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Sample records for fan outlet guide

  1. Turbofan gas turbine engine with variable fan outlet guide vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Peter John (Inventor); Zenon, Ruby Lasandra (Inventor); LaChapelle, Donald George (Inventor); Mielke, Mark Joseph (Inventor); Grant, Carl (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A turbofan gas turbine engine includes a forward fan section with a row of fan rotor blades, a core engine, and a fan bypass duct downstream of the forward fan section and radially outwardly of the core engine. The forward fan section has only a single stage of variable fan guide vanes which are variable fan outlet guide vanes downstream of the forward fan rotor blades. An exemplary embodiment of the engine includes an afterburner downstream of the fan bypass duct between the core engine and an exhaust nozzle. The variable fan outlet guide vanes are operable to pivot from a nominal OGV position at take-off to an open OGV position at a high flight Mach Number which may be in a range of between about 2.5-4+. Struts extend radially across a radially inwardly curved portion of a flowpath of the engine between the forward fan section and the core engine.

  2. A3-D Numerical Optimization Design Method and Its Application in Axial Fans with Outlet Guide Vanes%轴流风机后导叶三维数值优化设计方法及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟丽; 林丽华; 吴海英; 陈永宁; 何海江; 陶中兰; 李嵩

    2014-01-01

    基于轴流风机安装后导叶能明显改善性能,但用目前使用的二维理想的工程方法无法设计良好导叶,必须通过大量后导叶安装角试验,才能改进使用。本文提出轴流风机后导叶三维数值优化设计方法,并用于一个商用风机,设计工况全压和全压效率均提高13%,有很好的变工况性能;本文还对比了用传统工程方法设计的后导叶的性能。%The performance of an axial flow fan can be obviously improved after installing outlet guide vanes. But the commonly used 2-D ideal engineering method can’t be applied to design the good outlet guide vanes. After that a lot of experiments about the installing angle of outlet guide vane must be carried out in order to improve the designed vanes. In this paper, a 3-D numerical optimization design method of axial flow fans with outlet guide vanes is presented and used to a commercial fan. The total pressure and its efficiency are improved about 13% at the design operation and the performances of the off-design operation are also obviously improved. Moreover, the performance of the outlet guide vanes designed by the traditional engineering method is also compared with the presented one in the paper.

  3. Experimental Investigation on Design Enhancement of Axial Fan Using Fixed Guide Vane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munisamy, K. M.; Govindasamy, R.; Thangaraju, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    Airflow passes through the rotating blade in an axial flow fan will experience a helical flow pattern. This swirling effect leads the system to experience swirl energy losses or pressure drop yet reducing the total efficiency of the fan system. A robust tool to encounter this air spin past the blade is by introducing guide vane to the system. Owing to its importance, a new approach in designing outlet guide vane design for a commercial usage 1250mm diameter axial fan with a 30° pitch angle impeller has been introduced in this paper. A single line metal of proper curvature guide vane design technique has been adopted for this study. By choosing fan total efficiency as a target variable to be improved, the total and static pressure on the design point were set to be constraints. Therefore, the guide vane design was done based on the improvement target on the static pressure in system. The research shows that, with the improvement in static pressure by 29.63% through guide vane installation, the total fan efficiency is increased by 5.12%, thus reduces the fan power by 5.32%. Good agreement were found, that when the fan total efficiency increases, the power consumption of the fan is reduced. Therefore, this new approach of guide vane design can be applied to improve axial fan performance.

  4. Internal Flow of a High Specific-Speed Diagonal-Flow Fan (Rotor Outlet Flow Fields with Rotating Stall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Shiomi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We carried out investigations for the purpose of clarifying the rotor outlet flow fields with rotating stall cell in a diagonal-flow fan. The test fan was a high–specific-speed (ns=1620 type of diagonal-flow fan that had 6 rotor blades and 11 stator blades. It has been shown that the number of the stall cell is 1, and its propagating speed is approximately 80% of its rotor speed, although little has been known about the behavior of the stall cell because a flow field with a rotating stall cell is essentially unsteady. In order to capture the behavior of the stall cell at the rotor outlet flow fields, hot-wire surveys were performed using a single-slant hotwire probe. The data obtained by these surveys were processed by means of a double phase-locked averaging technique, which enabled us to capture the flow field with the rotating stall cell in the reference coordinate system fixed to the rotor. As a result, time-dependent ensemble averages of the three-dimensional velocity components at the rotor outlet flow fields were obtained. The behavior of the stall cell was shown for each velocity component, and the flow patterns on the meridional planes were illustrated.

  5. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Rotor Alone Aerodynamic Performance Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Jeracki, Robert J.; Woodward, Richard P.; Miller, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of an isolated fan or rotor alone model was measured in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9- by 15- Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel as part of the Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test conducted at NASA Glenn. The Source Diagnostic Test was conducted to identify the noise sources within a wind tunnel scale model of a turbofan engine and quantify their contribution to the overall system noise level. The fan was part of a 1/5th scale model representation of the bypass stage of a current technology turbofan engine. For the rotor alone testing, the fan and nacelle, including the inlet, external cowl, and fixed area fan exit nozzle, were modeled in the test hardware; the internal outlet guide vanes located behind the fan were removed. Without the outlet guide vanes, the velocity at the nozzle exit changes significantly, thereby affecting the fan performance. As part of the investigation, variations in the fan nozzle area were tested in order to match as closely as possible the rotor alone performance with the fan performance obtained with the outlet guide vanes installed. The fan operating performance was determined using fixed pressure/temperature combination rakes and the corrected weight flow. The performance results indicate that a suitable nozzle exit was achieved to be able to closely match the rotor alone and fan/outlet guide vane configuration performance on the sea level operating line. A small shift in the slope of the sea level operating line was measured, which resulted in a slightly higher rotor alone fan pressure ratio at take-off conditions, matched fan performance at cutback conditions, and a slightly lower rotor alone fan pressure ratio at approach conditions. However, the small differences in fan performance at all fan conditions were considered too small to affect the fan acoustic performance.

  6. Heat transfer and performance characteristics of axial cooling fans with downstream guide vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Alexandros; Stylianou, Ioannis; Kalfas, Anestis I.; Ott, Peter

    2012-04-01

    This study examines experimentally the effect of stators on the performance and heat transfer characteristics of small axial cooling fans. A single fan impeller, followed by nine stator blades in the case of a complete stage, was used for all the experimental configurations. Performance measurements were carried out in a constant speed stage performance test rig while the transient liquid crystal technique was used for the heat transfer measurements. Full surface heat transfer coefficient distributions were obtained by recording the temperature history of liquid crystals on a target plate. The experimental data indicated that the results are highly affected by the flow conditions at the fan outlet. Stators can be beneficial in terms of pressure drop and efficiency, and thus more economical operation, as well as, in the local heat transfer distribution at the wake of the stator blades if the fan is installed very close to the cooling object. However, as the separation distance increases, enhanced heat transfer rate in the order of 25% is observed in the case of the fan impeller.

  7. Flow control in axial fan inlet guide vanes by synthetic jets

    OpenAIRE

    Wurst P.; Trávníček Z.; Cyrus V.; Kordík J.

    2013-01-01

    Tested high pressure axial flow fan with hub/tip ratio of 0.70 and external diameter of 600 mm consisted of inlet guide vanes (IGV), rotor and stator blade rows. Fan peripheral velocity was 47 m/s. Air volume flow rate was changed by turning of rear part of the inlet guide vanes. At turning of 20 deg the flow was separated on the IGV profiles. The synthetic jets were introduced through radial holes in machine casing in the location before flow separation origin. Synthetic jet actuator was des...

  8. On a two-dimensional mode-matching technique for sound generation and transmission in axial-flow outlet guide vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouley, Simon; François, Benjamin; Roger, Michel; Posson, Hélène; Moreau, Stéphane

    2017-09-01

    The present work deals with the analytical modeling of two aspects of outlet guide vane aeroacoustics in axial-flow fan and compressor rotor-stator stages. The first addressed mechanism is the downstream transmission of rotor noise through the outlet guide vanes, the second one is the sound generation by the impingement of the rotor wakes on the vanes. The elementary prescribed excitation of the stator is an acoustic wave in the first case and a hydrodynamic gust in the second case. The solution for the response of the stator is derived using the same unified approach in both cases, within the scope of a linearized and compressible inviscid theory. It is provided by a mode-matching technique: modal expressions are written in the various sub-domains upstream and downstream of the stator as well as inside the inter-vane channels, and matched according to the conservation laws of fluid dynamics. This quite simple approach is uniformly valid in the whole range of subsonic Mach numbers and frequencies. It is presented for a two-dimensional rectilinear-cascade of zero-staggered flat-plate vanes and completed by the implementation of a Kutta condition. It is then validated in sound generation and transmission test cases by comparing with a previously reported model based on the Wiener-Hopf technique and with reference numerical simulations. Finally it is used to analyze the tonal rotor-stator interaction noise in a typical low-speed fan architecture. The interest of the mode-matching technique is that it could be easily transposed to a three-dimensional annular cascade in cylindrical coordinates in a future work. This makes it an attractive alternative to the classical strip-theory approach.

  9. Improvement of the Efficiency of the Axial-Flow Pump at Part Loads due to Installing Outlet Guide Vanes Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Yang; Hao-ru Zhao; Chao Liu

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of adjustable outlet guide vane on the hydraulic performance of axial-flow pump at part loads, the axial-flow pump with 7 different outlet guide vane adjustable angles was simulated based on the RNG k-ε turbulent model and Reynolds time-averaged equations. The Vector graphs of airfoil flow were analyzed in the different operating conditions for different adjustable angles of guide vane. BP-ANN prediction model was established about the effect of adjustabl...

  10. Improvement of the Efficiency of the Axial-Flow Pump at Part Loads due to Installing Outlet Guide Vanes Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the influence of adjustable outlet guide vane on the hydraulic performance of axial-flow pump at part loads, the axial-flow pump with 7 different outlet guide vane adjustable angles was simulated based on the RNG k-ε turbulent model and Reynolds time-averaged equations. The Vector graphs of airfoil flow were analyzed in the different operating conditions for different adjustable angles of guide vane. BP-ANN prediction model was established about the effect of adjustable outlet guide vane on the hydraulic performance of axial-flow pump based on the numerical results. The effectiveness of prediction model was verified by theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The results show that, with the adjustable angle of guide vane increasing along clockwise, the high efficiency area moves to the large flow rate direction; otherwise, that moves to the small flow rate direction. The internal flow field of guide vane is improved by adjusting angle, and the flow separation of tail and guide vane inlet ledge are decreased or eliminated, so that the hydraulic efficiency of pumping system will be improved. The prediction accuracy of BP-ANN model is 1%, which can meet the requirement of practical engineering.

  11. Design, durability and low cost processing technology for composite fan exit guide vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecherman, S. S.

    1980-01-01

    A program was conducted to design, fabricate and test a durable, low cost, lightweight composite fan exit guide vane for high bypass ratio gas turbine engine application. Eight candidate material/design combinations were evaluated by NASTRAN finite element analysis. Four of these candidate systems were selected for composite vane fabrication by two vendors. A core and shell vane design was chosen in which the unidirectional graphite core fiber was the same for all candidates. The shell material, fiber orientation and ply configuration were varied. Material tests were performed on raw material and composite specimens to establish specification requirements. Composite vanes were nondestructively inspected and subsequently fatigue tested in both dry and 'wet' conditions. The program provided relevant data with respect to design analysis, materials properties, inspection standards, improved durability, weight benefits and part price of the composite fan exit guide vane.

  12. Performance Enhancement of the In-Line Fan Equipped with the Guiding Vane and the Tail Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Cheng Yen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This integrated numerical and experimental study intends to enhance the performance of an in-line fan with the implement of the guiding vane and the tail body. At first the flow flied associated with the original in-line fan is simulated and analyzed within the framework of CFD code Fluent, in which the finite volume method is applied. Next, the guiding vane is constructed based on the calculated flow characteristics, and attached in the downstream of rotor to smoothen the flow pattern. An appropriate guiding vane with high-performance and low-noise features can be achieved after several design iterations. In addition, the tail body connected to the motor is introduced for further enhancing the fan performance by reducing the sizes of wake and reversed flow behind the hub. Thereafter, to manufacture the mockup for experimental verification, the modified fan with guiding vane is plotted in the CAD/CAM format for mockup fabrication via the rapid-prototype technique. Moreover, a set of relations correlating the performance and noise of this fan prototype are executed inside AMCA test chamber and semianechoic chamber, respectively. Consequently, the feasibility of design scheme and numerical system can be verified according to these experimental results. In summary, this work provides a systematic scheme for designing and analyzing the in-line fan.

  13. Fluoroscopic-guided covered metallic stent placement for gastric outlet obstruction and post-operative gastroenterostomy anastomotic stricture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Young Min; Kim, Chong Soo; Lee, Sang Young; Lee, Soo Teik; Yang, Doo Hyun

    2001-07-01

    AIM: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of fluoroscopic-guided covered metallic stent placements in providing palliative care for patients with inoperable malignant gastric outlet obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Under fluoroscopic guidance, placement of self-expandable, covered stents was attempted in 20 patients with inoperable or recurrent gastric cancer (age range 36-79 years). All patients had inoperable gastric outlet obstruction, 13 with native anatomy and seven with post-operative anatomy (gastrointestinal anastomotic sites). All patients had intolerance to oral alimentation and/or vomiting after ingestion. Success was defined both technically and clinically. RESULTS: The placement of the stent was technically successful in 18 patients and failed in two patients (technical success: 90%). The cause of the technical failures was an inability to negotiate the guide wire through the obstruction sites in spite of the use of both fluoroscopic and endoscopic guidance. After stent placement, 15 patients were able to ingest at least liquids and had a markedly decreased incidence of vomiting (clinical success: 75%). During the mean follow-up of 6 weeks, there have been no stent reocclusion and no life-threatening complications except migration of two stents in one patient. CONCLUSION: Fluoroscopically guided covered metallic stent placement appears to be valuable for the palliative treatment of malignant obstruction of gastric outlet and post-operative gastrointestinal anastomoses. Lee, J.M. et al. (2001)

  14. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 2; BFaNS User's Manual and Developer's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the second volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by step-by-step instructions for installing and running BFaNS. It concludes with technical documentation of the BFaNS computer program.

  15. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 1; Setup_BFaNS User's Manual and Developer's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the first volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User's Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by step-by-step instructions for installing and running Setup_BFaNS. It concludes with technical documentation of the Setup_BFaNS computer program.

  16. Flow control in axial fan inlet guide vanes by synthetic jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurst P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tested high pressure axial flow fan with hub/tip ratio of 0.70 and external diameter of 600 mm consisted of inlet guide vanes (IGV, rotor and stator blade rows. Fan peripheral velocity was 47 m/s. Air volume flow rate was changed by turning of rear part of the inlet guide vanes. At turning of 20 deg the flow was separated on the IGV profiles. The synthetic jets were introduced through radial holes in machine casing in the location before flow separation origin. Synthetic jet actuator was designed with the use of a speaker by UT AVCR. Its membrane had diameter of 63 mm. Excitation frequency was chosen in the range of 500 Hz – 700 Hz. Synthetic jets favourably influenced separated flow on the vane profiles in the distance of (5 – 12 mm from the casing surface. The reduction of flow separation area caused in the region near the casing the decrease of the profile loss coefficient approximately by 20%.

  17. Flow control in axial fan inlet guide vanes by synthetic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, V.; Trávníček, Z.; Wurst, P.; Kordík, J.

    2013-04-01

    Tested high pressure axial flow fan with hub/tip ratio of 0.70 and external diameter of 600 mm consisted of inlet guide vanes (IGV), rotor and stator blade rows. Fan peripheral velocity was 47 m/s. Air volume flow rate was changed by turning of rear part of the inlet guide vanes. At turning of 20 deg the flow was separated on the IGV profiles. The synthetic jets were introduced through radial holes in machine casing in the location before flow separation origin. Synthetic jet actuator was designed with the use of a speaker by UT AVCR. Its membrane had diameter of 63 mm. Excitation frequency was chosen in the range of 500 Hz - 700 Hz. Synthetic jets favourably influenced separated flow on the vane profiles in the distance of (5 - 12) mm from the casing surface. The reduction of flow separation area caused in the region near the casing the decrease of the profile loss coefficient approximately by 20%.

  18. Application of composite materials to turbofan engine fan exit guide vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. T.

    1980-01-01

    A program was conducted by NASA with the JT9D engine manufacturer to develop a lightweight, cost effective, composite material fan exit guide vane design having satisfactory structural durability for commerical engine use. Based on the results of a previous company supported program, eight graphite/epoxy and graphite-glass/epoxy guide vane designs were evaluated and four were selected for fabrication and testing. Two commercial fabricators each fabricated 13 vanes. Fatigue tests were used to qualify the selected design configurations under nominally dry, 38 C (100 F) and fully wet and 60 C (140 F) environmental conditions. Cost estimates for a production rate of 1000 vanes per month ranged from 1.7 to 2.6 times the cost of an all aluminum vane. This cost is 50 to 80 percent less than the initial program target cost ratio which was 3 times the cost of an aluminum vane. Application to the JT9D commercial engine is projected to provide a weight savings of 236 N (53 lb) per engine.

  19. Mathematical modeling of the stress-strain state of the outlet guide vane made of various materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinev, M. A.; Anoshkin, A. N.; Pisarev, P. V.; Zuiko, V. Yu.; Shipunov, G. S.

    2016-11-01

    The present work is devoted to the detailed stress-strain analysis of the composite outlet guide vane (OGV) for aircraft engines with a special focus on areas with twisted layers where the initiation of high interlaminar stresses is most expected. Various polymer composite materials and reinforcing schemes are researched. The technological scheme of laying-out of anisotropic plies and the fastening method are taken into account in the model. The numerical simulation is carried out by the finite element method (FEM) with the ANSYS Workbench software. It is shown that interlaminar shear stresses are most dangerous. It is found that balanced carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) with the [0°/±45°] reinforcing scheme allows us to provide the double strength margin under working loads for the developed OGV.

  20. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test Computation of Rotor Wake Turbulence Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallasamy, M.; Envia, E.; Thorp, S. A.; Shabbir, A.

    2002-01-01

    An important source mechanism of fan broadband noise is the interaction of rotor wake turbulence with the fan outlet guide vanes. A broadband noise model that utilizes computed rotor flow turbulence from a RANS code is used to predict fan broadband noise spectra. The noise model is employed to examine the broadband noise characteristics of the 22-inch Source Diagnostic Test fan rig for which broadband noise data were obtained in wind tunnel tests at the NASA Glenn Research Center. A 9-case matrix of three outlet guide vane configurations at three representative fan tip speeds are considered. For all cases inlet and exhaust acoustic power spectra are computed and compared with the measured spectra where possible. In general, the acoustic power levels and shape of the predicted spectra are in good agreement with the measured data. The predicted spectra show the experimentally observed trends with fan tip speed, vane count, and vane sweep. The results also demonstrate the validity of using CFD-based turbulence information for fan broadband noise calculations.

  1. The Effect of Bypass Nozzle Exit Area on Fan Aerodynamic Performance and Noise in a Model Turbofan Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Podboy, Gary, G.; Woodward, Richard P.; Jeracki, Robert, J.

    2013-01-01

    The design of effective new technologies to reduce aircraft propulsion noise is dependent on identifying and understanding the noise sources and noise generation mechanisms in the modern turbofan engine, as well as determining their contribution to the overall aircraft noise signature. Therefore, a comprehensive aeroacoustic wind tunnel test program was conducted called the Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test as part of the NASA Quiet Aircraft Technology program. The test was performed in the anechoic NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel using a 1/5 scale model turbofan simulator which represented a current generation, medium pressure ratio, high bypass turbofan aircraft engine. The investigation focused on simulating in model scale only the bypass section of the turbofan engine. The test objectives were to: identify the noise sources within the model and determine their noise level; investigate several component design technologies by determining their impact on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the fan stage; and conduct detailed flow diagnostics within the fan flow field to characterize the physics of the noise generation mechanisms in a turbofan model. This report discusses results obtained for one aspect of the Source Diagnostic Test that investigated the effect of the bypass or fan nozzle exit area on the bypass stage aerodynamic performance, specifically the fan and outlet guide vanes or stators, as well as the farfield acoustic noise level. The aerodynamic performance, farfield acoustics, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter flow diagnostic results are presented for the fan and four different fixed-area bypass nozzle configurations. The nozzles simulated fixed engine operating lines and encompassed the fan stage operating envelope from near stall to cruise. One nozzle was selected as a baseline reference, representing the nozzle area which would achieve the design point operating conditions and fan stage performance. The total area change from

  2. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Vane Unsteady Pressure Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Envia, Edmane

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the nature of fan outlet guide vane pressure fluctuations and their link to rotor-stator interaction noise, time histories of vane fluctuating pressures were digitally acquired as part of the Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test. Vane unsteady pressures were measured at seven fan tip speeds for both a radial and a swept vane configuration. Using time-domain averaging and spectral analysis, the blade passing frequency (BPF) harmonic and broadband contents of the vane pressures were individually analyzed. Significant Sound Pressure Level (SPL) reductions were observed for the swept vane relative to the radial vane for the BPF harmonics of vane pressure, but vane broadband reductions due to sweep turned out to be much smaller especially on an average basis. Cross-correlation analysis was used to establish the level of spatial coherence of broadband pressures between different locations on the vane and integral length scales of pressure fluctuations were estimated from these correlations. Two main results of this work are: (1) the average broadband level on the vane (in dB) increases linearly with the fan tip speed for both the radial and swept vanes, and (2) the broadband pressure distribution on the vane is nearly homogeneous and its integral length scale is a monotonically decreasing function of fan tip speed.

  3. Influence of flow velocity circulation at guide vane outlet of axial-flow pump on hydraulic loss in outlet conduit%轴流泵装置导叶出口水流速度环量对出水流道水力损失的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁金栋; 陆林广; 徐磊; 陈伟; 王刚

    2012-01-01

    为了定量研究大型泵装置导叶出口水流的速度环量对出水流道水力性能的影响,提出了泵装置导叶出口断面水流的速度环量定量表示方法和平均角速度的测量方法,分别采用数值计算和模型试验的方法研究了导叶出口水流的剩余环量对虹吸式出水流道和直管式出水流道水力损失的影响.结果表明:导叶出口水流的环量对出水流道水力损失的影响较为明显,存在使出水流道水力损失最小的最优环量,虹吸式和直管式出水流道的最优环量分别为0.972和1.308 m2/s;虹吸式出水流道和直管式出水流道最优环量时的水力损失计算值较零环量时的水力损失计算值分别小0.126和0.180 m.研究结果不仅有助于改进低扬程泵装置出水流道的优化水力设计,同时对改进轴流泵导叶的优化水力设计也有重要意义.%In order to study influence of the velocity circulation at the guide vane outlet on the hydraulic performance of outlet conduit for a large pump system quantitatively, the methods to calculate velocity circulation and to measure the average angular velocity for the flow at the guide vane outlet of the pump system were put forward, the influence of circulation on the hydraulic losses of both siphon and straight outlet conduit were studied numerically and experimentally. The results indicated that the hydraulic loss of the outlet conduit was obviously influenced by the circulation at the guide vane outlet. There was an optimum circulation for the hydraulic loss of the outlet conduit to be minimized, the optimum circulation for siphon and straight outlet conduit was 0.972 and 1.308 m2/s respectively. The hydraulic losses calculated of the siphon and straight conduit under the condition of the optimal circulation were respectively lower 0.126 and 0.180 m than those under the condition of zero circulation. This study above could be helpful to optimal hydraulic design both for outlet

  4. Aerodynamic performance of axial-flow fan stage operated at nine inlet guide vane angles. [to be used on vertical lift aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. D.; Reid, L.

    1979-01-01

    The overall performance of a fan stage with nine inlet guide vane angle settings is presented. These data were obtained over the stable flow range at speeds from 60 to 120 percent of design for vane setting angles from -25 to 42.5 degrees. At design speed and design inlet guide vane angle, the stage has a peak efficiency of 0.892 at a pressure ratio of 1.322 and a flow of 25.31 kg/s. The stall margin based on peak efficiency and stall was 20 percent. Based on an operating line passing through the peak efficiency point at the design setting angle, the useful operating range of the stage at design speed is limited by stall at the positive setting angles and by choke at the negative angles. At design the calculated static thrust along the operating line varied from 68 to 114 percent of that obtained at design setting angle.

  5. Hydrological Modeling of the Jezero Crater Outlet-Forming Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, Caleb I.; Goudge, Timothy A.

    2017-01-01

    Jezero crater is a site of prime scientific interest because it was a lake early in Mars history. Preserved clay- and carbonate-bearing sedimentary fans on Jezero's western and northwestern margin (Fig. 2) are accessible to future exploration. Geologic context [1] and stratigraphic analysis of the western fan strongly support the interpretation that these fans were deposited as deltas into the lake. This has helped establish Jezero as one of the final candidate landing sites for Mars 2020. The high level of certainty that Jezero was a lake results from the existence of its outlet valley, which required filling of the crater to form [e.g., 1,4]. Here, we specifically focus on how this outlet valley was carved by the dam breach flood that eroded the eastern crater rim. We have completed preliminary modeling in both 1D and 2D of the outlet's formation.

  6. Double outlet right ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007328.htm Double outlet right ventricle To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a heart disease that is ...

  7. Numerical investigation of geometric parameter effects on the aerodynamic performance of a Bladeless fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jafari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic performance of a Bladeless fan is numerically investigated considering the effect of five geometric parameters. Airflow through this fan was analyzed by simulating a Bladeless fan within a 2 m × 2 m × 4 m room. Analysis of the flow field inside the fan and the evaluation of its performance were obtained by solving conservations of mass and momentum equations for the aerodynamic investigations. In order to design the Bladeless fan an Eppler 473 airfoil profile was used as the cross section of the fan. Five distinct parameters, namely height of cross section of the fan, outlet angle of the flow relative to the fan axis, thickness of airflow outlet slit, hydraulic diameter, and aspect ratio for circular and quadratic cross sections were considered. Validating 3-D numerical results, experimental results of a round jet showed good agreement with those of the simulation data. The multiplier factor M is defined to show the ratio of the outlet flow rate to inlet flow rate from the fan. The obtained numerical results showed that the Discharge ratio has the maximum value for the height of 3 cm. The numerical outcomes of outlet thickness variation indicate that this parameter is one of the most influential parameters on the aerodynamic performance of a Bladeless fan. The results for the outlet thicknesses of 1, 2 and 3 mm showed that the Discharge ratio increased significantly when the outlet thickness decreased.

  8. A method to assess fluvial fan channel networks, with a preliminary application to fans in coastal British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Thomas Hugh; Hogan, Dan L.; Wilford, David J.; Roberts, Brian

    2010-03-01

    23 nodes in total. All three fans have boulder-sized sediment (30-50 cm) at the fan apex. On the two fan deltas the largest sediment at the toe of the fan is 10-12 cm, indicating that much of the sediment delivered to the fan apex is stored on the fan. In contrast, the partial fan delta has 18-20 cm sized sediment transported into the axial valley river at the toe of the fan, and a wider and steeper outlet channel, indicating that a greater proportion of sediment is exported from the fan. Although the axial river does not visibly incise into the fan deposits, the lower channel complexity and coarser sediment output indicates that the axial river truncates the toe of the partial fan delta. The two fan deltas have similar FCNs, supporting the idea that fans in similar geomorphic settings develop similar FCNs. The partial fan delta is in a different geomorphic setting that was not identified prior to analysis of the FCNs, and has a different FCN. This study also examines the effects of a large regional storm event that occurred between the 2006 and 2007 surveys. One fan had increased active area, two fans had increased total node counts, and two fans increased output clast size after the flood event, indicating the measures are sensitive and respond to disturbance. Further investigations of FCNs may have utility in hazard assessments, addressing how fans respond to changes in sediment supply or discharge regime, how vegetation type affects FCNs, or the effect of other watershed processes or fan attributes.

