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Sample records for farafra area western

  1. Geological heritage of the Bahariya and Farafra oases, the central Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plyusnina, Ekaterina E.; Sallam, Emad S.; Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological and cultural heritage of Egypt is world-known, but its geological heritage is yet to be revealed. Investigations in the central Western Desert of Egypt permitted finding a lot of unique features that can be assigned to this heritage. In the Bahariya Oasis, 10 geological heritage types are established, namely stratigraphical, paleontological, sedimentary, igneous, mineralogical, economical, paleogeographical, geomorphological, hydrological and hydrogeological, and pedological types. In the Farafra Oasis and vicinities, only geomorphological and hydrological and hydrogeological types are found. On the area between these oases, sedimentary, mineralogical, paleogeographical, and geomorphological features are established. Chalk and nummulitic limestones, invertebrate and dinosaur localities, paleoreefs and paleokarst, iron ore deposit, and peculiar landforms occur on the study territory. Taken together, these features constitute a highly diverse geological heritage that can be judged global (even if the rank of individual objects is often relatively low). This heritage is well suitable for the purpose of geotourism; for instance, thematic excursions explaining the geological evolution during the last 100 Ma are possible. Participants of such excursions can also see different facies. A geopark in the central Western Desert of Egypt would facilitate geoconservation and geotourism activities.

  2. Rest Areas in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rest areas in the western United States. Data was collected from various data sources including georeferenced locations obtained from other agencies, digitizied...

  3. Assessment of the wastewater effect on the shallow subsurface soil at Farafra Oasis, Egypt, by using geoelectrical and geochemical data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamaden, Mahmoud Ismail Ismail

    2016-12-01

    Geoelectrical techniques have been used to detect the subsurface stratigraphy and structures around Farafra Oasis, Egypt. 1D inversion approaches have been applied to interpret the geoelectrical data obtained at six vertical electrical soundings (VES's) using the well-known Schlumberger array with half-current electrode spacing (AB/2) varying from 3 to 400 m in successive steps. A preliminary quantitative interpretation of the sounding curves was achieved firstly by using two-layer standard curves and generalized Cagniard graphs. The final models were obtained in 1D using IPI2WIN program. The modeling results were used to construct two geoelectrical sections. Two geoelectrical units were identified: the superficial geoelectrical layer is composed mainly of shale (Dakhla Shale Formation). It is characterized by relatively very low electrical resistivity values (3-5 Ω m) with a maximum thickness of about 17.58 m. The second layer reveals moderate electrical resistivity values (17-98 Ω m). It is extended from the surface layer to the end of the investigated section and represents the Sandstone (upper aquifer) in the study area.

  4. 2012 Annual Report [WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Fiscal Year 2012 brought some tumultuous and uncertain times to Western. The utility industry and technology continued to evolve, and the demand for constant flow of power and transmission system reliability continued to increase. Western kept pace by continuing to deliver reliable, cost-based hydropower while reviewing and updating business practices that took into account how the energy industry is evolving. During this time of exponential change, Western tackled many challenges, including: Reviewing the Transmission Infrastructure Program processes and procedures; Responding to Secretary of Energy Steven Chu’s memorandum to create a modern, efficient and reliable transmission grid; Weathering record-breaking natural disasters in our service territory; Completing our role in TIP’s flagship project—the Montana Alberta Tie Ltd. transmission line; Incorporating new, far-reaching regulations and industry trends.

  5. The use of GIS and remote sensing for the assessment of waterlogging in the dryland irrigated catchments of Farafra Oasis in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Bastawesy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the interplay of the hydrogeological characteristics, soil properties and recent land reclamation projects on the distribution of waterlogging and salinisation within the Farafra Oasis. The multi-temporal remote sensing data and field observations show that new reclaimed areas have been recently cultivated in distant areas from the old agricultural land. These new cultivations have developed widespread water logging, seepage channels and soil salinisation. Analyses of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM Digital Elevation Model (DEM showed that both old and new agricultural areas are located within same closed drainage basin. The fluvial channels of these catchments, which were developed during wet climatic pluvial have largely been obliterated by the prevailing aridity and often buried under aeolian deposits. However, the new cultivations have been developed on the fingertips of these fluvial channels, while the old fields occupy the low level playas. The soil of the new cultivated areas are mainly lithic with a high calcium carbonate content, thus limiting the downward percolation of excess irrigation water and therefore develop perched water table and seepage through the paleo-channels. The automatically extract drainage networks from DEM are resembling fluvial patterns and coincide with the seepage channels slowly heading toward old cultivation. The inactive alluvial channels and landforms have to be considered when planning for new cultivation in dryland catchments to better control waterlogging and salinisation hazard. It is highly recommended that newly developed seepage-channels have to be detected and intercepted before reaching old agriculture areas. Therefore, the "dry-drainage" concept can be implemented as the seepage water can be conveyed into a nearby playas reserved for evaporation.

  6. The history and fate of the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer springs in the oasis depressions of the Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Owen; Fensham, Rod

    2016-03-01

    Extraction of groundwater for agriculture has resulted in the loss of springs across arid regions of the globe. The history and fate are recorded of the artesian springs of Egypt's Western Desert, from ancient times to the present, spanning the rise and fall of the great civilisations from the Pharoanic dynasties to Persian, Greek and Roman conquests. The study area includes oases Kharga, Dakhla, Bahriya, Farafra and Siwa, and several outer and small oases around Siwa and the edge of the Qattara Depression. The region is hyper-arid, receiving 10 mm or less average annual precipitation and evaporation rates are in the vicinity of 3,000 mm/a. Groundwater in the oases is largely derived from bores discharging from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer. Based on an extensive survey, conducted for the first time, attention is drawn to the rapid demise of springs as a result of modern irrigation schemes which continue to deplete groundwater supplies.

  7. Total system hazards analysis for the western area demilitarization facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, R.; Mniszewski, K.; Swider, E.

    1984-08-01

    The results of a hazards analysis of the Western Area Demilitarization facility (WADF) at Hawthorne, Nevada are summarized. An overview of the WADF systems, the hazards analysis methodology that was applied, a general discussion of the fault tree analysis results, and a compilation of the conclusions and recommendations for each area of the facility are given.

  8. Assessment of waterlogging in agricultural megaprojects in the closed drainage basins of the Western Desert of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Bastawesy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the development of waterlogging in the cultivated and arable areas within typical dryland closed drainage basins (e.g. the Farafra and Baharia Oases, which are located in the Western Desert of Egypt. Multi-temporal remote sensing data of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+ were collected and processed to detect the land cover changes; cultivations, and the extent of water ponds and seepage channels. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation model (DEM has been processed to delineate the catchment morphometrical parameters (i.e. drainage networks, catchment divides and surface areas of different basins and to examine the spatial distribution of cultivated fields and their relation to the extracted drainage networks. The soil of these closed drainage basins is mainly shallow and lithic with high calcium carbonate content; therefore, the downward percolation of excess irrigation water is limited by the development of subsurface hardpan, which also saturates the upper layer of soil with water. The subsurface seepage from the newly cultivated areas in the Farafra Oasis has revealed the pattern of buried alluvial channels, which are waterlogged and outlined by the growth of diagnostic saline shrubs. Furthermore, the courses of these waterlogged channels are coinciding with their counterparts of the SRTM DEM, and the recent satellite images show that the surface playas in the downstream of these channels are partially occupied by water ponds. On the other hand, a large water pond has occupied the main playa and submerged the surrounding fields, as a large area has been cultivated within a relatively small closed drainage basin in the Baharia Oasis. The geomorphology of closed drainage basins has to be considered when planning for a new cultivation in dryland catchments to better control waterlogging hazards. The "dry-drainage" concept can be implemented as the drainage and

  9. Western Area Power Administration. Combined power system financial statements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-26

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Western Area Power Administration`s combined power system statements of assets, Federal investment and liabilities, and the related combined statements of revenues, expenses and accumulated net revenues, and cash flows. The auditors` report on Westerns internal control structure disclosed three new reportable conditions concerning the lack of: (1) a reconciliation of stores inventory from subsidiary ledgers to summary financial information, (2) communication of interest during construction and related adjustments to interest on Federal investment, and (3) a system to prevent and detect power billing errors. None of the conditions were considered to be material weaknesses. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans. The auditors` report on Western`s compliance with laws and regulations also disclosed two new instances of noncompliance. Western failed to calculate nonreimbursable expenses in accordance with the Grand Canyon Protection Act and had an unexplained difference in gross Federal investment balances used to calculate interest on Federal investment. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans for the instances.

  10. 76 FR 59682 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Western Area Lower Colorado Balancing Authority-Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Customer Service Region--Western Area Lower Colorado... the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) Desert Southwest Customer Service Region (DSWR... Murray, Rates Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration, P.O...

  11. Demand of Rural Public Goods in Western Ethnic Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In the context of Development of the West Regions and the construction of new countryside,on the basis of defining the concept of public goods,this article analyzes the status quo and layers of demand of rural public goods in western ethnic minority areas:the demand of rural public goods in ethnic minority areas shows "pyramid" structure,that is,the most basic layer is production-based rural public goods,followed by life-based rural public goods and democratic-management-based rural public goods.Finally the countermeasures for achieving effective demand of rural public goods are put forward as follows:adhere to customers(farmers)-oriented principle;innovate upon the rural residents’ demand expression mechanism of public goods in ethnic minority areas;achieve diversification of supply subject of rural public goods in ethnic minority areas.

  12. Autochthonous strongyloidiasis, Bordeaux area, South-Western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glize, Bertrand; Malvy, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a ubiquitous parasitic infection mostly endemic in tropical and subtropical regions, although sporadic autochthonous cases or sparse pockets have been reported in some areas of temperate regions. We report here the first, to our knowledge, autochthonous case diagnosed in the Arcachon basin in the coastal Aquitaine region of South-Western France. We failed to identify any recognized risk factor for transmission in this case of autochthonous infection occurring in a wealthy major tourist destination. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. 78 FR 65641 - Recommendation From the Western Area Power Administration To Pursue Regional Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Transmission Organization Membership AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Western Area Power Administration Recommendation to Pursue Regional Transmission Organization Membership... formal negotiations with the Southwest Power Pool (SPP), a Regional Transmission Organization...

  14. Western Area Power Administration combined power system financial statements, 30 September 1995 and 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) combined financial statements as of September 30, 1995. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on Western`s 1995 statements. Their reports on Western`s internal control structure and on compliance with laws and regulations are also provided.

  15. Approach to valuing visual pollution from Western Electricity Production. [For Western Systems Coordinating Council area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, L.E.

    1977-02-01

    This paper outlines an approach to valuing visual pollution from electric power plants. The differences between public-good pollution externalities, such as these aesthetic damages, and other market failures are discussed. Approaches generally used to value externalities are briefly described. The approach used relies heavily on an earlier application of bidding games to estimate people's willingness to pay for abatement of emissions from the Four Corners fossil-fuel power plant in northwestern New Mexico. The results of these surveys were used here to estimate the value of visual pollution from electric power plants for residents of and visitors to the Four Corners Air Quality Control Region, as a function of power plant emissions in that region. The approach presented here for the Four Corners region is structured so that replication for other air quality control regions is relatively easy. Preliminary results of this procedure for all of the air quality control regions in the Western Systems Coordinating Council area are presented. Visual pollution damages from electric power plants to residents of and recreational visitors to these western regions are estimated to total more than $100 million annually by 1985. These damages are expected to occur unless additional pollution controls are implemented, even if these subject populations do not increase.

  16. Influence of Urbanization on Growth of Rural Residents’ Consumption in Western Ethnic Minority Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofang; ZOU

    2015-01-01

    To make clear the relation between urbanization and growth of rural resident consumption in western ethnic minority areas of China,this paper selected cross-sectional area of 12 provinces( cities) in western ethnic minority areas in 2005- 2013 and made an empirical analysis through building panel data of influence of urbanization on rural resident consumption. Results indicate that there is positive correlation between urbanization and rural resident consumption growth in western ethnic minority areas. Urbanization increases income level of rural residents,strengthens demonstration effect of urban residents on rural resident consumption,and accordingly promotes rural resident consumption growth in western ethnic minority areas. Therefore,it is required to accelerate urbanization development,expand channels of increasing farmers’ income,improve resident consumption environment,and bring into play promotion function of counties,to drive rural resident consumption growth in western ethnic minority areas.

  17. 75 FR 17913 - Maintenance and Vegetation Management Along Existing Western Area Power Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Area Power Administration DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Maintenance and Vegetation Management Along Existing Western Area Power Administration Transmission Line Rights of Way on National... Administration, DOE; Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact...

  18. 77 FR 65546 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... for the Western Rate Schedules database, to be effective July 14, 2011. Any person desiring to intervene or to protest this filing must file in accordance with Rules 211 and 214 of the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure (18 CFR 385.211, 385.214). Protests will be considered by the Commission...

  19. REGIONAL FEATURES OF LONG-TERM SST VARIATION IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC WARM POOL AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启龙; 翁学传; 程明华

    2001-01-01

    The main features of SST interarmual and long-term variations in the Western Pacific Warm Pool area were studied by using regression analysis, running t-test and spectral analysis methods based on monthly mean SST data in the Pacific during 1950 - 1998. The results showed that the SST inter-annual and long-term variations in the Western Pacific Warm Pool area had evident regional features.There were significant differences in variation range, phase, period, occurrence time of abrupt variation between SST in the eastern area (east of 100°E) and SST in the western area (west of 100°E).

  20. On Financial Support System for Compulsory Education in China's Western Minority Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinyu, Qi

    2008-01-01

    China's Western Development is a policy adopted to boost its less developed Western regions, that is, a systematic project and a longterm and arduous task. The development of compulsory education in China's minority areas is the key to it. This paper attempts to use the beneficial experience of developing compulsory education support system of…

  1. Western Area Power Administration annual site environmental report for calendar year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-12-31

    This document outlines the accomplishments and status of the environmental program of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) for calendar year 2005. In 2005, Western submitted 190 reports to state and local emergency response personnel and had 60 California Hazardous Materials Business Plans in place as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. These reports identify the hazardous substances contained at these sites. At sites where potential oil spills could harm surrounding ecosystems and waterways, Western prepares Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) plans. These plans identify measures to prevent spills from harming the environment, such as identifying the need for secondary containment at facilities. Western currently has SPCC plans for 154 facilities in 13 states. In 2005, Western updated 19 SPCC plans and prepared one new plan. Western operated under 107 environmental permits in 2005. Western evaluates the impact of its planned actions on the environment by preparing National Environmental Policy Act documentation. In 2005, Western completed or was working on 60 categorical exclusions, 18 environmental assessments and eight environmental impact statements, issued six Findings of No Significant Impact, and prepared four Mitigation Action Plans. Western held several public workshops/meetings and consulted with 70 American Indian Tribes for various projects. In 2005, Western was working on or had completed 11 Section 7 consultations under the Endangered Species Act. In 2005, Western recycled more than 3,600 metric tons of electrical equipment, mineral oil dielectric fluid, asphalt, fluorescent and metal halide light bulbs, wood poles and crossarms, and other items as well as office waste. Western made $437,816 worth of purchases containing recovered content materials. Western met the requirement of Executive Order 13148, Greening the Government through Leadership in Environmental Management to have its

  2. The Certificate Program in Western European Area and in Latin American Area Studies as Incentives to Study French and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblauwe, Claude

    The University of San Francisco developed a certificate program in Western European area studies covering French-speaking countries, and subsequently a Latin American area studies program for Spanish-speaking countries, in response to uneven language enrollments and as a means of increasing intermediate-level enrollment. The French program begins…

  3. Oil spills prediction in the Bonifacio strait area, western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cucco

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions to oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable to predict the sea state and the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, providing the forecasts on oil spills through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. Scenarios and risk maps have been created to identify the most risky areas to oil pollution in relation to vessels traffic. The backward investigation technique has been exploited to trace the most probable area from which pollution was generated. The system has been operationally verified in January 2011 when an oil spill occurred in the area. Finally output data are daily released providing forecasting services to end-users through the web.

  4. Oil spills prediction in the Bonifacio strait area, western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, A.; Ribotti, A.; Olita, A.; Fazioli, L.; Sorgente, B.; Sinerchia, M.; Satta, A.; Perilli, A.; Borghini, M.; Schroeder, K.; Sorgente, R.

    2012-02-01

    An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions to oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable to predict the sea state and the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, providing the forecasts on oil spills through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. Scenarios and risk maps have been created to identify the most risky areas to oil pollution in relation to vessels traffic. The backward investigation technique has been exploited to trace the most probable area from which pollution was generated. The system has been operationally verified in January 2011 when an oil spill occurred in the area. Finally output data are daily released providing forecasting services to end-users through the web.

  5. Proposed framework for the Western Area Power Administration Environmental Risk Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; DiMassa, F.V.; Pelto, P.J.; Brothers, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Roybal, A.L. [Western Area Power Administration, Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) views environmental protection and compliance as a top priority as it manages the construction, operation, and maintenance of its vast network of transmission lines, substations, and other facilities. A recent Department of Energy audit of Western`s environmental management activities recommends that Western adopt a formal environmental risk program. To accomplish this goal, Western, in conjunction with Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is in the process of developing a centrally coordinated environmental risk program. This report presents the results of this design effort, and indicates the direction in which Western`s environmental risk program is heading. Western`s environmental risk program will consist of three main components: risk communication, risk assessment, and risk management/decision making. Risk communication is defined as an exchange of information on the potential for threats to human health, public safety, or the environment. This information exchange provides a mechanism for public involvement, and also for the participation in the risk assessment and management process by diverse groups or offices within Western. The objective of risk assessment is to evaluate and rank the relative magnitude of risks associated with specific environmental issues that are facing Western. The evaluation and ranking is based on the best available scientific information and judgment and serves as input to the risk management process. Risk management takes risk information and combines it with relevant non-risk factors (e.g., legal mandates, public opinion, costs) to generate risk management options. A risk management tool, such as decision analysis, can be used to help make risk management choices.

  6. Identification of seismically susceptible areas in western Himalaya using pattern recognition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mridula; Amita Sinvhal; Hans Raj Wason

    2016-06-01

    Seismicity in the western Himalayas is highly variable. Several historical and instrumentally recordeddevastating earthquakes originated in the western Himalayas which are part of the Alpine–Himalayanbelt. Earthquakes cause tremendous loss of life and to the built environment. The amount of loss interms of life and infrastructure has been rising continuously due to significant increase in population andinfrastructure. This study is an attempt to identify seismically susceptible areas in western Himalaya,using pattern recognition technique. An area between latitude 29◦–36◦N and longitude 73◦–80◦E wasconsidered for this study. Pattern recognition starts with identification, selection and extraction of featuresfrom seismotectonic data. These features are then subjected to discriminant analysis and the studyarea was classified into three categories, viz., Area A: most susceptible area, Area B: moderately susceptiblearea, and Area C: least susceptible area. Results show that almost the entire states of HimachalPradesh and Uttarakhand and a portion of Jammu & Kashmir are classified as Area A, while most ofJammu & Kashmir is classified as Area B and the Indo-Gangetic plains are classified as Area C.

  7. 77 FR 40380 - Outer Continental Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning Area Lease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning Area Lease Sale 233 and Central Planning Area Lease Sale 231 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... proposed Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sale 233 and Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sale 231...

  8. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Area-averaged 850-hPa Western Pacific Trade Wind Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It is the 850-hPa trade wind anomalies averaged over the area 5oN ? 5oS, 135oE-180o (western equatorial...

  9. “Population Invasion” versus Urban Exclusion in the Tibetan Areas of Western China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the confluence of local population transitions (demographic transition and urbanization) with non-local in-migration in the Tibetan areas of western China. The objective is to assess the validity of Tibetan perceptions of "population invasion" by Han Chinese and Chi

  10. Evaluation of vegetation indices for rangeland biomass estimation in the Kimberley area of Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mundava, C.; Helmholtz, P.; Schut, A.G.T.; Corner, R.; McAtee, B.; Lamb, D.W.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to test the relationships between Above Ground Biomass (AGB) and remotely sensed vegetation indices for AGB assessments in the Kimberley area in Western Australia. For 19 different sites, vegetation indices were derived from eight Landsat ETM+ scenes over a period of t

  11. Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Speybroeck, Niko

    2013-01-01

    Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI u...

  12. Petrological outline of an area near Sparone (Orco Valley, Western Italian Alps)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnigh, L.D.

    1978-01-01

    Several rocktypes and their metamorphic mineral growth are described from an area on the western border of the Sesia-Lanzo Zone in the Orco Valley (NW Italy). It is argued that in some rocks (garnet-rich gneisses and micaceous gneisses) pre-Alpine metamorphic minerals are present, in other rocks (ca

  13. 78 FR 48861 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... sustainable fisheries management of pelagic fisheries in the PRIA. Objective 3. Promote regional cooperation... technologies and methods to achieve the most effective level of monitoring, control, and surveillance, and to... Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas; Western Pacific Sustainable Fisheries Fund AGENCY...

  14. “Population Invasion” versus Urban Exclusion in the Tibetan Areas of Western China

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Andrew Martín

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the confluence of local population transitions (demographic transition and urbanization) with non-local in-migration in the Tibetan areas of western China. The objective is to assess the validity of Tibetan perceptions of "population invasion" by Han Chinese and Chinese Muslims. The article argues that migration to Tibet from other regions in China has been concentrated in urban areas and has been counterbalanced by more rapid rates of natural increase in the...

  15. 77 FR 55829 - Western Area Power Administration; Grapevine Canyon Wind Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0427)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Area Power Administration; Grapevine Canyon Wind Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0427) AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Record of Decision. SUMMARY: Western Area Power... proposed wind park would be built in one or more phases, dependent on one or more power sale contracts. The...

  16. 77 FR 51568 - Outer Continental Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning Area Lease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning Area Lease Sale 233 and Central Planning Area Lease Sale 231 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... announced its intent to prepare a Supplemental EIS for proposed Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sale...

  17. Western Area Power Administration combined power system financial statements September 30, 1994 and 1993 and management overview and performance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwick, P.

    1994-12-31

    The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) combined financial statements as of September 30, 1994. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on Western`s 1994 statements. Their reports on Western`s internal control structure and on compliance with laws and regulations are also provided. Western was established in December 1977, and has the responsibility for the Federal electric power marketing and transmission functions in 15 central and western states. Western markets power, as required by existing law, at the lowest possible rates consistent with sound business principles to recover the costs of operation and capital invested in power facilities.

  18. Native species indicated for degraded area recovery in Western Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene Gris

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Colonization in the State of Paraná has culminated in the devastation of large forest areas in the entire State. Degraded area recovery programs have emphasized the utilization of native species, but often the species indicated for local reforestation areas are unknown, as those areas are little known floristically. This study aimed to survey native species indicated for reforestation of areas in the Western region of the State of Paraná, classify those species as pioneer, secondary, or climactic, and indicate places of occurrence of matrices where seeds of those species could be collected. Bibliographic surveys in the specialized literature and research in the Herbarium Museu Botânico Municipal de Curitiba (MBM and Herbarium of Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNOP were conducted to identify potential species for degraded area recovery in the study of Western region of Paraná. In all, 115 species were selected, of which 22 are pioneer, 73 are secondary, and 20 are climactic. The bibliographic surveys suggests that pioneer species are the most indicated for the initial processes in the degraded areas recovery, while secondary and climactic species play a major role in area enrichment.

  19. Western Sicily (Italy), a key area for understanding geothermal system within carbonate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, D.; Bertini, G.; Botteghi, S.; Catalano, R.; Contino, A.; Doveri, M.; Gennaro, C.; Gianelli, G.; Gola, G.; Manzella, A.; Minissale, A.; Montegrossi, G.; Monteleone, S.; Trumpy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Oil exploration in western Sicily started in the late 1950s when several exploration wells were drilled, and continued with the acquisition of many seismic reflection profiles and the drilling of new wells in the1980s. The geological interpretation of these data mainly provided new insights for the definition of geometric relationships between tectonic units and structural reconstruction at depth. Although it has not produced completely satisfactory results for oil industry, this hydrocarbon exploration provided a great amount of data, resulting very suitable for geothermal resource assessment. From a geothermal point of view western Sicily is, indeed, a very promising area, with the manifestation at surface of several thermal springs, localized areas of high heat flux and thick carbonates units uninterruptedly developing from surface up top great depths. These available data were often collected with the modalities and purposes typical of oil exploration, not always the finest for geothermal exploration as in the case of temperature measurements. The multidisciplinary and integrated review of these data, specifically corrected for geothermal purposes, and the integration with new data acquired in particular key areas such as the Mazara Del Vallo site in the southern part of western Sicily, allowed us to better understand this medium-enthalpy geothermal system, to reconstruct the modalities and peculiarities of fluids circulation, and to evaluate the geothermal potentialities of western Sicily. We suggest that western Sicily can be taken as a reference for the understanding of geothermal systems developed at a regional scale within carbonate rocks. This study was performed within the framework of the VIGOR project (http://www.vigor-geotermia.it).

  20. The evolution of the western rift area of the Fimbul Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Humbert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the evolution of a zone in the Fimbul Ice Shelf that is characterised by large crevasses and rifts west of Jutulstraumen, an outlet glacier flowing into Fimbulisen. High-resolution radar imagery and radio echo sounding data were used to study the surface and internal structure of this rift area and to define zones of similar characteristics. The western rift area is dominated by two factors: a small ice rumple that leads to basal crevasses and disturbs the homogeneity of the ice, and a zone with fibre-like blocks. Downstream of the rumple we found down-welling of internal layers and local thinning, which we explain as a result of basal crevasses due to the basal drag at the ice rumple. North of Ahlmannryggen the ice loses its lateral constraint and forms individual blocks, which are deformed like fibres under shear, where the ice stream merges with slower moving ice masses of the western side. There, the ice loses its integrity, which initiates the western rift system. The velocity difference between the slow moving western part and the fast moving extension of Jutulstraumen produces shear stress that causes the rifts to form tails and expand them to the major rifts of up to 30 km length.

  1. Biology of Herbivorous Fish in the Coastal Areas of Western Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Furumitsu, Keisuke; Yagishita, Naoki; KUME, Gen

    2010-01-01

    Seaweed beds in Japanese coastal waters have significantly declined in recent years and feeding by herbivorous fish has been identified as one of the potential causes of this decline. In the western coastal areas of Kyushu, seaweed consumption by fish species such as the mottled spinefoot (Siganus fuscescens), sea chubs (Kyphosus spp.), and the Japanese parrotfish (Calotomus japonicus) has become a matter of concern. Our research group has been investigating the biology of herbivorous fish in...

  2. Study on security and protection of original ecotourism resources in the mountain areas of western Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Lianglin; Zhou Yongzhang; Chen Zhishen; Ding Jian; Yan Xiaoping

    2008-01-01

    Original ecotourism resources mainly refer to natural and human original ecotourism resources,and it's of fragility,rarity and irreversibility.As a valuable historic heritage and important tourism resources,it plays a significunt role in developing tourism and economy in such areas as the underdeveloped areas,the mountain areas and minority areas.The tourism resources in the western mountain areas of Guangxi owe superiorities and characteristics to their original ecology.Yet,western Guangxi is an ethnic region with fragile karst eco-environment,so it is special to exploit the tourism resources.The paper defines original ecotourism and analyses the specialties and advantages of the original ecotourism resources as well as the frailty of the ecotourism re.sources of the region.The ways of thinking are put forward ]or safe preservation and sustainable development of the original ecotourism resources,i.e carrying out measures for the multi-grade protection of heritage resources,setting up a ethnic eco-museum/ethnicculture eco-park and a gene pool of ethnic cultures,etc.

  3. Results of seismological observations in the western Kaliningrad region and in the Baltic Sea water area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, S. A.

    2008-09-01

    In 2006 2007, researchers of the IO RAS conducted seismological observations in the Baltic Sea and western Kaliningrad region with the use of ocean-bottom and land-based autonomous seismic stations. According to maps of general seismic zoning of the territory of Russia, the Kaliningrad region is aseismic. However, a series of seismic phenomena with magnitudes of about 5 and sources located near the Bay of Gdansk coast occurred here in September 2004. The total duration of the IO RAS seismological observations in five areas of the region under investigation was more than 200 days. The analysis of seismic records of the IO RAS network located sources of two local weak earthquakes with magnitudes M L = 3.4 3.5, which indicates that the seismic process in the western part of the Kaliningrad region continues and the region is far from being seismically stable.

  4. Measurement of radioactivity in an elevated radiation background area of Western Ghats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manigandan P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of monitoring the exposure of the general public to natural radioactivity, the activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil samples in an elevated radiation background area of Western Ghats was determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. Average values of the activity concentration of radionuclides, outdoor terrestrial gamma dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent and radiation hazard indices from soil activity were estimated. The activity concentrations of 232Th and average outdoor terrestrial gamma dose rate were found to be higher than the world average, possibly affecting the Western Ghats environment in general. Therefore, radiological risks to the general population from ionizing radiation from the naturally occurring radionuclides in the soil are considered to be significant. How- ever, other radiological hazard indices were found to be within permissible limits.

  5. Coupling interaction between biodiversity and aquatic habitat area in Western Route Project vicinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-min TIAN; Zhao-yin WANG; Xiang-jun LIU; Shi-kui LIANG

    2010-01-01

    The Western Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project will divert water from the upper Yangtze River and its tributaries,the Dadu River and Yalong River,to the upper Yellow River.The project may ease the water shortage in the Yellow River Basin.However,it may also have some effects on the ecosystem in the upper Yangtze River Basin.Benthic invertebrates play an important role in the river ecosystem,particularly in the circulation of materials and nutrition.Benthic invertebrates are widely used to quickly assess river ecosystems because of their rapid response to changes in the water environment.The diversity of benthic invertebrates is closely associated with the aquatic habitat area.This study examined this interaction by sampling the benthic invertebrates in an expanding area.The conclusions are that the diversity of benthic invertebrates begins to decrease when the aquatic habitat area is reduced to 45% of the original area,and decreases dramatically when the aquatic habitat area is reduced to 10% of the original area.The aquatic habitat area should be kept at more than 45% of the original area in order to maintain the significant diversity of benthic invertebrates.

  6. Analysis on Variations of the Temperature and Precipitation in North Slope Area of the Western Tianshan in Recent 50 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The research aimed to analyze variation characteristics of the temperature and precipitation in north slope area of the Western Tianshan in recent 50 years.[Method] According to temperature and rainfall data from 1961 to 2010 at three meteorological stations in north slope area of the Western Tianshan,climate change in the zone in recent 50 years was analyzed by using linear trend analysis method and 5-year sliding average method.[Result] The temperature in north slope area of the Western Tiansha...

  7. Butterflies (Lepidoptera of the Kameng Protected Area Complex, western Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Sondhi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies of the Kameng Protected Area Complex in western Arunachal Pradesh, India, covering the protected areas of Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary, Pakke Tiger Reserve and Sessa Orchid Wildlife Sanctuary were surveyed over a 5-year period (2009–2014.  A total of 421 butterfly species were recorded during the survey, including two species new to India (Gonepteryx amintha thibetana and Bhutanitis ludlowi and several species rediscoveries and range extensions in the Eastern Himalaya, most notably Arhopala belphoebe, Sovia separata magna, Aulocera saraswati vishnu, Calinaga aborica, Callerebia annada annada, and Callerebria scanda opima.  Here we provide an annotated checklist of butterflies of the Kameng Protected Area Complex, including historical records, distributions, abundance, habitats and other notes on these 421 species. An additional 42 species recorded in older literature or by other authors in recent times are also listed, taking the total number of species recorded in the landscape to 463.  

  8. A Study on Snowstorm Weather in Coastal Area of Western Antarctic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Yaorong; Xue Zhenhe; Xu Cong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, based on the observational data of 1995 in the Chinese Antarctic Great Wall Station the snowstorm is studied synoptically. It is found that there are two kinds of snowstorms with different physical characteristics and that the happening of snowstorm is always accompanied by a near-ground level inversion layer. The function of the inversion layer is analyzed, too. It is indicated that the strong ESE-wind type snowstorm is mainly caused by katabatic wind and gradient wind together. This idea is new and different from the general concept that there is no katabatic wind in the western Antarctic area.

  9. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on retail electricity rates and utility financial viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodmer, E.; Fisher, R.E.; Hemphill, R.C.

    1995-03-01

    Changes in power contract terms for customers of Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office affect electricity rates for consumers of electric power in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The impacts of electricity rate changes on consumers are studied by measuring impacts on the rates charged by individual utility systems, determining the average rates in regional areas, and conducting a detailed rate analysis of representative utility systems. The primary focus is an evaluation of the way retail electricity rates for Western`s preference customers vary with alternative pricing and power quantity commitment terms under Western`s long-term contracts to sell power (marketing programs). Retail rate impacts are emphasized because changes in the price of electricity are the most direct economic effect on businesses and residences arising from different Western contractual and operational policies. Retail rates are the mechanism by which changes in cost associated with Western`s contract terms are imposed on ultimate consumers, and rate changes determine the dollar level of payments for electric power incurred by the affected consumers. 41 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. The Greenland analogue project. Geomodel version 1 of the Kangerlussuaq area on Western Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, J.; Paananen, M. [GTK Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Klint, K.E. [GEUS Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-02-15

    During the 2nd annual Greenland Analogue Project modelling workshop in Toronto, November 2010, the hydrological modellers requested an updated geological map and structural model of the field area around Kangerlussuaq, Western Greenland. This report presents an updated GAP Geomodel which utilizes all available information in order to improve the accuracy of the model, especially beneath the ice-sheet. The modelling area was divided into two scales: The regional scale area and the site scale area. The site scale refers to the area were surface mapping has been performed, and where two drillholes (DH-GAP01 and DH-GAP03) were drilled during 2009. Geological and topographical maps from GEUS (sub-model 1) and data extracted from the Geophysical map, GEUS, (sub-model 2) were used in the process to develop GAP Geomodel version 1. These two interpretations were independent from each other and in the final stage these sub-models were integrated and developed into GAP Geological model version 1. The integration resulted in a total of 158 lineaments. These lineaments are referred in the final model as deformation zones and faults, where deformation zones are larger features and faults are single fractures indicating some sense of movement. Four different sets of deformation zones and faults were identified in the regional area. The most prominent feature is the ductile/brittle roughly ENE-WSW trending zones crosscutting the whole area; referred as Type 1. Type 2 and Type 3 zones are in general smaller scale than Type 1 and mostly dominated by brittle deformation. The Type 2 system generally trends NW-SE, while the Type 3 system generally trends NE-SW. The Type 4 features are a brittle and roughly N-S orientated younger system, thus crosscutting all other types. Confirmation and validation of the regional model is based on detailed surface-based examination of fractures within the site area, although the scale is different the same orientations were also identified in the

  11. The Greenland Analogue Project. Geomodel version 1 of the Kangerlussuaq area on Western Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Jon; Paananen, Markku (Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)); Klint, Knud Erik (The National Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (Denmark))

    2012-02-15

    During the 2nd annual Greenland Analogue Project modelling workshop in Toronto, November 2010, the hydrological modellers requested an updated geological map and structural model of the field area around Kangerlussuaq, Western Greenland. This report presents an updated GAP geomodel which utilizes all available information in order to improve the accuracy of the model, especially beneath the ice sheet. The modelling area was divided into two scales: The regional scale area and the site scale area. The site scale refers to the area were surface mapping has been performed, and where two boreholes (DH-GAP01 and DH-GAP03) were drilled during 2009. Geological and topographical maps from GEUS (sub-model 1) and data extracted from the geophysical map, GEUS, (sub-model 2) were used in the process to develop GAP geomodel version 1. These two interpretations were independent from each other and in the final stage these sub-models were integrated and developed into GAP geological model version 1. The integration resulted in a total of 158 lineaments. These lineaments are referred in the final model as deformation zones and faults, where deformation zones are larger features and faults are single fractures indicating some sense of movement. Four different sets of deformation zones and faults were identified in the regional area. The most prominent feature is the ductile/brittle roughly ENE-WSW trending zones crosscutting the whole area, referred as Type 1. Type 2 and Type 3 zones are in general smaller scale than Type 1 and mostly dominated by brittle deformation. The Type 2 system generally trends NW-SE, while the Type 3 system generally trends NE-SW. The Type 4 features are a brittle and roughly N-S orientated younger system, thus crosscutting all other types. Confirmation and validation of the regional model is based on detailed surface-based examination of fractures within the site area, although the scale is different the same orientations were also identified in the

  12. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ON THE POSSIBILITIES OF VEGETABLE GROWING IN THE AREA OF WESTERN CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS FROM ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Al. Silviu APAHIDEAN; Maria APAHIDEAN; Florin PACURAR

    2004-01-01

    In the area of Western Carpathian Mountains, the vegetable growing is less extended and the assortment of vegetables is limited to few species with smaller necessities regarding the pedoclimatic conditions. This research presents the results obtained after testing a number of 25 species and varieties of vegetables in the specific conditions of the area of Glacier - Western Carpathian Mountains, at an altitude of 1150 m. From these, the following vegetables reacted very well: onion, winter oni...

  13. USGS mineral-resource assessment of Sagebrush Focal Areas in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David G.; Frost, Thomas P.; Day, Warren C.; ,

    2016-10-04

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists have completed an assessment of the mineral-resource potential of nearly 10 million acres of Federal and adjacent lands in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming. The assessment of these lands, identified as Sagebrush Focal Areas, was done at the request of the Bureau of Land Management. The assessment results will be used in the decision-making process that the Department of the Interior is pursuing toward the protection of large areas of contiguous sagebrush habitat for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Western United States. The detailed results of this ambitious study are published in the five volumes of USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089 and seven accompanying data releases.

  14. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the

  15. Paleogene palaeogeography and basin evolution of the Western Carpathians, Northern Pannonian domain and adjoining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováč, Michal; Plašienka, Dušan; Soták, Ján; Vojtko, Rastislav; Oszczypko, Nestor; Less, György; Ćosović, Vlasta; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Králiková, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    The data about the Paleogene basin evolution, palaeogeography, and geodynamics of the Western Carpathian and Northern Pannonian domains are summarized, re-evaluated, supplemented, and newly interpreted. The presented concept is illustrated by a series of palinspastic and palaeotopographic maps. The Paleogene development of external Carpathian zones reflects gradual subduction of several oceanic realms (Vahic, Iňačovce-Kričevo, Szolnok, Magura, and Silesian-Krosno) and growth of the orogenic accretionary wedge (Pieniny Klippen Belt, Iňačovce-Kričevo Unit, Szolnok Belt, and Outer Carpathian Flysch Belt). Evolution of the Central Western Carpathians is characterized by the Paleocene-Early Eocene opening of several wedge-top basins at the accretionary wedge tip, controlled by changing compressional, strike-slip, and extensional tectonic regimes. During the Lutetian, the diverging translations of the northward moving Eastern Alpine and north-east to eastward shifted Western Carpathian segment generated crustal stretching at the Alpine-Carpathian junction with foundation of relatively deep basins. These basins enabled a marine connection between the Magura oceanic realm and the Northern Pannonian domain, and later also with the Dinaridic foredeep. Afterwards, the Late Eocene compression brought about uplift and exhumation of the basement complexes at the Alpine-Carpathian junction. Simultaneously, the eastern margin of the stretched Central Western Carpathians underwent disintegration, followed by opening of a fore-arc basin - the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin. In the Northern Hungarian Paleogene retro-arc basin, turbidites covered a carbonate platform in the same time. During the Early Oligocene, the rock uplift of the Alpine-Carpathian junction area continued and the Mesozoic sequences of the Danube Basin basement were removed, along with a large part of the Eocene Hungarian Paleogene Basin fill, while the retro-arc basin depocentres migrated toward the east

  16. Socioeconomic area disparities in tobacco retail outlet density: a Western Australian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lisa J; Pereira, Gavin; Middleton, Nick; Foster, Sarah

    2013-05-20

    To examine the association between tobacco outlet density and area socioeconomic status (SES) in Western Australia. Ecological cross-sectional study investigating the relationship between the area SES of, and the density of tobacco retail outlets in, WA suburbs and towns for the Perth metropolitan area, and at the regional and state level. SES was determined using the 2006 Australian Bureau of Statistics Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD) and classified into quartiles (very low, low, high and very high); tobacco outlet data were sourced from the WA Department of Health register of retailers licensed to sell tobacco at May 2011. Tobacco outlet density rate (per 10 000 residents). In WA overall, suburbs and towns with a very low IRSAD had more than four times the number of tobacco outlets compared with those with a very high IRSAD (P> number of tobacco outlets than those with a very high IRSAD (P> first Australian evidence of a strong relationship between area SES and tobacco outlet density. Findings are consistent with a number of United States studies that report higher tobacco outlet densities in lower SES or minority neighbourhoods. The results underscore the importance of policy approaches to limit the number of tobacco retail licences granted, and to reduce the geographic density of outlets in more disadvantaged suburbs and towns.

  17. Urban floods: a case study in the Savigliano area (North-Western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Audisio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood processes and effects are examined, concerning two rivers in an urbanized area in North-Western Italy (Piedmont – Cuneo Plain. In May 2008, some areas in Northern Italy were struck by intense and persistent rainfall. In the Cuneo province (Southern Piedmont, floodplain with some urban areas was inundated over ca. ten square kilometres, and the city of Savigliano (about 21 000 inhabitants was particularly hit by flood. A purposely-made historical research has evidenced approximately fifty flood events as having occurred since 1350 in the Savigliano area. Based upon historical data, both documents and maps, GIS (Geographical Information System technique and field surveys were used to quantitatively assess the growing urbanization of the city and to describe flood processes and effects over years. This work aims to describe the dynamic behaviour of the 2008 flood, also comparing it to past events, in particular those that occurred in 1896. It is emphasized how the knowledge of past events can be helpful in reducing urban flooding.

  18. Application of Rare Earth Phosphate Fertilizer in Western Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Rare earth phosphate fertilizer (REPF) as base fertilizer (750 kg per hm2) was applied in the western area of China during the "Tenth Five-Year Plan", and the results show as follows: compared with calcium superphosphate (CK), REPF increases crops yields for maize by 17.0%, for rice by 10.5%, for wheat by 24.2%, for potato by 18.5%, for cabbage by 16.3%, for Chinese cabbage by 16.4%, for beet by 6.5%; decreases the diseased plant rate for common smut of maize by 1.0%, for maize stalk rot by 1.2%, for wheat take-all disease by 7.8%, for wheat root rot by 3.2%, for potato blackleg disease by 1.4%, for potato late blight by 6.6%; increases the sugar content of beet by 0.9°S.

  19. An Analysis of the Development of Renewable Energy Sources in the Western Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yanfei; Liu Mingyang

    2016-01-01

    The biggest challenge for China’s energy is sustainability of the environment. Espe-cially in recent years, global warming, frequent natural disasters, and the serious reduction of the natural resources and energy are gravely affecting normal production and mankind’s existence. Burn-ing large amounts of fossil fuel produces green-house gases and polluted soot. The development and utilization of renewable energy is extremely ur-gent. In other words, renewable energy sources must grow briskly. Under the guidance of the na-tional policy of the“13 th Five Year Plan”, the de-velopment and utilization of renewable energy sources in the Western Minority Areas must be strengthened based on local conditions, by paying attention to relevant personnel training, and en-couraging innovation and entrepreneurship so that the development of local renewable energy sources can reach a new level.

  20. Building Sustainable Industrial Areas: Experience and Perspectives from the Mediterranean and Western Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Preka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An EU research project (Mediterranean Eco-Industrial Development, (MEID whichinvolves different actors from Mediterranean and Western Balkans region, is currently inprogress. Its general objective is to provide innovative management figures and a decisionsupport tool (model to plan, build and manage more competitive Sustainable IndustrialAreas (SIA in the involved region.In order to correspond to a coherent solution, an accurate research has been performed.The methodology implemented to detect the main issues under survey has been a SWOTanalysis of several target IAs.Following its results, there have been defined the most relevant aspects aiming atsustainability of IAs in the area. The model introduces or encourages the continuousimprovement of environmental performances of the Mediterranean industrial areas in thefollowing fields: integrating production and dismissal of solid wastes, energy saving anduse of renewable energies, reducing water consumption, better viability and avoid thedeposit of dangerous material. Thanks to this “green approach”, SMEs will be the finalbeneficiaries, fostered to eco-innovation, competitiveness and transnational cooperation.This paper presents the general context and results of the MEID project.

  1. Determining the groundwater potential recharge zone and karst springs catchment area: Saldoran region, western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Gholam Hossein; Bagheri, Rahim; Rahimi, Fahimeh

    2016-12-01

    Assessing the groundwater recharge potential zone and differentiation of the spring catchment area are extremely important to effective management of groundwater systems and protection of water quality. The study area is located in the Saldoran karstic region, western Iran. It is characterized by a high rate of precipitation and recharge via highly permeable fractured karstic formations. Pire-Ghar, Sarabe-Babaheydar and Baghe-rostam are three major karstic springs which drain the Saldoran anticline. The mean discharge rate and electrical conductivity values for these springs were 3, 1.9 and 0.98 m3/s, and 475, 438 and 347 μS/cm, respectively. Geology, hydrogeology and geographical information system (GIS) methods were used to define the catchment areas of the major karstic springs and to map recharge zones in the Saldoran anticline. Seven major influencing factors on groundwater recharge rates (lithology, slope value and aspect, drainage, precipitation, fracture density and karstic domains) were integrated using GIS. Geology maps and field verification were used to determine the weights of factors. The final map was produced to reveal major zones of recharge potential. More than 80 % of the study area is terrain that has a recharge rate of 55-70 % (average 63 %). Evaluating the water budget of Saldoran Mountain showed that the total volume of karst water emerging from the Saldoran karst springs is equal to the total annual recharge on the anticline. Therefore, based on the geological and hydrogeological investigations, the catchment area of the mentioned karst springs includes the whole Saldoran anticline.

  2. Determining the groundwater potential recharge zone and karst springs catchment area: Saldoran region, western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Gholam Hossein; Bagheri, Rahim; Rahimi, Fahimeh

    2016-08-01

    Assessing the groundwater recharge potential zone and differentiation of the spring catchment area are extremely important to effective management of groundwater systems and protection of water quality. The study area is located in the Saldoran karstic region, western Iran. It is characterized by a high rate of precipitation and recharge via highly permeable fractured karstic formations. Pire-Ghar, Sarabe-Babaheydar and Baghe-rostam are three major karstic springs which drain the Saldoran anticline. The mean discharge rate and electrical conductivity values for these springs were 3, 1.9 and 0.98 m3/s, and 475, 438 and 347 μS/cm, respectively. Geology, hydrogeology and geographical information system (GIS) methods were used to define the catchment areas of the major karstic springs and to map recharge zones in the Saldoran anticline. Seven major influencing factors on groundwater recharge rates (lithology, slope value and aspect, drainage, precipitation, fracture density and karstic domains) were integrated using GIS. Geology maps and field verification were used to determine the weights of factors. The final map was produced to reveal major zones of recharge potential. More than 80 % of the study area is terrain that has a recharge rate of 55-70 % (average 63 %). Evaluating the water budget of Saldoran Mountain showed that the total volume of karst water emerging from the Saldoran karst springs is equal to the total annual recharge on the anticline. Therefore, based on the geological and hydrogeological investigations, the catchment area of the mentioned karst springs includes the whole Saldoran anticline.

  3. The English Education in Primary Schools in Minor Ethnic Areas in Western China--Taking Leshan City as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Wang

    2016-01-01

    As we all know, China is a country with many ethnic minorities mainly living in the northeastern and southwestern China. The English education in the primary schools in these areas is an important issue. The article analyzes the status quo of English education in primary schools in minor ethnic areas, taking the Leshan city, a western one as an…

  4. 77 FR 40081 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning Area (CPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sales for 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean...

  5. How School Choice Is Framed by Parental Preferences and Family Characteristics: A Study of Western Area, Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Pauline; Humble, Steve

    2017-01-01

    This research set out to investigate how, in a post-conflict area, parental preferences and household characteristics affect school choice for their children. A multinomial logit is used to model the relationship between education preferences and the selection of schools for 954 households in Freetown and neighboring districts, Western Area,…

  6. Western Area Power Administration combined power system financial statements, September 30, 1996 and 1995 (with independent auditors` report thereon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) combined financial statements as of September 30, 1996. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on the 1996 statements. The auditors` report on Western`s internal control structure disclosed two new reportable conditions and discussed the status of an unresolved condition from prior years. The new conditions involved the write-off of aging accounts receivable and the understatement of interest expense for inactive construction work orders. These reportable conditions are not considered to be material weaknesses. Western concurred with the audit recommendations and is responsible for necessary corrective actions. The auditors also considered the overview and performance measure data for completeness and material consistency with the basic financial statements as noted in the internal control report. The report also disclosed an additional reportable condition directed to the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) which is not considered to be a material weakness. Reclamation concurred with the audit recommendation and is responsible for necessary corrective action. The auditors` report on Western`s compliance with laws and regulations disclosed two new instances of noncompliance involving interest charges on all construction costs funded with Federal appropriations and other capitalized costs. The report also discussed the status of one instance of noncompliance from prior years. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans for all of these instances of noncompliance.

  7. Hydrogeology of the western part of the Salt River Valley area, Maricopa County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James G.; Pool, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Salt River Valley is a major population and agricultural center of more than 3,000 mi2 in central Arizona (fig. 1). The western part of the Salt River Valley area (area of this report) covers about 1,500 mi2. The Phoenix metropolitan area with a population of more than 1.6 million in 1985 (Valley National Bank, 1987) is located within the valley. The watersheds of the Salt, Verde, and Agua Fria Rivers provide the valley with a reliable but limited surface-water supply that must be augmented with ground water even in years of plentiful rainfall. Large-scale ground-water withdrawals began in the Salt River Valley in the early part of the 20th century; between 1915 and 1983, the total estimated ground-water pumpage was 81 million acre-ft (U.S. Geological Survey, 1984). Because of the low average annual rainfall and high potential evapotranspiration, the principal sources of ground-water recharge are urban runoff, excess irrigation, canal seepage and surface-water flows during years of higher-than-normal rainfall. Withdrawals greatly exceed recharge and, in some area, ground-water levels have declines as much as 350 ft (Laney and other, 1978; Ross, 1978). In the study area, ground-water declines of more than 300 ft have occurred in Deer Valley and from Luke Air Force Base north to Beardsley. As a result, a large depression of the water table has developed west of Luke Air Force Base (fig. 2). Ground-water use has decreased in recent years because precipitation and surface-water supplies have been greater than normal. Increased precipitation also caused large quantities of runoff to be released into the normally dry Salt and Gila River channels. From February 1978 to June 1980, streamflow losses of at least 90,000 acre-ft occurred between Jointhead Dam near the east boundary of the study area and Gillespie Dam several miles southwest of the west edge of the study area (Mann and Rhone, 1983). Consequently, ground-water declines in a large part of the basin have

  8. Income distribution impacts of changes in Western Area Power Administration electricity prices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, A.; Frias, O. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mineral Economics

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the methodology and results of an analysis of income distribution impacts associated with changes in the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) marketing program. The focus will be on the distribution of personal income across eleven brackets in each of nine sub-regions of the WAPA market area. Moreover, these results will be translated into an assessment of the number of people who stand to gain or lose as a result of the policies and the size of these income changes. Most economic impact analyses are performed at an aggregate level. The results are typically presented in terms of net benefits, or a listing of changes in employment, output, income, or prices. What is neglected is the distribution of impacts across the affected population. These distributional impacts are important for several reasons. First, there is the normative judgmental issue of distributional justice, or equity. This addresses concerns about income disparities in general, or whether the poor, or any other group, are shouldering a disproportionate share of any burden or are failing to share significantly in any gain.

  9. Towards a network of locally managed marine areas (LMMAs in the Western Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Rocliffe

    Full Text Available In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO, local communities are increasingly assuming responsibility for inshore marine resources either on their own or through collaborative management arrangements with governments or non-state actors. In this paper, we trace the evolution and expansion of community management in the WIO and present the first ever inventory and assessment of the region's locally managed marine areas (LMMAs. We compare the key attributes of these areas to those under government stewardship and assess their relative contributions to progress towards the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD target of 10% of marine and coastal ecological regions to be effectively conserved by 2020. We also explore the legal frameworks that underpin locally managed marine initiatives in Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique and Tanzania to assess the potential for future expansion. A principal finding is that whilst LMMAs protect more than 11,000 square kilometres of marine resource in the WIO, they are hampered by underdeveloped local and national legal structures and enforcement mechanisms. In our recommendations to improve local management, we suggest establishing a network of LMMA practitioners in the WIO region to share experiences and best practice.

  10. Symptoms of depression among adults in rural areas of western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Łojko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Objective[/b]. To measure the intensity of depressive symptoms in the populations residing in rural areas of western Poland, and to delineate the putative association between the intensity of depression and selected socio-demographic and clinical factors. [b]Materials and method.[/b] The study covered 445 adults recruited from one family physician practice in the rural area of Wielkopolska region. The following tools were applied: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, the WHO WHOQoL-Bref quality of life assessment scale, and a socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire elaborated by the authors. [b]Results.[/b] Depressive symptoms were observed in approx. 30% of the patients. The intensity of symptoms correlated with age, female gender, and inversely correlated with the quality of life. There was no association between depressive symptoms and level of education (counted as years of education, number of somatic illnesses, and family burden of psychiatric disorders. [b]Conclusion[/b]. Symptoms of depression were noted in approx. 30% of patients who consulted their family physician. The Beck questionnaire is a simple tool whose application could decidedly improve the recognition of depression. It is worth taking note of factors that may be connected with the intensity of depressive symptoms – gender, the number of diagnosed somatic illnesses, and the quantity of drugs administered.

  11. Hydrothermal models of the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia: implications for geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oliver; Sheldon, Heather A.; Reid, Lynn B.; Corbel, Soazig

    2013-05-01

    Hydrothermal simulations are used to provide insight into the subsurface thermal regime of the Perth metropolitan area (PMA) in Western Australia. High average permeabilities and estimated fluid flow rates in shallow aquifers of the PMA suggest that advection and convection may occur in these aquifers. These processes are simulated, using a new geological model of the PMA to constrain the geometry of aquifers, aquitards and faults. The results show that advection has a strong influence on subsurface temperature, especially in the north of the PMA, where aquifer recharge creates an area of anomalously low temperature. Convection may be important, depending on the permeability of the Yarragadee Aquifer. If convection occurs, it creates thermal highs and lows with a spacing of approximately 5 km. Some of these thermal anomalies migrate over geological time due to coupling between advection and convection, but they are stationary on human timescales. Fault permeability influences the pattern of convection. Advection and convection cause variations in the geothermal gradient which cannot be predicted by conductive models; therefore, these processes should be considered in any model that is used for assessment of geothermal resources in the PMA.

  12. Eskers and bedrock gorges (tunnel valleys in the Pakasaivo area, western Finnish Lapland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johansson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the deglaciation of the last Scandinavian Ice Sheet, including the behavior of the ice sheet and meltwater activity, were conducted in the vicinity of the Pakasaivo canyon lake, located in western Finnish Lapland. Pakasaivo itself, a circular basin up to 100 m deep, was formed in the broken bedrock by glacial erosion and meltwater streams. It was originally related to a former subglacial meltwater system, including the deep Keinokursu gorge. Both this gorge and the Pakasaivo canyon lake were formed subglacially duringan early stage of deglaciation. It was characterized by intense meltwater erosion, which in Pakasaivo also seems to have generated a strong whirl. Steep-crested esker ridges were subsequently deposited; subaerial meltwater activity then followed. Finally the meltwaterwas discharged from the ice-dammed lake north of the area and passed through the Pakasaivo canyon to the ice-free areas. This caused additional intense erosion of the canyon floor and walls, and the deep circular basin is highly similar to a plunge pool formed at the base of a cataract.

  13. Impacts on irrigated agriculture of changes in electricity costs resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.K.; Flaim, S.J.; Howitt, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Palmer, S.C. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Irrigation is a major factor in the growth of US agricultural productivity, especially in western states, which account for more than 85% of the nation`s irrigated acreage. In some of these states, almost all cropland is irrigated, and nearly 50% of the irrigation is done with electrically powered pumps. Therefore, even small increases in the cost of electricity could have a disproportionate impact on irrigated agriculture. This technical memorandum examines the impacts that could result from proposed changes in the power marketing programs of the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The changes could increase the cost of power to all Western customers, including rural municipalities and irrigation districts that rely on inexpensive federal power to pump water. The impacts are assessed by translating changes in Western`s wholesale power rate into changes in the cost of pumping water as an input for agricultural production. Farmers can adapt to higher electricity prices in many ways, such as (1) using different pumping fuels, (2) adding workers and increasing management to irrigate more efficiently, and (3) growing more drought-tolerant crops. This study projects several responses, including using less groundwater and planting fewer waterintensive crops. The study finds that when dependence on Western`s power is high, the cost of power can have a major effect on energy use, agricultural practices, and the distribution of planted acreage. The biggest percentage changes in farm income would occur (1) in Nevada and Utah (however, all projected changes are less than 2% of the baseline) and (2) under the marketing alternatives that represent the lowest capacity and energy offer considered in Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement. The aggregate impact on farm incomes and the value of total farm production would be much smaller than that suggested by the changes in water use and planted acreage.

  14. Countermeasures on Elevating Self-development Ability of Western Rural Areas on the Basis of Visual Threshold of Human Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The thesis underscores the significant role of human capital in elevating rural self-development ability.The investment of human capital is making great contribution to western rural economic growth,and it plays an irreplaceable role in promoting the socio-economic development prominently.The characteristics of human resources development in western rural areas for the moment are analyzed as follows:the employment structure is simple;the structure of human resources is irrational;the shortage of human resources aggregate is accompanied by the critical phenomenon of idling;the human resources drain badly;there is low input and low output of talents.The thesis also propounds the fundamental approaches in order to elevating self-development ability of western rural areas:we should practise and implement National Medium and Long-term Planning of Talents Development and lay down as soon as possible the detailed matching policies and measures based on the reality of western rural areas;we should develop the education in western rural areas vigorously,and formulate the developmental strategies of bridging "knowledge gap";we should establish sound rural human resources development system,and reinforce the degree of training returning-home migrant workers;we should adjust the structure of human investment timely as needed,and strengthen the degree of human capital investment conspicuously.

  15. Late Quaternary faulting and historic seismicity in the western Lake Mead area, Nevada, Arizona and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.W.; O' Connel, D.R. (Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-04-01

    As part of a regional seismic hazard study for Reclamation dams on the northern lower Colorado River, the age and distribution of known and suspected late Quaternary faults were investigated and historic seismicity was analyzed for the western Lake Mead area. Late Quaternary faults in the area consist of the Mead Slope, Black Hills, Frenchman Mountain, and California Wash faults. Geologic mapping and scarp profiles indicate that of these late Quaternary faults, the Black Hills fault displays evidence for the youngest (probably mid-Holocene) surface faulting. No information about the ages of older events was obtained for any of the faults; however, the ages of the most recent surface-rupturing events for individual faults suggest recurrence intervals of tens of thousands of years for specific faults and regional recurrence rates of several thousand years for M[sub 3] [>=] 6 1/2 events. Since 1936 when Hoover Dam was completed and the initial filling of Lake Mead began, the Boulder Basin area, the largest and deepest part of Lake Mead, has experienced abundant seismic activity that includes some of the largest historic earthquakes in southern Nevada (at least 21 M 4 events and one M 5). Based on earthquake locations from early networks (1937--1950) and those from temporary networks operating in 1975--1976 and 1988, earthquakes are clearly associated with the northeast-striking Mead Slope and Black Hills faults; one of the few associations of seismicity with late Quaternary faults in the Basin and Range. However, earthquakes also appear to be associated with the Fortification fault, a north-striking fault with no evidence of Quaternary surface faulting. Focal mechanisms for some of the 1975--1976 and 1988 events (all events M [<=] 3) suggest active strike-slip/oblique-slip motion on north-striking faults and normal/oblique-slip motion on northeast-striking structures.

  16. Astronomical Site Survey for Mountain Wumingshan Area in Western Sichuan Based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, N.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, H. M.

    2016-11-01

    In the Western-China Astronomical Site Survey project, we utilize the Geographic Information System (GIS) for the collection of long-term data, in order to investigate and study the Wumingshan (WMS) mountain and its surrounding areas for their geography, geology, climate, meteorology, social and demographic trends. Data analysis results show that the WMS mountain is located in the eastern fold belt of the Tibet Plateau--the typical region of the Hengduan Mountains, which leads to its large elevation, gently trended ridge, and stable geological structure. The highest altitude above the sea level at the WMS is more than 5000 m, but there are population settlements nearby with the low altitude of only 2000-3000 m, which are important for realizing low-level cost logistics conditions for the future headquarter or logistic base. Earthquake landslides and other geological disasters were rarely recorded. The other facts are such as the dry and clean atmosphere, the sparse vegetation, the semi-dry-state land, the perennial prevailing southwest wind, the rain-less winter, and the relatively short rainy-season summer, the location in the heartland of the large Shangri-La, no records of dust storms and the other inclement weather, low cloud coverage, the stability of wind direction, the small wind speed, the high possibility of clear sky, the far distance away from the developed areas in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, and Tibet Autonomous Region, the sparsely populated people, the slowly developed economy, the peaceful and stable social environment, etc. Specially, in recent years, with the development of the local tourist resources, the traffic conditions in Daocheng have been significantly improved. With high quality highway maintenance and daily air transport capacity, the transportation of land and aviation is rarely interrupted due to snowing, which often happens in high plateau regions. Therefore, the WMS area possesses the potential conditions to establish the future

  17. Hydrodynamic and hydrochemicalcharacterization of groundwater in agricultural area (case of Agafay farm-Western Haouz) Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefiani, Salma; El mandour, Abdennabi; Laftouhi, Nour-Eddine; Khalil, Nourdine; Chehbouni, Abdelghani; Jarlan, Lionel; Hanich, Lahoucine; Khabba, Said; Hamaoui, Addi; Kamal, Safia

    2016-04-01

    Water resources play an important role in the socio-economic development of the Haouz plain. The agriculture and tourism are two essential components of this development. They represent more than 85% of the water consumption of the Tensift catchment. Under a semi-arid climate, according to hydric stress water used for irrigation essential for most crops, comes from pumping in groundwater from the unconfined aquifer of the Haouz. The use of groundwater for irrigation causes problems of soil degradation by the intensification of salinization processes, sodisation or alkalizing at several degrees. These situations are closely related to the natural characteristics of the environment (soil and climate) and the modalities of water management dedicated for irrigation highly affected by water quality. It is in this sense that the study was conducted in an irrigated citrus orchard drip, located in the western part of Haouz at 35 km of Marrakesh. The aim of this study is to characterize the area on hydrogeological and hydrochemical point of view, on the basis of a measurement and sampling campaign of thirty wells corresponding to June 2014. The piezometric map shows parallel flow lines oriented northwest. The aquifer recharge is ensured by lateral flow from the High Atlas and by the infiltration from surface water from Chichaoua, Assif El Mal and N'fis rivers. The low amount of flow rate recorded and measured in the vicinity of the study area at the sensing points are relative to the rise of Paleozoic substratum which reduces the recharge of the aquifer. On the hydrochemical level, groundwater quality is generally good (86% of cases). The strong mineralization is concentrated mainly in irrigated areas downstream along the flow direction of the aquifer and at the Guemassa substratum.

  18. Precipitation over urban areas in the western Maritime Continent using a convection-permitting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüeso, Daniel; Di Luca, Alejandro; Evans, Jason P.

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of urban areas on precipitation in the western Maritime Continent using a convection-permitting regional atmospheric model. The Weather Research and Forecasting model was used to simulate the atmosphere at a range of spatial resolutions using a multiple nesting approach. Two experiments (with and without urban areas) were completed over a 5-year period (2008-2012) each to estimate the contribution of cities to changes in local circulation. At first, the model is evaluated against two satellite-derived precipitation products and the benefit of using a very high-resolution model (2-km grid spacing) over a region where rainfall is dominated by convective processes is demonstrated, particularly in terms of its diurnal cycle phase and amplitude. The influence of cities on precipitation characteristics is quantified for two major urban nuclei in the region (Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur) and results indicate that their presence locally enhances precipitation by over 30 %. This increase is mainly due to an intensification of the diurnal cycle. We analyse the impact on temperature, humidity and wind to put forward physical mechanisms that explain such changes. Cities increase near surface temperature, generating instability. They also make land-sea temperature contrasts stronger, which enhances sea breeze circulations. Together, they increase near-surface moisture flux convergence and favour convective processes leading to an overall increase of precipitation over urban areas. The diurnal cycle of these effects is reflected in the atmospheric footprint of cities on variables such as humidity and cloud mixing ratio and accompanies changes in precipitation.

  19. Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

  20. Radiocesium in the western subarctic area of the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean in 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Aoyama, Michio; Hamajima, Yasunori; Nishino, Shigeto; Murata, Akihiko; Kikuchi, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    We measured radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in seawater from the western subarctic area of the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean in 2013 and 2014. Fukushima-derived (134)Cs in surface seawater was observed in the western subarctic area and Bering Sea but not in the Arctic Ocean. Vertical profile of (134)Cs in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean implies that Fukushima-derived (134)Cs intruded into the basin from the Bering Sea through subsurface (150m depth) in 2014. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Climate and wildfire area burned in western U.S. ecoprovinces, 1916-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Jeremy S; McKenzie, Donald; Peterson, David L; Westerling, Anthony L

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to quantify climatic controls on the area burned by fire in different vegetation types in the western United States. We demonstrate that wildfire area burned (WFAB) in the American West was controlled by climate during the 20th century (1916-2003). Persistent ecosystem-specific correlations between climate and WFAB are grouped by vegetation type (ecoprovinces). Most mountainous ecoprovinces exhibit strong year-of-fire relationships with low precipitation, low Palmer drought severity index (PDSI), and high temperature. Grass- and shrub-dominated ecoprovinces had positive relationships with antecedent precipitation or PDSI. For 1977-2003, a few climate variables explain 33-87% (mean = 64%) of WFAB, indicating strong linkages between climate and area burned. For 1916-2003, the relationships are weaker, but climate explained 25-57% (mean = 39%) of the variability. The variance in WFAB is proportional to the mean squared for different data sets at different spatial scales. The importance of antecedent climate (summer drought in forested ecosystems and antecedent winter precipitation in shrub and grassland ecosystems) indicates that the mechanism behind the observed fire-climate relationships is climatic preconditioning of large areas of low fuel moisture via drying of existing fuels or fuel production and drying. The impacts of climate change on fire regimes will therefore vary with the relative energy or water limitations of ecosystems. Ecoprovinces proved a useful compromise between ecologically imprecise state-level and localized gridded fire data. The differences in climate-fire relationships among the ecoprovinces underscore the need to consider ecological context (vegetation, fuels, and seasonal climate) to identify specific climate drivers of WFAB. Despite the possible influence of fire suppression, exclusion, and fuel treatment, WFAB is still substantially controlled by climate. The implications for planning and management are that

  2. Geochemical study of urban soils in public areas of an industrialized town (Ajka, western Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacháry, D.; Jordán, Gy.; Szabó, Cs.

