanoparticles mainly through specific adsorption and then neutralizing the positive surface charges of nanoparticles. Specific adsorption of cations could increase positive surface charges and stabilize hematite and goethite nanoparticles. The Hamaker constants of hematite and goethite nanoparticles were calculated to be 2.87 × 10 −20 and 2.29 × 10 −20 J −1 , respectively. The predicted CCC values based on DLVO theory were consistent well with the experimentally determined CCC values in NaNO 3 , NaCl, NaF, and Na 2 SO 4 systems, which demonstrated that DLVO theory could successfully predict the aggregation kinetics even when specific adsorption of ions occurred

  6. Evaluating the impact of electrical grid connection on the wind turbine performance for Hofa wind farm scheme in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrazzaq, M.H.; Aloquili, O.

    2008-01-01

    The growth of wind energy is attributed to the development of turbine size and the increase in number of units in each wind farm. The current modern design of large wind turbines (WT) is directed towards producing efficient, sensitive and reliable units. To achieve this goal, modern turbines are equipped with several devices which are operated with highly advanced electronic circuits. Sensing instruments, measuring devices and control processes of major systems and subsystems are based on various types of electronic apparatus and boards. These boards are very sensitive to the voltage variations caused by abnormal conditions in both the turbine itself and the electric grid to which the wind farm is connected. This paper evaluates wind farm records and proposes a number of methods to overcome such obstacles associated with the design of large wind turbines. Several cases of grid abnormality such as sudden feeder interruption due to the short circuit, network disconnection, voltage variation and circuit breaker opening affecting wind turbines operation and availability are classified and presented. The weight of such impact is determined for each type of disturbances associated with electronic problems in the wind turbine. Wind turbine performance at Hofa wind farm scheme in Jordan is taken as a case study

  7. Hydrological and Farming System Impacts of Agricultural Water Management Interventions in North Gujarat

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, O.P.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater over-exploitation is a common phenomenon in many arid and semi arid regions of the world. Within India, north Gujarat is one of such intensively exploited regions. Groundwater supports irrigated crop production and intensive dairy farming in the region. Well irrigation is critical to the region’s rural economy and livelihoods. The overall objective of the study was to examine the water demand management interventions on farming system, livelihood patterns, food and nutritional s...

  8. Impacts of sea cucumber farming on biogeochemical characteristics in the Yellow River estuary, Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Yokoyama, Hisashi; Cui, Baoshan; Zhou, Jin; Yan, Jiaguo; Ma, Xu; Shibata, Shozo

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the potential environmental effects of pond farming for Apostichopus japonicas in Yellow River estuary, we examined discrepancies of distance-based typical pollution indicators (TOC, TN, NO3-, NH4+, NO2- and PO43-) and biochemical tracers (δ13C and δ15N) in water column and sediment, as well as dietary characteristics of dominant macrobenthos between farming and non-farming areas. The results revealed that studied variables in water column showed no uniform spatial differences. Meanwhile, those in sediment displayed similar decrease tendencies from farming pond to the adjacent tidal flat, which was considered to represent the environmental effects of farming. Biochemical tracers (δ13C and δ15N) in both water column and sediment confirmed the origin of organic matters from the aquaculture waste. The detectable dispersion distance of aquaculture waste was restricted to an area within 50 m distance as determined by most variables in sediment (TOC, TN, NO3- and NH4+), particularly by C:N ratio and δ13C with which origins of the wastes were traced. Bayesian mixing models indicated that in the farming area BMA had a larger contribution, while POM(marine) showed a smaller contribution to the diets of Helice tridens and Macrophthalmus abbreviates compared to those in the non-farming area. The overall results showed that pond farming for Apostichopus japonicus in the Yellow River estuary altered the local environment to a certain extent. For methodological consideration, sediment biogeochemical characteristics as a historical recorder much more effectively reflected aquaculture waste accumulation, and stable isotope approaches are efficient in tracing the origin and extent of various allogenous sources.

  9. An indicator-based method for quantifying farm multifunctionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Stubkjær; Vejre, Henrik; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2013-01-01

    . The farm data that support the indicators is derived from an interview survey conducted in 2008. The aggregated function scores vary with farm size as well as farm type; smaller, hobby-based farms in general score highest in the residence function whereas bigger, full-time farms score highest...

  10. Impact of Aggregate Gradation and Filler Type on Marshall Properties of Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saad I. Sarsam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As asphalt concrete wearing course (ACWC is the top layer in the pavement structure, the material should be able to sustain stresses caused by direct traffic loading. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of aggregate gradation and mineral filler type on Marshall Properties. A detailed laboratory study is carried out by preparing asphalt mixtures specimens using locally available materials including asphalt binder (40-50 penetration grade, two types of aggregate gradation representing SCRB and ROAD NOTE 31 specifications and two types of mineral filler including limestone dust and coal fly ash. Four types of mixtures were prepared and tested. The first type included SCRB specification and limestone dust, the second type included SCRB specification and coal fly ash, the third types included ROAD NOTE 31 specification and limestone dust and the fourth type included ROAD NOTE 31 specification and coal fly ash. The optimum asphalt content of each type of mixtures was determined using Marshall Method of mix design. 60 specimen were prepared and tested with dimension of 10.16 cm in diameter and 6.35 cm in height. Results of this study indicated that aggregate gradation and filler type have a significant effect on optimum asphalt content and Marshall Properties. From the experimental data, it was observed that the value of Marshall Stability is comparatively higher when using fly ash as filler as compared to limestone dust.

  11. Impact of high hydrostatic pressure processing on individual cellular resuscitation times and protein aggregates in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, Sander K; Aertsen, Abram

    2015-11-20

    Live cell biology approaches can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of heterogeneous injury and resuscitation phenomena in stressed populations of foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms, and in turn lead to better insights in the mechanisms and dynamics of inactivation that can improve food safety and preservation measures. Especially in the context of designing minimal processing strategies, which depend on a synergistic combination of different mild stresses to ensure sufficient microbial reduction, a more profound understanding of the impact of each such stress or hurdle is mandatory. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) stress is an interesting hurdle in this concept since cells that manage to survive this stress nevertheless tend to be injured and sensitized to subsequent stresses. In this study, populations of Escherichia coli were subjected to different HHP intensities and studied at the single-cell level with time-lapse fluorescence microscopy while monitoring resuscitation times and protein aggregate integrity at the single-cell level. This approach revealed that higher pressure intensities lead to longer and more variable resuscitation times of surviving cells as well as an increased dispersal of intracellular protein aggregates. Interestingly, at mild HHP exposure, cells within the population incurring less dispersion of protein aggregates appeared to have a higher probability of survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of environmental conditions on aggregation kinetics of hematite and goethite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chen-yang, E-mail: cyxu@issas.ac.cn; Deng, Kai-ying; Li, Jiu-yu, E-mail: jyli@issas.ac.cn; Xu, Ren-kou, E-mail: rkxu@issas.ac.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science (China)

    2015-10-15

    Hematite and goethite nanoparticles were used as model minerals to investigate their aggregation kinetics under soil environmental conditions in the present study. The hydrodynamic diameters of hematite and goethite nanoparticles were 34.4 and 66.3 nm, respectively. The positive surface charges and zeta potential values for goethite were higher than for hematite. The effective diameter for goethite was much larger than for hematite due to anisotropic sticking of needle-shaped goethite during aggregation. Moreover, the critical coagulation concentration (CCC) values of nanoparticles in solutions of NaNO{sub 3}, NaCl, NaF, and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} were 79.2, 75.0, 7.8, and 0.5 mM for hematite and they were 54.7, 62.6, 5.5, and 0.2 mM for goethite, respectively. The disparity of anions in inducing hematite or goethite aggregation lay in the differences in interfacial interactions. NO{sub 3}{sup −} and Cl{sup −} could decrease the zeta potential and enhance aggregation mainly through increasing ionic strength and compressing electric double layers of hematite and goethite nanoparticles. F{sup −} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} highly destabilized the suspensions of nanoparticles mainly through specific adsorption and then neutralizing the positive surface charges of nanoparticles. Specific adsorption of cations could increase positive surface charges and stabilize hematite and goethite nanoparticles. The Hamaker constants of hematite and goethite nanoparticles were calculated to be 2.87 × 10{sup −20} and 2.29 × 10{sup −20} J{sup −1}, respectively. The predicted CCC values based on DLVO theory were consistent well with the experimentally determined CCC values in NaNO{sub 3}, NaCl, NaF, and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} systems, which demonstrated that DLVO theory could successfully predict the aggregation kinetics even when specific adsorption of ions occurred.

  13. Environmental impacts of coastal farming: carbon and nitrogen budgets for trout farming activity in Kaldbaksfjørđur (Faroe Islands)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordi, Gunnvør a; Glud, Ronnie N.; Gaard, Eilif

    2011-01-01

    Flow of organic carbon (OC) and nitrogen through a sea cage trout farm was calculated on the basis of detailed studies of the farming operation, water circulation, OC and nutrient transport and recycling processes in sediment. A third of the OC and nitrogen provided by fish food was incorporated...... derived from fish food settled on the seabed, where it was either mineralized or accumulated in the sediment. Based on transect measurements of diagenetic activity, the farm footprint was found to cover an area ~10 times the farm area. OC mineralization in the sediment increased linearly with increasing...

  14. Impact of biogas digesters on wood utilisation and self-reported back pain for women living on rural Kenyan smallholder dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohoo, Carolyn; VanLeeuwen, John; Read Guernsey, Judith; Critchley, Kim; Gibson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Women living on rural Kenyan dairy farms spend significant amounts of time collecting wood for cooking. Biogas digesters, which generate biogas for cooking from the anaerobic decomposition of livestock manure, are an alternative fuel source. The objective of this study was to quantify the quality of life and health benefits of installing biogas digesters on rural Kenyan dairy farms with respect to wood utilisation. Women from 62 farms (31 biogas farms and 31 referent farms) participated in interviews to determine reliance on wood and the impact of biogas digesters on this reliance. Self-reported back pain, time spent collecting wood and money spent on wood were significantly lower (p biogas group, compared to referent farms. Multivariable linear regression showed that wood consumption increased by 2 lbs/day for each additional family member living on a farm. For an average family of three people, the addition of one cow was associated with increased wood consumption by 1.0 lb/day on biogas farms but by 4.4 lbs/day on referent farms (significant interaction variable - likely due to additional hot water for cleaning milk collection equipment). Biogas digesters represent a potentially important technology that can reduce reliance on wood fuel and improve health for Kenyan dairy farmers.

  15. THE IMPACT OF CREDIT AND CAPITAL SUPPORTS ON ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR OF FARM HOUSEHOLDS: A HOUSEHOLD ECONOMIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardus Bala de Rosari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at analysing the demand and allocation of credit and capital supports by farm household and impact on production, consumption, and investment. The research was conducted in East Nusa Tenggara Timur (ENT Province, one of targeted region of credit and capital supports policy of the government. Data collection was conducted from April to June 2013 by sampling for 178 households of farmers in Kupang District and Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS District. The result of this research showed that the allocation of credit and capital supports caused increaseof cattle production, consumption expenditure, and investment. The usage of credit and capital supports was depend on economical situation of the household itself. The decision of farm household on using credit and capital supports had impact on overall economical behavior of household, i.e. production, consumption and investment behavior. The transmission use was reciprocally interacted. Finally, the policy of credit and capital supports scheme for farmers should be adjusted with the context of farm household economics.

  16. THE USE OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING TO EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF CREDIT FOR INVESTMENTS IN SMALL GOAT FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Rocha de Medeiros

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The PRONAF is a government program that subsidies the credit for investment to smallholder farming and improves the social development in Brazil. This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of increasing the value of credit for investment used for the PRONAF farmers in semiarid areas, and their impact on the income and labor in the smallholder farming production systems. Economic data of dairy and meat goat systems of PRONAF farmes in ";;;;;Rio Grande do Norte";;;;;, Brazil was used. The limits of the model were the credit for investment, maximum number of animals in the system and the labor time. The current value of credit for investment (US$2,850.00 was increased by 25%, 50% and 100% and its impact in the farm income analized when considering milk and meat production. The maximum number of animals in the system was estimated by multiplying the carrying capacity (1.5 heads/ha/year plus the average pasture areas of PRONAF farms (35 ha. The maximum labor time available for work was 12 hours/day. This mathematical model was solved using linear programming with LINDO(R Software. When the credit for investment was expanded in 25% and 50%, the income of the system increased to 22% and 41%, respectively. It happened because the value of the credit allowed also enhance the number of dairy goats in the system. However, this income was not enough to use and pay more than 5 hours/day in dairy goat system activities. By raising the credit for investment up to 100% it would increase the income of the system around 81%. It happened because the number of dairy goats went up to 83% and the dairy production was had better results than meat production. The system with more dairy goats enough incme to pay the farmer labor (7 hours/day and during the other five g¿hours could develop another activity. Therefore, the results of the analysis indicated that an increase in the credit for investment in small goat farms in semi-ard areas in Brazil

  17. The impact of seasonal rice price changes on rice self-consumption in farm household of rural Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, S. W.; Antriyandarti, E.

    2018-03-01

    Seasonal rice price changes are very volatile and not predictable. This price changes have a heterogeneous impact on public consumption. The problem of seasonal rice price changes is not only experienced by consumers, but also in the farmers side as producers. The objective of this study is to provide a detail overview and description of the changing seasonal rice self-consumption of farm households in rural Java in response to seasonal rice price changes and income shocks to anticipate seasonal scarcity. This paper constructs a theoretical model to address such seasonality of food deprivation by using one year of seasonally farm household panel data, empirically tests the extent to which farmers in rural Java can smooth their rice self-consumption from season to season in response to income shocks. The result shows that rice farmers increase their rice self-consumption when prices are high.

  18. Analysis of Goat Farming on Integrated Farming System in Banyumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NN Hidayat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research were : 1 to find out the income generated from goat farming and its contribution to farmer income in several farming combination, 2 to find out the economic efficiency in goat farming with paddy and fish production, 3 to determine factors affecting level of production and income in different farming system, partially and aggregately, and 4 to determine the best combination of farming which generated maximum income. Household farmer survey method was performed to conduct this research. Farming model chosen in this research was partial and average aggregate. Cobb-Douglas function were chosen to predict functional relationship. Result stated from this research were : 1 goat farming has a significant contribution in integrated farming system, 2 integrated farming (goat and paddy, goat and fish, and goat, fish and paddy in Banyumas district was economically efficient. 3 partially, factor affecting production level in goat farming was number of goat owned (P<0.01, factor affecting paddy production were urea application and number of land owned (P<0.01, TSP application (P<0.05 and man power (P<0.10. Furthermore, factor affecting fish farming were feed, breed and number of land owned (P<0.01; 4 aggregately, factor affecting integrated farming I were urea application and number of land owned (P<0.01, feed and number of land owned (P<0.01, number of goat owned (P<0.10 integrated farming II, where as in integrated farming III were number of paddy land area and breed (P<0.01 also number of goat owned (P<0.10; 5 integrated farming III (goat, paddy and fish farming gave the highest profit, which gave Rp 6.219.283,81 with relatively high efficiency. Therefore, goat farming could be an alternative solution to be developed in integrated farming and could be combined with other farming activities such as paddy and fish farming. (Animal Production 9(2: 105-110 (2007 Key Words : Goat, income, economic efficiency, survey, contribution

  19. The impact of shrimp farming effluent on bacterial communities in mangrove waters, Ceará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, O V; Macrae, A; Menezes, F G R; Gomes, N C M; Vieira, R H S F; Mendonça-Hagler, L C S

    2006-12-01

    The effects of shrimp farm effluents on bacterial communities in mangroves have been infrequently reported. Classic and molecular biology methods were used to survey bacterial communities from four mangroves systems. Water temperature, salinity, pH, total heterotrophic bacteria and maximum probable numbers of Vibrio spp. were investigated. Genetic profiles of bacterial communities were also characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of eubacterial and Vibrio 16S rDNA using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Highest heterotrophic counts were registered in the mangrove not directly polluted by shrimp farming. The Enterobacteriaceae and Chryseomonas luteola dominated the heterotrophic isolates. Vibrio spp. pathogenic to humans and shrimps were identified. Eubacterial genetic profiles suggest a shared community structure independent of mangrove system. Vibrio genetic profiles were mangrove specific. Neither microbial counts nor genetic profiling revealed a significant decrease in species richness associated with shrimp farm effluent. The complex nature of mangrove ecosystems and their microbial communities is discussed.

  20. Assessing the impact of changes in the electricity price structure on dairy farm energy costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, J.; Murphy, M.; Shalloo, L.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; De Boer, I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Choosing electricity tariffs with a low off-peak rate results in financial savings. • Cost saving potential within an electricity tariff is the greatest on large farms. • Earlier AM milking with later PM milking helps reduce electricity consumption. - Abstract: This study aims to provide information on the changes in electricity consumption and costs on dairy farms, through the simulation of various electricity tariffs that may exist in the future and how these tariffs interact with changes in farm management (i.e. shifting the milking operation to an earlier or later time of the day). A previously developed model capable of simulating electricity consumption and costs on dairy farms (MECD) was used to simulate five different electricity tariffs (Flat, Day and Night, Time of Use Tariff 1 (TOU1), TOU2 and Real Time Pricing (RTP)) on three representative Irish dairy farms: a small farm (SF), a medium farm (MF) and a large farm (LF). The Flat tariff consisted of one electricity price for all time periods, the Day and Night tariff consisted of two electricity prices, a high rate from 09:00 to 00:00 h and a low rate thereafter. The TOU tariff structure was similar to that of the Day and Night tariff except that a peak price band was introduced between 17:00 and 19:00 h. The RTP tariff varied dynamically according to the electricity demand on the national grid. The model used in these simulations was a mechanistic mathematical representation of the electricity consumption that simulated farm equipment under the following headings; milk cooling system, water heating system, milking machine system, lighting systems, water pump systems and the winter housing facilities. The effect of milking start time was simulated to determine the effect on electricity consumption and costs at farm level. The earliest AM milking start time and the latest PM milking start time resulted in the lowest energy consumption. The difference between the lowest and highest

  1. Land consolidation and the expansion of game farming in South Africa: Impacts on farm dwellers' livelihoods and rights to land in the Eastern Cape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrew, N.; Brandt, F.; Spierenburg, M.J.; Mkhize, M.; Snijders, D.; Evers, S.J.T.M.; Seagle, C.; Krijtenburg, F.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter examines the ways in which two forms of wildlife-based tourism in South Africa, hunting farms and private luxury game reserves, have accelerated land consolidation and shifting land use and access patterns. It also shows that the spread of game farming and wildlife-based tourism is

  2. Impact load-induced micro-structural damage and micro-structure associated mechanical response of concrete made with different surface roughness and porosity aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdem, Savaş; Dawson, Andrew Robert; Thom, Nicholas Howard

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between the nature of micro damage under impact loading and changes in mechanical behavior associated with different microstructures is studied for concretes made with two different coarse aggregates having significant differences mainly in roughness and porosity — sintered fly ash and uncrushed gravel. A range of techniques including X-ray diffraction, digital image analysis, mercury porosimetry, X-ray computed tomography, laser surface profilometry and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the aggregates and micro-structures. The concrete prepared with lightweight aggregates was stronger in compression than the gravel aggregate concrete due to enhanced hydration as a result of internal curing. In the lightweight concrete, it was deduced that an inhomogeneous micro-structure led to strain incompatibilities and consequent localized stress concentrations in the mix, leading to accelerated failure. The pore structure, compressibility, and surface texture of the aggregates are of paramount importance for the micro-cracking growth.

  3. Impact of different environmental conditions on the aggregation of biogenic U(IV) nanoparticles synthesized by Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Şengör, S. Sevinç; Singh, Gursharan; Dohnalkova, Alice; Spycher, Nicolas; Ginn, Timothy R.; Peyton, Brent M.; Sani, Rajesh K.

    2016-09-13

    This study investigates the impact of specific environmental conditions on the formation of colloidal U(IV) nanoparticles by the sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB, Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20). The reduction of soluble U(VI) to less soluble U(IV) was quantitatively investigated under growth and non-growth conditions in bicarbonate or 1,4-piperazinediethanesulfonic acid (PIPES) buffered environments. The results showed that under non-growth conditions, the majority of the reduced U nanoparticles aggregated and precipitated out of solution. High resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that only a very small fraction of cells had reduced U precipitates in the periplasmic spaces in the presence of PIPES buffer, whereas in the presence of bicarbonate buffer, reduced U was also observed in the cytoplasm with greater aggregation of biogenic U(IV) particles at higher initial U(VI) concentrations. The same experiments were repeated under growth conditions using two different electron donors (lactate and pyruvate) and three electron acceptors (sulfate, fumarate, and thiosulfate). In contrast to the results of the non-growth experiments, even after 0.2 m filtration, the majority of biogenic U(IV) remained in the aqueous phase resulting in potentially mobile biogenic U(IV) nanoparticles. Size fractionation results showed that U(IV) aggregates were between 18 and 200 nm in diameter, and thus could be very mobile. The findings of this study are helpful to assess the size and potential mobility of reduced U nanoparticles under different environmental conditions, and would provide insights on their potential impact affecting U(VI) bioremediation efforts at subsurface contaminated sites.

  4. Ecological role of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) fish farms for associated wild fish assemblages in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagličić, Nika; Šegvić-Bubić, Tanja; Ugarković, Pero; Talijančić, Igor; Žužul, Iva; Tičina, Vjekoslav; Grubišić, Leon

    2017-12-01

    The ecological effects of tuna fish farms are largely undocumented. This study confirmed their high capacity to attract surrounding wild fish. The aggregation effect persisted year round, without detectable seasonal differences. Farm impact was restricted to close proximity of the sea cages, and was more prominent over the bottom than in the water column strata. Tuna fish farms proved to be high energy trophic resources, as indicated by the enhanced fitness status of two focal species, bogue and seabream. Under abundant food supply, seabream appear to allocate the majority of energy reserves to gonad development. Farm associated bogue had greater parasite loads, with no detrimental effect on fitness status. Overall, tuna fish farms can be regarded as population sources for aggregated wild fish, and under the no fishing conditions within the leasehold areas, can serve as functional marine protected areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Use and non-use values as motivational construct dimensions for farm animal welfare: impacts on the economic outcome for the farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, H; Lagerkvist, C J; Azar, G

    2018-01-24

    This study explored how farmers' motivation in terms of use values and/or non-use values to work with farm animal welfare are associated with the economic outcome for the farm. Use values in farm animal welfare refer to economic value derived from productivity and profitability considerations. Non-use values in farm animal welfare refer to economic value derived from good animal welfare, irrespective of the use the farmer derives from the animal, currently or in the future. The analysis was based on detailed information about the income statements of a sample of Swedish dairy farmers, obtained from the Swedish Farm Economic Survey, complemented with survey information about their perceived use and non-use values in farm animal welfare. The findings suggest that farm economic outcome is significantly associated with motivation in terms of use values, but not so much with motivation in terms of non-use values. This is interesting from a policy point of view, because it indicates that farmers with different approaches to farm animal welfare may experience different economic outcomes for their farms. Findings can, for instance, be used to strengthen farmers' engagement in various private quality assurance standards, which generally focus on values of non-use type, by pointing to that realisation of such values will not impair the economic outcome of the farms. Moreover, findings also suggest that farmers' economic incentives for engagement in such standards may need to be further strengthened in order to become more attractive, as findings point to that a focus on non-use values generally is not associated with more favourable economic outcomes.

  6. [Impact of Land Utilization Pattern on Distributing Characters of Labile Organic Carbon in Soil Aggregates in Jinyun Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Jiang, Chang-sheng; Hao, Qing-ju

    2015-09-01

    Four land utilization patterns were selected for this study in Jinyun mountain, including subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (abbreviation: forest), sloping farmland, orchard and abandoned land. Soil samples were taken every 10 cm in the depth of 60 cm soil and proportions of large macroaggregates (> 2 mm), small macroaggregates (0. 25-2 mm), microaggregates (0. 053 - 0. 25 mm) and silt + clay (organic carbon and labile organic carbon in each aggregate fraction and analyze impacts of land uses on organic carbon and labile organic carbon of soil aggregates. LOC content of four soil aggregates were significantly reduced with the increase of soil depth; in layers of 0-60 cm soil depth, our results showed that LOC contents of forest and abandoned land were higher than orchard and sloping farmland. Reserves of labile organic carbon were estimated by the same soil quality, it revealed that forest (3. 68 Mg.hm-2) > abandoned land (1. 73 Mg.hm-2) > orchard (1. 43 Mg.hm-2) >sloping farmland (0.54 Mg.hm-2) in large macroaggregates, abandoned land (7.77, 5. 01 Mg.hm-2) > forest (4. 96, 2.71 Mg.hm-2) > orchard (3. 33, 21. 10 Mg.hm-2) > sloping farmland (1. 68, 1. 35 Mg.hm-2) in small macroaggregates and microaggregates, and abandoned land(4. 32 Mg.hm-2) > orchard(4. 00 Mg.hm-2) > forest(3. 22 Mg.hm-2) > sloping farmland (2.37 Mg.hm-2) in silt + clay, forest and abandoned land were higher than orchard and sloping farmland in other three soil aggregates except silt + clay. It was observed that the level of organic carbon and labile organic carbon were decreased when bringing forest under cultivation to orchard or farmland, and augments on organic carbon and labile organic carbon were found after exchanging farmland to abandoned land. The most reverses of forest and abandoned land emerged in small macroaggregates, orchard and sloping farmland were in microaggregates. That was, during the transformations of land utilization pattern, soil aggregates with bigger size were

  7. Environmental impact assessment. Investigation of marine mammals in relation to the establishment of a marine wind farm on Horns Reef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-15

    Elsamproject has decided to carry out an environmental impact assessment with the aim to investigate whether the establishment of a marine wind farm on Horns Reef may impact on breeding and non-breeding marine mammals, particularly harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena and common seal Phoca vitulina. The marine mammals of the northern part of the German Bight can be characterised by a regular occurrence of harbour porpoise and common seal throughout the year, an irregular occurrence of grey seal Halichoerus grypus and white-beaked dolphin Lagenorhynchus albirostris and rare occurrences of white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus acutus, minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata, sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus, long-finned pilot whale Globicephala melas and killer whale Orcinus orca. The environment impact assessment therefore focuses on the evaluation of the possible effects on harbour porpoise and common seal. The investigation constitutes the first phase of a before-after-control-impact (BACI) analysis of the occurrence of harbour porpoise before, during and after the construction of the wind farm. (au)

  8. Critical evaluation of the Roan wind farm (part of the Fosen wind project from an impact assessment standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey I. Patonia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper views the Roan wind farm, which is a part of the Fosen Vind Project — the biggest planned onshore wind farm in Europe — from an impact assessment standpoint. Using the traditional stages of the impact assessment (such as screening, scoping and identification of the baseline conditions and crucial impacts, the research implements the ‘traffic light system’ to assess the magnitude of the core effects of the project on different dimensions — i.e. society and nature. Even though the previously conducted assessment describes the project as an extremely successful one with huge potential of generating sustainable energy, the current analysis reveals some of its greatest shortcomings. Social and wildlife aspects are its major drawbacks: the construction site is on the grounds used for the summer grazing by the Saami reindeers and the height and number of turbines significantly threatens migrating birds. Thus, even though the project happens to be economically attractive, it is a rather controversial undertaking when viewed from social and natural perspectives. The paper thus presents many solutions for the minimization of these negative impacts.

  9. Assessing the impact of care farms on quality of life and offending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsey, Helen; Farragher, Tracey; Tubeuf, Sandy; Bragg, Rachel; Elings, Marjolein; Brennan, Cathy; Gold, Rochelle; Shickle, Darren; Wickramasekera, Nyantara; Richardson, Zoe; Cade, Janet; Murray, Jenni

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To assess the feasibility of conducting a cost-effectiveness study of using care farms (CFS) to improve quality of life and reduce reoffending among offenders undertaking community orders (COs). To pilot questionnaires to assess quality of life, connection to nature, lifestyle behaviours,

  10. Assessment of factors that impact on the viability of contract farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The farmer's scale, years of experience, availability of inputs, crop grown, production area and access to finances were all identified as the significant factors affecting contract farming viability. It was recommended that farmers refrain from side marketing and contractors stick to contractual agreements in terms of payments ...

  11. Living with AIDS in Uganda : impacts on banana-farming households in two districts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karuhanga, M.

    2008-01-01

    The research was carried out among banana-farming households in the districts of Masaka and Kabarole in Uganda. A gendered livelihood approach was used. The research focused on the identification of critical factors that need to be taken into consideration in the development of relevant policies for

  12. The Impact of a Capstone Farm Management Course on Critical Thinking Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Dustin K.; Paulsen, Thomas H.; Retallick, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Current research demonstrates a need to explore the effects of specific course designs or directed activities on higher education students' critical thinking abilities. Specifically, such research on the effect of an experiential learning-based capstone course is limited. All students (N = 54) enrolled in a capstone farm management course…

  13. Impact of the structure of agricultural production to the financial health of farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kopta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper deals with the influence of individual commodities on the profitability and risks of farms. Production structure was given thought share of twelve basic crops in total agricultural production yield. Volume of accumulated profit for five-year income was chosen as viability criterion. The research did not show that specialization in one of the commodities had significantly influenced achieved profitability. The only exception is the production of milk, which clearly lead to lower profitability. Production structure determined the risk of farms. Farms were constantly threatened by both negative profitability, and also steep fluctuations of cash flow (in other of long-term positive profitability, leading to temporary loss of solvency. The analysis showed that different types of production structures lead to different types of threats. The probability of falling into production losses, or that the loss is so great that not even cover variable costs (a farm finds itself under the point of termination of production was calculated using the EaR method. The results again supported previous findings. Loss is highly likely to be achieved in commodities of animal production. For commodities of crop production the probability of loss was roughly a half, but the probability of exceeding a period of variable costs is higher.

  14. Project WINDFARMperception Visual and acoustic impact of wind turbine farms on residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, F.; Pedersen, E.; Bouma, J.; Bakker, R.

    2008-01-01

    This report gives the results of the EU financed study WINDFARMpertception on how residents perceive a wind farm in their living environment as far as sound and sight are concerned. The study includes a postal survey among Dutch residents (n = 725, response rate: 37%) and an assessment of their

  15. Wind farms generation limits and its impact in real-time voltage stability assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Angel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    . Thismethodology is tested in a platform that produces synthesizedPMU measurements from time-domain simulations and criticalboundary for the wind-farm limits are shown. The methodology isalso tested for synchronous machines and its parallel structure isexploited when implemented in a High Performance...

  16. Environmental and economic impacts of feeding strategies in Costa Rican dairy farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Iñamagua-Uyaguari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze feeding practices in Costa Rica’s dairy farms and their influence on greenhouse gas emissions (GHG. Methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, and income over feed cost (IOFC were evaluated. This study was carried out at 104 dairy farms, which were distributed within a range of altitude from 1000 to 2400 meters above sea level. Using cluster analysis based on type of feed, grazing period, areas of forage and pastures; four feeding strategies were identified, which included different proportions of feed categories in daily rations. Emissions expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent per kilo of fat and protein corrected milk (CO2eq/FPCM were higher for forage feeding strategies and lower for farms found in higher altitudes. Concentrate feed accounted for the higher cost in all feeding strategies, and represented more than 50% in the intensive concentrate based production system, whereas the costs of fertilizers were higher in pasture based feeding strategies. Income from milk sales was higher for the concentrate based feeding strategy. However, IOFC was the same for all feeding strategies in spite of the large differences in daily milk production. Feeding strategies influenced GHG emissions and feeding costs. Feeding strategies associated with lower GHG emissions within the farm were more dependent from external inputs.

  17. The impact of cooling ponds in North Central Texas on dairy farm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaszewski, M.A.; Haan, de M.H.A.; Thompson, J.A.; Jordan, E.R.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether measurable differences existed between farms with and without cooling ponds. Data from Dairy Herd Improvement records for 1999 through 2002 were obtained on 42 herds located in North Central Texas. Nineteen herds had installed cooling ponds,

  18. The Impact of Credit on Poultry Farm Productivity in Oyo State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results show that informal sources of credit are still preferred and more than half of the respondents are credit constrained. The statistically significant factors that affect farm productivity include value of feed, quantity of water, numbers and age of birds, training and the credit constraint condition of farmers. Credit constraint ...

  19. The impact of the expansion of urban vegetable farming on malaria transmission in major cities of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindé Gazard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban agricultural practices are expanding in several cities of the Republic of Benin. This study aims to assess the impact of such practices on transmission of the malaria parasite in major cities of Benin. Method A cross sectional entomological study was carried out from January to December 2009 in two vegetable farming sites in southern Benin (Houeyiho and Acron and one in the northern area (Azèrèkè. The study was based on sampling of mosquitoes by Human Landing Catches (HLC in households close to the vegetable farms and in others located far from the farms. Results During the year of study, 71,678 female mosquitoes were caught by HLC of which 25% (17,920/71,678 were Anopheles species. In the areas surveyed, the main malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum was transmitted in the south by Anopheles gambiae s.s. Transmission was high during the two rainy seasons (April to July and October to November but declined in the two dry seasons (December to March and August to September. In the north, transmission occurred from June to October during the rainy season and was vehicled by two members of the An. gambiae complex: Anopheles gambiae s.s. (98% and Anopheles arabiensis (2%. At Houeyiho, Acron and Azèrèkè, the Entomological Inoculation Rates (EIRs and the Human Biting Rates (HBRs were significantly higher during the dry season in Households Close to Vegetable Farms (HCVF than in those located far from the vegetable areas (HFVF (p 0.05. The knock-down resistance (kdr mutation was the main resistance mechanism detected at high frequency (0.86 to 0.91 in An. gambiae s.l. at all sites. The ace-1R mutation was also found but at a very low frequency ( Conclusion These findings showed that communities living close to vegetable farms are permanently exposed to malaria throughout the year, whereas the risk in those living far from such agricultural practices is limited and only critical during the rainy seasons. Measures must be

  20. The economic impact of a rural land tax on selected commercial farms in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAG Darroch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the economic impact of a land tax implemented under the Local Government Municipal Property Rates Act No. 6 of 2004 on commercial farms using five case studies with five-year data sets in the Mtonjaneni and Umgeni municipal districts of KwaZulu-Natal. The case farms’ ability to pay annual rates between 0.25 per cent and 1 per cent of the value of improved land using real annual economic profit with and without rebates of up to 70 per cent proposed by the Department: Provincial and Local Government ranged from zero to five out of five years, with a mean of two out of five years. A 2 per cent land tax rate with such rebates could also be financed only in two out of five years on average. These results suggest that proposed annual land tax rates of 1.5 per cent (Mtonjaneni or 1 per cent (Umgeni on these specific farms would markedly reduce the incentive to invest in farm improvements

  1. Amyloid-beta aggregates cause alterations of astrocytic metabolic phenotype: impact on neuronal viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaman, Igor; Gavillet, Mathilde; Bélanger, Mireille; Laroche, Thierry; Viertl, David; Lashuel, Hilal A; Magistretti, Pierre J

    2010-03-03

    Amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides play a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and exert various toxic effects on neurons; however, relatively little is known about their influence on glial cells. Astrocytes play a pivotal role in brain homeostasis, contributing to the regulation of local energy metabolism and oxidative stress defense, two aspects of importance for neuronal viability and function. In the present study, we explored the effects of Abeta peptides on glucose metabolism in cultured astrocytes. Following Abeta(25-35) exposure, we observed an increase in glucose uptake and its various metabolic fates, i.e., glycolysis (coupled to lactate release), tricarboxylic acid cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, and incorporation into glycogen. Abeta increased hydrogen peroxide production as well as glutathione release into the extracellular space without affecting intracellular glutathione content. A causal link between the effects of Abeta on glucose metabolism and its aggregation and internalization into astrocytes through binding to members of the class A scavenger receptor family could be demonstrated. Using astrocyte-neuron cocultures, we observed that the overall modifications of astrocyte metabolism induced by Abeta impair neuronal viability. The effects of the Abeta(25-35) fragment were reproduced by Abeta(1-42) but not by Abeta(1-40). Finally, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) pathway appears to be crucial in these events since both the changes in glucose utilization and the decrease in neuronal viability are prevented by LY294002, a PI3-kinase inhibitor. This set of observations indicates that Abeta aggregation and internalization into astrocytes profoundly alter their metabolic phenotype with deleterious consequences for neuronal viability.