  9. Numerical Aerodynamic Evaluation and Noise Investigation of a Bladeless Fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad jafari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladeless fan is a novel fan type that has no observable impeller, usually used for domestic applications. Numerical investigation of a Bladeless fan via Finite Volume Method was carried out in this study. The fan was placed in center of a 4×2×2m room and 473 Eppler airfoil profile was used as cross section of the fan. Performance and noise level of the fan by solving continuity and momentum equations as well as noise equations of Broadband Noise Source (BNS and Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H in both steady state and unsteady conditions were studied. Flow increase ratio of the fan was captured. Furthermore, BNS method could find outlet slit of the air as the main source of the noise generation. In order to validation of aeroacousticcode results, a simulation of noise for NACA 0012 airfoil via FW-H method was compared to experimental results and good agreement was obtained.

  10. Ky Fan inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Moslehian, Mohammad Sal

    2011-01-01

    There are several inequalities in the literature carrying the name of Ky Fan. We survey these well-known Ky Fan inequalities and some other significant inequalities generalized by Ky Fan and review some of their recent developments.

  11. Experimental validation of tonal noise control from subsonic axial fans using flow control obstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Anthony; Berry, Alain; Masson, Patrice; Gervais, Yves

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents the acoustic performance of a novel approach for the passive adaptive control of tonal noise radiated from subsonic fans. Tonal noise originates from non-uniform flow that causes circumferentially varying blade forces and gives rise to a considerably larger radiated dipolar sound at the blade passage frequency (BPF) and its harmonics compared to the tonal noise generated by a uniform flow. The approach presented in this paper uses obstructions in the flow to destructively interfere with the primary tonal noise arising from various flow conditions. The acoustic radiation of the obstructions is first demonstrated experimentally. Indirect on-axis acoustic measurements are used to validate the analytical prediction of the circumferential spectrum of the blade unsteady lift and related indicators generated by the trapezoidal and sinusoidal obstructions presented in Ref. [A. Gérard, A. Berry, P. Masson, Y. Gervais, Modelling of tonal noise control from subsonic axial fans using flow control obstructions, Journal of Sound and Vibration (2008), this issue, doi: 10.1016/j.jsv.2008.09.027.] and also by cylindrical obstructions used in the literature. The directivity and sound power attenuation are then given in free field for the control of the BPF tone generated by rotor/outlet guide vane (OGV) interaction and the control of an amplified BPF tone generated by the rotor/OGV interaction with an added triangular obstruction between two outlet guide vanes to enhance the primary non-uniform flow. Global control was demonstrated in free field, attenuation up to 8.4 dB of the acoustic power at BPF has been measured. Finally, the aerodynamic performances of the automotive fan used in this study are almost not affected by the presence of the control obstruction.

  12. Understanding Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Freischlag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome was once debated in the world of vascular surgery. Today, it is more understood and surprisingly less infrequent than once thought. Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS is composed of three types: neurogenic, venous, and arterial. Each type is in distinction to the others when considering patient presentation and diagnosis. Remarkable advances have been made in surgical approach, physical therapy, and rehabilitation of these patients. Dedicated centers of excellence with multidisciplinary teams have been developed and continue to lead the way in future research.

  13. Influence of Outlet Guide Vanes upon Performances of Waterjet Axial-Flow Pump%后导叶对喷水推进轴流泵性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤方平; 王国强

    2006-01-01

    通过三维紊流数值计算和模型试验研究后导叶对轴流泵整体性能的影响.计算和泵试验表明,基于RNG k-ε紊流模型的定常流动分析能有效预测高效区内的泵特性.叶轮和导叶之间的轴向间隙为0.1 D时,后导叶对叶轮性能几乎没有影响,后导叶主要以对叶轮出口水流的旋转动能的回收和水力损失的形式对泵的特性产生影响.通过后导叶设计工况的选择,可适应不同的应用要求,实现叶轮和后导叶优化配置的目的.%With the use of three-dimensional turbulence numerical simulation and model test,the influence of the outlet guide vanes (OGV) on the overall performances of the axial-flow pump is studied.The computational and experimental results indicate that the steady numerical simulation based on the RNG k-ε turbulence model can effectively predict the pump performances at the design flow rate. When the axial clearance between the impeller and the OGV is greater than 0.1D,the OGV almost has no influence on the performance of the impeller. The existence of OGV will recycle the rotating kinetic energy of the impeller outlet, and cause hydraulic losses at the same time. By selecting the design operation point of the OGV,the configuration between the impeller and the OGV can be optimized in order to satisfy user's requirements.

  14. AGU hydrology publication outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeze, R. Allan

    In recent months I have been approached on several occasions by members of the hydrology community who asked me which of the various AGU journals and publishing outlets would be most suitable for a particular paper or article that they have prepared.Water Resources Research (WRR) is the primary AGU outlet for research papers in hydrology. It is an interdisciplinary journal that integrates research in the social and natural sciences of water. The editors of WRR invite original contributions in the physical, chemical and biological sciences and also in the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. The editor for the physical sciences side of the journal is Donald R. Nielson, LAWR Veihmeyer Hall, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616. The editor for the policy sciences side of the journal is Ronald G. Cummings, Department of Economics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131

  15. Composite fan stator assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donges, G.L.

    1993-07-13

    A composite fan stator assembly is described for a gas turbine engine having at least two fan rotor stages, the composite stator assembly comprising: an annular composite fan case assembly including an access port, the fan case assembly circumferentially disposed around first and second fan rotor stage locations, a composite fan stator stage supported by and extending radially inward of the fan case assembly and axially disposed between the two fan rotor stage locations, the fan stator stage includes at least one removable vane segment accessible for removal through the access port for assembly and reassembly, the composite fan case assembly including a separable composite forward fan case assembly and a separable composite aft fan case assembly spaced axially aft of the forward fan case assembly, the forward fan case assembly being bolted to the aft fan case assembly, wherein the composite fan stator stage is axially and radially trapped and supported by the forward and aft fan case assemblies. A composite stator vane assembly comprising: a composite inner shroud, a composite outer shroud disposed radially outward of the inner shroud, a plurality of vanes disposed between the shrouds, the vanes including a suction side and a pressure side and radially inner and outer roots, the roots extending through platforms of corresponding ones of the inner and outer shrouds, four box-type attachment elements corresponding to curved suction and pressure sides of the inner and outer roots, the box-type attachment elements having two connected legs angled with respect to each other, a first one of the legs extending along, conforming to the curve of, and bonded to a corresponding one of the airfoil root sides, and a second one of the legs extending along and bonded to a composite shroud surface.

  16. Improvement in performance of main ventilation fan for mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, S.N. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India)

    2007-07-01

    This paper examined methods of improving the performance of main ventilation fans in mines. The basic principles of selecting and operating fans were reviewed, and methods of improving the energy efficiency of fans were evaluated. The study considered issues related to static efficiency, as well as curves and intersection points. Mine resistances were examined in relation to ventilation requirements at different phases of mine development. Flow losses and difficulties in producing accurate mathematical models of ventilation fans were also discussed. Fan operation set-points were reviewed. Details of tests conducted to determine the effects of the number of blades on fan performance were presented. The tests demonstrated the importance of incorporating cowl diffusers and guide vanes within the design of axial flow fans. The advantages of deblading were also discussed. 6 refs.

  17. Wikipedia and participatory culture: Why fans edit [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Online, fans of popular culture media partake in participatory culture in various ways, such as writing fan fiction and scrutinizing media on message boards. Another way they do so is by editing relevant articles in the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. In fact, research has shown that Wikipedia articles skew heavily toward pop culture, suggesting that fans of pop culture are among the most enthusiastic of Wikipedia's editors. Of course, the question emerges: Why are pop culture fans in particular so interested in editing Wikipedia? Building on previous research, I argue that fans want to take part in the production of the media that they enjoy, that Wikipedia allows editors to create their own paratext (i.e., the Wikipedia article in relation to a main text (e.g., a movie, a television show, a book series, and that this paratext may be heavily used by the general public. Such usage is a form of implicit approval that affirms the editors' knowledge and encourages them to make more edits. Thus, Wikipedia validates the fan editor's work in a way that other outlets for participatory culture (e.g., fan fiction, fan art, songwriting cannot.

  18. Core Outlet Temperature Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2008-07-28

    It is a known fact that the power conversion plant efficiency increases with elevation of the heat addition temperature. The higher efficiency means better utilization of the available resources such that higher output in terms of electricity production can be achieved for the same size and power of the reactor core or, alternatively, a lower power core could be used to produce the same electrical output. Since any nuclear power plant, such as the Advanced Burner Reactor, is ultimately built to produce electricity, a higher electrical output is always desirable. However, the benefits of the higher efficiency and electricity production usually come at a price. Both the benefits and the disadvantages of higher reactor outlet temperatures are analyzed in this work.

  19. Experimental Investigation on Effect of Inlet Box Types on Performance and Acoustic Characteristics of a Centrifugal Fan%带进气箱的离心风机导流器调节时性能与噪声特性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春曦; 郭宁; 叶学民

    2013-01-01

    以4-73No8D离心式通风机为对象,对装有分别配合轴向导流器和简易导流器的进气箱的风机在导流器不同开度下进行了风机性能和噪声试验研究.性能试验表明,第1种进气箱结构较为合理,气动性能较好;当风机装有进气箱时,与出口端节流调节相比,采用两种导流器调节均可起到节能作用,且轴向导流器的调节性能优于简易导流器.噪声试验结果表明,风机A声级噪声随效率升高而降低,随导流器开度关小而升高.%The fan performance and acoustic experiments of type 4-73No8D, which is installed with an inlet box with simple guide vane or axial guide vane respectively, are conducted at different guide vane openings, and the performance curves with different inlet boxes at different guide vane openings are compared. The performance investigations show that the inlet box for axial guide vane has a reasonable geometry and better operational performance. And using axial guide vane and simple guide vane can both save power compared with outlet throttle regulation, and the efficiency of the inlet box with axial guide vane is higher than that with simple guide vane. The acoustic results indicate that the fan noise evaluating with A - weight sound level decrease with increasing efficiency, and for the same type of fans, fan noise augments significantly with guide vane opening increasing.

  20. Numerical simulation of air flow field in high-pressure fan with splitter blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfeng LI; Junfu LU; Hai ZHANG; Qing LIU; Guangxi YUE

    2008-01-01

    For a deeper understanding of the flow char-acteristics in the high-pressure centrifugal blower of a fan of Model 9-26 with splitter blades, a three dimensional (3-D) numerical simulation of air flows in the fan was con-ducted with FLUENT software. The standard k-ε tur-bulent model and unstructured grids were used. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results showed that the performance of a fan could be improved by adding the splitter blades in the channel among the leaf blades. Under operational conditions, with the presence of splitter blades, the air flow rate of the fan increased about 5% and the total pressure at the outlet of the fan increased about 10% on average. It was also found that the length of the splitter blades affected the air flow and pressure drop. There is an optimal value for the length. The simulation results provide helpful information for improving the fan performance.

  1. Multi-objective optimization design and experimental investigation of centrifugal fan performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Songling; Hu, Chenxing; Zhang, Qian

    2013-11-01

    Current studies of fan performance optimization mainly focus on two aspects: one is to improve the blade profile, and another is only to consider the influence of single impeller structural parameter on fan performance. However, there are few studies on the comprehensive effect of the key parameters such as blade number, exit stagger angle of blade and the impeller outlet width on the fan performance. The G4-73 backward centrifugal fan widely used in power plants is selected as the research object. Based on orthogonal design and BP neural network, a model for predicting the centrifugal fan performance parameters is established, and the maximum relative errors of the total pressure and efficiency are 0.974% and 0.333%, respectively. Multi-objective optimization of total pressure and efficiency of the fan is conducted with genetic algorithm, and the optimum combination of impeller structural parameters is proposed. The optimized parameters of blade number, exit stagger angle of blade and the impeller outlet width are seperately 14, 43.9°, and 21 cm. The experiments on centrifugal fan performance and noise are conducted before and after the installation of the new impeller. The experimental results show that with the new impeller, the total pressure of fan increases significantly in total range of the flow rate, and the fan efficiency is improved when the relative flow is above 75%, also the high efficiency area is broadened. Additionally, in 65% -100% relative flow, the fan noise is reduced. Under the design operating condition, total pressure and efficiency of the fan are improved by 6.91% and 0.5%, respectively. This research sheds light on the considering of comprehensive effect of impeller structrual parameters on fan performance, and a new impeller can be designed to satisfy the engineering demand such as energy-saving, noise reduction or solving air pressure insufficiency for power plants.

  2. Solar powered headwear fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsh, G.B.; Volk, S.; Cirrito, W.; Brann, D.

    1987-07-21

    A fan assembly is described. A housing is adapted for resting on an exterior surface of headwear. A fan mounted in the housing at one end of the housing is adapted for forcing air through an opening defined in a forward protuberance of the headwear. Solar cell means are mounted on the housing at another end of the housing opposite to and remote from the one end for powering the fan means and adapted for resting on a crown of the headwear. Vent means are defined by the housing for allowing air to be sucked into the housing and forced out of the housing when the power means drive the fan means. Mounting means are defined by the housing, including hinge means for removably mounting the modular fan assembly on an exterior surface of the headwear. A portion of the housing occupies a substantial distance between the fan means and the solar cell means. Display means are defined by the portion of the housing between the power means and the fan means for displaying of decorative graphic material.

  3. Performance and Internal Flow of Sirocco Fan Using Contra-Rotating Rotors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Fukutomi; T.Shigemitsu; T. Yasunobu

    2008-01-01

    A sirocco fan using contra-rotating rotors in which an inner rotor is settled inside the sirocco fan rotor end each rotor rotates in an opposite direction was proposed for the purpose of getting the higher pressure and making the structure of a sirocco fan more compact. If the high discharge pressure is obtained with the adoption of the contra-rotating rotors, it could be used for various purposes. Pressure coefficient of a sirocco fan with contra-rotating rotors is 2.5 times as high as the conventional sirocco fan and the maximum efficiency point of contra-rotating rotors shifts to larger flow rate than a conventional sirocco fan. On the other hand, it was clarified from the flow measurement results that circumferential velocity component at the outlet of the outer rotor of contra-rotating rotors becomes larger than a conventional one. In the present paper, the performance of a conventional sirocco fan and a sirocco fan with contra-rotating rotors are shown and the internal flow field at the outlet of outer rotor of both cases is clarified. Then, the effect of different kind of contra-rotating rotors on the performance and internal flow field is investigated and the rotor design with higher performanco would be discussed.

  4. A New Outlet for Discount Shopping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.E.CONGDON-MARTIN

    2004-01-01

    Shanghai Outlet Mall's flaming yellow and orange signage, featuring the word ‘outlet' in two-meter tall capital letters, shrieks, “I'm here!” A sprawling warehouse of discount clothes sold from regular stores and makeshift cubicles, Shanghai Outlet is the pioneer for outlet malls in the city, and one of the first in the country.

  5. Hydrological Modeling of the Jezero Crater Outlet-Forming Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, C. I.; Goudge, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    Abundant evidence exists for lakes on Mars both from orbital observations [e.g., 1-3] and in situ exploration [e.g., 4-5]. These lakes can be divided into two classes: those that were hydrologically closed, so their source valley(s) terminated at the basin [3], and those that were hydrologically open, where there was sufficient flow from inlet valley(s) to cause the lake to breach and form an outlet valley [2]. It is easier to be confident from orbital data alone that a standing body of water must have existed in open basins, because there is no other way for their perched outlet valleys to form. The majority of basins fed by valley networks, rather than by isolated inlet valleys, are open [6], with some important exceptions (e.g., Gale Crater). Jezero crater (Fig. 1) is one of the most well-studied open basin paleolakes on Mars, with a breach that re-mains well above the lowest part of the crater floor, and two sedimentary fans at its northwestern margin that are likely deltaic in origin [7-9]. CRISM observations of these sediments indicate they host a variety of alteration minerals [9-11], including smectite and carbonate, and both the mineralogy of the sediments and their settings suggest they have a strong potential for preserving organic materials [10]. As a result, Jezero is a strong candidate landing site for the Mars 2020 rover. Approximate formative discharges have been estimated for its well-preserved western fan (Q approximately 500m3/s) [7], but to our knowledge, no estimates for the dis-charges associated with formation and incision of its outlet valley have been presented. Indeed, only a few studies [e.g., 12-14] have attempted to reconstruct the formation of outlet breaches broadly similar to Jezero anywhere on Mars, despite the apparent commonality of basins with large outlets [e.g., 2]. The outlet valley formed as a dam breach when the lake overflowed. In such an event, the growth and incision of the breach is directly coupled to flood discharge

  6. Fans af Bruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Nana Katrine

    2007-01-01

    Analysen viser, hvordan det samme ritual under en koncert forener og opdeler de fans, der orienterer sig mod Bruce Springsteen. På den ene side forener ritualet hele publikum i en stor fælles "Intimitet for mange" og på den anden side splitter det dem, fordi det bliver tydeligt, hvem der er de ri...

  7. What a Football Fan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保安; 孙鹏

    2004-01-01

    While the football fan was thrilled to be at the Super Bowl, he was disappointed with the location of his seat. Peering across the stadium through his binoculars, he spied an empty seat on the 50-yard line and made his way there.

  8. Natures of Rotating Stall Cell in a Diagonal Flow Fan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. SHIOMI; K. KANEKO; T. SETOGUCHI

    2005-01-01

    In order to clarify the natures of a rotating stall cell, the experimental investigation was carried out in a high specific-speed diagonal flow fan. The pressure field on the casing wall and the velocity fields at the rotor inlet and outlet were measured under rotating stall condition with a fast response pressure transducer and a single slant hot-wire probe, respectively. The data were processed using the "Double Phase-Locked Averaging (DPLA)"technique, which enabled to obtain the unsteady flow field with a rotating stall cell in the relative co-ordinate system fixed to the rotor. As a result, the structure and behavior of the rotating stall cell in a high specific-speed diagonal flow fan were shown.

  9. Observational Analysis of Coronal Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpeanu, D.-C.; Rachmeler, L; Mierla, Marilena

    2017-01-01

    Coronal fans (see Figure 1) are bright observational structures that extend to large distances above the solar surface and can easily be seen in EUV (174 angstrom) above the limb. They have a very long lifetime and can live up to several Carrington rotations (CR), remaining relatively stationary for many months. Note that they are not off-limb manifestation of similarly-named active region fans. The solar conditions required to create coronal fans are not well understood. The goal of this research was to find as many associations as possible of coronal fans with other solar features and to gain a better understanding of these structures. Therefore, we analyzed many fans and created an overview of their properties. We present the results of this statistical analysis and also a case study on the longest living fan.

  10. Flow Fields with Vortex in a Small Semi-open Axial Fan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norimasa. Shiomi; Yoichi Kinoue; Ying zi Jin; Toshiaki Setoguchi; Kenji Kaneko

    2009-01-01

    In order to clarify the effect of tip clearance (TC) size on fan performance and the flow field at rotor outlet in a small semi-open axial fan, the experimental investigation was carried out. The tip diameter of test fan rotor was 180mm and test TC sizes were 1 mm (TC=1 mm) and 4mm (TC=4mm). Fan characteristics tests were carried out for two cases of TC size and three-dimensional velocity fields at rotor outlet were measured using a single slant hot-wire probe at four flow-rate conditions. As a result, it was found that the pressure -flow-rate characteristics curves for two cases showed almost the same tendency. However, the ensemble averaged velocity profiles along radial measurement stations of TC=4mm largely changed compared with that of TC=1mm in cases of small flow-rate condition. From the phase-locked averaging results, it was also found that the vortex existed in the rotor outlet flow field of high flow-rate condition for each TC case. Compared with the vortices for TC=1mm and TC=4mm, the vortex for TC=4mm was stronger than that for TC=1mm.

  11. Experimental Investigation of Stator Flow in Diagonal Flow Fan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wang; Yoichi Kinoue; Norimasa Shiomi; Toshiaki Setoguchi; Kenji Kaneko; Yingzi Jin

    2008-01-01

    perimental investigations were conducted for the internal flow of the stator of the diagonal flow fan. Comer separation near the hub surface and the suction surface of the stator blade are focused on. At the design flow rate, the values of the axial velocity and the total pressure at stator outlet decrease near the suction surface at around the hub surface by the influence of the comer wall. At low flow rate of 80-90 % of the design flow rate, the comer separation between the suction surface and the hub surface can be found, which become widely spread at 80 % of the design flow rate.

  12. Experimental investigation of stator flow in diagonal flow fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Kinoue, Yoichi; Shiomi, Norimasa; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kaneko, Kenji; Jin, Yingzi

    2008-12-01

    Experimental investigations were conducted for the internal flow of the stator of the diagonal flow fan. Corner separation near the hub surface and the suction surface of the stator blade are focused on. At the design flow rate, the values of the axial velocity and the total pressure at stator outlet decrease near the suction surface at around the hub surface by the influence of the corner wall. At low flow rate of 80-90 % of the design flow rate, the corner separation between the suction surface and the hub surface can be found, which become widely spread at 80 % of the design flow rate.

  13. Fan Cart: The Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamore, Brian

    2016-10-01

    For years the fan cart has provided physics students with an excellent resource for exploring fundamental mechanics concepts such as acceleration, Newton's laws, impulse, momentum, work-energy, and energy conversions. The Physics Teacher has even seen some excellent do-it-yourself (DIY) fan carts and activities. If you are interested in developing the `E' portion of your and your students' STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) skills, one way to accomplish this is to revisit the DIY fan cart. In this article I share a design of a new edition of the DIY fan cart and some ideas for incorporating the engineering design process into your high school curriculum.

  14. "The florals": Female fans over 50 in the Sherlock fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Nybro Petersen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article uses e-mail interviews with nine female fans to explore what it means to be a fan over the age of 50 of the popular BBC drama Sherlock (2010–. The research aims to better understand the role of fandom in later life, in particular how the participants in this study negotiate their perceptions of their subjective age in relation to being a fan in this part of their life course. This study combines theory on cultural gerontology with fan studies and mediatization theory in order to understand the dynamics and processes that guide fans' negotiations of subjective age as well as the role of fan practices and the affordances of social media in these processes. I argue that fandom, as a manifestation of a mediatized culture, augments the relevance of subjective age and informs the way in which participants in middle and later life perceive and negotiate their own subjective age specifically in relation to fandom as youth culture, women's passion, and creativity.

  15. Radiated noise of ducted fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversman, Walter

    The differences in the radiated acoustic fields of ducted and unducted propellers of the same thrust operating under similar conditions are investigated. An FEM model is created for the generation, propagation, and radiation of steady, rotor alone noise and exit guide vane interaction noise of a ducted fan. For a specified number of blades, angular mode harmonic, and rotor angular velocity, the acoustic field is described in a cylindrical coordinate system reduced to only the axial and radial directions. It is found that, contrary to the usual understanding of the Tyler and Sofrin (1962) result, supersonic tip speed rotor noise can be cut off if the tip Mach number is only slightly in excess of unity and if the number of blades is relatively small. If there are many blades, the fundamental angular mode number is large, and the Tyler and Sofrin result for thin annuli becomes more relevant. Shrouding of subsonic tip speed propellers is a very effective means of controlling rotor alone noise.

  16. Dynamic and Implications of Football Fans' Club and Fans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    Dross (2009) identified football games as one event that has proved potent ... have potential of drawing human attention to participate either as a player or as a ... However, beyond what football fans wears, the fans are sometimes ready to ...

  17. COOLING FAN AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Dupree

    2005-07-31

    Upcoming emissions regulations (Tiers 3, 4a and 4b) are imposing significantly higher heat loads on the cooling system than lesser regulated machines. This work was a suite of tasks aimed at reducing the parasitic losses of the cooling system, or improving the design process through six distinct tasks: 1. Develop an axial fan that will provide more airflow, with less input power and less noise. The initial plan was to use Genetic Algorithms to do an automated fan design, incorporating forward sweep for low noise. First and second generation concepts could not meet either performance or sound goals. An experienced turbomachinery designer, using a specialized CFD analysis program has taken over the design and has been able to demonstrate a 5% flow improvement (vs 10% goal) and 10% efficiency improvement (vs 10% goal) using blade twist only. 2. Fan shroud developments, using an 'aeroshroud' concept developed at Michigan State University. Performance testing at Michigan State University showed the design is capable of meeting the goal of a 10% increase in flow, but over a very narrow operating range of fan performance. The goal of 10% increase in fan efficiency was not met. Fan noise was reduced from 0 to 2dB, vs. a goal of 5dB at constant airflow. The narrow range of fan operating conditions affected by the aeroshroud makes this concept unattractive for further development at this time 3. Improved axial fan system modeling is needed to accommodate the numbers of cooling systems to be redesigned to meet lower emissions requirements. A CFD fan system modeling guide has been completed and transferred to design engineers. Current, uncontrolled modeling practices produce flow estimates in some cases within 5% of measured values, and in some cases within 25% of measured values. The techniques in the modeling guide reduced variability to the goal of + 5% for the case under study. 4. Demonstrate the performance and design versatility of a high performance fan. A

  18. Skífan

    OpenAIRE

    Elín Ólafsdóttir

    2011-01-01

    Skífan er eina fyrirtækið hér á landi sem sérhæfir sig í sölu á tónlist, mynddiskum, tölvuleikjum og leikjatölvum. Sú atvinnugrein sem Skífan tilheyrir hefur fengið að finna töluvert fyrir þróun internetsins þar sem mögulegt er að hlaða þessu efni niður hvort sem er með löglegum eða ólöglegum hætti. Markmið verkefnisins var að skoða hver áhrif sviðsmynda væru á rekstrarlíkan Skífunnar. Höfundur fór í gegnum atvinnuvega- og samkeppnisgreiningu með aðstoð eiganda og rekstrarstjóra Skífunnar...

  19. Popularity of brand posts on brand fan pages : An investigation of the effects of social media marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.; Gensler, S.; Leeflang, P.S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Social media outlets constitute excellent vehicles for fostering relationships with customers. One specific way to do this is to create brand fan pages on social networking sites. Companies can place brand posts (containing videos, messages, quizzes, information, and other material) on these brand f

  20. Popularity of brand posts on brand fan pages : An investigation of the effects of social media marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.; Gensler, S.; Leeflang, P.S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Social media outlets constitute excellent vehicles for fostering relationships with customers. One specific way to do this is to create brand fan pages on social networking sites. Companies can place brand posts (containing videos, messages, quizzes, information, and other material) on these brand f

  1. Popularity of brand posts on brand fan pages : An investigation of the effects of social media marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.; Gensler, S.; Leeflang, P.S.H.

    Social media outlets constitute excellent vehicles for fostering relationships with customers. One specific way to do this is to create brand fan pages on social networking sites. Companies can place brand posts (containing videos, messages, quizzes, information, and other material) on these brand

  2. Fan Cart: The Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamore, Brian

    2016-01-01

    For years the fan cart has provided physics students with an excellent resource for exploring fundamental mechanics concepts such as acceleration, Newton's laws, impulse, momentum, work-energy, and energy conversions. "The Physics Teacher" has even seen some excellent do-it-yourself (DIY) fan carts and activities. If you are interested…

  3. Socioeconomic determinants of exposure to alcohol outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christopher; Gruenewald, Paul J; Ponicki, William R

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol outlets tend to be located in lower income areas, exposing lower income populations to excess risks associated with alcohol sales through these establishments. The objective of this study was to test two hypotheses about the etiology of these differential exposures based on theories of the economic geography of retail markets: (a) outlets will locate within or near areas of high alcohol demand, and (b) outlets will be excluded from areas with high land and structure rents. Data from the 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey were used to develop a surrogate for alcohol demand (i.e., market potential) at two census geographies for the city of Melbourne, Australia. Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models estimated multilevel spatial relationships between counts of bars, restaurants, and off-premise outlets and market potential, income, and zoning ordinances (Level 1: n = 8,914). Market potentials were greatest in areas with larger older age, male, English-speaking, high-income populations. Independent of zoning characteristics, greater numbers of outlets appeared in areas with greater market potentials and the immediately surrounding areas. Greater income excluded outlets in local and surrounding areas. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that alcohol outlets are located in areas with high demand and are excluded from high-income areas. These processes appear to take place at relatively small geographic scales, encourage the concentration of outlets in specific low-income areas, and represent a very general economic process likely to take place in communities throughout the world.