    2012-04-01

    Soil is one of the most essential parts of urban ecosystem contributing to the biogeochemical cycles along the rock-soil-plant-animal and human pathway. Soil plays a fundamental role in plant nutrient uptake and groundwater filtration, too. Urban soils differ from non-urban soils in many aspects, including their origin, and they may also concentrate contaminants in large quantities due to intensive human activities. The pollution sources are industry, traffic, fertilizer, tailing and waste. In addition to the increasing rate of urban areas, urban soils are under growing interest and their pollution have received significant attention in the past few decades. This work focuses on the toxic element (As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni) content of soils and their spatial distribution in order to find a link between contamination sources and the receiving urban soils at sensitive receptor locations such as children's playgrounds and parks. Ajka town is located in western Hungary. It has an old-established industrial history with multiple contamination sources of heavy alumina industry and coal-based power plants supplied by the nearby bauxite and coal mines. At 44 locations 46 soil samples have been collected at a depth of 0-10 cm along a 1x1 km grid. The whole grid covers an area of 48 km2. In each grid cell a sampling site was selected at public areas. Sample preparation included drying at 40 C°, thorough homogenization and sieving to 2 mm fine earth before chemical analysis. Grain size distribution and soil pH were also determined. Samples were analyzed with ICP-OES and SEM methods. The As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd and Ni concentrations range from 2.07 ppm to 9.48 ppm, 0.02 ppm to 2.84 ppm, 5.08 ppm to 35.74 ppm, 2.55 ppm to 47.78 ppm, 17.00 ppm to 91.00 ppm, 0.07 ppm to 0.61 ppm and 5.57 ppm to 32.09 ppm, respectively. The results revealed the contaminated areas associated with past industrial sites. This study also identified locations with considerable contamination at

  3. Tibetan Buddhism, Wetland Transformation, and Environmentalism in Tibetan Pastoral Areas of Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabzung Gaerrang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpine wetlands occupy a considerable area of the Tibetan Plateau, a region that is characterised by diverse but fragile ecosystems, including alpine wetlands, which are reported to have shrunk by 29% over the last several decades. This article explores the contradictory practices of Tibetan pastoralists regarding these alpine wetlands and examines how Tibetan pastoralists conceptualise and understand wetlands as well as how state policies, market forces, and religious norms work together to produce Tibetan herders' practices vis-à -vis their livestock and the wetlands. The analysis will first challenge the common notion that Tibetan Buddhism plays a decisive and consistent role in conservation and environmental protection, an idea that has been proposed by academic scholars and promoted by many non-governmental organisation practitioners. As an alternative to the attempt to measure indigenous people and their culture against the criteria set out by western conservation, I argue through this case study that Tibetan pastoralists' relationship with wetlands informs their negotiation with competing forces including state policies, market logics, global environment movements, religious resurgence, and traditional nomadic practices.

  4. Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Arid Areas of Western India: Strategies for Mutual Co-Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana Patel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study has been carried out in the North Gujarat region of Gujarat state, Western India which represents unique habitats from arid regions to dry deciduous forests with annual rainfall ranging from 25-125 cms. Human-wildlife conflicts are intensifying owing to increase in human population and destruction of wildlife habitats. In the present study we characterized and classified the conflicts, identified zones with acute conflicts and evaluated the economic loss to the local villagers due to such humanwildlife conflicts. Sampling methods mainly included village surveys for interviewing locals who are affected by wildlife damage. The information was overlaid on the existing digital land use data to identify landscape characteristics associated with wildlife occupancy in the region. The result depicts that 80% of total damage in seasonal crop is caused by wild ungulates. Wild animals like Blue bull, Wild boar and Porcupine are reported as a chief crop raider. The Leopard is the only big cat occurring in the region reported to cause human injury and livestock predation. Sloth bear attacks on human are very common in some part of the study area. Conflicts are more severe around unprotected forests while high intensity of conflicts was recorded on the fringes of the forests

  5. Micro-spectroscopic investigation of selenium-bearing minerals from the Western US Phosphate Resource Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Mickey E

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining activities in the US Western Phosphate Resource Area (WPRA have released Se into the environment. Selenium has several different oxidation states and species, each having varying degrees of solubility, reactivity, and bioavailability. In this study we are investigating the speciation of Se in mine-waste rocks. Selenium speciation was determined using bulk and micro-x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS, as well as micro-x-ray fluorescence mapping. Rocks used for bulk-XAS were ground into fine powders. Shale used for micro-XAS was broken along depositional planes to expose unweathered surfaces. The near edge region of the XAS spectra (XANES for the bulk rock samples revealed multiple oxidation states, with peaks indicative of Se(-II, Se(IV, and Se(+VI species. Micro-XANES analysis of the shale indicated that three unique Se-bearing species were present. Using the XANES data together with ab initio fitting of the extended x-ray absorption fine structure region of the micro-XAS data (micro-EXAFS the three Se-bearing species were identified as dzharkenite, a di-selenide carbon compound, and Se-substituted pyrite. Results from this research will allow for a better understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of Se in the WPRA.

  6. Experimental Research of Reinforced Concrete Buildings Struck by Debris Flow in Mountain Areas of Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu; WEI Fangqiang; WANG Qing

    2007-01-01

    It's very important to simulate impact load of debris flow effectively and to investigate dynamic response of architectures under dynamic impact of debris flow, which are necessary to design disaster mitigation construction. Firstly, reinforced concrete domestic architectures in mountain areas of western China had been chosen as main architecture style. The bearing load style and the destructed shape of reinforced framed construction impacted by discontinuous viscous debris flow were studied systematically. Secondly, Jiangjia Ravine debris flow valley in Yunnan Province, China had been chosen as research region. Utilizing based data from fieldwork and practical survey, the authors simulated and calculated theoretically impact force of discontinuous viscous debris flow. Thirdly, an impact data collecting system (IMHE IDCS) was designed and developed to fulfill designed simulation experiments. Finally, a series of impact test of researched structure models had been fulfilled. During experiment, the destructed shape and course of models were observed and the dynamic displacement data and main natural frequency data of models were collected and analyzed.

  7. Motor development in children living within resource poor areas of the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jelsma

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In 1986, Irwin-Carruthers tested 681 BlackAfrican babies from the Western Cape and concluded that the South African sample was in advance of the Denver sample both in fine and gross motor behaviour. This study was to determine whether the motor development of isiXhosa speaking children from the same area was still advanced compared to their North American counterparts.Method: The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II were administered to 86 children attending well baby clinics, between the ages of 1-36 months.Results: The mean motor developmental quotient was 92 (SD=15. Twenty eight percent of the sample was either significantly or mildly delayed. No socio-economic or maternal characteristics were associated with this score.Conclusion: The reasons for the decrease in performance are not clear. The socio-economic situation of the mothers was poor and there were a large number of single mothers whose sole source of income was government child support grants.  It is likely that the cause of the decrease is multi-factorial. The mothers are clearly in need of emotional and financial support. It is suggested that the introduction of stimulation programmes might be useful inreducing the long term impact of this delayed development.

  8. Potential Flooding area for local Tsunami in Nayarit Region (Western Coast of Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo-Gomez, E.; Ortiz, M.; Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    The western coast of Mexico in the region of Jalisco and Nayarit states has a complex tectonics and a high seismic activity. In the last century, four big tsunamis occurred in this area, (three of them in 1932 and one in 1995, that hit the coast of Colima, Jalisco and Nayarit. Three of these tsunamis were generated by earthquakes and one more (22 June 1932) by an underwater landslide. Currently, there is a seismic Gap on the north coast of Jalisco and southern Nayarit. Recent published papers (Urías-Espinosa et al, 2016) and the first results of TsuJal Project (Núñez- Cornú et al, 2016) suggest that subduction regime to the north of Cabo Corrientes changes and the Rivera plate subducts with a very low angle and this structure remains until Maria Madre Island at north of the Marias Islands. The hypothesis of this work is the estimation of the tsunami run up and the flooding zone after a great magnitude earthquake generated by the rupture of the hypothetical subduction structure north of Cabo Corrientes. The possible effects on the coasts of Nayarit, Islas Marias and Banderas Bay (Puerto Vallarta) are proposed in this study.

  9. Childhood malnutrition and growth in a rural area of Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semproli, Samantha; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2007-03-01

    An anthropometric survey was carried out on 1,383 school students aged 5-17 years in Suba district (a rural area of western Kenya). Body size and proportion were computed from height, weight, sitting height, arm circumference, and skinfolds. The aim of the study was to evaluate patterns of growth and nutritional status of the Luo population by assessment of the prevalence and trends of malnutrition among children and adolescents. Very few age-groups show significant sex differences for height, body weight, and arm muscle area. However, there are several differences in skinfold thicknesses and arm circumference, always with higher mean values in girls. Analysis of the nutritional status (weight-for-age, height-for-age, and BMI-for-age) shows significant differences among the age-groups in both sexes. Boys present lower Z-scores than girls and there are higher percentages of malnourished subjects (stunted and underweight) among the males. The Luo data were compared with those of other African populations. Their body dimensions, nutritional status, and growth are similar to those of the other sub-Saharan samples. In conclusion, the Luo children are generally undernourished at the older ages: adolescents (11-16 years of age) show the most severe undernutrition and the highest percentages of undernourished subjects. In addition to the higher risk of undernutrition in teenagers, an emerging problem of over-nutrition is evident among the younger age-groups, with a higher prevalence in females. These findings are discussed in light of sexual dimorphism in sensitivity to adverse environmental conditions.

  10. The influence of lifestyle on airborne particle surface area doses received by different Western populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacitto, A; Stabile, L; Moreno, T; Kumar, P; Wierzbicka, A; Morawska, L; Buonanno, G

    2017-09-14

    In the present study, the daily dose in terms of particle surface area received by citizens living in five cities in Western countries, characterized by different lifestyle, culture, climate and built-up environment, was evaluated and compared. For this purpose, the exposure to sub-micron particle concentration levels of the population living in Barcelona (Spain), Cassino (Italy), Guilford (United Kingdom), Lund (Sweden), and Brisbane (Australia) was measured through a direct exposure assessment approach. In particular, measurements of the exposure at a personal scale were performed by volunteers (15 per each population) that used a personal particle counter for different days in order to obtain exposure data in microenvironments/activities they resided/performed. Non-smoking volunteers performing non-industrial jobs were considered in the study. Particle concentration data allowed obtaining the exposure of the population living in each city. Such data were combined in a Monte Carlo method with the time activity pattern data characteristics of each population and inhalation rate to obtain the most probable daily dose in term of particle surface area as a function of the population gender, age, and nationality. The highest daily dose was estimated for citizens living in Cassino and Guilford (>1000 mm(2)), whereas the lowest value was recognized for Lund citizens (around 100 mm(2)). Indoor air quality, and in particular cooking and eating activities, was recognized as the main influencing factor in terms of exposure (and thus dose) of the population: then confirming that lifestyle (e.g. time spent in cooking activities) strongly affect the daily dose of the population. On the contrary, a minor or negligible contribution of the outdoor microenvironments was documented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Implementing the Western Gulf of Maine Area Closure: The Role and Perception of Fishers' Ecological Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Nenadovic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The debate about the quality of fishers' ecological knowledge (FEK and its value to fisheries management has long been present in the literature. This study sought to understand the role of FEK in a particular fisheries management decision in the U.S. and to evaluate the extent that different stakeholder groups recognized and used FEK in fisheries policy creation. The 1998 implementation of the Western Gulf of Maine Area Closure (WGoMAC was a management response to the rapid decline in the Gulf of Maine cod (Gadus morhua stock. Using structured surveys and semistructured interviews, we collected information from major stakeholder groups that were active during the creation of the area closure: New England Fishery Management Council (NEFMC members, Groundfish Advisory Panel members, Groundfish Plan Development Team members, and Maine groundfishers. Results indicated that 95% of respondents believed that fishers possess ecological knowledge that could be useful in the fishery management process. In the case of the WGoMAC creation, 62% of respondents indicated that FEK played a role in the decision, even though 85% recognized obstacles to the use of FEK in the management process. Interviews demonstrated that FEK was able to improve upon the spatial resolution of scientific data by identifying seasonal migration patterns of prespawning cod and behavioral differences between juvenile and adult cod. This information was a product of a peer-reviewed process among groundfishers and it was used to fine-tune the exact location of the closure. These findings suggest that there are ways to incorporate FEK into fishery management for the purposes of stock and habitat conservation. Additionally, the benefit of having ecological information that spans different spatial scales for fishery management was observed in this study. By combining the knowledge systems of fishers and fisheries scientists, managers were able to capture ecological information at a finer

  12. 78 FR 45557 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) Oil and Gas Lease Sale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... making its decision, BOEM considered alternatives to the proposed action and the potential impacts as... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area...: Notice of Availability of a Record of Decision. SUMMARY: BOEM has prepared a Record of Decision (ROD) for...

  13. Faults in parts of north-central and western Houston metropolitan area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Earl R.; Ratzlaff, Karl W.; Clanton, Uel S.

    1979-01-01

    Hundreds of residential, commercial, and industrial structures in the Houston metropolitan area have sustained moderate to severe damage owing to their locations on or near active faults. Paved roads have been offset by faults at hundreds of locations, butted pipelines have been distorted by fault movements, and fault-induced gradient changes in drainage lines have raised concern among flood control engineers. Over 150 faults, many of them moving at rates of 0.5 to 2 cm/yr, have been mapped in the Houston area; the number of faults probably far exceeds this figure.This report includes a map of eight faults, in north-central and western Houston, at a scale useful for land-use planning. Seven of the faults, are known, to be active and have caused considerable damage to structures built on or near them. If the eighth fault is active, it may be of concern to new developments on the west side of Houston. A ninth feature shown on the map is regarded only as a possible fault, as an origin by faulting has not been firmly established.Seismic and drill-hold data for some 40 faults, studied in detail by various investigators have verified connections between scarps at the land surface and growth faults in the shallow subsurface. Some scarps, then, are known to be the surface manifestations of faults that have geologically long histories of movement. The degree to which natural geologic processes contribute to current fault movement, however, is unclear, for some of man’s activities may play a role in faulting as well.Evidence that current rates of fault movement far exceed average prehistoric rates and that most offset of the land surface in the Houston area has occurred only within the last 50 years indirectly suggest that fluid withdrawal may be accelerating or reinitiating movement on pre-existing faults. This conclusion, however, is based only on a coincidence in time between increased fault activity and increased rates of withdrawal of water, oil, and gas from

  14. Response of Rocky Reef Top Predators (Serranidae: Epinephelinae) in and Around Marine Protected Areas in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Werner Hackradt; José Antonio García-Charton; Mireille Harmelin-Vivien; Ángel Pérez-Ruzafa; Laurence Le Diréach; Just Bayle-Sempere; Eric Charbonnel; Denis Ody; Olga Reñones; Pablo Sanchez-Jerez; Carlos Valle

    2014-01-01

    Groupers species are extremely vulnerable to overfishing and many species are threatened worldwide. In recent decades, Mediterranean groupers experienced dramatic population declines. Marine protected areas (MPAs) can protect populations inside their boundaries and provide individuals to adjacent fishing areas through the process of spillover and larval export. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of six marine reserves in the Western Mediterranean Sea to protect the populations of t...

  15. Uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic Conodont Zonation from Enshi area, western Hubei Province, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Z.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z. Q.; Ma, D.; Yan, P.; Zhan, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic transition witnessed the largest biotic turnover of Earth life during the Phanerozoic history. Ecosystems in sea and on land have also experienced the most protected restoration following the end-Permian mass extinction. These biocrises were also associated with climatic and environmental extremes through the latest Permian to Middle Triassic. In order to uncover the links among these extreme events, we need to establish high-resolution biochronostratigraphy, which offers precise timescales for reconstructing event sequences and probing the possible causes. Of these, conodont biostratigraphy is an operational tool in enhancing stratigraphic resolution. Although their ancestors and phylogeny remain unclear, conodonts are a rapid evolutionary lineage and extremely abundant in the Triassic marine carbonate successions. Here, we present recent study results of the Lower Triassic conodont zonation from the Ganxi and Jianshi areas, western Hubei Province, South China, which were situated on a carbonate ramp at the southern northern margin of the Upper Yangtze Platform. Therein, the uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic successions are well exposed and yield abundant conodonts. A total of nine conodont zones was established: (1) Clarkina yini-Clarkina zhangi Zone, (2) Hindeodus changxingensis Zone, (3) Hindeodus parvus Zone, (4) Isarcicella staeschei Zone, (5) Clarkina planata Zone, (6) Neoclarkina discrete Zone, (7) Neospathodus dieneri Zone, (8) Novispathodus waageni Zone, and (9) Triassospathodus homeri Zone. The Ns. dieneri M1, Ns. dieneri M2 and Ns. dieneri M3 subzones have also been distinguished from the Ns. dieneri Zone. Both Nv. waageni eowaageni subzones and Nv. waageni waageni subzones are also recognizable from the Nv. waageni Zone. The first occurrence of H. parvus marks the Permian-Triassic boundary(PTB), while the first occurrence of Nv. waageni eowaageni defines the Induan-Olenekian boundary. These conodont zones correlate well with

  16. Hydrochemistry of rivers in an acid sulphate soil hotspot area in western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ROOS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During heavy rains and snow melting, acid sulphate (AS soils on the coastal plains of Finland are flushed resulting in discharge of acidic and metal-rich waters that strongly affect small streams. In this study, the impact of AS soils occurrence and hydrological changes on water quality were determined for 21 rivers (catchment sizes between 96–4122 km2 running through an AS soil hotspot area in western central Finland. Water samples, collected at the outlet, during eight selected events, were analysed for pH, dissolved organic carbon, electrical conductivity (EC and 32 chemical elements. Based on the correlation with percentage arable land in the catchments (a rough estimate of AS soil occurrences, as up to 50% of the arable land is underlain with these soils, it was possible to categorize variables into those that are enriched in runoff from such land, depleted in runoff from such land (only one element, and not affected by land-use type in the catchments. Of the variables enriched in runoff from arable land, some were leached from AS soils during high-water flows, in particular (aluminium, boron, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lithium, manganese, nickel, sulphur, silicon, thorium, thallium, uranium, and zinc and others occurred in highest concentrations during lower flows (calcium, EC, potassium, magnesium, sodium, rubidium and strontium. Molybdenum and phosphorus were not leached from AS soils in larger amounts than from other soils and thus related to other factors connected to the arable land. Based on the concentrations of potentially toxic metals derived from AS soils, the 21 rivers were ranked from the least (Lestijoki River, Lapväärtinjoki River and Perhonjoki River to the most (Sulvanjoki River, Vöyrinjoki River and Maalahdenjoki River heavily AS soil impacted. It has been decided that Vöyrinjoki is to be dredged along a ca. 20 km distance. This is quite alarming considering the high metal concentrations in the river.;

  17. "Fast pedogenesis" on proglacial areas: examples from the north-western Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Michele; Freppaz, Michele; Zanini, Ermanno

    2013-04-01

    Climate changes have huge impacts on alpine ecosystems. One of the most visible effects is glacial retreat since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA: 190-190 years ago), which caused the exposure of previously glaciated surfaces. These surfaces are open-air laboratories, verifying theories regarding ecosystem and soil development. In order to increase our knowledge on the effect of time and vegetation primary succession on soil development in proglacial areas, we sampled soils and surveyed plant communities on stable points on the proglacial areas of the Lys and Verra Grande glaciers, in the Italian north-western Alps (Valle d'Aosta). Sampling sites were located on dated sites (6-260 years), on the basis of literature or historical photographs). Glacial till is attacked by weathering processes immediately after deposition and stabilization, such as loss of soluble compounds, acidification, primary mineral weathering. The speed of these processes are largely increased after the establishment of a continuous vegetation cover, thanks to surface stabilization, organic matter accumulation caused by litter input and root decomposition below the soil surface. On sialic glacial tills (Lys forefield), below timberline and under a larch - Rhododendron forest, a fast and steady decrease in pH values, increase in organic matter content and horizon differentiation were observed. In particular, genetic eluvial horizons formed in just 60 years, while diagnostic albic horizons were developed after ca. 90 years, evidencing an early start of the podzolization processes. Cheluviation of Fe and, secondarily, Al were analytically verified. However, illuviation of Fe, Al and organic matter in incipient B horizons was not sufficient to obtain diagnostic spodic horizons on LIA materials. Under grazed grassland below timberline and alpine prairie above timberline, acidification and weathering were slightly slower, and no redistribution with depth of Fe and Al oxi-hydroxides was observed. A

  18. Butterfly Species Diversity of Bir-Billing Area of Dhauladhar Range of Western Himalayas in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Chandel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study of butterfly species diversity was carried out in the Bir-Biling area of Dhauladhar Range of the Western Himalayas in Northern India. The study was done since April 2012 to March 2013, throughout the year during the routine field visits to Bir-Billing. A total of 50 butterfly species were recorded from the study areas which belonge to five families i.e. Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Papilionidae, Lycaenidae and Hesperiidae and 39 genera. The Nymphalidae family was the most dominant family in the study area having 32 species and followed by Lycaenidae family with 7 species.

  19. Road kills of amphibians in different land use areas from Sharavathi river basin, central Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Seshadri

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of amphibian mortality on roads was carried out in the Sharavathi river basin in the central Western Ghats. Road kills in three different land use areas: agricultural fields, water bodies and forests were recorded for four days along three 100m stretches in each type of area. One-hundred-and-forty-four individuals belonging to two orders, eight families, 11 genera and 13 species were recorded in the survey. Kills/km observed were: in forest 55, agricultural fields 38 and water bodies 27, for an overall average of 40 kills/km. Kill species compositions varied significantly between land use areas, but not overall kill rates.

  20. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on utility demand-side management and conservation and renewable energy programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallo, J.D.; Germer, M.F.; Tompkins, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) requires all of its long-term firm power customers to implement programs that promote the conservation of electric energy or facilitate the use of renewable energy resources. Western has also proposed that all customers develop integrated resource plans that include cost-effective demand-side management programs. As part of the preparation of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) developed estimates of the reductions in energy demand resulting from Western`s conservation and renewable energy activities in its Salt Lake City Area Office. ANL has also estimated the energy-demand reductions from cost-effective, demand-side management programs that could be included in the integrated resource plans of the customers served by Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The results of this study have been used to adjust the expected hourly demand for Western`s major systems in the Salt Lake City Area. The expected hourly demand served as the basis for capacity expansion plans develops with ANL`s Production and Capacity Expansion (PACE) model.

  1. Inorganic nitrogenous air pollutants, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and their potential ecological impacts in remote areas of western North America (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Fenn, M. E.; Fraczek, W.; Johnson, R.; Allen, E. B.

    2013-12-01

    Dry deposition of gaseous inorganic nitrogenous (N) air pollutants plays an important role in total atmospheric N deposition and its ecological effects in the arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Passive samplers and denuder/ filter pack systems have been used for determining ambient concentrations of ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitric acid vapor (HNO3) in the topographically complex remote areas of the western United States and Canada. Concentrations of the measured pollutants varied significantly between the monitoring areas. Highest NH3, NO2 and HNO3 levels occurred in southern California areas downwind of the Los Angeles Basin and in the western Sierra Nevada impacted by emissions from the California Central Valley and the San Francisco Bay area. Strong spatial gradients of N pollutants were also present in southeastern Alaska due to cruise ship emissions and in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in Canada affected by oil exploitation. Distribution of these pollutants has been depicted by maps generated by several geostatistical methodologies within the ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst (ESRI, USA). Such maps help to understand spatial and temporal changes of air pollutants caused by various anthropogenic activities and locally-generated vs. long range-transported air pollutants. Pollution distribution maps for individual N species and gaseous inorganic reactive nitrogen (Nr) have been developed for the southern portion of the Sierra Nevada, Lake Tahoe Basin, San Bernardino Mountains, Joshua Tree National Park and the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. The N air pollution data have been utilized for estimates of dry and total N deposition by a GIS-based inferential method specifically developed for understanding potential ecological impacts in arid and semi-arid areas. The method is based on spatial and temporal distribution of concentrations of major drivers of N dry deposition, their surface deposition velocities and stomatal conductance values

  2. An Empirical Study on Telecommunication Development in the Rural Areas of China's 12 Western Provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hong

    2005-01-01

    This paper studied rural telecom markets in China's 12 western provinces with Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) models. Using two regress analysis of telecom business income and rural telephone permeation rate in 12 western provinces, we got some new conclusions such as, the installation and usage of telephones among farmers are affected by several variables, and income is only one of them. According to our data analysis, variables influencing the installation and usage of telephones are not the same. Different variables exert different degrees of influence in the provinces.

  3. 3D numerical modeling of an anthropogenic sinkhole in the Marsala area of western Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamini, Marco; Di Maggio, Cipriano; Lollino, Piernicola; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco

    2013-04-01

    The Marsala area (western Sicily) is characterized by the presence of a Lower Pleistocene (Calabrian) calcarenite succession (Marsala Calcarenite Fm). It can be divided into three lithofacies that show the regressive evolution of the depositional system: a) coarse to fine yellow bio- and lithoclastic calcarenites, b) sands, and c) gray sandy clays. At least 80 m-thick, this succession gently dips (5-10°) towards the south and the south-west. Locally, the Marsala Calcarenite may be covered by Middle and Upper Pleistocene marine terraced deposits. The town of Marsala presents several historical quarries for the extraction of this building material. Many of them were excavated underground, at depth ranging from a few meters to about 25 m, and are arranged in one or two levels, following the galleries and pillars excavation technique. With time, the underground quarries have been progressively abandoned due to the high costs of extraction, as well as to the dangers and difficulties encountered in working underground. Since the 1960's the quarries, as a matter of fact, have been affected by several instability processes for the decay of the physical and mechanical properties of the calcarenite rock mass and the interaction with the groundwater. Such instability processes are represented by collapses and deformations of vaults and pillars. These phenomena often propagate upward reaching the topographic surface and forming sinkholes which may likely affect and severely damage the built-up areas above. In particular, two case studies of sinkholes related to different underground quarries have been already described by the Authors in a previous contribution at EGU 2012, also integrated by a two-dimensional numerical study. The aim of the present work is to develop a three-dimensional numerical analysis aimed at describing the most significant processes and factors responsible of the instability processes, as well as to investigate the three-dimensional features of the same

  4. Agricultural land purchases for alternative uses - evidence from two farming areas in the Western Cape Province, South Africa - AEASA Conference

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reed, L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Reed_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 6559 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Reed_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Agricultural land purchases for alternative... District Municipality Minimal crops, extensive farming related to natural grazing LAND USE IN INTENSIVE AND EXTENSIVE AREAS: WESTERN CAPE METHOD (cont.) Survey: • Questionnaire ranking importance of specific characteristics in purchase decision...

  5. Density and distribution of Patella ferruginea in a Marine Protected Area (western Sardinia, Italy): Constraint analysis for population conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Coppa, S.; G. A. de Lucia; Massaro, G.; Magni, P

    2012-01-01

    The endemic limpet Patella ferruginea is the most endangered invertebrate of the Mediterranean Sea. Our study examined a population of P. ferruginea in the Marine Protected Area of Penisola del Sinis - Isola di Mal di Ventre (western Sardinia, Italy). During the summer 2009, we carried out a systematic census of P. ferruginea along a 8114 m georeferenced perimeter of coast in the no take-no entry zone to assess its density, spatial distribution, and morphometric characteristics. Our aim was t...

  6. Foreshowing of the Western Pacific tropical cyclone track to PM10 air pollution episode in the Beijing area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XiQuan; WANG ZiFa; YU Tong; GONG YanBang

    2009-01-01

    By utilizing the air quality monitoring data and the NCEP reanalysis data, the relationship between the PM10 air pollution episode and synoptic situation is analyzed in the Beijing area. It is interesting to find that PM10 air pollution episode in and around the Beijing area is correlated with the Western Pacific tropical cyclone track to some extent, namely when a tropical cyclone lands southward to the Chang-jiang River, PM10 air pollution episode is not easy to take place generally in the Beijing area; but when a tropical cyclone moves northward and finally lands at the Korea Peninsula or the Japanese mainland, and under this condition the Beijing area is generally controlled by weak high or weak low for several days, PM10 air pollution episode often takes place in one day or several days. Above findings indicate that predicting the Western Pacific tropical cyclone track can foretell whether or not PM10 air pollution episode takes place in the Beijing area, which can offer a technique for urban air quality prediction and air pollution source management in the Beijing area.

  7. Human Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viral Pathogens in Border Areas of Western Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ans Timmermans

    Full Text Available Little is known about circulation of influenza and other respiratory viruses in remote populations along the Thai-Cambodia border in western Cambodia. We screened 586 outpatients (median age 5, range 1-77 presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI at 4 sentinel sites in western Cambodia between May 2010 and December 2012. Real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT PCR for influenza was performed on combined nasal and throat specimens followed by viral culture, antigenic analysis, antiviral susceptibility testing and full genome sequencing for phylogenetic analysis. ILI-specimens negative for influenza were cultured, followed by rRT-PCR for enterovirus and rhinovirus (EV/RV and EV71. Influenza was found in 168 cases (29% and occurred almost exclusively in the rainy season from June to November. Isolated influenza strains had close antigenic and phylogenetic relationships, matching vaccine and circulating strains found elsewhere in Cambodia. Influenza vaccination coverage was low (<20%. Western Cambodian H1N1(2009 isolate genomes were more closely related to 10 earlier Cambodia isolates (94.4% genome conservation than to 13 Thai isolates (75.9% genome conservation, despite sharing the majority of the amino acid changes with the Thai references. Most genes showed signatures of purifying selection. Viral culture detected only adenovirus (5.7% and parainfluenza virus (3.8%, while non-polio enteroviruses (10.3% were detected among 164 culture-negative samples including coxsackievirus A4, A6, A8, A9, A12, B3, B4 and echovirus E6 and E9 using nested RT-PCR methods. A single specimen of EV71 was found. Despite proximity to Thailand, influenza epidemiology of these western Cambodian isolates followed patterns observed elsewhere in Cambodia, continuing to support current vaccine and treatment recommendations from the Cambodian National Influenza Center. Amino acid mutations at non-epitope sites, particularly hemagglutinin genes, require further investigation in

  8. Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

  9. Assessment of the wastewater effect on the shallow subsurface soil at Farafra Oasis, Egypt, by using geoelectrical and geochemical data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ismail Ismail Mohamaden

    2016-12-01

    The second layer reveals moderate electrical resistivity values (17–98 Ω m. It is extended from the surface layer to the end of the investigated section and represents the Sandstone (upper aquifer in the study area.

  10. Hydrostratigraphy and hydrogeology of the western part of Maira area, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: A case study by using electrical resistivity

    KAUST Repository

    Farid, Asam M.

    2012-06-27

    Hydrostratigraphy and hydrogeology of the Maira vicinity is important for the characterization of aquifer system and developing numerical groundwater flow models to predict the future availability of the water resource. Conventionally, the aquifer parameters are obtained by the analysis of pumping tests data which provide limited spatial information and turn out to be costly and time consuming. Vertical electrical soundings and pump testing of boreholes were conducted to delineate the aquifer system at the western part of the Maira area, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa, Pakistan. Aquifer lithology in the eastern part of the study area is dominated by coarse sand and gravel whereas the western part is characterized by fine sand. An attempt has been made to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer system by establishing a relationship between the pumping test results and vertical electrical soundings by using regression technique. The relationship is applied to the area along the resistivity profiles where boreholes are not drilled. Our findings show a good match between pumped hydraulic conductivity and estimated hydraulic conductivity. In case of sparse borehole data, regression technique is useful in estimating hydraulic properties for aquifers with varying lithology. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  11. Groundwater resources exploration in the Zug area (Tiris, Western Sahara); Prospeccion de recursos hidricos subterraneos en el area de Zug (Tiris, Sahara Occidental)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, B.; Villarroya, F.; Rebollo, L. F.; Olaiz, A.; Lopez, J.

    2015-07-01

    The area of Zug is located in the southwestern corner of the Tiris dorsal, in the Western Sahara. The area is characterized by outcrops of materials, mainly gneisses of archaic age and fractured granitic rocks, which in the southern sector are covered by aeolian sand sheets. A hydrogeological survey of the territory has been carried out, and boreholes and dug wells have been located and analyzed and this information integrated with the sparse outcrops. Based on this study, two hydrogeological domains have been established: Zug and Azzefal. From the analysis of satellite images, field work, geophysical profiles, a well inventory and chemical analysis, three priority areas for the location of future water supply wells have been identified: 1) alluvial fans, preferably located on the slopes of the dikes that cross the Tiris dorsal; 2) sabkhas (salt flats) as places of con- centration of ephemeral runoff and subsurface infiltration of accumulated water; 3) highly fractured granitic areas. Some of these three cases coincide with existing wells in this area. Electrical tomography shows how, in specific locations, low resistivity values reach 50 metres, opening up the possibility of finding sufficient water to meet the aforementioned needs. The water quality is not suitable for human supply directly from the well without chemical treatment. The area is still full of opportunities for future research, but only when a more stable political situation exists. (Author)

  12. Identification of extreme sedimentary event deposits in Yilan coastal area, Taiwan, and the western coast of Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y. L.; Shyu, J. B. H.; Sawai, Y.; Kunz, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Yilan Plain in northeastern Taiwan is located west of the Ryukyu Trench. In AD 1771, a M7.4 earthquake occurred near the Ryukyu Trench, and generated a tsunami (the Meiwa Tsunami) with run-up height of more than 30 m on the Ishigaki Island, only 250 km away from the Yilan Plain. Therefore, we suggest that tsunami poses potential threats to the Yilan Plain. Offshore western Myanmar, a M8.5 earthquake occurred in 1762 on the nearby Sunda Trench. The 2004 Sumatra Tsunami also reached approximately 3 m high along the western coast of Myanmar according to local residents. These observations also point out the potential for a future tsunami hazard along the rapidly developing western Myanmar coast. Therefore, we attempted to search for geological record of previous extreme sedimentary events in these two areas in this study. Many previous studies have pointed out that paleo-tsunami deposits are most likely present in inter-ridge lowlands, and have distinctive characteristics such as a coarse sand layer covering soil layers (or other terrestrial facies sediment layers) with a very sharp boundary. Thus we excavated several trenches in our two study areas to observe and record the deposits, collect samples, and use C-14 dating, Cs-137 analyses and diatom analyses to help us understand the age and sedimentary environment of the deposits. In one trench in northern Yilan Plain, we found a 25 cm thick sand layer covering a mud layer with a sharp and horizontal boundary. We infer that this sand layer deposited during a fluvial flooding event. In southern Yilan Plain, we found another sand layer covering a black mud layer with a sharp and irregular boundary. This clearly indicates a high-energy depositional event, but the source of such an event remains unknown. In trenches excavated along the western coast of Myanmar, we found a gray sand layer covering an organic mud layer that has abundant plant debris with a sharp boundary. Thus we infer that the gray sand is also an

  13. Geology of the Arabian Peninsula; shield area of western Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Glen F.; Schmidt, Dwight L.; Huffman, A. Curtis

    1989-01-01

    Western Arabia lies within the low-latitude desert of north Africa and the Middle East, the core being the Arabian segment of the African Shield. The core of complex basement rocks accounts for about 670,000 km2, or one-third of the Arabian Peninsula. Reconnaissance mapping of these crystalline rocks, together with bordering sedimentary rocks and volcanic flows, begun in 1950, resulted during the next 13 years in a series of geologic and geographic maps without extensive texts. The maps served as general guides for development of natural resources, including water supplies, ore deposits, and building materials. An intensive exploration program that began in 1963 and involved numerous geologists has vastly increased geologic information.

  14. Predicting Potential Risk Areas of Human Plague for the Western Usambara Mountains, Lushoto District, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neerinckx, Simon; Peterson, A. Townsend; Gulinck, Hubert; Deckers, Jozef; Kimaro, Didas; Leirs, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    A natural focus of plague exists in the Western Usambara Mountains of Tanzania. Despite intense research, questions remain as to why and how plague emerges repeatedly in the same suite of villages. We used human plague incidence data for 1986–2003 in an ecological-niche modeling framework to explore the geographic distribution and ecology of human plague. Our analyses indicate that plague occurrence is related directly to landscape-scale environmental features, yielding a predictive understanding of one set of environmental factors affecting plague transmission in East Africa. Although many environmental variables contribute significantly to these models, the most important are elevation and Enhanced Vegetation Index derivatives. Projections of these models across broader regions predict only 15.5% (under a majority-rule threshold) or 31,997 km2 of East Africa as suitable for plague transmission, but they successfully anticipate most known foci in the region, making possible the development of a risk map of plague. PMID:20207880

  15. Predicting Potential Risk Areas of Human Plague for the Western Usambara Mountains, Lushoto District, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerinckx, Simon; Peterson, A Townsend; Gulinck, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    A natural focus of plague exists in the Western Usambara Mountains of Tanzania. Despite intense research, questions remain as to why and how plague emerges repeatedly in the same suite of villages. We used human plague incidence data for 1986-2003 in an ecological-niche modeling framework...... to explore the geographic distribution and ecology of human plague. Our analyses indicate that plague occurrence is related directly to landscape-scale environmental features, yielding a predictive understanding of one set of environmental factors affecting plague transmission in East Africa. Although many...... environmental variables contribute significantly to these models, the most important are elevation and Enhanced Vegetation Index derivatives. Projections of these models across broader regions predict only 15.5% (under a majority-rule threshold) or 31,997 km2 of East Africa as suitable for plague transmission...

  16. Hydrodynamic characteristics of the western Doñana Region (area of El Abalario), Huelva, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trick, Thomas; Custodio, Emilio

    The Doñana region, in southwestern Spain, comprises a large and important nature reserve, the wetlands of which are affected by human activity. Planting of an extensive eucalyptus forest in the 1950s and, more recently, the use of aquifers for irrigation and water supply for some coastal tourist resorts, have altered the natural groundwater-flow system. The area of the study is the western sector of the region, called El Abalario, which is a gentle topographic elevation between the Atlantic coast and La Rocina Creek (Arroyo de la Rocina). Underneath a variable layer of eolian sands with high dunes near the coast, thick Plio-Quaternary detritic strata, mostly fine silica sands, overlie marls. Near the base there is a variable, deltaic-origin layer of coarse sands and gravels. The dome-shaped water table, inside the sands, is close to the surface everywhere except beneath the dune belt, and small, temporary, shallow lagoons are numerous. The coarse sand and gravel layer conditions groundwater flow and behaves as a semiconfined layer between sands. A cross section through the area was simulated with a model to check the validity of the conceptual groundwater-flow pattern and its sensitivity to the hydraulic parameters. The model was calibrated using parameter values obtained by pumping tests and multilevel piezometric data, and checked against the estimated groundwater discharge into La Rocina Creek. Groundwater flows peripherally to the sea coast, to La Rocina Creek, or directly east and southeastward into the Doñana marshlands, in the Guadalquivir River delta. The average net aquifer recharge rate was calculated to be between 100 and 200 mm year-1 for the area covered by brush, but is remarkably lower in the areas of eucalyptus trees. The transient-state model shows that recharge varies spatially and is not clearly proportional to annual precipitation. Phreatic evapotranspiration plays an important role in decreasing the net value of aquifer recharge to

  17. Hydrothermal fluids circulation and travertine deposition in an active tectonic setting: Insights from the Kamara geothermal area (western Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogi, Andrea; Alçiçek, M. Cihat; Yalçıner, Cahit Çağlar; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Liotta, Domenico; Meccheri, Marco; Rimondi, Valentina; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Gandin, Anna; Boschi, Chiara; Büyüksaraç, Aydin; Alçiçek, Hülya; Bülbül, Ali; Baykara, Mehmet Oruç; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2016-06-01

    Coexistence of thermal springs, travertine deposits and tectonic activity is a recurring feature for most geothermal areas. Although such a certainty, their relationships are debated mainly addressing on the role of the tectonic activity in triggering and controlling fluids flow and travertine deposition. In this paper, we present the results of an integrated study carried out in a geothermal area located in western Anatolia (Turkey), nearby the well-known Pamukkale area (Denizli Basin). Our study focused on the relationships among hydrothermal fluids circulation, travertine deposition and tectonic activity, with particular emphasis on the role of faults in controlling fluids upwelling, thermal springs location and deposition of travertine masses. New field mapping and structural/kinematics analyses allowed us to recognize two main faults systems (NW- and NE-trending), framed in the Neogene-Quaternary extensional tectonic evolution of western Anatolia. A geo-radar (GPR) prospection was also provided in a key-area, permitting us to reconstruct a buried fault zone and its relationships with the development of a fissure-ridge travertine deposit (Kamara fissure-ridge). The integration among structural and geophysical studies, fluids inclusion, geochemical, isotopic data and 230 Th/238 U radiometric age determination on travertine deposits, depict the characteristics of the geothermal fluids and their pathway, up to the surface. Hydrological and seismological data have been also taken in account to investigate the relation between local seismicity and fluid upwelling. As a main conclusion we found strict relationships among tectonic activity, earthquakes occurrence, and variation of the physical/chemical features of the hydrothermal fluids, presently exploited at depth, or flowing out in thermal springs. In the same way, we underline the tectonic role in controlling the travertine deposition, making travertine (mainly banded travertine) a useful proxy to reconstruct the

  18. Diversity, distribution pattern and seasonal variation in moth assemblages along altitudinal gradient in Gangotri landscape area, Western Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Sanyal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Field survey was conducted at different altitudes and land-use areas in the two protected areas, viz., Gangotri National Park and Govind National Park of Uttarkashi District, Uttarakhand, India. A total of 475 specimens of moth representing 436 morphospecies were collected using light trap method during the survey conducted between September 2008-May 2010. Preliminary findings show a decreasing diversity with increasing altitude. Subalpine areas were least diverse and subtropical areas had the highest diversity of moths. The greatest number of specimens were collected during the summer and post-monsoon period. The lunar phase had a significant effect on catch success with new moon days resulting in the largest catches and full moon days resulting in the least number of species as well as individuals. Of the thirty two species mentioned in Appendix 1, nine species are first time record from the state Uttarakhand. Four species are new record from Western Himalaya within Indian Territory, and also first time recorded from entire Himalayan landscape. As there was no previous comprehensive study on the moth diversity of Gangotri landscape area, all the 32 species described could be regarded as new record from these two protected areas.

  19. Simulation of land use impacts on sediment and nutrient transfer in coastal areas of Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebel Micha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for water resource management in Western Cape, South Africa, is the reduction of the growing sediment and nutrient loads in coastal areas, which belong to the areas most affected by land use change. We used the WebGIS based software STOFFBILANZ to simulate runoff, soil loss, sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen input in the surface water and groundwater of study area (ca. 6,450 km². The simulated runoff shows a large regional variability caused by the heterogeneous distribution of rainfall. For the reference catchment Klein River simulated total daily runoff fit the observed values of the reference year 2012. The calculation of potential input of sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen into waters is based on aggregated or generalized information on climate data, land use types, crop and fruit types, yields, mineral fertilizers, farm manure, nitrogen fixing by leguminous plants, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, and soil denitrification. Critical source areas for potential sediment input, particulate P input and diffuse N input are mainly agricultural areas. Additionally, point sources of high relevance for N and P are found in urban areas. Based on the potential input of sediment and nutrients the impacts of current land use change on water resources were estimated. We used the web-based information system WebLand for the simulation aiming at the provision of stakeholders with information for decision making in water resource management.

  20. Reconnaissance of major redhead duck production areas in six western states

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On May 20, 1979 I flew commercial from the Twin Cities, Minnesota to Salt Lake City, Utah to begin a whirlwind tour of major redhead production areas in Utah,...

  1. Differential trend of leprosy in rural and urban area of western Maharashtra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohite, R V; Mohite, V R; Durgawale, P M

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy, major public health problem in Satara District with prevalence rate of 61/10000 population in 1990. With a view to eliminate Leprosy, Government of India launched National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP) in Satara district during July 1990 to overcome the burden of Leprosy with Multi-Drug Treatment and subsequently Modified Leprosy Elimination Campaign and Block Leprosy Awareness Campaign. The objective of the study is to assess the differential trend of Leprosy in rural and urban area of Satara district. Record based retrospective time series study was conducted in Urban Leprosy Control Units and Primary Health Centers of Satara district on NLEP evaluation indicators; prevalence rate, new case detection rate, percentage of cases released from treatment, proportion of female cases among new cases, proportion of multi bacillary cases among new cases, proportion of grade-II disability among new cases and proportion of child cases among new cases. Leprosy elimination was achieved in rural area i.e. prevalence rate trend was recorded in urban area from 0.1/10000 population to 1.1/10000 population since March 2006-07 and trend was statistically significant (chi2 trend = 37.26, p trend was observed in urban area from 39.6% to 52.8% with significant difference (chi2 trend = 5.42, p = 0.01*). Proportion of multi bacillary cases among new cases showed little fluctuation in rural area from 57% to 55.2% but proportion was decreased in urban area from 59.1% to 44.4% and trend was statistically significant (chi2 trend = 29.82, p trend was observed in urban area from 7% to 22.2% since March 2005-06 and proportion was significant (chi2 trend = 15.90, p = 0.0001*). More than 90% cases were released from treatment in rural area but proportion was low in urban area and trend was statistically significant (chi2 trend = 19.38, p < 0.001*). The National Leprosy Eradication Programme showed favorable impact in rural area as compared to urban area in Satara District of

  2. Genotoxicity detected in wild mice living in a highly polluted wetland area in south western Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos, Santiago; Daza, Paula; Dominguez, Inmaculada; Cardenas, Jose Antonio [University of Seville, Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, Avenida de la Reina Mercedes no 6, E-41012 Seville (Spain); Cortes, Felipe [University of Seville, Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, Avenida de la Reina Mercedes no 6, E-41012 Seville (Spain)], E-mail: cortes@us.es

    2008-06-15

    A field study was carried out in the south of the Iberian Peninsula in an industrial area in the neighbourhood of Huelva city, SW Spain, and in a natural area (Donana National Park) for comparison, to estimate the genetic risk induced by environmental pollution in wild mice. Genotoxic effects in a sentinel organism, the Algerian mice (Mus spretus) free living in the industrial area were compared with animals of the same species living in the natural protected area. The single cell gel electrophoresis, or Comet assay, was performed as a genotoxicity test in peripheral blood of mice. Our results clearly show that mice free living in the contaminated area bear a high burden of genetic damage as compared with control individuals. The results suggest that the assessing of genotoxicity levels by the Comet assay in wild mice can be used as a valuable test in pollution monitoring and environmental conservation. - We have found an increased genotoxic damage in wild mice in a highly polluted area from industry, mining and agriculture in SW Spain, as assessed by the Comet assay.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF THE PRESENCE OF Toxocara EGGS IN SOILS OF AN ARID AREA IN CENTRAL-WESTERN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Viviana Bojanich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of studying the contamination of soils with eggs of Toxocara spp. in an arid area in the central-western region of Argentina, 76 soil samples were collected from 18 towns belonging to six provinces of central-western Argentina. They were processed by the centrifugal flotation method. No eggs of Toxocara spp. were found. It can be concluded that the negative results are directly related to the characteristics of the environment and climate present in the studied area. The finding of eggs in soils depends on several factors: the presence of canine or feline feces, the hygienic behavior of pet owners, the presence of stray animals without veterinary supervision, the weather and environmental conditions, and laboratory techniques used; and all these circumstances must be considered when comparing the results found in different geographical regions. In order to accurately define the importance of public spaces in the transmission of infection to humans, it is important to consider the role of backyards or green spaces around housing in small towns, where the population is not used to walking pets in public spaces, and in such cases a significant fraction of the population may acquire the infection within households.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF THE PRESENCE OF Toxocara EGGS IN SOILS OF AN ARID AREA IN CENTRAL-WESTERN ARGENTINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanich, María Viviana; Alonso, José Mario; Caraballo, Nadina Ayelén; Schöller, Mercedes Itatí; López, María de los Ángeles; García, Leandro Martín; Basualdo, Juan Ángel

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of studying the contamination of soils with eggs of Toxocara spp. in an arid area in the central-western region of Argentina, 76 soil samples were collected from 18 towns belonging to six provinces of central-western Argentina. They were processed by the centrifugal flotation method. No eggs of Toxocara spp. were found. It can be concluded that the negative results are directly related to the characteristics of the environment and climate present in the studied area. The finding of eggs in soils depends on several factors: the presence of canine or feline feces, the hygienic behavior of pet owners, the presence of stray animals without veterinary supervision, the weather and environmental conditions, and laboratory techniques used; and all these circumstances must be considered when comparing the results found in different geographical regions. In order to accurately define the importance of public spaces in the transmission of infection to humans, it is important to consider the role of backyards or green spaces around housing in small towns, where the population is not used to walking pets in public spaces, and in such cases a significant fraction of the population may acquire the infection within households. PMID:25651329

  5. Radon measurements by nuclear track detectors in dwellings in Oke-Ogun area, South-Western, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obed, R I; Ademola, A K; Ogundare, F O

    2012-03-01

    An indoor radon survey of a total of 77 dwellings randomly selected in 10 districts in Oke-Ogun area of Oyo state, South-western Nigeria was carried out using CR-39 detectors. The CR-39 detectors were placed in the bedrooms and living rooms and exposed for 6 months and then etched in NaOH 6.25 N solution at 90 °C for 3 h. Mean concentrations amount to 255 ± 47 and 259 ± 67 Bq m(-3) in the living rooms and bedrooms, respectively. The lowest radon concentration (77 ± 29 Bq m(-3)) was found in Igbeti, whereas the highest was found in Okeho (627 ± 125 Bq m(-3)). The annual exposure of dwellers was estimated to fall radon level in this part of the country may be attributed to its geographic location. The data presented here will serve as a baseline survey for radon concentration in dwellings in the area.

  6. Geochemical features of texture –forming ground ice in diamondiferous areas of western Yakutia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Alekseeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The unique research results of macro-components, trace elements and rare earth elements (REEs in the structure-forming ground ice in sedimentary and igneous rocks of the diamond-bearing regions of Western Yakutia are presented. It has been found that deep freezing of sedimentary cover in the Yakutian diamond-bearing province gave rise to formation of ice-cement and intrusive ice in the sedimentary strata and kimberlites. Water-rock interaction before the glacial epoch and perennial cryogenesis in the Late Cenozoic resulted in current hydrogeochemical zonality in the diamond-bearing regions and stipulated formation of hydrocarbonate, sulfate-hydrocarbonate, chloride-hydrocarbonate, hydrocarbonate-chloride and chloride types of structure-forming ground ice. Ground ice is enriched in Li, B, Si, S, Br, Sr and is depleted in Sc, Ge, Y, Nb, Th. Concentration of the REE in ground ice is 2–4 orders of magnitude less than in kimberlites and sedimentary rocks, 1–2 orders of magnitude exceed the REE content in the ocean water and approximately equal to the REE content in the river waters. The profiles of REE distribution in the ground ice is characterized by the similar of Ʌ-shape, strongly marked Eu anomaly and approximately equal content of light and heavy REE.

  7. Possibilities for the development of ecotourism in protected areas of Western Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković Olgica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable tourism is an important element of modern tourism, which are strictly controlled by the impact of tourism on the environment. Balanced ecological, economic and sociocultural components of tourism are therefore more frequently mentioned in the programs and strategies of tourism development. Sustainable tourism is particularly applicable to the development of tourism in the category of protected natural areas. These natural systems (national parks, nature parks, nature reserves and natural monuments are all interesting areas for various segments of the tourist. Typically, this is ecotourism - a modern form of tourism in which through education, volunteering, learning about nature, we help protect and preserve nature. Tourism development in protected natural areas is particularly sensitive, and as such it involves the determination of carrying capacity, limits of acceptable changes, environmental impact assessment, tourism zoning and designing codes of ethics that would help tourists to coordinate their activities with the values of the environment. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176008

  8. Assessing the Relative Ecological Importance and Deforestation Risks of Unprotected Areas in Western Brazil Using Landsat, CBERS and Quantum GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.; Sevilla, C.; Lanclos, A.; Carson, C.; Larson, J.; Sankaran, M.; Saad, M.

    2012-12-01

    In addition to understanding Brazilian policies and currently utilized methodologies, the measurement of the impacts of deforestation is essential for enhancing techniques to reduce deforestation in the future. Adverse impacts of deforestation include biodiversity loss, increased carbon dioxide emissions, and a reduced rate of evapotranspiration, all of which contribute directly or indirectly to global warming. With the continual growth in population in developing countries such as Brazil, increased demands are placed on infrastructural development and food production. As a result, forested areas are cleared for agricultural production. Recently, exploration for hydrocarbons in Western Brazil has also intensified as a means to stimulate the economy, as abundant oil and gas is believed to be found in these regions. Unfortunately, hydrocarbon-rich regions of Western Brazil are also home to thousands of species. Many of these regions are as of yet untapped but are at risk of ecological disruption as a result of impending human activity. This project utilized Landsat 5 TM to monitor deforestation in a subsection of the Brazilian states of Rondônia and Amazonas. A risk map identifying areas susceptible to future deforestation, based on factors such as proximity to roads, bodies of water, cities, and proposed hydrocarbon activities such as pipeline construction, was created. Areas at higher risk of clearance were recommended to be a target for enhanced monitoring and law enforcement. In addition, an importance map was created based on biodiversity and location of endangered species. This map was used to identify potential areas for future protection. A Chinese-Brazilian satellite, CBERS 2B CCD was also utilized for comparison. The NDVI model was additionally replicated in Quantum GIS, an open source software, so that local communities and policymakers could benefit without having to pay for expensive ArcGIS software. The capabilities of VIIRS were also investigated to

  9. Landscape Mapping and Tree Diversity Assessment of Pangi Valley: A Remote Tribal Area of Himachal Pradesh in Western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pangi valley in Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh is one of the remote tribal areas in Indian western Himalaya. The plant resources in its landscapes are flourishing under least anthropogenic conditions. For social upliftment of the tribals in this area, a number of developmental activities are being implemented by the government. A study was conducted for mapping of its landuse/landcover using satellite remote sensing to identify major forested landscapes in the region. It was followed by a detailed random stratified sampling of the forested landscapes for phytosociological estimation of its tree species. The 21.97 % of study area was estimated under forests followed by Scrublands and Grassy meadows (18.24 %. Majority of area (54.05 % was Snow and Scree slopes. Among the forests, maximum area was occupied by Mixed Broad Leaved Forest LSE type (36.08% followed by Cedrus deodara (26.94% and Betula utilis (18.07% forest LSE types. These species, owing to immense medicinal properties and value for their economic utilization, feature in threatened and endangered category list of plants. It is, therefore, recommended that the developmental activities may be implemented in scientific way, which may not pose threat to bioresources in this region.

  10. Environmental pollutant isotope measurements and natural radioactivity assessment for North Tushki area, south western desert, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sroor, A. E-mail: amanysroor@hotmail.com; Afifi, S.Y.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Salman, A.B.; Abdel-Sammad, M

    2002-09-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazardous radiological levels. The natural radionuclide ({sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K) contents of rock samples at various locations in the North Tushki area were investigated using gamma-spectrometric analysis. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for the absorbed dose rate of gamma radiation. The equivalent radium (R{sub eq}) and the external hazard index (H{sub ex}) which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil are also calculated and tabulated. The studied samples have been collected from various rock exposures in the North Tushki area. The distribution of major oxides, U and Th were studied. It is found that the enrichment and depletion of the major oxides are mainly due to the effect of hydrothermal alteration, which caused mobility of some major oxides, which increases some elements and decreases others. It is important to mention that the study area is far from the development region of the Tushki project and is only a local hazard. Therefore, additional regional studies of the Tushki Project area should be under taken to explore any unexpected environmental hazard due to the high concentration of the radioactive elements, which have been observed at its north boundary.

  11. Application of electrical resistivity method for groundwater exploration at the Moghra area, Western Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I.I. Mohamaden

    2016-09-01

    Structurally, the study area is influenced by three faults two of them are geological/geoelectrical faults forming a graben structure at the central part; the third fault is a geoelectrical fault and is located to the west of the graben structure forming a horest structure.

  12. Progress of environmental studies in coal mining areas of western Pennsylvania and central West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eychaner, James H.

    1999-01-01

    Two studies related to the regional environmental effects of coal mining in the Appalachian Plateau were conducted in 1998 as part of the National Water‐Quality Assessment program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The study area of about 20,000 square miles included parts of the Allegheny and Monongahela River basins in the north and the Kanawha River basin in the south. Water in domestic wells downgradient from fully reclaimed surface coal mines was compared to water in similar wells at unmined sites. As expected, pH was lower and the concentration of sulfate was greater at mined sites in both areas, although the pH difference was greater in the southern area. Median concentrations of iron and manganese exceeded federal drinking‐water standards at mined sites in both areas and at unmined sites in the southern area. Median concentrations of radon near reclaimed mines were about half those at unmined sites. Surface water was sampled during summer base flow at about 180 sites that drain between 5 and 80 square miles; the sites also were sampled during 1979‐81. Median pH in 1998 was 7.9 in the north and 7.4 in the south, about 0.5 unit higher than in 1980 in both areas. Median concentrations of sulfate increased from 38 mg/L to 56 mg/L in the north and from 46 mg/L to 77 mg/L in the south, in apparent contradiction to the generally lower sulfur content of geologic units in the southern area. Among 52 basins where mining occurred both before and after 1980, the sulfate concentration more than doubled in 13 (25 percent), including greater than five‐fold increases in 5 (10 percent). For 16 mined basins where no mining has occurred since 1980, the median decrease in sulfate concentration was 18 percent, from which the half‐time for oxidation of mining‐related pyrite is estimated to be about 65 years.

  13. Root biomass and productivity in dominant plantation populations in the mountainous area in western Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xingliang; MA Qinyan; YANG Dongsheng; SHI Zuoming; SU Yiming; ZHOU Shiqiang; LIU Shirong; YANG Yupo

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated root biomass and productivity in dominant populations in western Sichuan,China.A total of 4 plots (Picea balfouriana plantation for 22 age in Maerkang,9 trees,mean DBH of population for 10.4 cm and height for 10.5 m;Larix maxteriana plantation for 22 age in Wolong,9 trees,mean DBH of population for 17.0 cm and height for 13.8 m;Abiesfabri plantation for 35 age in Ebian,18 trees,mean DBH of population for 14.1 cm and height for 11.9 m;Larix kaempferi plantation for 23 age in Miyaluo,8 trees,mean DBH of population for 17.4 cm and height for 14.5 m;a 20 m×25 m plot located on each of the 4 types in western Sichuan,China) were randomly selected and excavated to a depth of 60 cm for each of the 4 plantation types.To estimate the root biomass of an individual tree using DEH,an exponential model was selected with the highest coefficient ranging from 0.94 to 0.99.The total root biomass per hm2 varied among plantation population types following the order:L.kaempferi (37.832 t/hm2)>A.fabri (24.907 t/hm2)> L.maxteriana (18.320 t/hm2)>P.balfouriana (15.982 t/hm2).The biomas's fractions of a given root size class compared to the total root biomass differed among plantation population types.For all 4 studied plantation types,the majority of the roots were distributed in the top 40 cm of soil,e.g.,97.88% for P.balfourianapopulation,96.78% for L.maxteriana,95.65% for A.fabri,and 99.72 for L.kaempferi population.The root biomass fractions distributed in the top 20 cm of soil were 77.13% for P.balfouriana,77.13% for L.maxteriana,65.02% for A.fabri and 80.66% for L.kaempferi,respectively.The root allocation in the 0-20,20-40,and 40-60 cm soil layers gave ratios of 34:12:1 for P.balfouriana,24:6:1 for L.maxteriana,15:7:1 for A.fabri,and 64:4:1 for L.kaempferi populations.The root biomass density of dominant plantation population t/(hm2.year) for A.fabri and 1.64 t/(hm2.year) for L.kaempferi population,respectively.

  14. Population exposure to trace elements in the Kilembe copper mine area, Western Uganda: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwesigye, Abraham R; Young, Scott D; Bailey, Elizabeth H; Tumwebaze, Susan B

    2016-12-15

    The mining and processing of copper in Kilembe, Western Uganda, from 1956 to 1982 left over 15 Mt. of tailings containing cupriferous and cobaltiferous pyrite dumped within a mountain river valley. This pilot study was conducted to assess the nature and extent of risk to local populations from metal contamination arising from those mining activities. We determined trace element concentrations in mine tailings, soils, locally cultivated foods, house dust, drinking water and human biomarkers (toenails) using ICP-MS analysis of acid digested samples. The results showed that tailings, containing higher concentrations of Co, Cu, Ni and As compared with world average crust values had eroded and contaminated local soils. Pollution load indices revealed that 51% of agricultural soils sampled were contaminated with trace elements. Local water supplies were contaminated, with Co concentrations that exceeded Wisconsin (US) thresholds in 25% of domestic water supplies and 40% of Nyamwamba river water samples. Zinc exceeded WHO/FAO thresholds of 99.4mgkg(-1) in 36% of Amaranthus vegetable samples, Cu exceeded EC thresholds of 20mgkg(-1) in 19% of Amaranthus while Pb exceeded WHO thresholds of 0.3mgkg(-1) in 47% of Amaranthus vegetables. In bananas, 20% of samples contained Pb concentrations that exceeded the WHO/FAO recommended threshold of 0.3mgkg(-1). However, risk assessment of local foods and water, based on hazard quotients (HQ values) revealed no potential health effects. The high external contamination of volunteers' toenails with some elements (even after a washing process) calls into question their use as a biomarker for metal exposure in human populations where feet are frequently exposed to soil dust. Any mitigation of Kilembe mine impacts should be aimed at remediation of agricultural soils, regulating the discharge of underground contaminated water but also containment of tailing erosion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural evolution of the Abu Gharadig field area, Northern Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gazzar, A. M.; Moustafa, A. R.; Bentham, P.

    2016-12-01

    Discovered in 1969, the Abu Gharadig (AG) Field was the first large hydrocarbon discovery in the Abu Gharadig Basin of the Western Desert of Egypt. Oil production began in 1973, with gas brought into production in 1975. The field produces mainly from upper Cretaceous clastic reservoirs. The AG Basin is an E-W trending intracratonic rift basin, about 330 km long and 50-75 km wide. It was initially formed as a large half graben basin during the Jurassic time in response to Tethyan rifting and continued to subside throughout the Cretaceous time. The half graben was subsequently inverted during the Late Cretaceous as part of the Syrian Arc deformation which affected northern Egypt. The Mid-Basin Arch, the AG Anticline, and the Mubarak High are three NE-SW oriented main inversion anticlines located within the AG Basin and are controlled by inversion of pre-existing Jurassic rift faults. The AG Anticline has an overall NE-SW orientation with a gentle plunge towards the NE and SW. It is locally bounded by two NE-SW-trending inverted faults on the southwest and northeast, accounting for the asymmetry of the anticline. Reverse offset of Cretaceous horizons is obvious at these inverted faults. Fault propagation folding is developed above the tips of the inverted faults at the Late Cretaceous Abu Roash and Khoman Formations. Based on thickness changes and stratigraphic relationships, inversion started during the Santonian time and continued into the Campanian-Maastrichtian. Inversion continued during deposition of the Paleocene-Middle Eocene Apollonia Formation and the Late Eocene-Oligocene Dabaa Formation.

  16. Benthic invertebrates of benchmark streams in agricultural areas of eastern Wisconsin, Western Lake Michigan Drainages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheaume, S.J.; Lenz, B.N.; Scudder, B.C.

    1996-01-01

    This study describes the benthic invertebrate communities of 20 benchmark streams in agricultural areas of eastern Wisconsin. Streams with minimal adverse effects from human activity were selected from four agricultural areas with differing surficial deposits and bedrock types (relatively homogeneous units, or RHU's). Most aquatic invertebrate orders were well represented in the 20 benchmark stream samples; 217 species and 151 genera within 56 families were identified. Diptera was the best represented order (96 species), followed by Trichoptera (42 species) and Ephemeroptera (26 species). Diptera were the most abundant organisms in terms of numbers of individuals in the sample (28 percent of the total) followed by Trichoptera (25 percent) and Ephemeroptera (13 percent). Nine species of freshwater mussels were found, but only in 5 of the 20 benchmark streams.

  17. Overview of electromagnetic methods applied in active volcanic areas of western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokan, Catherine K.

    1993-06-01

    A better understanding of active volcanic areas in the United States through electromagnetic geophysical studies received foundation from the many surveys done for geothermal exploration in the 1970's. Investigations by governmental, industrial, and academic agencies include (but are not limited to) mapping of the Cascades. Long Valley/Mono area, the Jemez volcanic field, Yellowstone Park, and an area in Colorado. For one example — Mt. Konocti in the Mayacamas Mountains, California — gravity, magnetic, and seismic, as well as electromagnetic methods have all been used in an attempt to gain a better understanding of the subsurface structure. In each of these volcanic regions, anomalous zones were mapped. When conductive, these anomalies were interpreted to be correlated with hydrothermal activity and not to represent a magma chamber. Electrical and electromagnetic geophysical methods can offer valuable information in the understanding of volcanoes by being the method which is most sensitive to change in temperature and, therefore, can best map heat budget and hydrological character to aid in prediction of eruptions.

  18. Net-Infiltration map of the Navajo Sandstone outcrop area in western Washington County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; McKinney, Tim S.

    2007-01-01

    As populations grow in the arid southwestern United States and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration and recharge becomes critically important for inventorying groundwater resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. A Geographic Information System (GIS)-based model utilizing readily available soils, topographic, precipitation, and outcrop data has been developed for predicting net infiltration to exposed and soil-covered areas of the Navajo Sandstone outcrop of southwestern Utah. The Navajo Sandstone is an important regional bedrock aquifer. The GIS model determines the net-infiltration percentage of precipitation by using an empirical equation. This relation is derived from least squares linear regression between three surficial parameters (soil coarseness, topographic slope, and downgradient distance from outcrop) and the percentage of estimated net infiltration based on environmental tracer data from excavations and boreholes at Sand Hollow Reservoir in the southeastern part of the study area.Processed GIS raster layers are applied as parameters in the empirical equation for determining net infiltration for soil-covered areas as a percentage of precipitation. This net-infiltration percentage is multiplied by average annual Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) precipitation data to obtain an infiltration rate for each model cell. Additionally, net infiltration on exposed outcrop areas is set to 10 percent of precipitation on the basis of borehole net-infiltration estimates. Soils and outcrop net-infiltration rates are merged to form a final map.Areas of low, medium, and high potential for ground-water recharge have been identified, and estimates of net infiltration range from 0.1 to 66 millimeters per year (mm/yr). Estimated net-infiltration rates of less than 10 mm/yr are considered low, rates of 10 to 50 mm/yr are

  19. Carbonate Platform Margin Slope Characteristics of Cambrian Chefu Age in Baojing-Fenghuang and Adjacent Areas, Western Hunan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Cambrian paleogeography in south China can be divided into Yangtze platform, platform margin slope (including upper slope and lower slope) and basin. The carbonate gravity deposits are well developed there, particularly in the Yangtze platform adjacent areas. This paper mainly deals with declivity fan characters of the Chefu age in Fenghuang adjacent areas, western Hunan Province. According to their distribution and thickness, three main declivity fans have been divided in the study areas,namely, Dama ( ∈ c-dsf), Machong ( ∈ c-msf) and Huangheyuan ( ∈ c-hsf) declivity fans. Each fan's characters are described in detail in this paper. Based on their distribution range, scale and fossiliferous layers, two peak periods (fair developmental period) are distinguished: (1) Linguagnostus reconditus Zone (time), and (2) Glyptagnostus reticulatus Zone (time). They were characterized by huge thick limestone breccia layers (single layer 3-4 rn thick) and closely spaced spread. Besides, there are also two developmental periods: (1) Lejopyge laevigata- Proagnostus bulbus Zone (time), and (2) Agnostus inexpectans-Proceratopyge protracta Zone (time) to Erixanium Zone (time) to Corynexochus plumula-Sinoproceratopyge cf. kiangshanensis Zone (time), while Glyptagnostus stolidotus Zone (time) was an interstitial period (without or rare limestone breccias). All these features may verify the relative movement of the earth crust and paleoclimate variety of the Chefu age in the study areas.

  20. Seismic Hazard Analysis along Koyna Dam Area, Western Maharashtra, India: A Contribution of Remote Sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Theilen-Willige

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Koyna-Warna area in Maharashtra, Western India, is one of the world’s best examples of reservoir-induced seismicity. The occurrence of earthquakes in the vicinity of Koyna Dam (Shivaji Sagar Lake started since 1962, soon after the initiation of water impoundment. To understand the tectonics and seismicity of the region, recent Landsat 8 images and Sentinel radar data were evaluated in GIS, as well as SRTM and ASTER Digital Elevation Model data (DEM and the DEM-derived morphometric maps. Geophysical and climate data were also included in the GIS database. The analysis of satellite data contributed towards understanding the tectonic framework of the Koyna reservoir area by visual lineament analysis. Thus, Landsat 8 and Sentinel radar data brought out the structural pattern and made visible larger fault zones. The detailed lineament analysis detected areas, presumed to have rocks of relatively higher permeability, supporting intrusion and infiltration of surface water. The resulting maps of weighted overlay procedures derived from causal morphometric factors that influence the susceptibility to ground motion revealed areas with higher, medium and lower susceptibility to soil amplification.