  2. Risk-based probabilistic approach to assess the impact of false mussel invasions on farmed hard clams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chung-Min; Ju, Yun-Ru; Chio, Chia-Pin; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a risk-based predictive model to assess the impact of false mussel Mytilopsis sallei invasions on hard clam Meretrix lusoria farms in the southwestern region of Taiwan. The actual spread of invasive false mussel was predicted by using analytical models based on advection-diffusion and gravity models. The proportion of hard clam colonized and infestation by false mussel were used to characterize risk estimates. A mortality model was parameterized to assess hard clam mortality risk characterized by false mussel density and infestation intensity. The published data were reanalyzed to parameterize a predictive threshold model described by a cumulative Weibull distribution function that can be used to estimate the exceeding thresholds of proportion of hard clam colonized and infestation. Results indicated that the infestation thresholds were 2-17 ind clam(-1) for adult hard clams, whereas 4 ind clam(-1) for nursery hard clams. The average colonization thresholds were estimated to be 81-89% for cultivated and nursery hard clam farms, respectively. Our results indicated that false mussel density and infestation, which caused 50% hard clam mortality, were estimated to be 2,812 ind m(-2) and 31 ind clam(-1), respectively. This study further indicated that hard clam farms that are close to the coastal area have at least 50% probability for 43% mortality caused by infestation. This study highlighted that a probabilistic risk-based framework characterized by probability distributions and risk curves is an effective representation of scientific assessments for farmed hard clam in response to the nonnative false mussel invasion.

  3. A stochastic analysis of the impact of input parameters on profit of Australian pasture-based dairy farms under variable carbon price scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özkan, Şeyda; Farquharson, Robert J.; Hill, Julian; Malcolm, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two different pasture-based dairy feeding systems were evaluated. • The home-grown forage system outperformed the traditional pasture-based system. • Probability of achieving $200,000 income was reduced by imposition of a carbon tax. • Different farming systems will respond to change differently. • The ‘best choice’ for each individual farm is subjective. - Abstract: The imposition of a carbon tax in the economy will have indirect impacts on dairy farmers in Australia. Although there is a great deal of information available regarding mitigation strategies both in Australia and internationally, there seems to be a lack of research investigating the variable prices of carbon-based emissions on dairy farm operating profits in Australia. In this study, a stochastic analysis comparing the uncertainty in income in response to different prices on carbon-based emissions was conducted. The impact of variability in pasture consumption and variable prices of concentrates and hay on farm profitability was also investigated. The two different feeding systems examined were a ryegrass pasture-based system (RM) and a complementary forage-based system (CF). Imposing a carbon price ($20–$60) and not changing the systems reduced the farm operating profits by 28.4% and 25.6% in the RM and CF systems, respectively compared to a scenario where no carbon price was imposed. Different farming businesses will respond to variability in the rapidly changing operating environment such as fluctuations in pasture availability, price of purchased feeds and price of milk or carbon emissions differently. Further, in case there is a carbon price imposed for GHG emissions emanated from dairy farming systems, changing from pasture-based to more complex feeding systems incorporating home-grown double crops may reduce the reductions in farm operating profits. There is opportunity for future studies to focus on the impacts of different mitigation strategies and policy

  4. Assessment of the genotoxic impact of pesticides on farming communities in the countryside of Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueli Salvagni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the use of pesticides on farms located in the Lambedor River watershed in Guatambu, State of Santa Catarina, as well as to determine, by micronucleus testing, the risk of genotoxic impact. Samples from locally collected Cyprinus carpio, Hypostomus punctatus, Rhamdia quelen and Oreochromis niloticus gave evidence of a mean increase in micronuclei frequency from 6.21 to 13.78 in 1,000 erythrocytes, a clear indication of the genotoxic potenciality of pesticide residues in regional dams, and their significant contribution to local environmental contamination.

  5. Stable isotope evidence for the environmental impact of a land-based fish farm in the western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Isotopic examination (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) of organic matter sources and consumers was used to assess the impact and trace the dispersal of wastewater from a land-based fish farm in western Mediterranean. The results provide evidence of the non-negligible effect of aquaculture facilities on the natural stable isotopic composition of organisms. Aquaculture waste entered the food web, altering the natural isotopic composition of organic matter sources at the base and the upper trophic levels. Nitrogen-rich fish waste mainly affected δ 15 N values, while δ 13 C showed less alteration. Waste seemed to disperse widely enough to affect the isotopic composition at the study site about 500 m from the outfall, while sites at 1 and 2 km from the outfall showed values that were similar to each other and different from those of the impacted site. The impact was detected at different ecosystem levels, although primary producers were more affected by fish farm waste taking up aquaculture-derived nutrients

  6. Litter quality impacts short- but not long-term soil carbon dynamics in soil aggregate fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Roberta; Vanlauwe, Bernard; Six, Johan

    2011-04-01

    Complex molecules are presumed to be preferentially stabilized as soil organic carbon (SOC) based on the generally accepted concept that the chemical composition of litter is a major factor in its rate of decomposition. Hence, a direct link between litter quality and SOC quantity has been assumed, accepted, and ultimately incorporated in SOC models. Here, however, we present data from an incubation and field experiment that refutes the influence of litter quality on the quantity of stabilized SOC. Three different qualities of litter (Tithonia diversifolia, Calliandra calothyrsus, and Zea mays stover; 4 Mg C x ha(-1) yr(-1)) with and without the addition of mineral N fertilizer (0 or 120 kg N x ha(-1)season(-1) were added to a red clay Humic Nitisol in a 3-yr field trial and a 1.5-yr incubation experiment. The litters differed in their concentrations of N, lignin, and polyphenols with the ratio of (lignin + polyphenols): N ranging from 3.5 to 9.8 for the field trial and from 2.3 to 4.0 for the incubation experiment in the order of T. diversifolia stabilized after three annual additions in the field trial. Even within the most sensitive soil aggregate fractions, SOC contents and C:N ratios did not differ with litter quality, indicating that litter quality did not influence the mechanisms by which SOC was stabilized. While increasing litter quality displayed faster decomposition and incorporation of C into soil aggregates after 0.25 yr in the incubation study, all litters resulted in equivalent amounts of C stabilized in the soil after 1.5 yr, further corroborating the results of the field trial. The addition of N fertilizer did not affect SOC stabilization in either the field or the incubation trial. Thus, we conclude that, while litter quality controls shorter-term dynamics of C decomposition and accumulation in the soil, longer-term SOC patterns cannot be predicted based on initial litter quality effects. Hence, the formation and stabilization of SOC is more

  7. PRODUCTIVE IMPACT OF THE GREEN FORAGE SUPPLY USAGE AT THE DAIRY FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA MOISE

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the importance of the crop structure as a tool to maximize efficiency in the conceiving of the green forage supply scheme in a dairy farm. Several apects are necessary to consider for proper green forage utilization by the cattle, as follows: climatic conditions, proper field operations for each crop, optimal harvest date, and farm technical and economical resources. With a high degree of succulence, green forage and derived products (silage, haylage, present addvantages as compared to hay, having superior indices of nutritive value and palatability. A green forage supply scheme was applied on an area of 188 ha taking into account dairy cattle biological traits. Crop structure was as follows: forage maize, Sudan grass, Italian ryegrass, new lucern and old lucerne, and orchardgrass. Insuring the required superior green forage for the dairy cattle according to forage rations, represents one of the main techniques to maximize milk production and to minimize milk production cost.

  8. The impact of mineral fertilization and atmospheric precipitation on yield of field crops on family farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munćan Mihajlo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The field crop production, as the most important branch of plant production of the Republic of Serbia, in the period 2002-2011, was carried out on an average of over 2.7 million hectares, 82.7% of which took place on the individual farms/family holdings. Hence, the subject of research in this paper covers yields of major field crops realized on family farms in the region of Vojvodina in the period 1972-2011. The main objective of the research is to study the interdependence of utilization of mineral fertilizers and atmospheric precipitation during the vegetation period and realized yields of major field crops on family farms in the observed period. The regression analysis was applied in order to verify dependencies and determine the form of dependence of achieved yields from examined variables. The results showed that the main limiting factors for obtaining high and stable yields of field crops is inadequate use of fertilizers and the lack of precipitation during the vegetation period.

  9. Impact of water chemistry on surface charge and aggregation of polystyrene microspheres suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Songhua; Zhu, Kairuo; Song, Wencheng; Song, Gang; Chen, Diyun; Hayat, Tasawar; Alharbi, Njud S; Chen, Changlun; Sun, Yubing

    2018-07-15

    The discharge of microplastics into aquatic environment poses the potential threat to the hydrocoles and human health. The fate and transport of microplastics in aqueous solutions are significantly influenced by water chemistry. In this study, the effect of water chemistry (i.e., pH, foreign salts and humic acid) on the surface charge and aggregation of polystyrene microsphere in aqueous solutions was conducted by batch, zeta potentials, hydrodynamic diameters, FT-IR and XPS analysis. Compared to Na + and K + , the lower negative zeta potentials and larger hydrodynamic diameters of polystyrene microspheres after introduction of Mg 2+ were observed within a wide range of pH (2.0-11.0) and ionic strength (IS, 0.01-500mmol/L). No effect of Cl - , HCO 3 - and SO 4 2- on the zeta potentials and hydrodynamic diameters of polystyrene microspheres was observed at low IS concentrations (10mmol/L). The zeta potentials of polystyrene microspheres after HA addition were decreased at pH2.0-11.0, whereas the lower hydrodynamic diameters were observed at pH<4.0. According to FT-IR and XPS analysis, the change in surface properties of polystyrene microspheres after addition of hydrated Mg 2+ and HA was attributed to surface electrostatic and/or steric repulsions. These investigations are crucial for understanding the effect of water chemistry on colloidal stability of microplastics in aquatic environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The importance of the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte in Bavaria – local relevance and economic impact on single farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Köhler, Katrin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, holding a quarantine status in the European Union, was first discovered in 2007 in southern Bavaria. In the course of Diabrotica Research Program of Germany and the states of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg, an economic accompanying research is conducted at single farm level in Bavaria. This aims to evaluate different adaptation measures concerning the eradication and containment strategies economically. The focus of the analysis is mainly the crop rotation and the reduction of the proportion of maize at farm level. InVeKoS-data are analyzed, in order to assess the economic relevance of the pest in Bavaria in a better way. These enable detailed information on the development of maize production and cropping intensity. Subsequently research regions are defined with a high maize density, expecting enhanced damage from the beetle. In these selected areas single farms are selected. For considerations on single farm level, farms with different farm types are chosen by which adaptation measures are evaluated and realistic impact assessment could be made. For the evaluation of the economic impacts a whole-farm simulation has been used to include indirect effects of different adoption strategies. Additional, semi-structured interviews were conducted at selected farms in order to prove the results of the case study, obtain more information about the consequences on farm level and to evaluate the proposed cultivation alternatives for maize. A benefit-cost analysis and the comparative analysis of possible damage caused by the beetle and cost adjustments complete the study.

  11. Development of lightweight concrete subfloor with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) aggregates waste to reduce impact sound in flooring system

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Fernanda; Krumenauer, Marcelo; Reis de Medeiros, Daniel; Oliveira, Maria Fernanda; Fonseca Tutikian, Bernardo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Comfort and habitability are requirements for housing quality, affected by underfloor system. Thus, this study aims to design lightweight concrete slabs underfloor with the use of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) aggregates, with two grain sizes of conventional aggregates replaced with EVA. The experimental counted on four unit mixes, varying the ratio between EVA coarse and fine aggregates and natural aggregates. The underfloor plates were molded with thickness of 3, 5 and 7 centimeters...

  12. Climate change impacts on the power generation potential of a European mid-century wind farms scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, Isabelle; Vautard, Robert; Noël, Thomas; Jerez, Sonia; Thais, Françoise; Van Meijgaard, Erik; Prein, Andreas; Déqué, Michel; Kotlarski, Sven; Maule, Cathrine Fox; Nikulin, Grigory; Teichmann, Claas

    2016-01-01

    Wind energy resource is subject to changes in climate. To investigate the impacts of climate change on future European wind power generation potential, we analyze a multi-model ensemble of the most recent EURO-CORDEX regional climate simulations at the 12 km grid resolution. We developed a mid-century wind power plant scenario to focus the impact assessment on relevant locations for future wind power industry. We found that, under two greenhouse gas concentration scenarios, changes in the annual energy yield of the future European wind farms fleet as a whole will remain within ±5% across the 21st century. At country to local scales, wind farm yields will undergo changes up to 15% in magnitude, according to the large majority of models, but smaller than 5% in magnitude for most regions and models. The southern fleets such as the Iberian and Italian fleets are likely to be the most affected. With regard to variability, changes are essentially small or poorly significant from subdaily to interannual time scales. (letter)

  13. Organic farming at the farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Madsen, Niels; Ørum, Jens Erik

    as part of a larger project entitled “Economic analyses of the future development of organic farming – effects at the field, farm, sector and macroeconomic level”. The project links effects at the field-level with analyses at the farm level. These effects are then used in sector and macroeconomic analyses......, which are described in other reports from Food and Resource Economic Institute (Jacobsen, 2005 and Andersen et al., 2005). This gives coherent results from the field to the macroeconomic level regarding changes in technology and legislation.......The purpose of this report is to present possible impacts of new technology and changes in legislation on the profitability of different types of organic farms. The aim is also to look at both the current and future trends in the organic area in Denmark. The farm level analyses are carried out...

  14. SWAT Model Application to Assess the Impact of Intensive Corn‐farming on Runoff, Sediments and Phosphorous loss from an Agricultural Watershed in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential future increase in corn-based biofuel may be expected to have a negative impact on water quality in streams and lakes of the Midwestern US due to increased agricultural chemicals usage. This study used the SWAT model to assess the impact of continuous-corn farming o...

  15. Impacts of Small-Scale Industrialized Swine Farming on Local Soil, Water and Crop Qualities in a Hilly Red Soil Region of Subtropical China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrialized small-scale pig farming has been rapidly developed in developing regions such as China and Southeast Asia, but the environmental problems accompanying pig farming have not been fully recognized. This study investigated 168 small-scale pig farms and 29 example pig farms in Yujiang County of China to examine current and potential impacts of pig wastes on soil, water and crop qualities in the hilly red soil region, China. The results indicated that the small-scale pig farms produced considerable annual yields of wastes, with medians of 216, 333 and 773 ton yr−1 per pig farm for manure, urine and washing wastewater, respectively, which has had significant impact on surface water quality. Taking NH4+-N, total nitrogen (TN or total phosphorus (TP as a criterion to judge water quality, the proportions of Class III and below Class III waters in the local surface waters were 66.2%, 78.7% and 72.5%. The well water (shallow groundwater quality near these pig farms met the water quality standards by a wide margin. The annual output of pollutants from pig farms was the most important factor correlated with the nutrients and heavy metals in soils, and the relationship can be described by a linear equation. The impact on croplands was marked by the excessive accumulation of available phosphorus and heavy metals such as Cu and Zn. For crop safety, the over-limit ratio of Zn in vegetable samples reached 60%, other heavy metals in vegetable and rice samples tested met the food safety standard at present.

  16. Impacts of Small-Scale Industrialized Swine Farming on Local Soil, Water and Crop Qualities in a Hilly Red Soil Region of Subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Wang, Xingxiang; Zhou, Zhigao

    2017-12-06

    Industrialized small-scale pig farming has been rapidly developed in developing regions such as China and Southeast Asia, but the environmental problems accompanying pig farming have not been fully recognized. This study investigated 168 small-scale pig farms and 29 example pig farms in Yujiang County of China to examine current and potential impacts of pig wastes on soil, water and crop qualities in the hilly red soil region, China. The results indicated that the small-scale pig farms produced considerable annual yields of wastes, with medians of 216, 333 and 773 ton yr -1 per pig farm for manure, urine and washing wastewater, respectively, which has had significant impact on surface water quality. Taking NH₄⁺-N, total nitrogen (TN) or total phosphorus (TP) as a criterion to judge water quality, the proportions of Class III and below Class III waters in the local surface waters were 66.2%, 78.7% and 72.5%. The well water (shallow groundwater) quality near these pig farms met the water quality standards by a wide margin. The annual output of pollutants from pig farms was the most important factor correlated with the nutrients and heavy metals in soils, and the relationship can be described by a linear equation. The impact on croplands was marked by the excessive accumulation of available phosphorus and heavy metals such as Cu and Zn. For crop safety, the over-limit ratio of Zn in vegetable samples reached 60%, other heavy metals in vegetable and rice samples tested met the food safety standard at present.

  17. The Impact of Harmonics Calculation Methods on Power Quality Assessment in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2010-01-01

    Different methods of calculating harmonics in measurements obtained from offshore wind farms are shown in this paper. Appropriate data processing methods are suggested for harmonics with different origin and nature. Enhancements of discrete Fourier transform application in order to reduce...... measurement data processing errors are proposed and compared with classical methods. Comparison of signal processing methods for harmonic studies is presented and application dependent on harmonics origin and nature recommended. Certain aspects related to magnitude and phase calculation in stationary...... measurement data are analysed and described. Qualitative indices of measurement data harmonic analysis in order to assess the calculation accuracy are suggested and used....

  18. The impact of suspended oyster farming on nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide production in a sub-tropical Australian estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Dirk V.; Welsh, David T.; Bennet, William W.; Meziane, Tarik; Hubas, Cédric; Nizzoli, Daniele; Ferguson, Angus J. P.

    2017-06-01

    In this study we quantified nitrate (NO3-) reduction (denitrification, anammox and DNRA) and N2O production in sediments and epibiont communities associated with Sydney Rock Oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) farming. In sediments beneath an active suspended oyster farm, DNRA accounted for 98% of NO3- reduction with rates of up to 169 ± 45 μmol N m-2 h-1. Much of this DNRA was fuelled by NO3- derived from nitrification. Reference sediments had significantly lower DNRA rates of 83.8 ± 28.2 μmol N m-2 h-1, however this constituted 96% of the sites total NO3- reduction. Fatty acid analysis showed that sediment organic matter was more labile in the oyster impacted sediments, facilitating subtle shifts in sediment oxygen demand which increased the Fe2+ availability with respect to the reference sediments. The difference in DNRA rate between the sites was attributed to autotrophic oxidation of soluble Fe2+ in sediments underlying the oyster cultures. DNRA was absent in the oyster shell epibiont communities and rates of anammox and denitrification were lower than in the sediments. Production of NH4+ from the oysters and their associated epibionts was larger than DNRA and reached a rate of 206.2 μmol N m-2 h-1. Nitrous oxide production rates were generally low compared to other aquaculture systems and the net flux of N2O for the combined oyster cultivation system (i.e. sediments plus epibionts) was negative, i.e. there was N2O consumption in the sediments beneath the oysters. Overall, subtropical suspended oyster farming systems favour inorganic N retention over N loss.

  19. IMPACT OF BRACHIARIA, ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA, AND POTASSIUM ENRICHED RICE STRAW COMPOST ON ALUMINIUM, POTASSIUM AND STABILITY OF ACID SOIL AGGREGATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bariot Hafif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acid soil is commonly grown with cassava, which in general, tolerate low soil  fertility and aluminum (Al toxicity. However, without any improvement efforts such soil will become worse. Intercropping cassava with Brachiaria decumbens (BD which adapts to acid soil and tolerates low fertility soils as well as application of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM and organic matters are among the important efforts to rehabilitate this soil. The experiment was conducted to  examine the impact of BD, AM, and potassium (K enriched rice straw compost on exchangeable Al, available K, and stability of soil aggregates. Experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with three factors and three replications. The first factor was BD as cassava intercropping, the second factor was AM, and the third factor was 2 t ha-1 rice straw compost enriched with 0 kg, 50 kg, 100 kg, and 200 kg KCl ha-1. Brick pots (1 m length x 1 m width x 0.45 m depth filled with Kanhapludult soil was used for growing cassava in which row of BD was planted at 60 cm from cassava stem. K-enriched rice straw compost and AM (10 g per stem were applied around cassava stem at 2 and 12 days after planting, respectively. BD was cut every 30 days and the cutting was returned to the soil. Soil exchangeable Al was analyzed at 0, 3, 6 and 9 months after planting (MAP, while Al and K contents as well as aggregate stability were measured at 6 MAP. The results showed that planting BD decreased 33% exchangeable Al, which means that the root exudates of this grass was effective in detoxifying Al3+. Treatment of BD and/or in combination with AM was effective in preserving K added to the soil, increasing total polysaccharides, and improving soil aggregate stability. This indicated that planting BD and applying AM and Kenriched rice straw compost improved acid soil fertility, and therefore can be recommended in cassava cultivation.

  20. The 11S Proteasomal Activator REGγ Impacts Polyglutamine-Expanded Androgen Receptor Aggregation and Motor Neuron Viability through Distinct Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill M. Yersak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA is caused by expression of a polyglutamine (polyQ-expanded androgen receptor (AR. The inefficient nuclear proteasomal degradation of the mutant AR results in the formation of nuclear inclusions containing amino-terminal fragments of the mutant AR. PA28γ (also referred to as REGγ is a nuclear 11S-proteasomal activator with limited proteasome activation capabilities compared to its cytoplasmic 11S (PA28α, PA28β counterparts. To clarify the role of REGγ in polyQ-expanded AR metabolism, we carried out genetic and biochemical studies in cell models of SBMA. Overexpression of REGγ in a PC12 cell model of SBMA increased polyQ-expanded AR aggregation and contributed to polyQ-expanded AR toxicity in the presence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT. These effects of REGγ were independent of its association with the proteasome and may be due, in part, to the decreased binding of polyQ-expanded AR by the E3 ubiquitin-ligase MDM2. Unlike its effects in PC12 cells, REGγ overexpression rescued transgenic SBMA motor neurons from DHT-induced toxicity in a proteasome binding-dependent manner, suggesting that the degradation of a specific 11S proteasome substrate or substrates promotes motor neuron viability. One potential substrate that we found to play a role in mutant AR toxicity is the splicing factor SC35. These studies reveal that, depending on the cellular context, two biological roles for REGγ impact cell viability in the face of polyQ-expanded AR; a proteasome binding-independent mechanism directly promotes mutant AR aggregation while a proteasome binding-dependent mechanism promotes cell viability. The balance between these functions likely determines REGγ effects on polyQ-expanded AR-expressing cells.

  1. The impacts of climate change on energy: An aggregate expenditure model for the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, W. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Mendelsohn, R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). School of Forestry and Environmental Studies

    1998-09-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model to measure the climate change impacts to the energy sector. Welfare effects are approximately equal to the resulting change in expenditures on energy and buildings. Using micro data on individuals and firms across the United States, energy expenditures are regressed on climate and other control variables to estimate both short-run and long-run climate response functions. The analysis suggests that energy expenditures have a quadratic U-shaped relationship with respect to temperature. Future warming of 2 C is predicted to cause annual damages of about $6 billion but increases of 5 C would increase damages to almost $30 billion.

  2. The impacts of climate change on energy: An aggregate expenditure model for the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, W.; Mendelsohn, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model to measure the climate change impacts to the energy sector. Welfare effects are approximately equal to the resulting change in expenditures on energy and buildings. Using micro data on individuals and firms across the United States, energy expenditures are regressed on climate and other control variables to estimate both short-run and long-run climate response functions. The analysis suggests that energy expenditures have a quadratic U-shaped relationship with respect to temperature. Future warming of 2 C is predicted to cause annual damages of about $6 billion but increases of 5 C would increase damages to almost $30 billion

  3. On-farm production of arbuscular mycorrhizal funus inoculum in compost and vermiculite mixtures: results of on-farm demonstrations and impact of compost microbiological quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sustainability and profitability of many agricultural systems can be enhanced through the utilization of inoculum of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Inocula are commercially available, but inoculum can also be produced on-farm in mixtures of compost and vermiculite with a nurse host plant. Demon...

  4. WINDFARMperception. Visual and acoustic impact of wind turbine farms on residents. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Frits van den (Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Univ. of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)); Pedersen, Eja (Dept. of Public Health and Community Medicine, Goeteborg Univ., Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bouma, Jelte; Bakker, Roel (Northern Centre for Health Care Research, Univ. Medical Centre, Groningen (Netherlands))

    2008-06-15

    This report gives the results of the EU financed study WINDFARMperception on how residents perceive a wind farm in their living environment as far as sound and sight are concerned. The study includes a postal survey among Dutch residents (n = 725, response rate: 37%) and an assessment of their aural and visual exposure due to wind farms in their vicinity. The study group was selected from all residents in the Netherlands within 2.5 km from a wind turbine. As the study aimed to study modern wind farms, wind turbines were selected with an electric capacity of 500 kW or more and one or more turbines within 500 m from the first. Excluded were wind turbines that were erected or replaced in the year preceding the survey. Respondents were exposed to levels of wind turbine sound between 24 and 54 dBA and wind turbines at distances from 17 m to 2.1 km. The (angular) height of the biggest wind turbine ranged from 2 degrees to 79 degrees, with an average value of 10 degrees (the height of a CD box, looking at the front at arm's length). The wind turbines occupied on average 2% of the space above the horizon. The percentage of respondents that were annoyed by the sound also increased with sound level up to 40 to 45 dBA and then decreased. Respondents with economic benefits reported almost no annoyance. This in part explains the decrease in annoyance at high sound levels: above 45 dBA, i.e. close to wind turbines, the majority of respondents have economical benefits. There is no indication that the sound from wind turbines had an effect on respondents' health, except for the interruption of sleep. At high levels of wind turbine sound (more than 45 dBA) interruption of sleep was more likely than at low levels. Higher levels of background sound from road traffic also increased the odds for interrupted sleep. Annoyance from wind turbine sound was related to difficulties with falling asleep and to higher stress scores. From this study it cannot be concluded whether these

  5. Antibiotic Resistance in Animal-waste-impacted Farm Soil: From Molecular Mechanisms to Microbial Evolution and Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y.; Ward, M. J.; Hilpert, M.

    2012-12-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem worldwide and the routine use of antibiotics in industrial animal production has sparked debate on whether this practice might constitute an environmental and public health concern. At a broiler farm, electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveying assisted soil sampling from a chicken-waste-impacted site and a marginally affected site. Consistent with the EMI survey, disparity existed between the two sites with regard to soil pH, tetracycline resistance (TcR) levels among heterotrophic culturable soil bacteria, and the incidence/prevalence of a number of tet and erm genes in the soils. No significant difference was observed in these aspects between the marginally affected site and several sites in a regional state forest that has not been in agricultural use for decades. Shortly after our sampling, the farm closed down and all the waste was removed. This unique change in situation offered us an unusual opportunity to examine the reversibility of any impact of the chicken waste on the soil microbial community. Two years after the event, several antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were still detected in the waste-impacted soil, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) data showed that their relative abundance remained at substantial levels. A mobilizable tet(L)-carrying plasmid, pSU1, was identified in several chicken-waste-exposed soil bacteria of three different genera. Quantification of the plasmid's mobilization gene suggested that pSU1 had contributed to the prevalence and persistence of tet(L) in the waste-impacted soil. A second mobilizable tet(L)-carrying plasmid, pBSDMV9, isolated from the same soil, contained a region with 98.8% nucleotide identity to pSU1. The mosaic structure of the plasmids and the highly conserved nature of the tet(L) genes suggested that plasmid rearrangement favoring the acquisition of tet(L) may have occurred in the soil relatively recently. Additionally, in one chicken

  6. Phosphate Production Reduction Decree of the Netherlands : impact on markets, environment and dairy farm structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, Roel; Daatselaar, Co; Leeuwen, van Myrna; Silvis, Huib

    2017-01-01

    This research has been commissioned by the Ministry of Economic Affairs. Wageningen Economic Research, an independent research institute, has been asked to assess the market impacts and environmental impacts of the PPRD. The following research questions were defined: Assess the impacts of the PPRD

  7. Scaling point/plot measurements of greenhouse gas fluxes, balances and intensities to whole-farms and landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenstock, T.S.; Rufino, Mariana; Chirinda, N.; Bussel, van L.G.J.; Reidsma, P.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of nutrient stocks and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes are typically collected at very local scales (<1 to 30 m2) and then extrapolated to estimate impacts at larger spatial extents (farms, landscapes, or even countries). Translating point measurements to higher levels of aggregation is

  8. The impacts of the expansion of fruit farming businesses In the Commune of Llay Llay, Aconcagua Valley, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gonzalez Cid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The commune of Llay Llay is characterized by the existence of a regional economy structured around fruit farming businesses. The operations of these enterprises have not had a beneficial impact on the area. Rather has been confronted by a dual predicament: temporary work and low wages. As well, the environment is threatened as the agricultural frontier extends into the foothills of the nearby mountain ranges. In addition, there is evidence of increased land concentration and control of water on the part of the agribusinesses, to the detriment of the livelihoods of small producers.  The loss of land and water is the other face of a peasant proletarization process that is ultimately functional to the agribusinesses needs for financial and human resources

  9. The Impact of Input and Output Prices on The Household Economic Behavior of Rice-Livestock Integrated Farming System (Rlifs) and Non Rlifs Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindawati, L.; Kusnadi, N.; Kuntjoro, S. U.; Swastika, D. K. S.

    2018-02-01

    Integrated farming system is a system that emphasized linkages and synergism of farming units waste utilization. The objective of the study was to analyze the impact of input and output prices on both Rice Livestock Integrated Farming System (RLIFS) and non RLIFS farmers. The study used econometric model in the form of a simultaneous equations system consisted of 36 equations (18 behavior and 18 identity equations). The impact of changes in some variables was obtained through simulation of input and output prices on simultaneous equations. The results showed that the price increasing of the seed, SP-36, urea, medication/vitamins, manure, bran, straw had negative impact on production of the rice, cow, manure, bran, straw and household income. The decrease in the rice and cow production, production input usage, allocation of family labor, rice and cow business income was greater in RLIFS than non RLIFS farmers. The impact of rising rice and cow cattle prices in the two groups of farmers was not too much different because (1) farming waste wasn’t used effectively (2) manure and straw had small proportion of production costs. The increase of input and output price didn’t have impact on production costs and household expenditures on RLIFS.

  10. The Impact of a Values-Based Supply Chain (VBSC on Farm-Level Viability, Sustainability and Resilience: Case Study Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Hooks

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ‘Agriculture of the Middle’ (AotM development paradigm emphasises that in order to survive, family farms must transition from a supply chain approach to a values-based supply chain (VBSC approach, involving amendments to both product type and actor dynamics within the chain. This paper presents a qualitative case study of a beef co-operative integrated to a VBSC. We use an analytical framework of viability, sustainability and resilience to analyse impacts at farm-level. Our analysis highlights a number of positive effects on farm-level viability, sustainability and resilience. These benefits stemmed largely from improvements to market orientation, price stability, and members’ capacities in responding to problems. However, the autonomy of the co-operative was challenged by VBSC chain members, which impacted negatively on the stability of the co-operative.