  4. Optimisation of Fan Blade Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaroop M P

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This report represents the optimization of fan blade angle in accordance with the various room temperatures that can be in the tropical area like India. We took this work mainly because cooling is an important factor now a days in every area where construction and rooms are there and ceiling fans are the most common device that is commonly used. So it is of utmost importance to tweak the performance of this ceiling fan so that it can function in its most optimal condition. We have modeled the fan in a modeling software (SOLIDWORKS and imported that into an analyzing software (ANSYS and a result is generated on the various blade angles (0, 4, 8 and 12.5 degrees in accordance to room conditions. A trend line curve with the obtained data is expected as the result which can be crucial for designing of future fans

  5. Alcohol outlets and clusters of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pridemore William

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol related violence continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. In particular, there is substantial evidence of an association between alcohol outlets and assault. However, because the specific geographic relationships between alcohol outlets and the distribution of violence remains obscured, it is important to identify the spatial linkages that may exist, enhancing public health efforts to curb both violence and morbidity. Methods The present study utilizes police-recorded data on simple and aggravated assaults in Cincinnati, Ohio. Addresses of alcohol outlets for Cincinnati, including all bars, alcohol-serving restaurants, and off-premise liquor and convenience stores were obtained from the Ohio Division of Liquor Control and geocoded for analysis. A combination of proximity analysis, spatial cluster detection approaches and a geographic information system were used to identify clusters of alcohol outlets and the distribution of violence around them. Results A brief review of the empirical work relating to alcohol outlet density and violence is provided, noting that the majority of this literature is cross-sectional and ecological in nature, yielding a somewhat haphazard and aggregate view of how outlet type(s and neighborhood characteristics like social organization and land use are related to assaultive violence. The results of the statistical analysis for Cincinnati suggest that while alcohol outlets are not problematic per se, assaultive violence has a propensity to cluster around agglomerations of alcohol outlets. This spatial relationship varies by distance and is also related to the characteristics of the alcohol outlet agglomeration. Specifically, spatially dense distributions of outlets appear to be more prone to clusters of assaultive violence when compared to agglomerations with a lower density of outlets. Conclusion With a more thorough understanding of the spatial relationships

  6. Experimental analysis on pressure drop and heat transfer of a terminal fan-coil unit with ice slurry as cooling medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Diz, Ruben; Uhia, Francisco J.; Dopazo, J. Alberto [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende No 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    This paper is concerned with the experimental analysis of a standard terminal fan-coil unit with ice slurry as coolant. The ice slurry was produced from an ethylene glycol 10 wt% aqueous solution. The pressure drop measurements are presented as a function of volumetric flow rate, ice concentration and Reynolds number. The experimental friction factors are obtained and discussed. The fan-coil capacity was experimentally determined for chilled water and melting ice slurry with inlet ice fractions around 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%, considering in each case three different fan rotation velocities. The fan-coil capacity is higher with melting ice slurry than with chilled water by factors between 3.7 and 4.9. The heat transfer analysis realizes that the air side thermal resistance controls the heat transfer process. Experimental results for the melt off rate of ice in the fan coil and the superheating at the fan-coil outlet are shown and discussed. (author)

  7. Complex Greenland outlet glacier flow captured

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschwanden, Andy; Fahnestock, Mark A.; Truffer, Martin

    2016-02-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet is losing mass at an accelerating rate due to increased surface melt and flow acceleration in outlet glaciers. Quantifying future dynamic contributions to sea level requires accurate portrayal of outlet glaciers in ice sheet simulations, but to date poor knowledge of subglacial topography and limited model resolution have prevented reproduction of complex spatial patterns of outlet flow. Here we combine a high-resolution ice-sheet model coupled to uniformly applied models of subglacial hydrology and basal sliding, and a new subglacial topography data set to simulate the flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Flow patterns of many outlet glaciers are well captured, illustrating fundamental commonalities in outlet glacier flow and highlighting the importance of efforts to map subglacial topography. Success in reproducing present day flow patterns shows the potential for prognostic modelling of ice sheets without the need for spatially varying parameters with uncertain time evolution.

  8. Using public health and community partnerships to reduce density of alcohol outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David H; Sparks, Michael; Yang, Evelyn; Schwartz, Randy

    2013-04-11

    Excessive alcohol use causes approximately 80,000 deaths in the United States each year. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recommends reducing the density of alcohol outlets - the number of physical locations in which alcoholic beverages are available for purchase either per area or per population - through the use of regulatory authority as an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. We briefly review the research on density of alcohol outlets and public health and describe the powers localities have to influence alcohol outlet density. We summarize Regulating Alcohol Outlet Density: An Action Guide, which describes steps that local communities can take to reduce outlet density and the key competencies and resources of state and local health departments. These include expertise in public health surveillance and evaluation methods, identification and tracking of outcome measures, geographic information systems (GIS) mapping, community planning and development of multisector efforts, and education of community leaders and policy makers. We illustrate the potential for partnerships between public health agencies and local communities by presenting a contemporary case study from Omaha, Nebraska. Public health agencies have a vital and necessary role to play in efforts to reduce alcohol outlet density. They are often unaware of the potential of this strategy and have strong potential partners in the thousands of community coalitions nationwide that are focused on reducing alcohol-related problems.

  9. Exposure to alcohol outlets in rural towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Lower-income populations are exposed to excess risks related to the presence of greater concentrations of alcohol outlets in their communities. Theory from economic geography suggests this is due to dynamic processes that shape urban retail markets (as outlets are attracted to areas of higher population density due to the increased demand but are excluded from higher-income areas due to land and structure rents). This mechanism may explain increased exposure to alcohol outlets for lower-income populations in rural areas. This study tests the hypothesis that the distribution of outlets between rural towns will reflect these market dynamics, such that outlets are concentrated in towns with (i) greater resident and temporary populations, (ii) with lower income, and (iii) which are adjacent to towns with higher income. Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models examined counts of bars, restaurants, and off-premise outlets within 353 discrete towns of rural Victoria, Australia (mean population = 4,236.0, SD = 15,754.1). Independent variables were each town's total resident population, net changes to population (due to commuter flow, visitors, and the flow of local residents to other towns [spatial interaction]), and income for the local and adjacent towns. Lower local income and increased income in adjacent towns were associated with more outlets of all types. Greater resident populations and greater net population due to commuters also predicted greater numbers of all outlets. Bars and restaurants were positively related to greater net population due to visitors and negatively related to spatial interaction. The economic geographic processes that lead to greater concentrations of alcohol outlets in lower-income areas are common to all retail markets. Lower-income populations are exposed to increased risk associated with the presence of additional outlets that service demand from nonresidents. In rural areas, these processes appear to operate between

  10. COOLING FAN AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Dupree

    2005-07-31

    Upcoming emissions regulations (Tiers 3, 4a and 4b) are imposing significantly higher heat loads on the cooling system than lesser regulated machines. This work was a suite of tasks aimed at reducing the parasitic losses of the cooling system, or improving the design process through six distinct tasks: 1. Develop an axial fan that will provide more airflow, with less input power and less noise. The initial plan was to use Genetic Algorithms to do an automated fan design, incorporating forward sweep for low noise. First and second generation concepts could not meet either performance or sound goals. An experienced turbomachinery designer, using a specialized CFD analysis program has taken over the design and has been able to demonstrate a 5% flow improvement (vs 10% goal) and 10% efficiency improvement (vs 10% goal) using blade twist only. 2. Fan shroud developments, using an 'aeroshroud' concept developed at Michigan State University. Performance testing at Michigan State University showed the design is capable of meeting the goal of a 10% increase in flow, but over a very narrow operating range of fan performance. The goal of 10% increase in fan efficiency was not met. Fan noise was reduced from 0 to 2dB, vs. a goal of 5dB at constant airflow. The narrow range of fan operating conditions affected by the aeroshroud makes this concept unattractive for further development at this time 3. Improved axial fan system modeling is needed to accommodate the numbers of cooling systems to be redesigned to meet lower emissions requirements. A CFD fan system modeling guide has been completed and transferred to design engineers. Current, uncontrolled modeling practices produce flow estimates in some cases within 5% of measured values, and in some cases within 25% of measured values. The techniques in the modeling guide reduced variability to the goal of + 5% for the case under study. 4. Demonstrate the performance and design versatility of a high performance fan. A

  11. Influence of the outlet air temperature on the thermohydraulic behaviour of air coolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Emila M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the optimal process conditions for the operation of air coolers demands a detailed analysis of their thermohydraulic behaviour on the one hand, and the estimation of the operating costs, on the other. One of the main parameters of the thermohydraulic behaviour of this type of equipment, is the outlet air temperature. The influence of the outlet air temperature on the performance of air coolers (heat transfer coefficient overall heat transfer coefficient, required surface area for heat transfer air-side pressure drop, fan power consumption and sound pressure level was investigated in this study. All the computations, using AirCooler software [1], were applied to cooling of the process fluid and the condensation of a multicomponent vapour mixture on two industrial devices of known geometries.

  12. A history of RPGs: Made by fans; played by fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Mason

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available I explore some aspects of the early history of tabletop role-playing games (RPGs that are perhaps not well known among media scholars, and which offer an alternative take on the idea of fan activity.

  13. Genes2FANs: connecting genes through functional association networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannenfelser Ruth

    2012-07-01

    finding that disease genes in many cancers are mostly connected through PPIs whereas other complex diseases, such as autism and type-2 diabetes, are mostly connected through FANs without PPIs, can guide better strategies for disease gene discovery. Genes2FANs is available at: http://actin.pharm.mssm.edu/genes2FANs.

  14. 14 CFR 29.908 - Cooling fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling fans. 29.908 Section 29.908... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.908 Cooling fans. For cooling fans that are a part of a powerplant installation the following apply: (a) Category A. For cooling fans...

  15. Sherlockology and Galactica.tv: Fan sites as gifts or exploited labor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Chin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Current scholarship on fandom has been preoccupied with examining the changing relationship between media industry professionals and fans. Media producers, celebrities, and industry insiders are increasingly establishing contact with fans, bypassing traditional media entertainment outlets to provide them with information directly. This contact is facilitated by social media networks. Fans serve as grassroots campaigners, promoters, and sometimes even public relations officers, acting as liaisons between media producers, celebrities, or industry insiders and fandom in general. In doing so, they take on roles traditionally fulfilled by professional PR and marketing personnel, and they do it for free, resulting in accusations that they are being exploited for their labor. However, fans do not necessarily view themselves as being exploited. We need to consider the possibility that they may regard their contributions as a service—or gift—to fandom. In examining the roles played by two popular fan sites, Sherlockology and Galactica.tv, I propose to examine how fan labor may be considered an act of gift giving in fandom.

  16. Stranger than fiction: Fan identity in cosplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Lamerichs

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Academic accounts of fan cultures usually focus on creative practices such as fan fiction, fan videos, and fan art. Through these practices, fans, as an active audience, closely interpret existing texts and rework them with texts of their own. A practice scarcely examined is cosplay ("costume play", in which fans produce their own costumes inspired by fictional characters. Cosplay is a form of appropriation that transforms and actualizes an existing story in close connection to the fan community and the fan's own identity. I provide analytical insights into this fan practice, focusing on how it influences the subject. Cosplay is understood as a performative activity and analyzed through Judith Butler's concept of performativity. I specifically focus on boundaries between the body and dress, and on those between reality and fiction. I aim to show that cosplay emphasizes the personal enactment of a narrative, thereby offering new perspectives on fan identity.

  17. Football – Feminisation – Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    the number of female fans in football has grown over the past years. A national sense of community, emotion and passion for the game is in particular reached during the international tournaments at live football spectacles and many female fans cheer and sing for ‘their’ team with the utmost conviction. Yet...... sociological theories. The objective is, first, to develop new knowledge and understanding about the impact of football on gendered identity construction and negotiation – in both the performance and the consumption of football – and how these female fans contribute to a European dialogue, the gender......-specific experience and acting out of fandom, and the intersection between gender and national/European identity. The second objective is to study the role of gender in football and fan cultures with regard to gender-specific patterns of cross-cultural communication and identification. The third objective...

  18. Early to Late Pleistocene history of debris-flow fan evolution in western Death Valley (California) using cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dühnforth, Miriam; Densmore, Alexander L.; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Allen, Philip; Kubik, Peter W.

    2017-03-01

    Debris-flow fans with depositional records over several 105 years may be useful archives for the understanding of fan construction by debris flows and post-depositional surface modification over long timescales. Reading these archives, however, requires that we establish the temporal and spatial pattern of debris-flow activity over time. We used a combination of geomorphic mapping of fan surface characteristics, digital topographic analysis, and cosmogenic radionuclide dating using 10Be and 26Al to study the evolution of the Warm Springs fan on the west side of southern Death Valley, California. The 10Be concentrations yield dates that vary from 989 ± 43 to 595 ± 17 ka on the proximal fan and between 369 ± 13 and 125 ± 5 ka on distal fan surfaces. The interpretation of these results as true depositional ages though is complicated by high inheritance with a minimum of 65 ka measured at the catchment outlet and of at least 125 ka at the distal fan. Results from the 26Al measurements suggest that most sample locations on the fan surfaces underwent simple exposure and were not affected by complex histories of burial and re-exposure. This implies that Warm Springs fan is a relatively stable landform that underwent several 105 years of fan aggradation before fan head incision caused abandonment of the proximal and central fan surfaces and deposition continued on a younger unit at the distal fan. We show that the primary depositional debris-flow morphology is eliminated over a time scale of less than 105 years, which prevents the delineation of individual debris flows as well as the precise reconstruction of lateral shifts in deposition as we find it on younger debris-flow fans. Secondary post-depositional processes control subsequent evolution of surface morphology with the dissection of planar surfaces while smoothing of convex-up interfluves between incised channels continues through time.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Capillary Flow in Fan-Shaped Asymmetric Interior Corner Under Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong-Qiang, Li; Wen-Hui, Cao; Ling, Liu

    2017-02-01

    Based on fluid mechanics theories, this research focuses on numerical simulation and analysis of capillary flow under microgravity in fan-shaped asymmetric interior corner. We analyze the effect the contact angle has on rising height in a fan-shaped asymmetric interior corner, and get the Concus-Finn condition the calculation of capillary flow needs to satisfy in fan-shaped asymmetric interior corner. Then we study the effect that different parameters of experimental medium and container configuration has on capillary flow in fan-shaped asymmetric interior corner when Concus-Finn condition is fulfilled. The conclusions of this paper has an important role in guiding the analytic solution of flow in a fan-shaped asymmetric interior corner under microgravity. We can also chose the appropriate experimental medium and design a container based on this paper.

  20. Application of a Two-dimensional Unsteady Viscous Analysis Code to a Supersonic Throughflow Fan Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Ronald J.

    1989-01-01

    The Rai ROTOR1 code for two-dimensional, unsteady viscous flow analysis was applied to a supersonic throughflow fan stage design. The axial Mach number for this fan design increases from 2.0 at the inlet to 2.9 at the outlet. The Rai code uses overlapped O- and H-grids that are appropriately packed. The Rai code was run on a Cray XMP computer; then data postprocessing and graphics were performed to obtain detailed insight into the stage flow. The large rotor wakes uniformly traversed the rotor-stator interface and dispersed as they passed through the stator passage. Only weak blade shock losses were computerd, which supports the design goals. High viscous effects caused large blade wakes and a low fan efficiency. Rai code flow predictions were essentially steady for the rotor, and they compared well with Chima rotor viscous code predictions based on a C-grid of similar density.

  1. Hydrogeomorphic processes and torrent control works on a large alluvial fan in the eastern Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, L.; Cavalli, M.; D'Agostino, V.

    2010-03-01

    Alluvial fans are often present at the outlet of small drainage basins in alpine valleys; their formation is due to sediment transport associated with flash floods and debris flows. Alluvial fans are preferred sites for human settlements and are frequently crossed by transport routes. In order to reduce the risk for economic activities located on or near the fan and prevent loss of lives due to floods and debris flows, torrent control works have been extensively carried out on many alpine alluvial fans. Hazard management on alluvial fans in alpine regions is dependent upon reliable procedures to evaluate variations in the frequency and severity of hydrogeomorphic processes and the long-term performance of the torrent training works. An integrated approach to the analysis of hydrogeomorphic processes and their interactions with torrent control works has been applied to a large alluvial fan in the southern Carnic Alps (northeastern Italy). Study methods encompass field observations, interpretation of aerial photographs, analysis of historical documents, and numerical modelling of debris flows. The overall performance of control works implemented in the early decades of 20th century was satisfactory, and a reduction of hazardous events was recognised from features observed in the field and in aerial photographs, as well as from the analysis of historical records. The 2-D simulation of debris flows confirms these findings, indicating that debris flow deposition would not affect urban areas or main roads, even in the case of a high-magnitude event. Present issues in the management of the studied alluvial fan are representative of situations frequently found in the European Alps and deal with the need for maintenance of the control structures and the pressures for land use changes aimed at the economic exploitation of the fan surface.

  2. Experimental and numerical analysis on noise reduction in a multi-blade centrifugal fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. J.; Y Cao, T.; Su, J.; Qin, G. L.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, analysis on noise source and reduction in a multi-blade centrifugal fan used for air-conditioners was carried out by experimental and numerical methods. Firstly, an experimental system using microphone mounted on volute surface for measuring surface pressure fluctuations of volute was designed and introduced, then surface pressure fluctuations of the whole volute for a multi-blade centrifugal fan were measured by this system, and the inlet noise for this fan was also obtained. And then, based on the experimental results, the aerodynamic noise source of the studied fan was analysed. The surface pressure fluctuations of the volute showed that there were largest surface pressure fluctuations near the volute tongue, and peaks appeared at the Blade Passing Frequency (BPF). The spectra of fan inlet noise showed that the peaks also appeared at BPF, and noise levels in a wide range of frequency were also larger. Secondly, the internal flow of the fan was simulated by commercial software under the same conditions with the experiment, and then the fluid flow and acoustic power field were obtained and discussed. The contours of acoustic power level showed that the larger noise was generated at the impeller area close to the outlet of scroll and at the volute tongue, which is same as that from experiment. Based on all of the results, we can find that the vortex noise is an important part of fan noise for the studied fan, and the rotation noise also cannot be neglected. Finally, several reduction methods that are thought to be effective based on experimental and numerical results were suggested.

  3. Hydrogeomorphic processes and torrent control works on a large alluvial fan in the eastern Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Marchi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial fans are often present at the outlet of small drainage basins in alpine valleys; their formation is due to sediment transport associated with flash floods and debris flows. Alluvial fans are preferred sites for human settlements and are frequently crossed by transport routes. In order to reduce the risk for economic activities located on or near the fan and prevent loss of lives due to floods and debris flows, torrent control works have been extensively carried out on many alpine alluvial fans. Hazard management on alluvial fans in alpine regions is dependent upon reliable procedures to evaluate variations in the frequency and severity of hydrogeomorphic processes and the long-term performance of the torrent training works. An integrated approach to the analysis of hydrogeomorphic processes and their interactions with torrent control works has been applied to a large alluvial fan in the southern Carnic Alps (northeastern Italy. Study methods encompass field observations, interpretation of aerial photographs, analysis of historical documents, and numerical modelling of debris flows. The overall performance of control works implemented in the early decades of 20th century was satisfactory, and a reduction of hazardous events was recognised from features observed in the field and in aerial photographs, as well as from the analysis of historical records. The 2-D simulation of debris flows confirms these findings, indicating that debris flow deposition would not affect urban areas or main roads, even in the case of a high-magnitude event. Present issues in the management of the studied alluvial fan are representative of situations frequently found in the European Alps and deal with the need for maintenance of the control structures and the pressures for land use changes aimed at the economic exploitation of the fan surface.

  4. Flow patterns and boundary conditions for inlet and outlet conduits of large pump system with low head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐磊; 陆伟刚; 陆林广; 董雷; 王兆飞

    2014-01-01

    The flow patterns in the inlet and outlet conduits have a decisive effect on the safe, stable, and highly efficient operation of the pump in a large pumping station with low head. The numerical simulation of three-dimensional (3D) turbulence flow in conduits is an important method to study the hydraulic performance and conduct an optimum hydraulic design for the conduits. With the analyses of the flow patterns in the inlet and outlet conduits, the boundary conditions of the numerical simulation for them can be determined. The main obtained conclusions are as follows: (i) Under normal operation conditions, there is essentially no pre-swirl flow at the impeller chamber inlet of an axial-flow pump system, based on which the boundary condition at the inlet conduit may be defined. (ii) The circulation at the guide vane outlet of an axial-flow pump system has a great effect on the hydraulic performance of the outlet conduit, and there is optimum circulation for the performance. Therefore, it is strongly suggested to design the guide vane according to the optimum circulation. (iii) The residual circulation at the guide vane outlet needs to be considered for the inlet boundary condition of the outlet conduit, and the value of the circulation may be measured in a specially designed test model.

  5. On Some Generalized Ky Fan Minimax Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Xianqiang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Some generalized Ky Fan minimax inequalities for vector-valued mappings are established by applying the classical Browder fixed point theorem and the Kakutani-Fan-Glicksberg fixed point theorem.

  6. Self-similar growth of an alluvial fan fed with bimodal sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Pauline; Voller, Vaughan; Paola, Chris; Devauchelle, Olivier; Lajeunesse, Eric; Barrier, Laurie; Métivier, François

    2016-04-01

    At the outlet of mountain ranges, rivers flow onto flatter lowlands. The associated change of slope causes sediment deposition. As the river is free to move laterally, it builds conical sedimentary structures called alluvial fans. Their location at the interface between erosional and depositional areas makes them valuable sedimentary archives. To decipher these sedimentary records, we need to understand the dynamics of their growth. We carried out a series of experiments to investigate the growth of alluvial fans fed with mixed sediments. The density difference between silica and coal sediments mimics a bimodal grain-size distribution in nature. The sediment and water discharges are constant during an experiment. During the run, we track the evolution of the surface pattern by digital imaging. At the end of each run, we acquire the fan topography using a scanning laser. Finally, we cut a radial cross section to visualize the sedimentary deposit. We observe there is a distinct slope break at the transition that dominates the overall curvature of the fan surface. Based on mass conservation and observations, we propose that this alluvial fan grows in a self-similar way, thus causing the transition between silica and coal deposits to be a straight line. The shape of the experimental transition accords with this prediction.

  7. Advance Noise Control Fan II: Test Rig Fan Risk Management Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, John

    2013-01-01

    Since 1995 the Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) has significantly contributed to the advancement of the understanding of the physics of fan tonal noise generation. The 9'x15' WT has successfully tested multiple high speed fan designs over the last several decades. This advanced several tone noise reduction concepts to higher TRL and the validation of fan tone noise prediction codes.

  8. Online Fan Fiction and Critical Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rebecca W.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores English-language-learning (ELL) youths' engagement with popular media through composing and publicly posting stories in an online fan fiction writing space. Fan fiction is a genre that lends itself to critical engagement with media texts as fans repurpose popular media to design their own narratives. Analyses describe how…

  9. Characterization and Effects of the Shock Losses in a Parallel Fan Station in the Underground Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Gou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep underground mines are highly energy consuming due to the need to overcome the growing airflow resistance. The multi-fan station ventilation system (MFSVS, formed by several parallel fans at different locations in an underground mine generally, has greatly reduced energy costs by using high-quantity and low-pressure energy-saving fans. However, experimental data still indicates that 30–70% of the fan pressure is used to overcome the severe shock losses in a parallel fan station (PFS, in spite of more than 80% operating efficiency, and the shock losses greatly weaken the superiority and the service capacity of PFS. Based on the investigation and measured data of several PFSs in a MFSVS in an underground mine, a three-dimensional PFS model was developed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD to demonstrate airflow performance and variation characteristics of velocity, pressure and turbulence. First, the fan characteristic in the PFS was discussed and compared with the fan operating performance under standard conditions; the shock losses were then presented from both sides of the inlet shock losses and the outlet shock losses in the PFS; meanwhile, the effects of blade angle variation and airflow mutual interference were conducted to determine whether they exert a significant influence on the shock losses. The results show that the shock losses are primarily generated in the range of 0 to 3.0 m from the fans’ exits, due to the intensely change in air velocity in the PFS. The study also provides several directions and references for recovering air pressure and reducing energy consumption in the parallel fans’ structure.

  10. Fan/Ram Duct Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-10-01

    mwm^mmmt c INPUT I ] H—f TRANSIENT ROUTINE P"" CONTROL """I FAN ] COMPRESSOR MAIN BURNER I DUCT HZ HIGH TURBINE in— LOW TURBINE I...and pressure ratio. 6. Low Turbine Low turbine characteristics, identical In form to those of the high turbine, are shown in figures 27 and 28. 7

  11. School Athletics and Fan Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Clifford; Horton, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Several hypotheses are developed regarding fans and their behavior based upon a review of the literature. An exploratory study is then described, in which participant observers at a university sports arena observed cases of aggressive behavior among the spectators. Based upon the literature review and the findings of the study, four…

  12. Computational Aerodynamic Simulations of an 840 ft/sec Tip Speed Advanced Ducted Propulsor Fan System Model for Acoustic Methods Assessment and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Computational Aerodynamic simulations of an 840 ft/sec tip speed, Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan system were performed at five different operating points on the fan operating line, in order to provide detailed internal flow field information for use with fan acoustic prediction methods presently being developed, assessed and validated. The fan system is a sub-scale, lownoise research fan/nacelle model that has undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15- foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, resulting in quality, detailed aerodynamic and acoustic measurement data. Details of the fan geometry, the computational fluid dynamics methods, the computational grids, and various computational parameters relevant to the numerical simulations are discussed. Flow field results for three of the five operating conditions simulated are presented in order to provide a representative look at the computed solutions. Each of the five fan aerodynamic simulations involved the entire fan system, excluding a long core duct section downstream of the core inlet guide vane. As a result, only fan rotational speed and system bypass ratio, set by specifying static pressure downstream of the core inlet guide vane row, were adjusted in order to set the fan operating point, leading to operating points that lie on a fan operating line and making mass flow rate a fully dependent parameter. The resulting mass flow rates are in good agreement with measurement values. The computed blade row flow fields for all five fan operating points are, in general, aerodynamically healthy. Rotor blade and fan exit guide vane flow characteristics are good, including incidence and deviation angles, chordwise static pressure distributions, blade surface boundary layers, secondary flow structures, and blade wakes. Examination of the computed flow fields reveals no excessive boundary layer separations or related secondary-flow problems. A few spanwise comparisons between

  13. Double-outlet right ventricle revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Ameneh; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L; Fricker, F Jay; Anderson, Robert H

    2017-08-01

    Double-outlet right ventricle is a form of ventriculoarterial connection. The definition formulated by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease is based on hearts with both arterial trunks supported in their greater part by a morphologically right ventricle. Bilateral infundibula and ventricular septal defects are highly debated criteria. This study examines the anatomic controversies surrounding double-outlet right ventricle. We show that hearts with double-outlet right ventricle can have atrioventricular-to-arterial valvular continuity. We emphasize the difference between the interventricular communication and the zone of deficient ventricular septation. The hearts examined were from the University of Florida in Gainesville; Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital, St Petersburg, Fla; and Lurie Children's Hospital, Chicago, Ill. Each specimen had at least 75% of both arterial roots supported by the morphologically right ventricle, with a total of 100 hearts examined. The morphologic method was used to assess anatomic features, including arterial-atrioventricular valvular continuity, subarterial infundibular musculature, and the location of the hole between the ventricles. Most hearts had fibrous continuity between one of the arterial valves and an atrioventricular valve, with bilateral infundibula in 23%, and intact ventricular septum in 5%. Bilateral infundibula are not a defining feature of double-outlet right ventricle, representing only 23% of the specimens in our sample. The interventricular communication can have a posteroinferior muscular rim or extend to become perimembranous (58%). Double-outlet right ventricle can exist with an intact ventricular septum. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of fan speed control system on the inlet air temperature uniformity in a solar dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F Mousavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drying process of agricultural products, fruits and vegetables are highly energy demanding and hence are the most expensive postharvest operation. Nowadays, the application of control systems in different area of science and engineering plays a key role and is considered as the important and inseparable parts of any industrial process. The review of literature indicates that enormous efforts have been donefor the intelligent control of solar driers and in this regard some simulation models are used through computer programming. However, because of the effect of air velocity on the inlet air temperature in dryers, efforts have been made to control the fan speed based ont he temperature of the absorber plate in this study, and the behavior of this system was compared with an ordinary dryer without such a control system. Materials and methods: In this study, acabinet type solar dryer with forced convection and 5kg capacity of fresh herbs was used. The dryer was equipped with a fan in the outlet chamber (the chimney for creating air flow through the dryer. For the purpose of research methods and automatic control of fan speed and for adjusting the temperature of the drying inlet air, a control system consisting of a series of temperature and humidity sensors and a microcontroller was designed. To evaluatethe effect of the system with fan speed control on the uniformity of air temperature in the drying chamber and hence the trend of drying process in the solar dryer, the dryer has been used with two different modes: with and without the control of fan speed, each in twodays (to minimize the errors of almost the same ambient temperature. The ambient air temperature during the four days of experiments was obtained from the regional Meteorological Office. Some fresh mint plants (Mentha longifolia directly harvested from the farm in the morning of the experiment days were used as the drying materials. Each experimental run continued for 9

  15. Characterization of fan spray atomizers through numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altimira, Mireia [Thermal and Fluids Engineering Division, Mechanical Engineering Department, Tecnun (University of Navarra), Manuel de Lardizabal 13, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)], E-mail: maltimira@tecnun.es; Rivas, Alejandro; Larraona, Gorka S.; Anton, Raul; Ramos, Juan Carlos [Thermal and Fluids Engineering Division, Mechanical Engineering Department, Tecnun (University of Navarra), Manuel de Lardizabal 13, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2009-04-15

    The present paper focuses on the mathematical modeling of industrial fan spray atomizers. The two-phase flow taking place inside the nozzle's tip and the exterior region near the outlet of three different industrial nozzle designs has been modeled and simulated. As a result, valuable information has been obtained regarding the influence of the inner geometry on the flow and also the formation and development of the liquid sheet. Characteristic magnitudes such as the discharge coefficient and the liquid sheet thickness factor have been obtained and validated through experimental measurements. The accumulation of liquid at the border of fan-shaped liquid sheets, also known as rim, has been studied in the analyzed designs, revealing the presence of a tangential velocity component in the liquid sheet and a relationship between the incoming flow rate of the rim and the angle of the liquid sheet. The dependence of the results on turbulence modeling has also been analyzed, drawing interesting conclusions regarding their influence on the liquid sheet mean flow characteristics and on the surrounding gas. Thus, the mathematical model developed has been proved to be a useful tool for nozzle manufacturers; it provides the most important characteristic parameters of the liquid sheet formed given certain nozzle geometry and, additionally, those data necessary to carry out studies of instability, breakup and atomization of the liquid sheet.