  1. Permafrost coverage, watershed area and season control of dissolved carbon and major elements in western Siberian rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Manasypov, R. M.; Loiko, S.; Shirokova, L. S.; Krivtzov, I. A.; Pokrovsky, B. G.; Kolesnichenko, L. G.; Kopysov, S. G.; Zemtzov, V. A.; Kulizhsky, S. P.; Vorobiev, S. N.; Kirpotin, S. N.

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC and DIC, respectively), pH, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4 and Si in ~ 100 large and small rivers ( 10 000 km2. This suggested that in addition to groundwater feeding of the river, there was a significant role of surface and shallow subsurface flow linked to plant litter degradation and peat leaching. Environmental factors are ranked by their increasing effect on DOC, DIC, δ13CDIC, and major elements in western Siberian rivers as the following: watershed area water flow path (deep vs. surface) but has to be considered in the context of different climate, plant biomass productivity, unfrozen peat thickness and peat chemical composition. It can be anticipated that, under climate warming in western Siberia, the maximal change will occur in small (ionic composition, and this change will be mostly pronounced in summer and autumn. The wintertime concentrations and spring flood fluxes and concentrations are unlikely to be appreciably affected by the change of the active layer depth and terrestrial biomass productivity. Assuming a conservative precipitation scenario and rising temperature over next few centuries, the annual fluxes of DOC and K in the discontinuous permafrost zone may see a maximum increase by a factor of 2, whereas for DIC and Mg, this increase may achieve a factor of 3. The fluxes of Ca and TDSc may increase by a factor of 5. At the same time, Si fluxes will either remain constant or decrease two-fold in the permafrost-bearing zone relative to the permafrost-free zone of western Siberia.

  2. Coarse grain deposit feature of Guantao formation in western depression Shuyi area of Liaohe basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jian-hua; LIU Chen-sheng; ZHU Mei-heng

    2005-01-01

    The extensive distribution of coarse-grained clastic rock of Guantao formation in Shuyi area of Liaohe basin was considered as a result of fluvial deposit. According to the comprehensive analysis of seism data, well log, core observation and experimental data, this kind of clastic rock is composed of pebblestone-cobblestone, microconglomerate, sand conglomerate, medium-coarse grained sandstone and fine-sandstone. According to the clast composition, sedimentary texture, structure and rock type, 3 kinds of sediment facies can be recognized ie the mixed accumulation-conglomerate dominated debris flow, pebblestone-cobblestone dominated gradient flow and sandstone dominated braided stream. Vertically, the bottom gradient current deposit and top braided stream deposit form fining-upward sediment sequence, and the debris flow deposit distributes in them at random. The sedimentary feature of coarse grain clastic of Guantao formation in Shuyi area is accordant with proximal wet alluvial fan deposited in wet climate at foreland and this kind of alluvial fan is different from the traditional one.

  3. Assessment and selection of geomorphosites and trails in the Miage Glacier area (Western Italian alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollati, Irene; Smiraglia, Claudio; Pelfini, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    Glacial environments are considered geomorphosites because they exhibit all of the features that characterise sites of geomorphological interest. The Miage Glacier, in particular, is the most important debris-covered glacier of the Italian Alps, and it has been extensively studied since the 18th century because of its scientific features. In this area, the geomorphological and geological attributes are evaluated at 11 sites that have been individuated along the three main touristic trails, which allow an exploration of the surroundings of the glacial tongue and its two main lobes. Using a methodology previously tested in a fluvial environment, single sites and trails are quantitatively assessed to determine the most suitable trail for educational purposes. Hazards that could potentially affect the trails are considered in terms of both risk education and final selection of the most suitable trails for the various possible user groups. The richness of scientific data in this area should increase its importance as a geomorphosite by increasing the educational value of the Miage Glacier and the Veny Valley.

  4. Changes in the fish community structure after the implementation of Marine Protected Areas in the south western coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu J. Pereira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine Protected Areas (MPAs are increasingly being recommended as management tools for biodiversity conservation and fisheries. With the purpose of protecting the region’s biodiversity and prevent the over exploitation of marine resources, in February 2011 the MPAs of Ilha do Pessegueiro and Cabo Sardão were implemented in the “Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina “(PNSACV Natural Park, south western coast of Portugal. In these areas, commercial and recreational fishing became prohibited. In order to evaluate the effects of these MPAs, the structure of its fish communities and of adjacent control areas without fishing restrictions were studied in 2011/12 (immediately after implementation and 2013 (two years after implementation. A total of 4 sampling campaigns were conducted (summer 2011, winter 2012, summer 2013 and winter 2013 using bottom trawl and gillnets. Faunal communities from the MPAs (treatment were compared with adjacent areas (controls and changes evaluated with time. Results revealed significant changes on abundance, having this parameter a slight increase after the implementation of the MPAs. Also, significant differences were observed on the structure of the protected areas communities when compared with neighbouring areas where fishing was still allowed, even though the small amount of time elapsed. In addition, specimens of larger size occurred more frequently within Ilha do Pessegueiro MPA in the last year of the study. Despite the young age of these MPAs, changes on their fish communities’ structure are already visible after only 3 years of protection, showing that these management measures may promote sustainable exploitation of fishing resources as well as protect species with conservation interest, thus leading to a global biodiversity increase.

  5. Chronic complications in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural area of western Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Results: There were 174 males and 132 females. Majority were less than 60 years of age. 20.26% of patients had neuropathy 15.36%, retinopathy and 5.56%, nephropathy. Risk factors of macro-vascular complication such as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia were observed in 38.9, 55.9%, and 54.6% of patients respectively. Coronary artery disease was noticed in 9.15%. Conclusions: Present study shows that high prevalence of micro vascular complications was present at diagnosis along with cardiovascular risk factors among T2DM patient from rural area of western Uttar Pradesh, India. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2292-2296

  6. A Study on Forest Species Diversity and Its Ecological Service Function in the Plateau Area of Western Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yu-lin; Wang Yu-kuan; Peng Pei-hao

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study on species diversity and its ecological service function in the plateau area in western Sichuan. The results show that species diversity in the plantations on the cutover land has a tendency to increase and that its ecological service function is to be improved with stand age growing. The species diversity in forest communities is also gradually increased on different succession stage till reaching a climax level. But the species diversity in the climax community is slightly decreased before it reaches a relatively constant status. Ecological service function of diversity is gradually strengthened with the progress of succession. In addition, species diversity in a stand in a similar site and at a same age differs among forest types. Species diversity index within a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest is larger than that within a coniferous forest. Meanwhile, species diversity enriches as the tree density increases.

  7. A review of the evidence to support influenza vaccine introduction in countries and areas of WHO's Western Pacific Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Samaan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immunization against influenza is considered an essential public health intervention to control both seasonal epidemics and pandemic influenza. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, there are five key policy and three key programmatic issues that decision-makers should consider before introducing a vaccine. These are (a public health priority, (b disease burden, (c efficacy, quality and safety of the vaccine, (d other inventions, (e economic and financial issues, (f vaccine presentation, (g supply availability and (h programmatic strength. We analyzed the body of evidence currently available on these eight issues in the WHO Western Pacific Region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Studies indexed in PubMed and published in English between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2010 from the 37 countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region were screened for keywords pertaining to the five policy and three programmatic issues. Studies were grouped according to country income level and vaccine target group. There were 133 articles that met the selection criteria, with most (90% coming from high-income countries. Disease burden (n = 34, vaccine efficacy, quality and safety (n = 27 and public health priority (n = 27 were most frequently addressed by studies conducted in the Region. Many studies assessed influenza vaccine policy and programmatic issues in the general population (42%, in the elderly (24% and in children (17%. Few studies (2% addressed the eight issues relating to pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The evidence for vaccine introduction in countries and areas in this Region remains limited, particularly in low- and middle-income countries that do not currently have influenza vaccination programmes. Surveillance activities and specialized studies can be used to assess the eight issues including disease burden among vaccine target groups and the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccine. Multi-country studies should

  8. Mangrove Forest Cover Extraction of the Coastal Areas of Negros Occidental, Western Visayas, Philippines Using LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pada, A. V.; Silapan, J.; Cabanlit, M. A.; Campomanes, F.; Garcia, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Mangroves have a lot of economic and ecological advantages which include coastal protection, habitat for wildlife, fisheries and forestry products. Determination of the extent of mangrove patches in the coastal areas of the Philippines is therefore important especially in resource conservation, protection and management. This starts with a well-defined and accurate map. LiDARwas used in the mangrove extraction in the different coastal areas of Negros Occidental in Western Visayas, Philippines. Total coastal study area is 1,082.55 km² for the 14 municipalities/ cities processed. Derivatives that were used in the extraction include, DSM, DTM, Hillshade, Intensity, Number of Returns and PCA. The RGB bands of the Orthographic photographs taken at the same time with the LiDAR data were also used as one of the layers during the processing. NDVI, GRVI and Hillshade using Canny Edge Layer were derived as well to produce an enhanced segmentation. Training and Validation points were collected through field validation and visual inspection using Stratified Random Sampling. The points were then used to feed the Support Vector Machine (SVM) based on tall structures. Only four classes were used, namely, Built-up, Mangroves, Other Trees and Sugarcane. Buffering and contextual editing were incorporated to reclassify the extracted mangroves. Overall accuracy assessment is at 98.73% (KIA of 98.24%) while overall accuracy assessment for Mangroves only is at 98.00%. Using this workflow, mangroves can already be extracted in a large-scale level with acceptable overall accuracy assessments.

  9. Climate change and the eco-hydrology of fire: Will area burned increase in a warming western USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Donald; Littell, Jeremy S

    2017-01-01

    Wildfire area is predicted to increase with global warming. Empirical statistical models and process-based simulations agree almost universally. The key relationship for this unanimity, observed at multiple spatial and temporal scales, is between drought and fire. Predictive models often focus on ecosystems in which this relationship appears to be particularly strong, such as mesic and arid forests and shrublands with substantial biomass such as chaparral. We examine the drought-fire relationship, specifically the correlations between water-balance deficit and annual area burned, across the full gradient of deficit in the western USA, from temperate rainforest to desert. In the middle of this gradient, conditional on vegetation (fuels), correlations are strong, but outside this range the equivalence hotter and drier equals more fire either breaks down or is contingent on other factors such as previous-year climate. This suggests that the regional drought-fire dynamic will not be stationary in future climate, nor will other more complex contingencies associated with the variation in fire extent. Predictions of future wildfire area therefore need to consider not only vegetation changes, as some dynamic vegetation models now do, but also potential changes in the drought-fire dynamic that will ensue in a warming climate.

  10. Holocene vegetation cover in Qin'an area of western Chinese Loess Plateau revealed by n-alkane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG YanXia; CHEN FaHu; AN ChengBang; XIE ShuCheng; HUANG XianYu

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have found that wetlands prevailed in western Chinese Loess Plateau and pine pollen could reach up to 80% in Qin'an area of the plateau during middle Holocene.It was then deduced that forest vegetation covered Qin'an area in a warm and wet climate during middle Holocene.The proxies of molecule biomarkers from two Holocene sections,a swamp-alluvial loess section and a typical loess-paleosol section are used to reconstruct regional vegetation history.It is found that the heavy-molecular-weight(HMW)homologues of the n-alkanes in all samples exhibit a pronounced odd-over-even predominance,maximizing at C31 and the abundance of the nC27-alkanes is the lowest in nC27,nC29,nC31,i.e.C27<C29<C31,a typical grass n-alkanes model.The results are the same as those of model surface soil samples under grass cover but different from both forest cover and modern pine leaves,which yield preferentially nC29-alkanes peak.It could be jnferred that the area was dominated by grass cover but not forest cover during whole Holocene epoch.The study shows that combining both molecule biomarkers and pollen analysis can avoid the disadvantage of pollen analysis in reconstruction of regional vegetation cover.

  11. Climate change and the eco-hydrology of fire: Will area burned increase in a warming western USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Donald; Littell, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Wildfire area is predicted to increase with global warming. Empirical statistical models and process-based simulations agree almost universally. The key relationship for this unanimity, observed at multiple spatial and temporal scales, is between drought and fire. Predictive models often focus on ecosystems in which this relationship appears to be particularly strong, such as mesic and arid forests and shrublands with substantial biomass such as chaparral. We examine the drought–fire relationship, specifically the correlations between water-balance deficit and annual area burned, across the full gradient of deficit in the western USA, from temperate rainforest to desert. In the middle of this gradient, conditional on vegetation (fuels), correlations are strong, but outside this range the equivalence hotter and drier equals more fire either breaks down or is contingent on other factors such as previous-year climate. This suggests that the regional drought–fire dynamic will not be stationary in future climate, nor will other more complex contingencies associated with the variation in fire extent. Predictions of future wildfire area therefore need to consider not only vegetation changes, as some dynamic vegetation models now do, but also potential changes in the drought–fire dynamic that will ensue in a warming climate.

  12. Response of rocky reef top predators (Serranidae: Epinephelinae in and around marine protected areas in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Werner Hackradt

    Full Text Available Groupers species are extremely vulnerable to overfishing and many species are threatened worldwide. In recent decades, Mediterranean groupers experienced dramatic population declines. Marine protected areas (MPAs can protect populations inside their boundaries and provide individuals to adjacent fishing areas through the process of spillover and larval export. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of six marine reserves in the Western Mediterranean Sea to protect the populations of three species of grouper, Epinephelus marginatus, Epinephelus costae and Mycteroperca rubra, and to understand in which circumstances MPAs are able to export biomass to neighbouring areas. All the studied MPAs, except one where no grouper was observed, were able to maintain high abundance, biomass and mean weight of groupers. Size classes were more evenly distributed inside than outside MPAs. In two reserves, biomass gradients could be detected through the boundaries of the reserve as an indication of spillover. In some cases, habitat structure appeared to exert a great influence on grouper abundance, biomass and mean individual weight, influencing the gradient shape. Because groupers are generally sedentary animals with a small home range, we suggest that biomass gradients could only occur where groupers attain sufficient abundance inside MPA limits, indicating a strongly density-dependent process.

  13. Analysis of the changes of vegetation coverage of western Beijing mountainous areas using remote sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liangyun; Jing, Xia; Wang, Jihua; Zhao, Chunjiang

    2009-06-01

    Mentougou District acts as a crucial component in the ecological buffer in western Beijing mountainous areas, Beijing, China. Using two Landsat MSS/TM images acquired on July 14, 1979 and July 23, 2005, the vegetation coverage of Mentougou District was calculated based on normalized difference vegetation index and spectral mixture analysis (NDVI-SMA) model. Its temporal and spatial changes were analyzed according to digital elevation model (DEM) image, social and economic data. The results showed that the vegetation coverage decreased from 76.4% in 1979 to 72.7% in 2005. Vegetation degradation was probably the result of human disturbance, such as outspreading of resident areas, and coal and stone mining activities, while vegetation restoration might be contributed by the combined effects of both natural processes and ecological construction effort. Vegetation changes were closely related to topographical characteristics. Plants at high altitude were more stable and less degraded than the plants at low altitude, while the plants on steep slope or northwest aspect were more vulnerable to degradation. During the period of 26 years, landscape appeared to become more fragmental, and ecological quality of the land seemed deteriorated sharply in that highly-covered vegetation area has been decreased by 24%.

  14. Black carbon aerosol characterization in a remote area of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiyuan; Schwarz, J P; Cao, Junji; Gao, Rushan; Fahey, D W; Hu, Tafeng; Huang, R-J; Han, Yongming; Shen, Zhenxing

    2014-05-01

    The concentrations, size distributions, and mixing states of refractory black carbon (rBC) aerosols were measured with a ground-based Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), and aerosol absorption was measured with an Aethalometer at Qinghai Lake (QHL), a rural area in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau of China in October 2011. The area was not pristine, with an average rBC mass concentration of 0.36 μg STP-m(-3) during the two-week campaign period. The rBC concentration peaked at night and reached the minimal in the afternoon. This diurnal cycle of concentration is negatively correlated with the mixed layer depth and ventilation. When air masses from the west of QHL were sampled in late afternoon to early evening, the average rBC concentration of 0.21 μg STP-m(-3) was observed, representing the rBC level in a larger Tibetan Plateau region because of the highest mixed layer depth. A lognormal primary mode with mass median diameter (MMD) of ~175 nm, and a small secondary lognormal mode with MMD of 470-500 nm of rBC were observed. Relative reduction in the secondary mode during a snow event supports recent work that suggested size dependent removal of rBC by precipitation. About 50% of the observed rBC cores were identified as thickly coated by non-BC material. A comparison of the Aethalometer and SP2 measurements suggests that non-BC species significantly affect the Aethalometer measurements in this region. A scaling factor for the Aethalometer data at a wavelength of 880 nm is therefore calculated based on the measurements, which may be used to correct other Aethalometer datasets collected in this region for a more accurate estimate of the rBC loading. The results present here significantly improve our understanding of the characteristics of rBC aerosol in the less studied Tibetan Plateau region and further highlight the size dependent removal of BC via precipitation.

  15. Office of Inspector General report on audit of the Western Area Power Administration`s contract with Basin Electric Power Cooperative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-25

    At the request of the Western Area Power Administration (Western), an audit of 17 areas was conducted with respect to possible overcharges on a power contract between Western and Basin Electric Power Cooperative (Basin), Contract No. DE-MP65-82WP-19001. The contract for Western`s purchase of electric power from Basin was entered into on April 15, 1982, and was in effect from January 1, 1986, through October 31, 1990. During this 58-month period, Basin billed Western approximately $197.6 million. Overall, it was found that Basin overcharged Western approximately $23.8 million. These overcharges occurred because Basin: (1) did not recognize or amortize as gain its overestimate of completion and correction costs for Antelope Valley Station (AVS) Unit 2; (2) did not amortize the gain on the sale/leaseback of AVS Unit 2 as an offset to lease costs; (3) billed Western prematurely for lease and interest costs; (4) overcharged for the cost of coal by including administrative and general expenses and profit, as well as incorrectly calculating discounts, royalty payments, and imputed interest costs; (5) made faulty calculations of amortization rates for deferred costs; (6) used a shorter depreciation period for AVS common facilities than it had used for other power plants; (7) retained tax benefit transfers; and (8) charged Western for interest and depreciation that had been paid by others. In addition to the $23.8 million in overcharges, interest accrued on the overcharges through December 31, 1996 was estimated to be approximately $22.1 million, resulting in a total of $45.9 million due Western.

  16. Survey of otomycosis in north- western area of Iran(1447- 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kazemi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose : Otomycosis(Otitis externa is an acute, subacte or chronic fungal infection that has exogenous or endogenous origin. The present study was carried out to investigate the etiologic agents and determine risk factore and epidemiological aspects of otomycosis in north- West area of Iran.Materials and methods : Clinical samples of suspected patients were studied in direct microscopy and cultured in specific medium for determining the causative fungi.Results : 89 patients; 64 male and 25 female were recruited and studies. The disease were more prevalent in 20- 40 years in both sexes.Identified etiologic agents with direct examination and culture of samples in numerous series were: Aspergillus niger(51 cases, A. terreus(9 cases, A. flavus(7 cases, A Fuminagatus(6 cases, Eurotium( prefect stage of A. glaucus(2 cases, penicillium Sp.(2 cases, Candida albicans(8 cases, Epicoccum Sp.(1 case, Mucor Sp. (1 case, Rhizopus Sp.(1 case and Microsporum canis(1 case.Conclusion : Saprophytic moulds were the main etiologic agent of Otomycosis and Aspergillus niger was the prime causaltive agent. Infection in 20 –40 year age group was the most prevalent and Otomycosis among females was determined more than male. This report has provided useful information on the prevalence, causative agents and health implications of Otomycosis, as an infection grossly neglected in enviroment.

  17. Systems for Hazards Identification in High Mountain Areas:An Example from the Kullu District,Western Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James S. Gardner; Eric Saczuk

    2004-01-01

    Methods and techniques for the identification, monitoring and management of natural hazards in high mountain areas are enumerated and described. A case study from the western Himalayan Kullu District in Himachal Pradesh, India is used to illustrate some of the methods. Research on the general topic has been conducted over three decades and that in the Kullu District has been carried out since 1994. Early methods of hazards identification in high mountain areas involved intensive and lengthy fieldwork and mapping with primary reliance on interpretation of landforms, sediments and vegetation thought to be indicative of slope failures, rock falls,debris flows, floods and accelerated soil surface erosion. Augmented by the use of airphotos and ad hoc observations of specific events over time, these methods resulted in the gradual accumulation of information on hazardous sites and the beginnings of a chronology of occurrences in an area. The use of historical methods applied to written and photographic material, often held in archives and libraries, further improved the resolution of hazards information. In the past two decades, both the need for, and the ability to, accurately identify potential hazards have increased. The need for accurate information and monitoring comes about as a result of rapid growth in population, settlements,transportation infrastructure and intensified land uses and, therefore, risk and vulnerability in mountain areas. Ability has improved as the traditional methods of gathering and manipulating data have been supplemented by the use of remote sensing, automated terrain modeling, global positioning systems and geographical information systems. This paper focuses on the development and application of the latter methods and techniques to characterize and monitor hazards in high mountain areas.

  18. Urban Fault Lines in Shangri-La: Population and economic foundations of interethnic conflict in the Tibetan areas of Western China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper argues that contemporary experiences of social exclusion and interethnic conflict in the Tibetan areas of Western China are interrelated and revolve around three processes – population, growth and employment – all of which centre on the urban areas. In this setting, the critic

  19. Ecological risks of Aluminum production and contaminated area by red mud in Western Hungary (Ajka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasulov, Oqil; Horváth, Adrienn; Bidló, András; Winkler, Dániel

    2016-04-01

    In October 2010, Hungary experienced one of the most severe environmental disasters: the dam wall of a red mud depository of an alumina plant in collapsed and more than 1 million m3 of toxic sludge flooded the surrounding area. Red mud is a strongly alkaline (pH of 9-12.5) by-product due to the high NaOH content. Apart from residual minerals and oxides, its components also include heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Pb, Ni, Co. As it has already been assessed, red mud had considerable effect on soil properties and thus on soil biodiversity. The aim of our study was to determine the aftereffects of red mud pollution on the soil mesofauna (Collembola). Study plots were selected in the area affected by the toxic flood, in agricultural and grassland habitats, at different distances (0.3 to 12.5 km) from the contamination source. Control plots of each habitat types were selected for comparative analyses. Soil samples were taken during the summer of 2015, five years after the red mud disaster. From each of the selected plots, 5 soil cores of 100 cm3 volume (3.6 cm in diameter and 10 cm in depth) were sampled from which springtails were extracted within 14 days using a modified Tullgren apparatus. Simultaneously with the Collembola sampling, we collected soil samples on each plots in order to determine soil properties (pH, CaCO3, particle size distribution) and the degree of heavy metal pollution. 25 heavy metals were measured (including total Hg) following the method of total (cc. HNO3 + H2O2-soluble) and bioavailable (NH4-acetate + EDTA-soluble) element content using ICP-OES and AMA 254. The studied habitats presented neutral to moderately alkaline soils (pH 7.2-8.1). Total metal content was higher in the plots formerly affected by red mud flood. The Hg concentration ranged from 0.023 to 1.167 mg.kg-1, exceeding the threshold concentration (0.5 mg.kg-1) defined by Hungarian legislation for toxic trace metals in soil. The collected 1442 Collembola specimens belong to 32

  20. Occupational risk of HIV infection among western health care professionals posted in AIDS endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, R; Houweling, H; van Zessen, G

    1998-08-01

    In this study on occupational risks of HIV infection among 99 Dutch medics working in AIDS endemic areas, 61% reported percutaneous exposures during an average stay of 21 months. The mean number of injuries was lower among physicians (2.0 versus 3.9 per year) and higher among nurses (1.9 versus 1.2) than in previous research conducted in 1987-1990 among Dutch medics returning from Africa. But the reduction of exposures among physicians might be explained by the fact that the number of procedures they carried out was less in the later study. Also among nurses a shift of tasks was seen. On the basis of an estimated HIV prevalence in the patient population of 19%, a chance of transmission per accident of 0.3%, and 1.9 percutaneous exposures per year, the mean occupational risk of HIV infection per year can be estimated at 0.11% per person. Besides length of stay and number of activities, characteristics of the work setting were associated with the frequency of different kinds of injuries. From the analysis of 109 extensive descriptions of recent accidents, it appeared that the majority of the injuries occurred during routine activities and were self-inflicted. Injuries with hollow needles usually occurred after the actual medical act (e.g. during recapping). Carelessness (e.g. due to fatigue) or being in a hurry (e.g. because of an emergency) were also often the cause of percutaneous injuries, as were the poor quality of the equipment, lack of professional skills, or a combination of these factors. Prevention activities are still important to reduce the frequency of occupational exposures. But they will not eliminate them totally; from the descriptions of recent exposures it was clear that some of the injuries occurred in spite of precautions.

  1. Monitoring Landslides in Western Mountainous Areas of China Using Advanced Multi-Temporal InSAR Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Liao, Mingsheng; Zhang, Lu; Gong, Jianya

    2016-08-01

    Disasters, caused by landslide, rock fall, debris flow, ground fissure, etc., are one of the significant natural catastrophes, threatening and influencing the socio-economic conditions around the world. China is one of the countries that suffer heavily from such geo-hazards. And most landslides take place in the mountainous valley areas of western China. With its wide coverage and sub-centimeter accuracy, radar remote sensing has already proven its potential for remotely measuring unstable slopes. Differential InSAR (D-InSAR) is used to recognize known landslides and find potential unstable slopes in a region scale. Then, for a specific landslide, advanced multi-temporal InSAR method is exploited to characterize its surface deformation by obtaining time-series displacement on coherent targets. Among them, the PSI technique exploits only PSs exhibiting high phase stability in a stack of interferograms, which generally exist in urban areas. But, in the case of rural environment characterized by vegetated or low reflectivity homogeneous regions, few PSs could be identified. As a complement of persistent scatterers, distributed scatterers widely existing in rural areas can be exploited. DSs decorrelate slowly and can be found from homogeneous ground, scattered outcrops, debris flows, non-cultivated lands and desert areas. In this poster, a distributed scatterers-based InSAR technique, making use of PSs and DSs, is proposed. At first, we will use D-InSAR technique to detect landslides. Then, both PSI and DS-InSAR will be implemented to monitor interested landslides. And a comparison study of these two methods are conducted.

  2. Faunal associations, paleoecology and paleoenvironment of marine Jurassic rocks in the Mae Sot, Phop Phra, and Umphang areas, western Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEESOOK; Assanee; YAMEE; Chotima; SAENGSRICHAN; Wirote

    2009-01-01

    We here report a paleoecological analysis and depositional history of the marine Jurassic (Toarcian–early Bajocian) strata cropping out in the western part of Thailand, based on bivalve assemblages with additional data from ammonites, brachiopods, and microfossils. Generally, the benthic bivalve facies in most outcrops is rich in infaunal, semi-infaunal and epifaunal suspension-feeders. Of these, infaunal forms dominate. The diversity of this benthic assemblage was influenced by energy level, substrate, sedimentation rate, and salinity. Low to intermediate energy levels and rather soft fine-grained siliciclastic substrate are proposed as factors governing faunal distribution and explaining the greater abundance and diversity of infaunal than epifaunal suspension-feeders. There were paleoenvironmental changes both in space and time, i.e., from south to north (Umphang to Mae Sot) and from Early Bajocian to Toarcian. In the Toarcian, most outcrops in Umphang are dominated by benthic bivalve facies (infaunal, semi-infaunal, and epifaunal associations). This implies warm, shallow water (inner neritic, 50―100 m) and oxygenated conditions except for the Mae Sot area where a deeper setting (outer neritic to possibly upper continental slope, 50―200 m) with restricted basinal anoxic conditions is favored as indicated by the presence of Bositra. After higher energy conditions in the Toarcian, lower energy conditions with low sediment supplies prevail in the Alenian, and the Mae Sot area was still a restricted basin. As a result of higher sea levels, the oxygen content in the basin is increased, resulting in the presence of the ammonites. By the end of the Alenian-early Bajocian, an ammonite-bivalve association (mixed facies A) and the presence of corals and microfauna (mixed facies B) are dominant but pass upwards to near-shore higher energy conditions in most areas except for restricted basin in Mae Sot. By the middle Bajocian the environment in all areas had changed

  3. Accumulation process and model for the Ordovician buried hill reservoir in the western Lunnan area, the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Ordovician buried hill reservoir in the western Lunnan area, a type of dissolved fracture and cavernous reservoir, is mainly composed of heavy oil. The oil is the mixture sourcing from the Middle-Lower Cambrian and Middle-Lower Ordovician, with three stages of pool forming process: (1) the destruction and parallel migration/accumulation during the late Caledonian to early Hercynian; (2) the oil and gas accumulation during the late Hercynian characterized by adjustment upward along faults and parallel migration/accumulation; (3) the formation of heavy oil during the latest Hercynian. The Ordovician buried hill reservoir is affected by the diffusion of light oil and gas but had no hydrocarbon charging during the late Yanshan period to Himalayan period, but in this period, formed the association of heavy oil and dissolved gas cracked from crude oil with dry coefficient of 0.91-0.96. The study on accumulation process of the Ordovician buried hill reservoir has important implications for the exploration potential of early oil and gas accumulation in the cratonic area of the Tarim Basin.

  4. [Lead uptake by plant in soil-plant system at lead-zinc deposit area of western Hunan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Hua; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Ji, Yan-Fang; Sun, Hong-Fei; Li, Hai-Rong; Wang, Wu-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Contents of lead in several crops as well as its uptake and distribution by paddy in typical lead-zinc deposit area of western Hunan province were studied based on field systematic sampling and laboratory analysis. The average concentration of lead in rice, maize and soy bean in the deposit was 2.4, 1.2 and 3.3 times higher than that in control area, respectively, suggesting that crops in the deposit were heavily contaminated by the element. Significant difference of the lead concentrations in crops was found among different crop species and different organs of the same crops. The average concentration of lead followed the trend: soy bean > rice > maize (among crop species), and root > haulm > seed (among organs). Paddy root exhibited strong binding and tolerant capacity to lead. Correlation analysis indicated that soil lead was main retention in paddy root, whereas the gaseous lead might be the main source for lead in the aerial part of crop. Heavy metals such as Hg, Cd as well as Pb co-enriched in crops, therefore the mechanism and health risk of the combined pollution of heavy metals in the deposit crops should be paid attention to.

  5. EVIDENCE FOR LADINIAN (MIDDLE TRIASSIC PLATFORM PROGRADATION IN THE GYULAKESZI AREA, TAPOLCA BASIN, WESTERN HUNGARY: MICROFACIES ANALYSIS AND BIOSTRATIGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZSOLT RÓBERT NAGY

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A shallowing-upward carbonate sequence was studied from the outcrop at Gyulakeszi, Tapolca Basin (western Hungary, and it is interpreted as a Middle Triassic (Curionii or younger platform progradation. Two lithostratigraphic units are distinguished. Microfacies analysis and micropaleontological investigation conducted on the red nodular, cherty limestone (Vászoly and Buchenstein formations suggest that the lower unit was deposited during the Reitzi and the Secedensis ammonoid zones. The overlying white platform limestone (upper unit is typical of a prograding platform and includes gravity-driven deposits at the base followed by periplatform facies deposited in shallow marine warm waters around the fair-weather wave base. The section at Gyulakeszi was unaffected by fabric-destructive dolomitization, which is uncharacteristic of similar platform facies in the Balaton Highland. Isopachous and radiaxial fibrous calcite cement found in the grainstone and boundstone facies are indicative of early lithification and diagenesis in the marine phreatic zone. “Evinospongiae”-type cement is described for the first time from the Balaton Highland and it is similar to the outer platform cements published previously from the Alps (Italy and Austria. The progradation could have advanced over the pelagic limestones as early as the Curionii zone, which is an undocumented event in the Veszprém Plateau. Similar event, however, is well known from the Western Dolomites, where aggradation was followed by intense progradation during the Gredleri and Archelaus ammonoid zones. The length of this progradation event at Gyulakeszi, however, is ambiguous since proven Ladinian (Longobardian rocks are not exposed in the study area and were not penetrated by boreholes in the Tapolca Basin.

  6. MANGROVE FOREST COVER EXTRACTION OF THE COASTAL AREAS OF NEGROS OCCIDENTAL, WESTERN VISAYAS, PHILIPPINES USING LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves have a lot of economic and ecological advantages which include coastal protection, habitat for wildlife, fisheries and forestry products. Determination of the extent of mangrove patches in the coastal areas of the Philippines is therefore important especially in resource conservation, protection and management. This starts with a well-defined and accurate map. LiDARwas used in the mangrove extraction in the different coastal areas of Negros Occidental in Western Visayas, Philippines. Total coastal study area is 1,082.55 km² for the 14 municipalities/ cities processed. Derivatives that were used in the extraction include, DSM, DTM, Hillshade, Intensity, Number of Returns and PCA. The RGB bands of the Orthographic photographs taken at the same time with the LiDAR data were also used as one of the layers during the processing. NDVI, GRVI and Hillshade using Canny Edge Layer were derived as well to produce an enhanced segmentation. Training and Validation points were collected through field validation and visual inspection using Stratified Random Sampling. The points were then used to feed the Support Vector Machine (SVM based on tall structures. Only four classes were used, namely, Built-up, Mangroves, Other Trees and Sugarcane. Buffering and contextual editing were incorporated to reclassify the extracted mangroves. Overall accuracy assessment is at 98.73% (KIA of 98.24% while overall accuracy assessment for Mangroves only is at 98.00%. Using this workflow, mangroves can already be extracted in a large-scale level with acceptable overall accuracy assessments.

  7. Bovine trypanosomosis and its fly vectors in three selected settlement areas of Hawa-Gelan district, western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumela Lelisa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study aimed at investigating the species diversity of fly vectors and estimating the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis was carried out from October 2009 to May 2010 in selected settlement areas of the Hawa-Gelan district in the western Wollega zone of Ethiopia. Standard methods of sampling and identification were employed for both entomological and parasitological examination. Three species of the genus Glossina (Glossina pallidipes, Glossina morsitans submorsitans and Glossina fuscipes and two genera of biting flies (Stomoxys and Tabanus were caught and identified. The overall apparent density of Glossina species caught was 10.5 flies per trap per day, with a higher proportion of female flies (57.2%. Out of a total 389 cattle examined, 42 (10.8%; 95% CI: 7.89% – 14.3% were found infected with trypanosomes. Three trypanosome species were detected in the study area, namely Trypanosoma congolense (54.8%, Trypanosoma brucei (23.8% and Trypanosoma vivax (21.4%. The prevalence of trypanosomosis was found to be significantly (p < 0.05 higher in cattle with poor body condition. There was an association between mean packed cell volume (PCV and the occurrence of parasitaemia (χ2 = 49.5, p < 0.05. About 95.2% of cattle that were positive for trypanosomes had a PCV less than the lower limit for cattle. Considering the current result, bovine trypanosomosis seems to be a serious constraint for agricultural activities in the settlement areas of the Hawa-Gelan district and seems to be associated with the presence of Glossina species. Therefore, application of control methods through community involvement to reduce the Glossina species infestation level is likely to increase animal productivity.

  8. Spatial Distributions of HIV Infection in an Endemic Area of Western Kenya: Guiding Information for Localized HIV Control and Prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Hoshi

    Full Text Available HIV is still a major health problem in developing countries. Even though high HIV-risk-taking behaviors have been reported in African fishing villages, local distribution patterns of HIV infection in the communities surrounding these villages have not been thoroughly analyzed. The objective of this study was to investigate the geographical distribution patterns of HIV infection in communities surrounding African fishing villages. In 2011, we applied age- and sex-stratified random sampling to collect 1,957 blood samples from 42,617 individuals registered in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Mbita, which is located on the shore of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. We used these samples to evaluate existing antibody detection assays for several infectious diseases, including HIV antibody titers. Based on the results of the assays, we evaluated the prevalence of HIV infection according to sex, age, and altitude of participating households. We also used Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic to test for HIV clustering in the study area. The prevalence of HIV at our study site was 25.3%. Compared with the younger age group (15-19 years, adults aged 30-34 years were 6.71 times more likely to be HIV-positive, and the estimated HIV-positive population among women was 1.43 times larger than among men. Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic detected one marginally significant (P = 0.055 HIV-positive and one significant HIV-negative cluster (P = 0.047 in the study area. These results suggest a homogeneous HIV distribution in the communities surrounding fishing villages. In addition to individual behavior, more complex and diverse factors related to the social and cultural environment can contribute to a homogeneous distribution pattern of HIV infection outside of African fishing villages. To reduce rates of transmission in HIV-endemic areas, HIV prevention and control programs optimized for the local environment need to be developed.

  9. House design modifications reduce indoor resting malaria vector densities in rice irrigation scheme area in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Githeko Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple modifications of typical rural house design can be an effective and relatively inexpensive method of reducing indoor mosquito vector densities and consequently decreasing malaria transmission. Public health scientists have shown the potential for house design to protect people against malaria, yet this type of intervention remains virtually ignored. A randomized-controlled study was, therefore, undertaken to determine the effects of this method of vector control on the density of indoor resting malaria vectors in a rice irrigation scheme area in lowlands of western Kenya. Methods Ten treatment houses were modified with ceilings of papyrus mats and insecticide-treated netting (ITN and tested against ten control houses without papyrus ceilings. To determine densities of mosquitoes resting in homes, the pyrethrum spray method was used to simultaneously collect indoor resting malaria vectors in intervention and control houses. Each house was sampled a total of eight times over a period of four months, resulting in a total of 80 sampling efforts for each treatment. Community response to such intervention was investigated by discussions with residents. Results Papyrus mats ceiling modification reduced house entry by Anopheles gambiae s.l and Anopheles funestus densities by between 78–80% and 86% respectively compared to unmodified houses. Geometric mean density of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus in modified houses were significantly lower (t18 = 7.174, P 18 = 2.52, P = 0.02, respectively compared to controls. Unmodified houses were associated with relatively higher densities of malaria vectors. There was a 84% (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.07–0.39, P Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus presence in modified houses, respectively, compared with unmodified houses. Residents responded favourably to this mode of vector control. Conclusion House modifications involving insect screen ceilings made from locally

  10. Permafrost coverage, watershed area and season control of dissolved carbon and major elements in western Siberian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Pokrovsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC and DIC, respectively, pH, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4 and Si in ~ 100 large and small rivers (2 of western Siberia sampled in winter, spring, summer and autumn over a more than 1500 km latitudinal gradient allowed for establishing the main environmental factors controlling the transport of dissolved river components in this environmentally important region, comprising continuous, discontinuous, sporadic and permafrost-free zones. There was significant latitudinal trend consisting in general decrease of DOC, DIC, SO4, and major cation (Ca, Mg, Na, K concentrations northward, reflecting the interplay between groundwater feeding (detectable mostly in the permafrost-free zone, south of 60° N and surface flux (in the permafrost-bearing zone. The trend of inorganic components was mostly pronounced in winter and less visible in spring, whereas for DOC, the trend of concentration decrease with latitude was absent in winter, and less pronounced in the spring flood than in the summer baseflow. The latitudinal trends persisted over all river watershed sizes, from 10 000 km2. This suggested that in addition to groundwater feeding of the river, there was a significant role of surface and shallow subsurface flow linked to plant litter degradation and peat leaching. Environmental factors are ranked by their increasing effect on DOC, DIC, δ13CDIC, and major elements in western Siberian rivers as the following: watershed area −2 yr−1 until 61° N, decreased two-fold in the discontinuous permafrost zone (62–66° N, and increased again to 3 t km−2 yr−1 in the continuous permafrost zone (67° N. The DIC, Mg, K and Ca followed this pattern. The total dissolved cation flux (TDS_c ranged from 1.5 to 5.5 t km−2 yr−1, similar to that in central Siberian rivers of the continuous permafrost region. While Si concentration was almost unaffected by the latitude over all seasons, the Si flux systematically

  11. Hydrogeological aspects and environmental concerns of the New Valley Project, Western Desert, Egypt, with special emphasis on the southern area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaad, Fakhry A.

    1988-12-01

    The New Valley Project has been given much attention in the past 20 years especially from the hydrogeological point of view concerning groundwater utilization for the reclamation of a large area of the Western Desert. Lithological, petrophysical, and petrographical studies were conducted on four wells south of Beris Oasis, namely Beris 20, Beris 15, Beris 14, and Beris 13, and are defined by latitudes 24°25'E and 24°35'E and longitudes 30°30'N and 30°46'N. The Nubian sedimentation is of Posttectonic deposition that took place over the uplifted Precambrian granitic basement and is Lower Cretaceous, whereas the upper most variegated shales of the cap rock are Upper Cretaceous. The Nubian sandstones in the area south of Beris Oasis contain hematitic stains and/or fine granular authigenic hematite, thin laminae of brown ferruginous quartzite is also recorded denoting oxidizing conditions in the basin of deposition. Thin streaks of carbonaceous shales are met with in different depths to the south of Beris area, may be taken to denote oscillations in the sea level and accordingly its depths, and are responsible for the change in the oxidation-reduction potential during the deposition of the corresponding beds. Lithologic logs were interpreted together with the electric and micro-logs for adjustment of the shale breaks and showed that there are five water-bearing zones, named from bottom to top: A, B, C, D, and E, and are mainly unfossiliferous orthoquartzites, separated from each other by impervious beds of siltstones, shales, and clays of varying thicknesses. This zoning had been found valid in other parts of the Kharga Oases and could be applied locally in the Kharga Oases area. Mechanical analysis was performed mainly on 39 samples, of which 18 were core samples and 21 were cuttings, that were raised from four wells dug in the area south of Beris Oasis, Kharga Oases. Porosity and permeability tests were carried out on the 18 core samples only. The implication of

  12. Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) point cloud ground filtering for area of an active landslide (Doren, Western Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodić, Nenad; Cvijetinović, Željko; Milenković, Milutin; Dorninger, Peter; Mitrović, Momir

    2014-05-01

    Ground filtering of point cloud is the primary step required for Digital Terrain Model (DTM) generation. The procedure is especially interesting for forested areas, since LiDAR systems can measure terrain elevation under vegetation cover with a high level of penetration. This work analyzes the potential of ALS data ground filtering for area of an active landslide. The results of ALS filtering, for example, may improve geomorphological and motion-detection studies. ALS data was collected during flight campaign 2011 under leaf-off conditions for Doren region, Vorarlberg, Western Austria. In this area, non-ground objects are mostly low vegetation such as shrubs, small trees etc. The vegetation is more dense in lower part of the landslide where erosion is smaller. Vegetation points can be removed based on the hypothesis that these are significantly higher than their neighboring points. However, in case of steep terrain, ground points may have the same heights as vegetation points, and thus, local slope should be considered. Also, if terrain roughness increases, the classification may become even more complex. Software system OPALS (Orientation and Processing of Airborne Laser Scanning data, Vienna University of Technology) was used for processing the ALS data. Labeling ground points has been made using physical and geometrical attributes (parameters) of ALS points. Also additional attributes were calculated in order to improve extraction. Since bare ground surface is usually smooth and continuous unlike vegetation, standard deviation of local elevations was used as roughness measure to differentiate these surfaces. EchoRatio (ER) was adopted as a measure of surface penetrability, while number of echoes and differentiation between echoes (EchoNumber) were also deployed in filtering. Since the ground points are measurements from bare-earth that are usually the lowest surface features in a local area, normalized height was defined as a rank of neighboring points

  13. Diachronic analysis of the occupation of the steppe area of the department of Sidi Bel Abbes (Western Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellal, B.; Ayache, A.; Ayad, N.; Hellal, T.

    2016-06-01

    Modes of occupation of the soil of the steppe area of the department of Sidi Bel Abbes (Western Algeria) know lots of mutations during the period 1987/2013; compromising the future of pastoral activity. This dissection based on supervised classification TSAVI values (Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index) using images of remote sensing of average spatial resolution of type Landsat-TM 5 and 8. The determination of the state of occupation of the ground and validation of remote sensing map shows that the status of the halophytic/psammophytic steppes and the Matorrals are detected in 38.38 % and 55,71 % of cases, respectively. On the other hand, the steppes chamaephytic mark -9,81 % regression only, agricultural land -24,51 %, and -46,24 % dense vegetation are correctly mapped. The sensing medium resolution is therefore, in the light of these figures, a management tool of the steppe field relevant and effective, which, in addition, allows enriching the field for a proper plan for the fight against desertification.

  14. Density and distribution of Patella ferruginea in a Marine Protected Area (western Sardinia, Italy: Constraint analysis for population conservation

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    S. COPPA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The endemic limpet Patella ferruginea is the most endangered invertebrate of the Mediterranean Sea. Our study examined a population of P. ferruginea in the Marine Protected Area of Penisola del Sinis - Isola di Mal di Ventre (western Sardinia, Italy. During the summer 2009, we carried out a systematic census of P. ferruginea along a 8114 m georeferenced perimeter of coast in the no take-no entry zone to assess its density, spatial distribution, and morphometric characteristics. Our aim was to provide a detailed map of the distribution of P. ferruginea and to investigate the effects of accessibility, wave exposure and slope of the coast on its occurrence. Patella ferrugineashowed the lowest mean density ever reported (0.02 ind/m and a unimodal population structure characterised by fewer females and juveniles. Accessibility had a major negative effect on the occurrence of P. ferruginea. Exposure was also an important factor in influencing its density, size composition and specimen position within the mesolittoral, while the slope had little influence. Morphometric analysis showed the dominance of the Rouxi form, while the Lamarcki form was confined to exposed sites. Our results demonstrate a highly endangered population of P. ferruginea and suggest that human pressure represents the main risk factor.

  15. Monitoring intensity and patterns of off-highway vehicle (OHV) use in remote areas of the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouren, Douglas S.; Coffin, Alisa W.

    2013-01-01

    The continued growth of off-highway vehicle (OHV) activities – demonstrated by the dramatic increase in OHV sales, number of users, and areas experiencing OHV use – has elevated concerns about their ecological effects, the impacts on wildlife, and the sustainability of OHV use on secondary and tertiary road networks. Conflicts between visitors and wildlife are raising concerns about system resiliency and sustainable management. In order to quantify the spatial and temporal impacts of OHV use it is imperative to know about the timing and patterns of vehicle use. This study tested and used multiple vehicle-counter types to study vehicular OHV use patterns and volume throughout a mountainous road network in western Colorado. OHV counts were analyzed by time of day, day of week, season, and year. While daily use peaked within a two to three hour range for all sites, the overall volume of use varied among sites on an annual basis. The data also showed that there are at least two distinct patterns of OHV use: one dominated by a majority of use on weekends, and the other with continuous use throughout the week. This project provided important, but rarely captured, metrics about patterns of OHV use in a remote, mountainous region of Colorado. The techniques described here can provide land managers with a quantitative evaluation of OHV use across the landscape, an essential foundation for travel management planning. They also provide researchers with robust tools to further investigate the impacts of OHV use.

  16. The incidence of S. aureus bacteraemia in acute hospitals of the Mid-Western Area, Ireland, 2002-2004.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whyte, D

    2005-05-01

    Concerns about healthcare-associated infections and the global crisis in antimicrobial resistance has combined to accentuate the fears around so-called "superbugs". In Ireland there is no single agreed indicator regarded as a true measure of the level of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals. The objective of this study was to compare two crude measures of MRSA--the percentage of bacteraemia caused by MRSA and the incidence rate (per 1000 bed days used) of MRSA bacteraemia in six acute hospitals. We examined all blood cultures positive for S. aureus (methicillin sensitive and resistant) from 2002 to 2004 in the Health Service Executive (HSE) Mid-Western Area of Ireland. Hospital In-Patient Enquiry (HIPE) data was used to determine monthly in-patient bed days used. Of 245 patient episodes of bacteraemia, 119 were MRSA. The trends in the percentage of isolates that were MRSA and the incidence rate calculated were compared. The incidence rate appears to be a more reliable and robust indicator of MRSA in hospitals than the percentage. Despite many difficulties in interpreting indicators of MRSA they should not preclude the regular publication of data at least at regional level in Ireland.

  17. Density and distribution of Patella ferruginea in a Marine Protected Area (western Sardinia, Italy: Constraint analysis for population conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. COPPA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The endemic limpet Patella ferruginea is the most endangered invertebrate of the Mediterranean Sea. Our study examined a population of P. ferruginea in the Marine Protected Area of Penisola del Sinis - Isola di Mal di Ventre (western Sardinia, Italy. During the summer 2009, we carried out a systematic census of P. ferruginea along a 8114 m georeferenced perimeter of coast in the no take-no entry zone to assess its density, spatial distribution, and morphometric characteristics. Our aim was to provide a detailed map of the distribution of P. ferruginea and to investigate the effects of accessibility, wave exposure and slope of the coast on its occurrence. Patella ferrugineashowed the lowest mean density ever reported (0.02 ind/m and a unimodal population structure characterised by fewer females and juveniles. Accessibility had a major negative effect on the occurrence of P. ferruginea. Exposure was also an important factor in influencing its density, size composition and specimen position within the mesolittoral, while the slope had little influence. Morphometric analysis showed the dominance of the Rouxi form, while the Lamarcki form was confined to exposed sites. Our results demonstrate a highly endangered population of P. ferruginea and suggest that human pressure represents the main risk factor.

  18. Stochastic decadal climate simulations for the Berg and Breede Water Management Areas, Western Cape province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Arthur M.; Hellmuth, Molly; Lumsden, Trevor

    2012-06-01

    A method is described for the generation of multivariate stochastic climate sequences for the Berg and Breede Water Management Areas in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The sequences, based on joint modeling of precipitation and minimum and maximum daily temperatures, are conditioned on annualized data, the aim being to simulate realistic variability on annual to decadal time scales. A vector autoregressive (VAR) model is utilized for this purpose and reproduces well those statistical attributes, including intervariable correlation and serial autocorrelation in individual variables, most relevant for the regional climate in this setting. The sequences incorporate nonlinear climate change trends, inferred using an ensemble of global climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Subannual variability is simulated using a block resampling scheme based on the k-nearest-neighbor approach, preserving both temporal patterns and spatial correlations. Downscaling to a network of quinary-level catchments enables distributed runoff, streamflow, and crop simulations and the assessment and integration of impacts. Final output takes the form of daily sequences, structured for driving the ACRU agrohydrological model of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

  19. Noble gas constraints on hydrocarbon accumulation and groundwater flow in the central area of Western Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊然学

    2001-01-01

    The noble gas concentrations and isotope ratios of seven natural gas samples from the central area of the Western Sichuan Basin were measured. The samples all have 40Ar/36Ar ratios greater than the atmospheric values, and the 3He/4He ratios (R/Ra) are entirely consistent with the crustal radiogenic He values. The vertical variation of the calculated CH4/36Ar ratios with depth clearly indicates that the CH4and 36Ar are intimately associated, indicating a common reservoir intermediate to the sampled reservoirs, where they are well mixed and stored together prior to entrapment into gas reservoirs. Meanwhile, the calculated CH4/36Ar ratios range between 8×106 and 64×106 very much greater than the CH4/36Ar values for pure water and 5 mol/L NaCI brine at low temperature and hydrostatic conditions, reflecting the presence of "excess" thermogenic CH4 over that supplied by a CH4-saturated groundwater at low temperature, and the excess CH4 saturation and dissolution to be at depth greater than the sampled reserv

  20. Biogeochemistry of a low-activity cold seep in the Larsen B area, western Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gutt

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available First videographic indication of an Antarctic cold seep ecosystem was recently obtained from the collapsed Larsen B ice shelf, western Weddell Sea (Domack et al., 2005. Within the framework of the R/V Polarstern expedition ANTXXIII-8, we revisited this area for geochemical, microbiological and further videographical examinations. During two dives with ROV Cherokee (MARUM, Bremen, several bivalve shell agglomerations of the seep-associated, chemosynthetic clam Calyptogena sp. were found in the trough of the Crane and Evans glacier. The absence of living clam specimens indicates that the flux of sulphide and hence the seepage activity is diminished at present. This impression was further substantiated by our geochemical observations. Concentrations of thermogenic methane were moderately elevated with 2 μM in surface sediments of a clam patch, increasing up to 9 μM at a sediment depth of about 1 m in the bottom sections of the sediment cores. This correlated with a moderate decrease in sulphate from about 28 mM at the surface down to 23.4 mM, an increase in sulphide to up to 1.43 mM and elevated rates of the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM of up to 600 pmol cm−3 d−1 at about 1 m below the seafloor. Molecular analyses indicate that methanotrophic archaea related to ANME-3 are the most likely candidates mediating AOM in sediments of the Larsen B seep.

  1. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition in under five children in drought affected desert area of western Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhu B; Lakshminarayana, J; Fotedar, R; Anand, P K

    2006-03-01

    The study was undertaken to asses the impact of drought on childhood illnesses and nutrition in under five children of rural population using three stage sampling design. The study has been carried out in 24 villages belonging to 6 tehsils of Jodhpur district which was a drought affected desert district of Western Rajasthan in 2003. A total of 914 under five children (0-5 years) could be examined for their childhood illnesses, malnutrition, dietary intake and clinical signs of nutritional deficiency. Childhood illnesses observed at the time of drought were respiratory (7.5 %), gastroentrological (7.5%), and 5.6% fever (viral, malaria and jaundice), higher in males than females. Children suffered from recent and long term malnutrition were 39% and 26% respectively as per National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) standards. The extent of malnutrition was significantly higher in females than in males (pmalnutrition (PEM) was observed in 44.4%. Overall mean calorie and protein intake deficit was observed to be very high (76.0 & 54.0 %). The comparison of present drought results with earlier studies in normal and drought conditions showed higher prevalence of PEM and deficiencies of calories & proteins in their diet. Respiratory, gastroentrological and fever were main childhood illnesses observed and were higher in males at the time of drought. PEM, vitamin A & B- complex deficiencies, anemia along with deficit in calories and proteins in their diet was observed higher in present study as compared to non desert areas, which may be due to the harsh environmental conditions in desert areas and paucity in the consumption of daily food intake. Due to inadequate consumption of daily food, the children were suffering from PEM resulting in several childhood illnesses. Effective measures making availability of adequate calories and proteins to all age groups especially to under five children through the ongoing nutrition programs needs to be ensured.

  2. Sub-surface paleochannel detection in DeGrussa area, Western Australia, using thermal infrared remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Sanchari; Chudasama, Bijal; Porwal, Alok; González-Álvarez, Ignacio

    2016-05-01

    Thermal Infrared (TIR) remote sensing measures emitted radiation of Earth in the thermal region of electromagnetic spectrum. This information can be useful in studying sub-surface features such as buried palaeochannels, which are ancient river systems that have dried up over time and are now buried under soil cover or overlying sediments in the present landscape. Therefore they have little or no expression on the surface topography. Study of these paleo channels has wide applications in the fields of uranium exploration and ground water hydrology. Identifying paleo channels using remote sensing technique is a cost-effective means of narrowing down search areas and thereby aids in ground exploration. The difference in thermal properties between the paleo channel-fill sediments and the surrounding bed-rock is the key to demarcate these channels. This study uses five TIR bands of day-time Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) L1A data for delineation of paleo-systems in the DeGrussa area of the Capricorn Orogen in Western Australia. The temperature-emissivity separation algorithm is applied to obtain kinetic temperature and emissivity images. Sharp contrasts in kinetic temperature and emissivity values are used to demarcate the channel boundaries. Profiles of topographic elevation, temperature and emissivity values are plotted for different sections of the interpreted channels and compared to distinguish the surface channels from sub-surface channels, and also to interpret the thickness and nature of the paleo channel-fill sediments. The results are validated using core-drilling litho logs and field exploration data.

  3. Indoor inhalation dose estimates due to radon and thoron in some areas of South-Western Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, Surinder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh; Singh, Bhupinder; Sabharwal, Arvind D; Eappen, K P

    2012-08-01

    LR-115 (type II)-based radon-thoron discriminating twin-chamber dosemeters have been used for estimating radon ((222)Rn) and thoron ((220)Rn) concentrations in dwellings of south-western Punjab, India. The present study region has shown pronounced cases of cancer incidents in the public [Thakur, Rao, Rajwanshi, Parwana and Kumar (Epidemiological study of high cancer among rural agricultural community of Punjab in Northern India. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2008; 5(5):399-407) and Kumar et al. (Risk assessment for natural uranium in subsurface water of Punjab state, India. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 2011;17:381-93)]. Radon being a carcinogen has been monitored in some dwellings selected randomly in the study area. Results show that the values of radon ((222)Rn)  varied from 21 to 79 Bq m(-3), with a geometric mean of 45 Bq m(-3) [geometric standard deviation (GSD 1.39)], and those of thoron ((220)Rn)  from minimum detection level to 58 Bq m(-3) with a geometric mean of 19 Bq m(-3) (GSD 1.88). Bare card data are used for computing the progeny concentration by deriving the equilibrium factor (F) using a root finding method [Mayya, Eappen and Nambi (Methodology for mixed field inhalation dosimetry in monazite areas using a twin-cup dosemeter with three track detectors. Radiat Prot Dosim 1998;77(3):177-84)]. Inhalation doses have been calculated and compared using UNSCEAR equilibrium factors and by using the calculated F-values. The results show satisfactory comparison between the values.

  4. Identification methods of coal-bearing source rocks for Yacheng Formation in the western deepwater area of South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Jinfeng; ZHANG Yingzhao; WANG Hua; WANG Yahui; GAN Huajun; HE Weijun; SUN Ming; SONG Guangzeng

    2015-01-01

    would be sufficient organic matters to form abundant source rocks. The results show that the integrated methods can significantly improve prediction accuracy of coal-bearing source rocks, which is suitable for early exploration of western deepwater area of South China Sea.

  5. Characteristics of change of the SST in the tropical western Pacific and the tropical Indian Ocean and its response to the change of the Antarctic ice area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, by using ocean surface temperature data (COADS), the study is made of the characteristics of the monthly and annual changes of the SST in the tropical western Pacific and Indian Oceans, which have important influences on the climate change of the whole globe and the relation between ENSO(E1 Nino-Southern Oscillation) and the Antarctic ice area is also discussed. The result indicates that in the tropical western Pacific and the Indian Oceans the change of Sea Surface Temperture (SST) is conspicuous both monthly and armaully, and shows different change tendency between them. This result may be due to different relation in the vibration period of SST between the two Oceans. The better corresponding relationship is obvious in the annual change of SST in the tropical Indian Ocean with the occurrence El Nino and LaNlra. The change of the SST in the tropical western Pacific and the tropical Indian Oceans has a close relation to the Antarctic ice area, especially to the ice areas in the eastern-south Pole and Ross Sea, and its notable correlative relationship appears in 16 months when the SST of the tropical western Pacific and the Indian Oceans lag back the Antarctic ice area.

  6. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF MOSQUITO POPULATIONS (DIPTERA:CULICIDAE) IN A LA CROSSE VIRUS- ENDEMIC AREA IN WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Container surveys were conducted in 5 communities on the Cherokee Indian Reservation, an area of western North Carolina endemic for transmission of La Crosse (LAC) virus, to determine the potential for peridomestic mosquito breeding, the relative abundance of mosquito species, an...

  7. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF MOSQUITO POPULATIONS (DIPTERA:CULICIDAE) IN A LA CROSSE VIRUS- ENDEMIC AREA IN WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Container surveys were conducted in 5 communities on the Cherokee Indian Reservation, an area of western North Carolina endemic for transmission of La Crosse (LAC) virus, to determine the potential for peridomestic mosquito breeding, the relative abundance of mosquito species, an...

  8. Structural analysis and metamorphism of Palaeoproterozoic metapelites in the Seinäjoki-Ilmajoki area, western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkitie, H.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian bedrock of the Seinäjoki-Ilmajoki area, western Finland, is largely composed of porphyroblastic metapelites. In the area, the regional metamorphic grade increases towards the southwest. Over a distance of 15 km, andalusite mica schists gradually grade into migmatitic garnet cordierite-sillimanite mica gneisses with a facies-series of the andalusite-sillimanite type. Five regional metamorphic zones are present: andalusite, sillimanite-muscovite, sillimanite-K-feldspar, cordierite-K-feldspar and garnet-cordierite-K-feldspar. The primary layering (S0 of the mica schists is deformed by an isoclinal fold phase (F2, which is synchronous with the main metamorphic phase and the growth of micas. S1 is very weak and subject to interpretation. The S2 schistosity is deformed by intense late-metamorphic F3 and F3b folds, which have formed under slightly different metamorphic conditions: practically no metamorphic micas have grown parallel to axial planes while within F3b folds there are a few granitic veins parallel to these planes. The F3 and F3b folds probably belong to one phase. S2 dominates in the mica schists while S3 and S3b dominate in the mica gneisses. The metapelites are also deformed by younger minor fold phases (F4 and F5. A composite schistosity (S0±S1±S2±S3, or S3b commonly occurs in the metapelites. The peak of regional metamorphism has been associated with the intrusion of 1.89-1.88 Ga old tonalite plutons. Geothermometric estimates for regional metamorphism are c. 730 °C at an assumed pressure of 5 kbar. Neosomes in the high-grade mica gneisses occur as patches rather than as elongated, narrow veins. Garnet coexists with cordierite, but the minerals are rarely in equilibrium. Muscovitization and the formation of retrogressive andalusite did not occur in the high-grade mica gneisses, but there is minor kyanite indicating that the crust probably underwent near-isobaric cooling. The area of highest

  9. Mercury species in seawater and sediment of Xiamen western sea area adjacent to a coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Liu, Xiyao; Yuan, Dongxing; Gong, Zhebin; Zhang, Zhen

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentrations and spatial distributions of mercury (Hg) species in seawater (including dissolved, particle, and total Hg) and sediment (including total and methyl Hg) of the Xiamen western sea area adjacent to a coal-fired power plant. The influence of the wastewater discharged from the seawater desulphurization (De-SO2) system of the power plant is discussed. Concentration of the three species of mercury in seawater from 18 sampling sites varied: dissolved ranged from 0.70 to 4.65 ng/L (mean 1.47 ng/L; median 1.12 ng/L); particulate ranged from not detected to 90.52 ng/L (mean 10.47 ng/L; median 1.26 ng/L); and total was 1.51 to 92.88 ng/L (mean 11.94 ng/L; median 2.84 ng/L). High concentrations of total Hg and particulate Hg, more than 70 ng/L, were observed in the area adjacent to the outfalls of the power plant. The Hg from the waste seawater of the power plant might be re-emitted to the atmosphere because it exists in seawater mainly in particulate attached form. The sediment total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.055 to 0.201 microg/g, with a mean of 0.126 microg/g and a median of 0.125 microg/g. Low methyl Hg concentrations in the sediment were observed in the study area, ranging from 0.017 to 0.256 ng/g as Hg, with a mean of 0.087 ng/g and a median of 0.081 ng/g. The ratios of methyl Hg to total Hg in the sediment were low, with a mean and median of 0.069%. Both total and methyl Hg were significantly linked to the sediment organic carbon (SOC).

  10. Molecular assessment of artemisinin resistance markers, polymorphisms in the k13 propeller, and a multidrug-resistance gene in the eastern and western border areas of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyunt, Myat Htut; Hlaing, Thaung; Oo, Htet Wai; Tin-Oo, Lu-Lu Kyaw; Phway, Hnin Phyu; Wang, Bo; Zaw, Ni Ni; Han, Soe Soe; Tun, Thurein; San, Kyaw Kyaw; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Han, Eun-Taek

    2015-04-15

    As K13 propeller mutations have been recently reported to serve as molecular markers, assessment of K13 propeller polymorphisms in multidrug-resistant gene in isolates from Myanmar, especially the eastern and western border areas, is crucial if we are to understand the spread of artemisinin resistance. A 3-day surveillance study was conducted in the eastern and western border areas in Myanmar, and K13 propeller and Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (pfmrp1) mutations were analyzed. Among the 1761 suspected malaria cases screened, a total of 42 uncomplicated falciparum cases from the eastern border and 49 from the western border were subjected to 3 days of surveillance after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. No parasitemic case showing positivity on day 3 was noted from the western border, but 26.2% (11/42) of cases were positive in the eastern border. Although we found no marked difference in the prevalence of the pfmrp1 mutation in the eastern and western borders (36% vs 31%, respectively), K13 mutations were more frequent in the eastern border area (where the 3-day persistent cases were detected; 48% vs 14%). C580Y, M476I, A481V, N458Y, R539T, and R516Y accounted for 68.9% of all K13 mutations significantly associated with day 3 parasitaemia. The K13 mutations were significantly associated with day 3 parasitaemia, emphasizing the importance of K13 surveillance. The low prevalence of K13 mutations and the absence of day 3 parasitaemic cases indicate that artemisinin resistance may not have spread to the western Myanmar border region. Although analysis of multiple K13 mutations is challenging, it should be done at various sentinel sites in Myanmar. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Extraction, Identification and Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Flavonoids From Fruit Extracts of Arbutus unedo L from Tiaret Area (Western Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadidja Bouzid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the total phenolic, flavonoid content and to investigate the antioxidant capacities of the fruit extracts of Arbutus unedo L. that grows in Tiaret area (Western Algeria. First we have extracted the fruit by some non-polar solvent (chloroform, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were evaluated according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure, and a colorimetric method, respectively. Extracts content was determined by using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV method. The total phenolic contents of A.unedo L. varied between 12.75±0.06 to 34.17±1.36 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry weight of extract. The total flavonoid varied from 2.18±0.10 to 6.54±1.14 mg catechin equivalent/g. The antioxidant potential of all extracts was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity, the IC50 of acetate ethyl was the best by 0,009 mg/ml may due to the phenolic compound, in the second was the chloroform extract by IC50=0,015mg/ml, in the third was butanol extract by IC50= 0,022 mg/ml and in the last was water extract by IC50= 0,048mg/ml. the antioxidant activity of all extracts was better than ascorbic acid. The extract obtained under optimum conditions was analyzed by HPLC and five flavonoid compounds were identified; they are catechin, apiginin, silybin, fisetine and naringin.

  12. Contamination of rural surface and ground water by endosulfan in farming areas of the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    London Leslie

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa there is little data on environmental pollution of rural water sources by agrochemicals. Methods This study investigated pesticide contamination of ground and surface water in three intensive agricultural areas in the Western Cape: the Hex River Valley, Grabouw and Piketberg. Monitoring for endosulfan and chlorpyrifos at low levels was conducted as well as screening for other pesticides. Results The quantification limit for endosulfan was 0.1 μg/L. Endosulfan was found to be widespread in ground water, surface water and drinking water. The contamination was mostly at low levels, but regularly exceeded the European Drinking Water Standard of 0.1 μg/L. The two most contaminated sites were a sub-surface drain in the Hex River Valley and a dam in Grabouw, with 0.83 ± 1.0 μg/L (n = 21 and 3.16 ± 3.5 μg/L (n = 13 average endosulfan levels respectively. Other pesticides including chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, fenarimol, iprodione, deltamethrin, penconazole and prothiofos were detected. Endosulfan was most frequently detected in Grabouw (69% followed by Hex River (46% and Piketberg (39%. Detections were more frequent in surface water (47% than in groundwater (32% and coincided with irrigation, and to a lesser extent, to spraying and trigger rains. Total dietary endosulfan intake calculated from levels found in drinking water did not exceed the Joint WHO/FAO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR criteria. Conclusion The study has shown the need for monitoring of pesticide contamination in surface and groundwater, and the development of drinking water quality standards for specific pesticides in South Africa.