  11. The study of environmental impact quotient (EIQ of pesticides used in wheat and barley farms in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L maleki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The environmental impact quotient (EIQ developed by Kovach et al (1992 is used an effort to fill an important gap; i.e. the need to provide farmers and others with easy-to-use information about the adverse effects of pesticides. It represents a method for calculating the environmental impacts of pesticides, and the values obtained from these calculations can be used to compare different pesticides and pest management programs with each other to ultimately determine which program or pesticide is likely to have the lowest environmental impact. The EIQ value for a particular active ingredient is calculated according to a formula that includes parameters for toxicity (dermal, chronic, bird, bee, fish, and beneficial arthropod, soil half-life, systemicity, leaching potential, and plant surface half-life. Each of these parameters is given a rating of 1, 3 or 5 to reflect its potential of causing harm. Six of these ratings are based on measured or known properties and the other five are based on judgments according to their potentially low, moderate or severe impact. Since the EIQ value is mainly a hazard indicator, additional calculations are required to obtain an indication of the pesticide risk. To account for exposure, an equation called the Field Use EIQ has been developed. This rating is calculated by multiplying the EIQ value for a specific chemical from the tables by the percent active ingredient in the formulation and its dosage rate used per hectare (usually in liters or kilograms of the formulated product. EIQ is used in different studies to compare the environmental effects of different pesticides and/or different production systems (Avila et al., 2011; Doris et al., 2011; Gallivan et al., 2001; Macharia et al., 2009. The aim of this study was to evaluate management strategies in using pesticides in wheat and barley farms in the city of Mashhad located in the Khorasan Razavi province in Iran. Materials and Methods Data related

  12. A simplified model for assessing the impact to groundwater of swine farms at regional level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massabo, Marco; Viterbo, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Swine manure can be an excellent source of nutrients for crop production. Several swine farms are present in the territory of Regione Umbria and more than 200.000 of swine heads are present yearly in the whole territory while some municipalities host more than 30.000 heads over a relatively limited land. Municipality with elevated number of swine heads has registered particularly higher Nitrate concentration in groundwater that requires a management plan and intervention in order to determine the maximum allowed N loads in the specific region. Use of manure and fertilizers in agricultural field produce diffuse nitrogen (N) losses that are a major cause of excessive nitrate concentrations in ground and surface waters and have been of concern since decades. Excessive nitrate concentrations in groundwater can have toxic effects when used as drinking water and cause eutrophication in surface waters. For management and environmental planning purposes, it is necessary to assess the magnitude of diffuse N losses from agricultural fields and how they are influenced by factors such as management practices, type of fertilizers -organic or inorganic - climate and soil etc. There are several methods for assessing N leaching, they span from methods based on field test to complex models that require many input data. We use a simple index method that accounts for the type of fertilizer used - inorganic, swine or cattle manure- and hydrological and hydrogeological conditions. Hydrological conditions such as infiltration rates are estimated by a fully distributed hydrological model. Data on inorganic and organic fertilization are estimated at municipal level by using the nutrient crops needs and the statistics of swine and cattle heads within the municipality. The index method has been calibrated by using groundwater concentration as a proxy of N losses from agriculture. A time series of three years of data has been analyzed. The application of the simple index method allowed to

  13. Sustainable agricultural development in a rural area in the Netherlands? Assessing impacts of climate and socio-economic change at farm and landscape level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Bakker, M.M.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Alam, S.J.; Paas, W.H.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in climate, technology, policy and prices affect agricultural and rural development. To evaluate whether this development is sustainable, impacts of these multiple drivers need to be assessed for multiple indicators. In a case study area in the Netherlands, a bio-economic farm model, an

  14. Graph Aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endriss, U.; Grandi, U.

    Graph aggregation is the process of computing a single output graph that constitutes a good compromise between several input graphs, each provided by a different source. One needs to perform graph aggregation in a wide variety of situations, e.g., when applying a voting rule (graphs as preference

  15. Changes in the Canadian diesel industry and their impact on trucking and farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperber, M.; Vail, S.; Clavet, F.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the workings of the diesel industry and provides a perspective on several issues that influence the industry, particularly retail pricing and how it affects truckers and farmers. These important users of diesel fuel have expressed concerns regarding the relationships between diesel prices and external factors. The five regions that were examined in depth were Moncton, New Brunswick, Saint-Hyacinthe,Quebec, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Regina, Saskatchewan and Guelph, Ontario. The diesel industry follows the economic rules of supply and demand. The study found that diesel fuel prices at the wholesale level are influenced by world crude oil prices as well as by continental and world conditions. The paper examined the structure, conduct and performance of the wholesale diesel industry as well as its competition. The components that make up the final cost of diesel fuel (such as taxes) were described along with the influence of continental factors that affect the diesel industry. Trucking companies have the flexibility to consider supply options in different regions in North America, depending on the routes they travel. In addition, carriers using large volumes of diesel also pay better prices for fuel than smaller carriers. Farmers use less fuel than truckers and must rely on fuel delivery to their farms. The price of diesel for farmers generally depends on the volume purchased. Grain farmers are affected by diesel fuel costs more than other types of farmers, particularly since they receive very low world prices for their harvest. 7 tabs., 11 figs

  16. Climate Change Impacts on Rice Farming Systems in Northwestern Sri Lanka. Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Lareef; Nissanka, Sarath P.; Weerakoon, W. M. W.; Herath, Dumindu I.; Karunaratne, Asha S; Prabodha, A. S. M.; Agalawatte, M. B.; Herath, Rasnayaka; Yahiya, S. Zeenas; Punyawardhene, B. V. R.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Sri Lanka has achieved tremendous progress since 1950 in crop production and food availability. Yields grew at an impressive rate until leveling off in the mid-eighties. Sri Lanka's population is anticipated to grow in the coming decades, creating an ever-greater demand for food security on the household, sub-district, regional, and national scales.The agricultural sector in Sri Lanka is vulnerable to climate shocks. An unusual succession of droughts and floods from 2008 to 2014 has led to both booms and busts in agricultural production, which were reflected in food prices. In both instances, the majority of farmers and consumers were adversely affected.At present the rice-farming systems are under stress due to inadequate returns for the farmers and difficulty in coping with shocks due to climate, pests, and diseases, and prices for produce. There are government price-support mechanisms, fertilizer-subsidy schemes, and crop insurance schemes, but the levels of the supports are modest and often do not effectively reach the farmers.

  17. Wind farms production: Control and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fouly, Tarek Hussein Mostafa

    Wind energy resources, unlike dispatchable central station generation, produce power dependable on external irregular source and that is the incident wind speed which does not always blow when electricity is needed. This results in the variability, unpredictability, and uncertainty of wind resources. Therefore, the integration of wind facilities to utility electrical grid presents a major challenge to power system operator. Such integration has significant impact on the optimum power flow, transmission congestion, power quality issues, system stability, load dispatch, and economic analysis. Due to the irregular nature of wind power production, accurate prediction represents the major challenge to power system operators. Therefore, in this thesis two novel models are proposed for wind speed and wind power prediction. One proposed model is dedicated to short-term prediction (one-hour ahead) and the other involves medium term prediction (one-day ahead). The accuracy of the proposed models is revealed by comparing their results with the corresponding values of a reference prediction model referred to as the persistent model. Utility grid operation is not only impacted by the uncertainty of the future production of wind farms, but also by the variability of their current production and how the active and reactive power exchange with the grid is controlled. To address this particular task, a control technique for wind turbines, driven by doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs), is developed to regulate the terminal voltage by equally sharing the generated/absorbed reactive power between the rotor-side and the gridside converters. To highlight the impact of the new developed technique in reducing the power loss in the generator set, an economic analysis is carried out. Moreover, a new aggregated model for wind farms is proposed that accounts for the irregularity of the incident wind distribution throughout the farm layout. Specifically, this model includes the wake effect

  18. Visual impact of wind farms on cultural heritage: A Norwegian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerpasen, Gro B.; Larsen, Kari C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses different approaches of how visual impact on cultural heritage can be methodologically improved within Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). During the recent decade, visual impact on cultural heritage and heritage sites has become a more frequent but contentious issue in public and academic discussions. Yet, within EIA issues relating to heritage sites and visual impact are rarely debated or critically reflected upon. Today most methods and theories on visual impact and cultural heritage within EIA are transferred from disciplines such as landscape architecture, architecture and geography. The article suggests how working with the concepts and definitions of site and setting can be a methodological tool for delimiting and clarifying visual impact on cultural heritage sites. The article also presents ways of how public participation can be a tool to start exploring the field of what the visual impact on cultural heritage implies and how it effects upon our understanding and appreciation of heritage sites. Examples from a Norwegian case are taken as illustrations to highlight these issues.

  19. INTEGRATED DESEASE MANAGEMENT FOR CHILI FARMING IN BREBES AND MAGELANG - CENTRAL JAVA: SOCIAL ECONOMIC IMPACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Joko Mariyono

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the impact of an integrated disease management (IDM) on chilli. Chili disease control technologies that include crop barrier with corn and Crotalaria, and compost tea have been introduced to farmers in Magelang and Brebes. A qualitative approach was used to assess and estimate the socio-economic impact of agricultural research. The study was conducted in 2011. The results showed that based on land use chili, the net economic benefits generated was relatively low. Th...

  20. The Mynydd y Cemmaes wind farm impact study: V. 1. Summary: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The impacts of windfarms in the United Kingdom have been studied to assess their effects on the local visual, traffic, noise, ecological and economic environment. The study reported here on Mynydd y Cemmaes windfarm took place between 1992 and 1994 before construction started and was completed a year and a half after commissioning. A summary of results from a sociological impact study, undertaken as a two-stage public attitude survey, is also reported here. (UK)

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON SANTA EULÁLIA SMALL FARM, SÃO LUÍS-MA, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Alcântara Rufino

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The small farm Santa Eulália occupies a privileged area in the landscape compositionof the city of São Luis, being situated in one of the vectors of urban expansion, the edges ofthe avenue Euclides Figueiredo, on the northwest of the island of Maranhão, next to thecenter. In the decade of 1980, the small farm was inserted in area of permanent environmentprotection and in the beginning of the decade of 1990, Santa Eulália received great landscapealteration for interest in creating the housing development Santa Eulália for an estimatedpopulation of 35 thousand inhabitants. The intervention was made aiming to organize thegrowth of the city, however the execution of the work generated a great controversy, as muchpolitical as environmental, but also social, with the argument that the area destined to theimplantation of the housing development would be of permanent preservation and placed onthe side of a garbage deposit that served as a deposit of solid residues for all the cities of theisland. After the deforestation of 107.32 hectares and the implantation of the primaryinfrastructure in the place that involved services of embankment, drainage and pavement, thework was seized by the Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Renewable NaturalResources (IBAMA, but the main environmental impacts had already occurred or wasoccurring. Due to the land filling, embankment, previous cut of palm trees and mangrove,some foci of erosion with the creation of several gullies had originated and had a consequentsanding of creeks due to the material carried by the rain, besides that, the exposed soil is poorand with lateritic concretions . These factors made it difficult to attempt the forest resetting ofthe area in study. Therefore, the recovery of all the area becomes necessary in order to leaveit with a profile similar to the original, mainly in the areas considered untouchable for theBrazilian environmental legislation.

  2. Proposed Columbia Wind Farm No. 1 : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Joint NEPA/SEPA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Klickitat County (Wash.)

    1995-09-01

    CARES proposes to construct and operate the 25 megawatt Columbia Wind Farm No. 1 (Project) in the Columbia Hills area of Klickitat County, Washington known as Juniper Point. Wind is not a constant resource and based on the site wind measurement data, it is estimated that the Project would generate approximately 7 average annual MWs of electricity. BPA proposes to purchase the electricity generated by the Project. CARES would execute a contractual agreement with a wind developer, to install approximately 91 wind turbines and associated facilities to generate electricity. The Project`s construction and operation would include: install concrete pier foundations for each wind turbine; install 91 model AWT-26 wind turbines using 43 m high guyed tubular towers on the pier foundations; construct a new 115/24-kv substation; construct a 149 m{sup 2} steel operations and maintenance building; install 25 pad mount transformers along the turbine access roads; install 4.0 km of underground 24 kv power collection lines to collect power from individual turbines to the end of turbine strings; install 1.2 km of underground communication and transmission lines from each turbine to a pad mount transformer; install 5.6 km of 24 kv wood pole transmission lines to deliver electricity from the pad mount transformers to the Project substation; install 3.2 km of 115 kv wood pole transmission lines to deliver electricity from the Project substation to the Public Utility District No. 1 of Klickitat County(PUD)115 kv Goldendale line; interconnect with the BPA transmission system through the Goldendale line and Goldendale substation owned by the PUD; reconstruct, upgrade, and maintain 8.0 km of existing roads; construct and maintain 6.4 km of new graveled roads along the turbine strings and to individual turbines; and install meteorological towers guyed with rebar anchors on the Project site.

  3. Rydberg aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüster, S.; Rost, J.-M.

    2018-02-01

    We review Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of a few Rydberg atoms exhibiting energy transport through collective eigenstates, considering isolated atoms or assemblies embedded within clouds of cold ground-state atoms. We classify Rydberg aggregates, and provide an overview of their possible applications as quantum simulators for phenomena from chemical or biological physics. Our main focus is on flexible Rydberg aggregates, in which atomic motion is an essential feature. In these, simultaneous control over Rydberg-Rydberg interactions, external trapping and electronic energies, allows Born-Oppenheimer surfaces for the motion of the entire aggregate to be tailored as desired. This is illustrated with theory proposals towards the demonstration of joint motion and excitation transport, conical intersections and non-adiabatic effects. Additional flexibility for quantum simulations is enabled by the use of dressed dipole-dipole interactions or the embedding of the aggregate in a cold gas or Bose-Einstein condensate environment. Finally we provide some guidance regarding the parameter regimes that are most suitable for the realization of either static or flexible Rydberg aggregates based on Li or Rb atoms. The current status of experimental progress towards enabling Rydberg aggregates is also reviewed.

  4. The impact of natural helminth infections and supplementary protein on growth performance of free-range chickens on smallholder farms in El Sauce, Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Luna, Luz A; Johansen, Maria V

    2005-01-01

    Three on-farm studies were conducted in Nicaragua during three consecutive years (1999-2001) to assess the impact of natural helminth infections on growth performance of free-range chickens aged 3-4 months. On all participating farms, half of the chickens were treated regularly with anthelmintics...... to helminth infections seem to be pronounced. In 2001, the study set-up included an assessment of the effect of protein supplementation (soybean) on growth on six farms. Supplemented chickens (treated and non-treated with anthelmintics) had 17% higher weight gain than non-supplemented. Protein supplementation...... affected neither worm burdens nor faecal egg counts for any of the studied helminths. The post-mortem examinations showed that Trifen reduced burdens of Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, and cestodes (efficacies of 100, 100 and 67%, respectively). Albendazole reduced burdens of H. gallinarum (efficacy...

  5. The impact of farmers’ participation in field trials in creating awareness and stimulating compliance with the World Health Organization’s farm-based multiple-barrier approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amponsah, Owusu; Vigre, Håkan; Schou, Torben Wilde

    2016-01-01

    -barrier approach field trials. The results of the study show that participation in the field trials has statistically significant effects on farmers’ awareness of the farm-based multiple-barrier approach. Compliance has, however, been undermined by the farmers’ perception that the cost of compliance is more......The results of a study aimed as assessing the extent to which urban vegetable farmers’ participation in field trials can impact on their awareness and engender compliance with the World Health Organization’s farm-based multiple-barrier approach are presented in this paper. Both qualitative...... and quantitative approaches have been used in this paper. One hundred vegetable farmers and four vegetable farmers’ associations in the Kumasi Metropolis in Ghana were covered. The individual farmers were grouped into two, namely: (1) participants and (2) non-participants of the farm-based multiple...

  6. IMPACT OF THE NEW BRAZILIAN FORESTRY CODE ON THE ADEQUACY OF SMALL FARM HOUSEHOLDS TO THE ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo Feistauer; Paulo Emilio Lovato; Alexandre Siminski; Sidivan Aparecido Resende

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815735In order to evaluate the effects of Brazil’s new Forest Code on the legal status of farm households, 17 farms, located in Portal da Amazonia territory, northern Mato Grosso state, and managed in either conventional specialized farm (CPS) or organic (OPS) production systems were studied. The total area per farm, as well as the surfaces of legal reserve units and preservation areas were measured by using Geographic Information System (GIS), to allow a comp...

  7. Impact of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis on profit efficiency in semi-extensive dairy sheep and goat farms of Apulia, southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardaro, Ruggiero; Pieragostini, Elisa; Rubino, Giuseppe; Petazzi, Ferruccio

    2017-01-01

    A recent study on paratubercolosis in semi-extensive dairy sheep and goat farms in Apulia revealed a flock positivity of 60.5% and a seroprevalence of 3.0% for sheep and 14.5% for goat, with peaks of 50%. In such a context, providing detailed economic information is crucial for the implementation of a suitable control plan. In this paper we investigated the impact of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) on profit efficiency of the Apulian dairy sheep and goat farms. Empirical results through a stochastic frontier model showed that the uninfected farms had a mean level of profit efficiency of 84%, which dropped to 64% in the presence of paratubercolosis as it negatively affected the productivity of feeding, veterinary and labour factors. Structural, managerial and production aspects were involved in the greater inefficiency of the infected farms compared to the uninfected ones: lower experience and schooling of farmers, no access to credit, fewer family members (women in particular) participating in the farming activities, high density of animals per hectare, small flocks, high number of goats in mixed flocks, no confinement practices for young and purchased animals and no pasture rotation. Hence, targeted interventions on these factors by decision makers can ensure effectiveness and efficiency to veterinary and economic action plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of fertilizers on background radioactivity level of two newly developed farms in Western Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, F.

    2006-01-01

    A survey of soil and plants were carried out to determine the environmental gamma background radiation levels of two newly developed farms in western desert area, Egypt. The materials and the standards were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy in which a shielded high purity germanium detector has been used to measure the natural concentration of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K activities in the samples. The radionuclide contents in some commercial fertilizers have been determined. The results of analysis of specific activities in the fertilizers under study were 1.27-950.09 Bq/Kg for 238 U, 0.73 -162.16 Bq/Kg for 232 Th and 10.22- 23845.24 Bq/Kg for 40 K. All natural soil samples showed low activity concentrations. The concentrations of 238 U (6.13-38.84 Bq/Kg) and 232 Th (2.58-25.69 Bq/Kg) were quite similar, while that of 40 K (113.91-9314.11 Bq/Kg) was the highest for plant samples. Some of the results obtained were higher than the permissible international radioactivity levels. It is suitable in this regard to compare the activity values for the imported fertilizers and that fabricated in Egypt. The absorbed dose rate and the radium equivalent activity concentration were found to be 1.91-1027 n Gy/h and 4.02-1840.98 Bq/Kg, respectively, for fertilizers samples. For soil and plant samples, the results were 11.86-415.29 n Gy/h and 24.20-750.52 Bq/Kg for the absorbed dose rate and the radium equivalent activity concentration, respectively, and the banana plant contained the largest values. The present study presents actual data from investigations of the plant-soil transfer of the primordial radio nuclides for some fruits growing at these soils. The transfer factors of 0.35-1.821 for 238 U, 0.227-0.480 for 232 Th and 1.95-31.85 for 40 K were obtained. The increase of the transfer of 40 K reflected its great uptake to the fruits. The observed plant-soil factors were varied widely, mainly as a result of different soil, vegetation types and environmental conditions. Taking into

  9. The Impact of Cricket Farming on Rural Livelihoods, Nutrition and the Environment in Thailand and Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz

    a positive impact on food and nutrition security. The findings presented in this thesis have relevance for non-governmental organizations, civil society, policy makers, intergovernmental organizations and governmental agencies seeking to implement policies and interventions to improve access to a nutritional...

  10. Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    : the rotor, the nacelle, the tower, and the foundation. Further the determinations of the essential environmental conditions are treated: the wind field, the wave field, the sea current, and the soil conditions. The various options for grid connections, advantages, and disadvantages are discussed. Of special...... concern are the problems associated with locating the turbines close together in a wind farm and the problems of placing several large wind farms in a confined area. The environmental impacts of offshore wind farms are also treated, but not the supply chain, that is, the harbors, the installation vessels...

  11. Short-Circuit Current Analysis for DFIG Wind Farm Considering the Action of a Crowbar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hong Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing capacity of wind farms integrated into the power grid, the short-circuit current analysis for wind farms becomes more and more important. Since the wind turbine is usually integrated into the power grid via power electronic devices, the “crowbar” is installed in the wind turbine to protect the power electronic devices and to improve the fault ride through capability. The impact of the crowbar has to be considered during the short-circuit current analysis for the wind farm. In order to fully analyze the short-circuit current characteristics of a wind farm, the short-circuit currents for a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG wind turbine under symmetrical and asymmetrical faults considering the crowbar action characteristic are derived firstly. Then the action situation of the crowbar of a DFIG wind turbine is studied and the action area curve is obtained. Taking the crowbar action, or not, as the grouping criterion, wind turbines in the wind farm are divided into two groups, and the wind farm is aggregated into two equivalent wind turbines. Using the equivalent model, the short-circuit current of a wind farm can be calculated accurately. Finally, simulations are performed in MATLAB/Simulink which is the commercial math software produced by the MathWorks company in Natick, Massachusetts, the United States to verify the proposed short-circuit current calculation method for the DFIG wind farm.

  12. Integrated crop protection and environment exposure to pesticides: methods to reduce use and impact of pesticides in arable farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, F.G.

    1997-01-01

    Prototypes of Integrated Farming Systems for arable farming are being developed in the Netherlands based on a coherent methodology elaborated in an European Union concerted action. The role of crop protection in Integrated systems is, additional to all other methods, to efficiently control the

  13. Afforestation impacts microbial biomass and its natural {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N abundance in soil aggregates in central China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Junjun; Zhang, Qian; Yang, Fan; Lei, Yao; Zhang, Quanfa; Cheng, Xiaoli, E-mail: xlcheng@fudan.edu.cn

    2016-10-15

    We investigated soil microbial biomass and its natural abundance of δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N in aggregates (> 2000 μm, 250–2000 μm, 53–250 μm and < 53 μm) of afforested (implementing woodland and shrubland plantations) soils, adjacent croplands and open area (i.e., control) in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area of central China. The afforested soils averaged higher microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) levels in all aggregates than in open area and cropland, with higher microbial biomass in micro-aggregates (< 250 μm) than in macro-aggregates (> 2000 μm). The δ{sup 13}C of soil microbial biomass was more enriched in woodland soils than in other land use types, while δ{sup 15}N of soil microbial biomass was more enriched compared with that of organic soil in all land use types. The δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N of microbial biomass were positively correlated with the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N of organic soil across aggregates and land use types, whereas the {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N enrichment of microbial biomass exhibited linear decreases with the corresponding C:N ratio of organic soil. Our results suggest that shifts in the natural {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N abundance of microbial biomass reflect changes in the stabilization and turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) and thereby imply that afforestation can greatly impact SOM accumulation over the long-term. - Highlights: • Afforested soils averaged higher microbial biomass in all aggregates than cropland. • Microbial biomass was higher in micro-aggregates than in macro-aggregates. • δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N of microbe positively correlated with δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N of organic soil. • {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N enrichment of microbe was negatively related to with soil C:N ratio.

  14. The impact of the local dairy cattle farm toward the river water quality in Gunungpati Subdistrict Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Widiastuti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available People’s awareness on the living environment nowadays is not yet comes up to the dairy-farmer community. In fact, the dairy-farm subsector contributes load pollution in the form of waste. The waste that is produced by a dairy-farm can be in the form of solid waste and liquid waste. There is still no cultivation effort toward the wastes in a traditional dairy-farmyet, thus most of the wastes are disposed to the closest river, so that in the surrounding dairy farm area is frequently found pollution toward the water quality. The aim of this study is to identify the effect of environment pollution that is caused by local dairy farm in Gunungpati Sub-district, especially toward the river water and residents’ well. The result of this study in Nangkasawit Village before and after the dairy farm was build was still under the quality standard for the third rate water quality. In Plalangan Village, the water quality was also under the quality standard, except for COD concentration. In the Sumurejo Village there was an upturn tendency on the observation value, but the water quality was under the quality standard, except for Fe concentration. Based on the Biodiversity Index before and after the dairy farm was established in Nangkasawit, Plalangan, and Sumurejo were 2.22, 1.49, 2.11, 1.90, 1.78, and 1.88, respectively. It means that Nangkasawit showed no pollution before the dairy farm was established, while there was a medium pollution after the dairy farm establishment.  In Plalangan, the water was clear, but it was light polluted after the dairy farm was established. In Sumurejo, before and after the dairy farm establishment the water was light category pollution.

  15. Habitat connectivity and resident shared predators determine the impact of invasive bullfrogs on native frogs in farm ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atobe, Takashi; Osada, Yutaka; Takeda, Hayato; Kuroe, Misako; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2014-07-07

    Habitat connectivity is considered to have an important role on the persistence of populations in the face of habitat fragmentation, in particular, for species with conservation concern. However, it can also impose indirect negative effects on native species through the spread of invasive species. Here, we investigated direct and indirect effects of habitat connectivity on populations of invasive bullfrogs and native wrinkled frogs and how these effects are modified by the presence of common carp, a resident shared predator, in a farm pond system in Japan. The distribution pattern analysis using a hierarchical Bayesian modelling indicated that bullfrogs had negative effects on wrinkled frogs, and that these negative effects were enhanced with increasing habitat connectivity owing to the metapopulation structure of bullfrogs. The analysis also suggested that common carp mitigated these impacts, presumably owing to a top-down trophic cascade through preferential predation on bullfrog tadpoles. These presumed interspecific interactions were supported by evidence from laboratory experiments, i.e. predation by carp was more intense on bullfrog tadpoles than on wrinkled frog tadpoles owing to the difference in refuge use. Our results indicate that metacommunity perspectives could provide useful insights for establishing effective management strategies of invasive species living in patchy habitats. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Yield Perceptions, Determinants and Adoption Impact of on Farm Varietal Mixtures for Common Bean and Banana in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Nankya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Crop variety mixtures (different varieties of a crop grown together in a single plot have been successfully deployed in pathogen and pest management for several crops including wheat, common bean and rice. Despite the available evidence, promotion of this approach has remained limited in many countries, including Uganda. The factors that influence farmers’ adoption of varietal mixtures for common bean and banana were assessed, as well as the perceptions of farmers on the effects of mixtures on yields, through household surveys and statistical modelling. A three-year yield increase in both common bean and banana varietal mixtures in farmer fields, of 5.2% and 28.6%, respectively, is realized using robust OLS estimates. The study reveals that accessing knowledge on the importance of crop varietal mixtures and the skills relating to the approach are crucial for their adoption. Location of the farm significantly determined the perceived yield change, which calls for more research into mixtures’ suitability under particular contexts in respect to compatibility of genotypes, management practices and appropriate acreage for maximum impact. The positive effects of mixtures on yields make it an effective bioeconomy strategy. Policies that minimize the adoption barriers could improve the adoption of crop varietal mixtures on a wider scale.

  17. IMPACT OF THE NEW BRAZILIAN FORESTRY CODE ON THE ADEQUACY OF SMALL FARM HOUSEHOLDS TO THE ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Feistauer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815735In order to evaluate the effects of Brazil’s new Forest Code on the legal status of farm households, 17 farms, located in Portal da Amazonia territory, northern Mato Grosso state, and managed in either conventional specialized farm (CPS or organic (OPS production systems were studied. The total area per farm, as well as the surfaces of legal reserve units and preservation areas were measured by using Geographic Information System (GIS, to allow a comparison of these data with legal requirements for the Amazon Region. Most of the small farm households did not comply with the required percentages of land for Legal Reserve (LR and Permanent Preservation Areas (PPA, in the latter case regarding riparian areas and areas for protection of water sources. Farms under OPS showed better results regarding preservation of native vegetation as well as higher percentages of forest remnants in their LR. Considering the amnesties and exemptions established by the New Forest Code, most farms have complied with the terms and requirements of current Brazilian environmental regulations.

  18. Potential climatic impacts and reliability of very large-scale wind farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Meeting future world energy needs while addressing climate change requires large-scale deployment of low or zero greenhouse gas (GHG emission technologies such as wind energy. The widespread availability of wind power has fueled substantial interest in this renewable energy source as one of the needed technologies. For very large-scale utilization of this resource, there are however potential environmental impacts, and also problems arising from its inherent intermittency, in addition to the present need to lower unit costs. To explore some of these issues, we use a three-dimensional climate model to simulate the potential climate effects associated with installation of wind-powered generators over vast areas of land or coastal ocean. Using wind turbines to meet 10% or more of global energy demand in 2100, could cause surface warming exceeding 1 °C over land installations. In contrast, surface cooling exceeding 1 °C is computed over ocean installations, but the validity of simulating the impacts of wind turbines by simply increasing the ocean surface drag needs further study. Significant warming or cooling remote from both the land and ocean installations, and alterations of the global distributions of rainfall and clouds also occur. These results are influenced by the competing effects of increases in roughness and decreases in wind speed on near-surface turbulent heat fluxes, the differing nature of land and ocean surface friction, and the dimensions of the installations parallel and perpendicular to the prevailing winds. These results are also dependent on the accuracy of the model used, and the realism of the methods applied to simulate wind turbines. Additional theory and new field observations will be required for their ultimate validation. Intermittency of wind power on daily, monthly and longer time scales as computed in these simulations and inferred from meteorological observations, poses a demand for one or more options to ensure

  19. First evidence of agro-pastoral farming and anthropogenic impact in the Taman Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniewski, David; Giaime, Matthieu; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Otto, Thierry; Porotov, Alexey V.; Van Campo, Elise

    2015-04-01

    Debate on the complex coevolution that has shaped interactions between forested ecosystems and humans through constantly evolving land-use practices over the past millennia has long been centered on the Mediterranean because this area is seen as the cradle for the birth and growth of agricultural activities. Here, we argue that the transition from hunting-gathering by Mesolithic foragers to the food-producing economy of Neolithic farmers was a main trigger of biological changes not only in the Mediterranean but also in the Black Sea and Azov Sea coasts through woodcutting, herding, fire and agriculture. Although the ecological erosion was clearly focused on forested ecosystems, this process seems to have fostered an increased biodiversity. We show, by focusing on the fertile coast of the Azov Sea, that (i) the first evidence of cereal cultivation and human-induced fire occurred in southern Russia 7000 years ago; (ii) the early development of agriculture was a major but discontinuous process; (iii) the coastal ecosystems were rapidly disturbed by anthropogenic activities; and (iv) the Neolithic was a critical threshold for the forested ecosystems of the coastal area. The impact of early anthropogenic pressures seems to have been largely neglected or underestimated for the period encompassing the Neolithic cultural phase.

  20. Temporal Genetic Variance and Propagule-Driven Genetic Structure Characterize Naturalized Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from a Patagonian Lake Impacted by Trout Farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente, Javiera N; Seeb, Lisa W; Seeb, James E; Arismendi, Ivan; Hernández, Cristián E; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Galleguillos, Ricardo; Cádiz, Maria I; Musleh, Selim S; Gomez-Uchida, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the genetic underpinnings of invasions-a theme addressed by invasion genetics as a discipline-is still scarce amid well documented ecological impacts of non-native species on ecosystems of Patagonia in South America. One of the most invasive species in Patagonia's freshwater systems and elsewhere is rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This species was introduced to Chile during the early twentieth century for stocking and promoting recreational fishing; during the late twentieth century was reintroduced for farming purposes and is now naturalized. We used population- and individual-based inference from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to illuminate three objectives related to the establishment and naturalization of Rainbow Trout in Lake Llanquihue. This lake has been intensively used for trout farming during the last three decades. Our results emanate from samples collected from five inlet streams over two seasons, winter and spring. First, we found that significant intra- population (temporal) genetic variance was greater than inter-population (spatial) genetic variance, downplaying the importance of spatial divergence during the process of naturalization. Allele frequency differences between cohorts, consistent with variation in fish length between spring and winter collections, might explain temporal genetic differences. Second, individual-based Bayesian clustering suggested that genetic structure within Lake Llanquihue was largely driven by putative farm propagules found at one single stream during spring, but not in winter. This suggests that farm broodstock might migrate upstream to breed during spring at that particular stream. It is unclear whether interbreeding has occurred between "pure" naturalized and farm trout in this and other streams. Third, estimates of the annual number of breeders (Nb) were below 73 in half of the collections, suggestive of genetically small and recently founded populations that might experience substantial

  1. Wind farms and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkesteijn, L.; Havinga, R.; Benner, J.H.B.

    1992-01-01

    The siting of wind farms is becoming an increasingly important issue in the Netherlands. This paper gives an overview of the current situation concerning the planning of wind farms. We will pay attention to: Wind energy in official Dutch planning policy. To select the optimal sites, the government has made an administrative agreement with the 7 windy provinces. Nevertheless, wind energy is still fighting for a rightful position in physical planning policy. Some examples will illustrate this. Studies on siting and siting problems in the Netherlands. In order to gain more insight into aspects of wind farming several studies have been executed. In this paper special attention will be paid to the results of a study on the potential impact of large windturbine clusters on an existing agricutural area. Experiences with siting of wind farms in the Netherlands. Based on experiences with the planning and realization of farms, this paper gives the main problems. In the final part of the paper we present some general conclusions. Generally speaking, the knowledge is available for selecting optimal sites in the Netherlands. The basic problems for wind farming nowadays seem to be the visual impact and actually obtaining the ground. Nevertheless, there do seem to be enough sites for realizing the goals in the Netherlands. (au)

  2. Investigation of the impact of nanotechnology on the freeze-thaw durability of concrete containing d-cracking aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Freezing and thawing damage is the most common cause of distress in Kansas pavements. Many : locally available aggregates in Kansas do not meet current standards for use in concrete pavements because : of poor freeze-thaw durability. The use of nanot...

  3. Impact of income-detection technology and other factors on aggregate income tax evasion:the case of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Cebula

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigates the impact of improving income-detectiontechnology, as well as a variety of other factors, on aggregate income taxevasion. The study focuses on the U.S., using available data for the 1975-97 period. The empirical findings indicate that improving income-detection technology appears to have significantly reduced the degree of aggregate income-tax evasion in theU.S. over time. In addition, the estimates indicate that federal income tax evasionappears to be an increasing function not only of the federal personal income tax rate but also of the public's dissatisfaction with government. Furthermore, income taxevasion appears to be a decreasing function both of penalties imposed by the IRS on unpaid taxes and IRS audit rates.

  4. Whole farm management to reduce nutrient losses from dairy farms: a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotz, C.A.; Oenema, J.; Keulen, van H.