  16. Study of flow instability in a centrifugal fan based on energy gradient theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Meina; Dou, Hua-Shu; Ma, Xiaoyang [Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou (China); Xiao, Qing [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Chen, Yongning; He, Haijiang; Ye, Xinxue [Zhejiang Yilida Ventilator Co. Ltd, Taizhou (China)

    2016-02-15

    Flow instability in a centrifugal fan was studied using energy gradient theory. Numerical simulation was performed for the three dimensional turbulent flow field in a centrifugal fan. The flow is governed by the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the RNG k-ε turbulent model. The finite volume method was used to discretize the governing equations and the Semiimplicit method for pressure linked equation (SIMPLE) algorithm is employed to iterate the system of the equations. The interior flow field in the centrifugal fan and the distribution of the energy gradient function K are obtained at different flow rates. According to the energy gradient method, the area with larger value of K is the place where the flow loses stability easier. The results show that instability is easier to generate in the regions of impeller outlet and volute tongue. The air flow near the hub is more stable than that near the shroud. That is due to the influences of variations of the velocity and the inlet angle along the axial direction. With the decrease of the flow rate, instability zone in a blade channel moves to the impeller inlet from the outlet and the unstable regions in different channels develop in opposite direction to the rotation of impeller.

  17. WHO ARE FANS OF FACEBOOK FAN PAGES? AN ELECTRONIC WORD-OF-MOUTH COMMUNICATION PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Given its great business value and popularity, Facebook fan pages have attracted more and more attention in both industry and academia. Fans of Facebook fan pages play an important role in electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM communication. This study focused on the population of fans on Facebook fan pages and examined the differences between fans and non-fans in terms of demographics, social network sites (SNS use, Internet use, and online shopping behaviors. The results indicated that fans used SNS more frequently than non-fans. Additionally, from the eWOM perspective, the researchers moderated product types in the model of people’s word-of-mouth (WOM preferences and found that people had different preferences for eWOM and traditional WOM for different products. Traditional WOM is still the most important source of information for people when shopping online.

  18. [Surgical treatment of superior thoracic outlet syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaibov, A D; Kakhorov, A Z; Sadriev, O N; Yunusov, Kh A

    2015-01-01

    The authors present immediate and long-term results of treatment of 117 patients with superior thoracic outlet syndrome (STOS). There were different reasons for compression of neu- rovascular fascicle in outlet of the thorax. The costaclavicular syndrome was a reason in 48 patients, additional cervical ribs had 36 patients. Skalenus syndrome was noted in 26 cases, rudimentary cervical ribs or hypertrophy of cervical vertebrae C7 had 7 patients. Raynaud's syndrome took place in 19 cases. The required volume of diagnostic procedures and surgical treatment of STOS were determined according to the cause of the syndrome. Differentiated approach to the different forms of STOS was used in relation to dominant symptoms of the disease and reasons for compression of neurovascular fascicle. This allowed getting positive results in majority of patients (90,4%) in long- term period.

  19. Football – Feminisation – Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    Football has long time been considered as a genuine masculine domain. However, in the current football culture, the dualism of masculinity and femaleness is in progress. More and more women consume football which is in many countries considered the most popular sport, not only in Scandinavia where...... the number of female fans in football has grown over the past years. A national sense of community, emotion and passion for the game is in particular reached during the international tournaments at live football spectacles and many female fans cheer and sing for ‘their’ team with the utmost conviction. Yet......, the combination ‘women and football’ is still adhered to certain scepticism. Objective The overall objective of this Ph.D. thesis is to contribute to the body of knowledge associated with the distinct aspects of women’s football, female fandom and gender identities in European football drawing upon various...

  20. An Interview with Fan Wu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜

    2006-01-01

    Fan Wu grew up on a farm in South China, in the community to where her parents were exiled during the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). Wu moved to the United States in 1997, to attend Stanford University, and she began writing in 2002. She now lives and works in northern California, the United State. February Flowers is her first novel. During her recent book tour in China, she took time to talk to Women of China. Women of China (WOC): What inspired

  1. Analysis of the Sales Promotion in Choice Retail Outlet

    OpenAIRE

    HUMPOLCOVÁ, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    My bachelor thesis is aimed at sales promotion in a retail outlet. The main aim of this thesis is evaluate the current state of sales promotion in a selected retail outlet and based on the analysis of the current state of sales promotion in the outlet to try to propose some measures of improve.

  2. 7 CFR 993.108 - Non-human consumption outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-human consumption outlet. 993.108 Section 993.108... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.108 Non-human consumption outlet. Non-human consumption outlet means any livestock feeder or manufacturer of inedible syrup, industrial alcohol, animal...

  3. Alcohol Outlet Density and Intimate Partner Violence in a Nonmetropolitan College Town: Accounting for Neighborhood Characteristics and Alcohol Outlet Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Aleksandra J

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing evidence of an ecological association between alcohol outlet density and intimate partner violence. It is reasonable to assume, however, that not all types of alcohol outlets contribute equally to criminal behavior, and to date, most ecological studies have been of large urban cities. Using Bloomington, Indiana, block groups as units of analysis and controlling for several structural characteristics associated with violence rates, I estimated spatially lagged regression models to determine if the variation in alcohol outlet density, including total outlets and disaggregating by on- and off-premise outlets, is related to intimate partner violence density. Results suggested that total alcohol outlet density and off-premise alcohol outlet density were significantly associated with intimate partner violence density. On-premise alcohol outlet density was not significantly associated with intimate partner violence density. These results not only extend the geographic scope of this relationship beyond large metropolitan areas but also have important policy implications.

  4. The air quality in ventilation installations. Practical guidelines; Qualite de l'air dans les installations aerauliques. Guide pratique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeli, L. [France Air, 91 - Chilly Mazarin (France); Bianchina, M. [Unelvent, 93 - Le Bourget (France); Blazy, M. [Anjos, 01 - Torcieu (France); Boulanger, X. [Aldes, 21 - Chenove (France); Chiesa, M. [Atlantic (France); Duclos, M. [Groupe Titanair, 69 - Lyon (France); Hubert, D.; Kridorian, O. [Groupe Astato, Blanc Mesnil (France); Josserand, O. [Carrier (Belgium); Lancieux, C. [Camfil, 60 - Saint Martin Longueau (France); Lemaire, J.C. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); Petit, Ph. [Compagnie Industrielle d' Applications Thermiques ( CIAT ), 75 - Paris (France); Ribot, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Tokarek, S. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France); Bernard, A.M.; Tissot, A. [Centre Technique des Industries Aerauliques et Thermiques (CETIAT), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2004-07-01

    The present guide aims to provide design departments, maintenance companies and builders with practical guidelines and recommendations for the installation of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The objective is to ensure good Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) and to safeguard the health and well-being of the occupants. The guide deals with aspects of design, dimensioning, installation and servicing, all of which play a major role in guaranteeing IAQ and duct-work hygiene. These steps are reviewed for the principal ventilation systems met in both residential and commercial premises. The first part presents the system and draws the attention of the user to specific points which require particular care in term of IAQ. The second part details recommended practice component by component, in respect of design, installation and servicing. Application of these simple guidelines during the various project stages is essential, in order to ensure a good IAQ in ventilation systems. Content: introduction; good ventilation; systems: exhaust ventilation, balanced ventilation, air handling unit, terminal ventilation units, impact of systems on indoor air quality, components: air inlet, air filter, heat recovery unit, heating or cooling coil, humidifier, mechanical fan unit, cowl and hybrid ventilation fan, mixing box, ventilation duct-work, air outlet and air terminal device; references.

  5. High-Tip-Speed, Low-Loading Transonic Fan Stage. Part 1: Aerodynamic and Mechanical Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, L. C.; Vitale, N. G.; Ware, T. C.; Erwin, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    A high-tip-speed, low-loading transonic fan stage was designed to deliver an overall pressure ratio of 1.5 with an adiabatic efficiency of 86 percent. The design flow per unit annulus area is 42.0 pounds per square foot. The fan features a hub/tip ratio of 0.46, a tip diameter of 28.74 in. and operates at a design tip speed of 1600 fps. For these design conditions, the rotor blade tip region operates with supersonic inlet and supersonic discharge relative velocities. A sophisticated quasi-three-dimensional characteristic section design procedure was used for the all-supersonic sections and the inlet of the midspan transonic sections. For regions where the relative outlet velocities are supersonic, the blade operates with weak oblique shocks only.

  6. Acoustic Power Transmission Through a Ducted Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Envia, Ed

    2016-01-01

    For high-speed ducted fans, when the rotor flowfield is shock-free, the main contribution to the inlet radiated acoustic power comes from the portion of the rotor stator interaction sound field that is transmitted upstream through the rotor. As such, inclusion of the acoustic transmission is an essential ingredient in the prediction of the fan inlet noise when the fan tip relative speed is subsonic. This paper describes a linearized Euler based approach to computing the acoustic transmission of fan tones through the rotor. The approach is embodied in a code called LINFLUX was applied to a candidate subsonic fan called the Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP). The results from this study suggest that it is possible to make such prediction with sufficient fidelity to provide an indication of the acoustic transmission trends with the fan tip speed.

  7. Application of the aeroacoustic analogy to a shrouded, subsonic, radial fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccieri, Bryan M.; Richards, Christopher M.

    2016-12-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the predictive capability of computational aeroacoustics with respect to a shrouded, subsonic, radial fan. A three dimensional unsteady fluid dynamics simulation was conducted to produce aerodynamic data used as the acoustic source for an aeroacoustics simulation. Two acoustic models were developed: one modeling the forces on the rotating fan blades as a set of rotating dipoles located at the center of mass of each fan blade and one modeling the forces on the stationary fan shroud as a field of distributed stationary dipoles. Predicted acoustic response was compared to experimental data measured at two operating speeds using three different outlet restrictions. The blade source model predicted overall far field sound power levels within 5 dB averaged over the six different operating conditions while the shroud model predicted overall far field sound power levels within 7 dB averaged over the same conditions. Doubling the density of the computational fluids mesh and using a scale adaptive simulation turbulence model increased broadband noise accuracy. However, computation time doubled and the accuracy of the overall sound power level prediction improved by only 1 dB.

  8. Laser-Doppler Velocimetry Measurements Inside a Backward Curved Centrifugal Fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Miin Liou

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser-Doppler velocimetry (LDV measurements are presented of relative mean velocity and turbulence intensity components inside the impeller passage of a centrifugal fan with twelve backward curved blades at design, under-design, and over-design flow rates. Additional LDV measurements were also performed at the volute outlet to examine the uniformity of the outlet flow for the three selected flow rates. Complementary flow visualization results in the tongue region are further presented. It is found that the number of characteristic flow regions and the average turbulence level increase with decreasing air flow rate. For the case of under-design flow rate, there are a through-flow region on the suction side, a reverse flow region on the pressure side, and a shear layer region in between. The corresponding average turbulence intensity is as high as 9.1% of blade tip velocity.

  9. 先天性右心室双出口的新分型方法及其对术式选择的指导作用%Value of a novel categorization of congenital double-outlet right ventricle on guiding the choice of surgical approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逄坤静; 孟红; 王浩; 胡盛寿; 花中东; 潘湘斌; 李守军

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨先天性右心室双出口(DORV)的新分型方法,及其对术式选择的指导作用.方法 回顾性分析2003年5月至2014年9月在阜外心血管病医院治疗的521例DORV患者的临床资料.根据大动脉的位置关系[分为大动脉关系正常(NA)和大动脉关系异常(AA)]、室间隔缺损与大动脉是否相关[分为大动脉相关室间隔缺损(VSD-A)和远离大动脉的室间隔缺损(VSD-N)]和肺动脉口是否狭窄[分为合并狭窄(POTO)和不合并狭窄但合并肺动脉高压(PHTN)],将DORV分为8型:Ⅰ型(NA,VSD-A,PHTN)、Ⅱ型(NA,VSD-A,POTO)、Ⅲ型(NA,VSD-N,PHTN)、Ⅳ型(NA,VSD-N,POTO)、Ⅴ型(AA,VSD-A,PHTN)、Ⅵ型(AA,VSD-A,POTO)、Ⅶ型(AA,VSD-N,PHTN)和Ⅷ型(AA,VSD-N,POTO).通过超声心动图(部分患者结合心血管造影和CT检查结果)对患者的DORV进行分型,分析此分型方法的可行性,及其对外科术式选择的指导作用.结果 521例DORV患者的分型结果中,Ⅰ型90例(17.3%),Ⅱ型94例(18.0%),Ⅲ型33例(6.3%),Ⅳ型34例(6.5%),Ⅴ型64例(12.3%),Ⅵ型61例(11.7%),Ⅶ型33例(6.3%),Ⅷ型112例(21.5%),新分型方法涵盖了全部DORV病例.对照术中探查或未行手术者的心血管造影和CT检查结果,DORV新分型的诊断准确率为100%.在排除了双心室矫治的禁忌证后,不同分型的DORV对应选择不同的外科术式,有效指导了外科治疗方案的选择.结论 新分型方法能够准确诊断DORV病变,对外科治疗方案及术式的选择具有指导作用.%Objective To explore the feasibility and value of a new categorization of double outlet right ventricular (DORV) on guiding the optimal choices of surgical approaches.Methods Five hundred and twenty one DORV patients diagnosed by echocardiography,angiocardiography and CT at Fuwai Hospital from May 2003 to September 2014 were enrolled in this retrospective study.Congenital DORV was categorized according to three basic factors as follows:the positional

  10. Computing Gröbner fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, K.; Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Thomas, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents algorithms for computing the Gröbner fan of an arbitrary polynomial ideal. The computation involves enumeration of all reduced Gröbner bases of the ideal. Our algorithms are based on a uniform definition of the Gröbner fan that applies to both homogeneous and non...... are not always normal fans of polyhedra in which case reverse search applies automatically. Computational results using our implementation of these algorithms in the software package Gfan are included....

  11. REFINEMENTS OF THE FAN-TODD'S INEQUALITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄国基

    2002-01-01

    Refinements to inequalities oninner product spaces are presented. In this respect, inequalities dealt with in this paper are: Cauchy's inequality, Bessel's inequality, Fan-Todd's inequality and Fan-Todd's determinantal inequality. In each case, a strictly increasing function is put forward, which lies between the smaller and the larger quantities of each inequality. As a result,an improved condition for equality of the Fan-Todd's determinantal inequality is deduced.

  12. The Challenges of Teaching Fan Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephan, Matthias

    , has only gained in popularity. Yet, the nature of the course in question, an interdisciplinary open elective, has meant a class with a variety of backgrounds, preparation, and expectations from fan studies and its critical apparatus. In addition, due to the course being taught in English, it attracts...... a conversation about the best methods for teaching fan studies, and help to open up fan studies to be integrated into other courses and programs....

  13. Analyzing the shape parameter effects on the performance of the mixed-flow fan using CFD and Factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Uk Hee; Kim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Sung; Kim, Jin Hyuk; Choi, Young Seok [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Fans are representative turbo-machinery widely used for ventilation throughout the industrial world. Recently, as the importance of energy saving has been magnified with the fans, the demand for the fans with high efficiency and performance has been increasing. The representative method for enhancing the performance includes design optimization; in practice, fan performance can be improved by changing the shape parameters such as those of meridional plane, impeller, and diffuser. Before optimizing the efficient design, a process of screening to select important design parameters is essential. The present study aimed to analyze the effects of mixed-flow fans' shape parameters on fan performance (static pressure and fan static efficiency) and derive optimum models based on the results. In this study, the shape parameters considered in the impeller domain are as follows: tip clearance, number of blades, beta angle of Leading edge (LE) in the blade, and beta angle of Trailing edge (TE) in the blade. The shape parameters considered in the diffuser domain are as follows: meridional length of the Guide vane (GV), number of GV, beta angle of LE in the GV and beta angle of TE in the GV. The effects of individual shape parameters were analyzed using the CFD (Computational fluid dynamic) and DOE (Design of experiments) methods. The reliability of CFD was verified through the comparison between preliminary fan model's experiment results and CFD results, and screening processes were implemented through 24-1 fractional factorial design. From the analysis of DOE results, it could be seen that the tip clearance and the number of blades in the impeller domain greatly affected the fan performance, and the beta angle of TE at the GV in the diffuser domain greatly affected the fan performance. Finally, the optimum models with improved fan performance were created using linear regression equations derived from 24-1 fractional factorial design.

  14. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance of a 1.5-pressure-ratio, 1.83-meter (6 ft) diameter fan stage for turbofan engines (QF-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, R. P.; Lucas, J. G.; Balombin, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The fan was externally driven by an electric motor. Design features for low-noise generation included the elimination of inlet guide vanes, long axial spacing between the rotor and stator blade rows, and the selection of blade-vane numbers to achieve duct-mode cutoff. The fan QF-2 results were compared with those of another full-scale fan having essentially identical aerodynamic design except for nozzle geometry and the direction of rotation. The fan QF-2 aerodynamic results were also compared with those obtained from a 50.8 cm rotor-tip-diameter model of the reverse rotation fan QF-2 design. Differences in nozzle geometry other than exit area significantly affected the comparison of the results of the full-scale fans.

  15. Operativ behandling af thoracic outlet syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkeland, Peter; Stiasny, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    We present three cases with longstanding true neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome. All patients had aching pain in the shoulder, arm and ulnar border of the hand. On examination, we found atrophy of the hand muscles. Electromyography revealed signs of compromised function of the inferior trunk...... of the brachial plexus. At surgery, we found and severed a fibrous band that compressed the inferior trunk. Postoperatively, the pain subsided and fine hand movements improved. One patient had no cervical rib, however, in the two other cases we found rudimentary cervical ribs. Magnetic resonance imaging...

  16. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Following Breast Implant Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raakhi Mistry, MBChB

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We present a patient with bilateral breast implant rupture who developed severe locoregional silicone granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Poly Implant Prothese silicone implants had been used for bilateral breast augmentation 5 years prior. Extracapsular implant rupture and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy indicated explantation, capsulectomy, and selective lymph node excision. Histology demonstrated silicone lymphadenopathy with no evidence of malignancy. Over the subsequent 12 months, she developed progressive locoregional lymphadenopathy involving bilateral cervical, axillary, and internal mammary groups, resulting in bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome. We report the unusual presentation, progression, and the ultimate surgical management of this patient.

  17. Thoracic outlet syndrome following breast implant rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Raakhi; Caplash, Yugesh; Giri, Pratyush; Kearney, Daniel; Wagstaff, Marcus

    2015-03-01

    We present a patient with bilateral breast implant rupture who developed severe locoregional silicone granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Poly Implant Prothese silicone implants had been used for bilateral breast augmentation 5 years prior. Extracapsular implant rupture and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy indicated explantation, capsulectomy, and selective lymph node excision. Histology demonstrated silicone lymphadenopathy with no evidence of malignancy. Over the subsequent 12 months, she developed progressive locoregional lymphadenopathy involving bilateral cervical, axillary, and internal mammary groups, resulting in bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome. We report the unusual presentation, progression, and the ultimate surgical management of this patient.

  18. Active Control of Fan Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobuhiko YAMASAKI; Hirotoshi TAJIMA

    2008-01-01

    In the wake-rotor interaction fan noise, a number of the interacting modes at the blade passing frequency (BPF)and its harmonics are generated which are prescribed by the number of stator and rotor blades etc. In the present study, the dominant mode is tried to be suppressed by the secondary sound from the loudspeaker actuators. One of the novel features of the present system is the adoption of the control board with the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) hardware and the LabVIEW software to synchronize the circumferentially installed loudspeaker actuators with the relative location of rotational blades under arbitrary fan rotational speeds. The experiments were conducted under the conditions of three rotational speeds of 2004, 3150, and 4002 [rpm]. The reduction in the sound pressure level (SPL) was observed for all three rotational speeds. The sound pressure level at the BPF was reduced approximately 13 [dB] for 2004 [rpm] case, but not so large reduction was attained for other cases probably due to the inefficiency of the loudspeaker actuators at high frequencies

  19. Computational Aerodynamic Simulations of a 1215 ft/sec Tip Speed Transonic Fan System Model for Acoustic Methods Assessment and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Computational Aerodynamic simulations of a 1215 ft/sec tip speed transonic fan system were performed at five different operating points on the fan operating line, in order to provide detailed internal flow field information for use with fan acoustic prediction methods presently being developed, assessed and validated. The fan system is a sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle model that has undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Details of the fan geometry, the computational fluid dynamics methods, the computational grids, and various computational parameters relevant to the numerical simulations are discussed. Flow field results for three of the five operating points simulated are presented in order to provide a representative look at the computed solutions. Each of the five fan aerodynamic simulations involved the entire fan system, which for this model did not include a split flow path with core and bypass ducts. As a result, it was only necessary to adjust fan rotational speed in order to set the fan operating point, leading to operating points that lie on a fan operating line and making mass flow rate a fully dependent parameter. The resulting mass flow rates are in good agreement with measurement values. Computed blade row flow fields at all fan operating points are, in general, aerodynamically healthy. Rotor blade and fan exit guide vane flow characteristics are good, including incidence and deviation angles, chordwise static pressure distributions, blade surface boundary layers, secondary flow structures, and blade wakes. Examination of the flow fields at all operating conditions reveals no excessive boundary layer separations or related secondary-flow problems.

  20. Effect of Trailing Edge Flow Injection on Fan Noise and Aerodynamic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, E. Brian; Woodward, Richard P.; Podboy, Gary G.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental investigation using trailing edge blowing for reducing fan rotor/guide vane wake interaction noise was completed in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel. Data were acquired to measure noise, aerodynamic performance, and flow features for a 22" tip diameter fan representative of modern turbofan technology. The fan was designed to use trailing edge blowing to reduce the fan blade wake momentum deficit. The test objective was to quantify noise reductions, measure impacts on fan aerodynamic performance, and document the flow field using hot-film anemometry. Measurements concentrated on approach, cutback, and takeoff rotational speeds as those are the primary conditions of acoustic interest. Data are presented for a 2% (relative to overall fan flow) trailing edge injection rate and show a 2 dB reduction in Overall Sound Power Level (OAPWL) at all fan test speeds. The reduction in broadband noise is nearly constant and is approximately 1.5 dB up to 20 kHz at all fan speeds. Measurements of tone noise show significant variation, as evidenced by reductions of up to 6 dB in the 2 BPF tone at 6700 rpm.: and increases of nearly 2 dB for the 4 BPF tone at approach speed. Aerodynamic performance measurements show the fan with 2 % injection has an overall efficiency that is comparable to the baseline fan and operates, as intended, with nearly the same pressure ratio and mass flow parameters. Hot-film measurements obtained at the approach operating condition indicate that mean blade wake filling in the tip region was not as significant as expected. This suggests that additional acoustic benefits could be realized if the trailing edge blowing could be modified to provide better filling of the wake momentum deficit. Nevertheless, the hot-film measurements indicate that the trailing edge blowing provided significant reductions in blade wake turbulence. Overall, these results indicate that further work may be required to fully understand the proper

  1. Comparison of solar panel cooling system by using dc brushless fan and dc water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwan, Y. M.; Leow, W. Z.; Irwanto, M.; M, Fareq; Hassan, S. I. S.; Safwati, I.; Amelia, A. R.

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss comparison of solar panel cooling system by using DC brushless fan and DC water pump. Solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation is an interesting technique to reduce non-renewable energy consumption and as a renewable energy. The temperature of PV modules increases when it absorbs solar radiation, causing a decrease in efficiency. A solar cooling system is design, construct and experimentally researched within this work. To make an effort to cool the PV module, Direct Current (DC) brushless fan and DC water pump with inlet/outlet manifold are designed for constant air movement and water flow circulation at the back side and front side of PV module representatively. Temperature sensors were installed on the PV module to detect temperature of PV. PIC microcontroller was used to control the DC brushless fan and water pump for switch ON or OFF depend on the temperature of PV module automatically. The performance with and without cooling system are shown in this experiment. The PV module with DC water pump cooling system increase 3.52%, 36.27%, 38.98%in term of output voltage, output current, output power respectively. It decrease 6.36 °C compare than to PV module without DC water pump cooling system. While DC brushless fan cooling system increase 3.47%, 29.55%, 32.23%in term of output voltage, output current, and output power respectively. It decrease 6.1 °C compare than to PV module without DC brushless fan cooling system. The efficiency of PV module with cooling system was increasing compared to PV module without cooling system; this is because the ambient temperature dropped significantly. The higher efficiency of PV cell, the payback period of the system can be shorted and the lifespan of PV module can also be longer.

  2. A Comparative Analysis of the Distributions of KFC and McDonald’s Outlets in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yikang Rui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mainland China has become one of the most important markets for international fast-food chains over the past decade. To study the regional spread of KFC and McDonald’s outlets in Chinese cities, the correlation of their distributions and degree of market expansion were explored and compared to analyze both the local and the global spatial autocorrelations. A geographically weighted Poisson regression model was also used to examine the influence of demographic, economic, and geographic factors on their spatial distributions. The findings of this comparative study reveal the site selection criteria at the city level by studying the differences and similarities in outlet distributions for KFC and McDonald’s. The presented results can guide other chains to enhance business location planning and formulate regional development policy.

  3. Impedance plethysmographic observations in thoracic outlet syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerurkar S

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Forty patients with symptoms of neuro-vascular compression in the upper extremities were subjected to impedance plethysmographic study using Parulkar′s method. Two patients recorded decreased blood flow (BFI in supine position and were diagnosed as having partial occlusion at subclavian level. Sixteen of the patients recorded decreased BFI on 90 degrees abduction and hyper-abduction. Twelve of these patients had radiological evidence of anomalous cervicle ribs. In remaining four patients extrinsic impression on the subclavian artery due to fibrous deposits was confirmed by arteriography. Remaining 22 patients recorded normal impedance plethysmograms. Impedance plethysmography thus provided a non-invasive modality for confirmation of vascular compression in thoracic outlet syndrome.