  13. Forest dynamics in the U.S. indicate disproportionate attrition in western forests, rural areas and public lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng; Mountrakis, Giorgos

    2017-01-01

    Forests are experiencing significant changes; studying geographic patterns in forests is critical in understanding the impact of forest dynamics to biodiversity, soil erosion, water chemistry and climate. Few studies have examined forest geographic pattern changes other than fragmentation; however, other spatial processes of forest dynamics are of equal importance. Here, we study forest attrition, the complete removal of forest patches, that can result in complete habitat loss, severe decline of population sizes and species richness, and shifts of local and regional environmental conditions. We aim to develop a simple yet insightful proximity-based spatial indicator capturing forest attrition that is independent of spatial scale and boundaries with worldwide application potential. Using this proximity indicator, we evaluate forest attrition across ecoregions, land ownership and urbanization stratifications across continental United States of America. Nationally, the total forest cover loss was approximately 90,400 km2, roughly the size of the state of Maine, constituting a decline of 2.96%. Examining the spatial arrangement of this change the average FAD was 3674m in 1992 and increased by 514m or 14.0% in 2001. Simulations of forest cover loss indicate only a 10m FAD increase suggesting that the observed FAD increase was more than an order of magnitude higher than expected. Furthermore, forest attrition is considerably higher in the western United States, in rural areas and in public lands. Our mathematical model (R2 = 0.93) supports estimation of attrition for a given forest cover. The FAD metric quantifies forest attrition across spatial scales and geographic boundaries and assesses unambiguously changes over time. The metric is applicable to any landscape and offers a new complementary insight on forest landscape patterns from local to global scales, improving future exploration of drivers and repercussions of forest cover changes and supporting more informative

  14. Highly Silica-Undersaturated Sapphirine Granulites from the Daqingshan Area of the Western Block, North China Craton: Palaeoproterozoic UHT Metamorphism and Tectonic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jing-hui; ZHAO Guo-chun; Chen Yi; Peng Peng; B. F. Windley; SUN Min

    2008-01-01

    @@ Sapphirine-bearing granulites have recently been found in the Daqingshan and Jining areas, both of which are located in a Palaeoproterozoic collisional belt, named the Khondalite Belt, along which the Yinshan Block in the north and the Ordos Block in the south were amalgamated to form the Western Block at~1.95 Ga, and then the Western Block collided with the Eastern Block along the Trans-North China Orogen to form the coherent basement of the North China Craton at~1.85 Ga.

  15. The Tectonic Event of the Cenozoic in the Tasman Area, Western Pacific, and Its Role in Eocene Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collot, J.; Sutherland, R.; Rouillard, P.; Patriat, M.; Roest, W. R.; Bache, F.

    2014-12-01

    The geometry and age progression of Emperor and Hawaii seamounts provide compelling evidence for a major change in Pacific plate motion over a short period of geological time at c. 50 Ma. This time approximately coincides with significant changes in plate boundary configuration and rate in the Indian Ocean, Antarctica, and with the onset of subduction zones in the western Pacific from Japan to New Zealand. This new subduction system that initiated during Eocene time can be divided into two sectors: The northern sector formed at the eastern boundary of the Philippine Sea plate and evolved into the Izu-Bonin-Mariana system. It has and is being extensively studied (2014 IODP expedition 351) to determine the magmatic products, but is limited in the record that is preserved because it is entirely intra-oceanic in character. The southern sector, the Tasman Area sector, borders continental fragments of Gondwana from Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia and New Zealand. This subduction zone evolved into the Tonga-Kemadec system. Because most of the southwest Pacific remained in marine conditions throughout Paleogene time and because rapid seawards roll-back of the subduction is inferred to have happened, it presents extensive well-preserved stratigraphic records to study the Eocene-Oligocene plate boundary evolution. The recent compilation of c. 100.000 km of 2D seismic data in the Tasman Frontier database has allowed us to describe, in the overriding plate of the proto subduction, stratigraphic evidence for large Cenozoic vertical movements (2-4 km) over a lateral extension of 2000 km (from New Caledonia to New Zealand), long-wavelength (~500 km) warping and large amounts of reverse faulting and folding near the proto-trench. These recent observations from the Lord Howe Rise, New Caledonia Trough and South Norfolk Ridge system reveal clear evidence for convergent deformation (uplift and erosion) and subsequent subsidence recorded in Eocene and Oligocene stratal relationships

  16. [Analysis on the status of vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old in poor rural areas of 6 Western Chinese provinces in 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-guo; Zhang, Bing; Du, Wen-wen; Su, Chang; Liu, Ai-dong; Zhang, Ji; Ma, Yu-xia; Zhai, Feng-Ying

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the status of vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old in poor rural areas of 6 Western Chinese provinces in 2009. The study subjects involved 2091 children from a program - 'Appropriate measurements in improving children under-nutrition in poor rural areas'. In 2009, prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old from the poor rural areas of 6 western Chinese provinces was 20.2%, with boys as 20.6% and girls as 19.7%. Prevalence rates of vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old in the highest and lowest areas were seen in Gansu (25.5%) and Guangxi (12.2%) provinces, respectively. The peak of vitamin A deficiency prevalence fell in the 6 - 11 months age group. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency declined along with the increase of age. from this study demonstrated that vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old appeared to be a serious public health problem in the poor rural areas of 6 Western Chinese provinces. Education on reasonable ways of feeding and provision of complementary nutrients to children with vitamin A deficiency, should be the key points in the prevention and control programs on this problem.

  17. High coverage of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in rural and non-rural settings in the Western Area, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnie Mustapha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphatic filariasis elimination programs are based upon preventative chemotherapy annually in populations with prevalence more than or equal to 1%. The goal is to treat 80% of the eligible, at risk population yearly, for at least 5 years, in order to interrupt transmission and prevent children from becoming infected. This level of coverage has been a challenge in urban settings. Assessing the coverage in a rapidly growing urban/non-rural setting with inadequate population data is also problematic. In Sierra Leone, a 5-day preventative chemotherapy campaign was carried out in the Western Area including the capital: Freetown. An intensive, social mobilization strategy combined traditional and modern communication channels. To aid dissemination of appropriate information Frequently Asked Questions were developed and widely circulated. The population of the Western Area has grown faster than projected by the 2004 National Census due to the post-war settlement of internally displaced persons. As a reliable denominator was not available, independent monitoring was adapted and performed "in process" to aid program performance and "end process" to assess final coverage. Results In 5 days 1,104,407 eligible persons were treated. Using the projected population from the 2004 census this figure represented coverage of 116% in the Urban Western Area and 129% in the Rural Western Area. Independent monitors interviewed a total of 9,253 persons during the 2 End Process days representing 1% of the projected population. Of these, 85.8% recalled taking both ivermectin and albendazole (Urban: 85.2%, Rural: 87.1%. No serious adverse drug reactions were reported. Conclusion The paper presents the key elements of success of the social mobilization and implementation strategy and describes the independent monitoring used to estimate final coverage in this urban/non-rural setting where the current population size is uncertain. This implementation

  18. Morphology and dynamics of the base of the western jetty, probable area for the Rio Grande port pilot station, RS State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Carlos; Arejano, Tadeu Braga; Antiqueira, José Antonio Fonseca de

    2009-01-01

    The Rio Grande port has suffered accelerated growth over the past few years, a faet which has provoked the arrival of new enterprises, determining a restructuring (change) in the zoning plan of the organized port. The pilot station of the Barra is presently located at the intermediat portion of the Rio Grande Super port. Western margin of the access canal, and in order to improve assistance and navigation safety, it will be transferred to an area closer to the lagoon mouth; such area will be ...

  19. Extensional Late Paleozoic deformation on the western margin of Pangea, Patlanoaya area, Acatlán Complex, southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Arias, M. A.; Keppie, J. D.; Ortega-Rivera, A.; Lee, J. W. K.

    2008-02-01

    New mapping in the northern part of the Paleozoic Acatlán Complex (Patlanoaya area) records several ductile shear zones and brittle faults with normal kinematics (previously thought to be thrusts). These movement zones separate a variety of units that pass structurally upwards from: (i) blueschist-eclogitic metamorphic rocks (Piaxtla Suite) and mylonitic megacrystic granites (Columpio del Diablo granite ≡ Ordovician granites elsewhere in the complex); (ii) a gently E-dipping, listric, normal shear zone with top to the east kinematic indicators that formed under upper greenschist to lower amphibolite conditions; (iii) the Middle-Late Ordovician Las Minas quartzite (upper greenschist facies psammites with minor interbedded pelites intruded by mafic dikes and a leucogranite dike from the Columpio del Diablo granite) unconformably overlain by the Otate meta-arenite (lower greenschist facies psammites and pelites): roughly temporal equivalents are the Middle-Late Ordovician Mal Paso and Ojo de Agua units (interbedded metasandstone and slate, and metapelite and mafic minor intrusions, respectively) — some of these units are intruded by the massive, 461 ± 2 Ma, Palo Liso megacrystic granite: decussate, contact metamorphic muscovite yielded a 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau age of 440 ± 4 Ma; (iv) a steeply-moderately, E-dipping normal fault; (v) latest Devonian-Middle Permian sedimentary rocks (Patlanoaya Group: here elevated from formation status). The upward decrease in metamorphic grade is paralleled by a decrease in the number of penetrative fabrics, which varies from (i) three in the Piaxtla Suite, through (ii) two in the Las Minas unit (E-trending sheath folds deformed by NE-trending, subhorizontal folds with top to the southeast asymmetry, both associated with a solution cleavage), (iii) one in the Otate, Mal Paso, and Ojo de Agua units (steeply SE-dipping, NE-SW plunging, open-close folds), to (iv) none in the Patlanoaya Group. 40Ar/ 39Ar analyses of muscovite from the

  20. Assessing the response of area burned to changing climate in western boreal North America using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshi, M. S.; McGuire, A.D.; Duffy, P.; Flannigan, M.; Walsh, J.; Melillo, J.

    2009-01-01

    Fire is a common disturbance in the North American boreal forest that influences ecosystem structure and function. The temporal and spatial dynamics of fire are likely to be altered as climate continues to change. In this study, we ask the question: how will area burned in boreal North America by wildfire respond to future changes in climate? To evaluate this question, we developed temporally and spatially explicit relationships between air temperature and fuel moisture codes derived from the Canadian Fire Weather Index System to estimate annual area burned at 2.5?? (latitude ?? longitude) resolution using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS) approach across Alaska and Canada. Burned area was substantially more predictable in the western portion of boreal North America than in eastern Canada. Burned area was also not very predictable in areas of substantial topographic relief and in areas along the transition between boreal forest and tundra. At the scale of Alaska and western Canada, the empirical fire models explain on the order of 82% of the variation in annual area burned for the period 1960-2002. July temperature was the most frequently occurring predictor across all models, but the fuel moisture codes for the months June through August (as a group) entered the models as the most important predictors of annual area burned. To predict changes in the temporal and spatial dynamics of fire under future climate, the empirical fire models used output from the Canadian Climate Center CGCM2 global climate model to predict annual area burned through the year 2100 across Alaska and western Canada. Relative to 1991-2000, the results suggest that average area burned per decade will double by 2041-2050 and will increase on the order of 3.5-5.5 times by the last decade of the 21st century. To improve the ability to better predict wildfire across Alaska and Canada, future research should focus on incorporating additional effects of long-term and successional

  1. Comparison of benthos and plankton for selected areas of concern and non-areas of concern in western Lake Michigan Rivers and Harbors in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenberry, Barbara C. Scudder; Bell, Amanda H.; Templar, Hayley A.; Burns, Daniel J.

    2016-07-25

    Recent data are lacking to assess whether impairments still exist at four of Wisconsin’s largest Lake Michigan harbors that were designated as Areas of Concern (AOCs) in the late 1980s due to sediment contamination and multiple Beneficial Use Impairments (BUIs), such as those affecting benthos (macroinvertebrates) and plankton (zooplankton and phytoplankton) communities. During three seasonal sampling events (“seasons”) in May through August 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey collected sediment benthos and water plankton at the four AOCs as well as six less-degraded non-AOCs along the western Lake Michigan shoreline to assess whether AOC communities were degraded in comparison to non-AOC communities. The four AOCs are the Lower Menominee River, the Lower Green Bay and Fox River, the Sheboygan River, and the Milwaukee Estuary. Due to their size and complexity, multiple locations or “subsites” were sampled within the Lower Green Bay and Fox River AOC (Lower Green Bay, the Fox River near Allouez, and the Fox River near De Pere) and within the Milwaukee Estuary AOC (the Milwaukee River, the Menomonee River, and the Milwaukee Harbor) and single locations were sampled at the other AOCs and non-AOCs. The six non-AOCs are the Escanaba River in Michigan, and the Oconto River, Ahnapee River, Kewaunee River, Manitowoc River, and Root River in Wisconsin. Benthos samples were collected by using Hester-Dendy artificial substrates deployed for 30 days and by using a dredge sampler; zooplankton were collected by net and phytoplankton by whole-water sampler. Except for the Lower Green Bay and Milwaukee Harbor locations, communities at each AOC were compared to all non-AOCs as a group and to paired non-AOCs using taxa relative abundances and metrics, including richness, diversity, and an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI, for Hester-Dendy samples only). Benthos samples collected during one or more seasons were rated as degraded for at least one metric at all AOCs. In the

  2. Inferring the subsurface basement depth and the structural trends as deduced from aeromagnetic data at West Beni Suef area, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ahmed; Abdel Hafeez, Tharwat H.; Saleh, Hassan S.; Mohamed, Waheed H.

    2016-12-01

    The present work aimed to delineate the subsurface structures and to estimate the magnetic source depth at the selected area lying in West Beni Suef area, Western Desert, Egypt, following different geomagnetic techniques. The analysis of aeromagnetic data demonstrates five significant tectonic faults trending to NW-SE, ENE-WSW, NE-SW, E-W and NNW-SSE directions constructed using Euler deconvolution techniques. The execution of this study is initiated by transformation of the total intensity aeromagnetic data to the reduced to pole (RTP) magnetic intensity. This is followed by applying several transformation techniques and various filtering processes through qualitative and quantitative analyses on magnetic data. The reduced to the northern magnetic pole (RTP) data are separated spectrally into regional and residual magnetic components using the computed power spectrum of the magnetic data. The estimated mean depths of both regional and residual sources are found to be 5.27 km and 2.78 km respectively. Also, depth estimations have been conducted by application of the Euler deconvolution and 2-D modeling techniques. The results indicate that the eastern and northern parts of the study area discriminate deeper basement relief and the depth of basement surface reaches to 5095 m. While the southern and western parts of the study area discriminate shallower basement relief and the depth of basement surface reaches to 227 m. This study has given a clear picture of the geologic structures beneath the study area.

  3. Application of Time Series Insar Technique for Deformation Monitoring of Large-Scale Landslides in Mountainous Areas of Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, T.; Lu, P.; Liu, C.; Wan, H.

    2016-06-01

    Western China is very susceptible to landslide hazards. As a result, landslide detection and early warning are of great importance. This work employs the SBAS (Small Baseline Subset) InSAR Technique for detection and monitoring of large-scale landslides that occurred in Li County, Sichuan Province, Western China. The time series INSAR is performed using descending scenes acquired from TerraSAR-X StripMap mode since 2014 to get the spatial distribution of surface displacements of this giant landslide. The time series results identify the distinct deformation zone on the landslide body with a rate of up to 150mm/yr. The deformation acquired by SBAS technique is validated by inclinometers from diverse boreholes of in-situ monitoring. The integration of InSAR time series displacements and ground-based monitoring data helps to provide reliable data support for the forecasting and monitoring of largescale landslide.

  4. Application and Demonstration of a Series of Rare Earth Drought Resistant Materials in Western Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Guoqiang; Wang Jiachen

    2004-01-01

    The application and effects for a series of rare earth (RE) drought resistant materials used in arid, salina,hungriness, wind defending and sand fixing matter, withdraw farming and return to grass and forest in western of China were reported.The important discussion was technological innovation within two years: such as seed clothing agent,RE liquid field film, RE grass and woods transplant living agent, and RE complex pesticide development and application.

  5. Ferricretes of the Early Tertiary Dammam Formation in the Dukhan Area, Western Qatar: mineralogy, geochemistry, and environment of deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Sobhi J. [صبحي جابر نصر; Al-Saad, Hamad; Al-Sayigh, Abdul Razak; Al-Harthy, Abdul Rahman; Almishwat, Ali; Dill, Harald

    2003-01-01

    Ferricretes of the Middle Eocene Dammam Formation, Western Qatar, were investigated using petrographic and ore microscopy, IR TGA, XRD, and geochemical analyses. The ferricretes mainly consist of goethite, which is very varigated in habit and texture. Geochemical analyses show that the ferricretes consist of impure chemical sediments, iron hydroxides plus variable amounts of carbonate and siliciclastic materials. The ferricretes resemble with respect to texture, mineralogy and chemistry mo...

  6. Characterization of archaeological ceramics from the north western lowland Maya Area, using the technique of neutron activation analysis; Caracterizacion de ceramicas arqueologicas de las tierras bajas noroccidentales del Area Maya, empleando la tecnica de activacion neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, M. C.; Tenorio, D.; Jimenez R, M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Terreros, E. [Museo del Templo Mayor, INAH, Seminario No. 8, Col. Centro, Mexico 06060, D. F. (Mexico); Ochoa, L. [UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico 04510, D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    It is a study on 50 samples of ceramics from various archaeological sites of the north western lowland Maya Area. This study was performed by neutron activation analysis of 19 chemical elements and the treatments relevant statistical data. Significant differences were found among the pieces that led to group them into five major groups, the difference is the site of their manufacture and therefore in the raw materials used for this. (Author)

  7. Comparison of benthos and plankton for selected areas of concern and non-areas of concern in western Lake Michigan Rivers and Harbors in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenberry, Barbara C. Scudder; Bell, Amanda H.; Templar, Hayley A.; Burns, Daniel J.

    2016-07-25

    Recent data are lacking to assess whether impairments still exist at four of Wisconsin’s largest Lake Michigan harbors that were designated as Areas of Concern (AOCs) in the late 1980s due to sediment contamination and multiple Beneficial Use Impairments (BUIs), such as those affecting benthos (macroinvertebrates) and plankton (zooplankton and phytoplankton) communities. During three seasonal sampling events (“seasons”) in May through August 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey collected sediment benthos and water plankton at the four AOCs as well as six less-degraded non-AOCs along the western Lake Michigan shoreline to assess whether AOC communities were degraded in comparison to non-AOC communities. The four AOCs are the Lower Menominee River, the Lower Green Bay and Fox River, the Sheboygan River, and the Milwaukee Estuary. Due to their size and complexity, multiple locations or “subsites” were sampled within the Lower Green Bay and Fox River AOC (Lower Green Bay, the Fox River near Allouez, and the Fox River near De Pere) and within the Milwaukee Estuary AOC (the Milwaukee River, the Menomonee River, and the Milwaukee Harbor) and single locations were sampled at the other AOCs and non-AOCs. The six non-AOCs are the Escanaba River in Michigan, and the Oconto River, Ahnapee River, Kewaunee River, Manitowoc River, and Root River in Wisconsin. Benthos samples were collected by using Hester-Dendy artificial substrates deployed for 30 days and by using a dredge sampler; zooplankton were collected by net and phytoplankton by whole-water sampler. Except for the Lower Green Bay and Milwaukee Harbor locations, communities at each AOC were compared to all non-AOCs as a group and to paired non-AOCs using taxa relative abundances and metrics, including richness, diversity, and an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI, for Hester-Dendy samples only). Benthos samples collected during one or more seasons were rated as degraded for at least one metric at all AOCs. In the

  8. Evaluating DNAPL Source and Migration Zones: M-Area Settling Basin and the Western Sector of A/M Area, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, D.G.

    2001-09-11

    The objective of this investigation is to critically evaluate previous characterization and remediation data to determine the current extent and distribution of DNAPL associated with releases at the M-Area Basin within A/M Area. The primary objective of the effort is to develop an approximate recommendation for the target treatment location and volume near the M Area Settling Basin. Through this analysis the final objective is to identify those subsurface regions having specific geometry and character necessary to cost-effectively deploy DNAPL specific remediation alternatives.

  9. 77 FR 67394 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sale 233...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Area (WPA) Lease Sale 233 and Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sale 231, Oil and Gas Lease Sales... Supplemental EIS for oil and gas lease sales tentatively scheduled in 2013 and 2014 in the WPA and CPA offshore... environmental and socioeconomic analyses for proposed WPA Lease Sale 233 and proposed CPA Lease Sale 231,...

  10. 西天山地区雷暴和闪电特征分析%Characteristics of Thunderstorm and Lightning in Western Tianshan Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿吉古丽·沙依提; 尹仔锋; 卡哈尔·亚森; 塔伊尔·艾则孜; 哈依霞·哈力; 古丽尼沙·麦提库尔班

    2013-01-01

    The Characteristics of Thunderstorm and Lightning in Western Tianshan Areas were analyzed by use of thunderstorm data from 1960 to 2010 and lightning monitor data in 2008. The results showed as follows: The pattern of spatial distribution of thunderstorms in Western Tianshan areas was characterized by rare in the south and north but more in the east and west. The annual mean days of thunderstorm in Western Tianshan area was 17.3 to 85.5 days, and the thunderstorm days decreased at the rate of 2.7 days per decade in the recent 51 years. The monthly variation of thunderstorm average days shows single peak, and reached its peak in June and July. It is found that positive lightning is mainly lightning in Western Tianshan area and its ratio is 66% .The intensity of lightning is mainly concentrated in -130~ +63KA and intensity of negative lightning is greater than intensity of positive lightning.%利用西天山地区14个气象站1960-2010年雷暴资料和新疆雷电监测网2008年观测资料,分析了西天山地区雷暴和闪电变化特征。结果表明:西天山地区年平均雷暴日数分布呈东西多,南北少的形势。该区域年平均雷暴日数在17.3~85.5 d之间,并以2.7 d/10 a的速率减少。西天山地区雷暴日数的年变化呈单峰型,并在6-7月达到最大值。整个区域以正闪为主,正闪占总闪的比例达66%。该区域闪电电流强度在-130~+63 kA之间,负闪强度大于正闪强度。

  11. Genetic structure of the rattan Calamus thwaitesii in core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in centralWestern Ghats, India: do protected areas serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B. T. Ramesha; G. Ravikanth; M. Nageswara Rao; K. N. Ganeshaiah; R. Uma Shaanker

    2007-01-01

    Given the increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, the various protected areas—national parks, sanctuaries, and biosphere reserves—serve as the last footholds for conserving biological diversity. However, because protected areas are often targeted for the conservation of selected species, particularly charismatic animals, concerns have been raised about their effectiveness in conserving nontarget taxa and their genetic resources. In this paper, we evaluate whether protected areas can serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants that are threatened due to extraction pressures. We examine the population structure and genetic diversity of an economically important rattan, Calamus thwaitesii, in the core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in the central Western Ghats, southern India. Our results indicate that in all the three protected areas, the core and buffer regions maintain a better population structure, as well as higher genetic diversity, than the peripheral regions of the protected area. Thus, despite the escalating pressures of extraction, the protected areas are effective in conserving the genetic resources of rattan. These results underscore the importance of protected areas in conservation of nontarget species and emphasize the need to further strengthen the protected-area network to offer refugia for economically important plant species.

  12. Deriving an atmospheric budget of total organic bromine using airborne in situ measurements from the western Pacific area during SHIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, S.; Bönisch, H.; Keber, T.; Oram, D. E.; Mills, G.; Engel, A.

    2014-07-01

    During the recent SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project an extensive data set of all halogen species relevant for the atmospheric budget of total organic bromine was collected in the western Pacific region using the Falcon aircraft operated by the German Aerospace agency DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) covering a vertical range from the planetary boundary layer up to the ceiling altitude of the aircraft of 13 km. In total, more than 700 measurements were performed with the newly developed fully automated in situ instrument GHOST-MS (Gas chromatograph for the Observation of Tracers - coupled with a Mass Spectrometer) by the Goethe University of Frankfurt (GUF) and with the onboard whole-air sampler WASP with subsequent ground-based state-of-the-art GC / MS analysis by the University of East Anglia (UEA). Both instruments yield good agreement for all major (CHBr3 and CH2Br2) and minor (CH2BrCl, CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl) VSLS (very short-lived substances), at least at the level of their 2σ measurement uncertainties. In contrast to the suggestion that the western Pacific could be a region of strongly increased atmospheric VSLS abundance (Pyle et al., 2011), we found only in the upper troposphere a slightly enhanced amount of total organic bromine from VSLS relative to the levels reported in Montzka and Reimann et al. (2011) for other tropical regions. From the SHIVA observations in the upper troposphere, a budget for total organic bromine, including four halons (H-1301, H-1211, H-1202, H-2402), CH3Br and the VSLS, is derived for the level of zero radiative heating (LZRH), the input region for the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and thus also for the stratosphere. With the exception of the two minor VSLS CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl, excellent agreement with the values reported in Montzka and Reimann et al. (2011) is found, while being slightly higher than previous studies from our group based on balloon-borne measurements.

  13. Quantifying the risk of nosocomial infection within Ebola Holding Units: a retrospective cohort study of negative patients discharged from five Ebola Holding Units in Western Area, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkell, Paul; Youkee, Daniel; Brown, Colin S; Kamara, Abdul; Kamara, Thaim B; Johnson, Oliver; Lado, Marta; George, Viginia; Koroma, Fatmata; King, Matilda B; Parker, Benson E; Baker, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A central pillar in the response to the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in Sierra Leone was the role of Ebola Holding Units (EHUs). These units isolated patients meeting a suspect case definition, tested them for EVD, initiated appropriate early treatment and discharged negative patients to onward inpatient care or home. Positive patients were referred to Ebola Treatment Centres. We aimed to estimate the risk of nosocomial transmission within these EHUs. We followed up a cohort of 543 patients discharged with a negative EVD test from five EHUs in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, and examined all line-listed subsequent EVD tests from any facility in the Western Area to see whether the patient was retested within 30 days, matching by name, age and address. We defined possible readmissions as having the same name and age but uncertain address, and confirmed readmissions where name, age and address matched. We found a positive readmission rate of 3.3% (18 cases), which included 1.5% confirmed readmissions (8 cases) and 1.8% possible readmissions (10 cases). This is lower than rates previously reported. We cannot ascertain whether EVD was acquired within the EHUs or from re-exposure in the community. No demographic or clinical variables were identified as risk factors for positive readmission, likely due to our small sample size. These findings support the EHU model as a safe method for isolation of suspect EVD patients and their role in limiting the spread of EVD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The relationship of alcohol consumption with left ventricular mass in people 35 years old or older in rural areas of Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunjing; Zhang, Nan; Huang, Wei; Feng, Rui; Feng, Panpan; Gu, Jun; Liu, Gang; Lei, Han

    2017-02-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol intake and left ventricular mass (LVM) independent of the effects of blood pressure and other factors in rural areas of Western China. The present study included 1007 subjects (487 men and 520 women) aged ≥35 years from the Tongan district, Chongqing, China. The quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption were estimated from a validated questionnaire. Echocardiography was used to assess left ventricular dimensions. Drinkers was associated with higher LVM compared with nondrinkers (β = 6.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-12.5, P = .015). A dose-dependent higher LVM across increasing alcohol consumption was observed (P consumption (P for interaction = .013) and frequency of alcohol consumption (P for interaction = .025) were strongly associated with higher LVM when stratified by blood pressure. However, interactions linked to age, body mass index, and gender were found to be no significant difference. These results indicate that both quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption are independent predictors of LVM in rural areas of Western China. The effects of alcohol consumption on LVM are enhanced among subjects with hypertension.

  15. Change in glacier area and thickness in the Tomur Peak, western Chinese Tien Shan over the past four decades

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Huai Baojuan; Li Zhongqin; Sun Meiping; Wang Wenbin; Jin Shang; Li Kaiming

    2015-03-01

    This paper looks at glacier area change in the Tomur Peak for the 1964/71–2000 and 2000–2011 periods. The results show that the total area of the selected 78 glaciers has decreased from 555.45 km2 in 1964/71 to 530.39 km2 in 2000, and further reduced to 521.89 km2 in 2011. Overall, the selected glaciers have lost 4.50% of their surface area between 1964/71 and 2000, and have lost 1.60% more between 2000 and 2011. The area reduction rate of the 78 glaciers increased from 0.12%/a during 1964/71–2000 to 0.13%/a during 2000–2011. In addition, this paper describes a method for estimating the ice surface elevation change using the SRTM (2000) and elevation data generated from topographic maps (1964/71) to quantify the ice thickness change for the 1964/71–2000 period. The surface elevation for about 73.50% of grid area decreased, mostly in the glacier ablation zone. The overall average thickness loss is 22.35 m which yields an annual loss of 0.60 m/a.

  16. Comparison of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) whistles from two areas of western Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jordan M; Ponnampalam, Louisa S; Araújo, Claryana C; Wang, John Y; Kuit, Sui Hyang; Hung, Samuel K

    2015-11-01

    Differences in the acoustic variables of whistles emitted by Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from two coastal locations along western Peninsular Malaysia were investigated. Duration, frequency, and frequency modulation variables were extracted from and used to characterize recordings of free-ranging humpback dolphins that were made using a broadband towed hydrophone. A total of 960 whistles from Matang Mangroves and 823 whistles from Langkawi Island were used in analyses. The whistles of Malaysian humpback dolphins covered frequencies from 1231 to 27 120 Hz with durations from 0.010-1.575 s. Significant multivariate differences were found in whistles emitted between locations. Significant differences were also found between dolphins of the two locations in their whistle duration, frequency modulation, and all frequency variables except for minimum frequency, which is likely under morphological constraints. The differences in whistles may be related to adaptations to the local acoustic habitat or unique whistles may have developed due to social interactions within each location, or broader scale differences resulting from geographic separation between the locations.

  17. Multichannel Seismic Imaging of the Rivera Plate Subduction at the Seismogenic Jalisco Block Area (Western Mexican Margin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolome, Rafael; Górriz, Estefanía; Dañobeitia, Juanjo; Cordoba, Diego; Martí, David; Cameselle, Alejandra L.; Núñez-Cornú, Francisco; Bandy, William L.; Mortera-Gutiérrez, Carlos A.; Nuñez, Diana; Castellón, Arturo; Alonso, Jose Luis

    2016-10-01

    During the TSUJAL marine geophysical survey, conducted in February and March 2014, Spanish, Mexican and British scientists and technicians explored the western margin of Mexico, considered one of the most active seismic zones in America. This work aims to characterize the internal structure of the subduction zone of the Rivera plate beneath the North American plate in the offshore part of the Jalisco Block, to link the geodynamic and the recent tectonic deformation occurring there with the possible generation of tsunamis and earthquakes. For this purpose, it has been carried out acquisition, processing and geological interpretation of a multichannel seismic reflection profile running perpendicular to the margin. Crustal images show an oceanic domain, dominated by subduction-accretion along the lower slope of the margin with a subparallel sediment thickness of up to 1.6 s two-way travel time (approx. 2 km) in the Middle American Trench. Further, from these data the region appears to be prone to giant earthquake production. The top of the oceanic crust (intraplate reflector) is very well imaged. It is almost continuous along the profile with a gentle dip (continental crust presents a well-developed accretionary prism consisting of highly deformed sediments with prominent slumping towards the trench that may be the result of past tsunamis. Also, a bottom simulating reflector (BSR) is identified in the first half a second (twtt) of the section. High amplitude reflections at around 7-8 s twtt clearly image a discontinuous Moho, defining a very gentle dipping subduction plane.

  18. Canine Fecal Contamination in a Metropolitan Area (Milan, North-Western Italy: Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Evaluation of Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Aurelio Zanzani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites of dogs represent a serious threat to human health due to their zoonotic potential. Thus, metropolitan areas presenting high concentrations of pets and urban fecal contamination on public areas are at sanitary risk. Major aim of this survey was to determine prevalence of zoonotic parasites in dog fecal samples collected from public soil of Milan (north-western Italy. Differences in parasites prevalence distribution were explored by a geographical information system- (GIS- based approach, and risk factors (human density, sizes of green parks, and dog areas were considered. The metropolitan area was divided into 157 rectangular subareas and sampling was performed following a 1-kilometer straight transect. A total of 463 fecal samples were analyzed using centrifugation-flotation technique and ELISA to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium coproantigens. A widespread fecal contamination of soil was highlighted, being fecal samples found in 86.8% of the subareas considered. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 16.63%. Zoonotic parasites were found, such as Trichuris vulpis (3.67%, Toxocara canis (1.72%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.86%, Ancylostomatidae (0.43%, and Dipylidium caninum (0.43%. Giardia duodenalis was the most prevalent zoonotic protozoa (11.06%, followed by Cryptosporidium (1.10%. Faeces from subareas characterized by broad green areas showed to be particularly prone to infection.

  19. History of natural resource use and environmental impacts in an interfluvial upland forest area in western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Siren

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Much of the research done on environmental impacts by Amazonian indigenous peoples in the past focus on certain areas where archaeological remains are particularly abundant, such as the Amazon River estuary, the seasonally inundated floodplain of the lower Amazon, and various sites in the forest-savannah mosaic of the southern Amazon The environmental history of interfluvial upland areas has received less attention. This study reconstructed the history of human use of natural resources in an upland area of 1400 km2 surrounding the indigenous Kichwa community of Sarayaku in the Ecuadorian Amazon, based on oral history elicited from local elders as well as historical source documents and some modern scientific studies. Although data is scarce, one can conclude that the impacts of humans on the environment have varied in time and space in quite intricate ways. Hunting has affected, and continues affecting, basically the whole study area, but it is now more concentrated in space than what it has probably ever been before. Also forest clearing has become more concentrated in space but, in addition, it has gone from affecting only hilltops forests to affecting alluvial plains as well as hilltops and, lately, also the slopes of the hills.

  20. Climate change and the eco-hydrology of fire: Will area burned increase in a warming western USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald McKenzie; Jeremy S. Littell

    2017-01-01

    Wildfire area is predicted to increase with global warming. Empirical statistical models and process-based simulations agree almost universally. The key relationship for this unanimity, observed at multiple spatial and temporal scales, is between drought and fire. Predictive models often focus on ecosystems in which this relationship appears to be particularly strong,...

  1. Problems in the Labor Export of Western Rural Areas——A Case Study of Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The thesis gives a brief account of the status of the labor economy in Three Gorges Reservoir area,which indicates that the labor economy in this area has made certain development and is characterized by fragile ecology,backward economic development and weak capacity to absorb employment,the Three Gorges Reservoir area is densely populated and has lots of rural surplus labors which need to be transferred.Then the thesis analyzes the problems in the labor export of this region,which can be manifested in the following aspects:the exported labors are with low quality and single skill;they are narrow-minded and have strong intention for their employment regions;they have low income but high risk to get employed;the government does not provide strong supporting services for exported labors.In order to solve these problems,the thesis proposes the suggestions and measures to develop the labor economy in Three Gorges Reservoir area,say,to perfect and ameliorate the training mechanism and improve the quality and skills of labors;to build the platform of employment network and solve the problems of the asymmetric employment information;to actively develop the intermediary organizations and promote the a proper movement of labor forces;to fully exert the function of government in logistic services and resolve the difficulties of the exported workers.

  2. 75 FR 69122 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western and Central Planning Areas, Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... issues and alternatives to be analyzed in the SEIS. Early planning and consultation is important for.... Comments Public meetings will be held in locations near these areas in early to mid November 2010. The... Battle House Renaissance Mobile Hotel and Spa, 26 North Royal Street, Mobile, Alabama 36602 1 p.m....

  3. Dramatic mass loss in extreme high-elevation areas of a western Himalayan glacier: observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huabiao; Yang, Wei; Yao, Tandong; Tian, Lide; Xu, Baiqing

    2016-08-01

    Rapid climate change at high elevations has accelerated glacier retreat in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. However, due to the lack of long-term glaciological measurements, there are still uncertainties regarding when the mass loss began and what the magnitude of mass loss is at such high elevations. Based on in situ glaciological observations during the past 9 years and a temperature-index mass balance model, this study investigates recent mass loss of the Naimona’nyi Glacier in the western Himalayas and reconstructs a 41-year (1973/74–2013/14) equilibrium line altitude (ELA) and glacier-wide mass loss. The result indicates that even at 6000 m above sea level (a.s.l.), the annual mass loss reaches ~0.73 m water equivalent (w.e.) during the past 9 years. Concordant with the abrupt climate shift in the end of 1980s, the ELA has dramatically risen from ~5969 ± 73 m a.s.l. during 1973/74–1988/89 to ~6193 ± 75 m a.s.l. during 1989/90–2013/14, suggesting that future ice cores containing uninterrupted climate records could only be recovered at least above 6200 m a.s.l. in the Naimona’nyi region. The glacier-wide mass balance over the past 41 years is averaged to be approximately ‑0.40 ± 0.17 m w.e., exhibiting a significant increase in the decadal average from ‑0.01 ± 0.15 to ‑0.69 ± 0.21 m w.e.

  4. Rarity of bacterial and viral meningitis in areas of Western Greece with fewer than 2,000 inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, Ioannis; Leotsinidis, Michael; Diamantopoulos, Stavros; Makrakis, Konstantinos; Ellina, Aikaterini; Giannakopoulos, Agelos; Papanastasiou, Dimitris A

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the incidence of childhood meningitis in regions with fewer than 2,000 inhabitants (rural regions) and regions with more than 2,000 inhabitants (urban regions) in the prefecture of Achaia in Western Greece during 1991-2005. Included were all 555 children hospitalized for meningitis. The criteria for bacterial meningitis were (i) positive blood/cerebralspinal fluid (CSF) culture, Gram stain, or latex agglutination and/or (ii) increased beta-glucuronidase in CSF. In case of suspected bacterial meningitis, the following findings were considered: compatible clinical and laboratory findings, and whether or not a cure was achieved with antibiotic treatment and finally resulted in negative cultures. In cases of suspected viral meningitis, compatible clinical and laboratory findings were considered, together with observation of a cure without antibiotic treatment. Only 28 of 555 meningitis patients were from rural regions. The incidence per 10,000 children in rural and urban regions, respectively, was as follows: meningitis, 1.13 and 8.99; bacterial meningitis, 0.16 and 2.40; suspected bacterial meningitis, 0.52 and 3.00; and viral meningitis, 0.44 and 3.58. The incidence ratio for bacterial, suspected bacterial, and viral meningitis in urban versus rural regions was 14.85, 5.72, and 8.10, respectively. Only 2 of the 79 cases with a confirmed causative pathogen came from rural regions. In conclusion, compared to those living in urban regions, children living in rural regions are relatively spared from bacterial and viral meningitis.

  5. Multichannel Seismic Imaging of the Rivera Plate Subduction at the Seismogenic Jalisco Block Area (Western Mexican Margin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolome, R.; Gorriz, E.; Danobeitia, J.; Barba, D. C., Sr.; Martí, D.; L Cameselle, A.; Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.; Bandy, W. L.; Mortera, C.; Nunez, D.; Alonso, J. L.; Castellon, A.; Prada, M.

    2016-12-01

    During the TSUJAL marine geophysical survey, conducted in February and March 2014 Spanish, Mexican and British scientists and technicians explored the western margin of Mexico, considered one of the most active seismic zones in America. This work aims to characterize the internal structure of the subduction zone of the Rivera plate beneath the North American plate in the offshore part of the Jalisco Block, to link the geodynamic and the recent tectonic deformation occurring there with the possible generation of tsunamis and earthquakes. For this purpose, it has been carried out acquisition, processing and geological interpretation of a multichannel seismic reflection profile running perpendicular to the margin. Crustal images show an oceanic domain, dominated by subduction-accretion along the lower slope of the margin with a subparallel sediment thickness of up to 1.6 s two way travel time (approx. 2 km) in the Middle American Trench. Further, from these data the region appears to be prone to giant earthquake production. The top of the oceanic crust (intraplate reflector) is very well imaged. It is almost continuous along the profile with a gentle dip (<10°); however, it is disrupted by normal faulting resulting from the bending of the plate during subduction. The continental crust presents a well-developed accretionary prism consisting of highly deformed sediments with prominent slumping towards the trench that may be the result of past tsunamis. Also, a Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR) is identified in the first half a second (twtt) of the section. High amplitude reflections at around 7-8 s twtt clearly image a discontinuous Moho, defining a very gentle dipping subduction plane.

  6. Monazite Geochronology of Al-Fe Granulites Of Amesmessa Area from In-Ouzzal Terrane (Western Hoggar, Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Benbatta; Abderrahmane, Bendaoud; Bénédicte, Cenki-Tok; Zohir, Adjerid; Olivier, Bruguier; Jesus, Garrido Marin Carlos; Safouane, Djemai; Khadija, Ouzegane

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT: The In Ouzzal terrane in western Hoggar (South Algeria) preserves evidence of ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) crustal metamorphism. It consists in Archean crustal units, composed of orthogneissic domes and green stone belts, strongly remobilized during the Paleoproterozoic orogeny (2000 Ma, Peucat et al., 1996). Ouzegane et al. (2003) summarize this UHT metamorphic history as two granulitic stages of high temperature : a prograde evolution with peak conditions around 9-11 kbar and 950-1050°C, leading to the appearance of exceptional paragenèses with corundum-quartz, sapphirine-quartz and sapphirine-spinel-quartz in Al-Mg granulites, Al-Fe granulites and quartzites; followed by retrograde event characterized by a pressure drop to 5-7 kbar. This retrograde event is marked by intrusive carbonatite bodies and the occurrence of leptynites veins. The present study is interested in Al-Fe granulites which outcrop in a still little known region situated in southeastern part of In-Ouzzal terrane. These granulites are mainly composed by quartz, spinel, garnet, sillimanite, cordierite, biotite, perthitic feldspar, ilmenite, ± corundum. The study consist to dating these Al-Fe granulites by monazites (U-Pb - ICP-MS method) combined with their internal structures revealed by BSE imaging. The primary results suggest two major facts: 1- for the first time, the existence of at least one metamorphism older than 2.5 Ga; 2- a long live paleoproterozoic high temperature metamorphism. These geochronological results completed and combined with a detailed phases relationship study of these Al-Fe granulites will are of major importance as for future discussion on the geodynamic context responsible for this regional UHT metamorphism as well as indicating a record the time of the different stages of granulitic metamorphism. Keywords: UHT metamorphism, Granulites, Paleoproterozoïc, Archaean; Southeastern In Ouzzal terrane; Monazite geochronology; Hoggar

  7. Reconstruction of Paleoceanographic Conditions in the Rio Grande Rise Area, western South Atlantic: Evidence from Benthic Foraminiferal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshova, Liubov; Ovsepyan, Ekaterina

    2017-04-01

    Sediment core AI-3321 (30°56.85' S, 38°02.45' W, 2969 m water depth, 293 m length) collected from the western slope of the Rio Grande Rise was studied to count and identify benthic foraminifers in the >100 μm size fraction. Available information of the ecological preferences of benthic foraminiferal assemblages was used to reconstruct sea-surface bioproductivity and oxygenation conditions near the bottom during warm periods: Holocene, MIS 5e and MIS 7. A total of more than 100 species have been identified. They were classified according to their microhabitat preferences. All studied samples are characterized by a high abundance of calcareous epifaunal - shallow infaunal species together with low percentages of agglutinated taxa. Species diversity was described using several diversity indices that demonstrate similar variability during MIS 5 and 7 and an opposite changes during MIS 1. Cluster and Q-mode factor analysis were applied to establish dominant assemblages and major trends of foraminiferal variability. The assemblages (Factors I, II and III) are characterized by maximal scores of Epistominella exigua, Alabaminella weddellensis and Globocassidulina subglobosa, respectively. These opportunistic species are associated with seasonal supply of fresh, labile organic matter to the sea floor, and also prefer high oxygen concentrations in the bottom waters. In contrast to diversity indices, factor I, II and III do not demonstrate similar distribution throughout the studied intervals. This might be related to different combinations of amount and quality of organic matter supplied to the sea floor and corresponding oxygen content near the seafloor on the Rio Grande Rise during Holocene, MIS 5e and MIS 7. Accessory foraminiferal taxa thriving in well-oxygenated conditions and being capable to adapt to pulsed food supply (Oridorsalis umbonatus, Pullenia bulloides, Ioanella tumidula, Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi, Quinquelocilina spp., Pyrgo spp.) also occur throughout

  8. Multichannel Seismic Imaging of the Rivera Plate Subduction at the Seismogenic Jalisco Block Area (Western Mexican Margin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolome, Rafael; Górriz, Estefanía; Dañobeitia, Juanjo; Cordoba, Diego; Martí, David; Cameselle, Alejandra L.; Núñez-Cornú, Francisco; Bandy, William L.; Mortera-Gutiérrez, Carlos A.; Nuñez, Diana; Castellón, Arturo; Alonso, Jose Luis

    2016-06-01

    During the TSUJAL marine geophysical survey, conducted in February and March 2014, Spanish, Mexican and British scientists and technicians explored the western margin of Mexico, considered one of the most active seismic zones in America. This work aims to characterize the internal structure of the subduction zone of the Rivera plate beneath the North American plate in the offshore part of the Jalisco Block, to link the geodynamic and the recent tectonic deformation occurring there with the possible generation of tsunamis and earthquakes. For this purpose, it has been carried out acquisition, processing and geological interpretation of a multichannel seismic reflection profile running perpendicular to the margin. Crustal images show an oceanic domain, dominated by subduction-accretion along the lower slope of the margin with a subparallel sediment thickness of up to 1.6 s two-way travel time (approx. 2 km) in the Middle American Trench. Further, from these data the region appears to be prone to giant earthquake production. The top of the oceanic crust (intraplate reflector) is very well imaged. It is almost continuous along the profile with a gentle dip (<10°); however, it is disrupted by normal faulting resulting from the bending of the plate during subduction. The continental crust presents a well-developed accretionary prism consisting of highly deformed sediments with prominent slumping towards the trench that may be the result of past tsunamis. Also, a bottom simulating reflector (BSR) is identified in the first half a second (twtt) of the section. High amplitude reflections at around 7-8 s twtt clearly image a discontinuous Moho, defining a very gentle dipping subduction plane.

  9. Does residing in urban or rural areas affect the incidence of polypharmacy among older adults in western China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Lu, Jing; Hao, Qiukui; Luo, Li; Dong, Birong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the differences among older adults who are rural or urban residents with respects to their socioeconomic position, chronic health conditions and medication use. This cross-sectional study included 887 community-dwelling older adults (≥60 years) from western China. Trained interviewers collected data from all of the study subjects through face-to-face interviews. Polypharmacy was defined as the concomitant use of five or more medications. A total of 717 participants were included in the study analyses. Compared with their urban counterparts, the older adults in rural China were more likely to have more chronic health conditions, and a lower education level, annual income and insurance coverage rate. In addition, the rural inhabitants were less likely to use medications (58.7% vs. 75.7%, ppolypharmacy was significantly lower in rural residents than urban residents (11.5% vs. 17.5%, p=0.021). Urban residence (odds ratios (OR) 1.89, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.03-3.48), number of chronic conditions (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.16-3.30), diabetes (OR 4.14, 95% CI 2.33-7.37), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.25-3.51) were positively associated with polypharmacy, whereas good self-rated health (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.16-0.65) was negatively associated with polypharmacy. In conclusion, urban residence is independently associated with polypharmacy in Chinese elders regardless of chronic health conditions and socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Soil-Geomorphic and Paleoclimatic Characteristics of the Fort Bliss Maneuver Areas, Southern New Mexico and Western Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-07

    climate, vegetation, and moisture conditions under which they were developed, thus enabling us to reconstruct the paleoclimate of the area. 4Z SOIL...and provided information about the geomorphic surface evolution, soil formation, and paleoclimate reconstruction (Gile and Grossman 1979). The...isotopically heavy atmospheric CO2 that diffuses into the soil. Thus, soils having actively respiring plants causing high soil respiration rates should have

  11. Improved soil and water conservatory managements for cotton-maize rotation system in the western cotton area of Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Ouattara, Korodjouma

    2007-01-01

    Integrated soil fertility management combining additions of organic and mineral fertilizers and reduced ploughing frequencies is a prospective option for sustainable cropping systems. In the cotton cultivation area of Burkina Faso the agricultural land is gradually degrading due (at least in part) to increases in mechanization and the use of mineral fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides. The objective of the work underlying this thesis was to test soil management techniques to improve soil f...

  12. Investigation of geothermal potential in the Waianae Caldera Area, Western Oahu, Hawaii. Assessment of Geothermal Resources in Hawaii: Number 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, M.E.; Sinton, J.M.; Thomas, D.M.; Mattice, M.D.; Kauahikaua, J.P.; Helstern, D.M.; Fan, P.

    1979-09-01

    Studies of Lualualei Valley, Oahu have been conducted to determine whether a thermal anomaly exists in the area and, if so, to identify sites at which subsurface techniques should be utilized to characterize the resource. Geologic mapping identifies several caldera and rift zone structures in the Valley and provides a tentative outline of their boundaries. Clay mineralogy studies indicate that minor geothermal alteration of near-surface rocks has occurred at some period in the history of the area. Schlumberger resistivity soundings indicate the presence of a low resistivity layer beneath the valley floor, which has been tentatively attributed to warm water-saturated basalt. Soil and groundwater chemistry studies outline several geochemical anomalies around the perimeter and within the inferred caldera boundaries. The observed anomalies strongly suggest a subsurface heat source. Recommendations for further exploratory work to confirm the presence of a geothermal reservoir include more intensive surveys in a few selected areas of the valley as well as the drilling of at least three shallow (1000-m) holes for subsurface geochemical, geological and geophysical studies.

  13. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of anorogenic basic volcanic-plutonic rocks of the Kundal area, Malani Igneous Suite, western Rajasthan, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Krishnakanta Singh; G Vallinayagam

    2004-12-01

    The Kundal area of Malani Igneous Suite consists of volcano-plutonic rocks. Basalt flows and gabbro intrusives are associated with rhyolite. Both the basic rocks consist of similar mineralogy of plagioclase, clinopyroxene as essential and Fe-Ti oxides as accessories. Basalt displays sub-ophitic and glomeroporphyritic textures whereas gabbro exhibits sub-ophitic, porphyritic and intergrannu- lar textures. They show comparable chemistry and are enriched in Fe, Ti and incompatible ele- ments as compared to MORB/CFB. Samples are enriched in LREE and slightly depleted HREE patterns with least significant positive Eu anomalies. Petrographical study and petrogenetic mod- eling of [Mg]-[Fe], trace and REE suggest cogenetic origin of these basic rocks and they probably derived from Fe-enriched source with higher Fe/Mg ratio than primitive mantle source. Thus, it is concluded that the basic volcano-plutonic rocks of Kundal area are the result of a low to moderate degree (> 30%) partial melting of source similar to picrite/komatiitic composition. Within plate, anorogenic setting for the basic rocks of Kundal area is suggested, which is in conformity with the similar setting for Malani Igneous Suite.

  14. Lycophytes and ferns composition of Atlantic Forest conservation units in western Paraná with comparisons to other areas in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Lautert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study surveyed lycophyte and fern species in four forest fragments in western Paraná, Brazil, and compared them to 15 other fragments with different plant formations from the Atlantic Forest biome in southern Brazil. In total, five lycophyte species (in two families and two genera and 98 species and two varieties of ferns (in 16 families and 38 genera were registered in the four fragments. The most represented families were Pteridaceae (23 spp., Polypodiaceae (18 spp., Aspleniaceae (13 spp., and Thelypteridaceae (11 spp.. Asplenium (12 spp., Thelypteris (10 spp., and Blechnum (seven spp. were among the most represented genera. The occurrence of Dicksonia sellowiana was noteworthy because it was associated with seasonal semideciduous forest and is threatened in Brazil. Similarity among areas was determined by a cluster analysis (UPGMA and Sørensen’s index and the relation between similarity and geographic distance was determined through Matel’s analysis. The analyses revealed greater similarity among the four study areas and, for these areas as a whole, greater similarity to fragments in Rio Grande do Sul, which is evidence that these areas have similar environmental conditions.

  15. Multi-level biological responses in Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763) (Brachyura, Ucididae) as indicators of conservation status in mangrove areas from the western atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Luis Felipe de Almeida; Souza, Caroline Araújo de; Nobre, Caio Rodrigues; Pereira, Camilo Dias Seabra; Pinheiro, Marcelo Antonio Amaro

    2016-11-01

    reflect the conservation status of the mangrove areas studied using information on guideline values of MN‰, NRRT, and density of the uçá crab in order to categorize three levels of human impacts in mangrove areas: PNI (probable null impact); PLI (probable low impact); and PHI (probable high impact). Results confirm the success of U. cordatus species' multi-level biological responses in diagnosing threats to mangrove areas. Therefore, this species represents an effective tool in studies on mangrove conservation statuses in the Western Atlantic.

  16. Introducing Au Potential Areas, Using Remote Sensing and Geochemical Data Processing Using Fractal Methods in Chartagh, Western Azerbijan - Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Edris; Feizi, Faranak

    2016-06-01

    The studied area - Chartagh - is located in the East of Azerbaijan gharbi Province, Iran. In this paper, geology map, ASTER satellite images were used and after processing these images with ENVI softwares, geochemical data analysis consisting of lithogeochemical samples, within geological field observations. On ASTER data; using a number of selected methods including band ratio, Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) and Spectral Angle Maper (SAM) distinguished alternation zones. Geochemical anomalies were separated by number - size (N-S) fractal method. (N-S) fractal method was utilized for High intensive Au, As and Ag anomalies.

  17. Conditions of gully development within piedmont areas with examples from the western part of the Getic Piedmont, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boengiu, Sandu; Vladut, Alina; Marinescu, Emil

    2012-04-01

    Features of gully morphometry and associated relief characteristics emphasize that gully develop under a wide variety of rock conditions, rainfall regimes, geomorphic predisposition, and human influence. Consequently, many slopes within piedmont areas, in this case, the Getic Piedmont, are characterized by dense gully systems, as there occur excessive clearing, inappropriate land use, compaction of the soil caused by grazing, on the general background of a favourable climate. Both rainfall and runoff factors must be considered in assessing a water erosion problem. The erosional slope development within the Getic Piedmont was evaluated based on maps and field studies in the last 15 years, which emphasized that about 20% of the total surface of the piedmont is affected by gully erosion. The results show that the factors leading to the strong gully erosion in this area include - the widely distributed friable rocks, the unique geomorphologic configuration, the strong and time-concentrated rainfall, the alternance of drought-humid periods that prepares the ground for the development of fissures in soils, the drought that influence the growth and recovery of vegetation, and the intense human activities. Gully erosion is one of the most visible forms of soil erosion, which affects its productivity, provides considerable material transport- torrential transports, debris flow, restricts land use, and threatens local communities.

  18. Prevalence of zoonotic intestinal parasites in household and stray dogs in rural areas of Hamadan, Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardarian, K; Maghsood, A H; Ghiasian, S A; Zahirnia, A H

    2015-06-01

    Zoonotic parasitic infections are a major global public and veterinary health problem and widespread among dogs. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites in stray and household dogs in the rural areas of Hamadan district. During 2012, 1,500 fresh fecal samples from 243 household and 1,257 stray dogs were examined by using direct wet mount, simple zinc sulfate flotation, and Lugol's solution staining. Of 1,500 dogs, 20.4% were positive for intestinal parasites. Helminthes eggs were more frequently found in fecal samples than protozoan cysts or trophozoites (15.9% vs. 4.5%, respectively). Toxocara canis was the most frequently detected parasite, with a prevalence of 6.3%, followed by Taenia/Echinococcus spp. (2.9%), Isospora spp. (2.7%), and Toxascaris leonina (2.6%). Helminthes and protozoa were significantly more prevalent in household dogs than in stray dogs (Pparasites indicated that people residing in this area are at risk of exposure to these potentially hazardous zoonotic pathogens. Mass education of the general population is highly recommended to increase awareness of the potential for horizontal transmission of these parasitic infections from dogs to humans.

  19. Quality of extra virgin olive oils produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-12-01

    Systematic studies of physico-chemical and stability-related properties, and chemical composition, of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) obtained from drupes cropped in specific regions are of special agricultural interest. This is particularly so with new production areas, where careful selection of the most suitable olive varieties for EVOO production is required. This paper reports the first comprehensive chemical characterisation of EVOOs obtained from three different olive varieties (viz., Picual, Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in a new cultivation area in Galicia (NW Spain). The Morisca variety was that providing the highest industrial oil yield (21%). However, the three types of EVOO exhibited no statistically significant differences in standard quality-related indices other than acidity. Morisca EVOO was that with the lowest content in oleic acid (mean=68%) and highest content in linoleic acid (mean=13%). Also, Morisca EVOO exhibited the highest sterol levels (mean=1,616 mg/kg) and Picual EVOO the lowest (mean=1,160 mg/kg). Picual EVOO contained greater amounts of the phenolic compounds luteolin and pinoresinol than both Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOOs. Finally, Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOO exhibited differential attributes, with banana and olive fruit aromatic series prevailing predominantly over bitter-like, pungent-like and leaf series.

  20. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of anorogenic basic volcanic-plutonic rocks of the Kundal area, Malani Igneous Suite, western Rajasthan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakanta Singh, A.; Vallinayagam, G.

    2004-12-01

    The Kundal area of Malani Igneous Suite consists of volcano-plutonic rocks. Basalt flows and gabbro intrusives are associated with rhyolite. Both the basic rocks consist of similar mineralogy of plagioclase, clinopyroxene as essential and Fe-Ti oxides as accessories. Basalt displays sub-ophitic and glomeroporphyritic textures whereas gabbro exhibits sub-ophitic, porphyritic and intergrannular textures. They show comparable chemistry and are enriched in Fe, Ti and incompatible elements as compared to MORB/CFB. Samples are enriched in LREE and slightly depleted HREE patterns with least significant positive Eu anomalies. Petrographical study and petrogenetic modeling of [Mg]-[Fe], trace and REE suggest cogenetic origin of these basic rocks and they probably derived from Fe-enriched source with higher Fe/Mg ratio than primitive mantle source. Thus, it is concluded that the basic volcano-plutonic rocks of Kundal area are the result of a low to moderate degree (conformity with the similar setting for Malani Igneous Suite.

  1. The new characteristics of coal-burning endemic fluorosis in some areas in North-Western Guizhou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wua, D.S.; Zheng, B.S.; Wang, A.M. [CAS, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

    2004-07-01

    Fluoride contents in coal, drinking water, corn and chili, were assayed, and the prevalence of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis and fluoride levels in urine in the local inhabitants were investigated. Fluoride content in coal of Hualuo, Majiazhuang and Pianpozhai (China) is 107.8, 104.1 and 117.6 mg/kg, respectively, in drinking water of the three villages is 0.12, 0.14 and {lt} 0.05 mg/l, respectively; in corn of the three villages is 30.6,33.4 and 49.8 mg/kg, respectively; in chili of the three village is 513.2, 342.6 and 281.0 mg/kg. Fluorosis is serious in the areas. It is concluded that fluoride levels in urine and coal is relatively low to the serious fluorosis and the high fluoride contents in foodstuff, it is the new characteristics in the endemic fluorosis area. Further study should be made.

  2. Monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages of golfe juan marine protected area (France, North-Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodilis Pascaline

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs were deployed within the Golfe-Juan marine protected area (Alpes-Maritimes coast, France, Northwestern Mediterranean created in 1981. This no-take area is fully protected since its establishment, except in 2004 when some anthropic activities were, exceptionally, authorized. Moreover, no park rangers to prevent poaching since 2002 occur. In order to carry out a long term monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages, underwater visual censuses (UVC were carried out in 1988, 1998 and 2008, according to a traditional standardized visual census method that taken into account all fish species. The complexification of some large reefs built with wide voide spaces called Bonna reefs appear to be a good solution to increase species richness and density. Species richness and density of the fish assemblages showed significant increase between 1988 and 1998. However the fast increasing was stopped from 1998 and 2008 probably due to a lack of law enforcement and poaching. Despite artificial reefs were deployed in MPA since at least 20 years, they did not show a real positive impact on fish assemblages. These results could be explained (i by a lack of law enforcement patrol within the protected areas during the last decade, and (ii by the one-year opening to fishing activities within MPA. The real effectiveness of the artificial reefs in sustaining fish assemblages is discussed and the necessity of a regular and efficient control by park rangers is highlighted.Recifes artificiais foram implantados na área protegida Golfe-Juan (costa dos Alpes-Maritimes, Noroeste do Mediterraneo criada em 1981. Esta área NTZ (Area de Restrição da Pesca é inteiramente protegida, desde seu estabelecimento, exceto em 2004, quando algumas atividades antropicas foram excepcionalmente autorizadas. Além disso, desde 2002, não houve nenhuma patrulha florestal para impedir a caça e pesca ilegais. . A fim realizar um monitoramento a longo prazo das assembl

  3. Development of bearing capacity of fine grained permafrost deposits in western greenland urban areas subject to soil temperature changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Frederik Ancker; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    by 2-3 °C during the 21st century. This paper presents a relation between undrained shear strength and temperature based on a series triaxial tests of fine-grained permafrost in the interval from -3 °C to -1 °C. Moderately ice-rich permafrost and excess ice free refrozen active-layer were retrieved...... with increasing temperature. Both excess ice free and moderately ice-rich samples show a strength decrease of 21 %/°C from -3 °C to -1 °C. Other authors’ data suggest the same trend for moderately ice-rich samples, whereas it is suggested that further studies are conducted to validate the trend for excess ice....... The established trends could provide a valuable tool for foundation design in fine-grained permafrost areas....

  4. Heavy metal toxicity in some coal mining areas of Madhya Pradesh: a case study from Western Madhya Pradesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, V.; Banerjee, A.K. [Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramodaya Vishwavidyalaya, Chitrakoot (India). Dept. of Physical Science

    2008-07-01

    The paper deals with the effects of various toxic metals. The mines which were studied are Satpura-1, Patharkhera and Chandamata. The study indicates presence of Cu, Pb, Fe, Mn, Co and Zn in the samples. The effects of deficiency as well as excess of heavy metal leads to various problems to vegetation and workers. It is suggested that biologists should pay attention to the following factors: (1) education has to be given to the mine workers, (2) effects of mine dust on flora and fauna should be studied; (3) reuse should be made of wastewater for mining and associated activities; (4) environmentally sound utilization of tailings, effluents and wastes; (5) investigation of mine water for toxic and heavy metals and evolving effective and economical treatment process; (6) mythology for environmental impact assessment of mining; (7) economics of environmental protection measures in mining activities, and (8) micro and macro environmental analysis of habitat in the mining area. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. [Fire and Pinus mugo Turra communities in the western Alps (Susa Valley, Italy) during the Lateglacial-Holocene transition: an evidence of refugia area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Adam A; Martinez, Marion; Fauvart, Nicolas; Roiron, Paul; Fioraso, Gianfranco; Guendon, Jean-Louis; Terral, Jean-Frédéric; Carcaillet, Christopher

    2006-07-01

    In western Italian Alps, small distinct populations of Pinus mugo Turra raise some questions concerning its ecological status and dynamics in the occidental Alps. This note present new palaeobotanical data based on cone imprints of Pinus mugo, identified in travertine systems located in the Val di Susa and dated back to the Late Dryas (11506+/-66 BP) and the Early Holocene (10145+/-225 et 9475+/-670 BP). Heliophilous species and charcoal fragments were also identified, testifying to the oldness of wildfires in this region. The data support the hypothesis that this zone was a refuge area of this pine during the last glaciation. Here we discuss about the postglacial dynamics of the Pinus mugo in the occidental Alps.

  6. An example of aerosol pattern variability over bright surface using high resolution MODIS MAIAC: The eastern and western areas of the Dead Sea and environs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Lee; Alpert, Pinhas; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Chudnovsky, Alexandra

    2017-09-01

    The extreme rate of evaporation of the Dead Sea (DS) has serious implications for the surrounding area, including atmospheric conditions. This study analyzes the aerosol properties over the western and eastern parts of the DS during the year 2013, using MAIAC (Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction) for MODIS, which retrieves aerosol optical depth (AOD) data at a resolution of 1 km. The main goal of the study is to evaluate MAIAC over the study area and determine, for the first time, the prevailing aerosol spatial patterns. First, the MAIAC-derived AOD data was compared with data from three nearby AERONET sites (Nes Ziona - an urban site, and Sede Boker and Masada - two arid sites), and with the conventional Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB) retrievals for the same days and locations, on a monthly basis throughout 2013. For the urban site, the correlation coefficient (r) for DT/DB products showed better performance than MAIAC (r = 0.80, 0.75, and 0.64 respectively) year-round. However, in the arid zones, MAIAC showed better correspondence to AERONET sites than the conventional retrievals (r = 0.58-0.60 and 0.48-0.50 respectively). We investigated the difference in AOD levels, and its variability, between the Dead Sea coasts on a seasonal basis and calculated monthly/seasonal AOD averages for presenting AOD patterns over arid zones. Thus, we demonstrated that aerosol concentrations show a strong preference for the western coast, particularly during the summer season. This preference, is most likely a result of local anthropogenic emissions combined with the typical seasonal synoptic conditions, the Mediterranean Sea breeze, and the region complex topography. Our results also indicate that a large industrial zone showed higher AOD levels compared to an adjacent reference-site, i.e., 13% during the winter season.

  7. Dense water formation in the north-western Mediterranean area during HyMeX-SOP2 in 1/36° ocean simulations: Sensitivity to initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Fabien; Lebeaupin Brossier, Cindy; Giordani, Hervé; Arsouze, Thomas; Beuvier, Jonathan; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Bresson, Émilie; Ducrocq, Véronique; Fourrié, Nadia; Nuret, Mathieu

    2016-08-01

    The north-western Mediterranean Sea is a key location where intense air-sea exchanges occur in autumn and winter. The succession of strong mistral and tramontane situations, leading to significant evaporation and ocean heat loss, is well known as the controlling factor in the dense water formation (DWF) with deep convection episodes. During HyMeX-SOP2 (1 February to 15 March 2013), several platforms sampled the area in order to document DWF and air-sea exchanges. This study investigates the ability of the NEMO-WMED36 ocean model (1/36°-resolution), driven in surface by the hourly air-sea fluxes from the AROME-WMED forecasts (2.5 km resolution), to represent DWF during HyMeX-SOP2 and focuses on the sensitivity to initial conditions. After a short evaluation of the atmospheric forcing, the high-resolution oceanic simulations using three different data sets as initial and boundary conditions are compared to observations collected during the field campaign. It evidences that using regional model outputs may lead to unrealistic thermohaline characteristics for the intermediate and deep waters, which degrade the simulated new dense water formed. Using ocean analyses built from observations, permits to obtain more realistic characteristics of the Western Mediterranean dense water. However, a low stratification favors an overestimation of the convective area and of the DWF rate. The DWF chronology is also impacted. Nevertheless, in every run, SOP2 is characterized by the production of water denser than 29.11 kg m-3 with a peak during the strong mistral event of 23-25 February followed by a period of restratification, before a last event of bottom convection on 13-15 March.

  8. Assessment of diabetes care and the healthcare system in economically and transport underdeveloped rural mountain areas of western China: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Linqiu; Zhang, Yuwei; Wang, Xiaoqian; Li, Shengyong; Yang, Wei; Tong, Nanwei

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of diabetes care and characteristics of the healthcare system in underdeveloped rural mountain areas of western China. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 288 diabetic patients with a multistage cluster sampling method in Zhongjiang County (Sichuan Province) between October 2009 and April 2010. Sixty-two village clinics, 23 town health centers, and a county central hospital were included to assess the availability of diabetes-related medical resources, in addition to diabetes-related medical insurance, reimbursement policies, and manpower. Of 288 patients, 38.2 % monitored their blood glucose regularly. Targets for fasting blood glucose (≤7 mmol/L) and blood pressure (≤130/80 mmHg) were achieved by 7.6 % and 9.7 % of patients, respectively. On average, each patient paid US$120 out of pocket annually for out-patient diabetes care, with a maximum US$86 reimbursed. The county central hospital was the only healthcare facility in the county that could provide all essential diabetes-related drugs and process-of-care measures and tests, except measures of HbA1c and the urinary albumin: creatinine ratio. Insulin was not available at village clinics, and only 29 % of village clinics had glucometers. "Certified" doctors were not available to provide primary care in village clinics. The quality of diabetes care was quite poor in underdeveloped rural mountain areas of western China. Recommendations for further intervention research to improve diabetes healthcare include increasing investment in medical infrastructure, improving the availability of essential drugs and process measures, organizing regular diabetes patient education, and recruiting village doctors. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Mesoscale high-resolution modeling of extreme wind speeds over western water areas of the Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, Vladimir S.; Kislov, Alexander V.