    2003-01-01

    Whole farm simulation provides a tool for evaluating the impact of nutrient conservation technologies and strategies on dairy farms. A farm simulation model was verified by simulating the production and nutrient flows of the De Marke experimental dairy farm in the Netherlands. Technology such as a

  5. Erosion of dust aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seizinger, A.; Krijt, S.; Kley, W.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to gain a deeper insight into how much different aggregate types are affected by erosion. Especially, it is important to study the influence of the velocity of the impacting projectiles. We also want to provide models for dust growth in protoplanetary disks with simple

  6. Potential climatic impacts and reliability of large-scale offshore wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chien; Prinn, Ronald G

    2011-01-01

    The vast availability of wind power has fueled substantial interest in this renewable energy source as a potential near-zero greenhouse gas emission technology for meeting future world energy needs while addressing the climate change issue. However, in order to provide even a fraction of the estimated future energy needs, a large-scale deployment of wind turbines (several million) is required. The consequent environmental impacts, and the inherent reliability of such a large-scale usage of intermittent wind power would have to be carefully assessed, in addition to the need to lower the high current unit wind power costs. Our previous study (Wang and Prinn 2010 Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10 2053) using a three-dimensional climate model suggested that a large deployment of wind turbines over land to meet about 10% of predicted world energy needs in 2100 could lead to a significant temperature increase in the lower atmosphere over the installed regions. A global-scale perturbation to the general circulation patterns as well as to the cloud and precipitation distribution was also predicted. In the later study reported here, we conducted a set of six additional model simulations using an improved climate model to further address the potential environmental and intermittency issues of large-scale deployment of offshore wind turbines for differing installation areas and spatial densities. In contrast to the previous land installation results, the offshore wind turbine installations are found to cause a surface cooling over the installed offshore regions. This cooling is due principally to the enhanced latent heat flux from the sea surface to lower atmosphere, driven by an increase in turbulent mixing caused by the wind turbines which was not entirely offset by the concurrent reduction of mean wind kinetic energy. We found that the perturbation of the large-scale deployment of offshore wind turbines to the global climate is relatively small compared to the case of land

  7. Intracellular response to process optimization and impact on productivity and product aggregates for a high-titer CHO cell process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handlogten, Michael W; Lee-O'Brien, Allison; Roy, Gargi; Levitskaya, Sophia V; Venkat, Raghavan; Singh, Shailendra; Ahuja, Sanjeev

    2018-01-01

    A key goal in process development for antibodies is to increase productivity while maintaining or improving product quality. During process development of an antibody, titers were increased from 4 to 10 g/L while simultaneously decreasing aggregates. Process development involved optimization of media and feed formulations, feed strategy, and process parameters including pH and temperature. To better understand how CHO cells respond to process changes, the changes were implemented in a stepwise manner. The first change was an optimization of the feed formulation, the second was an optimization of the medium, and the third was an optimization of process parameters. Multiple process outputs were evaluated including cell growth, osmolality, lactate production, ammonium concentration, antibody production, and aggregate levels. Additionally, detailed assessment of oxygen uptake, nutrient and amino acid consumption, extracellular and intracellular redox environment, oxidative stress, activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) expression, and heavy and light chain mRNA expression provided an in-depth understanding of the cellular response to process changes. The results demonstrate that mRNA expression and UPR activation were unaffected by process changes, and that increased PDI expression and optimized nutrient supplementation are required for higher productivity processes. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate the role of extra- and intracellular redox environment on productivity and antibody aggregation. Processes using the optimized medium, with increased concentrations of redox modifying agents, had the highest overall specific productivity, reduced aggregate levels, and helped cells better withstand the high levels of oxidative stress associated with increased productivity. Specific productivities of different processes positively correlated to average intracellular values of total glutathione. Additionally

  8. Impacts of Nutrition and Feeding Programs on Farmers’ Management Decisions Affecting the Success of Dairy Farms with Culture Breed Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz Topcu; Mehmet Toparlak; Muhlis Macit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate all the factors determining the milk production and yield decisions with regard to the nutrition and feeding programs affecting the integrated management strategies on the success of the dairy farms with culture breed cattle under the pasture-based and indoor barn-based production systems. For these aims, data obtained from the individual interviews conducted at the dairy farms with 100 culture breed cattle were used for Principal Component and Multiple Reg...

  9. Assessing the cumulative impacts of wind farms on peatland birds: a case study of golden plover Pluvialis apricaria in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. Pearce-Higgins

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of golden plover across Scotland was modelled using land cover and management variables, and used to highlight the spatial association between golden plover abundance and current and proposed wind farm developments. Overlap was greatest in three biogeographical zones (the Western Isles, the Western Central Belt and the Borders Hills and was estimated at ca. 5% of the biogeographical population in each case. New field data were used to predict the effects of wind farm development on golden plover populations, employing a conservative analytical approach to detect statistically significant wind farm related effects. The results provide evidence of significant avoidance of wind turbines by breeding golden plovers to a distance of at least 200 metres. Furthermore, wind farm sites appear to support lower densities of golden plover than predicted by the distribution model for sites without wind farms. Therefore, there is evidence for negative effects of wind farm developments on golden plover, and we suggest strategies to reduce any potential conflict between the need to promote wind energy and the need to maintain golden plover populations.

  10. The Impact of Renewable Energy Policies on the Adoption of Anaerobic Digesters with Farm-Fed Wastes in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baboo Lesh Gowreesunker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effects of the feed-in tariff (FiT and renewable heat incentive (RHI schemes on the adoption of anaerobic digesters (AD, and the potential energy generation from farm-fed wastes in Great Britain. This paper adopts a linear programming model, developed in the International Energy Agency (IEA TIMES platform, aiming to quantify the degree of adoption of AD and the type of energy generation technologies that can be driven by digester biogas to reduce farm energy costs. The results show that the adoption of AD is cost-beneficial for all farms, but different rates of the FiT and RHI schemes will influence the competitiveness between the implementation of combined heat and power (CHP systems and the utilisation of biogas to only generate heat. The choice of technology is further dependent on the electricity/heat use ratio of the farms and the energy content of the feedstock. The results show that pig farms will more readily adopt CHP, because of its relatively higher electricity-to-heat use ratio, compared to other types of farms, which will favour biogas boilers.

  11. Impacts of forest farm practice on small to medium-sized mammals at Kemasul forest reserve, Pahang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Nor Bazilah; Abdul-Rahim, Ahmad Rizal; Md-Nor, Shukor; Mohd-Taib, Farah Shafawati

    2018-04-01

    Exploitation of forest for commercial agriculture has taken toll on wildlife species worldwide. A forest farm project with the aim of compensating the forest loss has been implemented in Kemasul Forest Reserve, of Pahang State, Malaysia through plantation of fast growing and adaptable plant species. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of this practice on diversity. The study was conducted in a long strip of forest fragment, where two study sites with different landscape matrix types were chosen; oil palm plantation (JR) and Acacia mangium plantations (CM). A total of 75 individuals from 13 species and six families were collected at both sites. The result shows forest with A. mangium plantations matrix types yield higher species diversity. There are 10 shared species that can be found at both study sites including Callosciurus notatus, Hystrix brachyura, Macaca nemestrina, and Tupaia glis. However, some species only existed at selected sites such as Leopoldamys sabanus which can only be found at JR. On the other hand, Callosciurus nigrovittatus, Viverra tangalunga and Paradoxurus hermaphroditus were only recorded at CM. Out of all individuals collected, four of them are protected species as reported by IUCN. Callosciurus nigrovittatus is listed as Near Threatened while the other three species (Maxomys rajah, Maxomys whiteheadi, and Macaca nemestrina) are Vulnerable. If conservation efforts in Kemasul Forest Reserved are neglected, these four species would be exposed to critical threats that might cause them facing extinction in the future. Mann Whitney U test shows no significant difference of distribution and species richness of small to medium-sized mammals in both study sites (U=51.5, p=0.59). This study therefore reveals that although the compensatory forest plantation initiatives yield positive effect on diversity of mammal's species, it does not necessarily provide ample food resources to the wildlife, instead it serves as important buffer

  12. Ultra-low p-doping of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and its impact on polymer aggregation and photovoltaic performance

    KAUST Repository

    Said, Marcel M.

    2016-04-25

    Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films and P3HT / fullerene photovoltaic cells have been p-doped with very low levels (< 1 wt. %) of molybdenum tris[1-(trifluoromethylcarbonyl)- 2-(trifluoromethyl)-ethane-1,2-dithiolene]. The dopants are inhomogenously distributed within doped P3HT films, both laterally and as a function of depth, and appear to aggregate in some instances. Doping also results in subtle changes in the local and long range order of the P3HT film. These effects likely contribute to the complexity of the observed evolutions in conductivity, mobility and work function with doping levels. They also negatively affect the open-circuit voltage and fill factor of solar cells in unexpected ways, indicating that dopant aggregation and non-uniform distribution can harm device performance.

  13. Ultra-low p-doping of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and its impact on polymer aggregation and photovoltaic performance

    KAUST Repository

    Said, Marcel M.; Zhang, Yadong; Dasari, Raghunath R.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Munir, Rahim; Hu, Hanlin; Amassian, Aram; Barlow, Stephen; Marder, Seth R.

    2016-01-01

    Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films and P3HT / fullerene photovoltaic cells have been p-doped with very low levels (< 1 wt. %) of molybdenum tris[1-(trifluoromethylcarbonyl)- 2-(trifluoromethyl)-ethane-1,2-dithiolene]. The dopants are inhomogenously distributed within doped P3HT films, both laterally and as a function of depth, and appear to aggregate in some instances. Doping also results in subtle changes in the local and long range order of the P3HT film. These effects likely contribute to the complexity of the observed evolutions in conductivity, mobility and work function with doping levels. They also negatively affect the open-circuit voltage and fill factor of solar cells in unexpected ways, indicating that dopant aggregation and non-uniform distribution can harm device performance.

  14. Mutant Huntingtin Gene-Dose Impacts on Aggregate Deposition, DARPP32 Expression and Neuroinflammation in HdhQ150 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas; Mayer, Franziska; Vidotto, Nella; Schweizer, Tatjana; Berth, Ramon; Abramowski, Dorothee; Shimshek, Derya R.; van der Putten, P. Herman; Schmid, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, progressive and fatal neurological disorder caused by an expansion of CAG repeats in exon-1 of the huntingtin gene. The encoded poly-glutamine stretch renders mutant huntingtin prone to aggregation. HdhQ150 mice genocopy a pathogenic repeat (∼150 CAGs) in the endogenous mouse huntingtin gene and model predominantly pre-manifest HD. Treating early is likely important to prevent or delay HD, and HdhQ150 mice may be useful to assess therapeutic strategies targeting pre-manifest HD. This requires appropriate markers and here we demonstrate, that pre-symptomatic HdhQ150 mice show several dramatic mutant huntingtin gene-dose dependent pathological changes including: (i) an increase of neuronal intra-nuclear inclusions (NIIs) in brain, (ii) an increase of extra-nuclear aggregates in dentate gyrus, (iii) a decrease of DARPP32 protein and (iv) an increase in glial markers of neuroinflammation, which curiously did not correlate with local neuronal mutant huntingtin inclusion-burden. HdhQ150 mice developed NIIs also in all retinal neuron cell-types, demonstrating that retinal NIIs are not specific to human exon-1 R6 HD mouse models. Taken together, the striking and robust mutant huntingtin gene-dose related changes in aggregate-load, DARPP32 levels and glial activation markers should greatly facilitate future testing of therapeutic strategies in the HdhQ150 HD mouse model. PMID:24086450

  15. Heterogeneity in regional notification patterns and its impact on aggregate national case notification data: the example of measles in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butler Alisa R

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A monthly time series of measles case notifications exists for Italy from 1949 onwards, although its usefulness is seriously undermined by extensive under-reporting which varies strikingly between regions, giving rise to the possibility of significant distortions in epidemic patterns seen in aggregated national data. Results A corrected national time series is calculated using an algorithm based upon the approximate equality between births and measles cases; under-reporting estimates are presented for each Italian region, and poor levels of reporting in Southern Italy are confirmed. Conclusion Although an order of magnitude larger, despite great heterogeneity between regions in under-reporting and in epidemic patterns, the shape of the corrected national time series remains close to that of the aggregated uncorrected data. This suggests such aggregate data may be quite robust to great heterogeneity in reporting and epidemic patterns at the regional level. The corrected data set maintains an epidemic pattern distinct from that of England and Wales.

  16. The impact of micro financing on poverty levels of rural women farm households in Abia state, Nigeria; implication for policy intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EZEH Innocent

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the impact of micro-finance on poverty level of rural women farm households in Abia State, Nigeria: Implication for policy intervention. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to +select the local government areas, communities and respondents in the three (Aba, Ohafia and Umuahia agricultural zones of the State. The sample size was 240 (120 a piece for rural women farmer borrowers and non borrowers. Instrument of data collection was a set of structured and pre-tested questionnaire administered on both groups of rural women farmers. The result indicated that incidence of poverty or head count ratio was 0.558 for the rural women farmers borrowers and 0.933 for the rural women farmer non borrowers; poverty gap otherwise known as income short fall was 0.4547 for the rural women farmer borrowers and 0.6995 for the rural women farmer non borrowers. The result of the paired t-test showed that micro-finance impacted significantly on annual farm income, farm size and fertilizer use level of rural women farmer borrowers at given levels of significance. It was however, recommended that increased subsidy policy on agro-inputs and increased funding by the micro-finance will significantly aim at reducing the poverty levels of these women.

  17. Impact of Bulk Aggregation on the Electronic Structure of Streptocyanines: Implications for the Solid-State Nonlinear Optical Properties and All-Optical Switching Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gieseking, Rebecca L.

    2014-10-16

    Polymethine dyes in dilute solutions show many of the electronic and optical properties required for all-optical switching applications. However, in the form of thin films, their aggregation and interactions with counterions do generally strongly limit their utility. Here, we present a theoretical approach combining molecular-dynamics simulations and quantum-chemical calculations to describe the bulk molecular packing of streptocyanines (taken as representative of simple polymethines) with counterions of different hardness (Cl and BPh4 ) and understand the impact on the optical properties. The accuracy of the force field we use is verified by reproducing experimental crystal parameters as well as the configurations of polymethine/counterion complexes obtained from electronic-structure calculations. The aggregation characteristics can be understood in terms of both polymethinecounterion and polymethinepolymethine interactions. The counterions are found to localize near one end of the streptocyanine backbones, and the streptocyanines form a broad range of aggregates with significant electronic couplings between neighboring molecules. As a consequence, the linear and nonlinear optical properties are substantially modified in the bulk. By providing an understanding of the relationship between the molecular interactions and the bulk optical properties, our results point to a clear strategy for designing polymethine and counterion molecular structures and optimizing the materials properties for all-optical switching applications.

  18. Impact of Bulk Aggregation on the Electronic Structure of Streptocyanines: Implications for the Solid-State Nonlinear Optical Properties and All-Optical Switching Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gieseking, Rebecca L.; Mukhopadhyay, Sukrit; Shiring, Stephen B.; Risko, Chad; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Polymethine dyes in dilute solutions show many of the electronic and optical properties required for all-optical switching applications. However, in the form of thin films, their aggregation and interactions with counterions do generally strongly limit their utility. Here, we present a theoretical approach combining molecular-dynamics simulations and quantum-chemical calculations to describe the bulk molecular packing of streptocyanines (taken as representative of simple polymethines) with counterions of different hardness (Cl and BPh4 ) and understand the impact on the optical properties. The accuracy of the force field we use is verified by reproducing experimental crystal parameters as well as the configurations of polymethine/counterion complexes obtained from electronic-structure calculations. The aggregation characteristics can be understood in terms of both polymethinecounterion and polymethinepolymethine interactions. The counterions are found to localize near one end of the streptocyanine backbones, and the streptocyanines form a broad range of aggregates with significant electronic couplings between neighboring molecules. As a consequence, the linear and nonlinear optical properties are substantially modified in the bulk. By providing an understanding of the relationship between the molecular interactions and the bulk optical properties, our results point to a clear strategy for designing polymethine and counterion molecular structures and optimizing the materials properties for all-optical switching applications.

  19. Farm tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Nielsen, Niels Christian; Just, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on a study of one specific type of small tourism enterprises (i.e. farm tourism enterprises) and argues that these enterprises differ from other enterprises in relation to a series of issues other than merely size. The analysis shows that enterprises such as these are characterized......, our study suggests that it is problematic to threat farm tourism enterprises as if they have much in common with both larger corporations and other types of SMTEs. Farm tourism enterprises seem to differ significantly from other enterprises as the hosts are not in the tourism business because...

  20. Impact of the intensity of milk production on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions in Portuguese cattle farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, J.; Trindade, H.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate the relationship between the intensity of milk production for a wide range of Portuguese commercial cattle farms and NH3 and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manure management and enteric fermentation. A survey was carried out at 1471 commercial dairy cattle farms (Holstein-Friesian) and the NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions at each stage of manure management were estimated as well as CH4 losses from enteric fermentation. Gaseous emissions were estimated by a mass flow approach and following the recommendations of IPCC guidelines. The manure management and enteric fermentation in a typical Portuguese cattle farm contributes with 7.5±0.15 g N/L milk produced as NH3 and 1.2±0.22 kg CO2 equivalent per litre of milk as GHG. Increasing milk production will significantly reduce NH3 and GHG emissions per litre of milk produced. It can be concluded that a win-win strategy for reducing NH3 and GHG emissions from dairy cattle farms will be the increase of milk production on these farms. This goal can be achieved by implementing animal breeding programs and improving feed efficiency in order to increase productivity. (Author)

  1. Impacts of Nutrition and Feeding Programs on Farmers’ Management Decisions Affecting the Success of Dairy Farms with Culture Breed Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Topcu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate all the factors determining the milk production and yield decisions with regard to the nutrition and feeding programs affecting the integrated management strategies on the success of the dairy farms with culture breed cattle under the pasture-based and indoor barn-based production systems. For these aims, data obtained from the individual interviews conducted at the dairy farms with 100 culture breed cattle were used for Principal Component and Multiple Regression Analyses. The results of the study highlighted that while there were linear positive relationships among liquid assets of farms value, concentrate feed and fodder intake of dairy cattle, milk sale price, forage crop support, additional feeding and their types at pasture and milk yields per dairy cattle at the dairy farms; there were inverse relationships among hay intake of dairy cattle, lactation period, pasture planning, culture breed cattle support and those. The farmers could increase the successes of the dairy farms by increasing the technical and economic effectiveness under the integrated management pattern approaches at those with culture breed cattle.

  2. Grieving for the Family Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Simon H.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews impact of recent agricultural trends in South Dakota. Outlines Kubler-Ross' stages of grief/adaptation that farm families must negotiate as they cope with the trauma of the loss of their farms. Indicates service providers must overcome farmers' mistrust for human welfare services and reach out to this vulnerable population. (NEC)

  3. Effects of exotic fish farms on bird communities in lake and marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jaime E.; Arriagada, Aldo M.; Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Camus, Patricio A.; Ávila-Thieme, M. Isidora

    2013-08-01

    Salmon farming is a widespread activity around the world, also known to promote diverse environmental effects on aquatic ecosystems. However, information regarding the impact of salmon farming on bird assemblages is notably scarce. We hypothesize that salmon farming, by providing food subsidies and physical structures to birds, will change their local community structure. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a seasonal monitoring of bird richness, abundance, and composition at paired salmon pen and control plots in two marine and two lake sites in southern Chile, from fall 2002 to summer 2004. Overall, salmon farming had no significant effects on species richness, but bird abundance was significantly and noticeably higher in salmon pens than in controls. Such aggregation was mainly accounted for by the trophic guilds of omnivores, diving piscivores, carrion eaters, and perching piscivores, but not by invertebrate feeders, herbivores, and surface feeders. Species composition was also significantly and persistently different between salmon pens and controls within each lake or marine locality. The patterns described above remained consistent across environment types and seasons indicating that salmon farming is changing the community structure of birds in both lake and marine habitats by promoting functional and aggregation responses, particularly by favoring species with broader niches. Such local patterns may thus anticipate potential threats from the ongoing expansion of the salmon industry to neighboring areas in Chile, resulting in regional changes of bird communities, toward a less diverse one and dominated by opportunistic, common, and generalist species such as gulls, vultures, and cormorants.

  4. Whole Farm Management to Reduce Nutrient Losses From Dairy Farms: A Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rotz, C.A.; Oenema, J.; Keulen, van, H.

    2006-01-01

    Whole-farm simulation provides a tool for evaluating long-term impacts of nutrient conservation technologies and strategies on dairy farms. A farm simulation model was verified to predict the production and nutrient flows of the De Marke experimental dairy farm in the Netherlands. On this farm, technologies such as a low ammonia emission barn floor, enclosed manure storage, manure injection into the soil, and intraseeding of a grass cover crop on corn land were used to reduce nitrogen loss an...

  5. Farming pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneja, V P [Department of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8208 (United States); Schlesinger, W H [Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York 12545 (United States); Erisman, J W [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-08-15

    Modern farms produce particulate matter and gases that affect the environment and human health and add to rising atmospheric greenhouse-gas levels. European policymakers have made progress in controlling these emissions, but US regulations remain inadequate.

  6. Are large farms more efficient? Tenure security, farm size and farm efficiency: evidence from northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuepeng; Ma, Xianlei; Shi, Xiaoping

    2017-04-01

    How to increase production efficiency, guarantee grain security, and increase farmers' income using the limited farmland is a great challenge that China is facing. Although theory predicts that secure property rights and moderate scale management of farmland can increase land productivity, reduce farm-related costs, and raise farmer's income, empirical studies on the size and magnitude of these effects are scarce. A number of studies have examined the impacts of land tenure or farm size on productivity or efficiency, respectively. There are also a few studies linking farm size, land tenure and efficiency together. However, to our best knowledge, there are no studies considering tenure security and farm efficiency together for different farm scales in China. In addition, there is little study analyzing the profit frontier. In this study, we particularly focus on the impacts of land tenure security and farm size on farm profit efficiency, using farm level data collected from 23 villages, 811 households in Liaoning in 2015. 7 different farm scales have been identified to further represent small farms, median farms, moderate-scale farms, and large farms. Technical efficiency is analyzed with stochastic frontier production function. The profit efficiency is regressed on a set of explanatory variables which includes farm size dummies, land tenure security indexes, and household characteristics. We found that: 1) The technical efficiency scores for production efficiency (average score = 0.998) indicate that it is already very close to the production frontier, and thus there is little room to improve production efficiency. However, there is larger space to raise profit efficiency (average score = 0.768) by investing more on farm size expansion, seed, hired labor, pesticide, and irrigation. 2) Farms between 50-80 mu are most efficient from the viewpoint of profit efficiency. The so-called moderate-scale farms (100-150 mu) according to the governmental guideline show no

  7. Microbial Indicators, Pathogens, and Antibiotic Resistance in Groundwater Impacted by Animal Farming: Field Scale to Basin Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Li, X.; Atwill, E. R.; Packman, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    Several surveys of microbial indicators and pathogens were conducted to determine the impact of confined animal farming operations (CAFOs) on shallow, local, and regional groundwater quality in the Central Valley aquifer system, California. The aquifer system consists of highly heterogeneous, alluvial, unconsolidated coarse- to fine-grained sediments and is among the largest aquifers in the U.S.. Overlying landuse includes 3 million ha of irrigated agriculture and 1.7 million mature dairy cows in nearly 1,500 CAFOs. A multi-scale survey of water-borne indicator pathogens (Enterococcus spp. and generic E. coli) and of three water-borne pathogens (Campylobacter, Salmonella, and E. coli O157:H7) was conducted at five different spatial scales, increasing with distance from animal sources of these enteric microbial organisms: moist surfaces within individual CAFO sub-systems (calf-hutches, heifer corrals, mature cow stalls, hospital barn etc.), first encountered (shallow) groundwater immediately below these sub-systems, production aquifer below CAFOs, production aquifer near CAFOs, and production aquifer away from CAFOs. Where found, indicator pathogens were tested for antibiotic resistance. Hundreds of samples were collected at each scale: continuously during irrigation events and seasonally over a multi-year period at the three smaller site-scales; and in a one-time survey at the two larger, regional scales. All three pathogens were frequently detected in moist surface samples across CAFO sub-systems, albeit at concentrations several orders of magnitude lower than enteric indicators. Two of the three pathogens (but not Campylobacter) were also detected in first encountered groundwater, at 3-9 m below ground surface, in 1% of samples. No pathogens were found at the production aquifer scales. Generic E. coli was detected in ¼ of first encountered groundwater samples, and in 4% of production aquifer samples, while Enterococcus spp. was ubiquitously present across the

  8. Next generation sequencing assays for benthic monitoring of the environmental impact associated with salmon farming (pilot study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Jan; Esling, Philippe; Lejzerowicz, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the study of foraminiferal and metazoan benthic community based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) of environmental DNA and RNA (eDNA/RNA). The objective of this study was to test the application of NGS assays for benthic monitoring of salmon farms in Norway, in order to ove...

  9. The Impact of Wind Farms on the Prices of Nearby Houses in Poland: A Review and Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torzewski Marcin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009/10 Poland has experienced a dynamic growth of wind energy production. Currently, wind energy is the most popular resource of renewable energy in Poland. Despite the importance of wind energy for the Polish economy, there is no reliable and comprehensive research on the causal effects of wind farm facilities on property prices.

  10. Milk production, feeding systems and environmental impact of dairy cattle farming in Alpine areas: results of a field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sandrucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of milk production occurs even in areas traditionally characterized by low-intensive farming systems like mountain areas, leading to environmental concern. The aim of this study was to analyze management and feeding systems in a sample of 31 dairy farms in a mountain area of Lombardy (Valtellina and their effects on milk production and environmental sustainability. In 2006 daily milk sold was 17.5±5.6 kg/cow on average and daily DMI was 19.4±1.3 kg/cow, with a high forages content (65.8±9.2% DM. Rations were quite energetically balanced (+0.09±17.6 MJ/d of ME. Rations higher in starch and lower in NDF resulted in higher milk yields but significantly compromised farm self-sufficiency (which was 62.9±16.8% DM on average. Average Metabolizable Protein balance was negative (-280±203 g/d of MP, mainly due to the low CP content of diets (13.5±1.5% DM. When CP content increased, N manure and N excreted in urine increased (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively, probably due to insufficient energy intake which is partly caused by the scarce quality of forages. An improvement in forages quality could increase ME and MP contents of diets without compromising farm self-sufficiency.

  11. Impact of sustainable feeds on omega-3 long-chain fatty acid levels in farmed Atlantic salmon, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, M; Dick, J R; Tocher, D R

    2016-02-22

    As the global population and its demand for seafood increases more of our fish will come from aquaculture. Farmed Atlantic salmon are a global commodity and, as an oily fish, contain a rich source of the health promoting long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Replacing the traditional finite marine ingredients, fishmeal and fish oil, in farmed salmon diets with sustainable alternatives of terrestrial origin, devoid of EPA and DHA, presents a significant challenge for the aquaculture industry. By comparing the fatty acid composition of over 3,000 Scottish Atlantic salmon farmed between 2006 and 2015, we find that terrestrial fatty acids have significantly increased alongside a decrease in EPA and DHA levels. Consequently, the nutritional value of the final product is compromised requiring double portion sizes, as compared to 2006, in order to satisfy recommended EPA + DHA intake levels endorsed by health advisory organisations. Nevertheless, farmed Scottish salmon still delivers more EPA + DHA than most other fish species and all terrestrial livestock. Our findings highlight the global shortfall of EPA and DHA and the implications this has for the human consumer and examines the potential of microalgae and genetically modified crops as future sources of these important fatty acids.

  12. Energy balance in rainfed herbaceous crops in a semiarid environment for a 15-year experiment. 1. Impact of farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M. M.; Moreno, C.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Meco, R.

    2012-04-01

    During the last years, agricultural practices have led to increase yields by means of the massive consumption on non-renewable fossil energy. However, the viability of a production system does not depend solely on crop yield, but also on its efficiency in the use of available resources. This work is part of a larger study assessing the effects of three farming systems (conventional, conservation with zero tillage, and organic) and four barley-based crop rotations (barley monoculture and in rotation with vetch, sunflower and fallow) on the energy balance of crop production under the semi-arid conditions over a 15 year period. However, the present work is focused on the farming system effect, so crop rotations and years are averaged. Experiments were conducted at "La Higueruela" Experimental Farm (4°26' W, 40°04' N, altitude 450 m) (Spanish National Research Council, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain). The climate is semi-arid Mediterranean, with an average seasonal rainfall of 480 mm irregularly distributed and a 4-month summer drought period. Conventional farming included the use of moldboard plow for tillage, chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Conservation farming was developed with zero tillage, direct sowing and chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Organic farming included the use of cultivator and no chemical fertilizers or herbicides. The energy balance method used required the identification and quantification of all the inputs and outputs implied, and the conversion to energy values by corresponding coefficients. The parameters considered were (i) energy inputs (EI) (diesel, machines, fertilizers, herbicides, seeds) (ii) energy outputs (EO) (energy in the harvested biomass), (iii) net energy produced (NE) (EI - EO), (iv) the energy output/input ratio (O/I), and (v) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI). EI was 3.0 and 3.5 times higher in conservation (10.4 GJ ha-1 year-1) and conventional (11.7 GJ ha-1 year-1) than in organic farming (3.41 GJ ha-1

  13. Impact on food productivity by fossil fuel independence - A case study of a Swedish small-scale integrated organic farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Sheshti [Dept. of Energy and Technology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Belfrage, Kristina [Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Olsson, Mats [Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-02-15

    The large-scale industrial agriculture that provides the majority of food at present is dependent upon fossil fuels in the form of tractor fuel, mineral fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation. Yet, the age of cheap and abundant fossil fuels will likely come to an end within the coming decades. In this case study, the productivity of a small-scale farm (8 ha arable land, 5.5 ha meadow, 3.5 ha pasture and 18 ha forest) independent on fossil fuels by using organic methods and draught horse power was investigated. The aim was to quantify its productivity when the animal composition and possible alternatives to tractive power were varied. After an analysis of possible solutions, three scenarios for tractive power were selected: draught horse power, diesel tractor, and combination of draught horse power and rapeseed oil fueled tractor. A model that calculates the amount of food available at the farm in terms of meat, milk egg, and crops, converts it into energy units and calculates how many people can be supplied from the farm was developed. The most reasonable of the scenarios studied was when draught horse power was combined with tractor (and combine harvester) driven on locally produced rapeseed oil. Then the farm will have access to all advantages with the tractor and harvester, e.g., timeliness in harvest and lifting heavy loads, and the renewability and efficiency of draught horse power on smaller fields, and lighter operations. This system was able to support between 66 and 82 persons depending on crop yields, milk yields, meat production, fuel demand for the tractor, and availability of forest grazing. Most likely the production capacity lands on ability to support approximately 68 - 70 persons, and the farm may require fossil fuels to support more than 80 persons. If all farmland globally was to be operated with the same productivity, this would be enough for supplying the global population with food at present.

  14. Wind farm policy 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-03-01

    Argyll and Bute District Council, having received a number of planning applications for the erection of wind farms, seeks, in this document, to set out its environmental policy on these installations in line with national government guidelines and those from Strathclyde Regional Council. District Council policy on thirteen environmental issues connected with wind farm construction is set out, covering issues such as environmental impacts on wild-life, noise pollution, access for construction, maintenance and decommissioning vehicles as well as planning consent issues. Recommendations are made to four interested bodies, Strathclyde Regional Council, the Forestry Authority and Scottish Natural Heritage and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. (UK)

  15. The adaptive capacity of smallholder mixed-farming systems to the impact of climate change: The case of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonhlanzeko N. Mthembu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change poses a serious threat to efforts by developing countries to ensure food security and poverty reduction. The National Development goals of South Africa envisage the agricultural sector as a key driver for job creation and economic growth. This article seeks to investigate the adaptive capacity of the Ncunjane farming community in Msinga, KwaZuluNatal in response to drought spells of 2010 and 2014. This article draws on data collected using both qualitative and quantitative methods in 2011 and later in 2015 with the data analysed through the Statistical Package for Social Science to determine significant correlations between variables. Analysis of the vulnerability and adaptive capacity is performed using conceptual framework. This study found that both smallholder farmers who engaged in livestock and crop production have experienced high cattle mortalities and stagnant crop productivity, which in turn put pressure on already constrained disposable household income because of increased food costs and agricultural input costs, particularly supplementary animal feed. Cattle owners were more vulnerable to drought because of poor risk management and thus became highly dependent on government to provide drought relief. Application for government drought relief was found not to be effective in cases of large herds of cattle. Variability of rainfall and prolonged heat spells has a significant impact on the sustainability of smallholder mixed-farming systems, leaving agriculture as a highly questionable form of livelihood for rural farming communities such as Msinga. The article recommends strengthened institutional mechanisms so that stakeholders should play a more meaningful role within provincial and local agriculture in leveraging government support but places emphasis on the adoption of innovative strategies that can potentially yield significantly resilient smallholder mixed-farming systems in the wake of climate variability.

  16. Impact of wind turbine sound on general health, sleep disturbance and annoyance of workers: a pilot- study in Manjil wind farm, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Milad; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Zakerian, Seyyed Abolfazl; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    The wind turbine's sound seems to have a proportional effect on health of people living near to wind farms. This study aimed to investigate the effect of noise emitted from wind turbines on general health, sleep and annoyance among workers of manjil wind farm, Iran. A total number of 53 workers took part in this study. Based on the type of job, they were categorized into three groups of maintenance, security and office staff. The persons' exposure at each job-related group was measured by eight-hour equivalent sound level (LAeq, 8 h). A Noise annoyance scale, Epworth sleepiness scale and 28-item general health questionnaire was used for gathering data from workers. The data were analyzed through Multivariate Analysis of variance (MANOVA) test, Pillai's Trace test, Paired comparisons analysis and Multivariate regression test were used in the R software. The results showed that, response variables (annoyance, sleep disturbance and health) were significantly different between job groups. The results also indicated that sleep disturbance as well as noise exposure had a significant effect on general health. Noise annoyance and distance from wind turbines could significantly explain about 44.5 and 34.2 % of the variance in sleep disturbance and worker's general health, respectively. General health was significantly different in different age groups while age had no significant impact on sleep disturbance. The results were reverse for distance because it had no significant impact on health, but sleep disturbance was significantly affected. We came to this conclusion that wind turbines noise can directly impact on annoyance, sleep and health. This type of energy generation can have potential health risks for wind farm workers. However, further research is needed to confirm the results of this study.