  4. Highly Loaded Fan by Using Tandem Cascade Rotor Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hiroaki; Suga, Shinya; Matsuoka, Akinori

    For axial flow compressors and fans in the aircraft engines higher pressure ratio is required in order to attain the high thrust engines. In this study, the fan with the tandem cascades was introduced to increase the fan pressure ratio. The use of tandem cascades in the fan allows savings in length and weight and therefore a compact fan could be built. The design of fan with tandem cascades and the fan testing were carried out to develop the high pressure ratio fan for the Air Turbo Ramjet (ATR) propulsion system. The ATR is a combined cycle engine which performs like a turbojet engine at subsonic speeds and a ramjet at supersonic speeds. In particular, high fan pressure ratio contributes to increase the engine thrust during subsonic flight at which the engine does not make use of ram effect. The results of the fan testing indicate that the pressure ratio of 2.2 is achieved in single stage fan.

  5. Bright Streaks and Dark Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The south polar region of Mars is covered every year by a layer of carbon dioxide ice. In a region called the 'cryptic terrain,' the ice is translucent and sunlight can penetrate through the ice to warm the surface below. The ice layer sublimates (evaporates) from the bottom. The dark fans of dust seen in this image come from the surface below the layer of ice, carried to the top by gas venting from below. The translucent ice is 'visible' by virtue of the effect it has on the tone of the surface below, which would otherwise have the same color and reflectivity as the fans. Bright streaks in this image are fresh frost. The CRISM team has identified the composition of these streaks to be carbon dioxide. Observation Geometry Image PSP_003113_0940 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 26-Mar-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.8 degrees latitude, 106.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 244.9 km (153.0 miles). At this distance the image scale is 49.0 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 147 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:20 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 79 degrees, thus the sun was about 11 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 207.6 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  6. Dynamic response of Hovercraft lift fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, D. D.

    1981-08-01

    Hovercraft lift fans are subjected to varying back pressure due to wave action and craft motions when these vehicles are operating in a seaway. The oscillatory back pressure causes the fans to perform dynamically, exhibiting a hysteresis type of response and a corresponding degradation in mean performance. Since Hovercraft motions are influenced by variations in lift fan pressure and discharge, it is important to understand completely the nature of the dynamic performance of lift fans in order to completely solve the Hovercraft seakeeping problem. The present study was performed to determine and classify the instabilities encountered in a centrifugal fan operating against time-varying back pressure. A model-scale experiment was developed in which the fan discharge was directed into a flow-measuring device, terminating in a rotating valve which produced an oscillatory back pressure superimposed upon a mean aerodynamic resistance. Pressure and local velocity were measured as functions of time at several locations in the fan volute. The measurements permitted the identification of rotating (or propagating) stall in the impeller. One cell and two cell configurations were classified and the transient condition connecting these two configurations was observed. The mechanisms which lead to rotating stall in a centrifugal compressor are presented and discussed with specific reference to Hovercraft applications.

  7. Fan-structure waves in shear ruptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Boris

    2016-04-01

    This presentation introduces a recently identified shear rupture mechanism providing a paradoxical feature of hard rocks - the possibility of shear rupture propagation through the highly confined intact rock mass at shear stress levels significantly less than frictional strength. According to the fan-mechanism the shear rupture propagation is associated with consecutive creation of small slabs in the fracture tip which, due to rotation caused by shear displacement of the fracture interfaces, form a fan-structure representing the fracture head. The fan-head combines such unique features as: extremely low shear resistance (below the frictional strength), self-sustaining stress intensification in the rupture tip (providing easy formation of new slabs), and self-unbalancing conditions in the fan-head (making the failure process inevitably spontaneous and violent). An important feature of the fan-mechanism is the fact that for the initial formation of the fan-structure an enhanced local shear stress is required, however, after completion of the fan-structure it can propagate as a dynamic wave through intact rock mass at shear stresses below the frictional strength. Paradoxically low shear strength of pristine rocks provided by the fan-mechanism determines the correspondingly low transient strength of the lithosphere, which favours generation of new earthquake faults in the intact rock mass adjoining pre-existing faults in preference to frictional stick-slip instability along these faults. The new approach reveals an alternative role of pre-existing faults in earthquake activity: they represent local stress concentrates in pristine rock adjoining the fault where special conditions for the fan-mechanism nucleation are created, while further dynamic propagation of the new fault (earthquake) occurs at low field stresses even below the frictional strength.

  8. The Effects of Inlet Box Aerodynamics on the Mechanical Performance of a Variable Pitch in Motion Fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Sheard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes research involving an in-service failure of a “variable pitch in motion” fan’s blade bearing. Variable pitch in motion fans rotate at a constant speed, with the changing blade angle varying the load. A pitch-change mechanism facilitates the change in blade angle. A blade bearing supports each blade enabling it to rotate. The author observed that as the fan aerodynamic stage loading progressively increased, so did the rate of blade-bearing wear. The reported research addressed two separate, but linked, needs. First, the ongoing need to increase fan pressure development capability required an increase in fan loading. This increase was within the context of an erosive operating regime which systematically reduced fan pressure development capability. The second need was to identify the root cause of blade-bearing failures. The author addressed the linked needs using a computational analysis, improving the rotor inflow aerodynamic characteristics through an analysis of the inlet box and design of inlet guide vanes to control flow nonuniformities at the fan inlet. The results of the improvement facilitated both an increase in fan-pressure-developing capability and identification of the root cause of the blade-bearing failures.

  9. Promoting fan labor and "all things Web": A case study of Tosh.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Helens-Hart

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Television programs are increasingly paired with interactive media platforms in attempts to reach fragmented audiences though a medium where millions are now seeking entertainment—the Internet. Programs' online presences are cultivated and promoted by paid staffers and unpaid fan laborers. Producers monetize fan activity by guiding its form on their sites. Utilizing the concepts of sticky and spreadable media, an analysis of the Comedy Central show Tosh.0 Web site demonstrates how producers can promote particular types of interactivity through the content and architecture of a multimodal Web site. By designing a site that centralizes the use of popular social media, the producers of Tosh.0 concentrate fans and benefit from their creative labor. Furthermore, this study serves as a test for the scope and usefulness of the concepts of sticky and spreadable media in revealing strategic Web site design that encourages specific types of user participation.

  10. Detailed analysis of fan-shaped jets in three dimensional numerical simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-Lin Jiang; K. Shibata; H. Isobe; Cheng Fang

    2011-01-01

    We performed three dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations to study the magnetic reconnection using an initially shearing magnetic field configuration (force free field with a current sheet in the middle of the computational box). It is shown that there are two types of reconnection jets: the ordinary reconnection jets and fan-shaped jets, which are formed along the guide magnetic field. The fan-shaped jets are significantly different from the ordinary reconnection jets which are ejected by magnetic tension force. There are two driving forces for accelerating the fan-shaped jets. One is the Lorentz force which initially dominates the motion of fluid elements, and then the gas pressure gradient force accelerates the fluid elements in the later stage. The dependence on magnetic reconnection angle and resistivity value has also been studied. The formation and evolution of these jets provide a new understanding of dynamic magnetohydrodynamicjets.

  11. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance of a 1.83-meter (6-ft) diameter 1.25-pressure-ratio fan (QF-8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, R. P.; Lucas, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    A 1.25-pressure-ratio 1.83-meter (6-ft) tip diameter experimental fan stage with characteristics suitable for engine application on STOL aircraft was tested for acoustic and aerodynamic performance. The design incorporated proven features for low noise, including absence of inlet guide vanes, low rotor blade tip speed, low aerodynamic blade loading, and long axial spacing between the rotor and stator blade rows. The fan was operated with five exhaust nozzle areas. The stage noise levels generally increased with a decrease in nozzle area. Separation of the acoustic one-third octave results into broadband and pure-tone components showed the broadband noise to be greater than the corresponding pure-tone components. The sideline perceived noise was highest in the rear quadrants. The acoustic results of QF-8 were compared with those of two similar STOL application fans in the test series. The QF-8 had somewhat higher relative noise levels than those of the other two fans. The aerodynamic results of QF-8 and the other two fans were compared with corresponding results from 50.8-cm (20-in.) diam scale models of these fans and design values. Although the results for the full-scale and scale models of the other two fans were in reasonable agreement for each design, the full-scale fan QF-8 results showed poor performance compared with corresponding model results and design expectations. Facility effects of the full-scale fan QF-8 installation were considered in analyzing this discrepancy.

  12. Disabled Woman Heads Beijing Fans Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    THE next time you go to a football match in Beijing, look around the edge of the field. You might see a young woman in a wheelchair cheering her favorite team. Wu Jinghong is more than a handicapped person, more than a woman football fan. She is the head of the Beijing Football Fans Association, a group more than 1,000 members strong. Wu alone started the association in 1988 and because she is a woman, encouraged other women fans to openly support their favorite teams.

  13. Sherlock (Holmes in Japanese (fan works [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Morimoto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available I explore the history of Japanese writing centered on Sherlock Holmes as a means of interrogating the 2014 BBC Sherlock pastiche John and Sherlock Casebook 1: Jon, zenchi renmei e iku (The stark naked league, written by Japanese Sherlockian Kitahara Naohiko for mainstream publication by the publishing house Hayakawa shobō. I argue that exploration of the Japanese (fan cultural contexts of Kitahara's book begins to reveal the limits of the Anglo-American-centered framework through which fan studies scholars explore fan/producer relationships.

  14. 30 CFR 75.311 - Main mine fan operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... back-up fan system— (1) Only persons necessary to evaluate the effect of the fan stoppage or restart... back-up fan system is used that does not provide the ventilating quantity provided by the main mine fan... fire or other products of combustion are approved in the ventilation plan. (g) If multiple mine...

  15. Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O. Chaiton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest has been increasing in regulating the location and number of tobacco vendors as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program. The objective of this paper is to examine the distribution of tobacco outlets in a large jurisdiction, to assess: (1 whether tobacco outlets are more likely to be located in vulnerable areas; and (2 what proportion of tobacco outlets are located close to schools. Retail locations across the Province of Ontario from Ministry of Health Promotion data were linked to 2006 Census data at the neighbourhood level. There was one tobacco retail outlet for every 1,000 people over age 15 in Ontario. Density of outlets varied by public health unit, and was associated with the number of smokers. Tobacco outlets were more likely to be located in areas that had high neighbourhood deprivation, in both rural and urban areas. Outlets were less likely to be located in areas with high immigrant populations in urban areas, with the reverse being true for rural areas. Overall, 65% of tobacco retailers were located within 500 m of a school. The sale of tobacco products is ubiquitous, however, neighbourhoods with lower socio-economic status are more likely to have easier availability of tobacco products and most retailers are located within walking distance of a school. The results suggest the importance of policies to regulate the location of tobacco retail outlets.

  16. Steroid responsive eosinophilic gastric outlet obstruction in a child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Kellermayer; Nina Tatevian; William Klish; Robert J Shulman

    2008-01-01

    Gastric outlet obstruction is a rare complication of eosinophilic gastroenteritis, most commonly treated surgically. We report a case of eosinophilic gastric outlet obstruction in a child that responded to conservative medical management. A brief review of this clinical entity is also provided.

  17. Benign Strictures of the Esophagus and Gastric Outlet: Interventional Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Shin, Ji Hoon; Song, Ho Young [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Benign strictures of the esophagus and gastric outlet are difficult to manage conservatively and they usually require intervention to relieve dysphagia or to treat the stricture-related complications. In this article, authors review the non-surgical options that are used to treat benign strictures of the esophagus and gastric outlet, including balloon dilation, temporary stent placement, intralesional steroid injection and incisional therapy

  18. 49 CFR 179.200-17 - Bottom outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... valve due to stresses or shocks incident to transportation. (5) Bottom outlet nozzle of interior valves... the root of the “V” be more than 1/4 inch. The outlet nozzle on interior valves or the valve body on... inside closure seat or plug. In no case may the nozzle wall thickness at the root of the “V” be more...

  19. A CLINICAL STUDY ON GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latchu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO is obstruction in the first part of duodenum secondary to cicatrised duodenal ulcer or proximally where the diagnosis of carcinoma is most probable. GOO can be a diagnostic and treatment dilemma. Once a mechanical obstruction is confirmed, differentiate between benign and malignant processes. Cicatrized duodenal ulcer was the most common cause of GOO. But with increased awareness, change in the dietary habits and availability of H2 receptor blockers and Proton Pump Inhibitors and H pylori kits all have resulted in decreased incidence of patients requiring surgery and also the complications like pyloric stenosis have reduced. At the same time the incidence of antral carcinoma of stomach producing GOO has comparatively increased, which may be due to increased early diagnosis of the condition with the help of flexible fibro optic endoscope. AIMS & OBJECTIVES To study and identify the cause of cases of GOO with respect to benign peptic ulcer and malignancy of stomach. MATERIALS AND METHODS An observational study comparing of 30 cases of GOO. An elaborate study of the cases with regard to history, clinical features, routine and special investigation, pre operative treatment, operative findings, post operative management and complications in the post operative period is done. Apart from routine surgical profile special investigations like serum electrolytes, barium meal study, Upper GI Endoscopy and ultrasound abdomen and pelvis will be carried. For peptic ulcer disease truncal vagotomy with posterior gastrojejunostomy was done and for carcinoma partial gastrectomy with Billroth II reconstruction or anterior GJ or palliative resection with anterior GJ were done. INCLUSION CRITERIA 1. Peptic ulcer disease 2. Carcinoma pyloric antrum, 3. Benign neoplasm of stomach. EXCLUSION CRITERIA 1. Carcinoma stomach with liver metastasis, ascites, peritoneal implantation, 2. Gastro duodenal tuberculosis. ETHICAL ISSUES

  20. PICNIC - FANS, ULTRAS AND HOOLIGANS - INTERNAL DIFFERENTIATE OF SUBCULTURE GROUP FOOTBALL FANS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Solinski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a main part of "Internal differentiate of subculture group of football fans in Poland" project. Author has tried to show how the subculture of football fans can be differentiate. Author ha presented three different subgroups of Polish fans. It is very important to divide this subculture, because each subgroup has different mentality and style. That is why I have paid the most attention on this element.

  1. Knowing fans, knowing music : an exploration of fan interaction on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, I examine what "knowing music" means to participants in online social musicking activities, along with the role Twitter plays in this process. I compare the way I came to "know" music through social networks with others' behaviors regarding music and social networking. Using Henry Jenkins's research framework as an aca-fan (a portmanteau word combining academic and fan), I study fan communities from the inside out. I begin by outlining my story of coming to know the music that...

  2. Alcohol Outlets and Violent Crime in Washington D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan, William K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Alcohol is more likely than any other drug to be involved in substance-related violence. In 2000 violence-related and self-directed injuries accounted for an estimated $37 billion and $33 billion in productivity losses and medical treatment, respectively. A review of emergency department data revealed violence and clinically identified trauma-related injuries have the strongest correlation among alcohol-dependent injuries. At the environmental level there is a relationship between alcohol outlet density and violent crime. A limited number of studies have examined the relationship between alcohol outlet type and the components of violent crime. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the aggregate components of violent crime and alcohol outlet density by type of outlet.Methods: For this study we used Washington, D.C. census tract data from the 2000 census to examine neighborhood characteristics. Alcohol outlet, violent crime, and population-level data for Washington, D.C. were drawn from various official yet publicly available sources. We developed an analytic database to examine the relationship between alcohol outlet category and four types of violent crime. After estimating spatial correlation and determining spatial dependence, we used a negative binomial regression analysis to assess the alcohol availability-violent crime association, while controlling for structural correlates of violence.Results: Independent of alternative structural correlates of violent crime, including the prevalence of weapons and illicit drugs, community-level alcohol outlet density is significantly associated with assaultive violence. Outlets were significantly related to robbery, assault, and sexual offenses. In addition, the relationship among on-premise and off-premise outlets varied across violent crime categories.Conclusion: In Washington, D.C., alcohol outlet density is significantly associated with the violent crimes. The

  3. Numerical Analysis for the Air Flow of Cross Flow Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hirokazu; Tokushge, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Masatoshi; Ishihara, Takuya

    There are many factors for designing the cross flow fan. Therefore, the performance of cross flow fan is not clear yet. We can analyze the transient flow of a cross flow fan using sliding mesh approach. One of the tasks using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a way of modeling for analysis heat exchangers with cross flow fan. These tasks are very important for design. The paper has a modeling of heat exchangers and meshing the fan blades. The next tasks, we focus the ability of cross flow fan when we change the geometry of fan blades.

  4. The Geography of Fast Food Outlets: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna K. Fraser

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The availability of food high in fat, salt and sugar through Fast Food (FF or takeaway outlets, is implicated in the causal pathway for the obesity epidemic. This review aims to summarise this body of research and highlight areas for future work. Thirty three studies were found that had assessed the geography of these outlets. Fourteen studies showed a positive association between availability of FF outlets and increasing deprivation. Another 13 studies also included overweight or obesity data and showed conflicting results between obesity/overweight and FF outlet availability. There is some evidence that FF availability is associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake. There is potential for land use policies to have an influence on the location of new FF outlets. Further research should incorporate good quality data on FF consumption, weight and physical activity.

  5. The geography of Fast Food outlets: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Lorna K; Edwards, Kimberly L; Cade, Janet; Clarke, Graham P

    2010-05-01

    The availability of food high in fat, salt and sugar through Fast Food (FF) or takeaway outlets, is implicated in the causal pathway for the obesity epidemic. This review aims to summarise this body of research and highlight areas for future work. Thirty three studies were found that had assessed the geography of these outlets. Fourteen studies showed a positive association between availability of FF outlets and increasing deprivation. Another 13 studies also included overweight or obesity data and showed conflicting results between obesity/overweight and FF outlet availability. There is some evidence that FF availability is associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake. There is potential for land use policies to have an influence on the location of new FF outlets. Further research should incorporate good quality data on FF consumption, weight and physical activity.

  6. Active Vibration Reduction of Titanium Alloy Fan Blades (FAN1) Using Piezoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin; Kauffman, Jeffrey; Duffy, Kirsten; Provenza, Andrew; Morrison, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing smart adaptive structures to improve fan blade damping at resonances using piezoelectric (PE) transducers. In this paper, a digital resonant control technique emulating passive shunt circuits is used to demonstrate vibration reduction of FAN1 Ti real fan blade at the several target modes. Single-mode control and multi-mode control using one piezoelectric material are demonstrated. Also a conceptual study of how to implement this digital control system into the rotating fan blade is discussed.

  7. How to do things with fan subs: Media engagement as subcultural capital in anime fan subbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Schules

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anime fandom has been a fairly constant subject in fan scholarship, although only recently have conversations about fan subbing begun to circulate. As useful as those conversations are, none have directly dealt either with the mechanisms of fan subbing, particularly the use of linear notes, as a practice or with how these subs intersect with the flows of subcultural capital. Fan subbing, both as a productive and a consumptive practice, plays a small but influential part in subcultural capital. Engagement with media is a compositional element of such capital in this community.

  8. Magnetic anomalies in Central Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.

    Total magnetic field anomalies recorded over the Central Bengal Fan are analysed and the depths to the magnetic basement are computed using the analytical signal and the Werner deconvolution methods. To the west and east of 85 degrees E...

  9. Computing Gröbner fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, K.; Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Thomas, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents algorithms for computing the Gröbner fan of an arbitrary polynomial ideal. The computation involves enumeration of all reduced Gröbner bases of the ideal. Our algorithms are based on a uniform definition of the Gröbner fan that applies to both homogeneous and non......-homogeneous ideals and a proof that this object is a polyhedral complex. We show that the cells of a Gröbner fan can easily be oriented acyclically and with a unique sink, allowing their enumeration by the memory-less reverse search procedure. The significance of this follows from the fact that Gröbner fans...

  10. Quiet, High-Efficiency Vaneaxial Fans Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase I effort, CRG proposes to demonstrate the ability to significantly reduce the acoustic signature of vaneaxial fans by establishing quiet...

  11. Mexican Fan Palm - Orange Co. [ds350

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Mexican fan palm (Washingtonia robusta) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007...

  12. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  13. Wordplay, mindplay: Fan fiction and postclassical narratology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle Van Steenhuyse

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent narrative theories on story worlds, or the worlds evoked by narratives, call attention to the process of fan reading and the role which the canon plays in that process. This paper posits that such theories can help us understand literary techniques that make a difference on the level of the reading experience that is implied by fan fiction texts. This is illustrated with a close reading of Naguabo's "The Mother of All Marriage Proposals," a Jane Austen fic.

  14. Integral Compressor/Generator/Fan Unitary Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Dreiman, Nelik

    2016-01-01

    INTEGRAL COMPRESSOR / GENERATOR / FAN UNITARY STRUCTURE.*) Dr. Nelik Dreiman Consultant, P.O.Box 144, Tipton, MI E-mail: An extremely compact, therefore space saving single compressor/generator/cooling fan structure of short axial length and light weight has been developed to provide generation of electrical power with simultaneous operation of the compressor when power is unavailable or function as a regular AC compressor powered by a power line. The generators and ai...

  15. Fan affinity laws from a collision model

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharjee, Shayak

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a fan is usually estimated from hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this work we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour of air is incorporated. Our calculations prove the affinity laws and provide numerical estimates of the air delivery, thrust and drag on a rotating fan.

  16. Aerodynamic modelling and optimization of axial fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noertoft Soerensen, Dan

    1998-01-01

    A numerically efficient mathematical model for the aerodynamics of low speed axial fans of the arbitrary vortex flow type has been developed. The model is based on a blade-element principle, whereby the rotor is divided into a number of annular stream tubes. For each of these stream tubes relations for velocity, pressure and radial position are derived from the conservation laws for mass, tangential momentum and energy. The equations are solved using the Newton-Raphson methods, and solutions converged to machine accuracy are found at small computing costs. The model has been validated against published measurements on various fan configurations, comprising two rotor-only fan stages, a counter-rotating fan unit and a stator-rotor stator stage. Comparisons of local and integrated properties show that the computed results agree well with the measurements. Optimizations have been performed to maximize the mean value of fan efficiency in a design interval of flow rates, thus designing a fan which operates well over a range of different flow conditions. The optimization scheme was used to investigate the dependence of maximum efficiency on 1: the number of blades, 2: the width of the design interval and 3: the hub radius. The degree of freedom in the choice of design variable and constraints, combined with the design interval concept, provides a valuable design-tool for axial fans. To further investigate the use of design optimization, a model for the vortex shedding noise from the trailing edge of the blades has been incorporated into the optimization scheme. The noise emission from the blades was minimized in a flow rate design point. Optimizations were performed to investigate the dependence of the noise on 1: the number of blades, 2: a constraint imposed on efficiency and 3: the hub radius. The investigations showed, that a significant reduction of noise could be achieved, at the expense of a small reduction in fan efficiency. (EG) 66 refs.

  17. Coolant mixing in the LMFBR outlet plenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.B.; Golay, M.W.

    1977-06-01

    Small scale experiments involving water flows are used to provide mean flow and turbulence field data for LMFBR outlet plenum flows. Measurements are performed at Reynolds Number (Re) values of 33000 and 70000 in a 1/15-scale FFTF geometry and at Re = 35000 in a 3/80-scale CRBR geometry. The experimental behavior is predicted using two different turbulence model computer programs, TEACH-T and VARR-II. It is found that the qualitative nature of the flow field within the plenum depends strongly upon the distribution of the mean inlet velocity field, upon the degree of inlet turbulence, and upon the turbulence momentum exchange model used in the calculations. It is found in the FFTF geometry that the TEACH-T predictions are better than that of VARR-II, and in the CRBR geometry neither code provides a good prediction of the observed behavior. From the sensitivity analysis, it is found that the production and dissipation of turbulence are the dominant terms in the transport equations for turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent energy dissipation rate, and the diffusion terms are relatively small. From the same study a new set of empirical constants for the turbulence model is evolved for the prediction of plenum flows.

  18. Zur Problematik des Thoracic Outlet-Syndroms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoli B

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Das Thoracic Outlet-Syndrom (TOS ist ein äußerst kontrovers diskutiertes Engpasssyndrom, das für ca. 4 % aller nicht-traumatischen Paresen des Plexus brachialis verantwortlich ist [1]. Nach Wilbourn [2] wird zwischen einem neurogenen TOS (klassisches TOS und einem fraglichen (disputed TOS differenziert. Aus pathophysiologischer Sicht wird ein neurogenes (ca. 90 % aller TOS, ein arterielles und ein venöses TOS differenziert [3, 4]. Die einzelnen Formen können aufgrund unterschiedlicher Symptome gut voneinander abgegrenzt werden. Häufigste Ursachen sind abnorme anatomische Strukturen (fibröse Bänder etc. oder über Jahre ausgeübte muskuläre Tätigkeiten (z. B. Sportler, Musiker. Zur Diagnose werden klinische, lektrophysiologische, radiologische und Neuroimaging-Verfahren herangezogen. Wenngleich die neuen Techniken wie MRT, MRA und Sonographie die diagnostische Sicherheit erhöht haben, ähnelt die Diagnose eines TOS einem Indizienprozess und erfordert eine sorgfältige Analyse aller Daten. Therapeutisch ist bis heute der Wert der konservativen Therapie nicht durch kontrollierte Studien belegt. Die Therapieansätze basieren auf pathophysiologischen Überlegungen. Während beim vaskulären TOS ein rasches chirurgisches Eingreifen erforderlich ist, sollte beim neurogenen TOS, außer bei Progredienz der Symptomatik, zunächst ein konservativer Therapieversuch unternommen werden.

  19. Features of Rotating Stall Cell in a Diagonal Flow Fan(in Case of Mid-loading Rotor)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. SHIOMI; K. KANEKO; Y. KINOUE; T. SETOGUCHI

    2006-01-01

    The structure and behavior of rotating stall cell were experimentally clarified in a diagonal flow fan. The specific-speed of the fan was 1140 (r/min, m3/min, m), and the total pressure-rise coefficient at design flow-rate was 0.345. The static pressure on outer casing wall and the total pressure at rotor inlet and outlet were measured using a high response pressure transducer. The measured data were processed by the use of DPLA technique, and the structure and behavior of rotating stall cell were obtained. As a result, the stall cell extent for circumferential and spanwise direction and the pressure distributions inside stall cell were clarified. The details of stall cell propagation were also shown.

  20. MRI findings in thoracic outlet syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aralasmak, Ayse; Sharifov, Rasul; Kilicarslan, Rukiye; Alkan, Alpay [Bezmialem Vakif University, Department of Radiology, Fatih/Istanbul (Turkey); Cevikol, Can; Karaali, Kamil; Senol, Utku [Akdeniz University, Department of Radiology, Antalya (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    We discuss MRI findings in patients with thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS). A total of 100 neurovascular bundles were evaluated in the interscalene triangle (IS), costoclavicular (CC), and retropectoralis minor (RPM) spaces. To exclude neurogenic abnormality, MRIs of the cervical spine and brachial plexus (BPL) were obtained in neutral. To exclude compression on neurovascular bundles, sagittal T1W images were obtained vertical to the longitudinal axis of BPL from spinal cord to the medial part of the humerus, in abduction and neutral. To exclude vascular TOS, MR angiography (MRA) and venography (MRV) of the subclavian artery (SA) and vein (SV) in abduction were obtained. If there is compression on the vessels, MRA and MRV of the subclavian vessels were repeated in neutral. Seventy-one neurovascular bundles were found to be abnormal: 16 arterial-venous-neurogenic, 20 neurogenic, 1 arterial, 15 venous, 8 arterial-venous, 3 arterial-neurogenic, and 8 venous-neurogenic TOS. Overall, neurogenic TOS was noted in 69%, venous TOS in 66%, and arterial TOS in 39%. The neurovascular bundle was most commonly compressed in the CC, mostly secondary to position, and very rarely compressed in the RPM. The cause of TOS was congenital bone variations in 36%, congenital fibromuscular anomalies in 11%, and position in 53%. In 5%, there was unilateral brachial plexitis in addition to compression of the neurovascular bundle. Severe cervical spondylosis was noted in 14%, contributing to TOS symptoms. For evaluation of patients with TOS, visualization of the brachial plexus and cervical spine and dynamic evaluation of neurovascular bundles in the cervicothoracobrachial region are mandatory. (orig.)