    2016-11-01

    A statistical analysis of extreme weather events over coastal areas of the Russian Arctic based on observational data has revealed many interesting features of wind velocity distributions. It has been shown that the extremes contain data belonging to two different statistical populations. Each of them is reliably described by a Weibull distribution. According to the standard terminology, these sets of extremes are named ‘black swans’ and ‘dragons’. The ‘dragons’ are responsible for most extremes, surpassing the ‘black swans’ by 10 - 30 %. Since the data of the global climate model INM-CM4 do not contain ‘dragons’, the wind speed extremes are investigated on the mesoscale using the COSMO-CLM model. The modelling results reveal no differences between the ‘swans’ and ‘dragons’ situations. It could be associated with the poor sample data used. However, according to many case studies and modeling results we assume that it is caused by a rare superposition of large-scale synoptic factors and many local meso- and microscale factors (surface, coastline configuration, etc.). Further studies of extreme wind speeds in the Arctic, such as ‘black swans’ and ‘dragons’, are necessary to focus on non-hydrostatic high-resolution atmospheric modelling using downscaling techniques.

  10. Marked Genetic Differentiation between Western Iberian and Italic Populations of the Olive Fly: Southern France as an Intermediate Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, Barbara; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest affecting the olive industry, to which it is estimated to cause average annual losses in excess of one billion dollars. As with other insects with a wide distribution, it is generally accepted that the understanding of B. oleae population structure and dynamics is fundamental for the design and implementation of effective monitoring and control strategies. However, and despite important advances in the past decade, a clear picture of B. oleae's population structure is still lacking. In the Mediterranean basin, where more than 95% of olive production is concentrated, evidence from several studies suggests the existence of three distinct sub-populations, but the geographical limits of their distributions, and the level of interpenetration and gene flow among them remain ill-characterized. Here we use mitochondrial haplotype analysis to show that one of the Mediterranean mitochondrial lineages displays geographically correlated substructure and demonstrate that Italic populations, though markedly distinct from their Iberian and Levantine counterparts are more diverse than previously described. Finally, we show that this distinction does not result from extant hypothetical geographic limits imposed by the Alps or the Pyrenees nor, more generally, does it result from any sharp boundary, as intermixing is observed in a broad area, albeit at variable levels. Instead, Bayesian phylogeographic analysis suggests the interplay between isolation-mediated differentiation during glacial periods and bi-directional dispersal and population intermixing in the interglacials has played a major role in shaping current olive fly population structure.

  11. Marked Genetic Differentiation between Western Iberian and Italic Populations of the Olive Fly: Southern France as an Intermediate Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara van Asch

    Full Text Available The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest affecting the olive industry, to which it is estimated to cause average annual losses in excess of one billion dollars. As with other insects with a wide distribution, it is generally accepted that the understanding of B. oleae population structure and dynamics is fundamental for the design and implementation of effective monitoring and control strategies. However, and despite important advances in the past decade, a clear picture of B. oleae's population structure is still lacking. In the Mediterranean basin, where more than 95% of olive production is concentrated, evidence from several studies suggests the existence of three distinct sub-populations, but the geographical limits of their distributions, and the level of interpenetration and gene flow among them remain ill-characterized. Here we use mitochondrial haplotype analysis to show that one of the Mediterranean mitochondrial lineages displays geographically correlated substructure and demonstrate that Italic populations, though markedly distinct from their Iberian and Levantine counterparts are more diverse than previously described. Finally, we show that this distinction does not result from extant hypothetical geographic limits imposed by the Alps or the Pyrenees nor, more generally, does it result from any sharp boundary, as intermixing is observed in a broad area, albeit at variable levels. Instead, Bayesian phylogeographic analysis suggests the interplay between isolation-mediated differentiation during glacial periods and bi-directional dispersal and population intermixing in the interglacials has played a major role in shaping current olive fly population structure.

  12. Marked Genetic Differentiation between Western Iberian and Italic Populations of the Olive Fly: Southern France as an Intermediate Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, Barbara; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest affecting the olive industry, to which it is estimated to cause average annual losses in excess of one billion dollars. As with other insects with a wide distribution, it is generally accepted that the understanding of B. oleae population structure and dynamics is fundamental for the design and implementation of effective monitoring and control strategies. However, and despite important advances in the past decade, a clear picture of B. oleae's population structure is still lacking. In the Mediterranean basin, where more than 95% of olive production is concentrated, evidence from several studies suggests the existence of three distinct sub-populations, but the geographical limits of their distributions, and the level of interpenetration and gene flow among them remain ill-characterized. Here we use mitochondrial haplotype analysis to show that one of the Mediterranean mitochondrial lineages displays geographically correlated substructure and demonstrate that Italic populations, though markedly distinct from their Iberian and Levantine counterparts are more diverse than previously described. Finally, we show that this distinction does not result from extant hypothetical geographic limits imposed by the Alps or the Pyrenees nor, more generally, does it result from any sharp boundary, as intermixing is observed in a broad area, albeit at variable levels. Instead, Bayesian phylogeographic analysis suggests the interplay between isolation-mediated differentiation during glacial periods and bi-directional dispersal and population intermixing in the interglacials has played a major role in shaping current olive fly population structure. PMID:25951107

  13. A feasibility study to estimate minimum surface-casing depths of oil and gas wells to prevent ground-water contamination in four areas of western Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwalter, T.F.; Squillace, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrologic data were evaluated from four areas of western Pennsylvania to estimate the minimum depth of well surface casing needed to prevent contamination of most of the fresh ground-water resources by oil and gas wells. The areas are representative of the different types of oil and gas activities and of the ground-water hydrology of most sections of the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province in western Pennsylvania. Approximate delineation of the base of the fresh ground-water system was attempted by interpreting the following hydrologic data: (1) reports of freshwater and saltwater in oil and gas well-completion reports, (2) water well-completion reports, (3) geophysical logs, and (4) chemical analyses of well water. Because of the poor quality and scarcity of ground-water data, the altitude of the base of the fresh ground-water system in the four study areas cannot be accurately delineated. Consequently, minimum surface-casing depths for oil and gas wells cannot be estimated with confidence. Conscientious and reliable reporting of freshwater and saltwater during drilling of oil and gas wells would expand the existing data base. Reporting of field specific conductance of ground water would greatly enhance the value of the reports of ground water in oil and gas well-completion records. Water-bearing zones in bedrock are controlled mostly by the presence of secondary openings. The vertical and horizontal discontinuity of secondary openings may be responsible, in part, for large differences in altitudes of freshwater zones noted on completion records of adjacent oil and gas wells. In upland and hilltop topographies, maximum depths of fresh ground water are reported from several hundred feet below land surface to slightly more than 1,000 feet, but the few deep reports are not substantiated by results of laboratory analyses of dissolved-solids concentrations. Past and present drillers for shallow oil and gas wells commonly install surface casing to below the

  14. Aeromagnetic Survey by Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Magneto-Resistant Magnetometer at the northern Kalgoorlie area, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaki, M.; Group, A.; Milligan, P.

    2006-12-01

    We have developed the technology of small drones (unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)) and an onboard magnetometer focussed on the aeromagnetic surveys under the Ant-Plane project. We succeeded long distant flight to 500km with agnetometer by Ant-Plene4 drone collaborated with Geoscience, Australia, in March 2006. The survey was carried out in the area 10kmx10km around Mt. Vetters Station, Kalgoorlie, West Australian. The magnetic data are obtained from 41 courses (250m in interval) of EW dierction. The altitude of the flight was 900m from sea level and 500m from the runway. The Ant-Plane #4 consists of 2.6m span and 2.0m length with 2-cycles and 2-cylinder 85cc gasoline engine, GPS navigation system by microcomputer and radio telemeter system. The total weight is 25kg including 12.4 litter fuels and the coursing speed is 130. The magnetometer system consists of a 3-component magneto- resistant magnetometer (MR) sensor (Honeywell HMR2300), GPS and data logger. Three components of magnetic field, latitude, longitude, altitude, the number of satellite and time can be recorded in every second during 6 hours. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is 7 nT and we use a total magnetic field intensity for magnetic analysis due to unknown direction of heading of the plane. MR-magnetometer sensor was installed at the tip of a FRP pipe of 1m length, and the pipe was fixed to the head of the plane in order to reduce the plane magnetization. After 4 hours 14 minutes from the takeoff, the 500km flight was accomplished and the magnetic data were obtained from the data logger. The straight flight course was almost consistent with the way point course, but the course was drastically disturbed when the plane was turning. The magnetic noise level during the flight increased to 30nT, when the plane was flight in the tail wind. However, it is much higher when the plane flew in the head wind. The anomaly pattern obtained from Ant-Plane 4 was compared with the magnetic anomaly map published by

  15. Epidemiological and ecological aspects related to malaria in the area of influence of the lake at Porto Primavera dam, in western São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Almério de C; Paula, Marcia B de; Duarte, Ana Maria R de C; Lima, Maura A; Malafronte, Rosely dos S; Mucci, Luis F; Gotlieb, Sabina Lea D; Natal, Delsio

    2008-01-01

    A study was carried out in the area of influence of the Porto Primavera Hydroelectric Power Station, in western São Paulo State, to investigate ecological and epidemiological aspects of malaria in the area and monitor the profile of the anopheline populations following the environmental changes brought about by the construction of the lake. Mosquitoes captured were analyzed by standardized indicator species analysis (ISA) before and during different flooding phases (253 m and 257 m elevations). The local human population was studied by means of parasitological (thin/thick blood smears), molecular (PCR) and serological tests. Serological tests consisted of Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) with synthetic peptides of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) from classic Plasmodium vivax, P. vivax variants (VK247 and "vivax-like"), P. malariae and P. falciparum and Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) with asexual forms of P. vivax, P. malariae and P. falciparum. The results of the entomological survey indicated that, although the Anopheles darlingi population increased after the flooding, the population density remained very low. No malaria, parasite infection or DNA was detected in the inhabitants of the study area. However, there was a low frequency of antibodies against asexual forms and a significant prevalence of antibodies against P. vivax, P. vivax variants, P. falciparum and P. malariae; the presence of these antibodies may result from recent or less recent contact with human or simian Plasmodium (a parallel study in the same area revealed the existence of a sylvatic cycle). Nevertheless, these results suggest that, as in other places where malaria is present and potential vectors circulate, the local epidemiological conditions observed could potentially support the transmission of malaria in Porto Primavera Lake if infected individuals are introduced in sufficient numbers. Further studies are required to elucidate the phenomena described in this paper.

  16. Investigation of Intrinsic and External Factors Contributing to the Occurrence of Coal Bumps in the Mining Area of Western Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Jiang, Yaodong; Xue, Sheng; Pang, Xufeng; Lin, Zhinan; Deng, Daixin

    2017-04-01

    An investigation has been made to relate the occurrence of coal bumps to specific geological and mining conditions to the mining area of western Beijing. This investigation demonstrates that the high frequency of coal bumps in this area is due to four localized conditions, namely intrinsic coal properties, the presence of overturned strata and thrust faults, high in situ stress and the extraction of coal from island mining faces. Laboratory tests of coal samples indicated that the coals have a short duration of dynamic fracture, high bursting energy and high elastic strain energy, indicating that the coal is intrinsically prone to the occurrence of coal bumps. This investigation has also revealed that there are overturned strata and well-developed large- and medium-scale thrust faults in this area, and the presence of these structures results in plastic flow, severe discontinuities, rapid changes in overburden thickness and dipping of the coal seams. Well-developed secondary fold structures are also present in the axes and limbs of the primary folds. The instability of thrust faults, in combination with large-scale intrusion of igneous rocks, is closely associated with sudden roof breaking and induces sharp variations in electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and micro-seismic signals, which could be used to help predict coal bumps. In situ stress tests in the mining area demonstrate that the maximum and minimum principal stresses are nearly horizontal and that the intermediate principal stress is approximately vertical. The in situ stress level in the area is higher than the average in the Beijing area, North China and mainland China. In addition to the presence of overturned strata and thrust faults and high in situ stress levels, another external factor contributing to the frequency of coal bumps is coal extraction from island mining faces in this area. Island mining faces experience intermittent mining-induced abutment stress when a fault exists at one side of the

  17. Dynamics of multiple insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in a rice growing area in South-Western Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouédraogo Jean-Bosco

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide resistance of the main malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, has been reported in south-western Burkina Faso, West Africa. Cross-resistance to DDT and pyrethroids was conferred by alterations at site of action in the sodium channel, the Leu-Phe kdr mutation; resistance to organophosphates and carbamates resulted from a single point mutation in the oxyanion hole of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme designed as ace-1R. Methods An entomological survey was carried out during the rainy season of 2005 at Vallée du Kou, a rice growing area in south-western Burkina Faso. At the Vallée du Kou, both insecticide resistance mechanisms have been previously described in the M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae. This survey aimed i to update the temporal dynamics and the circumsporozoite infection rate of the two molecular forms M and S of An. gambiae ii to update the frequency of the Leu-Phe kdr mutation within these forms and finally iii to investigate the occurrence of the ace-1R mutation. Mosquitoes collected by indoor residual collection and by human landing catches were counted and morphologically identified. Species and molecular forms of An. gambiae, ace-1R and Leu-Phe kdr mutations were determined using PCR techniques. The presence of the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum was determined using ELISA. Results Anopheles gambiae populations were dominated by the M form. However the S form occurred in relative important proportion towards the end of the rainy season with a maximum peak in October at 51%. Sporozoite rates were similar in both forms. The frequency of the Leu-Phe kdr mutation in the S form reached a fixation level while it is still spreading in the M form. Furthermore, the ace-1R mutation prevailed predominately in the S form and has just started spreading in the M form. The two mutations occurred concomitantly both in M and S populations. Conclusion These results showed that the Vallée du Kou

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of malaria in peripheral health facilities in Uganda: findings from an area of low transmission in south-western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Siân

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early recognition of symptoms and signs perceived as malaria are important for effective case management, as few laboratories are available at peripheral health facilities. The validity and reliability of clinical signs and symptoms used by health workers to diagnose malaria were assessed in an area of low transmission in south-western Uganda. Methods The study had two components: 1 passive case detection where all patients attending the out patient clininc with a febrile illness were included and 2 a longitudinal active malaria case detection survey was conducted in selected villages. A malaria case was defined as any slide-confirmed parasitaemia in a person with an axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C or a history of fever within the last 24 hrs and no signs suggestive of other diseases. Results Cases of malaria were significantly more likely to report joint pains, headache, vomiting and abdominal pains. However, due to the low prevalence of malaria, the predictive values of these individual signs alone, or in combination, were poor. Only 24.8% of 1627 patients had malaria according to case definition and > 75% of patients were unnecessarily treated for malaria and few slide negative cases received alternative treatment. Conclusion In low-transmission areas, more attention needs to be paid to differential diagnosis of febrile illnesses In view of suggested changes in anti-malarial drug policy, introducing costly artemisinin combination therapy accurate, rapid diagnostic tools are necessary to target treatment to people in need.

  19. Probe Into Proverty of Western National Rural Areas%和谐视野下西部民族地区农民贫困问题探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓丽

    2012-01-01

    西部民族地区农民贫困问题相对其它地区而言尤为突出,究其原因不仅是恶劣自然环境和守旧的人文环境导致的低效率、低产出,而且更多的是自身和制度因素造成。本文通过个案分析试图找出造成西部民族地区农民贫困的根源,并针对所存在的问题提出相应对策和建议,使人们对脱贫有一个新视角。%Minority areas in western China in terms of relative poverty,farmers not onlyquantity but also a wide range,for this reason is not only a harsh natural environment and the constraints of conservative cultural environment,leading to low officienly,how output,and more of their own and and the system foutors The roost of the poverty in westem minority areas are talked about and countermeasures and suggestions are proposed.

  20. Holocene forest history of the Pöyrisjärvi area north of the coniferous tree line in western Finnish Lapland: a pollen stratigraphical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkelä, E.

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the forests beyond the current coniferous tree line during the Holocene was studied by means of pollen analysis. Two closed-basin lakes, Jierstivaara and Isohattu, in western Finnish Lapland, were cored for the purpose. The rate of sedimentation proved to be uneven. After a slow initial rate a marked acceleration occurs between 6000 and 4000 BP. The last three millenia seem to have been a period of even sedimentation. A stage of raised pollen concentrations coincides with the accelerating rates of sediment growth. Fluctuations in the water table of the lakes are estimated to have contributed to the changes in the matrix sedimentation and in the pollen concentration. Pine arrived in the area 6000-6500 BP. Pure pine forest was never established. During the last 3000 years pine has almost totally disappeared from the vicinity of the sites. From the Jierstivaara core additional close-interval pollen and charcoal analyses were made which cover a period from about 8200 to 4500 BP. They show in more detail the spread of pine and the following time of low water lever which coincides with a period of high juniper values for about 600 radiocarbon years. Low charcoal values throughout the sequence point to a minor role of fires in the area.

  1. On the Protection of Sports Facilities in Western Nationalities Area%西部民族地区体育场地设施保护刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李可

    2012-01-01

      体育场地设施是体育运动得以顺利开展的基础保障。随着“十一五”规划的顺利谢幕,我国体育事业取得了突飞猛进的发展,体育场地设施的建设得到前瞻性的拓展。由于西部地区具有地域辽阔,资源丰富,民族众多,人口稀少等特征,铸就其体育场地设施建设与发展具有一定的特殊性。文章采用文献资料法、逻辑推理等研究方法对西部地区的学校场馆设备、城市社区体育场地设施及农村村寨体育场地设施的建设及法制化进程进行系统研究和深入剖析,并提出一系列具有可行性的对策,为西部地区体育场地设施更科学合理的建设及其法制化发展提供理论基础。%  Sports facilities are the basis for the successful sports conduction. With the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan"smoothly finishing, China's sports industry has made rapid development, the construction of sports facilities has been expanded for the future development. As the western region has a vast territory, rich resources, many nationalities, sparsely population and other features, all these form certain particularity for its construction and development of sports facilities. The paper, with the methods of literature, logical reasoning and other research methods, does a systematic study of legal processes and in-depth analysis of the western areas about its school stadium facilities, sports facilities and urban communities, rural villages and the construction of sports facilities, and proposes a series of feasibility strategies for the western region sports facilities construction with a more scientific and reasonable, and the development of legal theory.

  2. Malaria vectors and their blood-meal sources in an area of high bed net ownership in the western Kenya highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndenga, Bryson A; Mulaya, Nicholas L; Musaki, Sandra K; Shiroko, Joan N; Dongus, Stefan; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2016-02-09

    Blood-meal sources of malaria vectors affect their capacity to transmit the disease. Most efficient malaria vectors prefer human hosts. However, with increasing personal protection measures it becomes more difficult for them to find human hosts. Here recent malaria vector blood-meal sources in western Kenya highlands were investigated. Adult mosquitoes resting indoors, outdoors and exiting through windows were collected in three study areas within the western Kenya highlands from June 2011 to June 2013. A census of people, livestock and of insecticide-treated nets was done per house. Mosquito blood-meal sources were determined as human, goat, bovine or chicken using enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays. Most (86.3 %) households possessed at least one bed net, 57.2 % had domesticated animals and 83.6 % had people sharing houses with livestock at night. Most (94.9 %) unfed malaria vectors were caught exiting through windows. Overall, 53.1 % of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto obtained blood-meals from humans, 26.5 % from goats and 18.4 % from bovines. Single blood-meal sources by An. gambiae s.s. from humans were 26.5 %, 8.2 % from bovines and 2.0 % from goats. Mixed blood-meal sources by An. gambiae s.s. identified included: 24.5 % human/goat, 10.2 % human/bovine, 8.2 % human/bovine/goat and also 8.2 % bovine/goat. One An. arabiensis mosquito obtained blood-meal only from humans. An unusually high frequency of animal and mixed human-animal blood meals in the major malaria vector An. gambiae s.s. was revealed in the western Kenya highlands where bed net coverage is above the WHO target. The shift in blood-meal sources from humans to livestock is most likely the vectors' response to increased bed net coverage and the close location of livestock frequently in the same house as people at night. Livestock-targeted interventions should be considered under these circumstances to address residual malaria transmission.

  3. Western Retrospections and Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This year marks the 10-year anniversary of the strategy on development of China’s western region. With a land area of 6.85 million square km, accounting for 71.4 percent of the country’s total, the western region has been an indispensable part in achieving China’s overall prosperity and

  4. The role of anthropogenic water reservoirs within the landscapes of mining areas – a case study from the western part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

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    Jaruchiewicz Ewelina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A few thousand anthropogenic water reservoirs can be found in the area of the Upper Silesian Coal Basis (USCB located in southern Poland. In this paper the role of such anthropogenic lakes in the landscape of the western part of the USCB was presented and illustrated with the example of Knurów, a mining city, and its immediate surrounding area. The study of landscape changes in this area was carried out on the basis of archival and contemporary cartographic materials, historical sources, and interviews with inhabitants and direct field observations. It was found that the origin of the majority of the water reservoirs is related to hard coal, clay and sand mining. They were created primarily as a result of filling subsidence basins and post-mining excavations with water, as well as being the result of the construction of various hydro-technical facilities (settling ponds, fire protection water reservoirs, etc. In the study area the anthropogenic water reservoirs are of different sizes, shapes and durability and play different roles in the environment. Between 1884 and 2001 their number increased 25-fold, while at the same time their total surface area increased more than 8-fold. The role of the newly created water reservoirs in the landscape primarily involves the transformation of the existing terrestrial ecosystems into wetland ecosystems. The agro-forestry landscape of the late 19th century was transformed into a typically anthropogenic landscape with a dominant share of water reservoirs, settlement ponds and mining waste heaps. The most common species of plants around the water reservoirs are Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea canadensis, Potamogeton natans, Lemna sp., Acorus calamus, Myriophyllum verticillatum, Sagittaria sagittifolia, Alisma plantago-aquatica and Glyceria aquatica. The most valuable elements of the flora include Trapa natans and Ruppia maritima, species recognized in Poland as threatened

  5. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analyses of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) from three areas in western North America; initial results and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Erica H; Adams, Jennifer R.; Waits, Lisette P.; Fuller, Mark R.; Whittington, Diana M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the genetics of a population is a critical component of developing conservation strategies. We used archived tissue samples from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) in three geographic regions of western North America to conduct a preliminary study of the genetics of the North American subspecies, and to provide data for United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) decision-making for golden eagle management. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences and 16 nuclear DNA (nDNA) microsatellite loci to investigate the extent of gene flow among our sampling areas in Idaho, California and Alaska and to determine if we could distinguish birds from the different geographic regions based on their genetic profiles. Our results indicate high genetic diversity, low genetic structure and high connectivity. Nuclear DNA Fst values between Idaho and California were low but significantly different from zero (0.026). Bayesian clustering methods indicated a single population, and we were unable to distinguish summer breeding residents from different regions. Results of the mtDNA AMOVA showed that most of the haplotype variation (97%) was within the geographic populations while 3% variation was partitioned among them. One haplotype was common to all three areas. One region-specific haplotype was detected in California and one in Idaho, but additional sampling is required to determine if these haplotypes are unique to those geographic areas or a sampling artifact. We discuss potential sources of the high gene flow for this species including natal and breeding dispersal, floaters, and changes in migratory behavior as a result of environmental factors such as climate change and habitat alteration. Our preliminary findings can help inform the USFWS in development of golden eagle management strategies and provide a basis for additional research into the complex dynamics of the North American subspecies.

  6. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the Neoproterozoic Datian mafic-ultramafic dykes in the Panzhihua area, western Yangtze Block, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Jin; Zhu, Wei-Guang; Bai, Zhong-Jie; Zhong, Hong; Ye, Xian-Tao; Fan, Hong-Peng

    2017-01-01

    Mafic-ultramafic dykes are important geological markers that can punctuate the onset of crustal extension during the breakup of a continent and provide valuable information on the mantle source. This study reports secondary ion mass spectroscopy zircon and baddeleyite U-Pb ages, elemental and Nd isotopic data for the Datian mafic-ultramafic dykes in the Panzhihua area, western Yangtze Block, SW China. Two kinds of rocks are confirmed: the picritic rock and the dolerite. Based on petrographic and geochemical features, the dolerite dykes are further subdivided into two groups: Group I mafic and Group II mafic dykes, which emplaced at 760 Ma (zircon U-Pb) and 800 Ma (zircon and baddeleyite U-Pb), respectively. All samples from the picritic rocks and the Group I mafic rocks show the features of high-Ti and alkaline basaltic magma in composition as well as "humped" trace element patterns, which are similar to those of typical alkaline basalts associated with continental rifts except for the slightly negative Nb-Ta anomalies. The Group II mafic rocks display the features of low-Ti and tholeiitic magma, moderately enriched in LILE and LREE, and characterized by distinctively negative Nb-Ta anomalies. The primary magmas of the picritic rocks and the Group I mafic rocks were generated from ca 25 % partial melting of an OIB-like, Nd isotopically depleted but incompatible elements relatively enriched mantle source within a garnet stable field. The Group II mafic rocks crystallized from crustal contaminated mafic magmas that were derived from a spinel-bearing sub-continental lithospheric mantle source, because of low ratios of La/Yb, Ti/Y and Sm/Yb. Geochemical features suggest that these groups of mafic-ultramafic dykes were formed in a continental rift setting, but derived from different mantle sources. In combination with other Neoproterozoic igneous rocks in the western margin of Yangtze Block, it is suggested that the Datian mafic-ultramafic dykes in the Panzhihua area

  7. Petrogenesis of gold-mineralized magmatic rocks of the Taerbieke area, northwestern Tianshan (western China): Constraints from geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gong-Jian; Wang, Qiang; Wyman, Derek A.; Sun, Min; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Jiang, Zi-Qi

    2013-09-01

    Many Late Paleozoic Cu-Au-Mo deposits occur in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). However, their tectonic settings and associated geodynamic processes have been disputed. This study provides age, petrologic and geochemical data for andesites and granitic porphyries of the Taerbieke gold deposit from the Tulasu Basin, in the northwestern Tianshan Orogenic Belt (western China). LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the granitic porphyries have an Early Carboniferous crystallization age (349 ± 2 Ma) that is broadly contemporaneous with the eruption age (347 ± 2 Ma) of the andesites. The andesites have a restricted range of SiO2 (58.94-63.85 wt.%) contents, but relatively high Al2O3 (15.39-16.65 wt.%) and MgO (2.51-6.59 wt.%) contents, coupled with high Mg# (57-69) values. Geochemically, they are comparable to Cenozoic sanukites in the Setouchi Volcanic Belt, SW Japan. Compared with the andesites, the granitic porphyries have relatively high SiO2 (72.68-75.32 wt.%) contents, but lower Al2O3 (12.94-13.84 wt.%) and MgO (0.10-0.33 wt.%) contents, coupled with lower Mg# (9-21) values. The andesites and granitic porphyries are enriched in both large ion lithophile and light rare earth elements, but depleted in high field strength elements, similar to those of typical arc magmatic rocks. They also have similar Nd-Hf-Pb isotope compositions: ɛNd(t) (+0.48 to +4.06 and -0.27 to +2.97) and zircons ɛHf(t) (+3.4 to +8.0 and -1.7 to +8.2) values and high (206Pb/204Pb)i (18.066-18.158 and 17.998-18.055). We suggest that the Taerbieke high-Mg andesitic magmas were generated by the interaction between mantle wedge peridotites and subducted oceanic sediment-derived melts with minor basaltic oceanic crust-derived melts, and that the magmas then fractionated to produce the more felsic members (i.e., the Taerbieke granitic porphyries) during late-stage evolution. Taking into account the Carboniferous magmatic record from the western Tianshan Orogenic Belt, we suggest that

  8. Controls and geomorphic effects of a high-magnitude/low-frequency snow avalanche event in the proglacial area of the Bødalsbreen glacier, Nordfjord, western Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laute, Katja; Beylich, Achim A.

    2014-05-01

    Due to the interactions between the prevalent climatic factors and the local topography snow avalanches are a common phenomena especially in western and northern Norway. Compared to the annually occurring snow avalanches (low-magnitude/high-frequency events) so-called extreme snow avalanches (high-magnitude/low-frequency) are more difficult to record as they are characterized by recurrence intervals often larger than a decade. During the winter-spring period 2011/2012 an extreme snow avalanche occurred within the upper valley part of a steep mountain catchment (Bødalen) in western Norway. The snow avalanche run-out zone was located directly in front of the Bødalsbreen glacier which had a substantial effect with respect to the reworking and remobilization of exposed sediment and debris within the proglacial area. Due to the ongoing glacier retreat of the Bødalsbreen glacier freshly exposed areas are enlarged which e.g. exhibit a comparably higher sediment availability enabling active sediment reworking and re-deposition by secondary transfers (e.g. by snow avalanches or fluvial processes). This study focuses on (i) morphometric and meteorological controls of this specific snow avalanche extreme event and (ii) its related relative role in mass transport as compared to the annually monitored snow avalanche activity within the Bødalen valley. Mapping of the extension and run-out distance of this extreme snow avalanche event is combined with spatial data analysis of possible morphometric controls. The timing and meteorological controls of this event are explored based on meteorological data from two different climate stations located nearby. The volume of the entire snow avalanche, its speed and possible pressure effects are estimated and the total transferred sediment mass is calculated. First results show that this extreme snow avalanche was initiated by a large breakup of the snowpack developed along the cliff of an E-facing rockwall located above the B

  9. Petrography and geochemistry of sands from the Chachalacas and Veracruz beach areas, western Gulf of Mexico, Mexico: Constraints on provenance and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Altrin, John S.; Nagarajan, Ramasamy; Balaram, Vysetti; Natalhy-Pineda, Olmedo

    2015-12-01

    Compositional and geochemical analyses of sands collected from the Chachalacas (CHA) and Veracruz (VER) beach areas along the western Gulf of Mexico were studied to determine the provenance and tectonic setting of the source region. The modal composition showed that the proportion of quartz (Q) is lower in CHA than in VER sands. The average quartz-feldspar-lithic fragment (QFL) ratios for the CHA and VER sands are Q75F8L17 and Q86F4L10, respectively. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with EDAX spectrometer (SEM-EDS) data revealed that the CHA sands were abundant in heavy minerals like magnetite, ilmenite, and zircon. The rare earth element concentration (REE) is higher in CHA than in VER sands, which is due to the concentration of heavy minerals in CHA sands. The weathering indices such as chemical index of alteration (CIA), plagioclase index of alteration, and A-CN-K (A = Al2O3, CN = CaO∗ + Na2O, K = K2O) plot suggested that the intensity of weathering in the source area was low to moderate. The index of chemical variability (ICV) for the CHA (˜1.9-3.0) and VER (˜0.82-1.33) sands indicated that the compositional maturity was higher for the VER sands. The concentrations of Co, Cr, Ni, and V are lower in VER sands than in CHA sands, indicating that the CHA sands were derived from the intermediate source rocks. Provenance modelling revealed that the CHA sands were associated with the mixture of basalt, andesite, dacite, and trachyandesite in the ratio of 5:20:25:50. The VER sands were best matched with a mixture having 75-90% dacite and 25-10% andesite compositions. The provenance difference between the two beach areas suggested that longshore current play a less significant role in mixing and homogenization of sands. The multidimensional tectonic discrimination diagrams revealed rift and collision settings for the VER and CHA beach areas, respectively, which is consistent with the general geology of the study areas.

  10. Youger Dryas and Heinrich events recorded by magnetic susceptibility of sediments from the central temperature area of Western Pacific Warm Pool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Three short geomagnetic excursions, the Go thenburg, Mono Lake and Mungo (or Maelifell) in the Brunhes Positive Polarity period, were revealed based on the studies of magnetostratigraphy, susceptibility (x) and δ18O of sediments in core WP 92-5 from the central temperature area of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP), and the ages of them are 12.1-11.3 kaBP, 25.0-24.0 kaBP, and 31.0-28.0 kaBP respectively. Furthermore, the Younger Dryas (YD) and Heinrich (H) cold events were also discov-ered in this core by the susceptibility record. The YD cold event occurred at the depth of 30-22 cm with an age of 11.5-10.6 kaBP; H1, H2 and H3 cold events occurred at depths of 51-39 cm, 108-91 cm and 140-126 cm with ages of 15.1-13.0 kaBP, 25.0-22.1 kaBP and 30.6-28.2 kaBP respectively, which well correspond to the H1, H2, H3 events recorded by susceptibility of core SU90-09 from middle At-lantic, indicating that the susceptibility change of marine sediments can be an important sign of climatic frequent fluc- tuations.

  11. Serological survey for Chagas disease in the rural areas of Manaus, Coari, and Tefé in the Western Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belisa Maria Lopes Magalhães

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Deforestation, uncontrolled forest, human population migration from endemic areas, and the large number of reservoirs and wild vectors naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi promote the endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon region. METHODS: We conducted an initial serological survey (ELISA in a sample of 1,263 persons; 1,095 (86.7% were natives of the State of Amazonas, 666 (52.7% were male, and 948 (75.1% were over 20 years old. Serum samples that were found to be reactive, indeterminate, or inconclusive by indirect immunofluorescence (IFI or positive with low titer by IFA were tested by Western blot (WB. Serologically confirmed patients (WB were evaluated in terms of epidemiological, clinical, ECG, and echocardiography characteristics. RESULTS: Fifteen patients had serologically confirmed T. cruzi infection, and 12 of them were autochthonous to the state of Amazonas, for an overall seroprevalence of 1.2% and 0.9% for the state of Amazonas. Five of the 15 cases were males, and the average age was 47 years old; most were farmers with low education. One patient who was not autochthonous, having originated from Alagoas, showed right bundle branch block, bundle branch block, and anterosuperior left ventricular systolic dysfunction with an ejection fraction of 54%. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study ratify the importance of monitoring CD cases in Amazonia, particularly in the state of Amazonas.

  12. Use of mosquito preventive measures is associated with increased RBC CR1 levels in a malaria holoendemic area of western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christine; Du, Ping; Otieno, Walter; Stoute, José A

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is responsible for close to 1 million deaths each year, mostly among African children. Red blood cells (RBCs) of children with severe malarial anemia show loss of complement regulatory proteins such as complement receptor 1 (CR1). We carried out this study to identify socio-economic, environmental, and biological factors associated with the loss of RBC CR1. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a malaria holoendemic area of western Kenya. Twelve socioeconomic, environmental, and biological factors were examined for a relationship with RBC CR1 level using bivariate linear regression followed by creation of a multivariate linear regression model. A significant positive relationship between RBC CR1 level and use of mosquito countermeasures was found. However, there was no evidence of a significant relationship between RBC CR1 level and malaria infection or parasitemia level. Reducing mosquito exposure may aid in the prevention of severe malarial anemia by reducing the number of infections and thus preserving RBC CR1. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. The role of frugivorous birds and bats in the colonization of cloud forest plant species in burned areas in western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rost, J.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The extension of montane cloud forests in western Mexico is threatened by several disturbances that limit their extension. In this study we aim to assess the contribution of birds and bats in the dispersal and colonization of cloud–forest plants in contiguous surface–burned pine forests. We sampled seed rain and sapling establishment over one year in two surface–burned sites, which differed in the size of their closest cloud forest patch. A total of 17 plant species were found, most of which were late–successional trees, shrubs and climbers. Distance influenced the seed rain of only one dispersed taxon (Solanum sp. and had no effect on the sapling distribution of this or other plants. In turn, marked differences were found between sites, with more seeds dispersed and higher sapling density in the site that was next to the larger cloud forest patch. The role of long–distance dispersers and the existence of seed banks before fire could explain the little importance of distance from seed source on seed dispersal and sapling distribution. Nevertheless, dispersal by birds and bats before or after fire facilitates the regeneration and conservation of cloud forests in disturbed areas formerly occupied by other habitats.

  14. Excess Ar in biotites from the Broderick Falls (Webuye) area, western Kenya: implications for the tectonothermal history of the Mozambique Belt and its Archaean foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, K.; Suwa, K.; Uchiumi, S.; Agata, T.

    1996-10-01

    RbSr whole rock and KAr mineral age determinations were made on rocks from the Broderick Falls (Webuye) area, western Kenya. Granitic rocks yielded a RbSr whole rock isochron age of 2555 ± 101 Ma with an initial {87Sr}/{86Sr} ratio of 0.70121 ± 0.00038. This age represents the time of granitoid emplacement. KAr mineral ages range from 574 to 3420 Ma, which is very variable with respect to mineral type and locality. Mylonitic granodiorite very close to the Nandi Escarpment gave a KAr age of 916 Ma from biotite, suggesting the time of the activity of the Nandi Fault, which may be an earlier phase of the Pan-African Orogeny. Ages of biotites in a zone between 4 and 6 km northeast of the Nandi Fault are anomalously high compared to those of coexisting hornblende and the RbSr isochron age, confirming the existence of excess 40Ar in biotite. Excess 40Ar was probably introduced into biotite under the appropriate temperature conditions prevailing near the Nandi Fault. Taramite, a rare sodic-calcic amphibole, was found in a cordierite-biotite gneiss of the Kavirondian Supergroup and gave a typical Pan-African KAr age of 574 Ma. The last Pan-African metamorphism occurred in the terrane east of the Surongai Thrust.

  15. A new long-tubed subspecies of Pelargonium dipetalum (section Hoarea (Geraniaceae from the Albertinia-Swellendam area in Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marianne le Roux

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Field studies confirmed that unusually long-tubed populations of Pelargonium dipetalum from between Swellendam and Albertinia, Western Cape Province, South Africa, are a distinct ecotype adapted to pollination by the long-proboscid fly, Prosoeca longipennis. The geographical and morphological isolation of these populations suggests that they are reproductively isolated from short-tubed populations, which are pollinated by bees.Objectives: To determine and describe the floral variation in P. dipetalum, with a view to recognising the long-tubed populations at some taxonomic level.Method: All available collections were measured and compared.Results: Populations of P. dipetalum were segregated into a short-tubed form with hypanthium 3 mm – 24 mm long and mostly pink petals that occurs from Betty’s Bay to Knysna, and a long-tubed form with the hypanthium 34 mm – 54 mm long and consistently white petals that is restricted to a small area east of Swellendam between Suurbraak and Albertinia. We described the long-tubed form as the new subspecies P. dipetalum subsp. stenosiphon.Conclusion: The new subspecies increases our understanding of the diversity in P. dipetalum and represents a new taxon of conservation concern.

  16. Permian Radiolarians from the A’nyemaqen Mélange Zone in the Huashixia Area of Madoi County, Qinghai Province, Western China, and Their Implications on Regional Tectonism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Zhao; Xing Huang; Xionghua Zhang; Bing Yang; Zhong-Qiang Chen; Fuhao Xiong

    2016-01-01

    The Huashixia area in the Madoi County, Qinghai Province, western China is one of the most important areas for the studies of the formation and evolution of the A’nyemaqen mélange zone due to the well exposed, relatively complete tectonostratigraphic successions. However, the timing and evolu-tionary process of the A’nyemaqen paleo-ocean has long been poorly understood. Recently, we obtained abundant radiolarians from the siliceous rocks of the Maerzheng Formation of this mélange zone in Huashixia. Total 19 species in 10 radiolarian genera have been identified. They belong mainly to the Al-baillellaria, Spumellaria, Entactinaria, and Latentifistularia. Four radiolarian assemblage zones are es-tablished, including: thePseudoalbaillella rhombothoracata,Pseudoalbaillella scalprata,Ruzhencevispongus uralicus,andFollicucullus bipartitus-Follicucullussp. cf.F. ventricosus zones. Radiolarian faunal correla-tions suggest a late Artinskian–early Kungurian age and late Capitanian–early Wuchiapingian age for the first two zones from the lower part and the last two zones from the upper parts of the Maerzheng Forma-tion, respectively. All radiolarians are typical of deep water elements living in deep oceans in low latitudes during the Permian. Previously, the radiolarians of Early Carboniferous to Early Permian age and fusu-linids of Early–Middle Permian age have also been reported from the A’nyemaqen mélange successions. The combination of the newly found radiolarians with the previously reported faunal and microfloral as-semblages as well as radiometric ages obtained from the same stratigraphic units indicates that the A’nyemaqen paleo-ocean may have opened initially during the Early Carboniferous, expanded from the Early–Middle Permian, reached its acme in the early Late Permian, shrunk during the latest Permian to Early Triassic, and eventually was closed in the Middle Triassic.

  17. Seasonal spatial patterns in seabird and marine mammal distribution in the eastern Chukchi and western Beaufort seas: Identifying biologically important pelagic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuletz, Kathy J.; Ferguson, Megan C.; Hurley, Brendan; Gall, Adrian E.; Labunski, Elizabeth A.; Morgan, Tawna C.

    2015-08-01

    The Chukchi and Beaufort seas are undergoing rapid climate change and increased human activity. Conservation efforts for upper trophic level predators such as seabirds and marine mammals require information on species' distributions and identification of important marine areas. Here we describe broad-scale distributions of seabirds and marine mammals. We examined spatial patterns of relative abundance of seabirds and marine mammals in the eastern Chukchi and western Beaufort seas during summer (15 June-31 August) and fall (1 September-20 November) from 2007 to 2012. We summarized 49,206 km of shipboard surveys for seabirds and 183,157 km of aerial surveys for marine mammals into a grid of 40-km × 40-km cells. We used Getis-Ord Gi∗ hotspot analysis to test for cells with higher relative abundance than expected when compared to all cells within the study area. We identified cells representing single species and taxonomic group hotspots, cells representing hotspots for multiple species, and cells representing hotspots for both seabirds and marine mammals. The locations of hotspots varied among species but often were located near underwater canyons or over continental shelf features and slopes. Hotspots for seabirds, walrus, and gray whales occurred primarily in the Chukchi Sea. Hotspots for bowhead whales and other pinnipeds (i.e., seals) occurred near Barrow Canyon and along the Beaufort Sea shelf and slope. Hotspots for belugas occurred in both the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. There were three hotspots shared by both seabirds and marine mammals in summer: off Wainwright in the eastern Chukchi Sea, south of Hanna Shoal, and at the mouth of Barrow Canyon. In fall, the only identified shared hotspot occurred at the mouth of Barrow Canyon. Shared hotspots are characterized by strong fronts caused by upwelling and currents, and these areas can have high densities of euphausiids in summer and fall. Due to the high relative abundance of animals and diversity of taxa

  18. Natural gas geological characteristics and great discovery of large gas fields in deep-water area of the western South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenfeng Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To accelerate the petroleum exploration in deep sea of China, since the period of “the 11th Five-Year Plan”, the sedimentary process, source rock formation and hydrocarbon generation and expulsion process in deep-water area of the Qiongdongnan Basin in the western South China Sea have been studied systematically using the data like large-area 3D seismic survey, logging, drill core (cuttings and geochemical analysis, providing three innovative understandings, i.e. excellent hydrocarbon source conditions, good accumulation conditions, and grouping and zonal distribution of large exploration targets. From the study, the following conclusions are drawn. First, the deep-water area located in the southern and central parts of the Qiongdongnan Basin was formed under the control of such tectonic events as Indosinian–Eurasian Plate collision, Himalayan uplifting and South China Sea expansion, and experienced Paleogene lift and Neogene depression stages. Second, accompanied by lacustrine deposition, faulting activity was violent in Eocene; whereas in Early Oligocene, rift continued to develop under a sedimentary environment of marine–terrestrial transitional facies and littoral-neritic facies. Third, oil generation predominated Eocene lacustrine mudstone and gas generation predominated Lower Oligocene marine–terrestrial transitional facies coal-measure strata compose two sets of major source rocks. Fourth, analysis in respect of thermal evolution level, hydrocarbon generation volume and hydrocarbon generation intensity shows that Ledong, Lingshui, Baodao and Changchang sags belong to potential hydrocarbon-rich kitchens, among which Ledong and Lingshui sags have been proved to have great hydrocarbon generation potential by drilling. Fifth, researches of deep-water sedimentology and hydrocarbon accumulation dynamics reveal that Paleogene and Neogene plays are developed vertically, and favorable hydrocarbon accumulation zones like the Central

  19. CO2 degassing in the Hartoušov mofette area, western Eger Rift, imaged by CO2 mapping and geoelectrical and gravity surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickschick, Tobias; Kämpf, Horst; Flechsig, Christina; Mrlina, Jan; Heinicke, Jens

    2015-11-01

    Strong, subcontinental mantle-dominated CO2 degassing occurs in the Hartoušov and Bublák mofette fields in the western Eger Rift. The combination of CO2 gas flux and soil gas measurements as well as gravity and geoelectric surveys provides insight into the surface and subsurface of this unique mofette area. CO2 soil gas and gas flux measurements reveal that large amounts of carbon dioxide are released via channels with diameters below 1 m. Carbon dioxide emissions of several tens and up to more than 100 kg day-1 are ejected via these small seeps. Measurements with small spacings are necessary to account for the point like, focused gas discharge in the lesser degassing surrounding. We estimate that between 23 and 97 tons of CO2 are released over an area of about 350,000 m2 each day in the Hartoušov mofette field. The application of widely used geostatistical tools leads to estimations of the CO2 discharge with very high standard deviations due to the strong positive skewness of the data distribution. Geophysical investigations via electrical resistivity tomography and gravity measurements were carried out over areas of strong seepage and reveal distinct anomalies in the subsurface below mofettes, indicating rock and sediment alterations and/or sediment transport by pressurised, ascending CO2 and water mobilised by it. This study reveals that the gas emanations only occur west of a morphological step which is related to a N-S-oriented fault zone, the Počatky-Plesná fault zone. The results of CO2 mapping and the geophysical studies can track the course of this fault zone in this area. Our results fit into a tectonic model in which the mofette fields are in the centres of two independent pull-apart basin-like structures. We hypothesise that the sinistral strike-slip movement of the Počatky-Plesná fault zone leads to a pull-apart basin-like opening, at which the strong, mantle-derived CO2 degassing occurs nowadays. Since the Hartoušov and Bublák mofette fields

  20. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915......, the first Western discussion of Sufism was printed in 1480, and Western interest in some of the ideas that are central to Sufi thought goes back to the thirteenth century. Sedgwick starts with the earliest origins of Western Sufism in late antique Neoplatonism and early Arab philosophy, and traces later...

  1. Clinical, bacteriological, and histopathological characteristics of newly detected children with leprosy: A population based study in a defined rural and urban area of Maharashtra, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanaja P Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leprosy has been a major public-health problem in many developing countries for centuries. According to the National Leprosy Elimination Programme report of March 2012, there were a total of about 0.13 million cases of leprosy in India, 9.7% of which were children. Numerous studies have investigated child leprosy amongst reported cases however, studies pertaining to proportion and characteristics of undetected childhood cases in the community are very few. Aim: To examine the clinical, bacteriological, and histopathological characteristics of newly detected child leprosy cases in the community. Methods: The population survey conducted from June to September 2007 and the defined rural areas, which included five primary health centers of Panvel Taluka, in Raigad district and urban areas, which included M-east ward of the municipal corporation of greater Mumbai of western Maharashtra, India. Results: House-to-house survey yielded 32 and 37 so far, undetected child cases of leprosy in the rural and urban region, and the prevalence rate was 10.5 and 1.5 per 10,000, respectively. The age of child leprosy cases detected, ranged from 3 to 14 years with a mean of 10.06 ± 3.35 years in the rural and 9.97 ± 3.12 years in the urban area. Most of the cases were paucibacillary (62%. A large proportion of children (49% had single skin lesion (SSL. Of the 19 SSL cases examined histopathologically, 15 (99% showed features of borderline tuberculoid, 1 (5% borderline lepromatous and 3 (16% had indeterminate type of leprosy. Tuberculoid leprosy was not seen in any, indicating less likelihood of self-healing. Overall, three cases had deformity (grade 1 = 1 and grade 2 = 2 and 31% of multibacillary cases were smear positive. Conclusion: The clinical, bacteriological, and histopathological characteristics of newly detected child cases in the community evidently indicate the grave nature of the problem of undetected child leprosy, recent active

  2. Implement PPET Strategy and Develop Ecotourism of Minority Areas in Western China——Take Xinlong County of GanziTibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province as An Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaGuitan

    2005-01-01

    To help the poor and to develop tourism are two mportant problems in poverty-stricken area. Howeve,they were isotated for years. The PPET strategy was put forward in this paper based on PPT. The Feasibility and the realistic meaning of the strategy in developing the ecotourism, overcoming poverty, and achieving prosperity of minority areas in western China are analyzed by taking Xinlong county of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Stchuan Province as an example.

  3. Survey on Job Burnout of Primary School Teachers in Western Area%西部地区小学教师职业倦怠的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭纪昌

    2013-01-01

      目的:了解西部地区小学教师职业倦怠情况。方法:采用王青鑫的《小学教师职业倦怠问卷》对西部地区六所小学的135名教师进行调查。结果:西部地区小学教师职业倦怠三个因子以及总分的平均分均不高于3分;三个因子以及总分中严重或极重的人数在总人数的比例最高占15.5%,最低占1.6%;男教师在个人成就感降低因子上的得分高于女教师,其他因子以及总分均为女教师高于男教师,并且在情感耗竭因子上,男女得分达到了极其显著的差异(t=-2.687, p=0.008<0.01)。结论:西部地区小学教师职业倦怠状况不严重。男女教师在三个因子以及总分上的得分互有高低,女教师在情感耗竭上比男教师更加严重。%  Objective: To get the situation of job burnout of primary school teachers in western area. Method:“Primary School Teachers’ Job Burnout Questionnaire” by Wang Qingxin is employed to conduct a survey on 135 primary school teachers. Results: The mean scores of three factors and the average of total score of the whole questionnaire are no higher than 3; the percentage of the serious or the extremely serious in three factors and the whole score is 15.5% by the highest and 1.6% by the lowest; the score of reduced personal accomplishment factor in male teachers is higher than that of the female teachers; as for the other factors and total score, female teacher’s score are higher than that of male teachers. In the factor of emotional exhaustion, an extremely significant difference exists between male teachers and female ones(t=-2.687,p=0.008<0.01). Conclusion: Primary school teachers’ job burnout is not serious in western area. Scores of three factors and the total score is different in male teachers and female ones, and female teachers’ score of emotional exhaustion factor is above that of male teachers.

  4. Phylogeography of western Pacific Leucetta 'chagosensis' (Porifera: Calcarea) from ribosomal DNA sequences: implications for population history and conservation of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörheide, Gert; Hooper, John N A; Degnan, Bernard M

    2002-09-01

    Leucetta 'chagosensis' is a widespread calcareous sponge, occurring in shaded habitats of Indo-Pacific coral reefs. In this study we explore relationships among 19 ribosomal DNA sequence types (the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region plus flanking gene sequences) found among 54 individuals from 28 locations throughout the western Pacific, with focus on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Maximum parsimony analysis revealed phylogeographical structuring into four major clades (although not highly supported by bootstrap analysis) corresponding to the northern/central GBR with Guam and Taiwan, the southern GBR and subtropical regions south to Brisbane, Vanuatu and Indonesia. Subsequent nested clade analysis (NCA) confirmed this structure with a probability of > 95%. After NCA of geographical distances, a pattern of range expansion from the internal Indonesian clade was inferred at the total cladogram level, as the Indonesian clade was found to be the internal and therefore oldest clade. Two distinct clades were found on the GBR, which narrowly overlap geographically in a line approximately from the Whitsunday Islands to the northern Swain Reefs. At various clade levels, NCA inferred that the northern GBR clade was influenced by past fragmentation and contiguous range expansion events, presumably during/after sea level low stands in the Pleistocene, after which the northern GBR might have been recolonized from the Queensland Plateau in the Coral Sea. The southern GBR clade is most closely related to subtropical L. 'chagosensis', and we infer that the southern GBR probably was recolonized from there after sea level low stands, based on our NCA results and supported by oceanographic data. Our results have important implications for conservation and management of the GBR, as they highlight the importance of marginal transition zones in the generation and maintenance of species rich zones, such as the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area.

  5. Changes in Health-Seeking Behavior Did Not Result in Increased All-Cause Mortality During the Ebola Outbreak in Western Area, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vygen, Sabine; Tiffany, Amanda; Rull, Monica; Ventura, Alexandre; Wolz, Anja; Jambai, Amara; Porten, Klaudia

    2016-10-05

    Little is known about the residual effects of the west African Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic on non-Ebola mortality and health-seeking behavior in Sierra Leone. We conducted a retrospective household survey to estimate mortality and describe health-seeking behavior in Western Area, Sierra Leone, between May 25, 2014, and February 16, 2015. We used two-stage cluster sampling, selected 30 geographical sectors with probability proportional to population size, and sampled 30 households per sector. Survey teams conducted face-to-face interviews and collected information on mortality and health-seeking behavior. We calculated all-cause and Ebola-specific mortality rates and compared health-seeking behavior before and during the Ebola epidemic using χ(2) and Fisher's exact tests. Ninety-six deaths, 39 due to Ebola, were reported in 898 households. All-cause and Ebola-specific mortality rates were 0.52 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.29-0.76) and 0.19 (95% CI = 0.01-0.38) per 10,000 inhabitants per day, respectively. Of those households that reported a sick family member during the month before the survey, 86% (73/85) sought care at a health facility before the epidemic, compared with 58% (50/86) in February 2015 (P = 0.013). Reported self-medication increased from 4% (3/85) before the epidemic to 23% (20/86) during the epidemic (P = 0.013). Underutilization of health services and increased self-medication did not show a demonstrable effect on non-Ebola-related mortality. Nevertheless, the residual effects of outbreaks need to be taken into account for the future. Recovery efforts should focus on rebuilding both the formalized health system and the population's trust in it. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Genetic variability of Rickettsia spp. in Ixodes persulcatus/Ixodes trianguliceps sympatric areas from Western Siberia, Russia: Identification of a new Candidatus Rickettsia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igolkina, Yana P; Rar, Vera A; Yakimenko, Valeriy V; Malkova, Marina G; Tancev, Aleksey K; Tikunov, Artem Yu; Epikhina, Tamara I; Tikunova, Nina V

    2015-08-01

    Rickettsia spp. are the causative agents of a number of diseases in humans. These bacteria are transmitted by arthropods, including ixodid ticks. DNA of several Rickettsia spp. was identified in Ixodes persulcatus ticks, however, the association of Ixodes trianguliceps ticks with Rickettsia spp. is unknown. In our study, blood samples of small mammals (n=108), unfed adult I. persulcatus ticks (n=136), and I. persulcatus (n=12) and I. trianguliceps (n=34) ticks feeding on voles were collected in two I. persulcatus/I. trianguliceps sympatric areas in Western Siberia. Using nested PCR, ticks and blood samples were studied for the presence of Rickettsia spp. Three distinct Rickettsia species were found in ticks, but no Rickettsia species were found in the blood of examined voles. Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae DNA was detected in 89.7% of unfed I. persulcatus, 91.7% of engorged I. persulcatus and 14.7% of I. trianguliceps ticks. Rickettsia helvetica DNA was detected in 5.9% of I. trianguliceps ticks. In addition, a new Rickettsia genetic variant was found in 32.4% of I. trianguliceps ticks. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA, gltA, ompA, оmpB and sca4 genes was performed and, in accordance with genetic criteria, a new Rickettsia genetic variant was classified as a new Candidatus Rickettsia species. We propose to name this species Candidatus Rickettsia uralica, according to the territory where this species was initially identified. Candidatus Rickettsia uralica was found to belong to the spotted fever group. The data obtained in this study leads us to propose that Candidatus Rickettsia uralica is associated with I. trianguliceps ticks.

  7. High Resolution Air Quality Forecasts in the Western Mediterranean area within the MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III European projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansado, A.; Martinez, I.; Morales, T.

    2015-07-01

    The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, formerly known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is establishing a core global and regional environmental atmospheric service as a component of the Europe’s Copernicus/GMES initiative through successive R&D projects led by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting) and funded by the 6th and 7th European Framework Programme for Research and Horizon 2020 Programme: GEMS, MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III. AEMET (Spanish State Meteorological Agency) has participated in the projects MACC and MACC-II and continues participating in MACC-III (http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu). AEMET has contributed to those projects by generating highresolution (0.05 degrees) daily air-quality forecasts for the Western Mediterranean up to 48 hours aiming to analyse the dependence of the quality of forecasts on resolution. We monitor the evolution of different chemical species such as NO2, O3, CO y SO2 at surface and different vertical levels using the global model MOCAGE and the MACC Regional Ensemble forecasts as chemical boundary conditions. We will show different case-studies, where the considered chemical species present high values and will show a validation of the air-quality by comparing to some of the available air-quality observations (EMEP/GAW, regional -autonomous communities- and local -city councils- air-quality monitoring networks) over the forecast domain. The aim of our participation in these projects is helping to improve the understanding of the processes involved in the air-quality forecast in the Mediterranean where special factors such as highly populated areas together with an intense solar radiation make air-quality forecasting particularly challenging. (Author)

  8. High Resolution Air Quality Forecasts in the Western Mediterranean area within the MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III European projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansado, A.; Martinez, I.; Morales, T.

    2015-07-01

    The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, formerly known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is establishing a core global and regional environmental atmospheric service as a component of the Europes Copernicus/GMES initiative through successive R and D projects led by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting) and funded by the 6th and 7th European Framework Programme for Research and Horizon 2020 Programme: GEMS, MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III. AEMET (Spanish State Meteorological Agency) has participated in the projects MACC and MACC-II and continues participating in MACC-III (http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu). AEMET has contributed to those projects by generating highresolution (0.05 degrees) daily air-quality forecasts for the Western Mediterranean up to 48 hours aiming to analyse the dependence of the quality of forecasts on resolution. We monitor the evolution of different chemical species such as NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, CO y SO{sub 2} at surface and different vertical levels using the global model MOCAGE and the MACC Regional Ensemble forecasts as chemical boundary conditions. We will show different case-studies, where the considered chemical species present high values and will show a validation of the air-quality by comparing to some of the available air-quality observations (EMEP/GAW, regional -autonomous communities- and local -city councils- air-quality monitoring networks) over the forecast domain. The aim of our participation in these projects is helping to improve the understanding of the processes involved in the air-quality forecast in the Mediterranean where special factors such as highly populated areas together with an intense solar radiation make air-quality forecasting particularly challenging. (Author)

  9. Genetic diversity and drug resistance among newly diagnosed and antiretroviral treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals in western Yunnan: a hot area of viral recombination in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The emergence of an HIV-1 epidemic in China was first recognized in Dehong, western Yunnan. Due to its geographic location, Dehong contributed greatly in bridging HIV-1 epidemics in Southeast Asia and China through drug trafficking and injection drug use; and also extensively to the HIV genetic diversity in Yunnan and China. We attempt to monitor HIV-1 in this area by studying the HIV-1 genetic distribution and transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in various at-risk populations. Methods Blood samples from a total of 320 newly HIV-1 diagnosed individuals, who were antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive, were collected from January 2009 to December 2010 in 2 counties in Dehong. HIV-1 subtypes and pol gene drug resistance (DR) mutations were genotyped. Results Among 299 pol sequences successfully genotyped (93.4%), subtype C accounted for 43.1% (n=129), unique recombinant forms (URFs) for 18.4% (n=55), CRF01_AE for 17.7% (n=54), B for 10.7% (n=32), CRF08_BC for 8.4% (n=25) and CRF07_BC for 1.7% (n=5). Subtype distribution in patients infected by different transmission routes varied. In contract to the previous finding of CRF01_AE predominance in 2002-2006, subtype C predominated in both injecting drug users (IDUs) and heterosexually transmitted populations in this study. Furthermore, we found a high level of BC, CRF01_AE/C and CRF01_AE/B/C recombinants suggesting the presence of active viral recombination in the area. TDR associated mutations were identified in 4.3% (n=13) individuals. A total of 1.3% of DR were related to protease inhibitors (PIs), including I85IV, M46I and L90M; 0.3% to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), including M184I; and 2.7% to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), including K103N/S, Y181C, K101E and G190A. Conclusion Our work revealed diverse HIV-1 subtype distributions and intersubtype recombinations. We also identified a low but significant TDR mutation rate among ART-naive patients. These findings

  10. Stratigraphy and palaeoenvironment of the Lower-``middle'' Oligocene units in the northern part of the Western Taurides (İncesu area, Isparta, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkiraz, Mehmet Serkan; Akgün, Funda; Örçen, Sefer

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental significance of the Lower-"middle" Oligocene sediments based on the fauna from the Delikarkası Formation and the microflora from the İncesu Formation of the İncesu area (northern part of the western Taurides, Isparta province, Turkey). In the area, the Oligocene sediments show a regressive succession, which begins with the limestones of the Delikarkası Formation indicating marine conditions followed by conglomerates, sandstones and coaly mudstones of alluvial and fluvial (shallow marine-continental) origin. A well preserved foraminiferal assemblage including Nummulitesintermedius, Nummulitesvascus and Halkyardiamaxima proves an Early Oligocene age for the Delikarkası Formation. Due to palynological markers such as Boehlensipollishohli, Slowakipollishippophaëoides, Dicolpopolliskockelii, Magnolipollisneogenicus ssp. minor, Plicapollispseudoexcelsus, Caryapollenitessimplex and Intratriporopollenitesinstructus the İncesu Formation, which concordantly rests on the Delikarkası Formation, may be assigned to the Early-"middle" Oligocene. From the palynomorph assemblage, three zones have been recognised according to abundance of species. Zone 1 is characterized by predominance of C.simplex and Momipitespunctatus and rarely presence of tricolpate and tricolporate pollen. Zone 2 consists mainly of Inaperturopollenitesdubius, Leiotriletesmaxoides ssp. maximus, Verrucatosporitesfavus,Verrucatosporitesalienus and infrequently marine dinoflagellate cysts. Zone 3 is characterized by a high percentage of ferns such as Echinatisporis? chattensis and Polypodiaceoisporitessaxonicus. The presence of marine dinoflagellate cysts like Apectodinium sp. and Cleistosphaeridium sp., back-mangrove elements such as Acrostichumaureum and lepidocaryoid palms (e.g. Longapertitesdiscordis, Longapertitespunctatus and Longapertitespsilatus) in the sediments of the İncesu Formation imply coastal or near-coastal conditions

  11. Neoarchean orogenic, magmatic and hydrothermal events in the Kalgoorlie-Kambalda area, Western Australia: constraints on gold mineralization in the Boulder Lefroy-Golden Mile fault system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Andreas G.; Hagemann, Steffen G.; McNaughton, Neal J.