  17. Impact of potato cultivation and cattle farming on physicochemical parameters and enzymatic activities of Neotropical high Andean Páramo ecosystem soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellaneda-Torres, Lizeth Manuela; León Sicard, Tomás Enrique; Torres Rojas, Esperanza

    2018-08-01

    The Andean Páramos are high mountain ecosystems whose soils are essential for the management of South American water resources, but research on anthropic impacts to these soils is currently minimal and insufficient. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivation and livestock on the physicochemical parameters and enzymatic activities that determine the soil quality of the Neotropical high Andean Páramo ecosystem in the Nevados National Natural Park (Nevados NNP) in Colombia. It was hypothesised that sites with potato crops and livestock farming would exhibit significant changes in soil physicochemical parameters and enzymatic activities compared with Páramo sites that have been conserved without agriculture. Samples were collected from soils under potato cultivation, livestock and Páramo (subject to the lowest degree of human intervention possible), on three farms in the El Bosque District at three different altitudes (Buenos Aires, El Edén and La Secreta) during two seasons (dry and rainy). The results showed that none of the physical parameters under study presented statistically significant differences due to the type of use (livestock, potato crop or Páramo), season of sampling (dry or rainy season) or altitude (different farms). The chemical parameters that statistically significantly differed due to land use were organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, calcium, potassium, and ammonium and those that showed statistically significant differences associated with the sampling timing were organic carbon, nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, total carbon, C/N and nitrate. Additionally, there were differences in organic carbon due to the altitude of the farms. With respect to enzymatic activities, those of β-glucosidase, phosphodiesterase and urease significantly decreased in soils under potato cultivation and livestock relative to those of Páramo, but those of acid phosphatase and protease increased

  18. Studies on recycled aggregates-based concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshvir, Major; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2006-06-01

    Reduced extraction of raw materials, reduced transportation cost, improved profits, reduced environmental impact and fast-depleting reserves of conventional natural aggregates has necessitated the use of recycling, in order to be able to conserve conventional natural aggregate. In this study various physical and mechanical properties of recycled concrete aggregates were examined. Recycled concrete aggregates are different from natural aggregates and concrete made from them has specific properties. The percentages of recycled concrete aggregates were varied and it was observed that properties such as compressive strength showed a decrease of up to 10% as the percentage of recycled concrete aggregates increased. Water absorption of recycled aggregates was found to be greater than natural aggregates, and this needs to be compensated during mix design.

  19. Abolition of set-aside schemes, associated impacts on habitat structure and modelling of potential effects of cross-farm regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, G.; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck

    2010-01-01

    proportion of set-aside land was re-cultivated. With Denmark as case we apply an indicator to measure the effect of set-aside land on spatial structure of semi-natural habitats in term of habitat size and connectivity. Furthermore, we model effects of a hypothetical spatial regulation, where set-aside land...... reduces impacts. Effects increase with increasing size of farm agglomerations. However, marginal benefits become negligible at agglomeration sizes over 36 km(2). (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved...

  20. On-farm assessment of tillage impact on the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and structural soil properties in a semiarid region in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemai, Imene; Ben Aissa, Nadhira; Ben Guirat, Saida; Ben-Hammouda, Moncef; Gallali, Tahar

    2012-12-30

    In semiarid areas, low and erratic rainfall, together with the intensive agricultural use of soils, has depleted soil organic carbon and degraded the soil's chemical, biological and physical fertility. To develop efficient soil-management practices for the rapid restoration of severely degraded soils, no-till, mulch-based cropping systems have been adopted. Thus, a study was conducted on a farm to evaluate the effect of a no-tillage system (NT) versus conventional tillage (CT) on the vertical (0-50 cm) distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC), bulk density (BD), total porosity (TP), structural instability (SI), stable aggregates and infiltration coefficient (Ks) in a clay loam soil under rain-fed conditions in a semiarid region of north-western Tunisia. CT consisting of moldboard plowing to a depth of 20 cm was used for continuous wheat production. NT by direct drilling under residue was used for 3 (NT3) and 7 (NT7) years in wheat/fava bean and wheat/sulla crop rotations, respectively. SOC was more significantly increased (p < 0.05) by NT3 and NT7 than by CT at respective depths of 0-10 and 0-20 cm, but a greater increase in the uppermost 10 cm of soil was observed in the NT7 field. NT3 management decreased BD and consequently increased TP at a depth of 0-10 cm. The same trend was observed for the NT7 treatment at a depth of 0-30 cm. Ks was not affected by the NT3 treatment but was improved at a depth of 0-30 cm by the NT7 treatment. Changes in BD, TP and Ks in the NT7 plot were significant only in the first 10 cm of the soil. Both NT3 and NT7 considerably reduced SI (p < 0.1) and enhanced stable aggregates (p < 0.05) across the soil profile. These differences were most pronounced under NT7 at a depth of 0-10 cm. The stratification ratio (SR) of the selected soil properties, except that of SI, showed significant differences between the CT and NT trials, indicating an improvement in soil quality. NT management in the farming systems of north-western Tunisia was

  1. Rotary orbital suspension culture of embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cells: impact of hydrodynamic culture on aggregate yield, morphology and cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundos, Tiago L; Silva, Joana; Assunção, Marisa; Quelhas, Pedro; Monteiro, Cátia; Oliveira, Carla; Oliveira, Maria J; Pêgo, Ana P; Amaral, Isabel F

    2017-08-01

    Embryonic stem (ES)-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (ES-NSPCs) constitute a promising cell source for application in cell therapies for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. In this study, a rotary orbital hydrodynamic culture system was applied to single-cell suspensions of ES-NSPCs, to obtain homogeneously-sized ES-NSPC cellular aggregates (neurospheres). Hydrodynamic culture allowed the formation of ES-NSPC neurospheres with a narrower size distribution than statically cultured neurospheres, increasing orbital speeds leading to smaller-sized neurospheres and higher neurosphere yield. Neurospheres formed under hydrodynamic conditions (72 h at 55 rpm) showed higher cell compaction and comparable percentages of viable, dead, apoptotic and proliferative cells. Further characterization of cellular aggregates provided new insights into the effect of hydrodynamic shear on ES-NSPC behaviour. Rotary neurospheres exhibited reduced protein levels of N-cadherin and β-catenin, and higher deposition of laminin (without impacting fibronectin deposition), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity and percentage of neuronal cells. In line with the increased MMP-2 activity levels found, hydrodynamically-cultured neurospheres showed higher outward migration on laminin. Moreover, when cultured in a 3D fibrin hydrogel, rotary neurospheres generated an increased percentage of neuronal cells. In conclusion, the application of a constant orbital speed to single-cell suspensions of ES-NSPCs, besides allowing the formation of homogeneously-sized neurospheres, promoted ES-NSPC differentiation and outward migration, possibly by influencing the expression of cell-cell adhesion molecules and the secretion of proteases/extracellular matrix proteins. These findings are important when establishing the culture conditions needed to obtain uniformly-sized ES-NSPC aggregates, either for use in regenerative therapies or in in vitro platforms for biomaterial development or

  2. Interpretation of Wild 2 Dust Fine Structure: Comparison of Stardust Aluminium Foil Craters to the Three-Dimensional Shape of Experimental Impacts by Artificial Aggregate Particles and Meteorite Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearsley, A T; Burchell, M J; Price, M C; Graham, G A; Wozniakiewicz, P J; Cole, M J; Foster, N J; Teslich, N

    2009-12-10

    New experimental results show that Stardust crater morphology is consistent with interpretation of many larger Wild 2 dust grains being aggregates, albeit most of low porosity and therefore relatively high density. The majority of large Stardust grains (i.e. those carrying most of the cometary dust mass) probably had density of 2.4 g cm{sup -3} (similar to soda-lime glass used in earlier calibration experiments) or greater, and porosity of 25% or less, akin to consolidated carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, and much lower than the 80% suggested for fractal dust aggregates. Although better size calibration is required for interpretation of the very smallest impacting grains, we suggest that aggregates could have dense components dominated by {micro}m-scale and smaller sub-grains. If porosity of the Wild 2 nucleus is high, with similar bulk density to other comets, much of the pore-space may be at a scale of tens of micrometers, between coarser, denser grains. Successful demonstration of aggregate projectile impacts in the laboratory now opens the possibility of experiments to further constrain the conditions for creation of bulbous (Type C) tracks in aerogel, which we have observed in recent shots. We are also using mixed mineral aggregates to document differential survival of pristine composition and crystalline structure in diverse fine-grained components of aggregate cometary dust analogues, impacted onto both foil and aerogel under Stardust encounter conditions.

  3. Land legislation and its impact on the development of cattle farms in the Antioquian Magdalena Medio from 1920 to 1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Álvarez Múnera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Colombian agricultural sector, predominantly rural country, has combined two models: one led by rural entrepreneurs and one that has been promoted by the rural economy. The two have survived to the debate on agricultural policy that sought the legalization and use of land, access to credit and productive development in general. This historical reflection with support regional sources, a policy associate for the legalization of public lands in relation to business development in rural sector: Livestock in Middle Magdalena in the department of Antioquia in the first half of the twentieth century. The farm and rural production unit is understood as rural company and the landowner as an entrepreneur. In the end, it is presented the magnitude of farms in the region and period studied. This product of the doctoral thesis “Rural enterprises in Antioquia: the case of livestock in the Eastern and Middle Magdalena in the department of Antioquia, 1920-1960.

  4. Evaluation of the wind direction uncertainty and its impact on wake modeling at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaumond, M.; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Ott, Søren

    2014-01-01

    of the wind direction inside the wind farm and the variability of the wind direction within the averaging period. The results show that the technique corrects the predictions of the models when the simulations and data are averaged over narrow wind direction sectors. In addition, the agreement of the shape...... of the power deficit in a single wake situation is improved. The robustness of the method is verified using the Jensen model, the Larsen model and Fuga, which are three different engineering wake models. The results indicate that the discrepancies between the traditional numerical simulations and power...... production data for narrow wind direction sectors are not caused by an inherent inaccuracy of the current wake models, but rather by the large wind direction uncertainty included in the dataset. The technique can potentially improve wind farm control algorithms and layout optimization because both...

  5. Effect of farming practices for greenhouse gas mitigation and subsequent alternative land use on environmental impacts of beef cattle production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T T H; Doreau, M; Eugène, M; Corson, M S; Garcia-Launay, F; Chesneau, G; van der Werf, H M G

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated effects of farming practice scenarios aiming to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and subsequent alternative land use on environmental impacts of a beef cattle production system using the life cycle assessment approach. The baseline scenario includes a standard cow-calf herd with finishing heifers based on grazing, and a standard bull-fattening herd using a diet mainly based on maize silage, corresponding to current farm characteristics and management by beef farmers in France. Alternative scenarios were developed with changes in farming practices. Some scenarios modified grassland management (S1: decreasing mineral N fertiliser on permanent grassland; S2: decreasing grass losses during grazing) or herd management (S3: underfeeding of heifers in winter; S4: fattening female calves instead of being reared at a moderate growth rate; S5: increasing longevity of cows from 7 to 9 years; S6: advancing first calving age from 3 to 2 years). Other scenarios replaced protein sources (S7: partially replacing a protein supplement by lucerne hay for the cow-calf herd; S8: replacing soya bean meal with rapeseed meal for the fattening herd) or increased n-3 fatty acid content using extruded linseed (S9). The combination of compatible scenarios S1, S2, S5, S6 and S8 was also studied (S10). The impacts, such as climate change (CC, not including CO2 emissions/sequestration of land use and land-use change, LULUC), CC/LULUC (including CO2 emissions of LULUC), cumulative energy demand, eutrophication (EP), acidification and land occupation (LO) were expressed per kg of carcass mass and per ha of land occupied. Compared with the baseline, the most promising practice to reduce impacts per kg carcass mass was S10 (all reduced by 13% to 28%), followed by S6 (by 8% to 10%). For other scenarios, impact reduction did not exceed 5%, except for EP (up to 11%) and LO (up to 10%). Effects of changes in farming practices (the scenarios) on environmental impacts varied

  6. Soil biota and agriculture production in conventional and organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, Maarten; de Haan, Joj; Carvalho, Sabrina; Kroonen, Mark; Verstegen, Harry; Van der Putten, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable food production for a growing world population requires a healthy soil that can buffer environmental extremes and minimize its losses. There are currently two views on how to achieve this: by intensifying conventional agriculture or by developing organically based agriculture. It has been established that yields of conventional agriculture can be 20% higher than of organic agriculture. However, high yields of intensified conventional agriculture trade off with loss of soil biodiversity, leaching of nutrients, and other unwanted ecosystem dis-services. One of the key explanations for the loss of nutrients and GHG from intensive agriculture is that it results in high dynamics of nutrient losses, and policy has aimed at reducing temporal variation. However, little is known about how different agricultural practices affect spatial variation, and it is unknown how soil fauna acts this. In this study we compare the spatial and temporal variation of physical, chemical and biological parameters in a long term (13-year) field experiment with two conventional farming systems (low and medium organic matter input) and one organic farming system (high organic matter input) and we evaluate the impact on ecosystem services that these farming systems provide. Soil chemical (N availability, N mineralization, pH) and soil biological parameters (nematode abundance, bacterial and fungal biomass) show considerably higher spatial variation under conventional farming than under organic farming. Higher variation in soil chemical and biological parameters coincides with the presence of 'leaky' spots (high nitrate leaching) in conventional farming systems, which shift unpredictably over the course of one season. Although variation in soil physical factors (soil organic matter, soil aggregation, soil moisture) was similar between treatments, but averages were higher under organic farming, indicating more buffered conditions for nutrient cycling. All these changes coincide with

  7. Influence of the micro- and nanoscale local mechanical properties of the interfacial transition zone on impact behavior of concrete made with different aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdem, Savaş; Dawson, Andrew Robert; Thom, Nicholas Howard

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the microscale local mechanical properties of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) on macro-level mechanical response and impact behavior is studied for concretes made with copper slag and gravel aggregates. 3D nanotech vertical scanning interferometry, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray micro-analysis, digital image analysis, and 3D X-ray computed tomography were used to characterize the microstructures and the ITZs. It was deduced that a stronger and denser ITZ in the copper slag specimen would reduce its vulnerability to stiffness loss and contribute to its elastic and more ductile response under impact loading. The analysis also indicated that a significant degeneration in the pore structure of the gravel specimen associated with a relatively weaker and non-homogeneous ITZ occurred under impact. Finally, it was also concluded that increased roughness of ITZ may contribute to the load-carrying capacity of concrete under impact by improving contact point interactions and energy dissipation.

  8. Molecular farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular Farming is a new and emerging technology that promises relatively cheap and flexible production of large quantities of pharmaceuticals in genetically modified plants. Many stakeholders are involved in the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, which complicates the discussion on the

  9. Amaranth farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Kjærgård, Bente

    2008-01-01

    natural resources that small-scale farmers have to combat the abovementioned problems. The study identified several local and regional barriers for increasing the level of farming, production, processing and consumption. A striking and paradoxical limitation is the monopolization practices developed...

  10. Pilot Study on the Impact of Biogas as a Fuel Source on Respiratory Health of Women on Rural Kenyan Smallholder Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohoo, Carolyn; Guernsey, Judith Read; Critchley, Kimberley; VanLeeuwen, John

    2012-01-01

    Biomass burning in indoor environments has been highlighted as a major cause of respiratory morbidity for women and children in low-income countries. Inexpensive technological innovations which reduce such exposures are needed. This study evaluated the impact of low tech compost digesters, which generate biogas for cooking, versus traditional fuel sources on the respiratory health of nonsmoking Kenyan farmwomen. Women from 31 farms with biogas digesters were compared to age-matched women from 31 biomass-reliant farms, in June 2010. Only 43% of the biogas group reported any breathing problems, compared to 71% in the referent group (P = 0.03). Referent women self-reported higher rates of shortness of breath (52% versus 30%), difficulty breathing (42% versus 23%), and chest pain while breathing (35% versus 17%) during the last 6 months (P = 0.09 to 0.12) compared to biogas women. Biogas women demonstrated slightly better spirometry results but differences were not statistically significant, likely due to limited latency between biogas digester installation and spirometry testing. Most biogas women reported improved personal respiratory health (87%) and improved children's health (72%) since biogas digester installation. These findings suggest that using biogas in cookhouses improves respiratory symptoms but long-term impacts on lung function are unclear. PMID:22969815

  11. Characterization of fine aggregates in concrete by different experimental approaches

    OpenAIRE

    He, Huan; Courard, Luc; Pirard, Eric; Michel, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Being its major component, aggregate can occupy up to three-quarter of the volume of concrete. The structure of aggregate formed in hardened state impacts largely on mechanical and durability properties of concrete. On another hand, physical characteristics of aggregate are primarily assumed to be relevant to granular behavior of aggregate. Therefore, characterization of aggregate is of high relevance to concrete studies. In this study, different types of fine aggregate used in concrete, name...

  12. Impact of flavouring substances on the aggregation behaviour of dissolved barley β-glucans in a model beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupetz, M; Sacher, B; Becker, T

    2016-06-05

    Structural polymers such as cereal β-glucan may cause various processing problems in beverage industry depending on concentration, molar size distribution and agglomeration behaviour. In this context, influences of the beer volatiles dodecanoic acid, octyl butanoate, ethyl decanoate and decyl acetate on molar mass and radii of barley β-glucan were investigated in ethanolic (4% w/w) model solution. After addition of 100mg/l ethyl decanoate and decyl acetate to the β-glucan solution, a wider-ranging molar mass distribution could be observed by means of asymmetric field-flow-fractionation. Due to agglomeration, average molar mass of β-glucan standard (MW=6.8×10(6)g/mol) increased by 2×10(6)g/mol (P<0.05) in solution containing decyl acetate. Furthermore, a significant growth (P<0.05) from 86 to 102 nm in gyration radius was measured. The obtained results elucidate the importance of fatty acid derived flavouring substance composition in beer regarding the aggregation behaviour of β-glucan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of landscape features in organic and conventional farming systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansvelt, van J.D.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Hendriks, K.

    1998-01-01

    Four organic (biodynamic) farms coupled with conventional farms from their neighbourhood in The Netherlands, Germany and Sweden, and 3 organic farms and 4 conventional farms from the West Friesean region in The Netherlands were evaluated to compare their impact on landscape diversity. Materials used

  14. Impact of animal health and welfare planning on medicine use, herd health and production in European organic dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivemeyer, S; Smolders, G; Brinkmann, J

    2012-01-01

    medicine use through animal health and welfare planning (AHWP). Medicine use (excluding complementary treatments such as homeopathic remedies) was assessed as the total number of treatments and as the number of treatments of various disease categories (udder, fertility, metabolism, locomotion and others...... acidosis and imbalanced energy supply, respectively. Calving interval was used as an indicator for fertility. Milk recording data and treatment data were retrospectively collected for a one year period before and after the first farm visit. Focus areas of animal health and welfare plans were either...

  15. Impacts and adaptation of the cropping systems to climate change in the Northeast Farming Region of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Wang, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Northeast Farming Region of China (NFR) is a very important crop growing area, comprising seven sub-regions: Xing’anling (XA), Sanjiang (SJ), Northwest Songliao (NSL), Central Songliao (CSL), Southwest Songliao (SSL), Changbaishan (CB) and Liaodong (LD), which has been severely affected...... to become more severe for crop production under climate change. Adaptation measures that have already been implemented in recent decades to cope with current climatic limitations include changes in timing of cultivation, variety choice, soil tillage practices, crop protection, irrigation and use of plastic...

  16. Environmental Impact Of The Use Of Contaminated Sediments As Partial Replacement Of The Aggregate Used In Road Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC) is a waterway extensively polluted with heavy metals and petroleum. Since there are limited disposal options for the petroleum-contaminated sediments (PCSs) of the canal, the environmental impact of IHC dewatered sediment when used as partial repla...

  17. Impact of GM(1) on Membrane-Mediated Aggregation/Oligomerization of beta-Amyloid: Unifying View

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cebecauer, Marek; Hof, Martin; Amaro, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 6 (2017), s. 1194-1199 ISSN 0006-3495 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-03160S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : SURFACE-PLASMON RESONANCE * ALZHEIMERS- DISEASE * GM1 GANGLIOSIDE Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 3.656, year: 2016

  18. Developing Social Responsibility and Political Engagement: Assessing the Aggregate Impacts of University Civic Engagement on Associated Attitudes and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Cameron T.; Yoder, Scot D.

    2015-01-01

    Universities have become increasingly interested in incorporating civic engagement into undergraduate education with the goal of enhancing leadership skills and creating socially responsible global citizens. What is unclear is which educational experiences are most effective in achieving this goal. In this study, we seek to determine the impact of…

  19. Energy storage systems impact on the short-term frequency stability of distributed autonomous microgrids, an analysis using aggregate models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, Ioan; Teodorescu, Remus; Marinescu, Corneliu

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the integration impact of battery energy storage systems (BESSs) on the short-term frequency control in autonomous microgrids (MGs). Short-term frequency stability relates with the primary or speed control level, as defined in the regulations of the classical grids. The focus...

  20. Impact of Selected Factors on the Occurrence of Contact Dermatitis in Turkeys on Commercial Farms in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bartels

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In a long term research project in Germany the influence of husbandry on the health of fattening turkeys (Study 1 as well as the influence of practiced rearing conditions on the health of turkey poults (Study 2 was examined in 24 farms and at the meat processing plant. In all examined rearing farms, litter samples for the determination of litter moisture were taken. This paper summarizes the results obtained by our working group from 2007 until 2012. The results elucidate the universal problem of foot pad dermatitis (FPD. Nearly 100% of the observed turkeys showed a clinically apparent FPD at the meat processing plant. Furthermore, skin lesions of the breast, especially breast buttons were diagnosed, particularly at the slaughterhouse. FPD was detected in the first week of the rearing phase. Prevalence and degree showed a progressive development up to the age of 22–35 days, whereas 63.3% of the poults had foot pad alterations. As even mild alterations in the foot pad condition can be indicators for suboptimal design of the rearing environment, especially high litter moisture, it is important to focus on the early rearing phase.

  1. [Impact of rural land market on farm household's behavior of soil & water conservation and its regional difference: A case study of Xingguo, Shangrao, and Yujiang County in Jiangxi province ecologically vulnerable districts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Tai-Yang; Huang, Xian-jin

    2006-02-01

    The paper analyzed the farm households' decision-making progress of soil & water conservation and its two-stage conceptual model. It also discussed the impacts of rural land market on the farm households' behavior of soil & water conservation. Given that, the article established models for the relations between the land market and soil & water conservation, and the models' parameters were estimated with Heckman's two-stage approach by using the farm household questionnaires in Xingguo, Shangrao and Yujiang counties of Jiangxi province. The paper analyzed the impact o f rural land market on farm household's behavior of soil & water conservation and its regional difference with the result of model estimation. The results show that the perception of soil & water loss and the tax & fee on the farm land have significant influence upon the soil and water conservation from the view of the population; however, because of different social and economic condition, and soil & water loss, there are differences of the influence among the three sample counties. These differences go as follows in detail: In Xingguo County, the rent-in land area and its cost have remarkable effect on the farm households' soil & water conservation behavior; In Yujiang County, the rent-in land area, rent-in cost and rent-out land area remarkably influence the farm households' behavior of soil and water conservation, with the influence of the rent-in land area being greater than Xingguo County; In Shangrao County, only rent-out land area has significant influence on the behaviors of soil & water conservation; In all samples, Xingguo County and Yujiang County samples, the rent-out income has no significant influence on the farm household's decision-making behavior soil and water conservation. Finally, the paper put forward some suggestions on how to bring the soil & water loss under control and use land resource in sustainable ways.

  2. Impact of Interfacial Molecular Conformation and Aggregation State on the Energetic Landscape and Performance in Organic Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Ngongang Ndjawa, Guy Olivier

    2016-11-25

    In organic photovoltaics (OPVs) the key processes relevant to device operation such as exciton dissociation and free carriers recombination occur at the donor-acceptor (D-A) interface. OPV devices require the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) architecture to function efficiently. In these BHJs, D-A interfaces are arranged in three dimensions, which makes molecular arrangements at these interfaces ill defined and hard to characterize. In addition, molecular materials used in OPVs are inherently disordered and may exhibit variable degrees of structural order in the same BHJ. Yet, D-A molecular arrangements and structure are crucial because they shape the energy landscape and photovoltaic (PV) performance in OPVs. Studies that use well-defined model systems to look in details at the interfacial molecular structure in OPVs and link it to interfacial energy landscape and device operation are critically lacking. We have used in situ photoelectron spectroscopy and ex situ x-ray scattering to study D-A interfaces in tailored bilayers and BHJs based on small molecule donors. We show preferential miscibility at the D-A interface depending on molecular conformation in zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc)/ C60 bilayers and we derive implications for exciton dissociation. Using sexithiophene (6T), a crystalline donor, we show that the energy landscape at the D-A interface varies markedly depending on the molecular composition of the BHJ. Both the ionization energies of sexithiophene and C60 shift by over ~0.4 eV while the energy of the charge transfer state shifts by ~0.5 eV depending on composition. Such shifts create a downward energy landscape that helps interfacial excitons to overcome their binding energies. Finally, we demonstrate that when both disordered and ordered phases of D coexist at the interface, low-lying energy states form in ordered phases and significantly limit the Voc in devices. Overall our work underlines the importance of the aggregation and conformation states of

  3. Managing habitat for prey recovery - an off-site mitigation tool for wind farms' impacts on top avian predators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Anabela; Santos, Joana; Cordeiro, Ana; Costa, Hugo M.; Mascarenhas, Miguel; Reis, Christina

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Several studies reveal that wind farms (WF) have a negative impact on avian communities, pointing raptors as one of the vertebrate groups most affected. It has also been verified that top avian predators are attracted to areas of high prey densities and that risk increases when high number of preys occur in the vicinities of WF. In some studies, the reduction of common preys inside the WF area has been proposed as a mitigation measure. In the Mediterranean ecosystem the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a key species playing a vital role as a prey for a wide spectrum of endangered top predators, like golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). Unfortunately, in Portugal wild rabbit populations have declined dramatically and the species is now considered as 'Near Threatened'. In this context, the reduction of rabbit populations is not a desirable mitigation option, being more advantageous the promotion of these populations in areas inside eagles. home range, but relatively far away from the WF. This measure might mitigate the negative impact by promoting the change of eagles. core areas and compensate the mortality by improving eagles. survival and annual productivity. These measures were tested in Northern Portugal during three years, in order to compensate the impact of a power line in two golden eagle couples. Efforts to restore wild rabbit populations were applied in two study areas and focused upon habitat management. To evaluate the management scheme, we monitored rabbit populations in managed and control areas by pellet counts, and the eagle couples through field observations and satellite telemetry. A Hurdle Model was used to test the abundance of rabbit populations, which was significantly higher in managed areas in relation to control areas. Both eagle couples intensely used managed areas and during our study there was a low use of power line vicinity area. Based on the success of this case study we are starting now applying this technique

  4. Mussel farming impact on pelagic production and respiration rates in a coastal upwelling embayment (Ría de Vigo, NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froján, María; Castro, Carmen G.; Zúñiga, Diana; Arbones, Belén; Alonso-Pérez, Fernando; Figueiras, Francisco G.

    2018-05-01

    This paper provides the first diagnosis of the impact of mussel farming on the primary production (PP) and the metabolic balance in a coastal upwelling region (Ría de Vigo). Measurements of size-fractionated PP and microbial plankton metabolism were performed outside (reference station; ReS) and inside the farming area (raft station; RaS). At ReS, integrated PP was higher during upwelling (1.05 ± 0.45 g C m-2 d-1) with microphytoplankton dominating carbon fixation (74 ± 14%). The significance of nanophytoplankton and picophytoplankton increased during winter linked to lower PP (0.24 ± 0.03 g C m-2 d-1). Water column at ReS was always autotrophic with net community production (NCP) ranging from 186 ± 67 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 during upwelling to 43 ± 22 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 in winter. At RaS, there was a decrease in PP attributable not only to mussel consumption but also to the lower irradiance under mussel rafts. Concomitant decrease in NCP was also observed (by 56%), yet remained autotrophic, supporting the view that under current conditions food does not limit mussel growth in the Ría, thus securing the carrying capacity of the system in terms of production.

  5. Impact of Practice Change on Runoff Water Quality and Vegetable Yield—An On-Farm Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekhar Nachimuthu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensive agricultural practices in farming systems in eastern Australia have been identified as a contributor to the poor runoff water quality entering the Great Barrier Reef (GBR. A field investigation was carried out to measure the off-farm water quality and productivity in a coastal farming system in northeastern Australia. Two vegetable crops (capsicum and zucchini were grown in summer 2010–2011 and winter 2011 respectively using four different management practices (Conventional—plastic mulch, bare inter-row conventional tillage and commercial fertilizer inputs; Improved—improved practice with plastic mulch, inter-row vegetative mulch, zonal tillage and reduced fertilizer rates; Trash mulch—improved practice with cane-trash or forage-sorghum mulch with reduced fertilizer rates, minimum or zero tillage; and Vegetable only—improved practice with Rhodes grass or forage-sorghum mulch, minimum or zero tillage, reduced fertilizer rates. Results suggest improved and trash mulch systems reduced sediment and nutrient loads by at least 50% compared to conventional systems. The residual nitrate nitrogen in soil accumulated at the end-of-break crop cycle was lost by deep drainage before the subsequent sugarcane crop could utilize it. These results suggest that future research into establishing the linkages between deep drainage, groundwater quality and lateral movement into adjacent streams is needed. The improvement in runoff water quality was accompanied by yield reductions of up to 55% in capsicum and 57% in zucchini under trash mulch systems, suggesting a commercially unacceptable trade-off between water quality and productivity for a practice change. The current study has shown that variations around improved practice (modified nutrient application strategies under plastic mulch, but with an inter-space mulch to minimize runoff and sediment loss may be the most practical solution to improve water quality and maintain productivity

  6. Impacts of offshore grid developments in the North Sea region on market values by 2050: How will offshore wind farms and transmission lines pay?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traber, Thure; Koduvere, Hardi; Koivisto, Matti Juhani

    2017-01-01

    on the substantial differences in the expected economic exposure of wind power plants and transmission lines to the development of the electricity grid in the North Sea. Since details of the prospective energy system around the North Sea region shape these revenue expectations, we further develop and apply...... market values of wind farms on hub level due to impacts of different options for grid structures. The results aim to inform the discussion on possibilities for the allocation of grid expansion costs to the different connected countries including Belgium, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway......Increasing the integration of renewable energy in Northern and Central Europe markets is greatly influenced by the development of electricity transmission grid infrastructure. On the background of the fast development of offshore wind energy and its connection to the onshore electricity systems...

  7. Favored use of anti-predator netting (APN) applied for the farming of clams leads to little benefits to industry while increasing nearshore impacts and plastics pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, L I

    2015-02-15

    An overview of the efficacy of anti-predator netting (APN) used by the shellfish industry is presented. There is little support that the currently favored APN effectively protects farmed clams from predators. Evidence does suggest that APN leads to impacts and pollution. APN is an attractant for predators, e.g., crabs, by providing a refuge within Ulva sp. which attaches onto the surface of APN. APN entrains silt and organic matter and increases sediment temperatures degrading habitat underneath the APN. APN present hazards to fish and wildlife and is a source of plastics to the marine environment. The continued use of ineffective APN does not serve either the environment or industry well, and many of these issues could be addressed through the alternate use of "ancient" technology used by aboriginal people to maintain clam gardens; building of rock walls optimizing the amount of clam habitat thereby increasing numbers without the use of APN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antibiotics promote aggregation within aquatic bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eCorno

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The release of antibiotics (AB into the environment poses several threats for human health due to potential development of ABresistant natural bacteria. Even though the use of low-dose antibiotics has been promoted in health care and farming, significant amounts of AB are observed in aquatic environments. Knowledge on the impact of AB on natural bacterial communities is missing both in terms of spread and evolution of resistance mechanisms, and of modifications of community composition and productivity. New approaches are required to study the response of microbial communities rather than individual resistance genes. In this study a chemostat-based experiment with 4 coexisting bacterial strains has been performed to mimicking the response of a freshwater bacterial community to the presence of antibiotics in low and high doses. Bacterial abundance rapidly decreased by 75% in the presence of AB, independently of their concentration, and remained constant until the end of the experiment. The bacterial community was mainly dominated by Aeromonas hydrophila and Brevundimonas intermedia while the other two strains, Micrococcus luteus and Rhodococcus sp. never exceed 10%. Interestingly, the bacterial strains, which were isolated at the end of the experiment, were not AB-resistant, while reassembled communities composed of the 4 strains, isolated from treatments under AB stress, significantly raised their performance (growth rate, abundance in the presence of AB compared to the communities reassembled with strains isolated from the treatment without AB. By investigating the phenotypic adaptations of the communities subjected to the different treatments, we found that the presence of AB significantly increased co-aggregation by 5-6 fold.These results represent the first observation of co-aggregation as a successful strategy of AB resistance based on phenotype in aquatic bacterial communities, and can represent a fundamental step in the understanding of

  9. Characterisation of impacts on the environment of an idealised offshore wind farm foundation, under waves and the combination of waves and currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hermosa, Isabel; Abcha, Nizar; Brossard, Jérôme; Bennis, Anne-Claire; Ezersky, Alexander; Gross, Marcus; Iglesias, Gregorio; Magar, Vanesa; Miles, Jon; Mouazé, Dominique; Perret, Gaële; Pinon, Grégory; Rivier, Aurélie; Rogan, Charlie; Simmonds, David

    2015-04-01

    Offshore wind technology is currently the most widespread and advanced source of marine renewable energy. Offshore wind farms populate waters through the North Sea and the English Channel. The UK and French governments devised deadlines to achieve percentages of electricity from renewable sources by 2020, these deadlines and the direct translation of land based wind farm technology to the offshore environment resulted in the rapid expansion of the offshore wind energy. New wind farms have been designed with a larger number of masts and are moving from shallow offshore banks to deeper waters and in order to produce more power the diameters of monopoles masts are becoming larger to support larger turbines. The three-partner EU INTERREG funded project OFELIA (http://www.interreg-ofelia.eu/) aims to establish a cross-channel (between the UK and France) research collaboration to improve understanding of the environmental impacts of offshore wind farm foundations. The objective of the present study is to characterise changes in the hydrodynamics and sea bed in the vicinity of an offshore wind farm mast and in the wake area under wave and wave-current conditions corresponding to events in the French wind farm site of Courseulles-sur-mer (offshore of Lower Normandy, in the English Channel). Experiments were carried out in two laboratory facilities: a wave flume of 35 m long, 0.9 m wide and 1.2 m in depth with regular and irregular waves (García-Hermosa et al., 2014); and a wave and current flume of 17 m long, 0.5 m wide and 0.4 m depth with regular waves, currents from 180° to the waves and a mobile bed (Gunnoo et al., 2014). Flow velocity measurements were taken with an Acoustic Dopple Velocimeter (ADV) at various points around the cylinder and Particle Image Velocitmetry (PIV) techniques were applied to larger areas upstream and downstream of the cylinder. During the assessment of waves and currents' effects on the bed evolution were assessed using a laser and camera

  10. Mitigating the environmental impacts of milk production via anaerobic digestion of manure: case study of a dairy farm in the Po Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, F; Agostini, A; Boulamanti, A K; Giuntoli, J; Amaducci, S

    2014-05-15

    This work analyzes the environmental impacts of milk production in an intensive dairy farm situated in the Northern Italy region of the Po Valley. Three manure management scenarios are compared: in Scenario 1 the animal slurry is stored in an open tank and then used as fertilizer. In scenario 2 the manure is processed in an anaerobic digestion plant and the biogas produced is combusted in an internal combustion engine to produce heat (required by the digester) and electricity (exported). Scenario 3 is similar to scenario 2 but the digestate is stored in a gas-tight tank. In scenario 1 the GHG emissions are estimated to be equal to 1.21 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM) without allocation of the environmental burden to the by-product meat. With mass allocation, the GHG emissions associated to the milk are reduced to 1.18 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. Using an economic allocation approach the GHG emissions allocated to the milk are 1.13 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. In scenarios 2 and 3, without allocation, the GHG emissions are reduced respectively to 0.92 (-23.7%) and 0.77 (-36.5%) kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. If land use change due to soybean production is accounted for, an additional emission of 0.53 kg CO2 eq. should be added, raising the GHG emissions to 1.74, 1.45 and 1.30 kg CO2 eq kg(-1) FPCM in scenarios 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Primary energy from non-renewable resources decreases by 36.2% and 40.6% in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively, with the valorization of the manure in the biogas plant. The other environmental impact mitigated is marine eutrophication that decreases by 8.1% in both scenarios 2 and 3, mostly because of the lower field emissions. There is, however, a trade-off between non-renewable energy and GHG savings and other environmental impacts: acidification (+6.1% and +5.5% in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively), particulate matter emissions (+1.4% and +0.7%) and photochemical ozone formation potential (+41.6% and +42.3%) increase with the

  11. A Ricardian Analysis of the Impact of Climate Change on South American Farms Análisis Ricardiano del Impacto del Cambio Climático en Predios Agrícolas en Sudamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Niggol Seo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the impact of climate change on South American agriculture taking into account farm adaptations. The study used a Ricardian analysis of 2300 farms to explore the effects of global warming on land values. In order to predict climate change impacts for this century, were examined climate change scenarios predicted by three Atmospheric Oceanic General Circulation Models (AOGCM: the Canadian Climate Center (CCC, the Centre for Climate System Research (CCSR, and the Parallel Climate Model (PCM models. Several econometric specifications were tested, and five separate regressions were run: for all farms, small household farms, large commercial farms, rainfed farms, and irrigated farms. Farmland values will decrease as temperature increases, but also as rainfall increases except for the case of irrigated farms. Under the severe Canadian Climate Center (CCC scenario, South American farmers will lose on average 14% of their income by the year 2020, 20% by 2060, and 53% by 2100, but half of these estimates under the less severe Centre for Climate System Research (CCSR scenario. However, farms will lose only small amounts of income under the mild and wet Parallel Climate Model (PCM scenario. Both small household farms and large commercial farms are highly vulnerable, but small farms are more vulnerable to warming, while large farms are more vulnerable to rainfall increases. Both rainfed and irrigated farms will lose their incomes by more than 50% by 2100, with slightly more severe damage to irrigated farms, but the subsample analysis treats irrigation as exogenousEn este estudio se estimó el impacto del cambio climático sobre la agricultura de Sudamérica considerando la adaptación de los predios. Usando el Método Ricardiano se realizó un análisis de 2300 predios para explorar los efectos sobre el valor de la tierra. Con el objeto de predecir los impactos del cambio climático en el presente siglo, se examinaron tres escenarios

  12. Evaluation Of The Impact Of The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Laboratory Germanium Oxide Use On Recycle Transfers To The H-Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.; Laurinat, J.