  1. NOVEL METHODS FOR AXIAL FAN IMPELLER GEOMETRY ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE GENERATED SWIRL TURBULENT FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran D Protić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometry analysis of the axial fan impeller, experimentally obtained operating characteristics and experimental investigations of the turbulent swirl flow generated behind the impeller are presented in this paper. Formerly designed and manufactured, axial fan impeller blade geometry (originally designed by Prof. Dr-Ing. Z. Protić† has been digitized using a three-dimensional (3D scanner. In parallel, the same impeller has been modeled by beta version software for modeling axial turbomachines, based on modified classical calculation. These results were compared. Then, the axial fan operating characteristics were measured on the standardized test rig in the Laboratory for Hydraulic Machinery and Energy Systems, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade. Optimum blade impeller position was determined on the basis of these results. Afterwards, the impeller with optimum angle, without outlet vanes, was positioned in a circular pipe. Rotational speed has been varied in the range from 500 till 2500rpm. Reynolds numbers generated in this way, calculated for axial velocity component, were in the range from 0,8·105 till 6·105. LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometry measurements and stereo PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry measurements of the 3D velocity field in the swirl turbulent fluid flow behind the axial fan have been performed for each regime. Obtained results point out extraordinary complexity of the structure of generated 3D turbulent velocity fields.

  2. The Connemara Fan: a major glacial grounding line fan west of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Stephen; Praeg, Daniel; Monteys, Xavier; Scott, Gill

    2014-05-01

    Glacigenic topography on the mid-shelf (~130-350 m water depth) west of Galway, Ireland appears to have the morphological form, internal architecture and sediments associated with a large glacial grounding-line fan. Seismic data collected in 2009 and 2012 (during the GLAMAR and GATEWAYS 1 campaigns) reveal that the broad, arcuate ridges of the 'Olex moraine' form the landward part of a fan system which prograded beyond the mid-shelf break (defining the outer margin of the 'Clare Platform') westwards into the Porcupine Seabight. The topography is comparable to larger shelf-edge trough-mouth fans found further north along the same margin, however no discernible 'trough' has been identified on the Clare Platform. The ridge and fan topographic assemblage is renamed the 'Connemara Fan' in its entirety, based on its genetic relations and geographic location due west of Connemara, western Ireland. A macrofossil recovered from within a debris flow on the outer fan slope comprised of remobilised plumites dates to ~ 20 ka Cal B.P., indicating sediment reworking downslope following deglacial sediment input to at least that time. The Connemara Fan is the most southerly glacigenic fan identified along the north-east Atlantic margin. Its identification also adds to our knowledge of possibly multiple generations of ice sheets feeding onto the Irish shelf from west-central Ireland and the occurrence of ice sheet geometries and dynamics that evacuated ice, melt-water and sediment (ice streams?) westwards across the Clare Platform during past glaciations.

  3. Fan relationship management in football - going beyond traditional product offerings to win the hearts of fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The management and control of fan relations should go beyond a football club’s traditional product and service offerings and touch the important experiential side of the football economy. This will create a stronger platform to optimize ROI, ROE and ROO relating to different fan segments....

  4. Novel Crosstalk Measurement Method for Multi-Core Fiber Fan-In/Fan-Out Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Ono, Hirotaka; Abe, Yoshiteru;

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new crosstalk measurement method for multi-core fiber fan-in/fan-out devices utilizing the Fresnel reflection. Compared with the traditional method using core-to-core coupling between a multi-core fiber and a single-mode fiber, the proposed method has the advantages of high reliabili...

  5. Prediction for Outlet Noise of Rolling Piston Comperssor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Tieshan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic wave equation with considering small perturbation is presented first by use of the fluidic mechanics and aerodynamics, then a theoretical model for predicting the outlet noise of rolling piston compressors is investigated, and the sound pressure and sound power of the outlet noise are formulated based on the acoustic wave equation. The experimental data and simulation results for the outlet noise with different rotation velocities have been compared with the discrepancy less than 2.6%, which verifies the approach presented in this paper.

  6. FANS-3D Users Guide (ESTEP Project ER 201031)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    assembled to yield a banded , unsymmetrical, definite matrix system. When augmented with suitable boundary conditions, the system can be solved (in an...following formula: τ = µ ∂q = µ ∆q , q= u2 + v2 + w2 , (14) ∂n ∆n wall where q is the velocity magnitude, µ is the dynamic viscosity of the

  7. Development of a new free wake model considering a blade vane interaction for a low noise axial fan planform optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyungki; Sun, Hyosung; Lee, Soogab

    2006-03-01

    Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) is an essential part for low noise axial fan design since various parameters, such as flow rate, efficiency, noise etc., should be considered. For this reason, Response Surface Method (RSM) design technique is adopted as an axial fan design method. RSM has an advantage of choosing objective functions and constraint conditions unrestrictedly on a design space. However, RSM needs a lot of independent variables to construct a proper response surface. Thus an efficient and accurate flow analysis tool is indispensable for optimization. In an axial fan, the discrete (commonly called Blade-Passage-Frequency) components are usually dominant in the noise spectrum. Especially the blade-guide vane interaction is one of most important noise sources. In order to predict this noise component efficiently at the design stage, a new free wake model named Finite Vortex Element (FVE) is devised to simulate this blade-guide vane interaction, which is very difficult to analyze numerically in a conventional free wake model. In this new free wake model, the blade-wake-guide vane interaction is described by cutting a vortex filament when the filament collides with a guide vane. This FVE model is compared with a conventional curved vortex methodology and verified by a comparison with measured data to show its effectiveness and validity. Then FVE model is coupled with RSM to implement a low noise axial fan blade optimization. Using this method, a reduction of 8 dB(A) at 2 m from fan hub in the overall noise level is achieved while the flow rate and the efficiency are maintained as the values of the baseline blade, which implies that FVE wake model coupled with RSM is very effective methodology for MDO problems such as a low noise axial fan design.

  8. Silo clogging reduction by placing an obstacle above the outlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, C.; Zuriguel, I.; Janda, A.; Garcimartín, A.; Arévalo, R.; Maza, D.

    2013-06-01

    We present an experimental study of the effect that an obstacle above the outlet of a silo has on the clogging probability. Both, the size of the orifice and the obstacle position are varied for a chosen obstacle size and shape. If the position of the obstacle is properly selected the clogging probability can be importantly reduced. Indeed, as the outlet size is increased - and we approach the critical size above which there is not clogging - the obstacle effect is enhanced. For the largest outlet size studied, the clogging probability is reduced by a factor of more than one hundred. We will show, using numerical simulations, that the physical parameter behind the reduction of the silo clogging seems to be the decrease of the vertical pressure at the outlet proximities.

  9. Rating of new outlet structures for MacFarlane Reservoir

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum explaining the new work on the outlet structure at MacFarlane Reservoir. Flow measurements were taken at different staff gage elevations and this data is...

  10. Supermarket and fast-food outlet exposure in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida Mae; Jensen, Helene Nordahl; Glumer, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether exposure to fast-food outlets and supermarkets is socio-economically patterned in the city of Copenhagen. Design: The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast-food outlets and supermarkets...... and neighbourhood-level socio-economic indicators. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators and geocoded using a geographic information system for all neighbourhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n 400). The regression of counts of fast-food outlets and supermarkets v......, such that neighbourhoods in the lowest income quartile had fewer fast-food outlets than higher-income neighbourhoods. These findings have similarities with studies conducted in the UK, but not in the USA. The results suggest there may be socio-economic factors other than income associated with food exposure in Europe....

  11. Design Guidelines for Quiet Fans and Pumps for Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, John S.; Magliozzi, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    This document presents guidelines for the design of quiet fans and pumps of the class used on space vehicles. A simple procedure is presented for the prediction of fan noise over the meaningful frequency spectrum. A section also presents general design criteria for axial flow fans, squirrel cage fans, centrifugal fans, and centrifugal pumps. The basis for this report is an experimental program conducted by Hamilton Standard under NASA Contract NAS 9-12457. The derivations of the noise predicting methods used in this document are explained in Hamilton Standard Report SVHSER 6183, "Fan and Pump Noise Control," dated May 1973 (6).

  12. Numerical Aerodynamic Evaluation and Noise Investigation of a Bladeless Fan

    OpenAIRE

    mohammad jafari; Hossein Afshin; Bijan Farhanieh; Hamidreza bozorgasareh

    2015-01-01

    Bladeless fan is a novel fan type that has no observable impeller, usually used for domestic applications. Numerical investigation of a Bladeless fan via Finite Volume Method was carried out in this study. The fan was placed in center of a 4×2×2m room and 473 Eppler airfoil profile was used as cross section of the fan. Performance and noise level of the fan by solving continuity and momentum equations as well as noise equations of Broadband Noise Source (BNS) and Ffowcs Williams a...

  13. Geoengineering Outlet Glaciers and Ice Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolovick, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Mass loss from Greenland and Antarctica is highly sensitive to the presence of warm ocean water that drives melting of ice shelves and marine terminated glaciers. This warm water resides offshore at depth and accesses the grounding line through deep but narrow troughs and fjords. Here, we investigate the possibility of blocking warm water transport through these choke points with an artificial sill. Using a simple width-averaged model of ice stream flow coupled to a buoyant-plume model of submarine melt, we find that grounding line retreat and sea level rise can be delayed or reversed for hundreds of years if warm water is prevented from accessing outlet glaciers and ice-shelf cavities. Glaciers with a floating shelf exhibit a strong response to the presence of the artificial sill regardless of our choice of calving law, while tidewater glaciers require a strong linkage between submarine melt and iceberg calving for the artificial sill to have an effect. As a result of this difference and as a result of differing degrees of overdeepening in the basal topography, Antarctica and Greenland present very different societal cost-benefit analyses. Intervention in Greenland would be low-cost and low-reward: the volume of the artificial sill is comparable to existing large public works projects such as the Dubai Islands or the Suez Canal, but the magnitude of averted sea-level rise is small, the success of the intervention depends on the choice of calving law, and the glaciers return to their non-geoengineered trajectories within one to two centuries. Intervention in Antarctica, on the other hand, would be high-cost and high-reward: the volume of the artificial sill is one to two orders of magnitude greater, but the averted sea level rise is much larger, the intervention is successful regardless of the choice of calving law, and the ice streams remain far from their non-geoengineered trajectories throughout the 1000 year duration of our model runs. In both cases, an

  14. Simulation and Experiment Research of Aerodynamic Performance of Small Axial Fans with Struts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Wei; LIN Peifeng; ZHANG Li; JIN Yingzi; WANG Yanping; Heuy Dong Kim; Toshiaki Setoguchi

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between rotor and struts has great effect on the performance of small axial fan systems.The small axial fan systems are selected as the studied objects in this paper,and four square struts are downstream of the rotor.The cross section of the struts is changed to the cylindrical shapes for the investigation:one is in the same hydranlic diameter as the square struts and another one is in the same cross section as the square struts.Influence of the shape of the struts on the static pressure characteristics,the internal flow and the sound emission of the small axial fans are studied.Standard K-ε turbulence model and SIMPLE algorithm are applied in the calculation of the steady fluid field,and the curves of the pressure rising against the flow rate are obtained,which demonstrates that the simulation results are in nice consistence with the experimental data.The steady calculation results are set as the initial field in the unsteady calculation.Large eddy simulation and PISO algorithm are used in the transient calculation,and the Ffowcs Wtlliams-Hawkings model is introduced to predict the sound level at the eight monitoring points.The research results show that:the static pressure coefficients of the fan with cylindrical struts increase by about 25% compared to the fan with square struts,and the efficiencies increase by about 28.6%.The research provides a theoretical guide for shape optimization and noise reduction of small axial fan with struts.

  15. 声学引导风洞高效低噪声风扇设计%The design of the high-performance low-noise fan of the acoustic pilot wind tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈晓力; 余永生; 廖达雄; 吕金磊

    2013-01-01

    Arbitrary vortex method is used to design a high-performance low-noise fan for the acoustic pilot wind tunnel.In the design,a more well-distributed axial speed at the outlet of fan system is obtained by regulating the rotating speed distribution,the noise generated by rotor-stator interaction is reduced by matching more reasonable rotor-stator blade number and stator backward-swept angle.According to the results of the fan aerodynamic and acoustic experiments,the efficiency of the high-performance low-noise fan is 83.9% at its design point,which is an obvious improvement compared with the original fan setting in acoustic pilot wind tunnel(73%),meanwhile,the inlet noise of high-performance low-noise fan is 3dB(A) lower than the inlet noise of original fan,and the outlet noise of high-performance low-noise fan is 2dB(A) lower than the outlet noise of the original fan.The experimental results indicate that arbitrary vortex method has significant advantage in fan aerodynamic and acoustic performances.%运用任意涡风扇设计方法,进行声学引导风洞高效低噪声风扇设计.在设计过程中,通过调整叶片径向旋转系数分布优化叶片出口速度分布,通过合理匹配转子、定子数目及定子后掠角度来改善动静叶的干涉噪声.气动及声学性能试验表明,高效低噪声风扇设计点气动效率达到83.9%,相比引导风洞原风扇效率的73%有了明显的提高;高效低噪声风扇入口及出口噪声分别比原风扇入口及出口噪声低3dB(A)和2dB(A).试验结果成功验证了任意涡设计方法在风扇气动及声学性能上的优越性.

  16. Optimism Bias in Fans and Sports Reporters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley C Love

    Full Text Available People are optimistic about their prospects relative to others. However, existing studies can be difficult to interpret because outcomes are not zero-sum. For example, one person avoiding cancer does not necessitate that another person develops cancer. Ideally, optimism bias would be evaluated within a closed formal system to establish with certainty the extent of the bias and the associated environmental factors, such that optimism bias is demonstrated when a population is internally inconsistent. Accordingly, we asked NFL fans to predict how many games teams they liked and disliked would win in the 2015 season. Fans, like ESPN reporters assigned to cover a team, were overly optimistic about their team's prospects. The opposite pattern was found for teams that fans disliked. Optimism may flourish because year-to-year team results are marked by auto-correlation and regression to the group mean (i.e., good teams stay good, but bad teams improve.

  17. Optimism Bias in Fans and Sports Reporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bradley C; Kopeć, Łukasz; Guest, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    People are optimistic about their prospects relative to others. However, existing studies can be difficult to interpret because outcomes are not zero-sum. For example, one person avoiding cancer does not necessitate that another person develops cancer. Ideally, optimism bias would be evaluated within a closed formal system to establish with certainty the extent of the bias and the associated environmental factors, such that optimism bias is demonstrated when a population is internally inconsistent. Accordingly, we asked NFL fans to predict how many games teams they liked and disliked would win in the 2015 season. Fans, like ESPN reporters assigned to cover a team, were overly optimistic about their team's prospects. The opposite pattern was found for teams that fans disliked. Optimism may flourish because year-to-year team results are marked by auto-correlation and regression to the group mean (i.e., good teams stay good, but bad teams improve).

  18. ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR CALCULATING FAN AERODYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dostal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results obtained between 2010 and 2014 in the field of fan aerodynamics at the Department of Composite Technology at the VZLÚ aerospace research and experimental institute in Prague – Letnany. The need for rapid and accurate methods for the preliminary design of blade machinery led to the creation of a mathematical model based on the basic laws of turbomachine aerodynamics. The mathematical model, the derivation of which is briefly described below, has been encoded in a computer programme, which enables the theoretical characteristics of a fan of the designed geometry to be determined rapidly. The validity of the mathematical model is assessed continuously by measuring model fans in the measuring unit, which was developed and manufactured specifically for this purpose. The paper also presents a comparison between measured characteristics and characteristics determined by the mathematical model as the basis for a discussion on possible causes of measured deviations and calculation deviations.

  19. Miocene Current-Modified Submarine Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce Perez, L. E.; Snedden, J.; Fisher, W. L.

    2016-12-01

    In the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, new and newly reprocessed seismic data has revealed a series of large bedforms, with set thicknesses of 130 to 250 meters. These exhibit hummocky, oblique and shingled to parallel seismic clinoform reflections. This seismic package has a paleowater depth of 450 meters. Those shingled seismic reflections in offshore east Mexico are interpreted as contourite drift deposits. These Miocene-age contourites may be related to strong ocean bottom currents that modified submarine fans and transported sediment to the north. Those contourites were identified on older seismic data, but are better imaged and interpreted on this new data. Plans are to map out and investigate the origin and extent of fans and contourites that extends over a large area of the Gulf of Mexico. In the Early Miocene several submarine fans systems were formed by the sediment input related to orogenic activity in Mexico. Submarine fan development persisted into the Middle Miocene due to continued uplift and erosion of the Mexican landmass. Initial, contourites are small and close proximity to the deep-water fan. In the Late Miocene time, contourite drift field reached its maximum extent in the Mexican deepwater area, anchored on its southern end by a submarine mound. This mounded submarine fan is located in the offshore northeast Veracruz and can be linked to increased uplift and erosion of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. In the Miocene-Pliocene, the large contourite drift begins to diminish in size and scale and is moribund by the Pliocene, with establishment of oceanic circulation similar to the present day. This research is important to understand more about the Gulf of Mexico and also for the Miocene timeframe that is a key phase in the earth's history. The role of the change in bottom water flow during progressive closure of the equatorial seaway separating North and South America will also be investigated.

  20. Experimental alluvial fans: Advances in understanding of fan dynamics and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lucy E.

    2015-09-01

    Alluvial fans are depositional systems that develop because of a disparity between the upstream and downstream sediment transport capacity of a system, usually at the base of mountain fronts as rivers emerge from the constrained mountain area onto the plain. They are dynamic landforms that are prone to abrupt changes on a geomorphological (decades to centuries) time scale, while also being long-term deposition features that preserve sedimentary strata and are sensitive indictors of environmental change. The complexity of interactions between catchment characteristics, climate, tectonics, internal system feedbacks, and environmental processes on field alluvial fans means that it is difficult to isolate individual variables in a field setting; therefore, the controlled conditions afforded by experimental models has provided a novel technique to overcome some of these complexities. The use of experimental models of alluvial fans has a long history and these have been implemented over a range of different research areas utilising various experimental designs. Using this technique, important advances have been made in determining the primary factors influencing fan slope, understanding of avulsion dynamics, identifying autogenic processes driving change on fan systems independent of any change in external conditions, and the mechanics of flow and flood risk on alluvial fans, to name a few. However, experiments cannot be carried out in isolation. Thus, combining the findings from experimental alluvial fans with field research and numerical modelling is important and, likewise, using these techniques to inform experimental design. If this can be achieved, there is potential for future experimental developments to explore key alluvial fan issues such as stratigraphic preservation potential and simulating extra terrestrial fan systems.

  1. Homophobia, heteronormativity, and slash fan fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April S. Callis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available I analyze the relationship between homophobia/heteronormativity and slash fan fiction. Through reading and coding almost 6,000 pages of Kirk/Spock fan fiction written from 1978 to 2014, I illuminate shifts in how normative gender and sexuality are portrayed by K/S authors. Writers of K/S, while ostensibly writing about the 23rd century, consciously or unconsciously include cultural norms from the 20th and 21st centuries. Thus, slash becomes a lens through which readers can view a decrease in both homophobia and heteronormativity in US culture over the past several decades.

  2. Fan fiction metadata creation and utilization within fan fiction archives: Three primary models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Fay Johnson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to searchability and ease of access have plagued fan fiction since its inception. This paper discusses the predominate forms of fan-mediated indexing and descriptive metadata, commonly referred to as folksonomy or tagging, and compares the benefits and disadvantages of each model. These models fall into three broad categories: free tagging, controlled vocabulary, and hybrid folksonomy. Each model has distinct advantages and shortcomings related to findability, results filtering, and creative empowerment. Examples for each are provided. Possible ramifications to fan fiction from improved metadata and access are also discussed.

  3. Experiencing fan activism: Understanding the power of fan activist organizations through members' narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neta Kligler-Vilenchik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fan activism, forms of civic engagement and political participation growing out of experiences of fandom, is a powerful mode of mobilization, particularly for young people. Building on 40 interviews with members of two organizations representing different configurations of fan activism, this article discusses three emerging elements that are key to the experience of membership in such groups. We suggest that the strength of fan activist groups builds on successfully combining these elements: two that are common to fandom, shared media experiences and a sense of community, and one that is traditionally ascribed to volunteerism and activism, the wish to help.

  4. Alluvial Fan Study Submission for UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Alluvial fan study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix G: Guidance for Alluvial Fan Flooding Analyses and Mapping

  5. Improving Fan System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-04-01

    This is one of a series of sourcebooks on motor-driven equipment produced by the Industrial Technologies Program. It provides a reference for industrial fan systems users, outlining opportunities to improve fan system performance.

  6. Research and application of inertia-gravity dedusting and noise reduction technology in mine airshaft outlet%Research and application of inertia-gravity dedusting and noise reduction technology in mine airshaft outlet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Haiqiao; Li Yiqun; Chen Shiqiang

    2011-01-01

    Massive dust of exhausted airflow easily diffuses to the industrial square while hoisting shaft is used as return shaft in the retrograde ventilation, and certainly there is a problem of dust scattering and noise exceeding standard. In order to solve the problem, the coupled technology of dedusting and noise reduction in airshaft outlet was investigated and the device with the function of Dedusting and noise Reduction (DR) was originated. The device is named as DR diffuser, which comprehensively utilizes mechanisms of inertia-gravity dedusting and absorption-insulation sound. The DR diffuser has been applied to Xingdong Coal Mine, and the testing results show that: a. the resistance of DR diffuser is lower than 60 Pa; b. the noise level reaches to 49.2 dB(A) ; c. the dedusting efficiency of above 50 μm is higher than 85 % ; d. dynamic pressure recovered from the outlet of main fan is larger than 50 Pa. The above measured data illustrates that comprehensive benefit of the DR diffuser is good, and the device is worth of applying to engineering site.

  7. Evaluation of alcohol outlet density and its relation with violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Laranjeira

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The current study set out to investigate alcohol availability in a densely populated, residential area of suburban São Paulo associated with high levels of social deprivation and violence. Gun-related deaths and a heavy concentration of alcohol outlets are notable features of the area surveyed. Given the strong evidence for a link between alcohol availability and a number of alcohol-related problems, including violent crime, measures designed to reduce accessibility have become a favored choice for alcohol prevention programs in recent years. METHODS: The interviewers were 24 residents of the area who were trained for the study. It was selected an area of nineteen streets, covering a total distance of 3.7 km. A profile of each alcohol outlet available on the area was recorded. RESULTS: One hundred and seven alcohol outlets were recorded. The number of other properties in the same area was counted at 1,202. Two measures of outlet density may thus be calculated: the number of outlets per kilometer of roadway (29 outlets/km; and the proportion of all properties that sold alcohol (1 in 12. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study is compared with others which are mainly from developed countries and shown that the area studied have the highest density of alcohol outlet density ever recorded in the medical literature. The implication of this data related to the violence of the region is discussed. By generating a profile of alcohol sales and selling points, it was hoped to gain a better understanding of alcohol access issues within the sample area. Future alcohol prevention policy would be well served by such knowledge.

  8. Evaluation of alcohol outlet density and its relation with violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laranjeira Ronaldo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The current study set out to investigate alcohol availability in a densely populated, residential area of suburban São Paulo associated with high levels of social deprivation and violence. Gun-related deaths and a heavy concentration of alcohol outlets are notable features of the area surveyed. Given the strong evidence for a link between alcohol availability and a number of alcohol-related problems, including violent crime, measures designed to reduce accessibility have become a favored choice for alcohol prevention programs in recent years. METHODS: The interviewers were 24 residents of the area who were trained for the study. It was selected an area of nineteen streets, covering a total distance of 3.7 km. A profile of each alcohol outlet available on the area was recorded. RESULTS: One hundred and seven alcohol outlets were recorded. The number of other properties in the same area was counted at 1,202. Two measures of outlet density may thus be calculated: the number of outlets per kilometer of roadway (29 outlets/km; and the proportion of all properties that sold alcohol (1 in 12. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study is compared with others which are mainly from developed countries and shown that the area studied have the highest density of alcohol outlet density ever recorded in the medical literature. The implication of this data related to the violence of the region is discussed. By generating a profile of alcohol sales and selling points, it was hoped to gain a better understanding of alcohol access issues within the sample area. Future alcohol prevention policy would be well served by such knowledge.

  9. Alcohol outlet density and violence: A geographically weighted regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Michael P; Cochrane, William; Gordon, Craig; Livingston, Michael

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the relationship between outlet density (of different types) and violence (as measured by police activity) across the North Island of New Zealand, specifically looking at whether the relationships vary spatially. We use New Zealand data at the census area unit (approximately suburb) level, on police-attended violent incidents and outlet density (by type of outlet), controlling for population density and local social deprivation. We employed geographically weighted regression to obtain both global average and locally specific estimates of the relationships between alcohol outlet density and violence. We find that bar and night club density, and licensed club density (e.g. sports clubs) have statistically significant and positive relationships with violence, with an additional bar or night club is associated with nearly 5.3 additional violent events per year, and an additional licensed club associated with 0.8 additional violent events per year. These relationships do not show significant spatial variation. In contrast, the effects of off-licence density and restaurant/café density do exhibit significant spatial variation. However, the non-varying effects of bar and night club density are larger than the locally specific effects of other outlet types. The relationships between outlet density and violence vary significantly across space for off-licences and restaurants/cafés. These results suggest that in order to minimise alcohol-related harms, such as violence, locally specific policy interventions are likely to be necessary. [Cameron MP, Cochrane W, Gordon C, Livingston M. Alcohol outlet density and violence: A geographically weighted regression approach. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:280-288]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. Improving data accuracy of commercial food outlet databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Martinez, Diane; Yedidia, Michael J; Petlick, Nirvana

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. Assessing food environments often requires using commercially available data. Disparate methods used for classifying food outlets in these databases call for creating a classification approach using common definitions. A systematic strategy for reclassifying food stores and restaurants, as they appear in commercial databases, into categories that differentiate the availability of healthy options is described here. DESIGN AND SETTING. Commercially available data on food outlets including names, addresses, North American Industry Classification System codes, and associated characteristics was obtained for five New Jersey communities. ANALYSIS. A reclassification methodology was developed using criteria and definitions from the literature to categorize food outlets based on availability of healthy options. Information in the database was supplemented by systematic Internet and key word searches, and from phone calls to food outlets. RESULTS. The methodology resulted in 622 supermarket/grocery stores, 183 convenience stores, and 148 specialty stores in the original data to be reclassified into 58 supermarkets, 30 grocery stores, 692 convenience stores, and 115 specialty stores. Outlets from the original list of 1485 full-service restaurants and 506 limited-service restaurants were reclassified as 563 full-service restaurants and 1247 limited-service restaurants. Reclassification resulted in less than one-seventh the number of supermarkets and grocery stores, more than three times the number of convenience stores, and twice as many limited-service restaurants-a much less healthy profile than the one generated by using exclusively the commercial databases. CONCLUSION. An explicit and replicable strategy is proposed for reclassifying food outlets in commercial databases into categories that differentiate on the basis of healthy food availability. The intent is to contribute towards building a consensus among researchers on definitions used in public health

  11. Fan action and political participation on "The Colbert Report"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Schulzke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Colbert Report merges the increasingly popular political satire genre with fan activism. The result is that the fan community helps to construct Colbert's malleable character and demonstrates symbolic power through its willingness to act. The fans are usually a nonpartisan force, acting to produce entertainment rather than substantive political change. However, this can be politically meaningful, as the fans' projects promote collective action, parallel political activities like voting and protesting, and encourage critical thinking about political information.

  12. Optimization Design and Experimental Study of Low-Pressure Axial Fan with Forward-Skewed Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of the optimization of blade skew in low pressure axial fan. Using back propagation (BP neural network and genetic algorithm (GA, the optimization was performed for a radial blade. An optimized blade is obtained through blade forward skew. Measurement of the two blades was carried out in aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance. Compared to the radial blade, the optimized blade demonstrated improvements in efficiency, total pressure ratio, stable operating range, and aerodynamic noise. Detailed flow measurement was performed in outlet flow field for investigating the responsible flow mechanisms. The optimized blade can cause a spanwise redistribution of flow toward the blade midspan and reduce tip loading. This results in reduced significantly total pressure loss near hub and shroud endwall region, despite the slight increase of total pressure loss at midspan. In addition, the measured spectrums show that the broadband noise of the impeller is dominant.