    2016-08-01

    The Boulder Lefroy-Golden Mile (BLF-GMF) fault system is the most intensely mineralized structure (>2150 t Au to 2015) in the Archean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. The fault system links the Kalgoorlie and Kambalda mining districts in the Eastern Goldfields Province, a continental-margin orogen subdivided into the western Kalgoorlie ensialic rift and the eastern Kurnalpi volcanic arc. After rifting, the 2.73-2.66 Ga greenstone-greywacke succession in the Kalgoorlie-Kambalda area underwent five phases of orogenic deformation, predominantly during ENE-WSW shortening: D1 upright folding at ca. 2680 Ma, D2 sinistral strike-slip faulting at 2678-2663 Ma, D3 folding of late conglomerate-turbidite successions at 2665-2655 Ma, D4 dextral strike-slip faulting at 2655-2640 Ma and D5 east-northeast-striking normal faulting. Regional prehnite-pumpellyite to greenschist facies burial metamorphism took place during D1 and D3 crustal thickening, and amphibolite facies aureoles formed around granite batholiths during and after D3 at 400 ± 100 MPa pressure. The D2 BLF offsets D1 folds by 12 km SW-side south and contains a porphyry dyke (2676 ± 7 Ma) boudinaged by transtensional oblique-slip along a line pitching 21° southeast. The BLF is linked by transverse D2 thrusts to other sinistral faults recording strike-slip until 2663 ± 7 Ma. Late D2 strike-slip movement alternated with early D3 shortening. D3 thrusts accommodated strain in fault blocks of rigid mafic-ultramafic volcanic rocks consolidated during D1, while the sedimentary rocks in D3 synclines were foliated at high strain. Biotite-sericite alteration and gold-pyrite mineralization in the BLF-GMF system took place at 11 ± 4 km burial depth in faults active during D2 and D3. The Golden Mile (1708 t Au) and other deposits are associated with stocks and dykes of high-Mg monzodiorite-tonalite porphyry, part of a late-orogenic (2665-2645 Ma) mantle-derived suite of adakitic affinity. Hornblende and apatite compositions

  12. Reconstructing multiple arc-basin systems in the Altai-Junggar area (NW China): Implications for the architecture and evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; He, Dengfa; Tang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    The Altai-Junggar area in northwestern China is a critical region to gain insights on the tectonic framework and geological evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). In this study, we report results from integrated geological, geochemical and geophysical investigations on the Wulungu Depression of the Junggar Basin to determine the basement nature of the basin and understand its amalgamation history with the Chinese Altai, within the broad tectonic evolution of the Altai-Junggar area. Based on borehole and seismic data, the Wulungu Depression is subdivided into two NW-trending tectonic units (Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High) by southward-vergent thrust faults. The Suosuoquan Sag consists of the Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, tuff, tuffaceous sandstone and tuffite, and the overlying Early Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary sequence with lava flows and shallow marine sediments from a proximal juvenile provenance (zircon εHf(t) = 6.0-14.9), compared to the Late Carboniferous andesite and rhyolite in the Hongyan High. Zircon SIMS U-Pb ages for dacites and andesites indicate that these volcanics in the Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High erupted at 376.3 Ma and 313.4 Ma, respectively. The Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesites from well LC1 are calc-alkaline and exhibit primitive magma-like MgO contents (7.9-8.6%) and Mg# values (66-68), with low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.703269-0.704808) and positive εNd(t) values (6.6-7.6), and relatively high Zr abundance (98.2-116.0 ppm) and Zr/Y ratios (5.1-5.4), enrichment in LREEs and LILEs (e.g., Th and U) and depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti, suggesting that they were probably derived from a metasomatized depleted mantle in a retro-arc extensional setting. The well LC1 andesitic tuffs, well L8 dacites, well WL1 dacitic tuffs and well L5 andesites belong to calc-alkaline and metaluminous to peraluminous (A/CNK = 0.8-1.7) series, and display low Mg# values (35-46) and variably positive εNd(t) (4

  13. Syntectonic emplacement of the Triassic biotite-syenogranite intrusions in the Taili area, western Liaoning, NE China: Insights from petrogenesis, rheology and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weimin; Liu, Yongjiang; Jin, Wei; Neubauer, Franz; Zhao, Yingli; Liang, Chenyue; Wen, Quanbo; Feng, Zhiqiang; Li, Jing; Liu, Qing

    2017-05-01

    The North China Craton (NCC) is one of the oldest cratons in the world, and it recently becomes a hot study area because of large volumes of Mesozoic intrusions associated with lithospheric thinning contributing to cratonic destruction in late Mesozoic times. However, the timing of initial thinning and destruction is still controversial. The Taili area, western Liaoning Province, in the northeastern part of the NCC well exposes the Archean basement rocks and the Mesozoic magmatic rocks with variable plastic deformation. This study focuses on the syntectonic emplacement of the Triassic biotite-syenogranite intrusions, in order to understand their petrogenesis, timing as well as the geological significance. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages reveal that the biotite-syenogranites formed between 246 and 191 Ma, and contain many ancient (2564-2317 Ma) zircon xenocrysts. Geochemical data suggests that the biotite-syenogranites display an adakitic affinity with high Sr/Y = 135-167 and (La/Yb)N = 48-69, as well as negligible Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.87-0.94), high negative zircon εHf(t) values (-15.5 to -21.5) and ancient TDM2 ages (2246-2598 Ma). This data suggests that the parent magmas were generated from partial melting of thickened Archean lower crustal rocks probably due to the bidirectional amalgamation of the NCC with the NE China micro-blocks and the Yangtze Craton in its north and south, respectively. In the middle part of the Taili area, magmatic fabrics are well preserved in the biotite-syenogranite intrusion characterized by the strong preferred orientation of biotite and hornblende crystals, which parallel to the intrusion margin and are slightly oblique to the gneissosity of the sheared host Neoarchean granitic gneisses. The quartz grain size piezometer suggests that the paleo-differential stresses weaken toward to the central part of the intrusion, ranging from 21.40-22.22 MPa to 16.74-19.34 MPa, during quartz crystallization in the emplacement stage. This allow

  14. Historical Events of “Making Peace with Rulers of Minority Nationalities in the Border Areas Through Marriage” in the Western Regions by the Hun%匈奴西域“和亲”史事

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子今

    2012-01-01

    Before the political and cultural influence of the Han dynasty entered the western regions,the Hun once exercised control over"Loulan,Wusun,Hujie and other twenty-six countries".After the Han culture extended to the western regions,the Hun force still tried repeatedly and persistently to gain control of the western regions by diplomatic and military means."Making peace with rulers of minority nationalities in the border areas through marriage"is one of the diplomatic means used by the Hun for the control of the countries in the western regions.The Hun once tried the strategy of"making peace with rulers of minority nationalities in the border areas through marriage"in terms of the several countries in the western regions.For the strategy of"making peace with rulers of minority nationalities in the border areas through marriage"used by the Han dynasty,the Hun tried desperately to destroy its implementation.%在汉王朝政治文化影响进入西域之前,匈奴曾经施行对"楼兰、乌孙、呼揭及其旁二十六国"的控制。汉文化扩张至西域后,匈奴势力依然反复对这一地区进行军事外交的顽强争夺。"和亲",是匈奴控制西域国家的外交方式之一。匈奴在施用军事高压的同时,也曾经对西域数国推行"和亲"策略。对于汉王朝与西域国家的"和亲",匈奴亦竭力予以破坏。

  15. Predictors of intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age group in Sagamu local government area in Ogun State, Western Nigeria: A community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olorunfemi Emmanuel Amoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Worldwide, it has been estimated that violence against women is as serious a cause of death and incapacity among women of reproductive age as cancer, and a greater cause of ill health as traffic accidents and malaria combined. This study was therefore carried out to determine the prevalence and predictors of intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age group in Sagamu local government area (SLGA of Ogun State, Nigeria. Settings: The study was conducted in SLGA Ogun State, which is located in the South Western part of Nigeria. A total of 500 women were interviewed in this study. One participant per each household was selected into the study. Methodology: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted between April 22, and May 13, 2013. Multistage sampling technique was used to select the participants into the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information. Results: The overall rate of intimate partner violence in the last 12 months among respondents was 16.0% and was the most common (65.0% among age 25–39 years (P = 0.003 and those with primary education (P = 0.001. About 12.3% of the respondents had an abnormal General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Those who had abnormal GHQ were strongly statistically associated with intimate partner violence (P = 0.0001. Strain relationship (odds ratio [OR] =3.7, confidence interval [CI] =1.74–7.87, thinking that violence is acceptable (OR = 1.96, CI = 1.24–3.09 were predisposing factors for intimate partner violence while being mentally healthy (OR = 0.51, CI = 0.34–0.75 reduce the occurrence of violence by half after controlling for the effect of confounders. Conclusion: This study suggests that women education and healthy mental health is essential to the reduction of violence among intimate partners. Resolving it requires the provision of counseling services by educational and mental health sectors working together at the community

  16. Provider knowledge of treatment policy and dosing regimen with artemether-lumefantrine and quinine in malaria-endemic areas of western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watsierah, Carren A; Onyango, Rosebella O; Ombaka, James H; Abong'o, Benard O; Ouma, Collins

    2012-12-29

    Due to widespread anti-malarial drug resistance in many countries, Kenya included, artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) has been adopted as the most effective treatment option against malaria. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is the first-line ACT for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Kenya, while quinine is preferred for complicated and severe malaria. Information on the providers' knowledge and practices prior to or during AL and quinine implementation is scanty. The current study evaluated providers' knowledge and practices of treatment policy and dosing regimens with AL and quinine in the public, private and not-for-profit drug outlets. A cross-sectional survey using three-stage sampling of 288 (126 public, 96 private and 66 not-for-profits) providers in drug outlets was conducted in western Kenya in two Plasmodium falciparum-endemic regions with varying malarial risk. Information on provider in-service training, knowledge (qualification, treatment policy, dosing regimen, recently banned anti-malarials) and on practices (request for written prescription, prescription of AL, selling partial packs and advice given to patients after prescription), was collected. Only 15.6% of providers in private outlets had received any in-service training on AL use. All (100%) in public and majority (98.4%) in not-for-profit outlets mentioned AL as first line-treatment drug. Quinine was mentioned as second-line drug by 47.9% in private outlets. A total of 92.0% in public, 57.3% in private and 78.8% in not-for-profit outlets stated correct AL dose for adults. A total of 85.7% of providers in public, 30.2% in private and 41.0% in not-for-profit outlets were aware that SP recommendations changed from treatment for mild malaria to IPTp in high risk areas. In-service training influenced treatment regimen for uncomplicated malaria (P = 0.039 and P = 0.039) and severe malaria (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.002) in children and adults, respectively. Most (82.3%) of private

  17. Provider knowledge of treatment policy and dosing regimen with artemether-lumefantrine and quinine in malaria-endemic areas of western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watsierah Carren A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to widespread anti-malarial drug resistance in many countries, Kenya included, artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT has been adopted as the most effective treatment option against malaria. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL is the first-line ACT for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Kenya, while quinine is preferred for complicated and severe malaria. Information on the providers’ knowledge and practices prior to or during AL and quinine implementation is scanty. The current study evaluated providers’ knowledge and practices of treatment policy and dosing regimens with AL and quinine in the public, private and not-for-profit drug outlets. Methods A cross-sectional survey using three-stage sampling of 288 (126 public, 96 private and 66 not-for-profits providers in drug outlets was conducted in western Kenya in two Plasmodium falciparum-endemic regions with varying malarial risk. Information on provider in-service training, knowledge (qualification, treatment policy, dosing regimen, recently banned anti-malarials and on practices (request for written prescription, prescription of AL, selling partial packs and advice given to patients after prescription, was collected. Results Only 15.6% of providers in private outlets had received any in-service training on AL use. All (100% in public and majority (98.4% in not-for-profit outlets mentioned AL as first line-treatment drug. Quinine was mentioned as second-line drug by 47.9% in private outlets. A total of 92.0% in public, 57.3% in private and 78.8% in not-for-profit outlets stated correct AL dose for adults. A total of 85.7% of providers in public, 30.2% in private and 41.0% in not-for-profit outlets were aware that SP recommendations changed from treatment for mild malaria to IPTp in high risk areas. In-service training influenced treatment regimen for uncomplicated malaria (P = 0.039 and P = 0.039 and severe malaria (P P = 0.002 in children and adults

  18. Late Cenozoic volcanism in the western Woodlark Basin area, SW Pacific: the sources of marine volcanic ash layers based on their elemental and Sr-Nd isotope compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackschewitz, K. S.; Mertz, D. F.; Devey, C. W.; Garbe-Schönberg, C.-D.

    2002-12-01

    Tephra fallout layers and volcaniclastic deposits, derived from volcanic sources around and on the Papuan Peninsula, form a substantial part of the Woodlark Basin marine sedimentary succession. Sampling by the Ocean Drilling Program Leg 180 in the western Woodlark Basin provides the opportunity to document the distribution of the volcanically-derived components as well as to evaluate their chronology, chemistry, and isotope compositions in order to gain information on the volcanic sources and original magmatic systems. Glass shards selected from 57 volcanogenic layers within the sampled Pliocene-Pleistocene sedimentary sequence show predominantly rhyolitic compositions, with subordinate basaltic andesites, basaltic trachy-andesites, andesites, trachy-andesites, dacites, and phonolites. It was possible to correlate only a few of the volcanogenic layers between sites using geochemical and age information apparently because of the formation of strongly compartmentalised sedimentary realms on this actively rifting margin. In many cases it was possible to correlate Leg 180 volcanic components with their eruption source areas based on chemical and isotope compositions. Likely sources for a considerable number of the volcanogenic deposits are Moresby and Dawson Strait volcanoes (D'Entrecasteaux Islands region) for high-K calc-alkaline glasses. The Dawson Strait volcanoes appear to represent the source for five peralkaline tephra layers. One basaltic andesitic volcaniclastic layer shows affinities to basaltic andesites from the Woodlark spreading tip and Cheshire Seamount. For other layers, a clear identification of the sources proved impossible, although their isotope and chemical signatures suggest similarities to south-west Pacific subduction volcanism, e.g. New Britain and Tonga-Kermadec island arcs. Volcanic islands in the Trobriand Arc (for example, Woodlark Island Amphlett Islands and/or Egum Atoll) are probable sources for several volcaniclastic layers with ages

  19. Peculiarities in atmospheric particle number and size-resolved speciation in an urban area in the western Mediterranean: Results from the DAURE campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, C.; Viana, M.; Moreno, T.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Pey, J.; Pandolfi, M.; Prévôt, A.; Mohr, C.; Richard, A.; Artiñano, B.; Gomez-Moreno, F. J.; Cots, N.

    2011-09-01

    Air quality degradation problems in urban environments are mainly due to road traffic emissions. In northern and central European cities extensive investigations have been carried out on the variability of number of ultrafine particles and black carbon, whereas studies in southern-Europe have traditionally focused on chemical speciation, resulting in insufficient information to characterise urban aerosol processes. Accordingly, sources and processes controlling atmospheric pollutants were evaluated during the international DAURE campaign in Barcelona (Spain), a typical urban environment in the western Mediterranean, by means of continuous measurements of particle number, black carbon, PMx, particulate nitrate and particulate sulphate concentrations. Results provided evidence of the influence of three PM sources of interest: road traffic, construction-demolition works and shipping emissions. Road traffic governs the daily cycle of black carbon, a number of gaseous pollutants and the finer fraction of PM. Evaluation of the coarse aerosol (PM 2.5-10) daily cycle furnished evidence of the influence of construction-demolition works. These activities could increase hourly PM 2.5-10 levels by up to 8 μg m -3 on an annual hourly mean basis. Finally, shipping emissions were traced by means of SO 2 concentrations, which peak at a time different from that of other gaseous pollutants owing to the regular daytime onshore breeze bringing harbour emissions at midday. Moreover, a major local contribution of secondary aerosols was detected with elevated particle number levels at midday when nucleation processes are favoured by photochemistry and lower pollution levels. Particle number data were also analysed in search for the primary emission of vehicle exhaust (N1) and the secondary parts from gaseous precursors, primary parts from non-traffic sources, and/or particles inherited in the air mass (N2). N2 fraction accounted for 40% of number concentrations, ranging from 37% during

  20. Evaluation of Line Immunoassay to Detect HTLV-1 Infection in an Endemic Area, Southwestern Japan; Comparison with Polymerase Chain Reaction and Western Blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeki, Kazumi; Umekita, Kunihiko; Hashikura, Yuuki; Yamamoto, Ikuo; Kubo, Kazuyoshi; Nagatomo, Yasuhiro; Okayama, Akihiko

    2017-02-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has been recognized as a cause of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, and HTLV-1-associated uveitis. HTLV-1 infection is normally detected by screening for HTLV-1 antibodies, and positive samples are confirmed by Western blot (WB). However, WB fails to confirm some samples that were positive for HTLV-1 antibodies on screening. Line immunoassay (LIA) is commonly used in Europe and Brazil, but not in Japan. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of LIA as a method of confirming HTLV-1 antibodies using samples in Japan. LIA was compared with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and WB using 50 negative and 70 positive samples tested by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) in Miyazaki, Japan, an HTLV-1 endemic area. LIA (INNO-LIA HTLVI/II Score) and WB (Problot HTLV-I) were performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Real-time PCR for HTLV-1 pX region was performed using DNA derived from white blood cells. The samples that tested negative by real-time PCR were further tested by nested PCR. All 50 CLEIA negative samples were determined to be negative by LIA and PCR. Of the 70 positive samples, 66 tested positive by both of LIA and PCR. Three samples tested negative by LIA and PCR, and the remaining sample (PCR negative) showed non-specific staining in LIA and WB. WB showed more indeterminate results than LIA. Gp21 antibody in LIA demonstrated a high ability to discriminate between positive and negative PCR results. Furthermore, the degree of gp21 antibody reaction by LIA showed correlation with HTLV-1 proviral loads (PVLs). Our results indicate that LIA performs well in confirming HTLV-1 seropositivity by showing a low incidence of indeterminate results and good agreement with PCR using samples in Japan, although the number of samples tested was small. In addition, semi-quantitative antibody titer to gp21 correlated well with HTLV-1 PVLs. Further study

  1. Sedimentary connection between rock glaciers and torrential channels: definition, inventory and quantification from a test area in the south-western Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummert, Mario; Barboux, Chloé; Delaloye, Reynald

    2017-04-01

    order to validate these estimations, the resulting sediment transfer rates are compared to transfer rates calculated from repeated terrestrial LiDAR surveys on selected study cases. This contribution presents results from the application of this methodology in a test study area in the south-western Swiss Alps. The methodology reveals itself suitable to identify rock glaciers connected to the torrential network. For each of the detected rock glaciers, an estimation of the sediment yield is proposed. The transfer rates range from tens of cubic meters per year for some slow moving and/or partially connected landforms, to several thousands of cubic meters per year. References: Delaloye R. (2004). Contribution à l'étude du pergélisol de montagne en zone marginale. GeoFocus vol. 10, Thèse, Département de Géosciences/Géographie, Université de Fribourg. Delaloye, R., Lambiel, C., Gärtner-Roer, I. (2010). Overview of rock glacier kinematics research in the Swiss Alps. Seasonal rhythm, interannual variations and trends over several decades. Geogr. Helv., 65: 2, 135-145. Delaloye, R., Morard, S., Barboux, C., Abbet, D., Gruber, V., Riedo, M. & Gachet, S. (2013). Rapidly moving rock glaciers in Mattertal. In: Graf, C. (Eds). Mattertal - ein Tal in Bewegung. Publikation zur Jahrestagung der Schweizerischen Geomorphologischen Gesellschaft 29. Juni - 1. Juli 2011, St. Niklaus, Birmensdorf, Eidg. Forschungsanstalt WSL, 113 - 124. Gärtner-Roer, I. (2012). Sediment transfer rates of two active rockglaciers in the Swiss Alps. Geomorphology, 167-168, 45-50. Lugon, R. & Stoffel, M. (2010). Rock glacier dynamics and magnitude-frequency relations of debris flows in a high-elevation watershed : Ritigraben, Swiss Alps. Global and Planetary Change, 73, 202-210.

  2. Understanding human movement through spatial technologies. The role of natural areas of transit in the Late Prehistory of South-western Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murrieta-Flores, Patricia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological, historical, and ethnographic research has demonstrated how mountainous environments influence the socio-cultural dynamics of the communities that live in them and in their neighbouring areas. The development of these communities tends to occur at the margins, often far away from centres of political power. This marginality is also extended to movement in these regions, where mountain ranges regularly constitute mighty obstacles on account of their natural configuration which plays a central role in strategy, commerce and travelling. In the case of western Sierra Morena in Spain, its constitution shaped both the ways of transit through the mountains during Later Prehistory and the historical routes of communication that traverse Andalucía. Using a GIS methodology developed specifically to identify particular characteristics of the landscape relevant to human movement, such as passageways, crossing points, and natural areas of transit, we examine the role that natural accessibility had for the late prehistoric societies of this region. We conclude that the location of their habitats and symbolic places are strongly related to corridors, possibly due to an increasing importance of herding activities.

    Investigaciones arqueológicas, históricas y etnográficas han demostrado como los ambientes de montaña tienen una profunda influencia en las dinámicas socioculturales de las comunidades que viven en ellos y en sus áreas vecinas. El desarrollo de estas sociedades tiende a producirse en los márgenes, usualmente lejos de los centros de poder político. Esta marginación se extiende también a la circulación en estas regiones, donde las cordilleras suelen constituir poderosos obstáculos debido a su configuración natural que juega un papel central en sus estrategias, comercio y movimiento humano. Durante la Prehistoria Reciente, la constitución de Sierra Morena Occidental (España moldeó tanto las vías de tránsito a trav

  3. TWO NEW ORDOVICIAN TRILOBITE GENERA FROM WESTERN MARGINAL AREAS OF THE NORTH CHINA PLATFORM%华北地台西缘两个奥陶纪三叶虫新属

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志毅; 周志强

    2006-01-01

    @@ In connection with the preparation of a chapter of the monograph "Trilobite record of China" on the Ordovician trilobites, a large number of Chinese species were critically reviewed. Among others, two of them previously described from western marginal areas of the North China Platform respectively by Lu in Lu et al. (1976) as Bulbaspis ordosensis and by Zhou and Dean (1986) as Ischylophyma? zhiqiangi ought to be reassigned to new genera.

  4. 西藏仲巴地区曲嘎组的拆解%The disaggregation of the Permian Quga Formation in Zhongba area, south- western Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祥辉; 王成善; 李亚林; 魏玉帅; 陈曦

    2014-01-01

    根据1∶5万仲巴地区区域地质调查,对雅鲁藏布江缝合带西段夹持于2套混杂岩之间的仲巴微地体原二叠系曲嘎组进行了拆解。研究认为:①原曲嘎组可以解体为3套地层,分别是下古生界的奥陶系-志留系紫曲浦群、上古生界泥盆系纳登尔组和石炭系-二叠系曲嘎群,新建曲嘎群与原曲嘎组没有直接对应或者级别关系;②紫曲浦群以变质碳酸盐岩为主,下部紫曲电站组为紫红色、灰色大理岩与结晶灰岩组合,属中-晚奥陶世,上部紫曲石组以紫红色大理岩为特征,暂归志留纪;③纳登尔组由一套灰色千枚状板岩和钙质片岩组成,上部结晶灰岩增多,时代为泥盆纪,可归属马攸木群;④曲嘎群可划分为3个组:岗珠淌组,以灰色、灰绿色板岩、粉砂岩为主,向上砂岩和灰岩增多,属于石炭纪-早二叠世(乌拉尔世)早期;仲巴组,以肉红色灰质晶粒白云岩及杂色生物屑云质灰岩为特点,分为2个岩性段,属于早-中二叠世(乌拉尔世-瓜德鲁普世早中期);卡扎勒组以深灰色钙质板岩为主或夹结晶灰岩和砂岩或互层,属于中-晚二叠世(瓜德鲁普世-乐平世);⑤仲巴地区曲嘎组的拆解在仲巴微地体西部和老仲巴以东的应用有待证实,其在岩性上与相邻地体同期地层有较大差别,但在生物群组成方面具有相似性。%On the basis of the recent 1∶50000 regional geological investigation in Zhongba area, southwestern Tibet, the so-called Permian Quga Formation was studied in eastern Zhongba microterrane, which is sandwiched between two branches of the western Yarlung Zangbo suture. Based on the results obtained, the authors hold that the former Quga Formation was disaggregated into three parts, i.e., the Ordovician-Silurian Ziqupu Group, the Devonian Nadeng'er Formation, and the Carboniferous-Permian Quga Group. The Ziqupu Group

  5. In Western Liaoning province area oil shale need for geological exploration and mining development%辽西地区油页岩矿急待勘查开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫占全

    2011-01-01

    当前国际能源的短缺,油页岩炼制页岩油可替代石油能源.辽西地区油页岩矿分布广泛,资源储量规模巨大,综合开发利用经济价值高.为早日改变辽西的贫穷与落后,勘查开发油页岩矿迫在眉睫.%The current international energy shortage, Shale oil shale oil refining alternative energy sources. In liaoning province oil shale contains western region ore widely distributed, Contain oil shale mineral resources is very big, Contain oil shale ore comprehensive exploitation and utilization of economic value is very big. In western liaoning province area accelerate transformation of poverty and backwardness, Geology exploration and mining development including oil shale ore is imminent.

  6. Sampling large geographic areas for rare species using environmental DNA: a study of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus occupancy in western Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, K S; Young, M K; Knotek, W L; Carim, K J; Wilcox, T M; Padgett-Stewart, T M; Schwartz, M K

    2016-03-01

    This study tested the efficacy of environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling to delineate the distribution of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in headwater streams in western Montana, U.S.A. Surveys proved fast, reliable and sensitive: 124 samples were collected across five basins by a single crew in c. 8 days. Results were largely consistent with past electrofishing, but, in a basin where S. confluentus were known to be scarce, eDNA samples indicated that S. confluentus were more broadly distributed than previously thought.

  7. Gulf of Mexico Sales 147 and 150: Central and Western planning areas. Final environmental impact statement, Volume 1: Sections 1 through 4.C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) covers the proposed 1994 Gulf of Mexico OCS oil and gas lease sales [Central Gulf of Mexico Sale 147 (March 1994) and Western Gulf of Mexico Sale 150 (August 1994)]. This document includes the purpose and background of the proposed actions, the alternatives, the descriptions of the affected environment, and the potential environmental impacts of the proposed actions and alternatives. Proposed mitigating measures and their effects are analyzed, in addition to potential cumulative impacts resulting from proposed activities.

  8. Al Sahawa - The Awakening. Volume III-A: Al Anbar Province, Western Euphrates River Valley, Area of Operations Denver - Al Qaim

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    arms, rocket propelled grenades, and machine gun—from houses adjacent to Gannon. Foreign fighters had infiltrated the area the night before...village near Al Asad. The Coalition did not dispose of it because of the collat - eral damage it could cause in the area. The truck, a high value...everything the insurgents had—small arms, machine gun, rocket propelled grenades, mortar fire—it was not a con- tested area, the insurgents owned it

  9. Protection of Vulnerable Children in Western Area Under the Social Work Perspective%试论社会工作视角下的西部地区弱势儿童保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常雅慧

    2012-01-01

    在儿童的地位、命运与福祉发生根本性转变的今天,西部地区相对落后的经济文化环境,使部分相对弱势的儿童生活依然面临诸多困境。为切实提高西部地区弱势儿童的福祉,应建立健全儿童保护法律体系,建立儿童事务管理的党和政府双重管理体制,构建未成年人法律援助全程化机制,构建学校、家庭、社会三位一体的儿童社会支持系统,培养社会工作专业人才,提升弱势儿童保护的专业性水平。%Recently the status and lives of children have thoroughly changed , but the limitations of economy and en- vironment in Western Area lead to many difficulties in the Vulnerable Children's lives. Undoubtedly the Western Area has made progresses in construction of concerning protection of vulnerable children. Western Area should take practical ways to remove the social protection for vulnerable children, such as perfect of law and policy, improve the management organization, set up a perfect children protection system, Construction of support system in the school, family, society in order to trinity of children's status, the professionalization of social workers , Enhance profession- als of vulnerable children protection.

  10. X-ray computerized tomography analysis and density estimation using a sediment core from the Challenger Mound area in the Porcupine Seabight, off Western Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko; Nakano, Tsukasa; Ikehara, Ken

    2011-02-01

    X-ray computerized tomography (CT) analysis was used to image a half-round core sample of 50 cm long recovered from near Challenger Mound in the Porcupine Seabight, off western Ireland during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 307. This allowed three-dimensional examination of complex shapes of pebbles and ice-rafted debris in sedimentary sequences. X-ray CT analysis was also used for the determination of physical properties; a comparison between bulk density by the mass-volume method and estimated density based on linear attenuation coefficients of X-ray CT images provides insight into a spatially detailed and precise map of density variation in samples through the distribution of CT numbers.

  11. Quantification of sources of PCBs to the atmosphere in urban areas: a comparison of cities in North America, Western Europe and former Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasic, Bojan; MacLeod, Matthew; Klanova, Jana; Scheringer, Martin; Ilic, Predrag; Lammel, Gerhard; Pajovic, Aleksandar; Breivik, Knut; Holoubek, Ivan; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2010-10-01

    We present estimated emission source strengths of seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners for Banja Luka, a city that was affected by the civil war in Bosnia and Hercegovina (former Yugoslavia) in the 1990s. These emission estimates are compared to PCB emission rates estimated for the cities of Zurich, Switzerland, and Chicago, USA using an approach that combines multimedia mass balance modeling and measurement data. Our modeled per-capita emission estimates for Banja Luka are lower by a factor of ten than those for Zurich and Chicago, which are similar. This indicates that the sources of PCB emissions in Banja Luka are likely to be weaker than in the Western European and North American cities which show relatively high PCB emissions. Our emission rates from the three cities agree within a factor of ten with emission estimates from a global PCB emission inventory derived from production and usage estimates and emission factors.

  12. Knowledge and practices on maternal health care among mothers: A Cross sectional study from rural areas of mid-western development region Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Gyawali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Safe motherhood is a priority program in Nepal, aiming to restrain maternal deaths. Meanwhile, knowledge, practices, accessibility, and service quality are considered keys to improve service utilization. This study was conducted to identify knowledge and practices of maternal health care among mothers having < 1-year-old child in the Mid-western Development Region, Nepal. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted during January-April 2011 in rural, Mid-western Development Region, Nepal. Three Village Development Committees (VDC from Bardiya (plain and two VDCs from each of the Salyan and Pyuthan (hill and Jumla (mountain districts were selected randomly. Hence, there were 81 clusters (1VDC = 9 clusters and 7-8 participants were selected randomly from each cluster. Data were collected by interview using structured questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion Guideline (18 FGDs, analyzed by SPSS (16.0. CD recorded qualitative data were transcribed and narrated. Percent mean and standard deviation were calculated. Results: Three quarters of the participants had correct knowledge regarding minimum numbers of antenatal visits to be done by a pregnant woman (WHO guideline. Nearly two-fifth participants knew schedule of antenatal care (ANC visits. Almost 60% had done ≥ 4 ANC visits during last pregnancy. Majority visited Sub Health Post/Health Post/Primary Health Care Centre for ANC Checkup. About 90% had taken Iron and folic acid tablets. About 57% were home deliveries (last childbirth, 40% deliveries were assisted by relatives/husband, and only 32% did postnatal health checkup. Conclusions: There were gaps in the knowledge and practices for health care during pregnancy, childbirth and in the postpartum period. A high rate of home deliveries with the low postnatal service utilization was prevalent. Intensive awareness progam and behavioral change interventions, regular pregnancy monitoring may promote the

  13. Extraction of lakes from an IfSAR DSM and a GIS-based analysis of drainage potential, Western Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska. Study area footprint

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — A total of 312 IfSAR-derived digital surface model (DSM) tiles were merged to create a seamless mosaic for the 46,000 km2 study area. The airborne interferometric...

  14. Al Sahawa - The Awakening: Volume III-A: Al Anbar Province, Western Euphrates River Valley, Area of Operations Denver Al Qaim

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    arms, rocket propelled grenades, and machine gun—from houses adjacent to Gannon. Foreign fighters had infiltrated the area the night before...reportedly laden with explosives and embedded in a village near Al Asad. The Coalition did not dispose of it because of the collat - eral damage it...with about everything the insurgents had—small arms, machine gun, rocket propelled grenades, mortar fire—it was not a con- tested area, the insurgents

  15. The Minimal Area of a Corticolous Lichens Community of Western Tianshan%新疆天山西部树皮生地衣群落最小面积的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾尼瓦尔·吐米尔; 阿不都拉·阿巴斯

    2002-01-01

    我们采用Sorensen和Kulcinsky平均相似系数研究了分布在天山西部山脉的树皮生地衣群落的最小面积.结果表明,树皮生地衣群落的定性和定量最小面积分别为25~50cm2和51~72cm2,同时证明了整体取样技术适合树皮生地衣的植物群落学研究.%The minimal area of a corticolous lichens community in Western Tianshan was studied by using the method of mean similarity coefficients of Sorensen and Kulcinsky. The determination of the qualitative and quantitative minimal areas,which are 25~50 cm2 and 51~72cm2,respectively,allows the phytosociological study of the corticolous communities of Western Tianshan by means of integral sampling.

  16. 西部民族地区农产品绿色营销策略研究%Study on Strategy of Agricultural Product Green Marketing in Western Ethnic Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳一桥

    2011-01-01

    分析了西部民族地区农产品绿色营销的驱动机制,以营销“4P”理论为中心,通过生产绿色产品、制定绿色价格、构建绿色渠道、开 展绿色促销,进而构建起民族地区绿色营销市场体系.%The driving mechanism of agricultural product green marketing in western ethnic area was analyzed. With marketing "4P" theoryas the center, through producing green product, formulate green price, constructing green channel, developing green promotion to constructgreen marketing market system in ethnic area.

  17. Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques to Detect Changes to the Prince Alfred Hamlet Conservation Area in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, P.; Lewarne, M.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding and identifying the spatial-temporal changes in the natural environment is crucial for monitoring and evaluating conservation efforts, as well as understanding the impact of human activities on natural resources, informing responsible land management, and promoting better decision-making. Conservation areas are often under pressure from expanding farming and related industry, invasive alien vegetation, and an ever-increasing human settlement footprint. This study focuses on detecting changes to the Prince Alfred Hamlet commonage, near Ceres in the Cape Floral Kingdom. It was chosen for its high conservation value and significance as a critical water source area. The study area includes a fast-growing human settlement footprint in a highly productive farming landscape. There are conflicting development needs as well as risks to agricultural production, and both of these threaten the integrity of the ecosystems which supply underlying services to both demands on the land. Using a multi-disciplinary approach and high-resolution satellite imagery, land use and land cover changes can be detected and classified, and the results used to support the conservation of biodiversity and wildlife, and protect our natural resources. The aim of this research is to study the efficacy of using remote sensing and GIS techniques to detect changes to critical conservation areas where disturbances can be understood, and therefore better managed and mitigated before these areas are degraded beyond repair.

  18. Geochronological evidence of Indosinian(high-pressure) metamorphic event and its tectonic significance in Taxkorgan area of the Western Kunlun Mountains,NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The CL images,LA-ICP-MS in situ trace elements analysis,and U-Pb dating for zircons indicate that the metamorphic ages of the sillimanite-garnet-biotite gneiss and the garnet-amphibole gneiss from eastern Taxkorgan of the Western Kunlun Mountains are 220±2 and 220±3 Ma respectively,and their protolith ages are younger than 253±2 and 480±8 Ma respectively.Two samples were collected at the same outcrops with HP mafic granulite and HP pelitic granulite.Mineral assemblage of the sillimanite-garnet-biotite gneiss(Grt+Sill+Per+Q) is consistent with that of HP pelitic granulite at early high amphibolite-granulite facies stage.Mineral assemblage of the garnet-amphibole gneiss(Grt+Amp+Pl+Q) is consistent with retro-metamorphic assemblage of HP mafic granulite at amphibolite facies stage.The dating results suggest that these HP granulites underwent peak metamorphism at 220±2 to 253±2 Ma.Thus,the Kangxiwar tectonic zone was probably formed by subduction and collision of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean during Indosinian.Protolith ages of the two samples,together with previously published U-Pb zircon dating age,suggest that the sillimanite-garnet schist-quartzite unit is a late Paleozoic unit,not a part of the Paleoproterozoic Bulunkuole Group.

  19. Association between early bacterial carriage and otitis media in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid area of Western Australia: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wenxing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat are the most important bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (OM. Previous studies have suggested that early upper respiratory tract (URT bacterial carriage may increase risk of subsequent OM. We investigated associations between early onset of URT bacterial carriage and subsequent diagnosis of OM in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children living in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder region located in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia. Methods Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected at age 1-  Results Carriage rates of Pnc, NTHi and Mcat at age 1-  Conclusion Early NTHi carriage in Aboriginal children and Mcat in non-Aboriginal children is associated with increased risk of OM independent of environmental factors. In addition to addressing environmental risk factors for carriage such as overcrowding and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, early administration of pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae D protein conjugate vaccine to reduce bacterial carriage in infants, may be beneficial for Aboriginal children; such an approach is currently being evaluated in Australia.

  20. Quantification of sources of PCBs to the atmosphere in urban areas: A comparison of cities in North America, Western Europe and former Yugoslavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasic, Bojan, E-mail: bojan.gasic@chem.ethz.c [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); MacLeod, Matthew [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Klanova, Jana [Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Kamenice 3, 62500 Brno (Czech Republic); Scheringer, Martin [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Ilic, Predrag [Institute of Protection, Ecology and Informatics, Scientific-Research Institute, Vidovdanska 43, 78000 Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Hercegovina (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Lammel, Gerhard [Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Kamenice 3, 62500 Brno (Czech Republic); Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, J.-J.-Becher-Weg 27, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Pajovic, Aleksandar [Republic Hydrometeorological Institute Banja Luka, Put Banjaluckog Odreda BB, 78 000 Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Hercegovina (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Breivik, Knut [Norwegian Institute for Air Research, P.O. Box 100, 2027 Kjeller (Norway); University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 1033, 0315 Oslo (Norway); Holoubek, Ivan [Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Kamenice 3, 62500 Brno (Czech Republic); Hungerbuehler, Konrad [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-10-15

    We present estimated emission source strengths of seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners for Banja Luka, a city that was affected by the civil war in Bosnia and Hercegovina (former Yugoslavia) in the 1990s. These emission estimates are compared to PCB emission rates estimated for the cities of Zurich, Switzerland, and Chicago, USA using an approach that combines multimedia mass balance modeling and measurement data. Our modeled per-capita emission estimates for Banja Luka are lower by a factor of ten than those for Zurich and Chicago, which are similar. This indicates that the sources of PCB emissions in Banja Luka are likely to be weaker than in the Western European and North American cities which show relatively high PCB emissions. Our emission rates from the three cities agree within a factor of ten with emission estimates from a global PCB emission inventory derived from production and usage estimates and emission factors. - Urban emission source strengths were estimated for seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners for Banja Luka, Zurich and Chicago.

  1. Pyrethroids and DDT tolerance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Sengerema District, an area of intensive pesticide usage in north-western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbert, Anitha; Lyantagaye, Sylvester Leonard; Pradel, Gabriele; Ngwa, Che Julius; Nkwengulila, Gamba

    2017-04-01

    To assess the susceptibility status of malaria vectors to pyrethroids and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), characterise the mechanisms underlying resistance and evaluate the role of agro-chemical use in resistance selection among malaria vectors in Sengerema agro-ecosystem zone, Tanzania. Mosquito larvae were collected from farms and reared to obtain adults. The susceptibility status of An. gambiae s.l. was assessed using WHO bioassay tests to permethrin, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, cyfluthrin and DDT. Resistant specimens were screened for knock-down resistance gene (kdr), followed by sequencing both Western and Eastern African variants. A gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) was used to determine pesticide residues in soil and sediments from mosquitoes' breeding habitats. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was resistant to all the insecticides tested. The population of Anopheles gambiae s.l was composed of Anopheles arabiensis by 91%. The East African kdr (L1014S) allele was found in 13 of 305 specimens that survived insecticide exposure, with an allele frequency from 0.9% to 50%. DDTs residues were found in soils at a concentration up to 9.90 ng/g (dry weight). The observed high resistance levels of An. gambiae s.l., the detection of kdr mutations and pesticide residues in mosquito breeding habitats demonstrate vector resistance mediated by pesticide usage. An integrated intervention through collaboration of agricultural, livestock and vector control units is vital. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effects of Land Use Change and Seasonality of Precipitation on Soil Nitrogen in a Dry Tropical Forest Area in the Western Llanos of Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pedraza, Ana Francisca; Dezzeo, Nelda

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated changes of different soil nitrogen forms (total N, available ammonium and nitrate, total N in microbial biomass, and soil N mineralization) after conversion of semideciduous dry tropical forest in 5- and 18-year-old pastures (YP and OP, resp.) in the western Llanos of Venezuela. This evaluation was made at early rainy season, at end rainy season, and during dry season. With few exceptions, no significant differences were detected in the total N in the three study sites. Compared to forest soils, YP showed ammonium losses from 4.2 to 62.9% and nitrate losses from 20.0 to 77.8%, depending on the season of the year. In OP, the ammonium content increased from 50.0 to 69.0% at the end of the rainy season and decreased during the dry season between 25.0 and 55.5%, whereas the nitrate content increased significantly at early rainy season. The net mineralization and the potentially mineralizable N were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in OP than in forest and YP, which would indicate a better quality of the substrate in OP for mineralization. The mineralization rate constant was higher in YP than in forest and OP. This could be associated with a reduced capacity of these soils to preserve the available nitrogen. PMID:25610907

  3. School Children's Knowledge and Perceptions of Jaguars, Pumas, and Smaller Cats around a Mosaic of Protected Areas in the Western Brazilian Pantanal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfirio, Grasiela; Sarmento, Pedro; Fonseca, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Surveys to assess environmental knowledge are elementary tools to ensure successful environmental education. Felines are considered key components of the environment, acting as flagships for conservation. Nevertheless, they are threatened by loss of habitat, prey reductions, and poaching. In the mosaic of protected areas in the Brazilian Pantanal,…

  4. School Children's Knowledge and Perceptions of Jaguars, Pumas, and Smaller Cats around a Mosaic of Protected Areas in the Western Brazilian Pantanal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfirio, Grasiela; Sarmento, Pedro; Fonseca, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Surveys to assess environmental knowledge are elementary tools to ensure successful environmental education. Felines are considered key components of the environment, acting as flagships for conservation. Nevertheless, they are threatened by loss of habitat, prey reductions, and poaching. In the mosaic of protected areas in the Brazilian Pantanal,…

  5. Impact of the geological structures on the groundwater potential using geophysical techniques in West Bani Mazar area, El Minia - Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Hussein Hosni; Kotb, Adel Diab Mohammed

    2017-06-01

    Establishment of the new agricultural projects in west Bani Mazar area, El Minia, Egypt needs a good knowledge about groundwater. Groundwater serves as the unique source of water supplies in the study area. Vertical Electrical Sounding technique is a convenient tool for groundwater exploration. This technique was utilized to illustrate the geoelectric succession, vertical and spatial extensions of the encountered layers, depth to water bearing layers and the structures affecting these layers. Profiling technique was carried out along a grid pattern using different half current electrode spacings (150 m, 300 m and 500 m) to clarify changes in resistivity values throughout the study area at different depths. Geoelectric layers B1 and B2 of the saturated zone are suitable for groundwater extraction in the study area. The resistivity values of the geoelectric layer B1 decrease towards the West direction, they decrease from 23.0 Ωm to 16.0 Ωm; and its thicknesses increase towards the SE direction from 12.0 m to 18.0 m. Whereas, the resistivity values of the geoelectric layer B2 decrease towards the NW direction from 40.0 Ωm to 26.5 Ωm; and its thicknesses vary from 34.0 m to 40.0 m. The depths to the upper surface of the water bearing layer B1 increase towards the NW direction from 44.0 m to 89.4 m. Based on the results obtained from the Vertical Electrical Soundings, four two-dimensional resistivity imaging profiles were measured at the selected sites. These 2-D resistivity profiles aim to determine depths to the water bearing layers, their thicknesses and the shallow structure. The inverted models of these profiles matched with the geoelectric sequence at these sites. In addition, a normal fault is detected at the northwestern part of the study area. According to the results obtained from this study it is clear that the groundwater in the area under consideration is occurred in the fractured limestone layers that belong to Eocene Age. Resistivity values of the

  6. Study of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis areas in the central-western state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Bruno Warlley Leandro; Saraiva, Lara; Neto, Rafael Gonçalves Teixeira; Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy Serra e; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Tonelli, Gabriel Barbosa; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Belo, Vinícius Silva; Silva, Eduardo Sérgio da; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

    2013-03-01

    The transmission of Leishmania involves several species of sand flies that are closely associated with various parasites and reservoirs, with differing transmission cycles in Brazil. A study on the phlebotomine species composition has been conducted in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), which has intense occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases. In order to study the sand flies populations and their seasonality, CDC light traps (HP model) were distributed in 15 houses which presented at least one case of CL or VL and in five urban parks (green areas). Collections were carried out three nights monthly from September 2010 to August 2011. A total of 1064 phlebotomine specimens were collected belonging to two genera and seventeen species: Brumptomyia brumpti, Lutzomyia bacula, Lutzomyia cortelezzii, Lutzomyia lenti, Lutzomyia sallesi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia intermedia, Lutzomyia neivai, Lutzomyia whitmani, Lutzomyia christenseni, Lutzomyia monticola, Lutzomyia pessoai, Lutzomyia aragaoi, Lutzomyia brasiliensis, Lutzomyia lutziana, and Lutzomyia sordellii. L. longipalpis, the main vector of Leishmania infantum in Brazil, was the most frequent species, accounting for 76.9% of the total, followed by L. lenti with 8.3%, this species is not a proven vector. Green and urban areas had different sand flies species composition, whereas the high abundance of L. longipalpis in urban areas and the presence of various vector species in both green and urban areas were also observed. Our data point out to the requirement of control measures against phlebotomine sand flies in the municipality of Divinópolis and adoption of strategies aiming entomological surveillance.

  7. The Prevalence of Infertility and Loneliness among Women Aged 18-49 Years Who Are Living in Semi-Rural Areas in Western Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Enes Gokler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine the correlates and the prevalence of infertility in a group of women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 570 subjects aged 18-49 years in a town of western Turkey between July and August 2012. Women who have inability to become pregnant despite regular sexual intercourse during the last year were considered to be infertile. UCLA Loneliness Scale was used to assess the severity of loneliness. The data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney U and Chi-square tests. Results: The mean age of the participants was 35.48 ± 8.39 years. The frequency of the infertility in our study was 12.8% (n=73. The prevalence of infertility was higher in those with a history of gynecological disease or gynecologic surgery and in those with menstrual irregularity (p<0.05; for each. The mean score on the UCLA Loneliness Scale was 32.16 ± 9.49 (from 20 to 70. In this study, no difference was found between the level of loneliness and who is responsible for infertility among infertile/fertile women (p≥0.05. Level of loneliness among the women with primary infertility was higher compared to the women with secondary infertility (p<0.05. Conclusion: The prevalence of infertility among the women was relatively high. It was concluded that prospective studies are needed in order to expose the relationship between the infertility and the level of loneliness in women.

  8. Anthropogenic soils and land use patterns in relation to small mammal and flea abundance in plague endemic area of Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimaro, Didas N; Msanya, Balthazar M; Meliyo, Joel; Hieronimo, Proches; Mwango, Sibaway; Kihupi, Nganga I; Gulinck, Hubert; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Heterogeneity in the landscapes of West Usambara Mountains on land use and human activities has been reported. However, the interface of land use patterns and human modified soils with small mammal and flea abundance for possible explanation of plague has not been explored. This study was carried out to determine the link between anthropogenic soils and land use patterns on small mammal and flea abundance and the occurrence of reported plague in the Western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. Standard soil survey methods were used to identify and describe soils and land use patterns on lower slopes and valley bottoms on which the surrounding villages are reported to have high and medium plague frequencies. The identified soils were characterised in terms of their morphological and physico-chemical properties and classified according to FAO-World Reference Base for Soil Resources. Small mammals were trapped on the same landscape positions and identified to genus/species level. Fleas were removed from the trapped small mammals, counted and identified to species level. In total 57 small mammals were captured from which 32 fleas were collected. Results show that human settlements and mixed cultivation on lower slopes and continuous vegetable cropping in the valley bottoms are dominant land use types. Intensive use of forest soils, manuring and irrigation on farms in the studied landscapes have contributed to the development of uniquely human modified soils namely Hortic Anthrosols in the lower slopes and Plaggic Irragric Hortic Anthrosols in valley bottoms. The identified anthropogenic soils and land use patterns are associated with high abundance of small mammals (Mastomys natalensis) and flea species (Xenopsylla brasiliensis and Dinopsyllus lypusus). This phenomenon is vividly apparent in the villages with medium to high plague frequencies. The study suggests that plague surveillance programmes should consider the existing relationship between anthropogenic soils, land

  9. Response of lake chemistry to atmospheric deposition and climate in selected Class I wilderness areas in the western United States, 1993-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, M. Alisa

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Air Resource Management, conducted a study to evaluate long-term trends in lake-water chemistry for 64 high-elevation lakes in selected Class I wilderness areas in Colorado, Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming during 1993 to 2009. Understanding how and why lake chemistry is changing in mountain areas is essential for effectively managing and protecting high-elevation aquatic ecosystems. Trends in emissions, atmospheric deposition, and climate variables (air temperature and precipitation amount) were evaluated over a similar period of record. A main objective of the study was to determine if changes in atmospheric deposition of contaminants in the Rocky Mountain region have resulted in measurable changes in the chemistry of high-elevation lakes. A second objective was to investigate linkages between lake chemistry and air temperature and precipitation to improve understanding of the sensitivity of mountain lakes to climate variability.

  10. Predictors of intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age group in Sagamu local government area in Ogun State, Western Nigeria: A community-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Olorunfemi Emmanuel Amoran; Olurinde O Oni; Albert A Salako

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Worldwide, it has been estimated that violence against women is as serious a cause of death and incapacity among women of reproductive age as cancer, and a greater cause of ill health as traffic accidents and malaria combined. This study was therefore carried out to determine the prevalence and predictors of intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age group in Sagamu local government area (SLGA) of Ogun State, Nigeria. Settings: The study was conducted in SLGA Ogun...

  11. Distribution of slope failures following the 1983 San'in Heavy Rainfall Disaster in Misumi-Kitsuka area, western Shimane, Southwest Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Pimiento, Edgar; 横田, 修一郎

    2006-01-01

    Small and shallow slope failures frequently occur in mountainous areas worldwide, due to intense rainfall. Regional hazard assessment on the occurrences of failures is thus an important subject, especially for developing countries. One method of assessing such hazard is based on statistical analysis of spatial distribution of past failures. As a case study for hazard assessment, we constructed detailed maps expressing the distribution of slope failures which occurred during the 1983 San'in he...

  12. An evaluation of the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of selected metals occurring in a wetland area on the volcanic island of Guam, Western Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bob Wilson; Brian Pyatt; Gary Denton

    2009-01-01

    This initial research examines the presence,distribution and bioavailability of copper,chromium,nickel,manganese and iron in a wetland area of southern Guam.The research sites are within an area covered with saporite,a soil type derived from volcanic deposits on the island.Leaf tissue of Pandanus tectorius was extracted and analysed to determine the bioaccumulation of the target metals.Metal accumulation at sites considered aerobic and anaerobic was investigated together with an attempt to correlate actual accumulation of the target metals in the plant tissue with a recognised bioavailability indicator,in this case,three step sequential extraction scheme.Manganese was found to be accumulated in relatively high concentrations and to a lesser extent copper was also accumulated.Chromium,nickel and iron however exhibited very low accumulation factors.Accumulation of manganese in particular was significantly affected by aerobic conditions whereas the converse effect was experienced by copper.Significant correlation between various steps of a Sequential Extraction Scheme (SES) and actual accumulation was not achieved although the degree of aerobic conditions at each site and soil pH did affect concentrations of metals extracted by differing steps of SES.Results obtained suggest that further research in the area should be undertaken using different plant species and tissues.

  13. Comparative study of factors controlling the groundwater occurrence in Bir Kiseiba and Bir El Shab areas, south western desert, Egypt using hydrogeological and geophysical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Risha, U. A.; Al Temamy, A. M. M.

    2016-05-01

    This research presents a clear example of the significant role of basement relief on the formation of aquifers and the impact of geologic structures on groundwater occurrence. A basement relief map was constructed using the depth to basement data acquired from 20 vertical electrical soundings (VESes), 3 land magnetic profiles, and 27 drilled wells tapping the basement rocks in addition to the elevations of the basement outcrops in the area of study. The map shows three basins underlying the area. The geoelectric survey shows that these basins were formed as a result of series of step faults. The largest basin underlies El-Shab area. The medium basin underlies the area of Bir Kiseiba whereas the smallest one underlies Bir Abu El-Hussein area. The Nubian Sandstone aquifer occurs only in El-Shab basin whereas the other basins are filled completely with the confining layer of Kiseiba Formation. The depth to basement in El-Shab basin ranges from 11 m. (ves-20) to 197 m. (ves-1) m.b.g.s. The depth to basement in Kiseiba basin ranges from 20 m. (Bir Kurayim magnetic profile) to 122 m. (ves-13) m.b.g.s. The depth to basement in Abu El-Husein basin ranges from 0 (basement outcrops) to 64 m. (Abu El-Husein magnetic profile) m.b.g.s. The aquifer thickness ranges from 0 m (where the aquitard rests directly on the basement) to 153 m. (El Shab well No. 79). The aquifer is uncoformably overlain by Kiseiba Formation which represents the aquitard layer at Bir El-Shab. The thickness of the aquitard ranges from 0 (in areas covered by the Nubian Sandstone) to 120 m (ves-13). Each of the aquifer and aquitard consist of three layers. Two of the aquitard layers are water-bearing. However, the estimated transmissivity of the aquitard is very low (11.9 m2/d). The groundwater moves vertically into the overlying aquitard at Bir El-Shab and subsequently flows in concentric pattern into the surrounding areas. Faulting controls groundwater occurrence and quality. Some springs lie on the

  14. Prevalence of hypertension among individuals aged 50 years and over and its impact on health related quality of life in a semi-rural area of western Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Didem Arslantas; Unal Ayranci; Alaettin Unsal; Mustafa Tozun

    2008-01-01

    Background Hypertension is common,especially in individuals aged 40 years and over,and it affects about half of the population aged 60 years and over.This study aimed to determine the frequency and risk factors of hypertension among individuals aged 50 years and over,and to examine its effect on the health related quality of life(HRQOL).Methods This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in two settlements in a region of western Turkey between March 1 and April 30,2007.A questionnaire concerning life habits associated with hypertension,medical histories,and demographic characteristics was filled in by a face to face interview.The SF·36 scale was used to assess HRQOL Body mass index(BMI)was calculated by measuring the weight and length of the body. Results of 1599 individuals living in the region,1193 participated in the survey(48.3%men and 51.7%women).The overall prevalence rate of hypertension was 59.5%(n=710),being 58.O%in men and 60.9% in women(P>0.05).The variables that most positively influenced hypertension(P≤0.05,for each one)were older age(especially the age group of those aged 60 and over),single,no health insurance,consumption of animal fat in meals,and family history of hypertension.The HRQOL of the patients with hypertension was lower than that of those without hypertension(P≤0.05). The HRQOL was better in hypertensive patients whose blood pressure was under control,whereas it was worse in those with at least one chronic disorder accompanying hypertension(P≤0.05,for each one).Conclusions Great emphasis should be placed on the need for a public health program for the detection,prevention, and control of hypertension,including other risk factors,as well as for the modification of foods and life habits,specifically in individuals who are most likely to be at risk of hypertension.

  15. White mica K-Ar geochronology of HP-UHP units in the Lago di Cignana area, western Alps, Italy: Tectonic implications for exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouzu, Chitaro; Yagi, Koshi; Thanh, Ngo Xuan; Itaya, Tetsumaru; Compagnoni, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    High-pressure and ultra-high pressure (HP-UHP) blueschist- and eclogite-facies metabasaltic and metasedimentary rocks occur in four different tectonic units near Lago di Cignana, western Alps. We have determined K-Ar ages for white micas (matrix phengite and paragonite) from the Lago di Cignana UHP unit (LCU; 39-41 Ma); the lower and upper units of the Zermatt-Saas meta-ophiolite (LU and UU; 37-38 Ma and 38-41 Ma respectively), and the Combin unit (CU; 36-40 Ma). These K-Ar ages overlap with single-grain Ar-Ar plateau ages (36-42 Ma) previously determined for phengites from LCU metasediments. Matrix white micas have been severely deformed during exhumation, and their chemistries differ from those of micas included in garnet. Although individual mica grains in the matrix could have experienced different degrees of deformation which have reset their K-Ar systems, "bulk" white mica separates provide the average age of all the individual grains in the separate. The similarity of ages determined for white micas from the LCU, LU, UU and CU units, regardless of rock type and mineral species, suggests that these four units were metamorphosed together as part of a single metamorphic sequence in the Piemonte-Liguria paleosubduction zone and were subsequently exhumed together. However, present-day structural relationship among those units and the limited occurrence of UHP minerals in LCU suggests that the exhumation of LCU was more rapid than that for LU, UU and CU. The age gaps between the youngest value of white mica K-Ar ages in each unit and the inferred timing of the metamorphic peak (U-Pb age: 44 Ma) is 5, 7, 6 and 8 Myr for LCU, LU, UU and CU, respectively. These intervals are considerably shorter than that determined for the Sanbagawa HP metamorphic belt of Southwest Japan (> 31 Myr). The short interval observed for the Lago di Cignana units that we have studied is consistent with the model of rapid exhumation of the UHP-bearing metamorphic domain, suggesting the

  16. High rate of pneumococcal bacteremia in a prospective cohort of older children and adults in an area of high HIV prevalence in rural western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oundo Joseph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although causing substantial morbidity, the burden of pneumococcal disease among older children and adults in Africa, particularly in rural settings, is not well-characterized. We evaluated pneumococcal bacteremia among 21,000 persons ≥5 years old in a prospective cohort as part of population-based infectious disease surveillance in rural western Kenya from October 2006-September 2008. Methods Blood cultures were done on patients meeting pre-defined criteria - severe acute respiratory illness (SARI, fever, and admission for any reason at a referral health facility within 5 kilometers of all 33 villages where surveillance took place. Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae was done by latex agglutination and quellung reaction and antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using broth microdilution. We extrapolated incidence rates based on persons with compatible illnesses in the surveillance population who were not cultured. We estimated rates among HIV-infected persons based on community HIV prevalence. We projected the national burden of pneumococcal bacteremia cases based on these rates. Results Among 1,301 blood cultures among persons ≥5 years, 52 (4% yielded pneumococcus, which was the most common bacteria isolated. The yield was higher among those ≥18 years than 5-17 years (6.9% versus 1.6%, p 95%. The crude rate of pneumococcal bacteremia was 129/100,000 person-years, and the adjusted rate was 419/100,000 person-years. Nineteen (61% of 31 patients with HIV results were HIV-positive. The adjusted rate among HIV-infected persons was 2,399/100,000 person-years (Rate ratio versus HIV-negative adults, 19.7, 95% CI 12.4-31.1. We project 58,483 cases of pneumococcal bacteremia will occur in Kenyan adults in 2010. Conclusions Pneumococcal bacteremia rates were high among persons ≥5 years old, particularly among HIV-infected persons. Ongoing surveillance will document if expanded use of highly-active antiretroviral

  17. Phlebotominae sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: potential vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis agents in the area associated with the Santo Antônio Hydroelectric System in Western Amazonian Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Kardec Ribeiro Galardo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An entomological study was conducted as part of a vector-monitoring program in the area associated with the Santo Antônio hydroelectric system in State of Rondônia, Western Amazonian Brazil. METHODS: Fourteen sampling sites were surveyed to obtain data on the potential vectors of Leishmania spp. in the area. Sand flies were collected from 2011 to 2014 during the months of January/February (rainy season, May/June (dry season, and September/October (intermediary season using light traps arranged in three vertical strata (0.5, 1, and 20m. RESULTS : A total of 7,575 individuals belonging to 62 species/subspecies were collected. The five most frequently collected sand flies were Psychodopygus davisi (Root (36.67%, Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (Mangabeira (8.51%, Nyssomyia umbratilis (Ward & Fraiha (6.14%, Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (Mangabeira (5.74%, and Psychodopygus complexus (Mangabeira (5.25%. These species have been implicated in the transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis agents in the Brazilian Amazon region and described as potential vectors of this disease in the study area. CONCLUSIONS: Additional surveillance is needed, especially in areas where these five species of sand fly are found.

  18. Scenarios for earthquake-generated tsunamis on a complex tectonic area of diffuse deformation and low velocity: The Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Gomez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, I.; Gonzalez, M.; Olabarrieta, M.; Carreno, E.

    2011-01-01

    The tsunami impact on the Spanish and North African coasts of the Alboran Sea generated by several reliable seismic tsunamigenic sources in this area was modeled. The tectonic setting is complex and a study of the potential sources from geological data is basic to obtain probable source characteristics. The tectonic structures considered in this study as potentially tsunamigenic are: the Alboran Ridge associated structures, the Carboneras Fault Zone and the Yusuf Fault Zone. We characterized 12 probable tsunamigenic seismic sources in the Alboran Basin based on the results of recent oceanographical studies. The strain rate in the area is low and therefore its seismicity is moderate and cannot be used to infer characteristics of the major seismic sources. These sources have been used as input for the numerical simulation of the wave propagation, based on the solution of the nonlinear shallow water equations through a finite-difference technique. We calculated the Maximum Wave Elevations, and Tsunami Travel Times using the numerical simulations. The results are shown as maps and profiles along the Spanish and African coasts. The sources associated with the Alboran Ridge show the maximum potential to generate damaging tsunamis, with maximum wave elevations in front of the coast exceeding 1.5. m. The Carboneras and Yusuf faults are not capable of generating disastrous tsunamis on their own, although their proximity to the coast could trigger landslides and associated sea disturbances. The areas which are more exposed to the impact of tsunamis generated in the Alboran Sea are the Spanish coast between Malaga and Adra, and the African coast between Alhoceima and Melilla. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Helminth Infections of House Mouse (Mus musulus and Wood Mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus from the Suburban Areas of Hamadan City, Western Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yousefi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and intensity of helminths and their zoonotic importance in small rodents inhabiting in the suburban areas of Hamadan City, Iran.The present survey was conducted on the helminth infections of two species of rodents Apodemus sylvaticus (n=60 and Mus musculus(n=72 in the suburban areas of Hamadan City during 2010-2012. Rodents were collected and examined for helminth in the different organs. The nematodes were collected in 5% formalin solution and cleared in lactophenol, cestodes and trematodes collected from intestine fixed in AFA solution and stained by acetocarmine, cleared in xylol for identification.Helminths found in A. sylvaticus and M. musculus and their prevalence for the first time in suburban areas of Hamadan City were as follows; In A. sylvaticus: Cysticercus fasciolaris(3.33%, Syphacia fredrici(26.67%, S. stroma(8.33%, Anoplocephalidae sp. (1.67%, Skrjabinotaenia lobata(5%, Plagiorchis muris(1.67% and in M. musculus:Hymenolepis nana (16.67%, H.diminuta (5.55%, S. obvelata(30.56%, S. ohtarom (9.72%, Rodentolepis crassa (1.39%, C. fasciolaris (1.39%. Among 11 species in two rodents 4 species including S. obvelata, H. nana, H.diminuta,and P. muris have zoonotic importance. Statistically the relation between gender and their helminth infections was not significant in either M. musculus or A. sylvaticus (P>0.05.This study reports 11 species of helminths and on the other hand 3 species were identified for the first time in Iran and 5 species of them have potential health importance for public health and cat.

  20. Description of a very dense meteorite collection area in western Atacama: Insight into the long-term composition of the meteorite flux to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, Aurore; Gattacceca, JéRôMe; Rochette, Pierre; Braucher, RéGis; Carro, Bertrand; Christensen, Eric J.; Cournede, CéCile; Gounelle, Matthieu; Laridhi Ouazaa, Nejia; Martinez, Rodrigo; Valenzuela, Millarca; Warner, Michael; Bourles, Didier

    2016-03-01

    We describe the geological, morphological, and climatic settings of two new meteorite collections from Atacama (Chile). The "El Médano collection" was recovered by systematic on-foot search in El Médano and Caleta el Cobre dense collection areas and is composed of 213 meteorites before pairing, 142 after pairing. The "private collection" has been recovered by car by three private hunters and consists of 213 meteorites. Similar to other hot desert finds, and contrary to the falls and Antarctica finds, both collections show an overabundance of H chondrites. A recovery density can be calculated only for the El Médano collection and gives 251 and 168 meteorites larger than 10 g km-2, before and after pairing, respectively. It is by far the densest collection area described in hot deserts. The Atacama Desert is known to have been hyperarid for a long period of time and, based on cosmic-ray exposure ages on the order of 1-10 Ma, to have been stable over a period of time of several million years. Such a high meteorite concentration might be explained invoking either a yet unclear concentration mechanism (possibly related to downslope creeping) or a previously underestimated meteorite flux in previous studies or an average terrestrial age over 2 Myr. This last hypothesis is supported by the high weathering grade of meteorites and by the common terrestrial fragmentation (with fragments scattered over a few meters) of recovered meteorites.

  1. Heavy minerals and garnet geochemistry of stream sediments and bedrocks from the Almklovdalen area, Western Gneiss Region, SW Norway: Implications for provenance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krippner, Anne; Meinhold, Guido; Morton, Andrew C.; Schönig, Jan; von Eynatten, Hilmar

    2016-05-01

    Detrital heavy minerals commonly document the geological setting in the source area, hence they are widely used in sedimentary provenance analysis. In heavy mineral studies, the 63-125 and 63-250 μm grain size fractions are most commonly used. Heavy mineral data and garnet geochemistry of stream sediments and bedrocks from the catchment area draining the Almklovdalen peridotite massif in SW Norway reveal that a wider grain size spectrum needs to be considered to avoid misleading interpretations. The Almklovdalen peridotite massif consists mainly of dunite and harzburgite, as testified by the heavy mineral suite. At the outlet of the main river, the heavy mineral spectrum is very monotonous due to dilution by a strong influx of olivine. Heavy minerals like apatite and epidote characterising the host gneisses have almost disappeared. MgO-rich almandine garnets are more frequent in the coarser grain size fractions, whereas MnO-rich almandine garnets are more frequent in the finer grain size fractions. Garnets with pyrope content exceeding 50% are only found in the 500-1000 μm grain size fraction. Therefore, the sample location and the selected grain size fraction are of paramount importance when dealing with heavy minerals and mineral geochemical data; otherwise, provenance-sensitive information may be missed.

  2. An example of post-collisional mafic magmatism: the gabbro-anorthosite layered complex from the Tin Zebane area (western Hoggar, Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aı̈t-Djafer, Saı̈da; Ouzegane, Khadidja; Paul-Liégeois, Jean; Kienast, Jean Robert

    2003-10-01

    The Tin Zebane gabbro-anorthosite layered mafic intrusion represented by plagioclase-rich cumulates forms a set of small lenticular to round-shaped mainly undeformed bodies intruding the Pan-African high-pressure metamorphic rocks from western Hoggar (Tuareg shield, southwest Algeria). The coarse-grained anorthosites are mainly made of slightly zoned bytownite (An 86-74) with the higher anorthite content at the cores. Anorthosites are interlayered with leucogabbros and gabbros that show preserved magmatic structures and with olivine gabbros characterised by coronitic textures. The primary assemblage in gabbros includes plagioclase (An 93-70), olivine (Fo 77-70), zoned clinopyroxene (En 43-48Fs 05-13Wo 41-49 with Al 2O 3 up to 4.3 wt.%) and rare orthopyroxene (En 73-78). Pyroxenes and olivine are commonly surrounded by Ca-amphibole. The olivine-plagioclase contact is usually marked by a fine orthopyroxene-Cr-spinel-amphibole symplectite. A magnesian pigeonite (En 70-75Fs 19-20Wo 6-10) is also involved in corona. The coronitic minerals have equilibrated with the primary mineral rims at P- T- aH2O conditions of 797 ± 42 °C for aH2O=0.5 and 808 ± 44 °C for aH2O=0.6 at 6.2 ± 1.4 kbar. The Tin Zebane gabbroic rocks are depleted in REE with a positive Eu anomaly, high Sr (>10 ∗ chondrite) and Al 2O 3 concentrations (17-33%) that support plagioclase accumulation with the extreme case represented by the anorthosites. The REE patterns can be modelised using plagioclase, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene REE signature, without any role played by accessory minerals. High MgO content points to olivine as a major cumulate phase. Anorthositic gabbros Sr and Nd isotopic initial ratios are typical of a depleted mantle source (Sr i=0.70257-0.70278; ɛNd=+5.9 to +7.8). This isotopic signature is identical to that of the 10-km wide 592 Ma old dyke complex composed of alkaline to peralkaline granites and tholeiitic gabbros and one single bimodal complex can be inferred. The source

  3. Ground-water flow near two radioactive-waste-disposal areas at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, Cattaraugus County, New York; results of flow simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, M.P.; Bugliosi, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    Two adjacent burial areas were excavated in a clay-rich till at a radioactive waste disposal site near West Valley in Cattaraugus County, N.Y.: (1) which contains mainly low-level radioactive wastes generated onsite by a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, has been in operation since 1966; and (2) which contains commercial low-level radioactive wastes, was operated during 1963-75. Groundwater below the upper 3 meters of till generally moves downward through a 20- to 30-meter thick sequence of tills underlain by lacustrine and kame-delta deposits of fine sand and silt. Groundwater in the weathered, upper 3 meters of till can move laterally for several meters before either moving downward into the kame-delta deposits or discharging to the land surface. A two-dimensional finite-element model that simulates two vertical sections was used to evaluate hydrologic factors that control groundwater flow in the till. Conditions observed during March 1983 were reproduced accurately in steady-state simulations that used four isotropic units of differing hydraulic conductivity to represent two fractured and weathered till units near land surfaces, an intermediate group of isolated till zones that contain significant amounts of fine sand and silt, and a sequence of till units at depths that have been consolidated by overburden pressure. Recharge rates used in the best-fit simulation ranged from 1.4 cm/yr along smooth, sloping or compacted surfaces to 3.8 cm/yr near swampy areas. Values of hydraulic conductivity and infiltration used in the calibrated best-fit model were nearly identical to values used in a previous model analysis of the nearby commercial-waste burial area. Results of the model simulations of a burial pit assumed to be filled with water indicate that water near the bottom of the burial pit would migrate laterally in the shallow, weathered till for 5 to 6 meters before moving downward into the unweathered till, and water near the top of the pit would move laterally

  4. Expedition surveys of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Russian Far Eastern coastal areas and in the North Western Pacific in connection with accident at the "Fukushima-1" NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Aleksandr; Shershakov, Vjacheslav

    2013-04-01

    In accordance with decision of the Russian Federation Federal Service on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Roshydromet) on assessment of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Sea of Japan and in Kurile-Kamchatka region of the Pacific ocean, in connection with accident at the "Fukushima-1" NPP, two expedition surveys were conducted in the Sea of Japan and in the North-Western Pacific (in the area adjacent to Kurile Islands and in the Kuroshio current selected area (coordinates 36°00'-39°33' n., 146°33'-150°00' e.): first survey April - May 2011, second survey August-September 2012. Both surveys were conducted under the Russian Geographical Society patronage. The results of measurements of Cs-137, Cs-134, Sr-90, Pu-239,240 and H-3 concentrations in the sea water samples and I-131, Cs-137 and Cs-134 concentrations in atmospheric aerosol samples are presented and discussed. The data received allowed to conclude that the levels of contamination by products of accidental releases and discharges at "Fukushima-1" NPP observed in investigated water areas near the Russian Federation coast of the Sea of Japan and of the Kurile- Kamchatka region of the Pacific ocean have no hazard. However, these expedition surveys revealed large-scale contamination by Cs-137 and Cs-134 of water areas of the North-Western Pacific in the investigated region of the Kuroshio current. The Cs-137 concentration in sea water at a distance about 400 km from accidental NPP in April-May, 2011 reached 30 Bq/m3, which approximately 20 times exceed preaccidental level, and it was found that water mass till more than 100 m below the surface was contaminated. For correct estimation of current and potential consequences of the "Fukushima-1" accident for the Far-Eastern water areas a special study is reasonable to perform of transport with marine currents of products of accidental releases and discharges at "Fukushima-1" NPP.

  5. Promoteing the Western Underdeveloped Areas Leaping Development Relying on independent innovation%依靠自主创新推动西部欠发达地区跨越式发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of China's West owes the manifestations and causes of economic and technological advanced backward area , expounds the independent innovation to change the backward situation,the realization of the practical significance and the feasibility of development by leaps and bounds,and how the less developed western regions through independent innovation to achieve unconventional, leap forward development.%分析我国西部欠发达地区经济科技落后的表现及原因,阐述自主创新对于改变落后状况,实现跨越式发展的现实意义和可行性,以及西部欠发达地区如何通过自主创新实现超常规、跨越式发展。

  6. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.;

    surveys of seabird colonies are needed, due to a lack of information or because the present information probably is outdated. The most immediate threats to the colonial seabirds in western Greenland during the breeding time is hunting and egging. Oil pollution is a minor threat to-day, but will increase...... if offshore areas with oil potential are explored and developed. Tab. 6 gives an overview of each species sensitivity to oil spills and the capacity to recover, as well as a comparison of the western Greenland population numbers to the North Atlantic population numbers. The most significant western Greenland...