    2011-01-01

    goal of 400 canisters. Since no Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) exists for germanium in the Tank Farm, the Effluent Treatment Project, or the Saltstone Production Facility, DWPF has requested an evaluation of the fate of the germanium in the caustic environment of the RCT, the 2H evaporator, and the tank farm. This report evaluates the effect of the addition of germanium to the tank farm based on: (1) the large dilution of Ge in the RCT and tank farm; (2) the solubility of germanium in caustic solutions (pH 12-13); (3) the potential of germanium to precipitate as germanium sodalites in the 2H Evaporator; and (4) the potential of germanium compounds to precipitate in the evaporator feed tank. This study concludes that the impacts of transferring up to 4 kg/yr germanium to the RCT (and subsequently the 2H evaporator feed tank and the 2H evaporator) results in <2 ppm per year (1.834 mg/L) which is the maximum instantaneous concentration expected from DWPF. This concentration is insignificant as most sodium germanates are soluble at the high pH of the feed tank and evaporator solutions. Even if sodium aluminosilicates form in the 2H evaporator, the Ge will likely substitute for some small amount of the Si in these structures and will be insignificant. It is recommended that the DWPF continue with their strategy to add germanium as a laboratory chemical to Attachment 8.2 of the DWPF Waste Compliance Plan (WCP).

  13. A modelling framework to assess climate change and adaptation impact on heterogeneous crop-livestock farming communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Descheemaeker, K.K.E.; Masikati, P.; Homann-Kee Tui, S.; Chibwana, G.A.; Crespo, O.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change will impact the productivity of maize-based crop-livestock systems and the livelihoods of smallholders depending on them in semi-arid Zimbabwe. The large diversity in resource endowment and production objectives in rural communities differentially influences this impact and the

  14. The impacts of local farming system development trajectories on greenhouse gas emissions in the northern mountains of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leisz, S.J.; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Olesen, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    fields, paddy, fruit trees and animal husbandry. Discussion in the policy debate and literature focuses on the impacts these changes have on local people's livelihoods. There have been no attempts to evaluate the impact of these changes on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper examines the realities...

  15. The impact of distance to the farm compound on the options for use of the cereal plot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. TAMM

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In increasingly competitive conditions, the dominant trend of enlarging the production area of farms is causing a growth in transportation costs making the profitability of cultivating distant plots questionable. The aim of this study was to provide a method to evaluate the rationality of using a plot depending on its distance, area and cultivation technology. An algorithm and a mathematical model were composed to calculate the total costs depending on the distance to the plot. The transportation costs of machines and materials, cost of organisational travel and timeliness costs are taken into account in the model to enable determination of the maximum distance or the minimum area of the plot necessary for profitable cultivation. Simulations allow us to conclude that the growth in yield and selling price of the production allow an increase in the limit value of driving costs and, thus, the profitable distance of the plot; on the other hand, it means also an increase of timeliness costs as a limitation for extending distance. Exploitation of more distant plots can be uneconomical in coming years because of increasing fuel costs.;

  16. Seasonal dynamics of endoparasitic infections at an organic goat farm and the impact of detected infections on milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriánová, Iveta A; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Kopecký, Oldřich; Langrová, Iva

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated patterns and species composition of parasitic infections detected over a 1-year period at an organic goat farm. As a result of coprological examination, the overall prevalence of observed strongylids (99%), coccidia of the genus Eimeria (98%), and Muellerius capillaris lungworms (93%) was calculated. The most prevalent strongylids recovered from incubated fecal samples were Haemonchus contortus (42%), genera Trichostrongylus (23%), Oesophagostomum columbianum (13%), and Teladorsagia circumcincta (11%). A maximum intensity of coccidia infection 5150 oocysts per gram, strongylids infection 9900 eggs per gram and lungworm infection 867.26 larvae per gram were detected. The various effects (including environment, host, and parasites) on milk yield, lactose, protein, and fat were evaluated using generalized linear mixed models. Milk yield (P goat. With the intensity of infection detected in our study, only protein content was affected (P goat itself can substantially decrease protein content but has much less of an effect on fat, milk yield, and lactose. Based on our results, we can conclude that a low intensity of parasitic infections does not significantly affect milk yield and the qualitative parameters of milk.

  17. Effect of fish farming on household food security in western Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the impact of fish farming on household food security and livelihoods of fish farming and non-fish farming households in Siaya County. Fish farming involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures, usually for food. Currently fish farming remains under developed in Western Kenya where pond ...

  18. Assessing the impact of care farms on quality of life and offending: a pilot study among probation service users in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsey, Helen; Farragher, Tracey; Tubeuf, Sandy; Bragg, Rachel; Elings, Marjolein; Brennan, Cathy; Gold, Rochelle; Shickle, Darren; Wickramasekera, Nyantara; Richardson, Zoe; Cade, Janet; Murray, Jenni

    2018-03-17

    To assess the feasibility of conducting a cost-effectiveness study of using care farms (CFs) to improve quality of life and reduce reoffending among offenders undertaking community orders (COs). To pilot questionnaires to assess quality of life, connection to nature, lifestyle behaviours, health and social-care use. To assess recruitment and retention at 6 months and feasibility of data linkage to Police National Computer (PNC) reconvictions data and data held by probation services. Pilot study using questionnaires to assess quality of life, individually linked to police and probation data. The pilot study was conducted in three probation service regions in England. Each site included a CF and at least one comparator CO project. CFs are working farms used with a range of clients, including offenders, for therapeutic purposes. The three CFs included one aquaponics and horticulture social enterprise, a religious charity focusing on horticulture and a family-run cattle farm. Comparator projects included sorting secondhand clothes and activities to address alcohol misuse and anger management. We recruited 134 adults (over 18) serving COs in England, 29% female. 52% of participants completed follow-up questionnaires. Privatisation of UK probation trusts in 2014 negatively impacted on recruitment and retention. Linkage to PNC data was a more successful means of follow-up, with 90% consenting to access their probation and PNC data. Collection of health and social-care costs and quality-adjusted life year derivation were feasible. Propensity score adjustment provided a viable comparison method despite differences between comparators. We found worse health and higher reoffending risk among CF participants due to allocation of challenging offenders to CFs, making risk of reoffending a confounder. Recruitment would be feasible in a more stable probation environment. Follow-up was challenging; however, assessing reconvictions from PNC data is feasible and a potential primary

  19. Architectural impact assessment of dwellings on portion 9 of the farm La Mercy 15124 for Dube Tradeport Corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This report investigates the impact a number of buildings, intended for demolition in the 1970s, would have from a heritage point of view. The houses lie in the path of the King Shaka International Airport runway.

  20. Contact pressures and the impact of farm equipment on Latosol with the presence and absence of sugarcane straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Barboza da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT High contact pressures applied to soil result in a greater degree of compaction, in addition to promoting other negative effects. The objective of this study was to quantify contact areas by using different methodologies, and pressures of farm equipment employed in production activity and evaluate structural changes caused in a Red Latosol with the presence and absence of straw cover. The design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme of type 4 (tire on front axle, tire on rear axle, tire on a sugarcane wagon and metallic track of sugar cane Harvester x 2 (presence and absence of straw. The contact area (CA of the run was obtained by three procedures: analytical measure of the area of an ellipse (CA1; digital measurement of area of an ellipse (CA2; and measurement of real contact area (RCA, with digital resources. The contact pressure was calculated from the ratio of mass of each machine's axle and the contact area of the run. The contact area obtained according to the procedure of the ellipse (CA1 and CA2 is overrated when compared to actual area obtained digitally (RCA. The straw reduces the contact pressure in the soil, due to the deep tire treads and consequently, increased contact area. Areas where the traffic of the machines occurred with soil covered with the presence of straw showed reduced soil resistance to penetration, cone index and pre-consolidation pressure, confirming that the increased contact area produced by straw reduced the pressure applied and the compression power dissipated in the soil.

  1. Impact of storm runoff on Salmonella and Escherichia coli prevalence in irrigation ponds of fresh produce farms in southern Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C S; Tertuliano, M; Rajeev, S; Vellidis, G; Levy, K

    2018-03-01

    To examine Salmonella and Escherichia coli in storm runoff and irrigation ponds used by fresh produce growers, and compare Salmonella serovars with those found in cases of human salmonellosis. We collected water before and after rain events at two irrigation ponds on farms in southern Georgia, USA, and collected storm runoff/storm flow within the contributing watershed of each pond. Salmonella and E. coli concentrations were higher in ponds after rain events by an average of 0·46 (P storm runoff from fields and forests were not significantly higher than in ponds before rain events, but concentrations in storm flow from streams and ditches were higher by an average of 1·22 log 10 MPN per 100 ml (P storm runoff/storm flow and ponds. Seven of the serovars, including five of the shared serovars, were present in cases of human illness in the study region in the same year. However, several serovars most commonly associated with human illness in the study region (e.g. Javiana, Enteritidis, and Montevideo) were not found in any water samples. Salmonella and E. coli concentrations in irrigation ponds were higher, on average, after rain events, but concentrations of Salmonella were low, and the ponds met FDA water quality standards based on E. coli. Some similarities and notable differences were found between Salmonella serovars in water samples and in cases of human illness. This study directly examined storm runoff/storm flow into irrigation ponds and quantified increases in Salmonella and E. coli following rain events, with potential implications for irrigation pond management as well as human health. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Use of the partial farm budget technique to predict the economic impact of the flock management decision to use B-mode ultrasonographic pregnancy diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, D J; Ley, W B; Whittier, W D; Bowen, J M; Thatcher, C D; Pelzer, K D; Moore, J M

    1989-07-15

    A computer spreadsheet was developed to predict the economic impact of a management decision to use B-mode ultrasonographic ovine pregnancy diagnosis. The spreadsheet design and spreadsheet cell formulas are provided. The program used the partial farm budget technique to calculate net return (NR) or cash flow changes that resulted from the decision to use ultrasonography. Using the program, either simple pregnancy diagnosis or pregnancy diagnosis with the ability to determine singleton or multiple pregnancies may be compared with no flock ultrasonographic pregnancy diagnosis. A wide range of user-selected regional variables are used to calculate the cash flow changes associated with the ultrasonography decisions. A variable may be altered through a range of values to conduct a sensitivity analysis of predicted NR. Example sensitivity analyses are included for flock conception rate, veterinary ultrasound fee, and the price of corn. Variables that influence the number of cull animals and the cost of ultrasonography have the greatest impact on predicted NR. Because the determination of singleton or multiple pregnancies is more time consuming, its economic practicality in comparison with simple pregnancy diagnosis is questionable. The value of feed saved by identifying and separately feeding ewes with singleton pregnancies is not offset by the increased ultrasonography cost.

  3. Impactos ambientais do lançamento de efluentes da carcinicultura em águas interiores Environmental impacts of inland shrimp farming effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cléa Brito de Figueiredo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A bacia do Baixo Jaguaribe-CE depara-se com a instalação progressiva de fazendas de camarão às margens do rio Jaguaribe onde não há interferência de água salina. Esse trabalho tem como principal objetivo avaliar as características físicas, químicas e bacteriológicas dos efluentes contínuos e da despesca de fazendas de camarão, refletindo sobre os possíveis impactos do lançamento desses efluentes e formas de atenuação desses impactos. Foram analisadas amostras da água de captação e dos efluentes de dois viveiros de duas diferentes fazendas. Os parâmetros analisados para os efluentes contínuos foram: pH, turbidez, nitrato, amônia total, condutividade elétrica, DBO5, fósforo total, fósforo solúvel, alcalinidade total, sólidos totais, sólidos totais dissolvidos, sólidos suspensos, coliformes termotolerantes e clorofila a. Para os efluentes da despesca foram acrescentados OD e a fração de sólidos sedimentáveis. Os resultados mostraram que, embora os efluentes contínuos se apresentem dentro dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação, na despesca os valores obtidos para pH, amônia total, sólidos suspensos e sedimentáveis estão acima dos valores permitidos contribuindo para a deterioração progressiva da qualidade da água dos corpos hídricos da região.The Baixo Jaguaribe waterbasin has faced the installation of a growing number of shrimp farms along the Jaguaribe River, where there is no saline water interference. This work aims to show the chemical, physical-chemical and bacteriological characteristics of the inland shrimp farms continuous and harvest effluents, located in the Baixo Jaguaribe region, Ceará State, to discuss the possible impacts of these effluents in the water bodies and to suggest mitigating measures. It was analyzed water samples from the Jaguaribe river and the effluents of 2 tanks belonging to 2 different shrimp farms, during 1 production cycle. The parameters analyzed were: p

  4. Solutions to raptor-wind farm interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madders, M.; Walker, D.G. [CRE Energy Ltd., Scottish Power, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Wind energy developments in the uplands have the potential to adversely impact upon a number of raptor species by lowering survival and reproductive rates. In many cases, wind farms are proposed in areas where raptors are already under pressure from existing land uses, notably sheep grazing and forestry. This paper summarises the approach used to assess the impact of a 30MW wind farm on a pair of golden eagles in the Kintyre peninsula, Scotland. We outline the method being used to manage habitats for the benefit of the eagles and their prey. By adopting management practices that are both wide-scale and long-term, we aim to reduce the impact to the wind farm to levels considered acceptable by the conservation agencies, and improve breeding productivity of the eagles using the wind farm. The implications of this innovative approach for future raptor--wind farm interactions are discussed. (Author)

  5. Assessing the impact of the Nitrate Directive on farming systems using a bio-economic modelling chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belhouchette, H.; Louhichi, K.; Therond, O.; Mouratiadou, I.; Wery, J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Flichman, G.

    2011-01-01

    Bio-economic models can be used to assess the impact of policy and environmental measures through economic and environmental indicators. Focusing on agricultural systems, farmers’ decisions in terms of cropping systems and the associated crop management at field scale are essential in such studies.

  6. Assessing local and regional economic impacts of climatic extremes and feasibility of adaptation measures in Dutch arable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diogo, V.; Reidsma, P.; Schaap, B.; Andree, B. P.J.; Koomen, E.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method that combines local productivity factors, economic factors, crop-specific sensitivity to climatic extremes, and future climate change scenarios, to assess potential impacts of extreme weather events on agricultural production systems. Our assessment is spatially explicit and uses

  7. Size, density and composition of cell-mineral aggregates formed during anoxygenic phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation: Impact on modern and ancient environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R.; Huelin, Sonia; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2010-01-01

    Cell-Fe(III) mineral aggregates produced by anoxygenic Fe(II)-oxidizing photoautotrophic microorganisms (photoferrotrophs) may be influential in the modern Fe cycle and were likely an integral part of ancient biogeochemical cycles on early Earth. While studies have focused on the environmental...... conditions under which modern photoferrotrophs grow and the kinetics, physiology and mechanism of Fe(II) oxidation, no systematic analyses of the physico-chemical characteristics of those aggregates, such as shape, size, density and chemical composition, have as yet been conducted. Herein, experimental...... results show most aggregates are bulbous or ragged in shape, with an average particle size of 10-40??m, and densities that typically range between 2.0 and 2.4g/cm 3; the cell fraction of the aggregates increased and their density decreased with initial Fe(II) concentration. The mineralogy of the ferric...

  8. The Xanton-Chassenon II wind farm site - Non technical summary of the impact study, opinion of the environmental authority, public inquiry, additional impact study on avifauna after the opinion of the environmental authority, analysis of chiropterans activity in altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    A first document aims at public information and consultation by proposing a synthetic overview of the wind farm project. It presents the involved actors, the methodology adopted to select the site and the project scenario. It describes the actual project (wind turbines, agreement, exploitation duration, compliance with urban planning documents), gives an overview of the results of the impact study (social-economic impacts, impacts on the environment, on landscape and heritage, on acoustics, on health, climate and air quality, and soil and water). It indicates measures aimed at avoiding, reducing or compensating drawbacks. The official opinion of the environmental authority is then provided. The public enquiry process is reported, with a presentation of various studied impacts, an overview of public opinion expressions and of counter-proposals. A detailed additional impact study regarding avifauna is provided as an answer to the opinion of the environmental authority. Another opinion of the environmental authority on the exploitation authorisation request is provided. The last report contains an analysis of chiropterans activity in altitude (methodology, ecological diagnosis)

  9. Impact of Climate Change on Rain-fed Farming and Response Solutions in Semiarid Area of Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Hong-li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change on the agriculture production in semi-arid areas of Northwest, the major drought-resistant technology, the mechanism of increasing grain production were analyzed to explore technical solutions to retort the future climate change, future development of rainfed agriculture, and provide reference for food security. The results showed that the impact of future climate change on crop growth had main three aspects: Firstly, higher temperatures resulted in lower crop yield and quality decline; Secondly, changes in precipitation and precipitation patterns resulted in drought/flooding problems; Thirdly, meteorological disasters caused by extreme weather lead to fluctuations of food production. To adapt or mitigate these adverse effects, increase use efficiency of limited rainfall, optimize soil structure, improve soil fertility, enhance withstanding environmental change ability of crop-soil system, mitigate the impact of future climate change on food production in semi-arid region of Northwest China, the mainly solutions were: (1 Covering gathered precipitation, improve the ability to accumulate soil moisture, change the distribution of soil moisture, regulate the migration and improve the infiltration of precipitation, thus “adjusting water” to adapt to precipitation changes; (2 Optimizing soil structure, physical and chemical properties by soil fertilization, thus “regulating soil” to improve the ability of crop-soil system against to environmental changes, in order to stabilize productivity of rainfed agriculture; (3 Integrate “adjusting water” and “regulating soil” technology, forming technical system of “coordination of water and soil” to comprehensively response to future climate change, mitigate the adverse impact of future climate change on food production in semi-arid region of Northwest, China.

  10. Environmental impacts of genetic improvement of growth rate and feed conversion ratio in fish farming under rearing density and nitrogen output limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besson, M.; Aubin, J.; Komen, H.; Poelman, M.; Quillet, E.; Vandeputte, M.; Arendonk, Van J.A.M.; Boer, De I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Today, fish farming faces an increasing demand in fish products, but also various environmental challenges. Genetic improvement in growth rate and feed conversion ratio is known to be an efficient way to increase production and increase efficiency in fish farming. The environmental consequences

  11. Understanding the impacts of care farms on health and well-being of disadvantaged populations: a protocol of the Evaluating Community Orders (ECO) pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsey, H.; Bragg, R.; Elings, M.; Cade, J.E.; Brennan, C.; Farragher, T.; Tubeuf, S.; Gold, R.; Shickle, D.; Wickramasekera, N.; Richardson, Z.; Murray, J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Care farms, where all or part of the farm is used for therapeutic purposes, show much potential for improving the health and well-being of a range of disadvantaged groups. Studies to date have been qualitative or observational, with limited empirical evidence of the effectiveness of

  12. ARIZONA FARM LABOR REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SALTER, RICHARD H.

    THE ORGANIZATION OF THE FARM PLACEMENT PROGRAM IS DESCRIBED. INCLUDED ARE THE ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATIONS, THE LOCAL LEVELS, THE STATE FARM LABOR ADVISORY COMMITTEE, AND THE PLANNING AND OPERATING METHODS USED BY FARM PLACEMENT PERSONNEL IN MEETING FARM LABOR NEEDS. MAJOR CROP ACTIVITIES ARE RELATED TO COTTON AND VEGETABLES. THE LABOR FORCE IS…

  13. Seasonal variation and impact of waste-water lagoons as larval habitat on the population dynamics of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera:Ceratpogonidae at two dairy farms in northern California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie E Mayo

    Full Text Available The Sacramento (northern Central Valley of California (CA has a hot Mediterranean climate and a diverse ecological landscape that is impacted extensively by human activities, which include the intensive farming of crops and livestock. Waste-water ponds, marshes, and irrigated fields associated with these agricultural activities provide abundant larval habitats for C. sonorensis midges, in addition to those sites that exist in the natural environment. Within this region, C. sonorensis is an important vector of bluetongue (BTV and related viruses that adversely affect the international trade and movement of livestock, the economics of livestock production, and animal welfare. To characterize the seasonal dynamics of immature and adult C. sonorensis populations, abundance was monitored intensively on two dairy farms in the Sacramento Valley from August 2012- to July 2013. Adults were sampled every two weeks for 52 weeks by trapping (CDC style traps without light and baited with dry-ice along N-S and E-W transects on each farm. One farm had large operational waste-water lagoons, whereas the lagoon on the other farm was drained and remained dry during the study. Spring emergence and seasonal abundance of adult C. sonorensis on both farms coincided with rising vernal temperature. Paradoxically, the abundance of midges on the farm without a functioning waste-water lagoon was increased as compared to abundance on the farm with a waste-water lagoon system, indicating that this infrastructure may not serve as the sole, or even the primary larval habitat. Adult midges disappeared from both farms from late November until May; however, low numbers of parous female midges were detected in traps set during daylight in the inter-seasonal winter period. This latter finding is especially critical as it provides a potential mechanism for the "overwintering" of BTV in temperate regions such as northern CA. Precise documentation of temporal changes in the annual

  14. Information Aggregation in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation contributes to the analysis of information aggregation procedures within organizations. Facing uncertainty about the consequences of a collective decision, information has to be aggregated before making a choice. Two main questions are addressed. Firstly, how well is an organization suited for the aggregation of decision-relevant information? Secondly, how should an organization be designed in order to aggregate information efficiently? The main part deals with information a...

  15. Towards General Temporal Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boehlen, Michael H.; Gamper, Johann; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    associated with the management of temporal data. Indeed, temporal aggregation is complex and among the most difficult, and thus interesting, temporal functionality to support. This paper presents a general framework for temporal aggregation that accommodates existing kinds of aggregation, and it identifies...

  16. The Carbon and Global Warming Potential Impacts of Organic Farming: Does It Have a Significant Role in an Energy Constrained World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph C. Martin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available About 130 studies were analyzed to compare farm-level energy use and global warming potential (GWP of organic and conventional production sectors. Cross cutting issues such as tillage, compost, soil carbon sequestration and energy offsets were also reviewed. Finally, we contrasted E and GWP data from the wider food system. We concluded that the evidence strongly favours organic farming with respect to whole-farm energy use and energy efficiency both on a per hectare and per farm product basis, with the possible exception of poultry and fruit sectors. For GWP, evidence is insufficient except in a few sectors, with results per ha more consistently favouring organic farming than GWP per unit product. Tillage was consistently a negligible contributor to farm E use and additional tillage on organic farms does not appear to significantly deplete soil C. Energy offsets, biogas, energy crops and residues have a more limited role on organic farms compared to conventional ones, because of the nutrient and soil building uses of soil organic matter, and the high demand for organic foods in human markets. If farm E use represents 35% of total food chain E use, improvements shown of 20% or more in E efficiency through organic farm management would reduce food-chain E use by 7% or more. Among other food supply chain stages, wholesale/retail (including cooling and packaging and processing often each contribute 30% or more to total food system E. Thus, additional improvements can be obtained with reduced processing, whole foods and food waste minimization.

  17. Role of Multicellular Aggregates in Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper N. Kragh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In traditional models of in vitro biofilm development, individual bacterial cells seed a surface, multiply, and mature into multicellular, three-dimensional structures. Much research has been devoted to elucidating the mechanisms governing the initial attachment of single cells to surfaces. However, in natural environments and during infection, bacterial cells tend to clump as multicellular aggregates, and biofilms can also slough off aggregates as a part of the dispersal process. This makes it likely that biofilms are often seeded by aggregates and single cells, yet how these aggregates impact biofilm initiation and development is not known. Here we use a combination of experimental and computational approaches to determine the relative fitness of single cells and preformed aggregates during early development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. We find that the relative fitness of aggregates depends markedly on the density of surrounding single cells, i.e., the level of competition for growth resources. When competition between aggregates and single cells is low, an aggregate has a growth disadvantage because the aggregate interior has poor access to growth resources. However, if competition is high, aggregates exhibit higher fitness, because extending vertically above the surface gives cells at the top of aggregates better access to growth resources. Other advantages of seeding by aggregates, such as earlier switching to a biofilm-like phenotype and enhanced resilience toward antibiotics and immune response, may add to this ecological benefit. Our findings suggest that current models of biofilm formation should be reconsidered to incorporate the role of aggregates in biofilm initiation.

  18. Financial structures for wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the structures used to finance wind farms. It takes into account the impact of the 3rd tranche of the NFFO and provides an evaluation of cash returns using Ernst and Young's wind energy model. Suggestions for further developments in financing include the use of specialist financial instruments and tax planning techniques. (author)

  19. TANK FARM ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment, The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or Notice of Construction for an inclusive listing of requirements

  20. Farm Management: rethinking directions?

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, David R.; Girdwood, John; Parton, Kevin A.; Charry, Al A.

    2004-01-01

    Farms and farming are major contributors to the world economy, directly responsible for a large part of GDP. These achievements are not trivial and imply that farms are being managed in reasonably effective ways, else agricultural industries would not be sustained. However has the study of Farm Management within Australia made significant contributions to agriculture or lagged in the background. Is it contributing to better Farm Management or merely cataloguing what has happened? Is it leadin...

  1. Impacts of biochar on the environmental risk of antibiotic resistance genes and mobile genetic elements during anaerobic digestion of cattle farm wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiaojuan; Qian, Xun; Tuo, Xiaxia

    2018-05-01

    Biochar has positive effects on nitrogen conservation during anaerobic digestion, but its impacts on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are unclear. Therefore, the effect of biochar (0, 5, 20, and 50 g/L) on the environmental risk of ARGs during cattle manure wastewater anaerobic digestion were investigated. The results showed that 5 g/L biochar reduced the relative abundances (RAs) of 5/13 ARGs while 20 g/L biochar significantly reduced the total RAs of ARGs in the digestion products, where the RA of ISCR1 was 0.89 log lower than the control. Biochar mainly affected the distribution of ARGs by influencing the RAs of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, and the influence of 20 g/L biochar was greater than that of 5 g/L. Mobile genetic elements also influenced the ARG profiles, especially intI2 and ISCR1. The addition of 20 g/L biochar to cattle farm wastewater anaerobic digestion systems could reduce the environmental risk of ARGs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Aggregated wind power generation probabilistic forecasting based on particle filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Pai; Guan, Xiaohong; Wu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method for probabilistic forecasting of aggregated wind power generation. • A dynamic system is established based on a numerical weather prediction model. • The new method handles the non-Gaussian and time-varying wind power uncertainties. • Particle filter is applied to forecast predictive densities of wind generation. - Abstract: Probability distribution of aggregated wind power generation in a region is one of important issues for power system daily operation. This paper presents a novel method to forecast the predictive densities of the aggregated wind power generation from several geographically distributed wind farms, considering the non-Gaussian and non-stationary characteristics in wind power uncertainties. Based on a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model, a dynamic system is established to formulate the relationship between the atmospheric and near-surface wind fields of geographically distributed wind farms. A recursively backtracking framework based on the particle filter is applied to estimate the atmospheric state with the near-surface wind power generation measurements, and to forecast the possible samples of the aggregated wind power generation. The predictive densities of the aggregated wind power generation are then estimated based on these predicted samples by a kernel density estimator. In case studies, the new method presented is tested on a 9 wind farms system in Midwestern United States. The testing results that the new method can provide competitive interval forecasts for the aggregated wind power generation with conventional statistical based models, which validates the effectiveness of the new method

  3. Economic consequences of investing in sensor systems on dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of investment in sensor systems on productivity change, using farm accounting data. Farm accounting data for the years 2008–2013 was available for 217 Dutch dairy farms. In addition, information was available on the adoption of sensor systems

  4. Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Langer, W.H.; Sachs, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Sustaining a developed economy and expanding a developing one require the use of large volumes of natural aggregate. Almost all human activity (commercial, recreational, or leisure) is transacted in or on facilities constructed from natural aggregate. In our urban and suburban worlds, we are almost totally dependent on supplies of water collected behind dams and transported through aqueducts made from concrete. Natural aggregate is essential to the facilities that produce energy-hydroelectric dams and coal-fired powerplants. Ironically, the utility created for mankind by the use of natural aggregate is rarely compared favorably with the environmental impacts of mining it. Instead, the empty quarries and pits are seen as large negative environmental consequences. At the root of this disassociation is the philosophy of environmentalism, which flavors our perceptions of the excavation, processing, and distribution of natural aggregate. The two end-member ideas in this philosophy are ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism takes the position that the natural world is a organism whose arteries are the rivers-their flow must not be altered. The soil is another vital organ and must not be covered with concrete and asphalt. The motto of the ecocentrist is "man must live more lightly on the land." The anthropocentrist wants clean water and air and an uncluttered landscape for human use. Mining is allowed and even encouraged, but dust and noise from quarry and pit operations must be minimized. The large volume of truck traffic is viewed as a real menace to human life and should be regulated and isolated. The environmental problems that the producers of natural aggregate (crushed stone and sand and gravel) face today are mostly difficult social and political concerns associated with the large holes dug in the ground and the large volume of heavy truck traffic associated with quarry and pit operations. These concerns have increased in recent years as society's demand for

  5. Impact of farming activities on the water quality of the Pratu River and its tributaries in the Muni-Pomadzi wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiakor, S.

    2015-07-01

    The Muni-Pomadze wetland in the Central Region of Ghana is one of five internationally-recognised coastal wetlands (Ramsar sites) in Ghana under the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance. The wetland is known for its rich variety of biodiversity and unpolluted ecosystem and is fed by a main river called Pratu along with its tributaries (Ntakofa and Muni Rivers) that flows into the Muni lagoon. However, the need to produce enough food to feed the ever increasing population has led to the extensive use of land especially along the banks of the rivers that feed the wetland for farming activities. This disturbing issue coupled with other anthropogenic activities has led to an increasing level of pollution in the wetland resulting in water quality degradation in the river catchment. This has consequently diminished both the local and international significance of the wetland. In this light, this research sought to assess the impact of farming and other anthropogenic activities along the Pratu River and its tributaries and consequently the Muni lagoon in the wetland by determining the source, types and level of pollution existing in the river basin. Water samples from the Pratu River, Ntakofa River and the Muni lagoon were analysed for physico – chemical parameters (pH, Temperature, Electric Conductivity, Salinity, Total Dissolved Solids, Alkalinity, Dissolved Oxygen, Biological Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Total Hardness) using titrimetry, Hach Sension 5 Conductometer and Hach pH Meter; trace metals (Iron, Copper, Zinc, Lead, Cadmium, Chromium and Mercury) using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer; ions (Na, Ca, K, Mg, Cl-, ) using the Flame Photometry, UV-Visible Spectrophotometry and titrimetry. Pesticide residues (Organochlorines, Organophosphates and Synthetic Pyrethroids) were also analysed using the Gas Chromatography–Electron Capture and Pulse Flame Photometric Detections. Results of the physical analysis showed high concentration of

  6. Public environmental impact assessment in planning process of the near-shore wind power farms in Estonia. Avalikkuse osalemine keskkonnamõju hindamise ja planeerimisprotsessis rannikumere tuuleparkide näitel Eestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Lindroos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the nature and opportunities of public participation in the environmental impact assessment (EIA and planning processes in the context of massive expansion of near-shore wind power farms within the next decade in Estonia. The establishment of new wind farms has aroused opposition of the local population as in many other countries. In the present case, we focus on the wind park planned in the sea between Hiiumaa and Saaremaa (Soela Strait, in respect to which we conducted a case study of stakeholders in spring-summer 2014. Purpose of the research is to understand and assess the development of the surroundings in which people live and transformation in connection with the wind park planning, and institutional and individual attitudes and strategies in the processes of informing, involvement, participation and decision-making. The analysis of attitudes is based on social impact assessment: aesthetical, socio-economic and cultural tendencies

  7. An Analysis of Profitability Factors for Selected Farming Types in the Minnesota Vocational Agriculture Farm Management Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleene, Marvin

    1980-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the impact profitability factors have on farm labor earnings for farms enrolled in the Minnesota Vocational Agriculture Farm Management Education Program. The most important predictors of labor earnings were size of business, gross return per cropped acre, and index return per $100 of feed fed. (LRA)

  8. Economic analysis and policy implications of farm and off-farm employment : a case study in the Tigray region of Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldehanna, T.