  13. INTERNAL FLOW MECHANISM AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF LOW PRESSURE AXIAL FAN WITH FORWARD-SKEWED BLADES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yang; LIU Jie; OUYANG Hua; DU Zhao-Hui

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the flow mechanism analysis and experimental study of a forward-skewed impeller and a radial impeller in low pressure axial fan. The forward-skewed blade was obtained by the optimization design of the radial blade and CFD technique. Measurement of the two blades was carried out in aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance. Compared to the radial blade, the forward-skewed blade has demonstrated the improvements in efficiency, total pressure ratio, Stable Operating Range (SOR) and less aerodynamic noise. Detailed flow measurement and computation were performed for outlet flow field for investigating the responsible flow mechanisms. The results show the forward-skewed blade can cause a spanwise redistribution of flow toward the blade mid-span and reduce tip loading. This results in reduced significantly total pressure loss near hub and shroud endwall region, despite the slight increase of total pressure loss at mid-span.

  14. Dead links, vaporcuts, and creativity in fan edit replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Wille

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In my examination of a Star Wars prequel trilogy fan edit reportedly made by Topher Grace, I introduce the term vaporcut to describe fan edits with reputations that may generate critical discourse but that are not publicly released. I explore the ways some fan editors attempt to recreate intangible projects but inevitably produce variant works that reflect their own creative perspectives.

  15. Star Trek Rerun, Reread, Rewritten: Fan Writing as Textual Poaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins III, Henry

    1988-01-01

    Discusses women who write fiction and fan literature based on the "Star Trek" universe, outlining how Star Trek fans force the primary text to accommodate alternate interests. Also considers the issue of literary property in light of the moral economy of the fan community that shapes the range of permissible retellings of the program…

  16. Fan Stall Flutter Flow Mechanism Studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepicovsky, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Modern turbofan engines employ a highly loaded fan stage with transonic or low-supersonic velocities in the blade-tip region. The fan blades are often prone to flutter at off-design conditions. Flutter is a highly undesirable and dangerous self-excited mode of blade oscillations that can result in high-cycle fatigue blade failure. The origins of blade flutter are not fully understood yet. Experimental data that can be used to clarify the origins of blade flutter in modern transonic fan designs are very limited. The Transonic Flutter Cascade Facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center was developed to experimentally study the details of flow mechanisms associated with fan flutter. The cascade airfoils are instrumented to measure high-frequency unsteady flow variations in addition to the steady flow data normally recorded in cascade tests. The test program measures the variation in surface pressure in response to the oscillation of one or more of the cascade airfoils. However, during the initial phases of the program when all airfoils were in fixed positions, conditions were found where significant time variations in the pressures near the airfoil leading edges could be observed.

  17. Acoustic analysis of a computer cooling fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lixi; Wang, Jian

    2005-10-01

    Noise radiated by a typical computer cooling fan is investigated experimentally and analyzed within the framework of rotor-stator interaction noise using point source formulation. The fan is 9 cm in rotor casing diameter and its design speed is 3000 rpm. The main noise sources are found and quantified; they are (a) the inlet flow distortion caused by the sharp edges of the incomplete bellmouth due to the square outer framework, (b) the interaction of rotor blades with the downstream struts which hold the motor, and (c) the extra size of one strut carrying electrical wiring. Methods are devised to extract the rotor-strut interaction noise, (b) and (c), radiated by the component forces of drag and thrust at the leading and higher order spinning pressure modes, as well as the leading edge noise generated by (a). By re-installing the original fan rotor in various casings, the noises radiated by the three features of the original fan are separated, and details of the directivity are interpreted. It is found that the inlet flow distortion and the unequal set of four struts make about the same amount of noise. Their corrections show a potential of around 10-dB sound power reduction.

  18. Generalized sorting profile of alluvial fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kimberly Litwin; Reitz, Meredith D.; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2014-10-01

    Alluvial rivers often exhibit self-similar gravel size distributions and abrupt gravel-sand transitions. Experiments suggest that these sorting patterns are established rapidly, but how—and how fast—this convergence occurs in the field is unknown. We examine the establishment of downstream sorting patterns in a kilometer-scale alluvial fan. The sharp transition from canyon to unconfined, channelized fan provides a well-defined boundary condition. The channel changes from deep and entrenched at the fan apex to shallow and depositional over a short distance, exhibiting nonequilibrium behavior. The resulting gravel-fining profile is not self-similar; the particle size distribution narrows until approximate equal mobility is achieved. Downfan, the gravel-sand transition appears to exhibit a self-similar form; field and laboratory data collapse when downstream distance is normalized by the location of the transition. Results suggest a generalized sorting profile for alluvial fans as a consequence of the threshold of motion and nonequilibrium channels.

  19. Fan Affinity Laws from a Collision Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Shayak

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a fan is usually estimated using hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this paper we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour…

  20. Test particle acceleration in torsional fan reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, M.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is understood to be a potential mechanism for particle acceleration in astrophysical and space plasmas, especially in solar flares. Torsional fan reconnection is one of the proposed mechanisms for steady-state three-dimensional (3D) magnetic reconnection. By using the magnetic and electric fields for `torsional fan reconnection', the features of test particle acceleration with input parameters for the solar corona are investigated numerically. We show that torsional fan reconnection is potentially an efficient particle accelerator and a proton can gain up to tens of MeV of kinetic energy within only a few milliseconds. Although the final kinetic energy of the accelerated particle depends on the injection position but there exists only one scenario for the particle's trajectory with different initial positions in which the particle is accelerated on the fan plane. Moreover, adopting either spatially uniform or non-uniform localized plasma resistivity does not much influence the features of trajectory. These results are compared with those of torsional spine reconnection.

  1. Fan Affinity Laws from a Collision Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Shayak

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a fan is usually estimated using hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this paper we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour…

  2. Computational Aerodynamic Simulations of a 1484 ft/sec Tip Speed Quiet High-Speed Fan System Model for Acoustic Methods Assessment and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Computational Aerodynamic simulations of a 1484 ft/sec tip speed quiet high-speed fan system were performed at five different operating points on the fan operating line, in order to provide detailed internal flow field information for use with fan acoustic prediction methods presently being developed, assessed and validated. The fan system is a sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle model that has undergone experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Details of the fan geometry, the computational fluid dynamics methods, the computational grids, and various computational parameters relevant to the numerical simulations are discussed. Flow field results for three of the five operating points simulated are presented in order to provide a representative look at the computed solutions. Each of the five fan aerodynamic simulations involved the entire fan system, which includes a core duct and a bypass duct that merge upstream of the fan system nozzle. As a result, only fan rotational speed and the system bypass ratio, set by means of a translating nozzle plug, were adjusted in order to set the fan operating point, leading to operating points that lie on a fan operating line and making mass flow rate a fully dependent parameter. The resulting mass flow rates are in good agreement with measurement values. Computed blade row flow fields at all fan operating points are, in general, aerodynamically healthy. Rotor blade and fan exit guide vane flow characteristics are good, including incidence and deviation angles, chordwise static pressure distributions, blade surface boundary layers, secondary flow structures, and blade wakes. Examination of the computed flow fields reveals no excessive or critical boundary layer separations or related secondary-flow problems, with the exception of the hub boundary layer at the core duct entrance. At that location a significant flow separation is present. The region of local flow

  3. Fan Ky不等式的一个新改进%A New Improvement of Fan Ky's Inequality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄政; 高明哲; 徐景实

    2010-01-01

    利用Gram矩阵的正定性和可变单位向量建立了Fan Ky不等式的一个新的改进,并且建立了反向Fan Ky不等式.对于非奇异矩阵,得到了Fan Ky不等式以及反向Fan Ky不等式的推广.

  4. Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Paul, Heather L.

    2010-01-01

    Portable life support systems in future space suits will include a ventilation subsystem driven by a dedicated fan. This ventilation fan must meet challenging requirements for pressure rise, flow rate, efficiency, size, safety, and reliability. This paper describes research and development that showed the feasibility of a regenerative blower that is uniquely suited to meet these requirements. We proved feasibility through component tests, blower tests, and design analysis. Based on the requirements for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) ventilation fan, we designed the critical elements of the blower. We measured the effects of key design parameters on blower performance using separate effects tests, and used the results of these tests to design a regenerative blower that will meet the ventilation fan requirements. We assembled a proof-of-concept blower and measured its performance at sub-atmospheric pressures that simulate a PLSS ventilation loop environment. Head/flow performance and maximum efficiency point data were used to specify the design and operating conditions for the ventilation fan. We identified materials for the blower that will enhance safety for operation in a lunar environment, and produced a solid model that illustrates the final design. The proof-of-concept blower produced the flow rate and pressure rise needed for the CSSE ventilation subsystem while running at 5400 rpm, consuming only 9 W of electric power using a non-optimized, commercial motor and controller and inefficient bearings. Scaling the test results to a complete design shows that a lightweight, compact, reliable, and low power regenerative blower can meet the performance requirements for future space suit life support systems.

  5. Psychoacoustic study on contribution of fan noise to engine noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhong; Liu, Hai; Bi, Fengrong; Ni, Guangjian; Zhang, Guichang; Lin, Jiewei; Yu, Hanzhengnan

    2012-07-01

    There are more researches on engine fan noise control focusing on reducing fan noise level through optimizing fan structure, and a lot of research achievements have been obtained. However, researches on the effect of fan noise to engine noise quality are lacking. The influences of the effects of fan structure optimization on the engine noise quality are unclear. Thus, there will be a decline in fan noise level, but the deterioration of engine noise quality. Aiming at the above problems, in consideration of fan structure design and engine noise quality, an innovative method to analyze the contribution of fan noise to engine noise quality using psychoacoustic theory is proposed. The noises of diesel engine installing different cooling fans are measured by using the acoustic pressure method. The experiment results are regarded as analysis samples. The model of sensory pleasantness is used to analyze the sound quality of a diesel engine with different cooling fans. Results show that after installing 10-blade fan in medium diameter the sensory pleasantness at each test point is increased, and the increase is 13.53% on average, which indicate the improvement of the engine noise quality. In order to verify the psychoacoustical analysis, the subjective assessment is carried out. The test result shows the noise quality of engine installed 10-blade fan in medium diameter is most superior. 1/3 octave frequency spectrum analysis is used to study the reason of the improvement of engine noise quality. It is found that after installing proper cooling fan the sound pressure level below 400 Hz are obviously increased, the frequency assignment and spectral envelope are more reasonable and a proper cooling fan can optimize the spectrum structure of the engine noise. The psychoacoustic study is applied in the contribution of fan noise to engine noise, and the idea of engine sound quality improvement through the structure optimization is proposed.

  6. Introduction of a Cooling-Fan Efficiency Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiavon, S.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2009-01-01

    In a warm environment, air movement with elevated velocity is a well-known cooling strategy. The local air movement is typically generated by cooling fans (e.g., ceiling fan, table fans, etc.). Appearance, power input, and price are the main parameters considered today when purchasing cooling fans......, while cooling capacity and efficiency of energy use are unknown. To address this knowledge gap, this paper introduces the cooling-fan efficiency (CFE) index, defined as the ratio between the cooling effect (measured with a thermal manikin) generated by the device and its power consumption. The index...

  7. Design of Off-statistics Axial-flow Fans by Means of Vortex Law Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea Lazari; Andrea Cattanei

    2014-01-01

    Off-statistics input data sets are common in axial-flow fans design and may easily result in some violation of the requirements of a good aerodynamic blade design.In order to circumvent this problem,in the present paper,a solution to the radial equilibrium equation is found which minimizes the outlet kinetic energy and fulfills the aerodynamic constraints,thus ensuring that the resulting blade has acceptable aerodynamic performance.The presented method is based on the optimization of a three-parameters vortex law and of the meridional channel size.The aerodynamic quantities to be employed as constraints are individuated and their suitable ranges of variation are proposed.The method is validated by means of a design with critical input data values and CFD analysis.Then,by means of systematic computations with different input data sets,some correlations and charts are obtained which are analogous to classic correlations based on statistical investigations on existing machines.Such new correlations help size a fan of given characteristics as well as study the feasibility of a given design.

  8. Unsteady Pressure Measurements around Rotor of an Axial Flow Fan under Stable and Unstable Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, You Hwan; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kang, Chang Sik

    This study presents some measurement results on the unsteady pressure fields around rotor under stable and unstable operating conditions of an axial flow fan. The unsteady static pressure of rotor passage was measured by using high frequency pressure transducers mounted on the casing wall. The measurements on the unsteady total pressure at rotor inlet and outlet were also conducted with specially designed high frequency total pressure probe. Double Phase-Locked Ensemble Averaging Technique was used for analysis of pressure fluctuations around the rotor at rotating stall onset point. From the results, the unsteady pressure fields during stable and unstable operations of the axial fan were investigated and compared with each other. Particularly one period of rotating stall could be divided into two regions, stalled flow and unstalled flow region respectively. Furthermore the former could be also classified into two zones, bubbled and disturbed region by their features. The flow characteristics for each zone were described in detail and the static and total pressure fields were also analyzed in terms of the pressure distribution along pressure side and suction side on the blade tip profile.

  9. Design of off-statistics axial-flow fans by means of vortex law optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazari, Andrea; Cattanei, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Off-statistics input data sets are common in axial-flow fans design and may easily result in some violation of the requirements of a good aerodynamic blade design. In order to circumvent this problem, in the present paper, a solution to the radial equilibrium equation is found which minimizes the outlet kinetic energy and fulfills the aerodynamic constraints, thus ensuring that the resulting blade has acceptable aerodynamic performance. The presented method is based on the optimization of a three-parameters vortex law and of the meridional channel size. The aerodynamic quantities to be employed as constraints are individuated and their suitable ranges of variation are proposed. The method is validated by means of a design with critical input data values and CFD analysis. Then, by means of systematic computations with different input data sets, some correlations and charts are obtained which are analogous to classic correlations based on statistical investigations on existing machines. Such new correlations help size a fan of given characteristics as well as study the feasibility of a given design.

  10. Fan-beam intensity modulated proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick; Westerly, David; Mackie, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents a concept for a proton therapy system capable of delivering intensity modulated proton therapy using a fan beam of protons. This system would allow present and future gantry-based facilities to deliver state-of-the-art proton therapy with the greater normal tissue sparing made possible by intensity modulation techniques. Methods: A method for producing a divergent fan beam of protons using a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles is described and particle transport through the quadrupole doublet is simulated using a commercially available software package. To manipulate the fan beam of protons, a modulation device is developed. This modulator inserts or retracts acrylic leaves of varying thickness from subsections of the fan beam. Each subsection, or beam channel, creates what effectively becomes a beam spot within the fan area. Each channel is able to provide 0–255 mm of range shift for its associated beam spot, or stop the beam and act as an intensity modulator. Results of particle transport simulations through the quadrupole system are incorporated into the MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code along with a model of the range and intensity modulation device. Several design parameters were investigated and optimized, culminating in the ability to create topotherapy treatment plans using distal-edge tracking on both phantom and patient datasets. Results: Beam transport calculations show that a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles can be used to create a divergent fan beam of 200 MeV protons over a distance of 2.1 m. The quadrupole lengths were 30 and 48 cm, respectively, with transverse field gradients less than 20 T/m, which is within the range of water-cooled magnets for the quadrupole radii used. MCNPX simulations of topotherapy treatment plans suggest that, when using the distal edge tracking delivery method, many delivery angles are more important than insisting on narrow beam channel widths in order to obtain conformal target coverage

  11. Characterization of Composite Fan Case Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoracek, Charlene M.

    2004-01-01

    The majority of commercial turbine engines that power today s aircraft use a large fan driven by the engine core to generate thrust which dramatically increases the engine s efficiency. However, if one of these fan blades fails during flight, it becomes high energy shrapnel, potentially impacting the engine or puncturing the aircraft itself and thus risking the lives of passengers. To solve this problem, the fan case must be capable of containing a fan blade should it break off during flight. Currently, all commercial fan cases are made of either just a thick metal barrier or a thinner metal wall surrounded by Kevlar-an ultra strong fiber that elastically catches the blade. My summer 2004 project was to characterize the resins for a composite fan case that will be lighter and more efficient than the current metal. The composite fan case is created by braiding carbon fibers and injecting a polymer resin into the braid. The resin holds the fibers together, so at first using the strongest polymer appears to logically lead to the strongest fan case. Unfortunately, the stronger polymers are too viscous when melted. This makes the manufacturing process more difficult because the polymer does not flow as freely through the braid, and the final product is less dense. With all of this in mind, it is important to remember that the strength of the polymer is still imperative; the case must still contain blades with high impact energy. The research identified which polymer had the right balance of properties, including ease of fabrication, toughness, and ability to transfer the load to the carbon fibers. Resin deformation was studied to better understand the composite response during high speed impact. My role in this research was the testing of polymers using dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile, compression, and torsion testing. Dynamic mechanical analysis examines the response of materials under cyclic loading. Two techniques were used for dynamic mechanical analysis

  12. A Study on Consumer Behaviour at Organized Fish Retail Outlet

    OpenAIRE

    Mugaonkar, Pankajkumar Hanmantrao; Ananthan, P.S.; Samal, Suman Sekhar; Debnath, Biswajit

    2011-01-01

    Indian consumers have been buying fish from the unhygienic fish markets, but of late fish has become available at many of the multi-format retail outlets. Consumers’ behaviour at organized fish retail outlets in Mumbai has been studied. The majority of consumers are young (25-35 years) and belong to upper middle class. Fresh fish is the preferred choice and about 60 per cent consumers have emphasized on freshness rather than price of fish. About 97 per cent consumers have recently shifted t...

  13. Fluent-based numerical simulation of flow centrifugal fan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xian-zhang

    2011-01-01

    Testing centrifugal fan flow field by physical laboratory is difficult because the testing system is complex and the workload is heavy, and the results observed by naked-eye deviates far from the actual value. To address this problem, the computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT was applied to establish three-dimensional model of the centrifugal fan. The numeral model was verified by comparing simulation data to experimental data. The pressure centrifugal fan and the speed changes in distribution in centrifugal fan was simulated by computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT. The simulation results show that the gas flow velocity in the impeller increases with impeller radius increase. Static pressure gradually increases when gas from the fan access is imported through fan impeller leaving fans.

  14. Nocturnal Fanning Suppresses Downy Mildew Epidemics in Sweet Basil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yigal; Ben-Naim, Yariv

    2016-01-01

    Downy mildew is currently the most serious disease of sweet basil around the world. The oomycete causal agent Peronospora belbahrii requires ≥ 4h free leaf moisture for infection and ≥7.5h of water-saturated atmosphere (relative humidity RH≥95%) at night for sporulation. We show here that continued nocturnal fanning (wind speed of 0.4-1.5 m/s) from 8pm to 8am dramatically suppressed downy mildew development. In three experiments conducted during 2015, percent infected leaves in regular (non-fanned) net-houses reached a mean of 89.9, 94.3 and 96.0% compared to1.2, 1.7 and 0.5% in adjacent fanned net-houses, respectively. Nocturnal fanning reduced the number of hours per night with RH≥95% thus shortened the dew periods below the threshold required for infection or sporulation. In experiments A, B and C, the number of nights with ≥4h of RH≥95% was 28, 10 and 17 in the non-fanned net-houses compared to 5, 0 and 5 in the fanned net-houses, respectively. In the third experiment leaf wetness sensors were installed. Dew formation was strongly suppressed in the fanned net-house as compared to the non-fanned net-house. Healthy potted plants became infected and sporulated a week later if placed one night in the non-fanned house whereas healthy plants placed during that night in the fanned house remained healthy. Infected potted basil plants sporulated heavily after one night of incubation in the non-fanned house whereas almost no sporulation occurred in similar plants incubated that night in the fanned house. The data suggest that nocturnal fanning is highly effective in suppressing downy mildew epidemics in sweet basil. Fanning prevented the within-canopy RH from reaching saturation, reduced dew deposition on the leaves, and hence prevented both infection and sporulation of P. belbahrii.

  15. Comparison of turbidite facies associations in modern passive-margin Mississippi fan with ancient active-margin fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, G.; Moiola, R. J.; McPherson, J. G.; O'Connell, S.

    1988-07-01

    Our comparison of the modern passive-margin Mississippi fan (DSDP Leg 96) with ancient active-margin fans (e.g. Eocene Hecho Group, Spain) reveals major differences in turbidite facies associations (Mutti and Ricci Lucchi scheme) and in seismic characteristics in the lower fan area. The lower (outer) Mississippi fan is composed of channel (Facies B and F) and non-channel facies (C? and D), whereas ancient fans are characterized by non-channelized, thickening-upward, depositional lobe facies (C and D). An absence of depositional lobes in the lower Mississippi fan is also suggested by a lack of convex-upward (mounded) seismic reflections with bidirectional downlap. Continuous seismic reflections of the lower Mississippi fan may represent "sheet sands", but not those of true depositional lobes with mounded character. Extensive channelization in modern passive-margin fans appears to be a product of the lateral shifting of a major sinuous distributary system, developed as a consequence of low gradients and the transport of sediment with a relatively low sand/mud ratio. In contrast, channels in active-margin fans are short and of low sinuosity as a result of high gradients and the transport of sediment with a relatively high sand/mud ratio. The turbidite facies association scheme, which was developed exclusively from ancient active-margin fans, should be applied to mature passive-margin fans with qualifications because of the differences in spatial distribution of turbidite facies and their associations.

  16. Fanning the Optimal Breeze with an Abanico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Grace; Marthelot, Joel; Reis, Pedro; MIT EGS Lab Team

    Flexible hand-held fans, or abanicos, are universally employed as cooling devices that are both portable and sustainable. Their to and fro axial motion about one's hand generates an airflow that increases the evaporation rate near the skin and refreshes. We study this problem in the context of fluid-structure interaction, through precision model experiments. We first characterize the elastic properties of a semi-circular thin plates with various thickness and evaluate their aerodynamic performance in a custom built apparatus. The air velocity profile that results from the flapping motion of the fan is characterized for different driving conditions. A systematic variation of the geometric and elastic parameters, along with an exploration of the parameter space of the periodic driving motion (amplitude and frequency), allows us to establish optimal design and operational conditions for maximal output of the generated airflow, while minimizing the input power.

  17. Surgical treatment of double outlet ventricle: report on 72 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jin-fu; HU Dong-xu; HU Jian-guo; YIN Bang-liang; ZHOU Xin-min; ZHOU Wen-wu; TAN Si-chuang; YIN Ni

    2005-01-01

    @@ Double outlet ventricle (DOV) is defined as a congenital heart disease with: (1) both great arteries arising completely, or almost completely (≥90%), from a single ventricle (usually, right ventricle); (2) an aortic valve having no fibre connection with mitral valve; and (3) the only outlet of the other ventricle is a ventricular septal defect (VSD). The incidence of DOV accounts for 1% of all congenital heart disease.1 Clinically there are three common types: Fallot type or double outlet right ventricle (DORV) with subaortic VSD with pulmonary stenosis; Eisenmenger type or DORV with subaortic VSD without pulmonary stenosis and Taussig-Bing type or DORV with subpulmonary VSD. Operative techniques are different according to the position of the VSD and great arteries and the presence or absence of ventricular outflow tract obstruction. The operative difficulty increases in the presence of coronary artery malformation. Recently, our research centre has treated 72 cases of patients suffering from double outlet ventricle. This article is the report of the operative methods and the outcomes.

  18. Update on endoscopic management of gastric outlet obstruction in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hsun-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD) and surgical intervention are two most common and effective treatments for gastric outlet obstruction. Correction of gastric outlet obstruction without the need for surgery is an issue that has been tried to be resolved in these decades; this management has developed with EBD, advanced treatments like local steroid injection, electrocauterization, and stent have been added recently. The most common causes of pediatric gastric outlet obstruction are idiopathic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, peptic ulcer disease followed by the ingestion of caustic substances, stenosis secondary to surgical anastomosis; antral web, duplication cyst, ectopic pancreas, and other rare conditions. A complete clinical, radiological and endoscopic evaluation of the patient is required to make the diagnosis, with complimentary histopathologic studies. EBD are used in exceptional cases, some with advantages over surgical intervention depending on each patient in particular and on the characteristics and etiology of the gastric outlet obstruction. Local steroid injection and electrocauterization can augment the effect of EBD. The future of endoscopic treatment seems to be aimed at the use of endoscopic electrocauterization and balloon dilatations.

  19. Predictive factors of bladder outlet obstruction following the tension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. Elghamrawi

    risk factors for postoperative bladder outlet obstruction were evaluated: age, history ... Voiding dysfunction according to our definition developed in 24.7% of the ... and Petros described the midurethral support concept [3], however, ... or objective evidence of SUI. ... mean number of vaginal deliveries was 4.47 (range 2–11).

  20. 49 CFR 179.220-18 - Bottom outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... inner container may be equipped with a bottom outlet of approved design and an opening provided in the... valve body may be steam jacketed, in which case the breakage groove or its equivalent must be below the...

  1. Using marine sediment archives to reconstruct past outlet glacier variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Camilla Snowman; Straneo, Fiamma; Ribergaard, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Ice-rafted debris in fjord sediment cores provides information about outlet glacier activity beyond the instrumental time period. It tells us that the Helheim Glacier, Greenland’s third most productive glacier, responds rapidly to short-term (3 to 10 years) climate changes....

  2. Thoracic outlet syndrome in musicians - an approach to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R M

    1996-01-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) can affect the skill of instrumental musicians. This paper details the way in which symptomatic TOS affects the musician and describes two cases of symptomatic TOS in a drummer and a violinist. Evaluation tools and treatment techniques are described.

  3. Using marine sediment archives to reconstruct past outlet glacier variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Camilla Snowman; Straneo, Fiamma; Ribergaard, Mads;

    2013-01-01

    Ice-rafted debris in fjord sediment cores provides information about outlet glacier activity beyond the instrumental time period. It tells us that the Helheim Glacier, Greenland’s third most productive glacier, responds rapidly to short-term (3 to 10 years) climate changes....

  4. Food prices, access to food outlets and child weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Bao, Yanjun

    2009-03-01

    This study examines the importance of food prices and restaurant and food store outlet availability for child body mass index (BMI). We use the 1998, 2000 and 2002 waves of the child-mother merged files from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth combined with fruit and vegetable and fast food price data obtained from the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association and outlet density data on fast food and full-service restaurants and supermarkets, grocery stores and convenience stores obtained from Dun & Bradstreet. Using a random effects estimation model, we found that a 10% increase in the price of fruits and vegetables was associated with a 0.7% increase in child BMI. Fast food prices were not found to be statistically significant in the full sample but were weakly negatively associated with BMI among adolescents with an estimated price elasticity of -0.12. The price estimates were robust to whether we controlled for outlet availability based on a per capita or per land area basis; however, the association between food outlets and child BMI differed depending on the definition. The associations of fruit and vegetable and fast food prices with BMI were significantly stronger both economically and statistically among low- versus high-socioeconomic status children. The estimated fruit and vegetable and fast food price elasticities were 0.14 and -0.26, respectively, among low-income children and 0.09 and -0.13, respectively, among children with less educated mothers.

  5. Polarization-fan high-order harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Avner; Bordo, Eliyahu; Kfir, Ofer; Sidorenko, Pavel; Cohen, Oren

    2017-02-01

    We predict high-order harmonics in which the polarization within the spectral bandwidth of each harmonic varies with frequency continuously and significantly. For example, the interaction of counter-rotating circularly-polarized bichromatic drivers having close central frequencies with isotropic gas leads to the emission of polarization-fan harmonics where each harmonic in the spectrum has the following property: it is nearly circularly-polarized in one tail of the harmonic peak, linear in the center of the peak and nearly circular with the opposite helicity in the opposite tail. Also, we show that polarization-fan high harmonics with modulated ellipticity are obtained when elliptical drivers are used. Polarization-fan harmonics are obtained as a result of multiple (at least two) head-on recollisions of electrons with their parent ions occurring from different angles in a two-dimensional plane. The use of bichromatic drivers with close central frequencies largely preserves the single-cycle, single-atom and macroscopic physics of ‘ordinary’ high harmonic generation, where both the driver and high harmonics are linearly polarized. Thus, it should offer several attracting features, including (i) a direct route for extending the maximal photon energy of observed helical high harmonics to keV by using bichromatic drivers only in the mid-IR region and (ii) utilizing phase matching methods that were developed for ‘ordinary’ high harmonic generation driven by quasi-monochromatic pulses (e.g. pressure tuning phase matching). These polarization-fan harmonics may be utilized for exploring non-repetitive ultrafast chiral phenomena, e.g. dynamics of magnetic domains, in a single shot.