  7. Elemental characterization and source apportionment of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} in the western coastal area of central Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chin-Yu; Chiang, Hung-Che [National Environmental Health Research Center, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan (China); Lin, Sheng-Lun [Super Micro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Rd., Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Chen, Mu-Jean; Lin, Tzu-Yu [National Environmental Health Research Center, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yu-Cheng, E-mail: yucheng@nhri.org.tw [National Environmental Health Research Center, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan (China); Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-15

    ABSTRACT: This study investigated seasonal variations in PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} mass and associated trace metal concentrations in a residential area in proximity to the crude oil refinery plants and industrial parks of central Taiwan. Particle measurements were conducted during winter, spring and summer in 2013 and 2014. Twenty-six trace metals in PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} were analyzed using ICP-MS. Multiple approaches of the backward trajectory model, enrichment factor (EF), Lanthanum enrichment and positive matrix fraction (PMF) were used to identify potential sources of particulate metals. Mean concentrations of PM{sub 10} in winter, spring and summer were 76.4 ± 22.6, 33.2 ± 9.9 and 37.4 ± 17.0 μg m{sup −3}, respectively, while mean levels of PM{sub 2.5} in winter, spring and summer were 47.8 ± 20.0, 23.9 ± 11.2 and 16.3 ± 8.2 μg m{sup −3}, respectively. The concentrations of carcinogenic metals (Ni, As and adjusted Cr(VI)) in PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} exceeded the guideline limits published by WHO. The result of EF analysis confirmed that Mo, Sb, Cd, Zn, Mg, Cr, As, Pb, Cu, Ni and V were attributable to anthropogenic emission. PMF analysis demonstrated that trace metals in PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} were from the similar sources, such as coal combustion, oil combustion and traffic-related emission, except for soil dust and crustal element emissions only observed in PM{sub 10} and secondary aluminum smelter only observed in PM{sub 2.5}. Considering health-related particulate metals, the traffic-related emission and coal combustion for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively, are important to control for reducing potential carcinogenic risk. The results could aid efforts to clarify the impact of source-specific origins on human health. - Highlights: • Multiple approaches to identify sources of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} metals were used. • Four similar sources contributed to metals in PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} in the study area. • Six

  8. On Evolution of Rural Spatial Structure in Western Area under the Background of Urbanization%城镇化进程中西部地区乡村空间结构演化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜侣

    2015-01-01

    Under the background of China’s balancing urban and rural development and vigorously promoting urbanization ,analysis on the evolution of rural spatial structure is conducive to grasp the general characteristics of evolution of rural spatial structure ,and to make better planning for the spatial pattern of countryside .Based on Krugman’ s spatial economic thought ,also considering the actual situation of the western region in China , the research analyzes the three levels of differentiation evolution model on the different geographic space distance in the western region of rural spatial structure under the background of urbanization ,and builds a theoretical model of rural spatial structure evolution to provide a theoretical basis for the rural spatial structure evolution in western areas .And the model show s that rural spatial structure evolution on appropriate geographic space distance can effectively avoid rural hollowing out and disorderly construction ,and eliminate the gap between urban and rural areas ,which will better promote the new rural construction in China .%在我国统筹城乡发展、大力推进城镇化建设的背景下,分析乡村空间结构的演化,有利于把握乡村空间结构演化的总体特征,更好地规划乡村的空间格局。以克鲁格曼的空间经济学思想为基础,从西部地区的实际情况出发,分析了城镇化背景下乡村空间结构在不同地理空间距离上的三层级分异演化模式,并在此基础上,构建乡村空间结构演化的理论模型,为西部地区乡村空间结构的分异演化提供了理论依据。研究表明,乡村空间结构在合适地理空间距离上的分异演化能够有效避免乡村空心化和乡村无序建设,进一步消除城乡二元差距,进而更好地推进我国的新农村建设。

  9. Removal and Burial of Weed Seeds by Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) From the Soil Surface of a Cropped Area in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkey, D M; Spafford, H

    2016-10-01

    Although granivorous ants are known to collect weed seeds from cropping areas in Australia, the fate of these seeds has not been adequately investigated. Seeds of annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.) and wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) were placed around the nests of five native ant species (Iridomyrmex greensladei Shattuck, Rhytidoponera metallica Smith, Melophorus turneri Forel, Monomorium rothsteini Forel, and Pheidole hartmeyeri Forel) and tracked continuously over a 24-h period. Removal rates and seed preference of the ant species were evaluated. Ant nests were then excavated to determine the placement of seeds that were taken into each nest. Seed preference, seed removal efficiencies, activity, and seed storage all varied between the ant species. Annual ryegrass seed was collected by three species of ants and was removed from the soil surface more efficiently than wild radish seed. Most ant species stored seed below ground at a depth that is inhibitory to emergence, thereby potentially removing that portion of seed from the seed bank, but some seed was placed at germinable depths. Pheidole hartmeyeri was identified as a likely biological control agent for annual ryegrass seeds and wild radish, while Me. turneri and Mo. rothsteini have potential as biocontrol agents for annual ryegrass, but further research is needed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Pilot Study of Generation and Disposal of Municipal Solid Wastes in Selected Household in Rural Areas in the South-Western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strzelczyk Maria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pilot study of the composition of wastes was carried out in 15 rural family households engaged in agricultural activity. In the study group the average resident of rural areas generates about 166 kg of municipal wastes annually. The conducted studies showed that the composition of municipal wastes coming from rural households changes seasonally. During the periods of summer and autumn, the quantity of bio-wastes increased distinctly. The average mass of wastes transferred to the companies engaged in the collection of wastes in the analyzed rural households is almost 50 kg · M–1. year–1. The studies showed that over 80% of organic wastes (kitchen and garden is utilized in the place where they are generated. In the studies, organic wastes were collected selectively (in separate bags, which undoubtedly had infiuence on their humidity (70–90%. Laboratory analysis of these wastes showed that the ratio C:N in it was from 7 to 19, whereas pH lay within the limits from 5.8 to 6.9 indicating its very good properties for the composting process. Therefore composting of organic waste from rural household should be recommended as the best way for its disposal and the weight reduction of biodegradable waste going to landfills. Comparison of the analyzed variants showed that some waste other than kitchen and garden does not leave the holding (it is re-used or burned in home hearths.

  11. Organic richness, kerogen types and maturity in the shales of the Dakhla and Duwi formations in Abu Tartur area, Western Desert, Egypt: Implication of Rock–Eval pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. El Nady

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the organic material for petroleum potential and characterize the relationships between organic material, thermal maturity, and the depositional environments. This is done using “14” samples from the shales of the Dakhla and Duwi formations in Abu Tartur area. The samples have been analyzed using the geochemical method of Rock–Eval pyrolysis. The analysis shows that the total organic carbon content lies between 0.56 and 1.96 wt%. It also shows that kerogen is a mixture of type II and III that is dominant, and is deposited in the shallow and restricted marine environment under prevailing reducing conditions. This type of kerogen is prone to oil and oil/gas production. The geochemical diagrams show that all the studied samples have good thermal maturation. The Dakhla and Duwi formations which have been divided into all zones are mature (have Tmax over 435 °C, and have organic carbon content located at the oil window (Tmax between 435 and 443 °C.

  12. Paragenesis of Cr-rich muscovite and chlorite in green-mica quartzites of Saigaon–Palasgaon area, Western Bastar Craton, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K R Randive; M M Korakoppa; S V Muley; A M Varade; H W Khandare; S G Lanjewar; R R Tiwari; K K Aradhi

    2015-02-01

    Green mica (fuchsite or chromian-muscovite) is reported worldwide in the Archaean metasedimentary rocks, especially quartzites. They are generally associated with a suite of heavy minerals and a range of phyllosilicates. We report the occurrence of green-mica quartzites in the Saigaon–Palasgaon area within Bastar Craton in central India. Mineralogical study has shown that there are two types of muscovites; the chromium-containing muscovite (Cr2O3 0.84–1.84%) and muscovite (Cr2O3 0.00–0.22%). Chlorites are chromium-containing chlorites (Cr2O3 3.66–5.39%) and low-chromium-containing chlorites (Cr2O3 0.56–2.62%), and as such represent ripidolite–brunsvigite varieties. Back scattered electron images and EPMA data has revealed that chlorite occurs in two forms, viz., parallel to subparallel stacks in the form of intergrowth with muscovite and independent crystals within the matrix. The present study indicates that the replacement of chromium-containing chlorite by chromium-containing muscovite is found to be due to increasing grade of metamorphism of chromium-rich sediments. However, the absence of significant compositional gap between aforementioned varieties indicates disparate substitution of cations, especially chromium, within matrix chlorites. The chromium-containing muscovite and muscovite are two separate varieties having distinct paragenesis.

  13. How well equipped are healthcare facilities to manage childhood malaria? The situation in selected local government areas in South Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falade, C O; Oladoyinbo, S O; Elemile, T T; Ajayi, I O; Fawole, O I; Oladepo, O; Adeniyi, J D; Oduola, A M J

    2006-09-01

    Using a structured questionnaire, surveys were conducted in 55 of 123 primary and secondary healthcare facilities in 4 selected local government areas in Southwestern Nigeria. Heads of healthcare facilities (HCFs) surveyed include nurses (41.8%), medical officers (21.8%) and community extension workers (21.8%). Twenty five (45.5%) HCFs run special clinics for children. About one fifth (20.3%) of staff had received continuing education on management of malaria. Forty seven (85%) HCFs possessed and used national guidelines for management of malaria. Although 48.9% of HCFs had microscopes, fewer had microscope slides, lancets and Giemsa stain which are also required items for definitive diagnosis of malaria. Healthcare workers were not well informed on some aspects in the management of malaria. Selected healthcare workers from various categories attended a workshop where they were trained to correct inadequate knowledge, attitude and practice in the management of malaria. These workers were to train their colleagues on their return to their respective HCFs.

  14. The influence of variability of calculation grids on the results of numerical modeling of geothermal doublets - an example from the Choszczno area, north-western Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowicz-Pyzik, A.; Sowiżdżał, A.; Pająk, L.

    2016-09-01

    The numerical modeling enables us to reduce the risk related to the selection of best localization of wells. Moreover, at the stage of production, modeling is a suitable tool for optimization of well operational parameters, which guarantees the long life of doublets. The thorough selection of software together with relevant methodology applied to generation of numerical models significantly improve the quality of obtained results. In the following paper, we discuss the impact of density of calculation grid on the results of geothermal doublet simulation with the TOUGH2 code, which applies the finite-difference method. The study area is located between the Szczecin Trough and the Fore-sudetic Monocline, where the Choszczno IG-1 well has been completed. Our research was divided into the two stages. At the first stage, we examined the changes of density of polygon calculation grids used in computations of operational parameters of geothermal doublets. At the second stage, we analyzed the influence of distance between the production and the injection wells on variability in time of operational parameters. The results demonstrated that in both studied cases, the largest differences occurred in pressures measured in production and injection wells whereas the differences in temperatures were less pronounced.

  15. Constraints on the history and topography of the Northeastern Sierra Nevada from a Neogene sedimentary basin in the Reno-Verdi area, Western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, James; Cashman, Patricia; Cosca, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Neogene (Miocene–Pliocene) sedimentary rocks of the northeastern Sierra Nevada were deposited in small basins that formed in response to volcanic and tectonic activity along the eastern margin of the Sierra. These strata record an early phase (ca. 11–10 Ma) of extension and rapid sedimentation of boulder conglomerates and debrites deposited on alluvial fans, followed by fluvio-lacustrine sedimentation and nearby volcanic arc activity but tectonic quiescence, until ~ 2.6 Ma. The fossil record in these rocks documents a warmer, wetter climate featuring large mammals and lacking the Sierran orographic rain shadow that dominates climate today on the eastern edge of the Sierra. This record of a general lack of paleo-relief across the eastern margin of the Sierra Nevada is consistent with evidence presented elsewhere that there was not a significant topographic barrier between the Pacific Ocean and the interior of the continent east of the Sierra before ~ 2.6 Ma. However, these sediments do not record an integrated drainage system either to the east into the Great Basin like the modern Truckee River, or to the west across the Sierra like the ancestral Feather and Yuba rivers. The Neogene Reno-Verdi basin was one of several, scattered endorheic (i.e., internally drained) basins occupying this part of the Cascade intra-arc and back-arc area.

  16. Effectiveness of submerged drains in reducing subsidence of peat soils in agricultural use, and their effects on water management and nutrient loading of surface water: modelling of a case study in the western peat soil area of The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Rob F. A.; van den Akker, Jan J. A.

    2017-04-01

    Effectiveness of submerged drains in reducing subsidence of peat soils in agricultural use, and their effects on water management and nutrient loading of surface water: modelling of a case study in the western peat soil area of The Netherlands In the Netherlands, about 8% of the area is covered by peat soils. Most of these soils are in use for dairy farming and, consequently, are drained. Drainage causes decomposition of peat by oxidation and accordingly leads to surface subsidence and greenhouse gas emission. Submerged drains that enhance submerged infiltration of water from ditches during the dry and warm summer half year were, and are still, studied in The Netherlands as a promising tool for reducing peat decomposition by raising groundwater levels. For this purpose, several pilot field studies in the Western part of the Dutch peat area were conducted. Besides the effectiveness of submerged drains in reducing peat decomposition and subsidence by raising groundwater tables, some other relevant or expected effects of these drains were studied. Most important of these are water management and loading of surface water with nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphate. Because most of these parameters are not easy to assess and all of them are strongly depending on the meteorological conditions during the field studies some of these studies were modelled. The SWAP model was used for evaluating the hydrological results on groundwater table and water discharge and recharge. Effects of submerged drains were assessed by comparing the results of fields with and without drains. An empirical relation between deepest groundwater table and subsidence was used to convert effects on groundwater table to effects on subsidence. With the SWAP-ANIMO model nutrient loading of surface water was modelled on the basis of field results on nutrient concentrations . Calibrated models were used to assess effects in the present situation, as thirty-year averages, under extreme weather

  17. A survey of the prevalence of blowfly strike and the control measures used in the Rûens area of the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Scholtz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Blowfly strike and the methods used to combat blowfly strike were recorded on 33 properties in the Rûens area of South Africa during 2003/2004. Data were recorded on Merino and Dohne Merino hoggets (n = 4951 with at least 3 months’ wool growth. The following data were captured: presence or absence of strike, site of the strike (body or breech, presence or absence of dermatophilosis as well as subjective scores for wool quality and wool colour. Control measures recorded include: chemical treatment (preventative and spot treatment, crutching, mulesing and the use of the Lucitrap® system. Blowfly strike was not significantly influenced by gender or breed. Hoggets suffering from dermatophilosis were more likely to be struck, compared with contemporaries not suffering from the skin disorder (0.057 vs 0.027; P < 0.05. Merino hoggets generally had higher scores than their Dohne Merino contemporaries for wool quality (32.6 vs 27.4; P<0.05 and wool colour (29.0 vs 27.2; P<0.05. There was an indication that the Lucitrap® system may have reduced flystrike, but the effect was not statistically significant (P = 0.19 for overall strikes and P = 0.12 for body strike. The Mules operation benefited overall flystrike (0.013 vs 0.110; P < 0.05; mainly through an effect on breech strike (0.010 vs 0.109; P < 0.05. The proportion of fly strikes increased with wool length, and declined with an increase in farm size in wool colour score. None of the ethically acceptable control measures assessed could substantially reduce blowfly strike on their own, and an integrated pest management programme was proposed.

  18. Evaluation of local site effect in the western side of the Suez Canal area by applying H/V and MASW techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Emad K.; Shokry, M. M. F.; Hassoup, Awad; Helal, A. M. A.

    2016-11-01

    The soft sediments are one of the most important factors responsible for the amplification of the seismic ground motion in an area of study. Three components, single-station microtremor measurements were performed at 61 sites along the Suez Canal to estimate the fundamental frequencies of the soil and corresponding H/V amplitude ratios by using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method. We have applied the investigations of the shear wave velocity for supplementing the existing seismic microzonation of the Suez Canal. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) tests were done along the Suez Canal in the three cities, Suez, Ismailia, and Port Said using 24 channels digital engineering seismograph with 4.5 Hz geophones from September 2014 to January 2015 to get the shear wave velocity VS30. The SeisImager/SW software was used for analyzing the data, and 1D-shear wave velocity model have achieved for each site. The HVSR curves show that the fundamental frequency values are ranging from 0.57 to 1.08 Hz, and H/V amplitude ratios are ranging from 4.05 to 6.46. The average values of VS30 are (548, 301), (241, 319), (194, 110, 238) for Suez, Ismailia, and Port Said respectively. The average of shear wave velocity up to 30 m depth is estimated and used for site classification based on the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) classification. The majority of the sites was classified as Class D (stiff soil) except one site at Port Said city is classified as Class E (soft soils), and another site in the Suez city is classified as Class C (hard rock).

  19. Western Experience in the Area of Priority of High-Quality Higher Education Vakarų patirtis prioritetinėje kokybinio aukštojo mokslo srityje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislavs Keiss

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The paper contains research results of contemporary foreign experience of the most developed countries on providing a strategic priority of high-quality higher education, including the growth of the role of continuity and creativity elements in it. The paper deals with the nowadays tendencies that are favourable to the increase of high-quality training of higher qualification specialists. These tendencies are based on a close integration of areas of higher education and science, and include the development of regional mechanisms of scientific and educational clusters, inherent to the majority of the most developed countries. There are also formulated some recommendations favouring the development of scientific and educational potential of Latvian higher education, finding itself in a situation of a deep crisis.

    Article in English

    Straipsnyje pateikiami labiausiai išsivysčiusių šalių šiuolaikinės užsienio patirties strateginio prio­riteto – kokybinio aukštojo mokslo, įskaitant tęstinumą ir kūrybiškumą kaip didėjančio vaidmens elementus, tyrimų rezultatai. Remiantis šiandieninėmis tendencijomis, palanku didinti aukštos kvalifikacijos specialistų kokybinius mokymus, grindžiamus glaudžia aukštojo mokslo ir edukacijos integracija, apimančia daugumai labiausiai išsivysčiusių šalių būdingą mokslo ir edukacinių klasterių regioninių mechanizmų plėtrą. Straipsnyje pateikiama keletas rekomendacijų, palaikančių gilioje krizėje esančią Latvijos aukštojo mokslo ir edukacijos potencialo plėtrą.

    Straipsnis anglų kalba

  20. Reconstructing the pre-Quaternary landscape in Agnew-Lawlers area, Western Australia with emphasis on the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation and post-glacial weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Walid; Anand, Ravi R.

    2017-01-01

    The pre-Quaternary stratigraphic section in Agnew-Lawlers area consists of Permo-Carboniferous glacial sediments, unconformably overlain by Tertiary clastics of palaeochannel sequence and Quaternary alluvial and colluvial sediments. The unique Permo-Carboniferous glacial sedimentary succession in the Yilgarn Craton has not been studied in detail in terms of vertical chemostratigraphic variations, basin and landscape evolution, diagenesis and post-Permian weathering overprints. In Agnew-Lawlers district, continental facies of glacial diamictites, glaciofluvial sandstones and glaciolacustrine rhythmites vary in thickness from 28 m to 181 m and is preserved beneath Cenozoic sediments as relict landforms in highly irregular, asymmetrical and poorly drained basins. The Permo-Carboniferous sediments were mechanically weathered and eroded by glaciers from the surrounding Archaean basement palaeohighs under a cold arid climate. Textural relationships of diamictites indicate that they were derived from proximal and distal source rocks. The denuded palaeotopography of the basement palaeohighs (source rocks) and Permo-Carboniferous sediments were subjected simultaneously to an intensive, post-Permian chemical weathering. The exposed basement rocks were deeply weathered into residual saprolite, whereas the Permo-Carboniferous sediments were differentiated into three chemostratigraphic units. The diamictite and rhythmite of the lower unit are unweathered and preserves the signature of the glacial/interglacial weathering. Mineralogical and geochemical changes dominated in this unit are related mainly to diagenesis at shallow depth (eogenesis) with no significant compaction. The formation of a paragenetic diagenetic sequence of chlorite, ferroan dolomite and pyrite indicates diagenesis has occurred under reducing and alkaline conditions below the permafrost and modern water table. Mineralogical and geochemical changes dominated in the middle unit are linked mainly to eogenetic

  1. 西部山区坡地村落空间演进与农户生计改变%The Spatial Evolution of Slope Villages and Their Peasant Household Livelihood Change in the Mountainous Area of Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王传胜; 朱珊珊; 孙贵艳; 樊杰

    2012-01-01

    Slopes villages refer to villages locating on the slopes of mountains and hills, which are distributed extensively in mountain settlements and constitute an important type of the village set- tlements in China. The western mountainous areas, which are the main slope village distributed areas, have faced the resources and ecology bottleneck because the long time population growth pressure have made them in recent years the main areas of population movement, and frequent village migrations. With "the Main Function of the National Planning" implemented in the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan on National Economic and Social Development" period, the above regions will be faced the new opportunities and challenges. The spatial reorganization and the population migra- tion in the slope village distributed mountainous areas will be also influenced. And finally the ru- ral household livelihood and sustainable development in mountainous area will be affected. These two problems have exactly long puzzled the western rural development. Accessing the villages space evolution and the peasant households, using the multi-time re- mote sensing images (TM, ETM, and Alos at 2. 5 m resolution) and topographic maps of different scales (1 : 50000, 1 : 100000 and 1 : 250000) , the disperse and concentrate characteristics of the two spatial evolutions types of the slope villages were analyzed by using the GIS spatial analy- sis tools. The concentration is the slope village households' movements from the slope lands down to the smooth lands under the environmental pressure and driven by most of the benefits. One con- centration type is its position located on some bigger river valley plains and some main roads are caused by the spatial difference of the slope village' site conditions. Another nearby bigger mar- kets and the advantageous traffic accesses are caused due to infrastructure reconstruction and mar- ket mechanism establishment in western mountainous areas. The

  2. The Eastern Sardinian Margin (Tyrrhenian Sea, Western Mediterranean) : a key area to study the rifting and post-breakup evolution of a back-arc passive continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaullier, Virginie; Chanier, Frank; Vendeville, Bruno; Maillard, Agnès; Thinon, Isabelle; Graveleau, Fabien; Lofi, Johanna; Sage, Françoise

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Sardinian passive continental margin formed during the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea, which is a back-arc basin created by continental rifting and oceanic spreading related to the eastward migrating Apennine subduction system (middle Miocene to Pliocene). Up to now, rifting in this key area was considered to be pro parte coeval with the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.96-5.32 Ma). We use the MSC seismic markers and the deformation of viscous salt and its brittle overburden as proxies to better delineate the timing of rifting and post-rift reactivation, and especially to quantify vertical and horizontal movements. On this young, highly-segmented margin, the Messinian Erosion Surface and the Upper and Mobile Units are systematically associated, respectively, to basement highs and deeper basins, showing that a rifted deep-sea domain already existed by Messinian times, therefore a major pre-MSC rifting episode occurred across the entire domain. Data show that there are no signs of Messinian syn-rift sediments, hence no evidence for rifting after Late Tortonian times. Moreover, because salt tectonics creates fan-shaped geometries in sediments, syn-rift deposits have to be carefully re-examined to distinguish the effects of crustal tectonics (rifting) and salt tectonics. We also precise that rifting is clearly diachronous from the upper margin (East-Sardinia Basin) to the lower margin (Cornaglia Terrace) with two unconformities, attributed respectively to the necking and to the lithospheric breakup unconformities. The onshore part of the upper margin has been recently investigated in order to characterize the large crustal faults affecting the Mesozoic series (geometry, kinematics and chronology) and to decipher the role of the structural inheritance and of the early rifting. Seaward, we also try to constrain the architecture and timing of the continent-ocean transition, between the hyper-extended continental crust and the first oceanic crust. Widespread

  3. Growth Analysis of Individual Tree Basal Area of Western Yellow Pine Introduced in Kostelec Region%KOSTELEC地区西黄松林木个体胸高断面积生长分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖超英; PODRAZSKY; Vilem

    2001-01-01

    Four theoretical growth functions,the Mitscherlich,Logistic,Gompertz and Korf functions were applied to the basal area growth data of individual Western Yellow Pine(Pinus ponderosa)trees to model the basal area growth.The current increment,mean increment and growth intensity of basal area as functions of age were given by derivation from the best fit growth function.The growth process of basalarea was divided into three periods by the two inflexion points of the current increment curve of basal area. The results indicated that the Korf function fitted the basal area growth best,followed by the Gompertz, Logistic and Mitscherlich functions.The maximum values of the current increment and the mean increment appeared at age 7 years and age 15 years respectively.The average growth intensity of basal area was 0.3243.During the rapid growth period(3 to 11 years) the average increment of basal area per year was 0.001 474 m2.%用Mitscherlich、Logistic、Gompertz和Korf 4个理论生长方程分别对引种到捷克Kostelec地区的西黄松林木个体胸高断面积生长过程进行了拟合,由最佳生长方程分别得出了胸高断面连年生长量、平均生长量和相对生长率随时间变化的函数,并对生长过程进行了分析.结果表明:Korf方程具有最高的拟合精度,能很好地描述西黄松胸高断面积生长过程;西黄松胸高断面积连年生长量和平均生长量最大值分别出现在第7 a和第15 a(胸高年龄);1~26 a的平均相对生长率为0.243;速生期(3~¨a)内胸高断面积平均生长量为0.001 474 m2.

  4. Temporal-spatial distribution and tectonic implications of the batholiths in the Gaoligong-Tengliang-Yingjiang area, western Yunnan: Constraints from zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi-Gang; Yang, Qi-Jun; Lan, Jiang-Bo; Luo, Zhen-Yu; Huang, Xiao-Long; Shi, Yu-Ruo; Xie, Lie-Wen

    2012-07-01

    Considerable progress has recently been made regarding temporal and spatial distribution of magmatism in the Lhasa Terrane. However the eastward and southeastward correlation of these Tibetan magmatic suites in western Yunnan and Burma remains poorly constrained. This paper reports zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotopic compositions of granites in the Gaoligong-Tengliang-Yingjiang area, west Yunnan. It reveals three episodes of plutonism, and more importantly a southwestward magmatic migration. The Gaoligong batholiths in the northeast were mainly emplaced during early Cretaceous (126-121 Ma) and comprised predominantly S-type granites with negative zircon ɛHf values (ɛHf = -2˜-12). The Tengliang granites, situated southwest of the Gaoligong belt, were emplaced in late Cretaceous (68-76 Ma) and also displayed a strong peraluminous affinity and negative ɛHf (-5˜-14), indicating a provenance from a Proterozoic sedimentary source with little mantle contribution. The youngest phase of magmatism (52-66 Ma) occurred in Yingjiang, southwestmost of the study area. It is composed of S-type granites (ɛHf = -2˜-12) in east Yingjiang and I-type granites (ɛHf = -4˜+6) in west Yingjiang, near the China-Burma border. The late Cretaceous-early Cenozoic plutons in the Tengliang and Yingjiang area are thus considered as the northern continuation of the late Cretaceous magmatic arc (west), which comprises I-type granites and andesitic rocks, and of the belt of predominant S-type granites (east) in Burma, Thailand and Malaysia. Such a chemical polarity of the dual I-type and S-type granites is strongly reminiscent of the northern American Cordillera, indicating a Cordilleran-style continental margin during the late Cretaceous-early Cenozoic. While the magmatic arc was related to eastward subduction of the Neo-Tethys beneath the Asian continent, the S-type granites represented the melting products of thickened crust in the hinterland, in response to subduction-induced decrease in

  5. Study on Petrological Characteristics and Cycle of Volcano Rocks in Qingshuigou Area of Western Qilian Mountain%西祁连清水沟地区火山岩岩石学特征及旋回研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国涛; 孙丽莎; 翟孝志; 孙晓亮; 吴洪彬

    2016-01-01

    Cambrian volcano rocks in Dangjinshan Qingshuigou area in western Qilian mountain developed in vol⁃cano rock group in Cambrian Lapeiquan group. Distribution characteristics of the volcano rock and petrological char⁃acteristics have been studied and divided into 3 types of volcano rock facies, such as eruption facies, sedimentary facies and effusive facies. Volcano eruption cycles have been studied as well. The formation evolution characteristics in Dangjinshan area has been revealed. It has a certain guiding significance for the comparison of volcanic rock are⁃as and the recovery of volcanic mechanism.%西祁连当金山清水沟一带的寒武纪火山岩发育在寒武纪拉配泉岩群火山岩组。对该火山岩分布特征和岩石学特征进行了研究,划分了3类火山岩岩相:爆发相、沉积相、喷溢相,并对火山岩喷发旋回进行了研究,揭示了当金山地区地层演化特征,对火山岩区域对比及火山机构恢复具有一定的指导意义。

  6. Expedition surveys of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Russian Far Eastern coastal areas and in the North- Western Pacific in connection with accident at the 'Fukushima-1' NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Aleksandr; Shershakov, Viacheslav; Artemev, Georgii [Research and Production Association ' Typhoon' (RPA ' Typhoon' ), Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Ramzaev, Valery [Ramzaev Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Osokin, Vladimir [V.G.Khlopin Radium institute, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sevastianov, Aleksandr [Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    In accordance with decision of the Russian Federation Federal Service on Hydro-meteorology and Environmental Monitoring (Roshydromet) on assessment of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Russian coastal areas of the Far East in connection with accident at the 'Fukushima-1' NPP in Japan, two radioecological expedition surveys were conducted onboard of research vessels of the Far Eastern Regional Hydro-meteorological Research Institute (FERHRI) of Roshydromet in the Sea of Japan and in the North-Western Pacific (in the area adjacent to Kurile Islands and in the Kuroshio current selected area (coordinates 36 deg. 00'- 39 deg. 33' n., 146 deg. 33'- 150 deg. 00' e.): first survey in April-May 2011, onboard R/V 'Pavel Gordienko', second survey in August-September 2012, onboard R/V 'Akademik Shokalsky'. Both surveys were conducted under the Russian Geographical Society patronage. The leading Russian institutions dealing with ensuring of population radiation safety and protection of environment from radioactive contamination were enlisted to investigations. The following main observations were performed during the surveys: constant measurement of gamma-radiation dose rate above the sea surface; twenty-four hour sampling of atmospheric aerosols, sea water sampling from the surface and deep water horizons with preliminary concentrating of radionuclides for onboard gamma-spectrometry and for subsequent transportation to the shore laboratories for further analysis. During the expeditions, a real-time data were received onboard of research vessels which characterize impact of input of radioactive products of the 'Fukushima-1' NPP accident on radioactive contamination of environment existed on that period (these are onboard estimates of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs concentrations in the sea water samples and {sup 131}I, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs content in atmospheric aerosol samples, data

  7. Protection of Vulnerable Children in Western Area under the Social Work Perspective%社会工作视角下西部地区弱势儿童保护工作探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常雅慧

    2012-01-01

    儿童保护政策法规的不健全、儿童保护机制的不稳定、儿童保护主管部门较为单一以及专业社会工作人才较为缺乏等制度性因素,严重妨碍着西部地区弱势儿童保护事业的发展,造成弱势儿童权益侵犯事件屡屡发生。为切实提高西部地区弱势儿童的福祉,应建立健全儿童保护法律体系,建立儿童事务管理的党和政府双重管理体制,构建未成年人法律援助全程化机制,构建学校、家庭、社会三位一体的儿童社会支持系统,培养社会工作专业人才,以提升弱势儿童保护的专业性,注重对留守儿童、孤残儿童、受虐儿童等弱势儿童的保护与救助。%Undoubtedly the Western Area has made progresses in construction of concerning protection of vulnerable chil- dren. But there have been remaind efeets in the social system for vulnerable children, such as imperfection of policy sys- tem, unstabitily of Protection mechanism, singularity of administratition and absence of social worker. Western Area should take practical ways to remove the defectsabove inconstruction of social protection for vulnerable children, such as perfect the law and policy,improve the management organization, set up a perfect children protection system, inpel the professionalization of social work and emphasize the salvation of Vulnerable Children.

  8. 西部农村特岗教师实践性知识问题研究%The study on the practical knowledge problem of special-post teacher in western rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗利群; 吴洪亮

    2012-01-01

    特岗教师是我国为解决西部农村贫困地区师资问题而出现的特殊教师群体,研究其实践性知识问题对"特岗教师计划"的深入实施具有很强的现实意义。目前,西部农村特岗教师实践性知识存在的主要问题是课程实践性知识薄弱、教育心理学实践性知识缺乏、学科实践性知识不足。分析其主要原因是教师教育泛城市化倾向明显;应用性学科理论知识匮乏,学术理论知识学而不化;地方课程理论知识与地域性文化知识薄弱。进而提出的对策建议是:加强师范教育的前期准备、特岗教师的入职教育和在职培训。%Special-post teacher is a special group to alleviate the human resources problem of teachers in western poor areas.The study on the professional development of special-post teacher in western rural areas is significant for further development and implementation of "special post scheme".The thesis probes into the practical knowledge problem of special-post teacher: Course practical knowledge is week;Lack of educational psychology practical knowledge;Insufficient of subject practical knowledge.Analyzing the influencing factor: the tendency of Teacher Education became urbanization;lack of Applied subject theory knowledge shortage,and academic theory knowledge learning without changing;local curriculum theory knowledge and regional cultural knowledge is weak.proposing the developing approach,elaborates the preparation for teaching education,illustrates the training before an during working.

  9. 2011 Annual Report [WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-01-01

    Western’s achievements for 2011 are reported and include: Experienced a banner water year – meaning more hydropower delivered; Changed energy scheduling— to better support intermittent renewable resources; Maintained reliability— ensuring maximum use of the grid by reducing the frequency and duration of planned and unplanned outages; Connected communities— providing customers energy products and related services at cost-based rates; Managed transmission projects.

  10. 西部农村小学教师职业倦怠的现状与对策%Status and Countermeasures of Primary School Teachers’Job Burnout in China’s Western Rural Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭伟; 屈晓兰

    2014-01-01

    采用问卷法,对西部农村的447名小学教师进行调查,探讨他们的职业倦怠问题。研究发现:尽管总体上西部农村小学教师职业倦怠程度并不严重,但有少数教师在职业倦怠的一个或多个维度上出现较严重的症状。比较而言,男教师的倦怠程度显著高于女教师;未婚教师显著高于已婚教师;工龄短的教师显著高于工龄长的教师。%To explore the job burnout problems of the primary school teachers, 447 subjects from 4 provinces in the western rural area of China were surveyed by job burnout scale. The results indicated that the teachers’job burnout in general degree is not serious, but in three dimensions of job burnout, a few teachers in one or more di-mensions display serious signs and symptoms. In comparison, the male teachers’burnout significantly higher than that of female teachers; unmarried teachers, burnout is significantly higher than that of married teachers; shorter working years teachers, burnout is significantly higher than that of longer working years teachers.

  11. Measures of China' s Western Areas in Promoting the Transfer of Sci - tech Achievements%西部地区促进科技成果转化对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓宇

    2011-01-01

    科技成果转化就是科技与经济有机结合的价值实现过程,是科技创新的重要内容.针对西部地区科技成果转化的状况,应通过确立企业主体地位,加强产学研合作、投入机制和成果转化平台建设,发展中介服务体系和科技人力资源开发等对策促进科技成果转化.%The transfer of sci - tech achievements is a process of value realization with the combination of technology and e-conomy and a core in technical innovation. On account of the present situation of the transfer of sci - tech achievements in China' s western areas, it is necessary to establish business entity, strengthen cooperation among industries, universities and research institutes, build commitment system and transfer platform, and develop intermediary services and technology human resources to promote the transfer of sci - tech achievements.

  12. DEM reconstruction of western mountain area based on InSAR technology%基于InSAR技术对西部高山地区DEM的重建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛继群; 邓喀中; 范洪冬; 祝传广

    2011-01-01

    合成孔径雷达干涉测量技术是一种获取地面数字高程模型(DEM)的新技术.介绍利用InSAR获取DEM的基本流程,阐述相位解缠的理论方法以及基线估计中获取地面控制点的方法与原则,通过实验获取西部某高山地区的DEM,并与SRTM DEM作比较、分析,总结出其存在局限性的原因.%InSAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) is a new technology for achieving Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The paper introduces the basic flow of achieving DEM with InSAR technology and describes the theoretical method of phase unwrapping, at the same time the method and principle of obtaining ground control points among baseline evaluation processing are brought forward. Then, a DEM of the western mountain area was obtained, which also is compared and analyzed with SRTM-DEM. The reasons for their existence are summarized at last.

  13. Satellite-derived estimates of forest leaf area index in southwest Western Australia are not tightly coupled to interannual variations in rainfall: implications for groundwater decline in a drying climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smettem, Keith R J; Waring, Richard H; Callow, John N; Wilson, Melissa; Mu, Qiaozhen

    2013-08-01

    There is increasing concern that widespread forest decline could occur in regions of the world where droughts are predicted to increase in frequency and severity as a result of climate change. The average annual leaf area index (LAI) is an indicator of canopy cover and the difference between the annual maximum and minimum LAI is an indicator of annual leaf turnover. In this study, we analyzed satellite-derived estimates of monthly LAI across forested coastal catchments of southwest Western Australia over a 12 year period (2000-2011) that included the driest year on record for the last 60 years. We observed that over the 12 year study period, the spatial pattern of average annual satellite-derived LAI values was linearly related to mean annual rainfall. However, interannual changes to LAI in response to changes in annual rainfall were far less than expected from the long-term LAI-rainfall trend. This buffered response was investigated using a physiological growth model and attributed to availability of deep soil moisture and/or groundwater storage. The maintenance of high LAIs may be linked to a long-term decline in areal average underground water storage and diminished summer flows, with an emerging trend toward more ephemeral flow regimes.

  14. Shell Trumpets from Western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Novella

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine shells have been used as musical instruments in almost all parts of the world (Izikowitz 1935, including Mesoamerica, where large univalves, also called conch shells in the literature, had a utilitarian function as trumpets. Their use is well documented in most cultural areas of Mesoamerica, as in Western Mexico, through their various occurrences in archaeological contexts and museums collections.

  15. WESTERN ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Meddi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion by rain and surface runoff is an important problem in the Mediterranean countries. The study of the relationship between erosion and sediment transport with hydrological and climatic factors have b een conducted in many countries around the world. The aim of this work is to show ra infall impact on the variability of spatial and temporal concentration in twelve drainage basins in the west of Algeria. We will also seek to find a representative parameter of rainfall erosive potential on a Time and spatial scale. When studying sediment transport in twelve drainage basins of the Centre and the west of Algeria, we have found that the modified Fournier index Which explains much of the specific degradation comp ared to the Fournier index. The study of the temporal variability of the annual rain fall series, modified Fournier index and concentration of the precipitation in the year for a series from 1930 to 2007 showed a negative trend of the two variables. The a nnual rainfall and modified Fournier index have declined by more than 20%. This de cline is more significant in inland areas.

  16. A Study on the Strategies of Promoting Sports Tourism in Fujian Province under the Development of the Western Taiwan Strait Economic Area%海西背景下福建省体育旅游发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄衍存

    2012-01-01

    In order to make the sports tourism in Fujian province a new growth point of economic development, this paper lyses the development of sports tourism in Fujian province under the background of the construction of Western Taiwan Strait Economic Area with the aid of document researching and logical analysis. The result shows that: sports tourism in Fujian province is of simple structure, little breadth and depth. There are little brands of sports tourism and they are of weak influence. The economy of the area is underdeveloped while the competition among sports tourism brands is severe. This paper suggests an active introduction of talent, capital and management to promote personnel training and build featured brands of coastal sports tourism and ecological sports tourism, develop sports competition tourism and promote the publicity and marketing work.%为了使体育旅游成为福建省经济发展新的增长点,运用文献资料法和逻辑分析方法,对海西建设背景下福建省开展体育旅游的情况进行了分析。结果表明:福建省体育旅游项目结构单一,开发的广度和深度不够;体育旅游品牌少,影响力弱;经济发展水平偏低,体育旅游竞争激烈。建议积极引进人才、资金和管理;推动体育旅游人才的培养;打造滨海体育旅游和生态体育旅游的特色品牌;发展赛事体育旅游;做好宣传营销工作。

  17. 川西德格—巴塘一带的晚三叠世地层%The Upper Triassic strata in Dege-Batang area, western Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李廷栋; 郑宁; 丁伟翠; 刘勇; 郑洪伟; 王军

    2012-01-01

    In western Sichuan Province, a low-grade metamorphic volcanic-sedimentary rock series has been discovered in Dege-Batang area on the bank of the Jinsha River. This rock series contains abundant fossils, including fossils of bivalvia, brachia, cephalopoda and Hexacoralla. Due to its complex structure, scientists have been holding diverse opinions on the tectonic forming conditions and stratification of this rock series. According to a study of paleontologic fossils in this rock series and a comparison between this rock scries and rocks of the adjacent areas, the authors agree with most scholars' opinions and define its stratigraphic period as Late-Triassic. The rock series is divided into 3 formations, namely Damadong Formation, Qugasi Formation and Tumugou Formation, in which the Damadong Formation is a stratigraphic unit newly defined by the authors.%四川西部金沙江畔德格—巴塘一带出露一套低级变质的火山-沉积岩系,含有丰富的双壳类、腕足类、头足类,特别是六射珊瑚等化石.由于构造复杂,过去对这套地层形成时期的构造环境和地层分层曾有不同认识.根据所含古生物化石和同邻区对比,将这套地层的时代划归晚三叠世,并自老而新划分为3个组:打马洞组、曲嘎寺组与图姆沟组.其中打马洞组为新建立的地层单位.

  18. Morcegos cavernícolas da região do Distrito Federal, centro-oeste do Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Cave bats from the Distrito Federal area in Mid-Western Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Bredt

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1989 and 1995, twenty caves in the Distrito Federal area in mid-western Brazil were assessed for bat species richness, frequency, spatial distribution, behavior, reproduction and inter-specific cohabitation. The general state of conservation of the caves was also assessed. Of the 20 caves studied, 12 were less than 100 m long, five between 100 m and 300 m, and three were longerthan 300 m. Twenty-two species of six different families were observed: 16 species belonged to Phyllostomidae, two to Vespertilionidae and Mormoopidae and one to Furipteridae and Emballonuridae. In this study, 17 species were characterized as Distrito Federal cave dwellers. The most prevalent were Desmodus rotundus, Glossophaga soricina and Carollia perspicillata. The least prevalent were Lonchorhina aurita, Pteronotus gymnonotus and Phylloderma stenops. Since some Anoura caudifer, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Myotis nigricans, Micronycteris minuta, and Eptesicus brasiliensis individuals were captured only while going into the caves early in the night, they were not considered cave dwellers. Even though, they probably use the caves as a daytime roosting place. Surprisingly, Lonchophylla dekeyseri, considered to be the only endemic bat species in the Cerrado ecosystem, was observed in three of the surveyed caves. Further biological studies are necessary to determine the biology of L. dekeyseri and the necessity of its conservation. The bat colonies observed were usually of a small size. Few colonies of D. rotundus and Anoura geoffroyi contained more than 300 individuals of both sexes. Only a inale group of L. aurita was observed in the Distrito Federal area. Twelve of the surveyed caves were hard to access and therefore well protected. Four of the caves received some public visitation, two were located near limestone mines, one was located near an urban area. and one had both public visitation and deforestation near its entrance. In this latter cave, no bats were observed

  19. Slumping on the western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.; Mohan, R.; Muralinath, A.S.

    A short gravity core from the Western Continental Margin of India has been examined to understand the nature and characteristics of slumping in the area. The present study and also the earlier studies revealed that the slumping on the western...

  20. Modelling the potential of rainwater harvesting in western Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samuel

    The Kakamega area in western Kenya is known for plenty of rainfall. (around ..... I and II, Ministry of Finance and Planning, Central Bureau of Statistics, Nairobi, .... growing season for western Kenya', Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol.

  1. Petrogenesis of the Miocene volcanism along the İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone in western Anatolia, Turkey: Implications for origin and evolution of potassic volcanism in post-collisional areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Yalçın E.; Helvacı, Cahit; Uysal, İbrahim; Karaoğlu, Özgür; Palmer, Martin R.; Dindi, Fulya

    2012-10-01

    The Miocene volcanic rocks along the İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone along the western margin of the Menderes Core Complex (MCC) in western Anatolian Volcanic Province (WAVP), where strike-slip deformation is dominant, comprise: (Group 1) early-middle Miocene high-K to shoshonitic rocks with high-Mg# and relatively low SiO2, (Group 2) middle Miocene phonolitic rocks with low-Mg# and intermediate SiO2, (Group 3) early-middle Miocene medium- to high-K series from andesites to rhyolites, (Group 4) middle Miocene rhyolites with distinct trace element compositions; and (Group 5) late Miocene high-MgO basalts, K-trachybasalts and (Group 6) late Miocene high-MgO basaltic andesites. The geochemical features of these rocks are comparable with the other Oligocene to Miocene volcanic rocks, but differ from the Eocene volcanic rocks in WAVP. The geochemical features of the most primitive early-middle Miocene Group 1 rocks indicate that they were derived from an anomalously metasomatized lithospheric mantle. The mineralogical and geochemical properties of garnet-amphibole peridotite from the Ulten Zone (UZP), Eastern Alps, which is thought to represent a fossil metasomatic mantle wedge contaminated by continental subduction, is similar to the model mantle composition previously proposed for the genesis of the mafic rocks. Together with the presence of Eocene to early Miocene continental subduction beneath the Aegean-west Anatolia region, this strongly suggests that continental subduction was an important factor in the genesis of the high-MgO shoshonitic to ultrapotassic volcanism in this post-collisional area. The origin of the Group 3 andesitic to rhyolitic rocks includes; (1) lower crustal melting, (2) mixing between lower crustally-derived and mantle-derived melts, and (3) FC-AFC processes. The late Miocene Group 5 and 6 rocks, however, derived from a more depleted mantle source, indicating that the mantle became depleted over time. The rhyolites of Group 4 are most probably

  2. Countermeasures of Institutional Reform to Accelerate Development of Small Towns in the Western Chinese Rural Area%西部农村小城镇体制改革的对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟顺昌

    2013-01-01

    To develop small towns and to promote rural urbanization is the important way of implementing urbaniza -tion strategy in our country .There are many factors restricting the rapid development of small towns of which institu-tion constraints are the important part .Compared with the system reform of the developed eastern region ,the reform in the western rural small towns is relatively slow and lag ,which mainly reflects in finance ,investment and finan-cing,administration,planning,land circulation etc.On one hand,we should study and draw lessons from revelations of system reform in small towns in developed eastern areas ,at the same time ,by combining the own characteristics of western small towns ,we should get down to find a suitable way for their own development .%制度设计影响着经济绩效的发挥。发展小城镇,促进农村城镇化进程是我国实施城镇化战略必不可少的重要途径。影响小城镇快速发展的制约因素很多,而体制约束是其重要的一方面。相对于东部发达地区的“扩权强镇”和“强镇扩权”改革,西部农村小城镇的体制改革还相对缓慢和滞后,突出体现在财政、行政、规划、土地流转和投融资等方面。一方面,我们应该研究和借鉴东部发达地区在小城镇体制改革方面的经验和启示,同时,要结合西部地区小城镇内部自身特点,探索出一条适合自身发展需要的改革之路。

  3. The Effect of Indoor Residual Spraying on the Prevalence of Malaria Parasite Infection, Clinical Malaria and Anemia in an Area of Perennial Transmission and Moderate Coverage of Insecticide Treated Nets in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimnig, John E; Otieno, Peter; Were, Vincent; Marwanga, Doris; Abong'o, Daisy; Wiegand, Ryan; Williamson, John; Wolkon, Adam; Zhou, Ying; Bayoh, M Nabie; Lobo, Neil F; Laserson, Kayla; Kariuki, Simon; Hamel, Mary J

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) have been scaled up for malaria prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are few studies on the benefit of implementing IRS in areas with moderate to high coverage of ITNs. We evaluated the impact of an IRS program on malaria related outcomes in western Kenya, an area of intense perennial malaria transmission and moderate ITN coverage (55-65% use of any net the previous night). The Kenya Division of Malaria Control, with support from the US President's Malaria Initiative, conducted IRS in one lowland endemic district with moderate coverage of ITNs. Surveys were conducted in the IRS district and a neighboring district before IRS, after one round of IRS in July-Sept 2008 and after a second round of IRS in April-May 2009. IRS was conducted with pyrethroid insecticides. At each survey, 30 clusters were selected for sampling and within each cluster, 12 compounds were randomly selected. The primary outcomes measured in all residents of selected compounds included malaria parasitemia, clinical malaria (P. falciparum infection plus history of fever) and anemia (Hbmalaria parasitemia, clinical malaria or anemia. After two rounds of IRS, the prevalence of malaria parasitemia was 6.4% in the IRS district compared to 16.7% in the comparison district (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.22-0.59, pmalaria was also lower in the IRS district (1.8% vs. 4.9%, OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.20-0.68, p = 0.001). The prevalence of anemia was lower in the IRS district but only in children under 5 years of age (2.8% vs. 9.3%, OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.13-0.71, p = 0.006). Multivariate models incorporating both IRS and ITNs indicated that both had an impact on malaria parasitemia and clinical malaria but the independent effect of ITNs was reduced in the district that had received two rounds of IRS. There was no statistically significant independent effect of ITNs on the prevalence of anemia in any age group. Both IRS and ITNs are effective

  4. 黔西补作勘查区现代地温场及煤层受热温度分析%Modern Geothermal Field and Coal Seam Heating Temperature in Buzuo Exploration Area, Western Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢玲玲; 秦勇; 郭晨

    2013-01-01

    Based on 32 boreholes facility temperature measured data in the Buzuo exploration area, western Guizhou, analyzed explora-tion area shallow part geothermal field basic features. The study has found that the geothermal gradient in the area is within 0.98~3.25oC/100m, average 2.07 oC/100m, as a whole in normal geothermal field scope. Rather large variation on plane, locally low tempera-ture anomaly is existed;vertically, along with bottom depth deepening, borehole geothermal gradient generally increasing, but relation-ship between them and buried depths is relatively discrete, borehole temperature curves appear as two basic forms. The study has con-sidered that the faulted structures have controlled geothermal field distribution, geothermal anomalous zone spreading direction can re-flect basic outline of regional structures;groundwater dynamic field is weak, its impact on geothermal field is inconspicuous;strata li-thology and buried depth have impacted vertical distribution of geothermal field.%基于黔西补作勘查区32口钻孔的简易测温资料,分析了勘查区浅部地温场的基本特征。研究发现,区内地温梯度在0.98~3.25℃/100m,平均2.07℃/100m,总体上属于正常地温场范畴;平面上变化较大,局部存在低温异常,在垂向上随着孔底深度增大,各钻孔地温梯度总体上趋于增高,但与埋深之间关系相对离散,钻孔温度曲线表现为两种基本形式。研究认为,断层构造控制了地温场的分布,地温异常带的展布方向反映区域构造的基本轮廓;地下水动力场微弱,对地温场影响不甚明显;地层岩性及埋深影响地温场的垂向分布。

  5. Implement PPET Strategy and Develop Ecotourism of Minority Areas in Western China-Take Xinlong County of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province as An Example%实施PPET战略,发展西部民族地区生态旅游

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏桂兰

    2005-01-01

    To help the poor and to develop tourism are two mportant problems in poverty-stricken areas. However,they were isola ted for years. The PPET strategy was put forward in this paper based on PPT. The feasibility and the realistic meaning of the strategy in developing the ecotourism, overcoming poverty, and achieving prosperity of minority areas in western China are analyzed by taking Xinlong county of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province as an example.

  6. 桂西地区产前筛查人群珠蛋白生成障碍性贫血基因型分布%Genotype distribution of population screening for thalassemia prenatal in western area of Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽坤; 韦国凯; 陈湘壬; 黄丽梅; 廖珍艺; 王俊利; 韦贵将

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查桂西地区产前筛查人群珠蛋白生成障碍性贫血(简称地贫)的基因携带率、基因型及其分布特征。方法回顾性分析2012~2013年桂西地区的右江民族医学院附属医院、百色市人民医院、百色市妇幼保健院共三家医院的以产前筛查为目的的育龄人群地贫检查相关数据,包括血常规、血红蛋白电泳、地贫基因检查等。结果收集到1718例(即859对)夫妇的地贫筛查的相关数据,得出育龄人群中地贫基因携带者651例,地贫总发生率为37.90%,其中α‐地贫347例,发生率为20.20%,β‐地贫304例,发生率为17.70%,α‐地贫复合β‐地贫54例,发生率为3.14%。共检出携带有相同α或β‐地贫基因型的高风险夫妇53对,占参检夫妇对数的6.17%。结论桂西地区产前筛查育龄人群地贫基因携带率近40%,其中α‐地贫基因型以αα/‐‐SEA和αα/‐α3.7为主;β‐地贫基因型以β17M/N和β41‐42M/N为主;此数据可为该地区育龄人群的地贫防控提供支持。%Objective To investigate gene carrying rate ,genotype and distribution characteristics of population screening for thalassemia prenatal in western area of Guangxi .Methods Relevant data of population screening for thalassemmia from 2012 to 2013 in Affiliated Hospital of Youjiang Medical University for Nationalities ,People′s Hospital of Baise City and Maternity and Child Care Hospital of Baise City were analyzed retrospectively ,including blood routine examination ,hemoglobin electrophoresis ,thalassemia gene inspection .Results Data of 1 718 cases (859 couples) screening thalassemia were collected ,there were 651 persons carrying thalassemia gene ,the total incidence rate was 37 .90% ,including α‐thalassemia 347 cases (20 .20% ) ,β‐thalassemia 304 cases (17 .70% ) ,α‐thalassemia complex β‐thalassemia 54 cases(3 .14% ) .A total of 53 couples with

  7. The herbicide glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA in the Lavaux vineyard area, western Switzerland: proof of widespread export to surface waters. Part II: the role of infiltration and surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daouk, Silwan; De Alencastro, Luiz F; Pfeifer, Hans-Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Two parcels of the Lavaux vineyard area, western Switzerland, were studied to assess to which extent the widely used herbicide, glyphosate, and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) were retained in the soil or exported to surface waters. They were equipped at their bottom with porous ceramic cups and runoff collectors, which allowed retrieving water samples for the growing seasons 2010 and 2011. The role of slope, soil properties and rainfall regime in their export was examined and the surface runoff/throughflows ratio was determined with a mass balance. Our results revealed elevated glyphosate and AMPA concentrations at 60 and 80 cm depth at parcel bottoms, suggesting their infiltration in the upper parts of the parcels and the presence of preferential flows in the studied parcels. Indeed, the succession of rainy days induced the gradual saturation of the soil porosity, leading to rapid infiltration through macropores, as well as surface runoff formation. Furthermore, the presence of more impervious weathered marls at 100 cm depth induced throughflows, the importance of which in the lateral transport of the herbicide molecules was determined by the slope steepness. Mobility of glyphosate and AMPA into the unsaturated zone was thus likely driven by precipitation regime and soil characteristics, such as slope, porosity structure and layer permeability discrepancy. Important rainfall events (>10 mm/day) were clearly exporting molecules from the soil top layer, as indicated by important concentrations in runoff samples. The mass balance showed that total loss (10-20%) mainly occurred through surface runoff (96%) and, to a minor extent, by throughflows in soils (4%), with subsequent exfiltration to surface waters.

  8. 湘西地区农村留守儿童体格发育状况调查分析%Investigation of Physical Development among Left-behind Children in Rural Areas in Western Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春梅; 杨娜; 张惠娟; 胡蕖; 唐莹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the physical development among left - behind children ( whose parents are working in other areas or provinces ) in rural areas in western hunan province, China, with an attempt to provide evidence for policy - making. Methods The physical development and its influencing factors of 1 527 left - behind children and 738 non - left -behind children in western hunan province were mvestigated from July to Auguts, 2009. These children, aged 3 - 6 years, belonged to Han Nationality and two minority ethnic groups ( Tujia and Miao ). Results The Z scores of age - specific weight and age - specific height showed significantly difference between the left - behind children and non - left - behind children ( both P <0. 01 ). The incidence of low hody weight and growth retardation was 11. 7% among left - behind children and 4. 7% among non - left - behind children ( P <0. 01 ). It was notable that the incidence of low body weight and growth retardation was significantly higher among Miao children than among Han children ( P <0. 01 ) . while so such difference was found between Tujia children and Han children ( P > 0. 05 ). The incidence of low body weight was significantly lower in Tujia children than in Miao children ( P <0. 05 ). The hemoglobin level and prevalence of anemia showed significant differences among children of different ethnic groups ( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion The left - hehind children in western Hunan Province have poorer nutritional status than non - left - behind children. Local health authorities should pay more attention to this population and provide essential guidance and supports.%目的 了解湘西土家族、苗族、汉族3~6岁留守儿童体格发育状况,为促进留守儿童生长发育提供依据.方法 2009年7-8月对湘西地区土家族、苗族、汉族1 527名3~6岁留守儿童(留守组)及738名非留守儿童(非留守组)的体格发育水平及影响因素进行调查,并比

  9. Seafloor Topography and Surface Sediment Characteristics in the Western Sea Area of the Rizhao Port%日照港西部海域海底地形与表层沉积特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江飞; 李安龙; 庄振业

    2016-01-01

    The bathymetric and bottom sediment data are of great significance for port channels,anchorage planning and environmental assessment after the port construction. However,there is a lack of such data for the southward-expanded waters of the Rizhao Port.In order to provide helpful suggestions for the rational layout in the southward-ex-panded waters of the Rizhao Port,bathymetric survey and bottom sediment investiga-tion were carried out in the western 50 km2 waters of the southward-expanded sea area of the Rizhao Port by using single beam echo sounding and clam type sediment sampler. The results show that the western sea area of the Rizhao Port can be divided into four water depth zones,in which the seafloor topography and sediment characteristics can be described as the followings:1)the Channel Zone:the shallow channel zone is about 500 m wide and has a water depth deeper than 1 1 m.The isobathic lines there are parallel to the dock water front and four grades of stepped topography inclining southward are formed.In the dredging center of deep channel the water depth reaches to 24 m and a-round the dredging center the isobathic lines show a semielliptical shape with an opening to the south.At the entrance of the opening the water depth is 23 m.The bottom sedi-ments in this zone are dominated by medium sorted gravelly sand;2)In the Harbor Ba-sin Zone,which includes the nearshore area from the southern Rizhao Port to the ash dam of power plant and is highly concentrated with fishing harbors,the water depth is shallower than 6 m and increases gradually toward the south.The isobathic lines are parallel to the harbor shoreline.The seafloor is even,with a gradient ratio being 3‰. The bottom sediments are dominated by well sorted silt and sandy silt,with small a-mount of poor sorted muddy and sandy gravel occurring in the nearshore area;3)In the Estuary Zone from the Taoluo River to the Futuan River,underwater delta topography is evident.The isobathic lines shallower

  10. The Effect of Indoor Residual Spraying on the Prevalence of Malaria Parasite Infection, Clinical Malaria and Anemia in an Area of Perennial Transmission and Moderate Coverage of Insecticide Treated Nets in Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Gimnig

    Full Text Available Insecticide treated nets (ITNs and indoor residual spraying (IRS have been scaled up for malaria prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are few studies on the benefit of implementing IRS in areas with moderate to high coverage of ITNs. We evaluated the impact of an IRS program on malaria related outcomes in western Kenya, an area of intense perennial malaria transmission and moderate ITN coverage (55-65% use of any net the previous night.The Kenya Division of Malaria Control, with support from the US President's Malaria Initiative, conducted IRS in one lowland endemic district with moderate coverage of ITNs. Surveys were conducted in the IRS district and a neighboring district before IRS, after one round of IRS in July-Sept 2008 and after a second round of IRS in April-May 2009. IRS was conducted with pyrethroid insecticides. At each survey, 30 clusters were selected for sampling and within each cluster, 12 compounds were randomly selected. The primary outcomes measured in all residents of selected compounds included malaria parasitemia, clinical malaria (P. falciparum infection plus history of fever and anemia (Hb<8 of all residents in randomly selected compounds. At each survey round, individuals from the IRS district were matched to those from the non-IRS district using propensity scores and multivariate logistic regression models were constructed based on the matched dataset.At baseline and after one round of IRS, there were no differences between the two districts in the prevalence of malaria parasitemia, clinical malaria or anemia. After two rounds of IRS, the prevalence of malaria parasitemia was 6.4% in the IRS district compared to 16.7% in the comparison district (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.22-0.59, p<0.001. The prevalence of clinical malaria was also lower in the IRS district (1.8% vs. 4.9%, OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.20-0.68, p = 0.001. The prevalence of anemia was lower in the IRS district but only in children under 5 years of age (2

  11. New research results on “La Plaza de Toros” of Cerro de San Pelayo” (Martimor, Salamanca: a tumulus burial with inhumation at the beginning of the Firts Millenium in the Western area of the North Meseta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Jiménez, Óscar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the latest results obtained from the systematic revision of the materials from this unique site. We present here the burial level in its complete context and the first results of the analyses of this assemblage. We have documented in it human bones, elements of fauna possibly associated with a funerary feast, storage pottery and the well-known geometric painted vessel. The results obtained by analysis of the distribution and post-depositional processes are also very interesting, allowing us to recreate the space in which seem to be represented symbolic and prestige elements that indicate important social changes in these societies. All this, together with the calibration of the radiocarbon dates taken from the tumulus, offers a more complete archaeological documentation of this little known area in the South-western of the Northern Meseta.

    En este trabajo pretendemos adelantar los últimos resultados obtenidos de la revisión sistemática realizada sobre los materiales de este yacimiento de características únicas hasta ahora en la región. Avanzamos aquí la presentación del nivel de enterramiento en su contexto completo y los primeros resultados de los análisis de este conjunto. En él documentamos restos humanos, elementos de fauna posiblemente asociados a un banquete funerario, elementos de almacenaje y el ya conocido vaso pintado con decoración geométrica. Los resultados obtenidos por los análisis de dispersión y procesos postdeposicionales son igualmente de gran interés, permitiéndonos recrear ese espacio en el que parecen estar representados elementos simbólicos y de prestigio que indican importantes cambios en las sociedades de aquel momento. Todo ello, unido a la recalibración de las fechas radiocarbónicas del interior del túmulo, ofrece una completa documentación arqueológica de un momento poco conocido en el área sudoccidental de la Meseta Norte.

  12. Long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla at different stages of habituation in Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumil Sak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases pose one of the greatest threats to endangered species, and a risk of gastrointestinal parasite transmission from humans to wildlife has always been considered as a major concern of tourism. Increased anthropogenic impact on primate populations may result in general changes in communities of their parasites, and also in a direct exchange of parasites between humans and primates. AIMS: To evaluate the impact of close contact with humans on the occurrence of potentially zoonotic protists in great apes, we conducted a long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western lowland gorillas at different stages of the habituation process, humans, and other wildlife in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas in the Central African Republic. RESULTS: We detected Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotypes I and II (7.5%, Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype D and three novel genotypes (gorilla 1-3 (4.0%, Giardia intestinalis subgroup A II (2.0% and Cryptosporidium bovis (0.5% in gorillas, whereas in humans we found only G. intestinalis subgroup A II (2.1%. In other wild and domestic animals we recorded E. cuniculi genotypes I and II (2.1%, G. intestinalis assemblage E (0.5% and C. muris TS03 (0.5%. CONCLUSION: Due to the non-specificity of E. cuniculi genotypes we conclude that detection of the exact source of E. cuniculi infection is problematic. As Giardia intestinalis was recorded primarily in gorilla groups with closer human contact, we suggest that human-gorilla transmission has occurred. We call attention to a potentially negative impact of habituation on selected pathogens which might occur as a result of the more frequent presence of humans in the vicinity of both gorillas under habituation and habituated gorillas, rather than as a consequence of the close contact with humans, which might be a more traditional assumption. We encourage to observe the sections concerning hygiene from the IUCN best

  13. 南海西部深水区中新世断控台缘生物礁生长演化%Reef evolution on a fault-controlled Miocene platform margin, western deep water area of South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鸿光; 杜学斌; 陆永潮; 陈平

    2015-01-01

    In the South China Sea, there were favorable conditions for reef development. However, the reef structure was not precisely described due to the lack of high⁃quality seismic data. Geologic and geophysical analy⁃ses were used to study the reefs in the fault⁃controlled margin of the southern uplift of the western deep⁃water area in the South China Sea. The reefs showed hummocky or lenticular shape, and the internal reef crest and reef ditch were observed clearly. Vertically, the reef structure displayed aggradational and progradational characteris⁃tics. There were three types of reef identified according to their growth speed, including slow⁃growth, constant⁃growth and fast⁃growth ones. For the first type, reefs grew slowly and retrograded to continents. For the other two types, reefs grew fast and aggraded vertically. The spatial distribution and growth speed of reefs were controlled by sea level changes, space changes and ancient morphology.%南海具有优良的成礁条件,但受限于资料品质,礁体结构刻画并不精细。借助新获取的高品质3D地震数据,利用地质—地球物理精细刻画技术,对南海西部深水区南部隆起断控台缘型生物礁进行了精细解剖。研究认为,礁体多具独立生长的丘状或透镜状外形,其内部礁脊和礁沟清晰可辨,垂向结构上以加积型和进积型为主。空间上,依据礁体的生长过程可归结为追补型、并进型和快步型3种类型,追补型生物礁生长速率较慢,且向陆退积生长,并进型和快步型生物礁生长速率较快,以垂直加积生长为主。礁体的空间展布形态与生长速度受海平面升降、可容纳空间变化和古地貌形态联合控制。

  14. Social Capital and Income Inequality in Western Rural Areas of China---An Empirical Study Based on Quantile Regression%社会资本与西部农村地区的收入不平等分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程诚; 姚远

    2014-01-01

    21世纪以来,社会资本在反贫困治理中被各界人士寄予厚望。但它到底会扩大还是缩小收入不平等,仍无共识。运用分位数回归发现:家庭社会资本和社区社会资本对我国西部农村地区不平等的影响截然相反。前者对于特困家庭的作用更小,是扩大收入不平等程度的因素。而社区社会资本特别有利于低收入家庭,它的提高会显著降低农村的不平等程度。因此,培育农民自发组织、发展正规专业的社团组织等社会性力量,对缓解贫困、缩小收入差距、维护社会稳定等有重大现实意义。%Most people have paid close attention to the effect of social capital on the governance tactics to anti-poverty since the beginning of the tw enty-first century .But it is still a puzzle w hether social capital could enlarge or reduce income inequality in our society .Based on quantile regression ,this paper finds that family and communi-ty social capital are both important factors to determine income .But they are poles apart to income inequality in Western rural areas of China .Income inequality will increase ,while family social capital is enhanced .Inequality , however ,will depress if community social capital is advanced .This paper consists that supporting social forces , such as self-organizations and mass organizations ,could relieve poverty ,reduce income inequality in rural China . Social capital is a powerful factor to maintain social harmony and stability .