    2000-01-01

    The central item of this research is the impact of off-farm employment and income on farm households and agricultural production. The interaction between farm and non-farm activities, the adjustment of labor demand and supply, the performance of the labor market, and wage determination are

  9. SHAPE CHARACTERIZATION OF CONCRETE AGGREGATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available As a composite material, the performance of concrete materials can be expected to depend on the properties of the interfaces between its two major components, aggregate and cement paste. The microstructure at the interfacial transition zone (ITZ is assumed to be different from the bulk material. In general, properties of conventional concrete have been found favoured by optimum packing density of the aggregate. Particle size is a common denominator in such studies. Size segregation in the ITZ among the binder particles in the fresh state, observed in simulation studies by concurrent algorithm-based SPACE system, additionally governs density as well as physical bonding capacity inside these shell-like zones around aggregate particles. These characteristics have been demonstrated qualitatively pertaining also after maturation of the concrete. Such properties of the ITZs have direct impact on composite properties. Despite experimental approaches revealed effects of aggregate grain shape on different features of material structure (among which density, and as a consequence on mechanical properties, it is still an underrated factor in laboratory studies, probably due to the general feeling that a suitable methodology for shape characterization is not available. A scientific argument hindering progress is the interconnected nature of size and shape. Presently, a practical problem preventing shape effects to be emphasized is the limitation of most computer simulation systems in concrete technology to spherical particles. New developments at Delft University of Technology will make it possible in the near future to generate jammed states, or other high-density fresh particle mixtures of non-spherical particles, which thereupon can be subjected to hydration algorithms. This paper will sketch the outlines of a methodological approach for shape assessment of loose (non-embedded aggregate grains, and demonstrate its use for two types of aggregate, allowing

  10. Characterization of core/shell Cu/Ag nanopowders synthesized by electrochemistry and assessment of their impact on hemolysis, platelet aggregation, and coagulation on human blood for potential wound dressing use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloy, Julie; Haguet, Hélène; Alpan, Lutfiye; Mancier, Valérie; Mejia, Jorge; Levi, Samuel; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Lucas, Stéphane; Rousse, Céline; Fricoteaux, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Copper/silver core/shell nanopowders with different metal ratio have been elaborated by electrochemistry (ultrasound-assisted electrolysis followed by a displacement reaction). Characterization was performed by several methods (X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, centrifugal liquid sedimentation, and zeta potential measurements). The mean diameter of all nanoparticles is around 10 nm. The impact of each nanopowder on hemolysis, platelet aggregation, and coagulation has been studied on whole human blood. Hemolysis assays were performed with spectrophotometric measurement and platelet aggregation, with light transmission aggregometry and was compared to Cu/Pt core/shell nanoparticles with similar size as negative control. Calibrated thrombin generation test has been used for a coagulation study. They neither impact platelet aggregation nor hemolysis and have a procoagulant effect whatever their composition (i.e., metal ratio). These results highlight that such nanopowders have a potential use in medical applications (e.g., wound dressing).

  11. Investigation of the impact of nanotechnology on the freeze-thaw durability of concrete containing d-cracking aggregates : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Freezing and thawing damage is the most common cause of distress in : Kansas pavements. Many locally available aggregates in Kansas do not : meet current standards for use in concrete pavements because of poor : freeze-thaw durability. The use of nan...

  12. An Asymmetrical Glycerol Diether Bolalipid with Protonable Phosphodimethylethanolamine Headgroup: The Impact of pH on Aggregation Behavior and Miscibility with DPPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Markowski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigations regarding the self-assembly of (bolaphospholipids in aqueous media are crucial to understand the complex relationship between chemical structure of lipids and the shape and size of their aggregates in water. Here, we introduce a new asymmetrical glycerol diether bolaphospholipid, the compound Me2PE-Gly(2C16C32-OH. This bolalipid contains a long (C32 ω-hydroxy alkyl chain bond to glycerol in the sn-3 position, a C16 alkyl chain at the sn-2 position, and a protonable phosphodimethylethanolamine (Me2PE headgroup at the sn-1 position of the glycerol. The aggregation behavior of this bolalipid was studied as a function of temperature and pH using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. We show that this bolalipid aggregates into condensed lamellar sheets in acidic milieu and in large sheet-like aggregates at neutral pH-value. By contrast, at a pH-value of 10, where the Me2PE headgroup is only partially protonated, small lipid disks with diameter 50–100 nm were additionally found. Moreover, the miscibility of this asymmetrical bolalipid with the bilayer-forming phosphatidylcholine DPPC was investigated by means of DSC and TEM. The incorporation of bolalipids into phospholipid membranes could result in stabilized liposomes applicable for drug delivery purposes. We show that mixtures of DPPC and Me2PE-Gly(2C16C32-OH form large lamellar aggregates at pH of 5, 7, and 10. However, closed lipid vesicles (liposomes with an increased thermal stability were not found.

  13. Comparison of production-phase environmental impact metrics derived at the farm- and national-scale for United States agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, Christine; Xue, Xiaobo; Howarth, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural production is critical for human survival and simultaneously contributes to ecosystem degradation. There is a need for transparent, rapid methods for evaluating the environmental impacts of agricultural production at the system-level in order to develop sustainable food supplies. We have developed a method for estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG), land use and reactive nitrogen inputs associated with the agricultural production phase of major crop and livestock commodities produced in the United States (US). Materials flow analysis (MFA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques were applied to national inventory datasets. The net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) toolbox served as the primary accounting tool for LCA and MFA. NANI was updated to create links between nitrogen fertilizer and nitrogen fixation associated with feed crops and animal food commodities. Results for the functional units kilogram (kg) of product and kg of protein for 2002 data fall within ranges of published LCA results from farm-scale studies across most metrics. Exceptions include eutrophication potential for milk and GHGs for chicken and eggs, these exceptions arise due to differing methods and boundary assumptions; suggestions for increasing agreement are identified. Land use for livestock commodities are generally higher than reported by other LCA studies due to the inclusion of all land identified as pasture or grazing land in the US in this study and given that most of the estimates from other LCAs were completed in Europe where land is less abundant. The method provides a view of the entire US agricultural system and could be applied to any year using publically available data. Additionally, utilizing a top-down approach reduces data collection and processing time making it possible to develop environmental inventory metrics rapidly for system-level decision-making. (letter)

  14. The underground economy in the U.S.A.: preliminary new evidence on the impact of income tax rates (and other factors on aggregate tax evasion 1975-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Cebula

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study seeks to identify determinants of the underground economy in the U.S. in the form of aggregate federal personal income tax evasion over the period 1975-2008, with a specific focus upon the impact of higher federal income tax rates on tax evasion. In this study, we use the most recent data available on aggregate personal income tax evasion, data that are derived from the General Currency Ratio Model and measured in the form of the ratio of unreported AGI to reported AGI. Most other studies of federal income tax evasion for the U.S. do not use data this current. It is found that the impact of increases in the federal income tax rate on aggregate personal income tax evasion may, on balance, be ambiguous, possibly suggesting that the income effect is negative and outweighs the positive substitution effect for the representative taxpayer. It is also found that the degree of aggregate personal income tax evasion may be an increasing function of the percentage of federal personal income tax returns characterized by itemized deductions and a decreasing function of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (during the first two years of implementation, the ratio of the tax free interest rate yield on high grade municipals to the interest rate yield on ten year Treasury notes, and higher audit rates of filed federal income tax returns (as a measure of risk from tax evasion by IRS personnel. Finally, unpopular wars may provide a secondary benefit for and therefore act as an inducement for greater tax evasion.

  15. Effect of colloidal aggregation on the sedimentation and rheological properties of tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rector, D.R.; Bunker, B.C.

    1995-09-01

    Tank farm experience and work performed under the Tank Waste Treatment Science task of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Technology Development Project indicate that colloidal interactions can have an enormous impact on tank waste processing. This report provides the theoretical and experimental background required to understand how such agglomeration phenomena control the sedimentation and theological behavior of colloidal tank wastes. First, the report describes the conditions under which the colloidal particles present in tank sludge are expected to aggregate. Computational models have been developed to predict solution conditions leading to agglomeration, and to predict the rate and size of aggregate growth. The models show that tank sludge should be heavily agglomerated under most baseline processing conditions. Second, the report describes models used to predict sedimentation rates and equilibrium sediment density profiles based on knowledge of agglomerate structures. The sedimentation models provide a self-consistent picture that explains the apparent discrepancies between bench-top experiments and tank-farm experience. Finally, both discrete and empirical models are presented that can be used to rationalize and predict the rheological properties of colloidal sludge suspensions. In all cases, model predictions are compared and contrasted with experimental results. The net results indicate that most of the observed behaviors of real sludges can be predicted, understood, and perhaps ultimately controlled by understanding a few key central concepts regarding agglomeration phenomena

  16. A quantitative approach to wind farm diversification and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degeilh, Yannick; Singh, Chanan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    This paper proposes a general planning method to minimize the variance of aggregated wind farm power output by optimally distributing a predetermined number of wind turbines over a preselected number of potential wind farming sites. The objective is to facilitate high wind power penetration through the search for steadier overall power output. Another optimization formulation that takes into account the correlations between wind power outputs and load is also presented. Three years of wind data from the recent NREL/3TIER study in the western US provides the statistics for evaluating each site upon their mean power output, variance and correlation with each other so that the best allocations can be determined. The reliability study reported in this paper investigates the impact of wind power output variance reduction on a power system composed of a virtual wind power plant and a load modeled from the 1996 IEEE RTS. Some traditional reliability indices such as the LOLP are calculated and it is eventually shown that configurations featuring minimal global power output variances generally prove the most reliable provided the sites are not significantly correlated with the modeled load. Consequently, the choice of uncorrelated/negatively correlated sites is favored. (author)

  17. A quantitative approach to wind farm diversification and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degeilh, Yannick; Singh, Chanan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a general planning method to minimize the variance of aggregated wind farm power output by optimally distributing a predetermined number of wind turbines over a preselected number of potential wind farming sites. The objective is to facilitate high wind power penetration through the search for steadier overall power output. Another optimization formulation that takes into account the correlations between wind power outputs and load is also presented. Three years of wind data from the recent NREL/3TIER study in the western US provides the statistics for evaluating each site upon their mean power output, variance and correlation with each other so that the best allocations can be determined. The reliability study reported in this paper investigates the impact of wind power output variance reduction on a power system composed of a virtual wind power plant and a load modeled from the 1996 IEEE RTS. Some traditional reliability indices such as the LOLP are calculated and it is eventually shown that configurations featuring minimal global power output variances generally prove the most reliable provided the sites are not significantly correlated with the modeled load. Consequently, the choice of uncorrelated/negatively correlated sites is favored. (author)

  18. Patterns of [PSI+] aggregation allow insights into cellular organization of yeast prion aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyedmers, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The yeast prion phenomenon is very widespread and mounting evidence suggests that it has an impact on cellular regulatory mechanisms related to phenotypic responses to changing environments. Studying the aggregation patterns of prion amyloids during different stages of the prion life cycle is a first key step to understand major principles of how and where cells generate, organize and turn-over prion aggregates. The induction of the [PSI+] state involves the actin cytoskeleton and quality control compartments such as the Insoluble Protein Deposit (IPOD). An initially unstable transitional induction state can be visualized by overexpression of the prion determinant and displays characteristic large ring- and ribbon-shaped aggregates consisting of poorly fragmented bundles of very long prion fibrils. In the mature prion state, the aggregation pattern is characterized by highly fragmented, shorter prion fibrils that form aggregates, which can be visualized through tagging with fluorescent proteins. The number of aggregates formed varies, ranging from a single large aggregate at the IPOD to multiple smaller ones, depending on several parameters discussed. Aggregate units below the resolution of light microscopy that are detectable by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy are in equilibrium with larger aggregates in this stage and can mediate faithful inheritance of the prion state. Loss of the prion state is often characterized by reduced fragmentation of prion fibrils and fewer, larger aggregates. PMID:22449721

  19. Evaluation of wind farm efficiency and wind turbine wakes at the Nysted offshore wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Jensen, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we quantify relationships between wind farm efficiency and wind speed, direction, turbulence and atmospheric stability using power output from the large offshore wind farm at Nysted in Denmark. Wake losses are, as expected, most strongly related to wind speed variations through the turbine...... thrust coefficient; with direction, atmospheric stability and turbulence as important second order effects. While the wind farm efficiency is highly dependent on the distribution of wind speeds and wind direction, it is shown that the impact of turbine spacing on wake losses and turbine efficiency can...... be quantified, albeit with relatively large uncertainty due to stochastic effects in the data. There is evidence of the ‘deep array effect’ in that wake losses in the centre of the wind farm are under-estimated by the wind farm model WAsP, although overall efficiency of the wind farm is well predicted due...

  20. Values in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted by the ...

  1. Profitability and Efficiency of Red Onion Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imron Rosyadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to determine and analyze the profitability and performance of onion farming marketing margins; analyze and know the parts of prices received by farmers and analyze the efficiency of onion farming in the district of Brebes. Samples taken in this study is 30 onion farmers in the district of Brebes, who settled in six villages, each village was taken 5 farmers as the research sample. These results indicate that the location of onion farming research does not provide benefits significantly to the household economy of farmers. Higher selling prices at the retail level and supermarkets do not have a significant impact on the level of profits of farming in the study area. Farming is done by farmers in the study area is inefficient. Onion marketing chain in the study area is relatively long, which consists of 4 lines of marketing.

  2. Impact of agricultural management on bacterial laccase-encoding genes with possible implications for soil carbon storage in semi-arid Mediterranean olive farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Moreno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this work, we aimed to gain insights into the contribution of soil bacteria to carbon sequestration in Mediterranean habitats. In particular, we aimed to use bacterial laccase-encoding genes as molecular markers for soil organic C cycling. Using rainfed olive farming as an experimental model, we determined the stability and accumulation levels of humic substances and applied these data to bacterial laccase-encoding gene expression and diversity in soils under four different agricultural management systems (bare soils under tillage/no tillage and vegetation cover under chemical/mechanical management. Materials and Methods: Humic C (> 104 Da was subjected to isoelectric focusing. The GC-MS method was used to analyze aromatic hydrocarbons. Real-Time PCR quantification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE for functional bacterial laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO-encoding genes and transcripts were also carried out. Results: Soils under spontaneous vegetation, eliminated in springtime using mechanical methods for more than 30 years, showed the highest humic acid levels as well as the largest bacterial population rich in laccase genes and transcripts. The structure of the bacterial community based on LMCO genes also pointed to phylogenetic differences between these soils due to the impact of different management systems. Soils where herbicides were used to eliminate spontaneous vegetation once a year and those where pre-emergence herbicides resulted in bare soils clustered together for DNA-based DGGE analysis, which indicated a certain amount of microbial selection due to the application of herbicides. When LMCO-encoding gene expression was studied, soils where cover vegetation was managed either with herbicides or with mechanical methods showed less than 10% similarity, suggesting that the type of weed management strategy used can impact weed community composition and consequently laccase substrates derived from

  3. Impact of the income based taxation on an individual farm’s economic standing (test simulation for a farm established of the opolski district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Pieczonka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Individual farmers are exempt from personal income tax which provides a major departure from the principle of the duty’s common nature. Undoubtedly, introducing farmers’ liability for income tax will result in their obligation to maintain accounting records necessary to assess taxable income. The article is aimed to present particular bookkeeping modes for tax purposes and to discuss, which forms of taxation, i.e. lump-sum tax, flat tax, progressive tax, would turn out more beneficial for a selected farm. The simulation shows clearly that substituting the agricultural tax with the income tax assessed in compliance with the regulations applicable to sole traders will result in the decrease in the income from agricultural activities in the analysed farm. It is worth noticing, however, that taxation on general terms may prove profitable for some selected farms. That would apply to the farms making loss or to the farms with such a low profit that after all the due deductions and allowances they are likely not to pay the tax at all or their liability would be lower when compared to the agricultural tax obligations.

  4. Assessment by regional modelling of the impact of monopile foundations on the hydrodynamics and sediment transport: case of Courseulles-sur-Mer (France) wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivier, Aurélie; Bennis, Anne-Claire; Pinon, Grégory; Magar, Vanesa; Gross, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Offshore monopile foundations of wind turbines modify hydrodynamics and sediment transport at local scale and also at regional scale. The aim of this work is to assess these changes and to parametrize them in a regional model. These modifications were previously evaluated using the regional circulation model MARS3D (Lazure and Dumas, 2008) in tests-cases (Rivier et al., 2014) using two approaches: in the first approach, monopiles are explicitly modelled in the mesh as dry cells and in the second approach a sub-grid parametrization which considers the drag force exerted by a monopile on the flow is used. The sub-grid parametrization is improved close to the bed in this paper by adding a drag force term in the momentum equations, source terms in the turbulence model and by increasing the bed shear stress at monopile location. Changes in hydrodynamics regime, especially near-bed, affect sediment transport regime and modifications due to monopiles on sediment dynamics is also investigated using the MARS3D sediment transport module (Le Hir et al., 2011) which solves the advection-diffusion equations. Test-cases are run using hydrodynamical conditions and sediment grain sizes typical from the area located off Courseulles-sur-Mer (Normandy, France) where an offshore wind farm is planned to be built. Velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and bed thickness changes due to the monopile simulated by both approaches are compared to each other and to experimental measurements made in a flume at the University of Caen or to published data (e.g. Roulund et al., 2005; Dargahi,1989). Then the model is applied in a real configuration on an area including the future offshore wind farm of Courseulles-sur-Mer. Four monopiles are represented in the model using both approaches and modifications of the hydrodynamics and sediment transport are assessed along a tidal cycle. Currents increase at the side edge of the monopile and decrease in front of and downstream the monopile. Turbulent kinetic

  5. Aggregation and attachment responses of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis—impact of substrate composition, time scale and source of mussel seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2015-01-01

    to an optimization of the production. The effect of substrate composition and timing of formation of a mussel bed in relation to aggregation and attachment of mussels were investigated with mussel seeds obtained from two different sources: mussel seed dredged from a natural mussel bed and mussel seed collected from......Survival after transplantation of mussel seeds is crucial for the production output of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in bottom cultures. Hence, an understanding of the interactions between bed formation, habitat structure and performance of mussel seed of different origins can contribute...... showed that complex substrate indeed had a stabilizing effect on the mussel structure resulting in less aggregation and increased attachment strength. The 3D matrix forming a mussel bed was achieved faster on complex substrate, and led to reduced mortality of transplanted mussels. Despite significantly...

  6. Biogas production on organic farms: Sustainable energy and better nutrient cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Grieb, Beatrice; Zerger, Uli

    2014-01-01

    Biogas production in organic farming is an approach to combine renewable energy and organic farming with numerous positive impacts on the farming system. In Germany biogas on organic farms has a long tradition, now the EU Project “SUSTAINGAS” aims at promotion of this issue on an EU-level. In this context a description of organic biogas was established.

  7. Platelet activation and aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Sander; Larsen, O H; Christiansen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces a new laboratory model of whole blood platelet aggregation stimulated by endogenously generated thrombin, and explores this aspect in haemophilia A in which impaired thrombin generation is a major hallmark. The method was established to measure platelet aggregation initiated...

  8. Changes in precipitation isotope-climate relationships from temporal grouping and aggregation of weekly-resolved USNIP data: impacts on paleoclimate and environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, P. D.; Welker, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial variations in precipitation isotopes have been the focus of much recent research, but relatively less work has explored changes at various temporal scales. This is partly because most spatially-diverse and long-term isotope databases are offered at a monthly resolution, while daily or event-level records are spatially and temporally limited by cost and logistics. A subset of 25 United States Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (USNIP) sites with weekly-resolution in the east-central United States was analyzed for site-specific relationships between δ18O and δD (the local meteoric water line/LMWL), δ18O and surface temperature, and δ18O and precipitation amount. Weekly data were then aggregated into monthly and seasonal data to examine the effect of aggregation on correlation and slope values for each of the relationships. Generally, increasing aggregation improved correlations (>25% for some sites) due to a reduced effect of extreme values, but estimates on regression variable error increased (>100%) because of reduced sample sizes. Aggregation resulted in small, but significant drops (5-25%) in relationship slope values for some sites. Weekly data were also grouped by month and season to explore changes in relationships throughout the year. Significant subannual variability exists in slope values and correlations even for sites with very strong overall correlations. LMWL slopes are highest in winter and lowest in summer, while the δ18O-surface temperature relationship is strongest in spring. Despite these overall trends, a high level of month-to-month and season-to-season variability is the norm for these sites. Researchers blindly applying overall relationships drawn from monthly-resolved databases to paleoclimate or environmental research risk assuming these relationships apply at all temporal resolutions. When possible, researchers should match the temporal resolution used to calculate an isotopic relationship with the temporal resolution of

  9. J-aggregation, its impact on excited state dynamics and unique solvent effects on macroscopic assembly of a core-substituted naphthalenediimide

    KAUST Repository

    Kar, Haridas; Gehrig, Dominik W.; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Ghosh, Suhrit

    2015-01-01

    Herein we reveal a straightforward supramolecular design for the H-bonding driven J-aggregation of an amine-substituted cNDI in aliphatic hydrocarbons. Transient absorption spectroscopy reveals sub-ps intramolecular electron transfer in isolated NDI molecules in a THF solution followed by a fast recombination process, while a remarkable extension of the excited state lifetime by more than one order of magnitude occurred in methylcyclohexane likely owing to an increased charge-separation as a result of better delocalization of the charge-separated states in J-aggregates. We also describe unique solvent-effects on the macroscopic structure and morphology. While J-aggregation with similar photophysical characteristics was noticed in all the tested aliphatic hydrocarbons, the morphology strongly depends on the “structure” of the solvents. In linear hydrocarbons (n-hexane, n-octane, n-decane or n-dodecane), formation of an entangled fibrillar network leads to macroscopic gelation while in cyclic hydrocarbons (methylcyclohexane or cyclohexane) although having a similar polarity, the cNDI exhibits nanoscale spherical particles. These unprecedented solvent effects were rationalized by establishing structure-dependent specific interactions of the solvent molecules with the cNDI which may serve as a general guideline for solvent-induced morphology-control of structurally related self-assembled materials.

  10. J-aggregation, its impact on excited state dynamics and unique solvent effects on macroscopic assembly of a core-substituted naphthalenediimide

    KAUST Repository

    Kar, Haridas

    2015-03-12

    Herein we reveal a straightforward supramolecular design for the H-bonding driven J-aggregation of an amine-substituted cNDI in aliphatic hydrocarbons. Transient absorption spectroscopy reveals sub-ps intramolecular electron transfer in isolated NDI molecules in a THF solution followed by a fast recombination process, while a remarkable extension of the excited state lifetime by more than one order of magnitude occurred in methylcyclohexane likely owing to an increased charge-separation as a result of better delocalization of the charge-separated states in J-aggregates. We also describe unique solvent-effects on the macroscopic structure and morphology. While J-aggregation with similar photophysical characteristics was noticed in all the tested aliphatic hydrocarbons, the morphology strongly depends on the “structure” of the solvents. In linear hydrocarbons (n-hexane, n-octane, n-decane or n-dodecane), formation of an entangled fibrillar network leads to macroscopic gelation while in cyclic hydrocarbons (methylcyclohexane or cyclohexane) although having a similar polarity, the cNDI exhibits nanoscale spherical particles. These unprecedented solvent effects were rationalized by establishing structure-dependent specific interactions of the solvent molecules with the cNDI which may serve as a general guideline for solvent-induced morphology-control of structurally related self-assembled materials.

  11. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  12. Costs of Producing Biogas at Dairy Farms in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomie A. Gebrezgabher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By 2020, Dutch dairy chains envisage to be self-sufficient with regard to energy used by dairy farms and dairy processors. This would require dairy farms to produce 25 PJ per year, possibly by a combination of wind, solar and biogas. This paper focuses on biogas. To evaluate the project’s viability we estimated the expected technical and financial performance of 4 types of business models, i.e. “CHP-farm”, “CHP-large”, “green gas” and “central upgrading of green gas”. Data stem from among others 23 biogas plants in the Netherlands. Anticipating that CHP-models and green gas models occur with a likelihood of 40% and 60% respectively, the total number of biogas plants would amount to 232 (1% of dairy farms, including a total of 5 million tons of manure per year (14% of all cattle manure in the Netherlands and annual government subsidies of Euro 295 million. Aggregated annual profits are expected to be positive, but over the project’s total life time there is an expected deficit of Euro 262. For this to change costs of feedstocks or digestate disposal costs would for instance have to go down. Also fully switching to green gas models dampens the deficit. Results are used in current stakeholders debates on the organization of an “energy neutral dairy chain” in the Netherlands. Further analyses incorporating uncertainty around key technical and economic parameters including financial impacts of CO2-reductions are underway.

  13. Marine Synechococcus Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuer, S.; Deng, W.; Cruz, B. N.; Monks, L.

    2016-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are considered to play an important role in the oceanic biological carbon pump, especially in oligotrophic regions. But as single cells are too small to sink, their carbon export has to be mediated by aggregate formation and possible consumption by zooplankton producing sinking fecal pellets. Here we report results on the aggregation of the ubiquitous marine pico-cyanobacterium Synechococcus as a model organism. We first investigated the mechanism behind such aggregation by studying the potential role of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) and the effects of nutrient (nitrogen or phosphorus) limitation on the TEP production and aggregate formation of these pico-cyanobacteria. We further studied the aggregation and subsequent settling in roller tanks and investigated the effects of the clays kaolinite and bentonite in a series of concentrations. Our results show that despite of the lowered growth rates, Synechococcus in nutrient limited cultures had larger cell-normalized TEP production, formed a greater volume of aggregates, and resulted in higher settling velocities compared to results from replete cultures. In addition, we found that despite their small size and lack of natural ballasting minerals, Synechococcus cells could still form aggregates and sink at measureable velocities in seawater. Clay minerals increased the number and reduced the size of aggregates, and their ballasting effects increased the sinking velocity and carbon export potential of aggregates. In comparison with the Synechococcus, we will also present results of the aggregation of the pico-cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus in roller tanks. These results contribute to our understanding in the physiology of marine Synechococcus as well as their role in the ecology and biogeochemistry in oligotrophic oceans.

  14. Impact of greenhouse gas metrics on the quantification of agricultural emissions and farm-scale mitigation strategies: a New Zealand case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisinger, Andy; Ledgard, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture emits a range of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gas metrics allow emissions of different gases to be reported in a common unit called CO 2 -equivalent. This enables comparisons of the efficiency of different farms and production systems and of alternative mitigation strategies across all gases. The standard metric is the 100 year global warming potential (GWP), but alternative metrics have been proposed and could result in very different CO 2 -equivalent emissions, particularly for CH 4 . While significant effort has been made to reduce uncertainties in emissions estimates of individual gases, little effort has been spent on evaluating the implications of alternative metrics on overall agricultural emissions profiles and mitigation strategies. Here we assess, for a selection of New Zealand dairy farms, the effect of two alternative metrics (100 yr GWP and global temperature change potentials, GTP) on farm-scale emissions and apparent efficiency and cost effectiveness of alternative mitigation strategies. We find that alternative metrics significantly change the balance between CH 4 and N 2 O; in some cases, alternative metrics even determine whether a specific management option would reduce or increase net farm-level emissions or emissions intensity. However, the relative ranking of different farms by profitability or emissions intensity, and the ranking of the most cost-effective mitigation options for each farm, are relatively unaffected by the metric. We conclude that alternative metrics would change the perceived significance of individual gases from agriculture and the overall cost to farmers if a price were applied to agricultural emissions, but the economically most effective response strategies are unaffected by the choice of metric. (letter)

  15. Impact of greenhouse gas metrics on the quantification of agricultural emissions and farm-scale mitigation strategies: a New Zealand case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Andy; Ledgard, Stewart

    2013-06-01

    Agriculture emits a range of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gas metrics allow emissions of different gases to be reported in a common unit called CO2-equivalent. This enables comparisons of the efficiency of different farms and production systems and of alternative mitigation strategies across all gases. The standard metric is the 100 year global warming potential (GWP), but alternative metrics have been proposed and could result in very different CO2-equivalent emissions, particularly for CH4. While significant effort has been made to reduce uncertainties in emissions estimates of individual gases, little effort has been spent on evaluating the implications of alternative metrics on overall agricultural emissions profiles and mitigation strategies. Here we assess, for a selection of New Zealand dairy farms, the effect of two alternative metrics (100 yr GWP and global temperature change potentials, GTP) on farm-scale emissions and apparent efficiency and cost effectiveness of alternative mitigation strategies. We find that alternative metrics significantly change the balance between CH4 and N2O; in some cases, alternative metrics even determine whether a specific management option would reduce or increase net farm-level emissions or emissions intensity. However, the relative ranking of different farms by profitability or emissions intensity, and the ranking of the most cost-effective mitigation options for each farm, are relatively unaffected by the metric. We conclude that alternative metrics would change the perceived significance of individual gases from agriculture and the overall cost to farmers if a price were applied to agricultural emissions, but the economically most effective response strategies are unaffected by the choice of metric.

  16. Transportation and utilization of aggregates for road construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fladvad, Marit; Wigum, Børge Johannes; Aurstad, Joralf

    2017-04-01

    , and aggregate sizes for unbound materials varies from 19 mm to 600 mm. These results imply great differences in the amount of aggregate transport to road construction sites. Another important factor is the distances between the construction sites and the aggregate sources. For many projects, especially in countries in need of importing aggregates, aggregate transport will have considerable impact on sustainability assessment of the construction projects. If pavement design can be altered with the goal of achieving better utilization of local aggregates through adaption to the quality of local aggregates, aggregate transportation can be reduced. Reduced transport will alter the economical balance of a project, allowing reallocation of costs from transport to e.g. improved aggregate production. The overall result can be more profitable construction projects and a more sustainable development of road structures.

  17. Alley Farming in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerapol Silakul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Poverty alleviation and environmental preservation are very important issues to many governments. Alley farming is beneficial to the environment because it conserves soil and sustains yields over time. Specifically, alley farming reduces soil erosion, which is a major problem in Thailand. Alley farming was conducted on a farmer’s field at Khaokwan Thong, a village in Uthaithani Province, Northern Thailand. We did a two-by-two factorial with and without alley farming, and with and without fertilizer. From this study, we observed that the two species used, Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia auriculiformis, grow well in Thailand, and that alley farming is suitable for Thailand. Few Thai farmers have heard about alley farming. However, it is nevertheless useful to know that there is potential for alley farming in Thailand using the two species. These plants, based upon the diameter and height measurements provided, grew well.

  18. Minimizing the impacts of livestock. Treatment of slurry and water reuse on farms; Minimizacion de los impactos de la ganaderia. Tratamientos del purin y reutilizacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, A.; Faz, A.; Bautista Lobera, J.; Palop, A

    2009-07-01

    In this study, wastewater from farms was treated using constructed wetlands, in a experimental farm, CIFEA, located in Lorca (Murcia), which is an important pig production area (southeast Spain). We have used horizontal sub-surface flow constructed wetlands with Phragmites australis, adapted to the semiarid climate of the area. We have obtained important removals of electrical conductivity by 28 %, total suspended solids by 93%, sedimentable solids by 100%, chemical oxygen demand by 87%, total phosphorus by 85%, copper by 92% and total nitrogen by 81%. (Author) 5 refs.

  19. Contract Farming: Conceptual Framework and Indian Panorama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Chakrabarty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with conceptual framework of contract farming and portrays Indian scenario especially after announcement of National Agricultural Policy (2000 which encouraged private participation through contract farming. The conception of contract farming is not new in India, but it gets momentum in the era of agricultural globalization, as an alternative method of farming. The study reveals that while contract farming can be effective in introducing new technologies and providing external inputs to farmers, danger lies in firms extending technologies that bring financial benefits in the short-term but result in negative long-term health and environmental impacts. Contract farming is not appropriate for all types of crops. To have a significant poverty impact, crops produced under contract farming should be labour-intensive rather than input-intensive and should be appropriate for production on small plots of land. Since the contracting company is financially stronger than individual farmers, the terms of the contract may go against the farmers. Herein the government will have to come forward.

  20. The Relationship of Dairy Farm Eco-Efficiency with Intensification and Self-Sufficiency. Evidence from the French Dairy Sector Using Life Cycle Analysis, Data Envelopment Analysis and Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Diomedes Soteriades

    Full Text Available We aimed at quantifying the extent to which agricultural management practices linked to animal production and land use affect environmental outcomes at a larger scale. Two practices closely linked to farm environmental performance at a larger scale are farming intensity, often resulting in greater off-farm environmental impacts (land, non-renewable energy use etc. associated with the production of imported inputs (e.g. concentrates, fertilizer; and the degree of self-sufficiency, i.e. the farm's capacity to produce goods from its own resources, with higher control over nutrient recycling and thus minimization of losses to the environment, often resulting in greater on-farm impacts (eutrophication, acidification etc.. We explored the relationship of these practices with farm environmental performance for 185 French specialized dairy farms. We used Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling to build, and relate, latent variables of environmental performance, intensification and self-sufficiency. Proxy indicators reflected the latent variables for intensification (milk yield/cow, use of maize silage etc. and self-sufficiency (home-grown feed/total feed use, on-farm energy/total energy use etc.. Environmental performance was represented by an aggregate 'eco-efficiency' score per farm derived from a Data Envelopment Analysis model fed with LCA and farm output data. The dataset was split into two spatially heterogeneous (bio-physical conditions, production patterns regions. For both regions, eco-efficiency was significantly negatively related with milk yield/cow and the use of maize silage and imported concentrates. However, these results might not necessarily hold for intensive yet more self-sufficient farms. This requires further investigation with latent variables for intensification and self-sufficiency that do not largely overlap- a modelling challenge that occurred here. We conclude that the environmental 'sustainability' of intensive

  1. The Relationship of Dairy Farm Eco-Efficiency with Intensification and Self-Sufficiency. Evidence from the French Dairy Sector Using Life Cycle Analysis, Data Envelopment Analysis and Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soteriades, Andreas Diomedes; Stott, Alistair William; Moreau, Sindy; Charroin, Thierry; Blanchard, Melanie; Liu, Jiayi; Faverdin, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    We aimed at quantifying the extent to which agricultural management practices linked to animal production and land use affect environmental outcomes at a larger scale. Two practices closely linked to farm environmental performance at a larger scale are farming intensity, often resulting in greater off-farm environmental impacts (land, non-renewable energy use etc.) associated with the production of imported inputs (e.g. concentrates, fertilizer); and the degree of self-sufficiency, i.e. the farm's capacity to produce goods from its own resources, with higher control over nutrient recycling and thus minimization of losses to the environment, often resulting in greater on-farm impacts (eutrophication, acidification etc.). We explored the relationship of these practices with farm environmental performance for 185 French specialized dairy farms. We used Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling to build, and relate, latent variables of environmental performance, intensification and self-sufficiency. Proxy indicators reflected the latent variables for intensification (milk yield/cow, use of maize silage etc.) and self-sufficiency (home-grown feed/total feed use, on-farm energy/total energy use etc.). Environmental performance was represented by an aggregate 'eco-efficiency' score per farm derived from a Data Envelopment Analysis model fed with LCA and farm output data. The dataset was split into two spatially heterogeneous (bio-physical conditions, production patterns) regions. For both regions, eco-efficiency was significantly negatively related with milk yield/cow and the use of maize silage and imported concentrates. However, these results might not necessarily hold for intensive yet more self-sufficient farms. This requires further investigation with latent variables for intensification and self-sufficiency that do not largely overlap- a modelling challenge that occurred here. We conclude that the environmental 'sustainability' of intensive dairy farming

  2. Implications of Health Care Reform for Farm Businesses and Families

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Clare Ahearn; James M. Williamson; Nyesha Black

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act has implications for the source of health insurance for farm households and potentially how much of their time they allocate to off-farm jobs and even the rate at which new operators enter farming. The Act will likely have impacts for the 1% of farms defined to be large employers, which are required to provide coverage for their workers or pay a penalty. While a very small share of all farms, they account for upward of 40% of the production for some commodities. How th...

  3. Impact of policies designed to enhance efficiency of water and nutrients on farm households varying in resource endowments in south India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Bindraban, P.S.; Ridder, de N.; Thiyagarajan, T.M.; Giller, K.E.

    2012-01-01

    Livelihoods of rice farmers depend on the efficient use of scarcely available agricultural resources. Farmers tend to maximize economic output of farming activities that may not necessarily coincide with the optimal use of resources from an ecological perspective. However, improving resource use

  4. The impact of public R&D on Marketing and Supply Chains on Small Farms' Marketing-Sensing Capability: Evidence from the Australian Seafood Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; English, F.; Schwartz, D.

    2014-01-01

    Agri-food organizations that are capable of “sensing the market” – that is, capable of searching, processing and using market information, are usually also market oriented, innovative, entrepreneurial and successful. But how can a small farm with limited resources develop market sensing

  5. The interactions of human mobility and farming systems and impacts on biodiversity and soil quality in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tankou, Christopher Mubeteneh

    2013-01-01

    Population growth and the drop in the returns from the major cash crop (coffee) for small farmers are the main drivers that have influenced the farming systems and mobility of farmers in the Western Highlands of Cameroon (WHC). The main objective of this research activity was to determine the

  6. Modelling the economics of farm-based anaerobic digestion in a UK whole-farm context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Philip; Salter, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) technologies convert organic wastes and crops into methane-rich biogas for heating, electricity generation and vehicle fuel. Farm-based AD has proliferated in some EU countries, driven by favourable policies promoting sustainable energy generation and GHG mitigation. Despite increased state support there are still few AD plants on UK farms leading to a lack of normative data on viability of AD in the whole-farm context. Farmers and lenders are therefore reluctant to fund AD projects and policy makers are hampered in their attempts to design policies that adequately support the industry. Existing AD studies and modelling tools do not adequately capture the farm context within which AD interacts. This paper demonstrates a whole-farm, optimisation modelling approach to assess the viability of AD in a more holistic way, accounting for such issues as: AD scale, synergies and conflicts with other farm enterprises, choice of feedstocks, digestate use and impact on farm Net Margin. This modelling approach demonstrates, for example, that: AD is complementary to dairy enterprises, but competes with arable enterprises for farm resources. Reduced nutrient purchases significantly improve Net Margin on arable farms, but AD scale is constrained by the capacity of farmland to absorb nutrients in AD digestate. -- Highlights: •Lack of empirical data on UK farm AD is barrier to investment and policy formulation. •A modelling approach used to assess economic viability of AD in whole-farm context. •AD increases dairy and arable farm net margin including by savings in nutrient costs. •AD margins better for a few crops than other uses, especially wheat and beet crops. •AD co-exists with dairy, but to obtain best margin displaces conventional cropping

  7. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY AND FACTORS THAT IMPACT MILK PRODUCTION FROM FAMILY FARMS LOCATED NORTH OF THE STATE OF ESPÍRITO SANTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Penha Píccolo Ramos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Milk production in São Mateus, ES, is a traditional and important socioeconomic activity for family farmers and for the state. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production characteristics of four rural communities, coded as A, B, C and D, as well as the microbiological quality of raw milk in one of these locations. The four communities were based on family farms. Community A was composed of 4 farmers; community B was composed of 12 farmers; community C was composed of 10 farmers and community D was composed of 2 farmers, totaling 28 family farms in the city of São Mateus, northern region of the State of Espírito Santo. The quality of milk samples from 10 producers of community C was assessed after milking, as well as samples from the collective cooling tank, in five repetitions. A structured questionnaire based on the requirements of the legislation of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply was sent to each farmer from the 28 farms. The questions included cleaning and physical structure of the barn, quality of water, hygiene practice of milkers and animals and tests for detection of mastitis. None of the farms performed pre-dipping and post-dipping. Thirty (30 samples (55.0% and 25 samples (45.5% of the total 55 samples assessed did not meet the standards for total bacterial count (TBC and somatic cell count (SCC, respectively. Nonconformities were detected in the stages of production, and milk samples did not meet microbiological standards. Milk production should be improved and Good Agricultural Practices (GAP should be implemented in the farms to ensure food safety and the sustainability of the segment in the northern region of the state of Espírito Santo.

  8. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource (AcTOR) is EPA's online aggregator of all the public sources of chemical toxicity data. ACToR aggregates data...

  9. Is Farm Management Skill Persistent?

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin; Paulson, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Farm management skills can affect farm managers' performance. In this article, farm management performance is analyzed based on yearly Illinois Farm Business Farm Management (FBFM) panel data across 6,760 farms from 1996 through 2011. Two out-of-sample measures of skill are used to analyze the ability of farm managers that consistently perform well over yearly and longer time horizons. Persistence tests show management skills are consistent and predictable. Results also suggest that the most ...

  10. Environmental Implications of Eco-Labeling for Rice Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solhee Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change have forced countries to strengthen regulations, standards, and certifications related to greenhouse gas emissions. Various policies targeting farm products, such as carbon labeling and the Environmentally-Friendly Agricultural Product Certification (EFAPC for agricultural products, have been implemented in South Korea to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the agricultural sector. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implications of the various certification systems for rice farming, including organic farming, non-pesticide farming, and low-pesticide farming. For this study, we constructed a life cycle inventory (LCI of rice farming systems including conventional, low-pesticide, non-pesticide, and organic farming systems in South Korea. Finally, we compared international farming systems in South Korea, the U.S., and the EU. The rice farming systems with eco-labeling certifications have reduced the environmental impacts. The environmental impacts of rice farming by country were highest in the U.S. (100.0, followed by the EU (53.7, and Korea’s conventional (48.6, low-pesticide (35.8, non-pesticide (28.9, and organic (16.7 farming practices. These results may be useful in proliferating and improving the methodology to evaluate eco-labeling and carbon labeling systems.

  11. Recycled aggregates concrete: aggregate and mix properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Fonteboa, B.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study of structural concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate focuses on two issues: 1. The characterization of such aggregate on the Spanish market. This involved conducting standard tests to determine density, water absorption, grading, shape, flakiness and hardness. The results obtained show that, despite the considerable differences with respect to density and water absorption between these and natural aggregates, on the whole recycled aggregate is apt for use in concrete production. 2. Testing to determine the values of basic concrete properties: mix design parameters were established for structural concrete in non-aggressive environments. These parameters were used to produce conventional concrete, and then adjusted to manufacture recycled concrete aggregate (RCA concrete, in which 50% of the coarse aggregate was replaced by the recycled material. Tests were conducted to determine the physical (density of the fresh and hardened material, water absorption and mechanical (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity properties. The results showed that, from the standpoint of its physical and mechanical properties, concrete in which RCA accounted for 50% of the coarse aggregate compared favourably to conventional concrete.

    Se aborda el estudio de hormigones estructurales fabricados con áridos reciclados procedentes de hormigón, incidiéndose en dos aspectos: 1. Caracterización de tales áridos, procedentes del mercado español. Para ello se llevan a cabo ensayos de densidad, absorción, granulometría, coeficiente de forma, índice de lajas y dureza. Los resultados obtenidos han puesto de manifiesto que, a pesar de que existen diferencias notables (sobre todo en cuanto a densidad y absorción con los áridos naturales, las características de los áridos hacen posible la fabricación de hormigones. 2. Ensayos sobre propiedades básicas de los hormigones: se establecen parámetros de dosificaci

  12. Scheduling models in farm management : a new approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaard, P.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Three operational planning models to calculate schedules for an arable farm are examined. These models are a linear programming model, a dynamic programming model and a simulation model. They are examined at different levels of aggregation and relaxation in a retrospective way. Also a

  13. Grid Integration of Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giæver Tande, John Olav

    2003-07-01

    This article gives an overview of grid integration of wind farms with respect to impact on voltage quality and power system stability. The recommended procedure for assessing the impact of wind turbines on voltage quality in distribution grids is presented. The procedure uses the power quality characteristic data of wind turbines to determine the impact on slow voltage variations, flicker, voltage dips and harmonics. The detailed assessment allows for substantially more wind power in distribution grids compared with previously used rule-of-thumb guidelines. Power system stability is a concern in conjunction with large wind farms or very weak grids. Assessment requires the use of power system simulation tools, and wind farm models for inclusion in such tools are presently being developed. A fixed-speed wind turbine model is described. The model may be considered a good starting point for development of more advanced models, hereunder the concept of variable-speed wind turbines with a doubly fed induction generator is briefly explained. The use of dynamic wind farm models as part of power system simulation tools allows for detailed studies and development of innovative grid integration techniques. It is demonstrated that the use of reactive compensation may relax the short-term voltage stability limit and allow integration of significantly more wind power, and that application of automatic generation control technology may be an efficient means to circumvent thermal transmission capacity constraints. The continuous development of analysis tools and technology for cost-effective and secure grid integration is an important aid to ensure the increasing use of wind energy. A key factor for success, however, is the communication of results and gained experience, and in this regard it is hoped that this article may contribute.

  14. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  15. Tuno Knob Offshore Wind Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, P.S.

    1996-01-01

    In 1995 Midtkraft Power Company built Denmark's second offshore wind farm as a demonstration project. The project purpose is first of all to investigate the environmental aspects of offshore wind energy. The two primary objects are to study the impact on bird life and to test different methods for predicting the visual effect. The wind farm consists of 10 pitch-regulated Vestas V39 500 kW wind turbines placed on box caisson foundations in a shallow water area 6 km east of Jutland. The project has been implemented successfully under a very narrow time schedule, and during the first 6 months in operation, the production has been approx. 30% higher than expected. (author)

  16. The adaptive capacity of smallholder mixed-farming systems to the impact of climate change: The case of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nonhlanzeko N. Mthembu; Elliot M. Zwane

    2017-01-01

    Climate change poses a serious threat to efforts by developing countries to ensure food security and poverty reduction. The National Development goals of South Africa envisage the agricultural sector as a key driver for job creation and economic growth. This article seeks to investigate the adaptive capacity of the Ncunjane farming community in Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal in response to drought spells of 2010 and 2014. This article draws on data collected using both qualitative and quantitative met...

  17. Game farming as a supplementary farming activity in the Karoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Game farming as a supplementary farming activity in the Karoo. ... Veld management in a game farming situation poses problems due to the ineffectiveness of rotational grazing systems. Simplification of natural ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. Farming System Evolution and Adaptive Capacity: Insights for Adaptation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jami L. Dixon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of climate impacts on agriculture and adaptation often provide current or future assessments, ignoring the historical contexts farming systems are situated within. We investigate how historical trends have influenced farming system adaptive capacity in Uganda using data from household surveys, semi-structured interviews, focus-group discussions and observations. By comparing two farming systems, we note three major findings: (1 similar trends in farming system evolution have had differential impacts on the diversity of farming systems; (2 trends have contributed to the erosion of informal social and cultural institutions and an increasing dependence on formal institutions; and (3 trade-offs between components of adaptive capacity are made at the farm-scale, thus influencing farming system adaptive capacity. To identify the actual impacts of future climate change and variability, it is important to recognize the dynamic nature of adaptation. In practice, areas identified for further adaptation support include: shift away from one-size-fits-all approach the identification and integration of appropriate modern farming method; a greater focus on building inclusive formal and informal institutions; and a more nuanced understanding regarding the roles and decision-making processes of influential, but external, actors. More research is needed to understand farm-scale trade-offs and the resulting impacts across spatial and temporal scales.

  19. Observing Convective Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Christopher E.; Wing, Allison A.; Bony, Sandrine; Muller, Caroline; Masunaga, Hirohiko; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Turner, David D.; Zuidema, Paquita

    2017-11-01

    Convective self-aggregation, the spontaneous organization of initially scattered convection into isolated convective clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing, was first recognized and studied in idealized numerical simulations. While there is a rich history of observational work on convective clustering and organization, there have been only a few studies that have analyzed observations to look specifically for processes related to self-aggregation in models. Here we review observational work in both of these categories and motivate the need for more of this work. We acknowledge that self-aggregation may appear to be far-removed from observed convective organization in terms of time scales, initial conditions, initiation processes, and mean state extremes, but we argue that these differences vary greatly across the diverse range of model simulations in the literature and that these comparisons are already offering important insights into real tropical phenomena. Some preliminary new findings are presented, including results showing that a self-aggregation simulation with square geometry has too broad distribution of humidity and is too dry in the driest regions when compared with radiosonde records from Nauru, while an elongated channel simulation has realistic representations of atmospheric humidity and its variability. We discuss recent work increasing our understanding of how organized convection and climate change may interact, and how model discrepancies related to this question are prompting interest in observational comparisons. We also propose possible future directions for observational work related to convective aggregation, including novel satellite approaches and a ground-based observational network.

  20. Fly ash aggregates. Vliegaskunstgrind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    A study has been carried out into artificial aggregates made from fly ash, 'fly ash aggregates'. Attention has been drawn to the production of fly ash aggregates in the Netherlands as a way to obviate the need of disposal of fly ash. Typical process steps for the manufacturing of fly ash aggregates are the agglomeration and the bonding of fly ash particles. Agglomeration techniques are subdivided into agitation and compaction, bonding methods into sintering, hydrothermal and 'cold' bonding. In sintering no bonding agent is used. The fly ash particles are more or less welded together. Sintering in general is performed at a temperature higher than 900 deg C. In hydrothermal processes lime reacts with fly ash to a crystalline hydrate at temperatures between 100 and 250 deg C at saturated steam pressure. As a lime source not only lime as such, but also portland cement can be used. Cold bonding processes rely on reaction of fly ash with lime or cement at temperatures between 0 and 100 deg C. The pozzolanic properties of fly ash are used. Where cement is applied, this bonding agent itself contributes also to the strength development of the artificial aggregate. Besides the use of lime and cement, several processes are known which make use of lime containing wastes such as spray dry absorption desulfurization residues or fluid bed coal combustion residues. (In Dutch)

  1. Reusing recycled aggregates in structural concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Shicong

    The utilization of recycled aggregates in concrete can minimize environmental impact and reduce the consumption of natural resources in concrete applications. The aim of this thesis is to provide a scientific basis for the possible use of recycled aggregates in structure concrete by conducting a comprehensive programme of laboratory study to gain a better understanding of the mechanical, microstructure and durability properties of concrete produced with recycled aggregates. The study also explored possible techniques to of improve the properties of recycled aggregate concrete that is produced with high percentages (≧ 50%) of recycled aggregates. These techniques included: (a) using lower water-to-cement ratios in the concrete mix design; (b) using fly ash as a cement replacement or as an additional mineral admixture in the concrete mixes, and (c) precasting recycled aggregate concrete with steam curing regimes. The characteristics of the recycled aggregates produced both from laboratory and a commercially operated pilot construction and demolition (C&D) waste recycling plant were first studied. A mix proportioning procedure was then established to produce six series of concrete mixtures using different percentages of recycled coarse aggregates with and without the use of fly ash. The water-to-cement (binder) ratios of 0.55, 0.50, 0.45 and 0.40 were used. The fresh properties (including slump and bleeding) of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) were then quantified. The effects of fly ash on the fresh and hardened properties of RAC were then studied and compared with those RAC prepared with no fly ash addition. Furthermore, the effects of steam curing on the hardened properties of RAC were investigated. For micro-structural properties, the interfacial transition zones of the aggregates and the mortar/cement paste were analyzed by SEM and EDX-mapping. Moreover, a detailed set of results on the fracture properties for RAC were obtained. Based on the experimental

  2. Controlled Traffic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Controlled Traffic Farming Europe

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF) is a farming method used to reduce soil compaction, decrease inputs, and improve soil structure when coupled with reduced-till or no-till practices. This practices utilizes permanent traffic/wheel zones to limit soil compaction to a specific area. This website provides practical information on CTF, case studies, workshops, and links to additional resources.

  3. Respiratory health effects of livestock farm emissions in neighbouring residents

    OpenAIRE

    Borlée, Floor

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the large contribution of agriculture to fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution, and the public health impact that may result from agricultural emissions.The aim of this thesis was to explore associations between air pollution from livestock farms and respiratory health of non-farming residents living in close proximity to farms in a rural area in the Netherlands. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 12,117 adult patients from 21 general practitioner ...

  4. Air Inflated Greenhouse as Urban Farming Facilities: Architectural Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Abidin, Syed Zainol; Nasihien, Ronny D; Budiyanto, Hery

    2017-01-01

    Urban Farming utilizing land intensification, in order to meet the needs of fresh vegetables and fruits everyday for the community residential / housing in urban areas. Air Inflated Greenhouse as urban farming facilities, can be built and transferred to a residential location / specific housing is easy, safe, fast and lightweight (0,55mm PVC tarpaulin) so that urban farming products closer to consumers in urban settlements, the price impact getting cheaper, but quality. Long-term goal is to d...

  5. Soil aggregation and organic carbon of Oxisols under coffee in agroforestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Pinto Guimarães

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Intensive land use can lead to a loss of soil physical quality with negative impacts on soil aggregates, resistance to root penetration, porosity, and bulk density. Organic and agroforestry management systems can represent sustainable, well-balanced alternatives in the agroecosystem for promoting a greater input of organic matter than the conventional system. Based on the hypothesis that an increased input of organic matter improves soil physical quality, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of coffee production systems on soil physical properties in two Red-Yellow Oxisols (Latossolos Vermelho-Amarelos in the region of Caparaó, Espirito Santo, Brazil. On Farm 1, we evaluated the following systems: primary forest (Pf1, organic coffee (Org1 and conventional coffee (Con1. On Farm 2, we evaluated: secondary forest (Sf2, organic coffee intercropped with inga (Org/In2, organic coffee intercropped with leucaena and inga (Org/In/Le2, organic coffee intercropped with cedar (Org/Ced2 and unshaded conventional coffee (Con2. Soil samples were collected under the tree canopy from the 0-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm soil layers. Under organic and agroforestry coffee management, soil aggregation was higher than under conventional coffee. In the agroforestry system, the degree of soil flocculation was 24 % higher, soil moisture was 80 % higher, and soil resistance to penetration was lower than in soil under conventional coffee management. The macroaggregates in the organic systems, Org/In2, Org/In/Le2, and Org/Ced2 contained, on average, 29.1, 40.1 and 34.7 g kg-1 organic carbon, respectively. These levels are higher than those found in the unshaded conventional system (Con2, with 20.2 g kg-1.

  6. Automated in situ monitoring of migratory birds at Germany's first offshore wind farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppack, Timothy; Kulemeyer, Christoph; Schulz, Axel; Steuri, Thomas; Liechti, Felix

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Offshore wind farms may negatively affect migrating birds, especially at night, by increased photo tactic attraction and risk of collision. Under favourable weather conditions (clear skies, tail wind) the majority of migrants probably fly well above the reach of wind turbine blades. Under unfavourable conditions (sea fog, precipitation, head wind), however, nocturnal migrants could get attracted by brightly lit wind farms, and the risk of collision would hence increase. To assess these potential effects, migration rates and collision probabilities need to be empirically quantified at existing wind farms. This is not an easy task, given the setting and dimension of an offshore wind farm and the sheer quantity and diversity of small-bodied birds potentially passing by. Nocturnal passerine migrants are impossible to count accurately over extended periods with observational methods, and even classic radar technology fails to pro-vide hard-wired information. Complementing the 'Standards for Environmental Impact Assessment' issued by Germany.s Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH), we have developed and installed a novel radar system (BirdScan) on the research platform FINO 1, situated around 50 km offshore next to the wind farm 'alpha ventus' in the German North Sea. BirdScan operates on the basis of defined detection volumes (fixed radar beam), allowing a precise quantification of passerine and non-passerine radar echoes. Our study design includes alternating measurements within and outside the wind farm in order to assess avoidance and/or photo tactic aggregation behaviour of migrants under various weather situations. At the same time, we are investigating the photo tactic attraction of birds at a smaller spatial scale using motion-controlled infrared cameras directly mounted on the nacelle and shaft of a wind turbine. Through this approach, disoriented birds (and even bats) can be automatically ground-proofed and set in

  7. Platelet aggregation following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Nis A; Sørensen, Anne M; Perner, Anders

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to elucidate platelet function in trauma patients, as it is pivotal for hemostasis yet remains scarcely investigated in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study of platelet aggregation capacity in 213 adult trauma patients on admission to an emergency department (ED...... severity score (ISS) was 17; 14 (7%) patients received 10 or more units of red blood cells in the ED (massive transfusion); 24 (11%) patients died within 28 days of trauma: 17 due to cerebral injuries, four due to exsanguination, and three from other causes. No significant association was found between...... aggregation response and ISS. Higher TRAP values were associated with death due to cerebral injuries (P 

  8. Seabird aggregative patterns: a new tool for offshore wind energy risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christel, Isadora; Certain, Grégoire; Cama, Albert; Vieites, David R; Ferrer, Xavier

    2013-01-15

    The emerging development of offshore wind energy has raised public concern over its impact on seabird communities. There is a need for an adequate methodology to determine its potential impacts on seabirds. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are mostly relying on a succession of plain density maps without integrated interpretation of seabird spatio-temporal variability. Using Taylor's power law coupled with mixed effect models, the spatio-temporal variability of species' distributions can be synthesized in a measure of the aggregation levels of individuals over time and space. Applying the method to a seabird aerial survey in the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean Sea, we were able to make an explicit distinction between transitional and feeding areas to define and map the potential impacts of an offshore wind farm project. We use the Ebro Delta study case to discuss the advantages of potential impacts maps over density maps, as well as to illustrate how these potential impact maps can be applied to inform on concern levels, optimal EIA design and monitoring in the assessment of local offshore wind energy projects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimal policies for aggregate recycling from decommissioned forest roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

    2008-08-01

    To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective).

  10. Mechanical Dissociation of Platelet Aggregates in Blood Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoore, Masoud; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Gompper, Gerhard; Complex; Biological Fluids Group Team

    2017-11-01

    von Willebrand factor (VWF) and platelet aggregation is a key phenomenon in blood clotting. These aggregates form critically in high shear rates and dissolve reversibly in low shear rates. The emergence of a critical shear rate, beyond which aggregates form and below which they dissolve, has an interesting impact on aggregation in blood flow. As red blood cells (RBCs) migrate to the center of the vessel in blood flow, a RBC free layer (RBC-FL) is left close to the walls into which the platelets and VWFs are pushed back from the bulk flow. This margination process provides maximal VWF-platelet aggregation probability in the RBC-FL. Using mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations of aggregate dynamics in blood flow, it is shown that the aggregates form and grow in RBC-FL wherein shear rate is high for VWF stretching. By growing, the aggregates penetrate to the bulk flow and get under order of magnitude lower shear rates. Consequently, they dissolve and get back into the RBC-FL. This mechanical limitation for aggregates prohibits undesired thrombosis and vessel blockage by aggregates, while letting the VWFs and platelets to aggregate close to the walls where they are actually needed. The support by the DFG Research Unit FOR 1543 SHENC and CPU time Grant by the Julich Supercomputing Center are acknowledged.

  11. Aggregated Wind Park Models for Analysing Power System Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeller, Markus; Achilles, Sebastian [DIgSILENT GmbH, Gomaringen (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    The increasing amount of wind power generation in European power systems requires stability analysis considering interaction between wind-farms and transmission systems. Dynamics introduced by dispersed wind generators at the distribution level can usually be neglected. However, large on- and offshore wind farms have a considerable influence to power system dynamics and must definitely be considered for analyzing power system dynamics. Compared to conventional power stations, wind power plants consist of a large number of generators of small size. Therefore, representing every wind generator individually increases the calculation time of dynamic simulations considerably. Therefore, model aggregation techniques should be applied for reducing calculation times. This paper presents aggregated models for wind parks consisting of fixed or variable speed wind generators.

  12. Impacts of projected climate change on productivity and nitrogen leaching of crop rotations in arable and pig farming systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, Jordi; Lægdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    The effects of projected changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration on productivity and nitrogen (N) leaching of characteristic arable and pig farming rotations in Denmark were investigated with the FASSET simulation model. The LARS weather generator was used to provide climatic data...... for the baseline period (1961–90) and in combination with two regional circulation models (RCM) to generate climatic data under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A1B emission scenario for four different 20-year time slices (denoted by midpoints 2020, 2040, 2060 and 2080) for two locations...

  13. Analysis of future agricultural change : a farm economics approach applied to Dutch arable farming

    OpenAIRE

    Wossink, A.

    1993-01-01

    This study of agricultural change deals simultaneously with: (a) farm planning, ie. the constant adaptation to changing circumstances at the level of the individual farm firm and (b) conditional forecasting, ie. the analysis of alternative agricultural and environmental policy views and their impact.

    Chapter I gives a general introduction and sets out the objectives and scope of the study. The specific research objectives were: (1) to develop a model syst...

  14. Sustainability evaluation of different systems for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) farming based on emergy theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang

    2015-06-01

    Emergy analysis is effective for analyzing ecological economic systems. However, the accuracy of the approach is affected by the diversity of economic level, meteorological and hydrological parameters in different regions. The present study evaluated the economic benefits, environmental impact, and sustainability of indoor, semi-intensive and extensive farming systems of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) in the same region. The results showed that A. japonicus indoor farming system was high in input and output (yield) whereas pond extensive farming system was low in input and output. The output/input ratio of indoor farming system was lower than that of pond extensive farming system, and the output/input ratio of semi-intensive farming system fell in between them. The environmental loading ratio of A. japonicus extensive farming system was lower than that of indoor farming system. In addition, the emergy yield and emergy exchange ratios, and emergy sustainability and emergy indexes for sustainable development were higher in extensive farming system than those in indoor farming system. These results indicated that the current extensive farming system exerted fewer negative influences on the environment, made more efficient use of available resources, and met more sustainable development requirements than the indoor farming system. A. japonicus farming systems showed more emergy benefits than fish farming systems. The pond farming systems of A. japonicus exploited more free local environmental resources for production, caused less potential pressure on the local environment, and achieved higher sustainability than indoor farming system.

  15. Modelling the smart farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. O'Grady

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Smart farming envisages the harnessing of Information and Communication Technologies as an enabler of more efficient, productive, and profitable farming enterprises. Such technologies do not suffice on their own; rather they must be judiciously combined to deliver meaningful information in near real-time. Decision-support tools incorporating models of disparate farming activities, either on their own or in combination with other models, offer one popular approach; exemplars include GPFARM, APSIM, GRAZPLAN amongst many others. Such models tend to be generic in nature and their adoption by individual farmers is minimal. Smart technologies offer an opportunity to remedy this situation; farm-specific models that can reflect near real-time events become tractable using such technologies. Research on the development, and application of farm-specific models is at a very early stage. This paper thus presents an overview of models within the farming enterprise; it then reviews the state-of the art in smart technologies that promise to enable a new generation of enterprise-specific models that will underpin future smart farming enterprises.

  16. Rainfall simulation experiments and Water Drop Penetration Time measurements shed light on the impact of water repellency on soils under organic farming management in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González, Óscar; León, Javier; Jordán, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Water repellency is a well-know soil property since the research of professor Stefan Helmut Doerr recovered and powered the research developed by professor DeBano (Atanassova and Doerr, 2011; ; Jordán et al., 2011; Bodí et al., 2012; González Peñaloza et al., 2012 Bodí et al., 2013; García Moreno et al., 2013; Jordán et al., 2013; Badía-Villas et al., 2014; Jordán et al., 2013; Jiménez Morillo et al., 2015). However, little is known about the impact of water repellency in surface runoff generation, although usually is accepted that when more soil water repellent is a soil, higher will be the surface runoff discharge (Stoff et al., 2011; Madsen et al., 2011; León et al., 2013; Lozano et al., 2013; Mataix-Solera et al., 2013; Santos et al., 2015). And the impact of the water repellency and then the higher surface wash discharge can trigger high erosion rates (Kröpfl et al., 2013; Mandal and Sharda 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). However these relationships were not demonstrated as the most water repellent soils are the one with high organic contents, and those soils do not have soil losses, probably due to the high infiltration rates due to the macropore flow. Rainfall simulation experiments can shed light in the runoff generation mechanism as they can control the rainfall intensity (Bodí et al., 2012; Iserloh et al., 2012; Iserloh et al., 2013), and inform about the main mechanism of the soil erosion process Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011; Daugherty et al., 2011; Podwojewski et al., 2011; Dunkerley, 2012; Garel et al., 2012; Jouquet et al., 2012; Kibet et al., 2013; Butzen et al., 2014; Ma et al., 2014; Martínez Murillo et al., 2013). To determine the relationship between surface runoff generated under simulated rainfall (Cerdà, 1988a; 1988b; Cerdà et al., 1998; Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013) with a small rainfall simulator (0.25 m2) and water repellency measurements with the Water Drop Penetration time methods were done (Bodí et al., 2012). The results show that

  17. Aggregates, broccoli and cauliflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Francois; Kjems, Jørgen K.

    1989-09-01

    Naturally grown structures with fractal characters like broccoli and cauliflower are discussed and compared with DLA-type aggregates. It is suggested that the branching density can be used to characterize the growth process and an experimental method to determine this parameter is proposed.

  18. Farm Safety - Time to Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower, Tony; Temperley, John

    2018-04-18

    Agriculture is recognised as a highly dangerous sector worldwide, hence the use of evidence-based solutions to address injury related incidents are critical to prevention. The main of this paper is to determine the potential for prevention by use of existing controls based on deaths data from 2001-2016. This study assesses data from the National Coroner's Information System for the period 2001-2016 in regards to unintentional farm injury deaths in Australia (n = 1,271). The six leading causes of death (tractors, quads (ATVs), water/dams, farm utilities (pickups), motorcycles and horses: n=644), are reviewed against existing evidence-based practice recommendations to ascertain the potential capacity to prevent and/or ameliorate the severity of the fatal incidents. Projections of economic costs associated with these incidents in the past five years (2012-2016) are outlined. Of the cases involving the six leading agents (n=644), 36% (n=235) have the potential to be prevented with the use of designated evidence-based controls. Meanwhile the costs attributed to deaths involving the six leading agents in the 2012-2016 period, exceeded AU$313 million. Farm injury incidents and their related economic costs, can be reduced by enhanced adoption of the existing evidence-based controls. SO WHAT?: Farm safety efforts in Australia require re-invigoration and funding to focus on evidence-based controls supported by enforcement to attain maximum impact. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Wind farm design optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreau, Michel; Morgenroth, Michael; Belashov, Oleg; Mdimagh, Asma; Hertz, Alain; Marcotte, Odile

    2010-09-15

    Innovative numerical computer tools have been developed to streamline the estimation, the design process and to optimize the Wind Farm Design with respect to the overall return on investment. The optimization engine can find the collector system layout automatically which provide a powerful tool to quickly study various alternative taking into account more precisely various constraints or factors that previously would have been too costly to analyze in details with precision. Our Wind Farm Tools have evolved through numerous projects and created value for our clients yielding Wind Farm projects with projected higher returns.

  20. Smart Dairy Farming through Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonsri Vate-U-LanAssumption University, Bangkok, Thailand

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to report a smart dairy farming in Ontario, Canada, which is a case study for future of food production, and ways that advancements related to the Internet of Things (IoT. It is impacting upon agricultural practice in the form of smart farming. Smart farming is the practice of intelligent agricultural management based upon technological data gathering farm practice for the purpose of increased levels of quality, production, and environmental protection. This paper will illustrate one example whereby partnerships among the academic world, government agencies and local food producing communities in Canada are adapting innovative thinking and smart technologies to address the need to implement the more effective agricultural practice. Food from Thought is a Canadian research project, based upon high-tech information systems to produce enough food for a growing human population while sustaining the Earth’s ecosystems. The paper will outline how one dairy farmer in Ontario has been able to apply smart farming technologies to increase milk production while maintaining the health of his cattle and preserving the environment. The review of applications of smart farming in Ontario such as digital tracking for a cow, genomic testing, digitally signaled birth, sensor driven crop management and data driven dairy production also details in this article.