  15. Softwood Cuttings of Cerasus humilis in Agroforestry Area of Western Heilongjiang Province%黑龙江西部农林复合经营区欧李嫩枝扦插试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力刚; 赵岭; 李思雯; 张剑斌; 温宝阳

    2014-01-01

    Cerasus humilis is an important eco-economy small shrub with highly promoted value.In order to promote this species in agroforestry area with more arid climatic conditions of the western Heilongjiang,improve ecological and economic functions in the area of agroforestry,taking different cutting time ,different concentrations of ABT, taking treatments with different leaves as factors,softwood cuttings of Cerasus humilis by adopting orthogonal de-sign were carried out.Result shows that:the effect of the three factors on the formation of callus for Cerasus humi-lis softwood cuttings and their rooting are significant;for the formation of callus,the descending order of the three factors is the treatment with different leaves>cutting time>treatment with ABT powder;for rooting rate,the de-scending order of the three factors is the treatment with different leaves > treatment with ABT powder > cutting time;the optimal treatment is the combination (cuttings with two leaves+200 mg L-1 ABT1 rooting powder+May 30)by which the cutting root rate can reach above 90%.%欧李是一种重要的、极具推广价值的生态经济型小灌木。为了在气候条件较为干旱的黑龙江西部农林复合经营区推广这一树种,提高该区农林复合经营的生态经济功能,以扦插时间、不同浓度生根粉处理、不同带叶情况处理为因素,采用正交试验设计开展了欧李嫩枝扦插试验。结果表明:3个因素对欧李嫩枝扦插愈伤组织的形成、生根的影响都是显著的,其中,对愈伤组织的形成,3个因素影响大小依次为带叶情况>扦插时间>生根粉处理,对于生根率,则是带叶情况>生根粉处理>扦插时间;3个因素最佳处理组合为带2片子的插穗、采用200 mg L-1 ABT1号生根粉浓度处理、5月30日扦插,可使扦插生根率达到90%以上。

  16. Research on Agricultural Information Service System Innovation base on "Big Data” of Urbanization in the Western Minority Areas%西部民族地区城镇化“大数据”农业信息服务体系创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茫

    2015-01-01

    Firstly, this paper analysis the demand of agricultural information service system based on big data of urbanization in the western minority areas. Secondly, this paper discuss the impact of big data agricultural information service system of urbanization in the western minority areas, from data integration, service model, support capabilities, cross-border cooperation and technological innovation in five areas. Finally, the papers proposed strategies Western National Agricultural Information Service System Construction, such as integration of resources, improve standards, train personnel structure and four service platform constructions.%首先,分析西部民族地农业信息服务在大数据和城镇化背景下的需求;其次,从数据集成、服务模式、保障能力、跨界合作和技术革新等五个方面,阐述大数据对西部民族地区农业信息服务的影响;最后,从资源整合、健全标准体系、培养人才结构和建设服务平台等四个方面,提出西部民族地区农业信息服务体系构建的策略。

  17. New way to develop the rural labor force transfer for employment in the western ethnic areas--Taking Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture Sichuan province as an example%拓展西部民族地区农村劳动力转移就业新途径--以四川省甘孜藏族自治州为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简安

    2013-01-01

    The transfer of rural labor employment,coordination of urban and rural economic development,an important way to increase farmers' income,poverty,is an inevitable trend to realize rural modernization,is the important content of the construction of the well-off society.Western ethnic regions with a positive change for the implementation of the western development of rural employment structure,the employment percentage of the primary industry declined,the proportion of employment second,three industry significantly improve.But overall,the employment structure is still not reasonable,difficult employment of surplus labor transfer of agricultural and pastoral areas. Starting from the Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture,Sichuan Province,analysis of the current labor in the western minority areas transfer status and restriction factors of employment,give full play to the advantages of western ethnic areas,establish the way for rural labor employment transfer mode in western ethnic areas,and with all the advanced experience of the proposed effective solution.%  农村劳动力转移就业,是统筹城乡经济发展,增加农民收入、脱贫致富的重要途径,是实现农村现代化的必然趋势,是全面建设小康社会的重要内容。西部民族地区随着西部大开发的实施农村就业结构发生了积极的变化,第一产业就业比重有所下降,第二、三产业就业比重明显提高。但总体来说,就业结构仍然不够合理,农牧区剩余劳动力转移就业困难。从四川省甘孜藏族自治州入手,分析目前西部民族地区劳动力转移就业的现状和制约因素,探索充分发挥西部民族地区优势,建立适合西部民族地区农村劳动力转移就业模式的途径,并结合各地先进经验提出有效的解决途径。

  18. 海南岛西部不同林龄橡胶林土壤养分特征%Soil Nutrient Characteristics of Rubber Plantations at Different Age Stages in Western Area of Hainan Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志祥; 谢贵水; 杨川; 周兆德; 陈帮乾

    2011-01-01

    evaluate the ecological benefits of the plantation and replantation of rubber trees in tropical areas, the nutrient characteristics in rubber plantations at 4 different age stages (2 year prophase of young trees, 7 year tapping young trees, 16 year tapping trees and 30 year mature age trees) in Danzhou zone of western Hainan Island were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) There were highly significant difference of SOM (soil organic matter) content at different age stages rubber plantations, and the content of tapping young trees (7 year) > mature age trees (30 year) > prophase of young trees (2 year) > tapping trees ( 16 year); and with the increase of soil depth on the 4 different age stages rubber plantations, the SOM content decreased gradually; (2) There were significant difference in TN (total nitrogen) concentration at different age stages rubber plantations, and the concentration of tapping young trees (7 year) > prophase of young trees (2 year) > mature age trees (30 year) > tapping trees ( 16 year), and with the increase of soil depth on 4 different age stages rubber plantations, the TN concentration decreased gradually, there was a significant positive relationship between TN and SOM ( R2 ≥ 0. 6543, P <0.001 ); (3) There were highly significant difference in TP (total phosphorus) concentration at different age stages rubber plantations, and all of which were extremely lower than that of the contrastive plots ( Piper nigrum), and the prophase concentration of young trees (2 year) > tapping trees ( 16 year) > mature age trees (30 year) >tapping young trees (7 year); (4) There were highly significant difference in TK (total kalium) concentration at different age stages rubber plantations, and all of which were extremely lower than that of the contrastive plots ( Piper nigrum), and with the increase of the ages of rubber plantations, the TK concentration decreased gradually, the TK concentration of the prophase of young trees (2 years)

  19. Western Food in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    AS the Chinese saying goes, "Ask for local custom when you enter a foreign country." Western food’s first introduction to China in the 17th century was accompanied with its adoption to Chinese dining habits. Western food was introduced into China in large scale during the mid-19th and early 20th centuries. However, as early as the 17th century Western missionaries and envoys were introducing food from their homeland to upper-class Chinese as a means of paying tribute or

  20. Violence the Western way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, B E

    1997-10-01

    Despite the quiet revolution in response to changing conceptualizations of gender in psychoanalysis, the Western has remained the domain of aggressive phallic masculinity. The iconic imagery of the Western, when combined with its narrative trajectory, is used to tell stories of violent encounters between men. The acceptance of the genre, and its duplication by other cultures and film makers, indicates that the Westerns' imagery and moral solutions tap into some basic deep structures of anxiety and pleasure in violence between men. As long as societies require subtle sublimations of aggressive and violent drives, it is likely that men will seek imaginary regressive experiences to discharge frustrations.

  1. Hydrocarbon prospectivity in Western Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maravelis, Angelos; Makrodimitras, George; Zelilidis, Avraam [Patras Univ. (Greece). Lab. of Sedimentology

    2012-06-15

    The geology of Western Greece is dominated by the most external zones of the Hellenide fold-and-thrust belt, namely the Pre-Apulian (or Paxoi) and Ionian zones. With Western Greece and Albania having undergone, in broad terms, similar geological histories, also the hydrocarbon potentials of both areas may be compared. Likewise, the hydrocarbon potential of Italy's Apulian Platform, adjoining in the westerly offshore, may serve as an analogue. Three basin types within Western Greece that deserve hydrocarbon exploration have been examined and are grouped, correlated to major tectonic features, namely foreland (Ionian thrusts' foreland basin), piggy-back (Ionian thrusts' back-arc basin) and strike-slip basins. Additionally, strike-slip basins are further subdivided into the basin north of the Borsh-Khardhiqit strike-slip fault and the Preveza basin, north of Cephalonia transfer fault. Their filling histories suggest the occurrence of Mesozoic carbonate plays and Oligocene/Miocene sandstone plays both for oil and gas.

  2. Western Slope of Andes, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Along the western flank of the Andes, 400 km SE of Lima Peru, erosion has carved the mountain slopes into long, narrow serpentine ridges. The gently-sloping sediments have been turned into a plate of worms wiggling their way downhill to the ocean. The image was acquired September 28, 2004, covers an area of 38 x 31.6 km, and is located near 14.7 degrees south latitude, 74.5 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. Is Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugakumar, Sharanyaa; Playford, Denese; Burkitt, Tessa; Tennant, Marc; Bowles, Tom

    2016-03-31

    Objective Despite public interest in the rural workforce, there are few published data on the geographical distribution of Australia's rural surgeons, their practice skill set, career stage or work-life balance (on-call burden). Similarly, there has not been a peer-reviewed skills audit of rural training opportunities for surgical trainees. The present study undertook this baseline assessment for Western Australia (WA), which has some of the most remote practice areas in Australia.Methods Hospital staff from all WA Country Health Service hospitals with surgical service (20 of 89 rural health services) were contacted by telephone. A total of 18 of 20 provided complete data. The study questionnaire explored hospital and practice locations of practicing rural surgeons, on-call rosters, career stage, practice skill set and the availability of surgical training positions. Data were tabulated in excel and geographic information system geocoded. Descriptive statistics were calculated in Excel.Results Of the seven health regions for rural Western Australia, two (28.6%) were served by resident surgeons at a ratio consistent with Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) guidelines. General surgery was offered in 16 (89%) hospitals. In total, 16 (89%) hospitals were served by fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) surgical services. Two hospitals with resident surgeons did not use FIFO services, but all hospitals without resident surgeons were served by FIFO surgical specialists. The majority of resident surgeons (62.5%) and FIFO surgeons (43.2%) were perceived to be mid-career by hospital staff members. Three hospitals (16.7%) offered all eight of the identified surgical skill sets, but 16 (89%) offered general surgery.Conclusions Relatively few resident rural surgeons are servicing large areas of WA, assisted by the widespread provision of FIFO surgical services. The present audit demonstrates strength in general surgical skills throughout regional WA, and augers well for the training

  4. IN WESTERN SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chizhikov Il'ja Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the field study of the subsidence following the implementation of one of the road building methods. The field study was performed in the area alongside oil and gas field access roads built in the loose marshy ground (peat. The paper provides a description of the geosynthetics installation technology. Outdated road building technologies designated for weak road base conditions feature high consumption of materials and energy and substantial anthropogenic impact on the environment. These technologies comprise complete or partial replacement of the ground by sand, road metal, or macrofragmental material combined with timber as the reinforcing element of the base (a plank road. The objective of the field study was to develop an ecologically safe technology capable of reducing the anthropogenic impact on the environment and improving the strength and the operating safety of the road structure. The field study has proven that the aforementioned objective may be attained through the application of geosynthetic materials designated for the improvement of the bearing capacity of the weak road base. Geosynthetic materials and structures of the road subgrade ensure high speed of construction, high quality and reliability of the road structure, reduction in the consumption of materials and energy to assure the ecological safety of construction of oil and gas field access roads. Earlier, the author used the qualimetry method to assess the ecological safety. This method is used to assess the ecological safety in points. The assessments have proven that the reinforced base technology is preferable to the method of complete or partial replacement of the ground. Projection of the subsistence development pattern that makes it possible to evaluate the safety and the serviceability of the proposed solution is also an important efficiency factor. The field study involved a section of the oil and gas field access road outstretched

  5. The Selection of New-type Urbanization Path in Western Yunnan Border Poor Area--- A Case Study of SuanYuan Village in Shidian County%滇西边境贫困地区新型城镇化发展路径研究--以施甸县蒜园村为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖朝霞

    2016-01-01

    New type of urbanization is the only way to modernization, is the important way to solve the problem of“agriculture, rural areas and farmers”, its essence is the urban and rural areas as a whole, production, intensive economy, ecological livable city interaction, civilized and harmonious of the basic characteristics of the urbanization. Western Yunnan Border Poor Area is Extreme poverty, and is the most concentrated in border county and indigenous minorities destitute areas. New type of urbanization is helpful to promote the development of urban and rural areas as a whole, this have created great opportunities to the development of Western Yunnan Border Poor Area. This paper analyzes the urbanization development present situation of Western Yunnan Border Poor Area, and with SuanYuan village of YaoGuan town, ShiDian county as a case, discuss its development condition, so as to explore the path of the new type of urbanization in minority region along the border, provide a reference for new type of urbanization construction in China.%新型城镇化是现代化的必由之路,是解决“三农”问题的重要途径,其本质是以城乡统筹、产城互动、集约节约、生态宜居、文明和谐为基本特征的城镇化。滇西片区集少数民族地区、边境地区于一体,贫困面广、程度深,是边境县和世居少数民族最多的集中连片特困地区。新型城镇化有利于促进城乡统筹发展,这为滇西边境贫困地区的发展创造了重大机遇。分析了滇西边境贫困地区城镇化的发展现状,并以施甸县姚关镇蒜园村为案例,讨论其发展条件,从而探索边境民族贫困地区新型城镇化的路径,为我国新型城镇化建设提供参考借鉴。

  6. Evaluation of alternatives for the future of facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center. [State and NRC-licensed burial areas; low-level liquid waste treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-01

    Regulatory considerations are discussed. Alternatives for the continued operation or decommissioning of the state-licensed burial area, the low-level waste treatment facilities, and the NRC licensed burial area are evaluated. Radiological impact analyses were also performed for alternatives on other facilities. (DLC)

  7. 西部民族地区中小学数学教师培训的“现状”“问题”及“对策”%Training of Primary and Secondary Mathematical Teachers in the Western Minority Areas:the Present Situation, Problems and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕世虎; 叶蓓蓓

    2013-01-01

    In the new century, China’s western minority areas basic education teacher training base by the attention of both at home and abroad, and training ways to broaden, training number increases year by year, training funds increased, constantly improve the quality of teachers, teachers’ qualifications and improve. However, the survey found that training project had trained teachers of mathematics the most with 5 to 10 years of school age, professional title at intermediate or above;the teacher training opportunity of new or senior professional title teachers were little; mathematics teacher training mainly to lecture method for training;the training content of mathematics teaching aim is not strong in western minority areas;most of the training only pay attention to training activities, lack of effective tracking system, the follow-up tracking form now; training plan and design perspective, lack of training system planning and continuity, training professional design was not strong. There were three problems in training resources, training content and mode, training evaluation mechanism, which about the western minority areas primary and secondary school mathematics teacher training. In western minority areas for primary and secondary school mathematics teachers’ training the present situation and the question, puts forward five countermeasures.%进入新世纪,中国西部民族地区中小学教师培训受到了国内外的重视,培训途径拓宽,培训人数逐年增加,培训资金来源增多,教师素质不断提高,教师的学历也不断得到提升。但是,西部民族地区中小学数学教师培训存在培训资源享用不均衡,培训内容与模式缺乏针对性与创新性,培训的评价机制不健全等问题。改进西部民族地区中小学数学教师培训应采取的对策是:增加投入,平衡资源配置;系统规划培训项目;加强培训机构能力建设;以需为本设计培训课程;形成

  8. With online shopping as the starting point and to promote the development of electronic commerce in the western area%以网购为抓手,促进西部地区电子商务发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈坤华; 陈忠余

    2014-01-01

    我国电子商务发展极不平衡,网购的自身特点决定了网购成为西部地区电子商务发展的重要抓手,以网购为抓手四步推动电子商务发展。%The development of e-commerce in China is extremely uneven,due to the characteristics of online shopping online shopping has become an important starting point of the western region development of e-commerce,online shopping as the starting point to the four step to promote the development of electronic commerce.

  9. Positive Psychological Capital:The Origin of Teachers as Human Resource Stability in Western Rural Areas%积极心理资本:西部农村教师资源稳定的本源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关荐; 王平

    2015-01-01

    教师资源配置不平衡、教师队伍不稳定制约着西部农村教育的发展。积极心理资本从教师的自我效能、希望、乐观和韧性四个方面的改善和提高来阐释西部农村教师队伍稳定的内部驱力。%Allocation imbalance of teachers ’ resource and the instability of teachers ’ team have been restricting the development of the western rural education .From the teacher’s self-efficacy,hope,optimism and toughness etc., positive psychological capital explains the stability of rural teachers ’ resource , which is considered as the internal driving force .

  10. How Western Does Business: An Explanation of Western's Products and Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-01

    The mission of the Western Area Power Administration is to market and deliver reliable, renewable, cost-based hydroelectric power and related services. This guide provides an overview of Western’s history and how Western carries out that mission and provides electrical, transmission and ancillary services. It also discusses how we develop plans for marketing our most valuable resources—long-term firm capacity and energy.

  11. Area of aquifer contours enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  12. Vertical Electrical Sounding Investigation for Delineation of Geoelectric Layers and Evaluation of Groundwater Potential in Ajagba, Asa and Ikonifin Localities of Ola Oluwa Local Government Area of Osun State, South Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Onimisi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES surveys were carried out at Ajagba, Asa and Ikonifin communities in the north of Ola Oluwa local government area of Osun state, Nigeria in order to delineate the geoelectric layers in the area as well as evaluate the groundwater potential. The area is in the basement complex terrain of Nigeria where the occurrence of groundwater is highly unpredictable and hence requires the use of hydrologic, geophysical and geologic surveys to achieve success in groundwater development programs. The survey delineated a maximum of four geoelectric layers which may be interpreted to correspond to four geologic layers viz the topsoil, weathered basement, partly weathered/fractured basement and the fresh basement. The weathered basement and the partly weathered/fractured basement layers constitute the aquifer units. The partly weathered/fractured layer is significant in enhancing the ground water potential in this area because of its relatively low resistivity resulting from its high fracture frequency. The ground water potential in the area varies from medium to high. Groundwater development is therefore feasible in these communities.

  13. Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Seishiro

    2012-01-01

    Electrophoresis and the following western blot analysis are indispensable to investigate biochemical changes in cells and tissues exposed to nanoparticles or nanomaterials. Proteins should be extracted from the cells and tissues using a proper method, especially when phosphorylated proteins are to be detected. It is important to select a good blocking agent and an appropriate pair of primary and peroxidase-tagged secondary antibodies to obtain good results in western blot analysis. One thing that may be specific to nanomaterials, and that you should keep in mind, is that some proteins may be adsorbed on the surface of particulate nanomaterials. In this chapter the whole process of western blot analysis, from sample preparation to quantitative measurement of target proteins, is described.

  14. Rings dominate western Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal L., Francisco V.; Vidal L., Victor M. V.; Molero, José María Pérez

    Surface and deep circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico is controlled by interactions of rings of water pinched from the gulf's Loop Current. The discovery was made by Mexican oceanographers who are preparing a full-color, 8-volume oceanographic atlas of the gulf.Anticyclonic warm-core rings pinch off the Loop Current at a rate of about one to two per year, the scientists of the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas (GEO-IIE) found. The rings migrate west until they collide with the continental shelf break of the western gulf, almost always between 22° and 23°N latitude. On their westward travel they transfer angular momentum and vorticity to the surrounding water, generating cyclonic circulations and vortex pairs that completely dominate the entire surface and deep circulation of the central and western gulf.

  15. The Analysis of the Status Quo of and Approaches to Specially Contracted Teachers' Professional Development in Western Rural Areas%西部农村特岗教师专业发展的现状及途径探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴洪亮; 罗利群

    2012-01-01

    Based on teachers' professional development theory and integrating the particularities of western rural education,the paper probes into the status quo of specially contracted teachers' professional development in four aspects: the establishment of teachers' professional ideals,the expansion of professional knowledge,the development of professional skills and the formation of professional self and then proposes the developing approaches: preliminary preparations for teaching education,the pre-and on-the-job and self-education.%在教师专业发展理论基础上,结合西部农村教育的特殊性,从特岗教师专业理想的建立、专业知识的拓展、专业能力的发展、专业自我的形成四方面探析其专业发展的现状,进而提出了发展途径:师范教育的前期准备,特岗教师的入职和在职培训,特岗教师的自我教育。

  16. Russian Olive Biology, Invasion, and Ecological Impacts in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    plantings to become naturalized in riparian areas in much of western North America. In a study of 475 stream gauge sites distributed throughout the western...the cottonwood canopy on three rivers in eastern Montana. Water requirements. Although Russian olive tends to occur in wet areas of western...and Texas , northward to the southern Canadian provinces, and from eastern California, Oregon and Washington eastward through all western and mid

  17. Allegheny County Land Use Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Allegheny County land use as ascribed to areas of land. The Land Use Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled information concerning vegetation and...

  18. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  19. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description...

  20. Allegheny County Wooded Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates stands of trees (coniferous and deciduous) too numerous to plot as individual trees. The area is delineated following a generalized line...

  1. Allegheny County Land Use Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Allegheny County land use as ascribed to areas of land. The Land Use Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled information concerning vegetation and...

  2. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  3. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...

  4. Allegheny County Environmental Justice Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Environmental Justice areas in this guide have been defined by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. The Department defines an environmental...

  5. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...

  6. Allegheny County Wooded Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates stands of trees (coniferous and deciduous) too numerous to plot as individual trees. The area is delineated following a generalized line...

  7. Evaluation of the seasonal and annual abortifacient risk of western juniper trees on Oregon rangelands: Abortion risk of western juniper trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western juniper trees can cause late term abortions in cattle, similar to ponderosa pine trees. Analyses of western juniper trees from 35 locations across the state of Oregon suggest that western juniper trees in all areas present an abortion risk in pregnant cattle. Results from this study demonstr...

  8. 2009年中国西部6省区贫困农村5岁以下儿童贫血状况分析%Status of anemia among children under 5 years of age in the economically less developed rural areas from the 6 western provinces of China, in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继国; 张兵; 杜文雯; 苏畅; 刘爱东; 张伋; 马玉霞; 翟凤英

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析2009年中国西部6省区贫困农村5岁以下儿童贫血状况。方法利用国家科技支撑项目“贫困农村地区儿童营养缺乏改善适宜技术的研究”中8141名5岁以下儿童测定血红蛋白的资料。应用SAS软件进行统计分析。结果2009年中国西部6省区贫困农村5岁以下儿童贫血患病率为24.1%。男童贫血患病率高于女童。6~11月龄儿童的患病率最高(38.5%),以后贫血患病率随着儿童月龄的增加而下降。结论 中国西部贫困农村儿童贫血属于中等程度公共卫生问题。在加强合理喂养的宣传教育同时,应提供辅食营养补充品(营养包),降低贫血患病率。%Objective To analyze the status of anemia among children under 5 years of age in the economically less developed rural areas from 6 western provinces of China in 2009. Methods 8141 study subjects were from the program-‘Study on Appropriate Technology of Children Under-nutrition Improvement in Poor Rural Areas'. Results In 2009, the prevalence of anemia among children under 5 years of age in the above said rural areas from 6 western provinces was 24.1%. The prevalence of anemia among male children was much higher than that among female children. The peak of anemia prevalence( 38.5% ) was among children of 6-11 months. The prevalence of anemia decreased along with the increase of age. Conclusion Results from the study demonstrated that anemia among the preschool children was a public health problem in poor rural areas of western China, Improving the knowledge on reasonable feeding seemed a better way for the prevention and control of anemia plus providing complementary nutrients sprinkle to the affected children.

  9. The University Libraries in Western Areas Optimize Network Information Consultancy Service Research%西部地区高校图书馆网络信息咨询服务优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    候立杰

    2016-01-01

    网络信息咨询服务自发展以来,以其便捷性、实时性、灵活性等特点受到广大师生、读者的好评。然而面对东西部高校图书馆服务水平和服务意识的差距,西部地区高校图书馆网络信息咨询服务仍存在馆藏数字化资源不足、信息咨询平台建设不够完善、缺乏高水平信息咨询服务人员等问题。图书馆应采取健全图书馆数字资源建设、提高信息咨询馆员业务水平、吸引优秀人才等有效措施,逐渐缩短与东部地区高校图书馆的差距,优化服务水平,提高服务能力。%With the development of network information consultant service, its characteristics such as convenience, instantaneity, flexibility, praised by the great majority of readers.But in front of the university library service level and service consciousness betweenthe libraries of the east and west region. The western region of university library network information consultancy service still exist lots of matters, such as collection of digital resources, imperfect information platform construction, the lack of high level information consulting services. Should be taken to improve the library digital resource construction, improve the level of business information consultancy librarians, effective measures such as attracting talent, and gradually shorten the gap with the eastern region of university library, and optimizing the service level, improve the service ability.

  10. The western blot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western blotting is a technique that involves the separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis, their blotting or transfer to a membrane, and selective immunodetection of an immobilized antigen. This is an important and routine method for protein analysis that depends on the specificity of antibod...

  11. China's Western Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU SHUJUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ "Western Development" has become a buzzword in China over the past decade. It has appeared almost everywhere: in government docu-ments, media reports and even ordinary people's conversations. It has become a national campaign in the new century, with a wide variety of resources--human, financial and material-- flowing to the westem part of the country.

  12. 人力资本视阈下西部农村地区自我发展能力的提升%Countermeasures on Elevating Serf-development Ability of Western Rural Areas on the Basis of Visual Threshold of Human Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝红星

    2011-01-01

    强调了人力资本对于农村自我发展能力提升的重要意义,人力资本投资时西部农村地区的经济增长贡献将越来越大,对西部农村地区显著加快经济社会发展具有不可替代的作用.分析了当前西部农村地区人力资源开发的特征:就业结构单一;人力资源结构不合理;人力资源总量不足伴随着闲置现象严重;人力资源流失严重;人才"投入-产出"双低.指出了提升西部农村地区自我发展能力的根本途径:认真落实和贯彻,尽快制定出台详细具体的立足西部农村地区实际的配套政策;加快发展西部农村地区的教育事业,制定缩小知识差距的发展战略;建立比较完善的农村人力资源开发体系,加大返乡农民工的培训力度;按需适时调整人力投资结构.显著提高人力资本投资强度.%The thesis underscores the significant role of human capital in elevating rural self-development ability. The investment of human capital is making great contribution to western rural economic growth, and it plays an irreplaceable role in promoting the socio-economic development prominently. The characteristics of human resources development in western rural areas for the moment are analyzed as follows: the employment structure is simple; the structure of human resources is irrational; the shortage of human resources aggregate is accompanied by the critical phenomenon of idling; the human resources drain badly; there is low input and low output of talents. The thesis also propounds the fundamental approaches in order to elevating solf-development ability of western rural areas: we should practise and implement National Medium and Long-term Planning of Talents Development and lay down as soon as possible the detailed matching policies and measures based on the reality of western rural areas; we should develop the education in western rural areas vigorously, and formulate the developmental strategies of bridging

  13. Ecological functions of rainwater storage in hilly area of western Henan Province%豫西山丘区雨水集蓄利用的生态功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈维杰

    2011-01-01

    以多维利用雨水资源为目的,针对研究区坡面、沟道等不同的自然地貌条件,研究建立主动利用和被动利用雨水资源的两种开发模式,并通过示范区试验,初步实现人工有限干预水文循环的效果:改善灌溉条件,改良土壤成分,提高粮食单产;促进产业结构调整,稳定农业效益;调控坡面与沟道径流,减少水土流失.%For the puipose of multiple utilizations of rainwater resources, this paper puts forward two development modes of the active utilization and passive utilization of rainwater resources, based on the natural geomorphic conditions of slopes and ditches in the study area. Through experiments in the demonstration area, the following effects of limited manual intervention on the hydrological cycle were preliminarily achieved: improvement in the irrigation conditions, improvement in the soil constituents, increase of the crop yield per unit area, promotion of the industrial structure adjustment, stabilization of the agricultural benefits, regulation of runoff along the slopes and in the ditches, and decrease of soil and water losses.

  14. Western Alaska ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for airports, mining sites, area boundaries, and scenic rivers in Western Alaska. Vector points and lines in this...

  15. Western Monarch and Milkweed Habitat Suitability Modeling Project- Final Presentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To better understand the distribution of key breeding areas for the declining western population of monarch butterflies, the USFWS, in collaboration with the Xerces...

  16. Appropriate targeting of artemisinin-based combination therapy by community health workers using malaria rapid diagnostic tests: findings from randomized trials in two contrasting areas of high and low malaria transmission in south-western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal; Lal, Sham; Hansen, Kristian; Clarke, Siân E

    2016-09-01

    To compare the impact of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs), used by community health workers (CHWs), on the proportion of children <5 years of age receiving appropriately targeted treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), vs. presumptive treatment. Cluster-randomized trials were conducted in two contrasting areas of moderate-to-high and low malaria transmission in rural Uganda. Each trial examined the effectiveness of mRDTs in the management of malaria and targeting of ACTs by CHWs comparing two diagnostic approaches: (i) presumptive clinical diagnosis of malaria [control arm] and (ii) confirmatory diagnosis with mRDTs followed by ACT treatment for positive patients [intervention arm], with village as the unit of randomisation. Treatment decisions by CHWs were validated by microscopy on a reference blood slide collected at the time of consultation, to compare the proportion of children <5 years receiving appropriately targeted ACT treatment, defined as patients with microscopically-confirmed presence of parasites in a peripheral blood smear receiving artemether-lumefantrine or rectal artesunate, and patients with no malaria parasites not given ACT. In the moderate-to-high transmission area, ACT treatment was appropriately targeted in 79.3% (520/656) of children seen by CHWs using mRDTs to diagnose malaria, vs. 30.8% (215/699) of children seen by CHWs using presumptive diagnosis (P < 0.001). In the low transmission area, 90.1% (363/403) children seen by CHWs using mRDTs received appropriately targeted ACT treatment vs. 7.8% (64/817) seen by CHWs using presumptive diagnosis (P < 0.001). Low mRDT sensitivity in children with low-density parasitaemia (<200 parasites/μl) was identified as a potential concern. When equipped with mRDTs, ACT treatments delivered by CHWs are more accurately targeted to children with malaria parasites. mRDT use could play an important role in reducing overdiagnosis of malaria and improving fever case management within

  17. Financial system development progress in Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emira Kozarević

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial system supports economic growth, while its regulatory framework provides stability for investors. Develo-ping countries with bank-oriented financial systems are not attractive to investors, so prolonged status quo leads to economic deterioration. This is particularly the case with some of the most underdeveloped areas in Europe: Western Balkans. It is essential the developing countries in this region consider steps towards financial liberalization, which will help open the borders for capital flows and attract new investments. The main goal of this paper is to review and present the available information related to the banking system development in Western Balkans in terms of ownership structure, capital adequacy, loan and asset performance, return on investment and liquidity. These indicators should provide a clearer picture of the current financial systems in Western Balkans economies and their development progress – useful for comparison with other developing regions and financial transformation and liberalization efforts.

  18. Research of Protecting Minorities' Traditional Cultures in Hydropower Construction at The Western Minorities Areas Take Ymman for Example%西部民族地区水电建设中的民族传统文化保护研究——以云南为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡德斌; 张林洪; 张云平

    2012-01-01

    The article offers a proposal of protection principle of "classified and stratified " in minorities traditional culture protection, scientific overall planning, strengthen the relative legislation work, practice the relative ethical responsibility through making an investigation of some problems in protecting minorities'traditional culture in hydropower construction at Yunnan minorities area. It emphasizes the significance of hydropower development in the western minorities areas, protecting minorities'excellent traditional cultures, diminishing the gap with the eastern coastal areas, and promoting the sustainable development of minorities areas.%强调开发西部民族地区水电,保护民族优秀传统文化,缩小与东部沿海地区的发展差距,促进民族地区可持续发展具有重大意义。通过调查研究云南民族地区水电建设中的民族传统文化保护存在的一些问题,提出了对民族传统文化保护“分类分层”的保护原则、科学整体规划、加强相关立法工作、践行相关伦理责任等对策建议。

  19. Tensor controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric survey over the Sulphur Springs Thermal area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico, U.S.A.; Implication for structure of the western Caldera and for CSAMT methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wannamaker, P.E.

    1994-06-01

    We have carried Out an extensive tensor CSAMT survey of the Sulphur Springs geothermal area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico. This survey, consisting of 45 high-quality sites, has been acquired by in support of Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) drillholes VC-2A and VC-2B. Two independent transmitter dipoles were energized for tensor measurements using a 30 kW generator placed approximately 13 km south of the VC-2B wellhead. The soundings in the Sulphur Springs area were arranged in four profiles to cross major structural features. The electric bipoles parallel to each profile were deployed contiguously to ensure against spatial aliasing of the impedance response corresponding to current flow across structural trends. The frequency range of acquisition was 4096 Hz down to 1 Hz for the central line, but only down to 4 Hz for most sites of the other lines. Data quality is high overall and is established by repeatability of measurements. Agreement between the CSAMT and available natural field MT data is very good over almost all the period range of overlap indicating that we are free of calibration problems and that far-field results are generally being obtained. Non plane-wave effects in the CSAMT around Sulphur Springs are apparent at 1 to 2 Hz, and perhaps slightly even at 4 Hz, however, which is near the bottom of our frequency range. CSAMT and MT data taken outside the Valles Caldera to the west were modeled in an attempt to compare resistivity structure exterior to the caldera to that within. With the availability of tensor CSAMT and MT data both inside and outside Valles Caldera, assumptions and methods of CSAMT are tested. In the Sulphur Springs area, near-coincident CSAMT and MT data near well VC -2B indicate that non-lane-wave effects in the apparent resistivity and impedance phase occure at a frequency near to that predicted from the resistivity structure local to the wester caldera.

  20. Local seismic response studies in the north-western portion of the August 24th, 2016 Mw 6.0 earthquake affected area. The case of Visso village (central Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Gaudiosi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate the possible causes of the differential damaging observed in Visso village (central Apennines, about 28 km north from the August 24th, 2016 Mw 6.0 earthquake epicenter. Following insights from the available geological cartography at 1:10.000 scale, a preliminary geophysical survey has been performed in the damaged area in order to constrain geometries and extent of the subsoil lithotypes. Then, these results have been used to retrieve a Vs profile close to the most heavily damaged buildings. This latter has been used as input for a numerical analysis aimed at deriving the motion at the ground level in the study area. In particular, a linear equivalent simulation has been performed by means of EERA code and the waveform has been obtained convolving the time history recorded during the August 24th, 2016 mainshock at Spoleto Monteluco (SPM site. Our preliminary results indicate a possible correlation of damaging to the thickness and shape of the geological units. Nevertheless, further analyses are necessary to highlight any 2D basin and / non - linear soil behaviour effects in order to compare them to the intrinsic buildings vulnerability, according to the EMS98 guidelines.

  1. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data from Miocene ignimbrites in the Goldfield, Gold Point, and Beatty areas, western Great Basin, and their bearing on ignimbrite emplacement mechanisms during concurrent tectonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitter, T.; Geissman, J. W.; Jackson, J.

    2012-12-01

    As part of an ongoing and multifaceted project to better understand the history of Neogene right-lateral displacement transfer system in the southernmost Walker Lane area, we have collected paleomagnetic and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data from outflow facies of regionally extensive mid-Miocene ignimbrites that originated from the Timber Mountain caldera complex and the upper Miocene Tuff of Slate Ridge, whose source remains less clear. With an area that extends from north Goldfield to west of Beatty, Nevada, we have obtained data from 277 sites, with 8 to 20 independent samples collected as drilled cores from each site. Most of our sampling is concentrated in the Slate Ridge to Gold Mountain areas, south of Gold Point, where these Miocene volcanic rocks have been deformed during the development of a regional, NNW-dipping detachment system. Preliminary AMS results for sites in the Tuff of Slate Ridge east of Gold Point show well imbricated fabrics, which, after correction for the orientation of compaction fabrics considered to represent the paleohorizontal, yield a general transport direction to the northwest (e.g., site GP211, with K3 trend of 313.0° and plunge of 61.4° (confidence angles (CA) = 9.9/5.7) and a source direction (K1 trend) of 129.2° and plunge of 28.6° (CA = 40.9/5.7, based on n=12 specimens). An average of data from seven sites in the Tuff of Slate Ridge in this area (n = 104) specimens yields a similar estimated transport direction of ~ 338° and a K1 trend to the origin of ~146°. Average bulk susceptibility (Km) from these seven sites is 5.03E-03 (SI volume units) and a degree of anisotropy (Pj) of 1.013. Most sites in the Timber Mountain sequence show well-imbricated fabrics (e.g., site GP02, yields an estimated transport direction of 9.5° and plunge of 82.4° (CA = 4.1/3.3) and a direction to the source of 145.9° and plunge of 5.5° (CA = 19.6/4.1, n=40 specimens). An average of data from four sites southeast of Gold

  2. Long-term evolution of the western South Atlantic passive continental margin in a key area of SE Brazil revealed by thermokinematic numerical modeling using the software code Pecube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stippich, Christian; Krob, Florian; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Hackspacher, Peter C.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the research is to quantify the long-term evolution of the western South Atlantic passive continental margin (SAPCM) in SE-Brazil. Excellent onshore outcrop conditions and extensive pre-rift to post-rift archives between São Paulo and Laguna allow a high precision quantification of exhumation, and rock uplift rates, influencing physical parameters, long-term acting forces, and process-response systems. Research will integrate published1 and partly published thermochronological data from Brazil, and test lately published new concepts on causes of long-term landscape and lithospheric evolution in southern Brazil. Six distinct lithospheric blocks (Laguna, Florianópolis, Curitiba, Ilha Comprida, Peruibe and Santos), which are separated by fracture zones1 are characterized by individual thermochronological age spectra. Furthermore, the thermal evolution derived by numerical modeling indicates variable post-rift exhumation histories of these blocks. In this context, we will provide information on the causes for the complex exhumation history of the Florianópolis, and adjacent blocks. The climate-continental margin-mantle coupled process-response system is caused by the interaction between endogenous and exogenous forces, which are related to the mantle-process driven rift - drift - passive continental margin evolution of the South Atlantic, and the climate change since the Early/Late Cretaceous climate maximum. Special emphasis will be given to the influence of long-living transform faults such as the Florianopolis Fracture Zone (FFZ) on the long-term topography evolution of the SAPCM's. A long-term landscape evolution model with process rates will be achieved by thermo-kinematic 3-D modeling (software code PECUBE2,3 and FastScape4). Testing model solutions obtained for a multidimensional parameter space against the real thermochronological and geomorphological data set, the most likely combinations of parameter rates, and values can be constrained. The

  3. Communicating with Westerners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah; Callicott

    2007-01-01

    <正>The majority response from my students when asked "what do you want to learn from my class?" is "How do I communicate better with westerners?" My students also have other questions such as "How do I improve my oral English?" and "How is America different from China?" These questions can be answered in many different ways, but hopefully I will give you a couple of ideas to get you started.

  4. History of the Wildlife Areas Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge, Oak Orchard Wildlife Management Area, Tonawanda Wildlife Management Area, John White Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides a history of four management areas in Western New York: Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge, Oak Orchard Management Area, Tonawanda Wildlife...

  5. Study of Crime Related to Protected Wildlife in Border Areas of Western Yunnan%滇西边境地区涉案野生动物资源调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高陞; 马建章; 王慷林

    2012-01-01

    Our study area covered the Yunan border area,extending more than 1 100 km in Nujiang,Baoshan,and Dehong Prefectures.This area is the entry point of " Stilwell Road" which is an important international passageway and one location where wildlife and wildlife products were traded illegally.This border area has become one of the main locations where law - enforcement departments combat smuggling,illegal purchase,and and illegal transportation and sale of wildlife and their products. We analyzed 168 cases related to wildlife crime(excluding confidential cases) that involved 64 species of wildlife and 382 incidents of criminal cases involving wildlife from 2005 to 2011.We conclude that:(1) the demand in high - value food markets stimulated the criminal activities that destroy wildlife resources;(2) wildlife species that live in herds and escape slowly, are most vulnerable to hunting;(3) the frequency of crimes involving second level national protected wildlife is higher than that for other species;(4) crimes involving wildlife resources generate huge profits,are carried out by organized crime networks, and criminals have established hierarchies for "relay" of contraband,and the participants are secretive and skilled at avoiding detection.To effectively protect wildlife resources,we offer recommendations as follows:strengthen professional and technical training;enhance the crime - fighting authority of forestry police;carry out joint operations involving many different agencies of the law enforcement sector to strengthen operational capacity;and collaborate with law enforcement agencies across the border.%云南省西部的怒江州、保山市和德宏州1 121 km的边境地区,是重要的国际大通道"史迪威公路"的入境点,也是非法贸易野生动物及其制品的主要入境点之一,更是打击走私、非法收购、运输、出售野生动物及其制品的主战场之一。调查研究了该边境地区2005~2011

  6. Utilization and Construction Research on Information Infrastructure in Rural Area of Western Guangdong%粤西农村信息基础设施建设及利用情况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璐璐

    2012-01-01

    通过调查农村信息基础设施的建设现状,结合实地调研农民对信息基础设施的利用情况,对制约农民利用信息基础设施的原因进行分析,给出提高农村信息基础设施利用率的建议.%Based on current investigation of rural area information infrastructure construction, the paper, related with the The paper put foe ward infrastructure utilization status, analyzed the reasons why the infrastructure utilizations development was restricted, and the relevant recommendations to those problems.

  7. The River Mondego terraces at the Figueira da Foz coastal area (western central Portugal): Geomorphological and sedimentological characterization of a terrace staircase affected by differential uplift and glacio-eustasy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Anabela M.; Cunha, Pedro P.; Cunha, Lúcio. S.

    2012-01-01

    A geomorphological and sedimentological characterization of the River Mondego terraces in the Figueira da Foz coastal area, Portugal, is presented. The relief is dominated by a Pliocene a marine sandy unit ~ 10–15 m thick, reaching ~ 250 m a.s.l., that covers a shore platform surface. The River.......004–0.055 m/ka for the last 3.6 Ma, but 0.017–0.118 m/ka for the last ~ 1.8 Ma (using as references, respectively, the base and the surface of the uppermost sedimentary unit). The facies associations that characterize the older terrace deposits (T1 and T2) consist of poorly sorted fluvial sandy...... and MIS2). Some sandy colluvium deposits on the slopes are probably related with mild-cold and wet climate conditions during the period 60 to 32 ka. The aeolian dunes are younger (cold to temperate dry conditions; MIS2 and MIS1)....

  8. An Estimation of Potentials for the Hatchobaru Geothermal Area, Northern Kyushu, Japan and Geo-Electrical Indications at the Otake Geothermal Field in the Western Part of the Kujyu Volcano Group, Kyushu, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, S.

    1974-01-01

    In the estimation of the output in kW/h produced by the geothermal power generation, it is required to know the well characteristics, the heat cycle in the power plant, the output characteristics and the efficiency. Of these three in the latter are seemed to be constant in the present power plant, while only the well characteristics varies in the wide range. One of great importance in the measurement of well characteristics is the determination of the steam flow rate from a well at a given well head pressure. it is, at present, well-known that the corresponding output in kW based on the steam flow rate is defined as the potential for the geothermal area involved. Specifically, in the case of hydrothermal systems the separate system must be equipped in order to know the steam flow rate.

  9. Role of methylmercury exposure (from fish consumption) on growth and neurodevelopment of children under 5 years of age living in a transitioning (tin-mining) area of the western Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rejane C; Dórea, José G; Leão, Renata S; Dos Santos, Verusca G; Bueno, Lucélia; Marques, Rayson C; Brandão, Katiane G; Palermo, Elisabete F A; Guimarães, Jean Remy D

    2012-02-01

    Human occupation of the Amazon region has recently increased, bringing deforestation for agriculture and open-cast mining, activities that cause environmental degradation and pollution. Families of new settlers in mining areas might have a diet less dependent on abundant fish and their children might also be impacted by exposures to mining environments. Therefore, there is compounded interest in assessing young children's nutritional status and neurobehavioral development with regard to family fish consumption. Anthropometric (z-scores, WHO standards) and neurologic [Gesell developmental scores (GDS)] development in 688 preschool children (1-59 months of age) was studied. Overall, the prevalence of malnutrition [i.e., moderate stunting (≤2 H/A-Z), underweight (≤2 W/A-Z), and wasting (≤2 W/H-Z) were respectively 0.3% (n = 2), 1.6% (n = 11), and 2.5% (n = 17). Children's mean hair Hg (HHg) concentration was 2.56 μg/g (SD = 1.67); only 14% of children had HHg concentrations lower than 1 μg/g and 1.7% had ≥5 μg/g. The biomarker of fish consumption was weakly but positively correlated with GDS (Spearman r = 0.080; p = 0.035). In the bivariate model, attained W/H-Z scores were not significantly correlated with GDS. A moderate level of GDS deficits (70-84%) was seen in 20% of children. There was significant correlation between family fish consumption and children's hair Hg (HHg) (Spearman r = 0.1756; p neurodevelopment. Health hazards attendant on a high prevalence of moderate neurodevelopment delays coexisting with exposure to multiple neurotoxic substances merits further investigation in poor environmental settings of tin-mining areas.

  10. Suitability Evaluation of Fruit Trees in Beijing Western Mountain Areas Based on DEM and GIS%基于GIS和DEM的北京西部山区经济林果适宜性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 孙丹峰; 张凤荣; 周连第

    2002-01-01

    Under leading of the WTO market regulations, the reasonable exploration and sustainability utilization of Beijing mountainous resources were very vital to the mountain areas and the whole development of Beijing. Because of the varied topography of mountain areas, it was important to quantify and imitate the spatial heterogeneity of ecological factors in Beijing mountain areas. In this paper, 1∶50 000 scale DEM (digital elevation model) was built. Then the evaluation factors of slope, aspect etc were derived from DEM through the surface analysis function of Arcview software. Through the meteorological point data of this area, the sunshine duration, average yearly temperature and precipitation were modeled through DEM for the whole region. The results supplied the basic quantified ecological factors for fruit trees suitability evaluation, habitat simulation etc. On the other hand, with the help of the digital soil types map, soil texture map, soil depth map, soil pH map, geological type map of this area, the fuzzy sum method was used to evaluate the suitability ratings of fruit trees in this area through GIS. Seven fruit tree varieties with large market potential in Mentougou District were evaluated by this model. The acreage of these fruit trees except cherry was more than one thousand or even ten thousand hectares. On the basis of the actual land-use data from remote sensing classification, compare the results with the current distribution of fruit trees, the shortcomings of the current distribution of fruit trees and potential of future development were analyzed, and then 参考文献 to the readjustment of current agricultural structure was supplied.%山区地形多变,造成了自然资源立体差异显著,如何定量表示各种农业资源在山区的具体分布状况和建立土地评价模型,是山区资源开发利用和农业结构调整所需要的.该文利用数字高程模型,建立山区日照的地形遮蔽分析模型,在此基础上可进行

  11. Structure of the Kasbah fold zone (Agadir bay, Morocco. Implications on the chronology of the recent tectonics of the western High Atlas and on the seismic hazard of the Agadir area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaka, F.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Detailed re-interpretation of the north-eastern segment of a profile realized across the Agadir bay along a NE-SW trend and crosscutting the main structures, together with analysis of available isochron maps, allowed us to retrace the geological history of the offshore western High Atlas. Two tectonostratigraphic sequences were distinguished: Unit II, which displays a simple structure, laying unconformably on Unit I, with a more complex structure dominated by a reverse fault (F1 striking E-W with a dip to the north. Correlation to boreholes Souss-1 and AGM-1 allowed us to assign Unit I to the Triassic – Palaeogene and Unit II to the Miocene – Present. The NE fault block shows a ramp-flat fault plane (F2 with an overlying SW-vergent fold that can be interpreted as a fault-bend fold. Three main stages were distinguished: (1 during the Cretaceous, F1 could have been a syndepositional normal fault with the NE block moving downwards; (2 towards the beginning of the Tertiary, the displacement of plane F2 induced the development of a fault-bend fold and erosion of the forelimb and hinge of the fold; displacement along F2 was transferred to fault F1; (3 afterwards, during the Miocene, reverse motion of F1 deformed and tilted the plane F2 and accentuated the folded structure. This evolution is typical for a frontal basin above a fault-related fold. Evaluation of the thickness and bed depth differences shows that the largest growth rate was recorded in Late Miocene times. Seismic activity recorded in the Agadir bay appears to be clearly related to this fault zone, as inferred from focal mechanisms. Seismic moment evaluation suggests that earthquakes of magnitude Mw≥6 are likely to occur, but could not be much larger because of the fault segmentation geometry of the High Atlas Front.

    A partir de una detallada reinterpretación del segmento nororiental de un perfil que corta las principales estructuras de la bahía de Agadir a lo largo de una

  12. The Choice of the Western Rural Pension in the View of Urbanization---Take Shaanxi Rural Area for Example%城镇化视域下西部农村养老路径选择--以陕西关中农村为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵银侠

    2013-01-01

    In the process of urbanization, rural labor force in western area moves to the towns in large scales, which intensifies the western aging problems, “hollowing-out”in rural areas and the trend of “empty nest”. Meanwhile, some of the rural elderly are caught in no caring. Therefore, measures should be carried out to solve the problem. The rural pension issue should be considered under the strategic framework of new urbanization;to develop western small towns;strengthen construction of infrastructure and development of real estate; to establish sound public pension service system in small towns; innovate land circulation and social security system; encourage the rural elderly to move to small towns. In conclusion, a new way of pension would be created by developing small towns in large scales and efficient public service system. The rural pension issue would be resolved by the combination of existing pension system and new“small towns”pension system.%  城镇化进程中,我国西部农村青壮年劳动力大规模向城镇转移从业,加剧了西部农村人口老龄化、农村“空心化”、老年家庭“空巢化”的趋势,致使部分农村老人陷入无人养老的困境。应将西部农村养老问题放在“新型城镇化”战略框架下,大力发展西部小城镇,加强小城镇基础设施建设与房地产开发,建立健全小城镇养老公共服务体系,创新农村土地流转制度和社会保障制度,引导农村空巢老人向小城镇聚集迁移,利用小城镇规模化、高效化的公共服务体系开辟出一条新的养老方式。通过小城镇养老与已有的养老方式相结,多路径破解农村养老问题。

  13. INVENTORY AND PLANT DIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN THE NORTH-WESTERN PART OF THE GREAT CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvinskaya S. A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of floristic inventory within four floristic areas are underlined, namely for Western Ciscaucasia, Western Caucasus, Northwest, and the Western Transcaucasia. The issue questions towards taxonomy, species protection, devastation in ecosystems, and adventizion of vegetation are considered.

  14. 40 CFR 81.153 - Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.153 Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial area... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Western Mountain Intrastate...

  15. U-Pb zircon and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of sericite from hydrothermal alteration zones: new constraints for the timing of Ediacaran gold mineralization in the Sukhaybarat area, western Afif terrane, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbi, Hesham M.; Ali, Kamal A.; McNaughton, Neal J.; Andresen, Arild

    2017-07-01

    The Sukhaybarat East and Red Hill deposits, in the northeastern part of the Arabian Shield, are mesothermal vein-type gold deposits hosted by late Cryogenian-Ediacaran intrusive rocks of the Idah suites (diorite, tonalite, granodiorite) and, at Sukhaybarat East, also by Ediacaran metasedimentary rocks. Gold mineralization comprises quartz-arsenopyrite veins (Sukhaybarat East), quartz-carbonate-pyrite veins (Red Hill), and subordinate gold-base metal sulfide veins. In the Red Hill deposit, alteration is complicated due to multiple overprinting hydrothermal events and is characteristically affected by pervasive, pink quartz-K-feldspar-hematite alteration which is overprinted by potassic alteration characterized by a quartz-biotite-carbonate-muscovite/sericite-rutile-apatite assemblage. This assemblage is associated with molybdenite veins which appear to form late in the paragenetic sequence and may represent either evolution of the ore fluid composition, or a later, unrelated mineralized fluids. Hydrothermal alteration at the Sukhaybarat East deposit is dominated by quartz-carbonate-sericite-arsenopyrite assemblages. Zircon from ore-hosting tonalite at Sukhaybarat East yields a U-Pb age of 629 ± 6 Ma, and biotite from the same rock gives an 40Ar/39Ar age of 622 ± 23 Ma. The 40Ar/39Ar age is within the uncertainty range for the U-Pb age of the host intrusion and is interpreted as a minimally disturbed cooling age for the tonalite. In the Red Hill area, granodiorite was emplaced at 615 ± 5 Ma, whereas muscovite/sericite separated from a mineralized sample of a quartz-carbonate-pyrite vein, that was overprinted by molybdenite-bearing veinlets, yields an 40Ar/39Ar age of 597 ± 8 Ma. We interpreted this age to represent the maximum age of the molybdenite mineralization and the probable minimum age of gold mineralization in the Red Hill deposit.

  16. Western Australian food security project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycock Bruce

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of

  17. Western Australian Food Security Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Alexandra; Brown, Graham; Maycock, Bruce

    2007-08-23

    The aim of the Western Australian (WA) Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets). The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%). The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets) followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets). Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets), salads (n- = 50 outlets), fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets), seafood (n = 27 outlets), meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets). The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28%) offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77%) as were carbonated drinks (n = 88%) and flavoured milks (n = 46%). These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of access to quality, healthy foods at reasonable cost (food

  18. Western Blot Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brianna

    2017-01-01

    The Western blot is an important laboratory technique that allows for specific identification and characterization of proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)-separated proteins are electophoretically transferred to a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane which is then incubated with specific antibodies, then developed to show the protein of interest. Here, we describe the transfer and detection of Outer surface protein A (OspA), a protein only found on the surface of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria responsible for Lyme disease.

  19. Western Opera in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    “ALTHOUGH the road islong and leads far,I’llsearch hard for truth.″Ithink these lines by Qu Yuan(c.340-278 B.C.)are most appropriatein describing Western opera inChina.Opera originated from musicaldrama in Italy.From Dafne by Flo-rentine composer Jacopo Peri in1597,opera has a history of nearly400 years,if we do not count folk,church or court music and danceor song dramas in Europe.Afterspreading from Italy to Austria,France,Germany,Britain,northernEuropean countries and Russia,op-era has developed many national

  20. 湘鄂西壶瓶山—走马地区灯影组储层特征%Reservoir characteristics of Dengying Formation in Hupingshan-Zouma area of western Hubei-Hunan region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘早学; 张焱林; 陈铁龙; 周向辉

    2012-01-01

    Sinian carbonate rocks are widely developed in the study area, and these rocks constitute one of the most hopeful oil-gas exploration target strata where a breakthrough is likely to be made in the lower marine combination. Through oil-gas geological survey along the profile and the stratigraphic section measurement of the outcrops, in combination with the previous achievements, the authors restudied the strata and sedimentary facies of Dengying Formation in Hupingshan-Zouma area. According to systematic identification and analysis of the rock slices, casting body slices and reservoir property samples of the outcrops, the authors hold that the Dengying Formation is mainly composed of carbonate rocks, which can be divided into three lithologic sections in upward succession. The strata are in conformable contact with the underlying Doushantuo Formation, and in parallel unconformable contact with the overlying Niutitang Formation, with the total thickness being 242~339m, belonging to the sedimentary environment of tidal flat of the restricted platform-open platform-slope of the platform edge. In the strata, the reservoir thickness is 210.4m, which possesses 72.7% of the total stratigraphic thickness; the reservoir rocks are composed mainly of granular dolomite, micrite dolomite, psammitic dolomite and oolitic limestone; the reservoir space comprises mainly intercrystalline pores, intergranuiar dissolved pores and fissures; the porosities are mainly 0.69%~2.66%, with the maximum value being 3.52% and the average value being 1.52%; the maximum value of the permeability is 6.2812×10-3μm2. and the average value is 0.3000×10-3μm2. the main pore types are small throats and micro throats. On the whole, the reservoir property of the Dengying Formation is rather poor, and it is comprehensively evaluated as a HI -grade reser- voir; nevertheless, structural fractures of the Dengying Formation are well developed, which can improve the reservoir property, and it is

  1. 川西坳陷马井-什邡地区蓬莱镇组天然气运移特征%The migration characteristics of natural gas of penglaizhen formation in Majing-Shifang area,western Sichuan depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵双丰; 张枝焕; 李文浩; 万甜甜

    2015-01-01

    The main exploration horizon of gas field in Majing and Shifang area is the upper Jurassic in Penglaizhen formation,natural gas is mainly concentrated in middle and upper Penglaizhen formation. Natural gas in Penglaizhen formation belongs to typical coal-type gas,which is predominated by methane. While the content of heavy hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon is scarce.The aridity coefficient of the gas is universally above 0.95,showing typical dry gas characteristics.Gas-source correlation results indicate that:The natural gas in Penglaizhen formation is mainly from coal-measure source rock in the upper underlying the Xujiahe group.The migration channel of the natural gas is the deep fault belt formed in late yanshanian. The integrated display of the tracing parameters by C1/C1-5 、CO2/CH4 、N2/C2 H6 and fluid inclusions show, the gas is under the effect of buoyancy,via the vertical migration from deep Xujiahe Formation to the sandstone reservoir in the superficial zone in Penglaizhen formation,and then followed by the lateral migration along the channel sand body from the conformation of low potential region to the conformation of high potential region,and reached to the entrapment,in the end to be gathered accumulation.Mass migration period of natural gas was from the end of Cretaceous to the early of Paleogene,the main period of accumulation was from the late Cretaceous to the late Paleogene.%马井-什邡气田的主力勘探层位是上侏罗统蓬莱镇组,天然气藏集中在蓬莱镇组中上部。蓬莱镇组天然气属于典型的煤型气,气体组分中甲烷含量占绝对优势,其他重烃及非烃气体组分含量较少,干燥系数基本在0.95以上,为典型的干气特征。气源对比结果表明,蓬莱镇组天然气主要来自于下伏须家河组煤系烃源岩。C1/C1-5、CO2/CH4、N2/C2 H6及流体包裹体组成特征等多组示踪参数综合显示,天然气以燕山晚期形成的深大断裂带为运移通道

  2. Form Analysis of Heavy Metals (Cr, Hg) in Soil - Crop Systems in Western Suburb Areas of Changchun City%长春市西郊保护地土壤-作物系统铬、汞的形态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁鹏; 赵荟薇; 苏慧杰; 唐艳茹

    2014-01-01

    本文以长春市西郊保护地土壤-作物系统为研究对象,分析了土壤-作物系统重金属铬、汞的含量及形态分布,并以单因子污染指数法和内梅罗综合污染指数法评价了该地区土壤及农作物的环境质量。结果表明:长春市西郊保护地土壤 pH值为7.11, Cr、Hg 含量分别为0.4212和54郾6625mg·kg-1,未超过土壤环境质量二级标准限值;综合污染指数为0.7144,已经处于警戒水平;该地区土壤重金属形态铬以残渣态为主,可达89.71%左右;汞以氧化物结合态与有机结合态为主。该地区6种农作物样品中Cr、Hg含量均未超过国家食品中污染物限量标准,处于安全水平。%Distribution and chemical form analysis of heavy metals ( Hg, Cr) were carried out by Tessier sequence extraction in soil-crop system in western suburb areas of Changchun. The environmental quality in the area of the soil and the crops was examined based on a single gene pollution index and comprehensive pollution indexes. Results showed that the pH was 7. 11;the average contents of Cr and Hg in soil samples were 0. 4212 and 54. 6625mg·kg-1 . Both of the two figures did not exceed the secondary standard limits accord-ing to the soil environmental quality standards. The comprehensive pollution index of 0. 7144 showed that the soil in western suburb areas in Changchun was clean but at the alert level. The heavy metal Cr in the soil was mainly residue state and reached up to about 89.71%. The heavy metal Hg was in oxide combination state and organic combination state mainly. At the same time contents of Cr and Hg in 6 kinds of crop samples were not more than“national food contamination in limited standards”, which meant crops were all in safe level .

  3. 西部贫困农村5岁以下儿童营养状况与医疗费用关系的研究%Effects of nutritional status on clinical expenditure of children under 5 years old in western poverty rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏畅; 张兵; 刘爱东; 杜文雯; 张继国; 张伋; 马玉霞; 张强; 翟凤英

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析西部贫困农村5岁以下儿童营养状况与医疗费用的关系.方法 采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样的方法,于2009年在西部6省12县贫困农村共调查8141名5岁以下儿童.按WHO推荐标准将调查儿童分为营养不良与营养良好两组,用SAS9.1软件进行分析比较.结果 西部贫困农村5岁以下儿童营养不良率为18.9%;男孩营养不良率(19.9%)显著高于女孩(17.7%,P<0.05);营养不良组近两周内腹泻患病率(9.0%)以及上呼吸道感染患病率(27.9%)显著高于营养良好组(6.9%,25.4%,P<0.05);营养不良组的医疗费用(785.1元)显著高于营养良好组的医疗费用(696.6元,P<0.05);营养不良儿童的门诊就诊率(27.5%)显著高于营养良好儿童的门诊就诊率(25.0%,P<0.05).结论 西部贫困农村儿童营养不良问题仍有待改善,营养状况对儿童的患病率及医疗费用有影响.%Objective To study the effects of nutritional status on clinical expenditure of children under 5 years old in western poverty rural areas. Methods The randomized multi-stage cluster method was used to sample study subjects from poverty rural areas of six western provinces in China. The survey included 8141 children under 5 years old and was carried out in 2009. All of children were divided into two groups, malnutrition group and normal group by WHO standard.Difference of two groups was analyzed with SAS 9. 1. Results In western poverty rural areas, the malnutrition rate of children under 5 years old was 18. 9%. The rate for boys ( 19. 9% ) was significantly higher than that for girls ( 17.7%, P <0. 05). Malnutrition group had higher rate of upper respiratory tract infection (27.9%) and diarrhea (9. 0% ) than those in normal group (25.4% and 6. 9% ) within recent two weeks ( P < 0. 05 ). Mean clinical expenditure of malnutrition group was 785. 1 yuan per year, significantly higher than that of normal group (696. 6 yuan, P <0. 05). Also outpatient

  4. 中国西部五省农村婴幼儿营养不良及影响因素分析%Malnutrition and its influential factors among 0-3 years old children in rural areas of five provinces in western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小璇; 熊超; 刘娜; 杨昌友; 杨森焙; 张静

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解中国西部五省农村婴幼儿营养不良状况,分析影响因素.方法 以2006年第二次“中国十省农村七岁以下儿童体格发育调查研究”中的西部五省农村婴幼儿为研究对象,以2006年美国国家健康统计中心(NCHS)制定的国际标准或称WHO标准评价其营养状况,采用非条件logistic回归逐步程序法分析婴幼儿营养不良的影响因素.结果 30 495名婴幼儿中,生长迟缓检出率为21.44%,男童为23.61%,女童为19.23%,体重低下检出率为15.96%,男童为14.98%,女童为16.95%,消瘦检出率为7.44%,男童为7.89%,女童为6.98%;多因素分析结果显示,性别、年龄、出生体重、胎产次、胎龄、胎数、父母亲文化程度、家庭年收入、4个月内喂养方式、疾病史和2周内患病情况是营养不良的影响因素.结论 西部五省农村婴幼儿营养不良发生率较高,其发生与喂养方式、出生情况、患病情况和家庭情况有关.%Objective To examine malnutrition and its influential factors among 0-3 years old children in rural areas of five provinces in western China. Methods The data on 30 495 rural children aged 0-3 years in five provinces in western China were collected from " Study on Physical Growth of Children under Seven Years Old in Rural Areas of Five Western Provinces,2006". World Health Organization child growth standard of 2006 was adopted as the reference standard. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the influencing factors of the children's malnutrition. Results The prevalence of stunning was 21.44% (23.61% for boys, 19. 23% for girls) and the prevalence of underweight was 15. 96% (14. 98% for boys, 16. 95% for girls). The prevalence of wasting was 7. 44% (7. 89% for boys ,6.98% for girls). The multifactor analyses showed that gender, age, weight at birth, and feeding method within 4 months of age were influential factors of malnutrition. Conclusion The prevalence of

  5. Western Parenting: A Personal Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul Ward

    2011-01-01

    Bonding: Western fathers are keen to take an equal role in parenting. They recognise their responsibility as a new dad, and are committed early to sharing every family task with the mother. It is common to see a proud western father walking outside, on their own, with their tiny baby. Western dad's know that this time is special, and the mother needs to relax and feel confident to trust the dad with the baby.

  6. Annual variations of frost table in Kangerlussuaq Airport, western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has been used to study the annual variations of the frost table beneath the southern parking area at Kangerlussuaq Airport, western Greenland. In autumn 2000, three test areas were painted white in order to reduce further development of depressions in the asphalt...

  7. 河北省西部山区蜱传斑点热群立克次体分子流行病学研究%Molecular epidemiological study of tick-borne spotted fever group Rickettsia in western mountain area of Hebei province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯帅; 吴含; 张力文; 路朝旭; 张成龙; 李志平; 张荣贞; 周慧

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of tick-borne spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR) in the western mountain area of Hebei province,China and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of tick-borne SFGR.Methods One set of specific primers,designed according to the outer membrane protein A (OmpA) gene sequence of SFGR,were used to amplify the OmpA gene in DNA samples extracted from Haemaphysalis longicornis collected in the western mountain area of Hebei province,and the positive samples were subjected to sequencing and sequence analysis to establish the molecular phylogenetic tree.Results Of 1227 DNA samples,91 (7.42%) were positive for SFGR.The phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequence showed that all detected SFGR strains were clustered together with Candidatus Rickettsia hebeiii (accession numbers:HQ651815,HQ651817,HQ651818,HQ651819,HQ651823,and HQ651824) and Rickettsia sp.Fujian strain FUJ (accession number:AF169629); these strains had the highest homology with Candidatus R.hebeiii (99.02%),followed by Rickettsia sp.Fujian strain FUJ (98.50%),Rickettsia sp.Suifen strain HLJ-054 (accession number:AF179362) and Rickettsia sp.Hulin strain HL-93 (accession number:AF179364) (98.13%),and Rickettsia sp.Japanese strain YM (accession number:U43795) (97.92%).Conclusion Tick-borne SFGR is prevalent in the western mountain area of Hebei province.Preventive measures should be taken in time to protect humans and animals from this disease.%目的 调查河北省西部山区蜱类斑点热群立克次体带菌情况,为蜱传斑点热群防控提供科学依据.方法 根据已发表斑点热群立克次体OmpA外膜蛋白基因序列设计特异性引物,对河北省西部山区采集的长角血蜱进行PCR检测,并对阳性样本进行测序和序列分析,建立分子系统进化树.结果 在1227份蜱DNA样本中检测出91份阳性,阳性率为7.42%;序列分析结果显示河北省西部山区长角血蜱携带立克

  8. The Chinese-Western Intercultural Couple Standards Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang

    2015-09-01

    We developed the Chinese-Western Intercultural Couple Standards Scale (CWICSS) to assess relationship standards that may differ between Chinese and Western partners and may challenge intercultural couples. The scale assesses 4 Western-derived relationship standards (demonstrations of love, demonstrations of caring, intimacy expression, and intimacy responsiveness) and 4 Chinese-derived relationship standards (relations with the extended family, relational harmony, face, and gender roles). We administered the CWICSS to 983 Chinese and Western participants living in Australia to assess the psychometric properties of the scores as measures of respondents' relationship standards. The CWICSS has a 2-level factor structure with the items reflecting the 8 predicted standards. The 4 Western derived standards loaded onto a higher order factor of couple bond, and the 4 Chinese derived standards loaded onto a higher order factor of family responsibility. The scale scores were structurally equivalent across cultures, genders, and 2 independent samples, and good convergent and discriminant validity was found for the interpretation of scale scores as respondents' endorsement of the predicted standards. Scores on the 8 scales and 2 superordinate scales showed high internal consistency and test-retest coefficients. Chinese endorsed all 4 family responsibility standards more strongly than did Westerners, but Chinese and Western participants were similar in endorsement of couple bond standards. Across both cultures, couple bond standards were endorsed more highly than were family responsibility standards. The CWICSS assesses potential areas of conflict in Chinese-Western relationships. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Diversity of palm uses in the western Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paniagua Zambrana, N.Y.; Byg, A.; Svenning, J.-C.;

    2007-01-01

    Abstract  We used palm knowledge to understand the interaction between people and the rainforests and the factors that influence this dynamic process. We interviewed 278 informants in 12 villages in the Pastaza and Madidi areas of the western Amazon basin. Together they used 38 different palm......, the great variation in the knowledge they possess, and the fact that the differences between villages is so great, are important elements to consider when developing management plans for the sustainable use of the rainforest resources in the western Amazon. Keywords  Local knowledge - Palms - Western Amazon...

  10. Nuremberg Counting Jetons of XVI–XIX centuries: from Western Europe to Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Pushkarev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of Western counting jetons, which have spread over a vast area from Western Europe to Siberia. The history of jetons is very dynamic. For more than three centuries in Western Europe tokens were used as a tool for calculation in trading shops, government offices, etc. In the second half of the XVI century because the spread of the written account the functions of jetons fundamentally changed. They are being used as chips in card games, they were presented as souvenirs, scattered among the crowd at weddings and festivals, etc. At the same time, jetons became the translation tool for public information about the government, in the form of images of the reigning monarch, as well as key political events. Through trade exchange jetons penetrate into the territory of Western Siberia, where their function changed again. All counting tokens from burial graves in Western Siberia, have holes for hanging or sewing, which indicate their use as ornaments. However, in the culture of the indigenous population decorations had not only aesthetic but also a sacred, religious meaning.