  6. Gigapixel Images Connect Sports Teams with Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Technology developed at Ames Research Center to take high-resolution imagery on Mars is now being used in baseball stadiums across the country. New York City-based Major League Baseball Advanced Media LP customized the platform to accommodate in-game shots that capture nearly the whole stadium. Fans navigate the photos online and tag themselves and their friends using social media tools.

  7. Does availability of physical activity and food outlets differ by race and income? Findings from an enumeration study in a health disparate region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Jennie L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-income, ethnic/racial minorities and rural populations are at increased risk for obesity and related chronic health conditions when compared to white, urban and higher-socio-economic status (SES peers. Recent systematic reviews highlight the influence of the built environment on obesity, yet very few of these studies consider rural areas or populations. Utilizing a CBPR process, this study advances community-driven causal models to address obesity by exploring the difference in resources for physical activity and food outlets by block group race and income in a small regional city that anchors a rural health disparate region. To guide this inquiry we hypothesized that lower income and racially diverse block groups would have fewer food outlets, including fewer grocery stores and fewer physical activity outlets. We further hypothesized that walkability, as defined by a computed walkability index, would be lower in the lower income block groups. Methods Using census data and GIS, base maps of the region were created and block groups categorized by income and race. All food outlets and physical activity resources were enumerated and geocoded and a walkability index computed. Analyses included one-way MANOVA and spatial autocorrelation. Results In total, 49 stores, 160 restaurants and 79 physical activity outlets were enumerated. There were no differences in the number of outlets by block group income or race. Further, spatial analyses suggest that the distribution of outlets is dispersed across all block groups. Conclusions Under the larger CPBR process, this enumeration study advances the causal models set forth by the community members to address obesity by providing an overview of the food and physical activity environment in this region. This data reflects the food and physical activity resources available to residents in the region and will aid many of the community-academic partners as they pursue intervention

  8. Fan edits and the legacy of The Phantom Edit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Wille

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A fan edit can generally be defined as an alternative version of a film or television text created by a fan. It offers a different viewing experience, much as a song remix offers a different listening experience. The contemporary wave of fan edits has emerged during the remix zeitgeist of digital media and at a time when digital video editing technology has become more affordable and popular. The increasing number of alternative versions of films and the works of revisionist Hollywood filmmakers such as George Lucas have contributed to a greater public understanding of cinema as a fluid medium instead of one that exists in a fixed form. The Phantom Edit (2000, a seminal fan edit based on Lucas's Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (1999, inspired new ranks of fan editors. However, critics have misunderstood fan edits as merely the work of disgruntled fans. In order to provide a critical and historical basis for studies in fan editing as a creative practice, I examine previous interpretations of fan edits in the context of relevant contemporary works, and I use an annotated chronology of The Phantom Edit to trace its influence on subsequent fan editing communities and uncover their relationship with intellectual property disputes.

  9. "Emotions-Only" versus "Special People": Genre in fan discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Ellen Stein

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay looks at genre as a complex set of discursive threads running unevenly through production, TV text, and fan reception. Through a case study of the reception of fan favorite Roswell, this essay interrogates the role of genre in spectatorship. In its mixing of teen and science fiction elements, Roswell trod upon contested generic spaces, eliciting strong reaction from its viewers. Connections between genre and gender came to the fore, as producer commentary linked science fiction with male audiences and teen romance with female audiences. Fans responded with analyses that greatly complicated and at times overtly rejected industrial suppositions regarding the gendered work of genre. Through these fan conversations, we can witness the complexity of genre as discursive thread moving through not only TV texts but also multivariant fan responses. I intend this essay to work at two levels. My analysis of fan responses to Roswell models the possibilities of a close study of genre discourse. At the same time, my case study probes the nature of genre in fan engagement, as genre discourses intersect with other fan concerns such as character identification, perceptions of textual quality, and questions of gender representation. While we cannot necessarily look to fan accounts for proof of how viewers engage with genre, they do tell us how fans frame their engagement with genre, how they incorporate genre into their performance of fannishness, and how they perform and thus enact genre itself as a shared cultural process.

  10. The aerodynamics of a wind-tunnel fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Blake W

    1941-01-01

    The vortex blade-element theory modified to apply to an axial fan working in a duct is reviewed. Thrust and power coefficients for a fan are identified with the corresponding coefficients for airplane propellers. The relation of pressure produced by the fan to the blade-element coefficients is developed. The distribution of axial velocity of fluid through a fan is assumed to be controlled by the fan itself. The radial distribution of tangential velocity imported by the fan to fluid moving through the fan is shown to be independent of the axial-velocity distribution. A nondimensional coefficient, designated the rotation constant, is introduced. This constant is based solely upon design information. The use of the rotation constant in simplifying the design of a fan for a specific operating condition is demonstrated. Based on the use of the rotation constant, a graphical method is outlined by which the performance of a given fan in a given wind tunnel may be predicted and by which the distributions of axial velocity of the fluid through the fan under various operating conditions may be established.

  11. Treatment of gastric outlet and duodenal obstructions with uncovered expandable metal stents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate and evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical effectiveness of fluoroscopically guided peroral uncovered expandable metal stent placement to treat gastric outlet and duodenal obstructions. METHODS: Fifteen consecutive patients underwent peroral placement of WallstentTM Enteral Endoprosthesis to treat gastric outlet and duodenal obstructions (14 malignant, 1 benign). All procedures were completed under fluoroscopic guidance without endoscopic assistance. Follow-up was completed until the patients died or were lost, and the clinical outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: The technique success rate was 100%, and the oral intake was maintained in 12 of 14 patients varying from 7 d to 270 d. Two patients remained unable to resume oral intake, although their stents were proven to be patent with the barium study. One patient with acute necrotizing pancreatitis underwent enteral stenting to treat intestinal obstruction, and nausea and vomiting disappeared. Ten patients died during the followup period, and their mean oral intake time was 50 d. No procedure-related complications occurred. Stent migration to the gastric antrum occurred in one patient 1 year after the procedure, a tumor grew at the proximal end of the stent in another patient 38 d post-stent insertion. CONCLUSION: Fluoroscopically guided peroral metal stent implantation is a safe and effective method to treat malignant gastrointestinal obstructions, and complications can be ignored based on our short-term study. Indications for this procedure should be discreetly considered because a few patients may not benefit from gastrointestinal insertion, but some benign gastrointestinal obstructions can be treated using this procedure.

  12. A Fan-tastic Alternative to Bulbs: Learning Circuits with Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekey, Robert; Edwards, Andrea; McCullough, Roy; Reitz, William; Mitchell, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    The incandescent bulb has been a useful tool for teaching basic electrical circuits, as brightness is related to the current or power flowing through a bulb. This has led to the development of qualitative pedagogical treatments for examining resistive combinations in simple circuits using bulbs and batteries, which were first introduced by James Evans and thoroughly expanded upon by McDermott and others. This paper argues that replacing bulbs with small computer fans leads to similar, if not greater, insight of experimental results that can be qualitatively observed using a variety of senses. The magnitude of current through a fan is related to the frequency of the rotating fan blades, which can be seen, heard, and felt by the students. Experiments using incandescent bulbs only utilize vision, which is not ideal as the human eyes' perception of brightness is skewed because the response to light intensity is logarithmic rather than linear.

  13. Beam fanning effect and image storage in Ce: KNSBN crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI PanLai; GUO QingLin; WANG ZhiJun; PANG LiBin; LIANG BaoLai

    2007-01-01

    A non-synchronously-numerating experimental system is applied in this research. The effect of the incident beam intensity Ⅰ and the beam incident angle θ on beam fanning effect is investigated with a singular beam incident on Ce:KNSBN crystal. The results show that the beam fanning effect strongly depends on Iand θ. The threshold effect of/for the beam fanning in Ce:KNSBN crystal is observed, and the threshold intensity of incident beam keeps the same value of 38.2 mW/cm2 for different θ, and the steady beam fanning intensity Ifsat reaches a peak at θ=15° under the same Ⅰ. In addition, the effect of the incident beam modulated on the beam fanning noise and holographic storage in Ce:KNSBN crystal is studied. And the results suggest that the beam fanning noise is effectively suppressed, and the quality of the reappearance image is greatly improved.

  14. Procedure for Balancing an Air Distribution System with Decentralised Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunner, Amalie; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders

    2015-01-01

    of the fans. In conventional air distribution systems the fan provides the necessary pressure to overcome the resistance in the branch with the highest pressure resistance. This gives an unnecessary overpressure in the remaining branches that does not provide any useful purpose. In order to decrease the fan......This paper presents results from an on-going project concerning new design procedures for mechanical ventilation systems with low energy use. Conventional constant air volume (CAV) systems are usually balanced using flat plate dampers. The purpose of using balancing dampers is to intentionally...... pressure requirements the fan was dimensioned for the branch with the least pressure resistance. The decentralised fans then provided sufficient pressure to overcome the exact resistance in the corresponding branch. The results show that by using decentralised fans in duct systems instead of dampers...

  15. Procedure for Balancing an Air Distribution System with Decentralised Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunner, Amalie; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results from an on-going project concerning new design procedures for mechanical ventilation systems with low energy use. Conventional constant air volume (CAV) systems are usually balanced using flat plate dampers. The purpose of using balancing dampers is to intentionally...... flawed. This paper presents a new procedure for balancing of CAV systems in combination with decentralised fans. The new system was based on replacing the balancing dampers with decentralised fans. By replacing the balancing dampers with decentralised fans, airflows can be balanced by adjusting the speed...... of the fans. In conventional air distribution systems the fan provides the necessary pressure to overcome the resistance in the branch with the highest pressure resistance. This gives an unnecessary overpressure in the remaining branches that does not provide any useful purpose. In order to decrease the fan...

  16. High pressure axial flow fans for modern coal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyrus, Vaclav [AHT Energetika s.r.o., Praha (Czech Republic); Koci, Petr [ZVVZ Milevsko a.s. (Czech Republic)

    2008-07-01

    Brown coal fired power stations, located in Northern Bohemia, have mostly older boiler blocks with an output of 110 and 200 MWe. Flue gases are cleaned by the desulphurization plants installed between 1993 and 1997. Usually, each boiler block has two air fans and one to three flue gas fans. Flue gas fans operate in severe conditions; fan blades should be resistant to the flue gases containing sulphur and acid drops with the operating temperature at 170 C to 190 C. Additionally, flue gas also often contains ash particles. Currently, some boiler blocks are gradually being refurbished. New blocks with an electrical power output of 600 to 700 MWe are at the design stage. Submitted paper shows our design study of one stage axial flow fan for the new blocks. Results from the new aerodynamic research of the axial flow stages were used in the fan design. (orig.)

  17. 16 CFR Appendix F to Part 436 - Sample Item 20(5) Table-Projected New Franchised Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Franchised Outlets F Appendix F to Part 436 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION... 436—Sample Item 20(5) Table—Projected New Franchised Outlets Projected New Franchised Outlets As of... New Franchised Outlets in the Next Fiscal Year Column 4Projected New Company-Owned Outlets in...

  18. Design and Research on Engine Cooling Fan Based on Bladeless Fan%基于无扇叶风扇的发动机冷却风扇的设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏程; 董小瑞; 王强; 石运才

    2016-01-01

    Bladeless fan can increase mass flow of the inlet markedly.A new designed cooling fan based on air multiplier fan was applied to the car engine cooling system and simulated to observe cooling effect. The 3D model of the cooling fan was analyzed by Fluent software to get the situation of the air flow and mass flow.The length of adhesion surface and the outside dip angle are two important parameters for bl-adeless fan.And the law of outlet massflow with these two parameters was gotten through simulation. A simplified model of a radiator was launched to test the effect of the cooling fan.The results indicate that the temperature of the radiator dropped by 10 ℃ at the speed of inlet air with 20 m/s.The effect of heat dissipation is obvious.%无扇叶风扇可显著增加进风口的流量,将其应用于汽车发动机冷却系统,通过仿真分析其送风性能和冷却效果。首先对冷却风扇的三维模型使用 Fluent软件进行流体仿真以分析空气流动情况并得到出风量。扩散面长度和外侧倾角这两个参数对风扇的送风性能有较大的影响,通过仿真计算获得了出口流量随这两参数的变化规律。最后建立了散热器的简化模型并检验冷却风扇的散热效果,结果表明在进风为20 m/s 的速度下,散热器温度降低约10℃,散热效果明显。

  19. On limited fan-in optimal neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.; Makaruk, H.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Draghici, S. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Vision and Neural Networks Lab.

    1998-03-01

    Because VLSI implementations do not cope well with highly interconnected nets the area of a chip growing as the cube of the fan-in--this paper analyses the influence of limited fan in on the size and VLSI optimality of such nets. Two different approaches will show that VLSI- and size-optimal discrete neural networks can be obtained for small (i.e. lower than linear) fan-in values. They have applications to hardware implementations of neural networks. The first approach is based on implementing a certain sub class of Boolean functions, IF{sub n,m} functions. The authors will show that this class of functions can be implemented in VLSI optimal (i.e., minimizing AT{sup 2}) neural networks of small constant fan ins. The second approach is based on implementing Boolean functions for which the classical Shannon`s decomposition can be used. Such a solution has already been used to prove bounds on neural networks with fan-ins limited to 2. They generalize the result presented there to arbitrary fan-in, and prove that the size is minimized by small fan in values, while relative minimum size solutions can be obtained for fan-ins strictly lower than linear. Finally, a size-optimal neural network having small constant fan-ins will be suggested for IF{sub n,m} functions.

  20. The Mechanical Impact of Aerodynamic Stall on Tunnel Ventilation Fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Sheard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes work aimed at establishing the ability of a tunnel ventilation fan to operate without risk of mechanical failure in the event of aerodynamic stall. The research establishes the aerodynamic characteristics of a typical tunnel ventilation fan when operated in both stable and stalled aerodynamic conditions, with and without an anti-stall stabilisation ring, with and without a “nonstalling” blade angle and at full, half, and one quarter design speed. It also measures the fan’s peak stress, thus facilitating an analysis of the implications of the experimental results for mechanical design methodology. The paper concludes by presenting three different strategies for tunnel ventilation fan selection in applications where the selected fan will most likely stall. The first strategy selects a fan with a low-blade angle that is nonstalling. The second strategy selects a fan with a high-pressure developing capability. The third strategy selects a fan with a fitted stabilisation ring. Tunnel ventilation system designers each have their favoured fan selection strategy. However, all three strategies can produce system designs within which a tunnel ventilation fan performs reliably in-service. The paper considers the advantages and disadvantages of each selection strategy and considered the strengths and weaknesses of each.

  1. K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yeon Sung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the private sector, longtime fans have transitioned from participants to providers, and in the public sector, from observers to sponsors. Through in-depth interviews with event organizers, sponsors, and fans, this article offers an ethnographic study of the reception of K-pop in Europe that takes into consideration local interactions between fans and Korean sponsors, perspectives on the genre, patterns of social integration, and histories. As a case study, this research stresses the local situatedness of K-pop fan culture by arguing that local private and public sponsors and fans make the reception of K-pop different in each locality. By exploring local scenes of K-pop reception and fan culture, the article demonstrates the rapidly growing consumption of K-pop among Europeans and stresses multidirectional understandings of globalization.

  2. A measuring stand for a ducted fan aircraft propulsion unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaváček David

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The UL-39 ultra-light aircraft which is being developed by the Department of Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, is equipped with an unconventional ducted fan propulsion unit. The unit consists of an axial fan driven by a piston engine and placed inside a duct ended with a nozzle. This article describes the arrangement of a modernised measuring stand for this highly specific propulsion unit which will be able to measure the fan pressure ratio and velocity field in front of and behind the fan and its characteristic curve.

  3. Redesigned rotor for a highly loaded, 1800 ft/sec tip speed compressor fan stage 1: Aerodynamic and mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, J. E.; Ruschak, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    A highly loaded, high tip-speed fan rotor was designed with multiple-circular-arc airfoil sections as a replacement for a marginally successful rotor which had precompression airfoil sections. The substitution of airfoil sections was the only aerodynamic change. Structural design of the redesigned rotor blade was guided by successful experience with the original blade. Calculated stress levels and stability parameters for the redesigned rotor are within limits demonstrated in tests of the original rotor.

  4. Airshuffler implementation at freezer air outlets for heat transfer enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćerezci, Gökhan; Darka, Murat; Şenman, Ozan

    2016-06-01

    A study which is composed of computational simulation and experimental validation has been conducted for implementation of small, vane type geometries at freezer air outlets, similar to microvortex generators used in aircraft wings, in order to improve the heat transfer efficiency inside the freezer compartment by decreasing airside thermal resistance and improving the air distribution. Both simulation and experimental validation were performed in a loaded condition which was prepared according to `Household refrigerating appliances - characteristics and test methods - IEC 62552 [1]. Solutions for the incompressible K-epsilon (k-ɛ) turbulence model obtained for Bosch KDN 49 refrigerator freezer both with and without airshufflers at air outlets, which are similar to vane type microvortex generators with different geometric dimensions. The airshuffler dimensions were chosen with design of experiment (DOE) principles for finding the optimum geometry. The best combinations were tested according to cooling rate inside freezer compartment. Results were evaluated for feasibility of implementing of vortex generating surfaces (airshufflers) for cooling appliances.

  5. Boundary conditions for free surface inlet and outlet problems

    KAUST Repository

    Taroni, M.

    2012-08-10

    We investigate and compare the boundary conditions that are to be applied to free-surface problems involving inlet and outlets of Newtonian fluid, typically found in coating processes. The flux of fluid is a priori known at an inlet, but unknown at an outlet, where it is governed by the local behaviour near the film-forming meniscus. In the limit of vanishing capillary number Ca it is well known that the flux scales with Ca 2/3, but this classical result is non-uniform as the contact angle approaches π. By examining this limit we find a solution that is uniformly valid for all contact angles. Furthermore, by considering the far-field behaviour of the free surface we show that there exists a critical capillary number above which the problem at an inlet becomes over-determined. The implications of this result for the modelling of coating flows are discussed. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  6. Modeling of Flow in Nuclear Reactor Fuel Cell Outlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František URBAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Safe and effective load of nuclear reactor fuel cells demands qualitative and quantitative analysis of relations between coolant temperature in fuel cell outlet temperature measured by thermocouple and middle temperature of coolant in thermocouple plane position. In laboratory at Insitute of thermal power engineering of the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava was installed an experimental physical fuel cell model of VVER 440 nuclear power plant with V 213 nuclear reactors. Objective of measurements on physical model was temperature and velocity profiles analysis in the fuel cell outlet. In this paper the measured temperature and velocity profiles are compared with the results of CFD simulation of fuel cell physical model coolant flow.

  7. Spinal accessory neuropathy, droopy shoulder, and thoracic outlet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shekhlee, Amer; Katirji, Bashar

    2003-09-01

    Droopy shoulder has been proposed as a cause of thoracic outlet syndrome. Two patients developed manifestations of neurovascular compression upon arm abduction, associated with unilateral droopy shoulder and trapezius muscle weakness caused by iatrogenic spinal accessory neuropathies following cervical lymph node biopsies. The first patient developed a cold, numb hand with complete axillary artery occlusion when his arm was abducted to 90 degrees. The second patient complained of paresthesias in digits 4 and 5 of the right hand, worsened by elevation of the arm, with nerve conduction findings of right lower trunk plexopathy (low ulnar and medial antebrachial cutaneous sensory nerve action potentials). Spinal accessory nerve grafting (in the first patient) coupled with shoulder strengthening physical exercises in both patients resulted in gradual improvement of symptoms in 2 years. These two cases demonstrate that unilateral droopy shoulder secondary to trapezius muscle weakness may cause compression of the thoracic outlet structures.

  8. Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5 cm × 2 cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction.

  9. Numerical study on air-structure coupling dynamic characteristics of the axial fan blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q. G.; Xie, B.; Li, F.; Gu, W. G.

    2013-12-01

    In order to understand the dynamic characteristics of the axial-flow fan blade due to the effect of rotating stress and the action of unsteady aerodynamic forces caused by the airflow, a numerical simulation method for air-structure coupling in an axial-flow fan with fixed rear guide blades was performed. The dynamic characteristics of an axial-flow fan rotating blade were studied by using the two-way air-structure coupling method. Based on the standard k-ε turbulence model, and using weak coupling method, the preceding six orders modal parameters of the rotating blade were obtained, and the distributions of stress and strain on the rotating blade were presented. The results show that the modal frequency from the first to the sixth order is 3Hz higher than the modal frequency without considering air-structure coupling interaction; the maximum stress and the maximum strain are all occurred in the vicinity of root area of the blade no matter the air-structure coupling is considered or not, thus, the blade root is the dangerous location subjected to fatigue break; the position of maximum deformation is at the blade tip, so the vibration of the blade tip is significant. This study can provide theoretical references for the further study on the strength analysis and mechanical optimal design.

  10. Simulation of water flows in multiple columns with small outlets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Yong Kweon; Li, Zi Lu; Jeong, Jong Hyun; Lee, Jun Hee [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    High-pressure die casting such as thixocasting and rheocasting is an effective process in the manufacturing automotive parts. Following the recent trend in the automotive manufacturing technologies, the product design subject to the die casting becomes more and more complex. Simultaneously the injection speed is also designed to be very high to establish a short cycle-time. Thus, the requirement of the die design becomes more demanding than ever before. In some cases the product's shape can have multiple slender manifolds. In such cases, design of the inlet and outlet parts of the die is very important in the whole manufacturing process. The main issues required for the qualified products are to attain gentle and uniform flow of the molten liquid within the passages of the die. To satisfy such issues, the inlet cylinder ('bed cylinder' in this paper) must be as large as possible and simultaneously the outlet opening at the end of each passage must be as small as possible. However these in turn obviously bring additional manufacturing costs caused by re-melting of the bed cylinder and increased power due to the small outlet-openings. The purpose of this paper is to develop effective simulation methods of calculation for fluid flows in multiple columns, which mimic the actual complex design, and to get some useful information which can give some contributions to the die-casting industry. We have used a commercial code CFX in the numerical simulation. The primary parameter involved is the size of the bed cylinder. We will show how the very small opening of the outlet can be treated with the aid of the porous model provided in the code. To check the validity of the numerical results we have also conducted a simple experiment by using water.

  11. Extreme Loading of Aircraft Fan Blade

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, Dibakar

    2013-01-01

    The response of an aircraft fan blade manufactured by composites under the action of static and impact load has been studied in this report. The modeling and analysis of the geometry has been done using CASTEM 2007 version. For the quasi static analysis, the pressure has been incrementally applied until it satisfies the failure criteria. The deformed configuration, strain, Von-Mises stress, and the deflection of the blade have been studied. The response of the system e.g. deformation time history due to the impact of the projectile has been studied where the Newmark method for the dynamic problem has been implemented.

  12. Condensate Accretion in Shock Tube's Expansion Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezonlin, Ephrem-Denis; DeSilva, Upul P.; Hunte, F.; Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1997-01-01

    It has been shown that turbulence and temperature influence the droplet sizes in expansion fan induced condensation by studying the Rayleigh scattering from one port in our shock tube's test section. We have modified our set-up so as to allow, using two ports, the real time measurement of the influence of turbulence and temperature on the rate at which these droplets grow. To do this, we looked at the Rayleigh scattering from two different ports for ten Reynolds numbers at five different temperatures. We modeled the time of flight of droplets, using the equations of one-dimensional gas dynamics and the measured shock wave speed in shock tube's driven section.

  13. Through flow analysis of pumps and fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, A. N.

    1980-08-01

    Incompressible through flow calculations in axial, mixed and centrifugal flow pumps and fans are described. An iterative scheme is used. A simple blade to blade model is applied on the surfaces of revolution defined by the meridional streamlines. This defines the fluid properties and the mean stream surface (S2 surface) for the next meridional solution. A computer program is available allowing the method to be applied for design purposes. APL is used for input and output and FORTRAN IV for computation. A typical calculation requires 30 sec of Univac 1100 time.

  14. The use of circumferentially varying stagger guide vanes in an axial flow pump or compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlock, J. H.

    1990-04-01

    An actuator disk analysis is given of the flow through a guide vane and rotor combination. It is shown that changes in total pressure across the rotor are, in general, related to circumferential variations in guide vane outlet angle. In particular, known variations in inlet total pressure may be eliminated by suitable circumferential changes in guide vane stagger.

  15. Alcohol Outlets and Substance Use among High Schoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Adam J.; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom; Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have considered the potential role of the built environment in increasing adolescent substance use. The current study explored the relationship between alcohol outlets, a potential malleable component of the neighborhood environment, and adolescent behavioral outcomes. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between alcohol outlet density, perceived alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana availability (ATOD), perception of substance use as a problem at the school, and self-reported ATOD use. Data come from Maryland Safe and Supportive Schools (MDS3) Initiative, a statewide project focused on measuring and improving school climate. The sample includes 25,308 adolescents from 58 high schools (9th–12th grade) across 12 counties. Multi-level path models indicated a positive relationship between the count of alcohol outlets and perceived availability of ATOD among girls but not boys. Perceived availability was associated with increased ATOD use at both the individual- and school-level, as well as other students’ ATOD use. Findings provide support for the potential role of the built environment in adolescent risk for substance use, particularly among girls. PMID:27574339

  16. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 436 - Sample Item 20(4) Table-Status of Company-Owned Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RULES DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS CONCERNING FRANCHISING Pt. 436, App. E Appendix E to Part... 5Outlets Reacquired From Franchisees Column 6Outlets Closed Column 7Outlets Sold to Franchisees...

  17. Leading edge embedded fan airfoil concept -- A new powered high lift technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Nhan Huu

    input. The CFD results show that airfoil circulation control is achieved by the varying the CFF intake flow rate and the momentum of the CFF exhaust jet (e.g. through airfoil AoA or fan rotational speed). The presence of the CFF has the effect of moving the stagnation point on the airfoil pressure surface from the CFF airfoil LE region near the CFF to as far back as the airfoil trailing edge. At high AoA operation, LE flow separation on the airfoil suction surface is delayed by flow entrainment of the high-energy jet leaving the CFF. Detailed analysis of the flow field through the crossflow fan and its housing were carried out to understand its fluid-dynamics behavior, and it is found that the airfoil geometry acts as inlet guide vanes to the crossflow fan as the angle-of-attack is varied, thus introducing pre-swirl or co-swirl into the first stage of the crossflow fan. An experimental study of the LEEF concept confirmed that the concept works and it is robust. Finally, as application examples, the LEEF technology is applied to a Remote Control model and to a generic tiltrotor aircraft similar in characteristics to DARPA's Aerial Reconfigurable Embedded System. These aircraft configurations were analyzed using 2D and 3D CFD.

  18. Here, There and Everywhere: The Radiolar Eyes of Fan Worms (Annelida, Sabellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Michael J; Capa, María; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2016-11-01

    Fan worms (Annelida: Sabellidae) possess some of the strangest eyes in nature. Their eponymous fans are composed of two sets of radiolar tentacles that project from the head up out of the worm's protective tube into the water column. Primarily used for respiration and feeding, these radioles are also often involved in photoreception. They display a surprising diversity of eyes of varying levels of sophistication, ranging from scattered single ocelli to compound eyes with up to hundreds of facets. These photoreceptors could represent a relatively recent evolutionary development to cope with a sessile, tube-dwelling lifestyle, and the primary cerebral eyes (haplessly positioned within the tube most of the time) amount to little more than minute pigment cups with scant visual potential. The radiolar eyes on the other hand, appear to function as visual burglar alarms for detecting looming predators and eliciting a startle response for the worm to rapidly retreat within its fortified tube. Despite sometimes resembling arthropod compound eyes, the radiolar photoreceptors have many canonically vertebrate-like physiological characteristics. Considering the unusual and apparently recently evolved nature of the fan worm radiolar photoreceptors, these animals are an excellent case for examining the emergence of novel visual systems, the development of rudimentary visually guided behaviors, and the function of distributed sensory systems. Here, we review over 100 years of investigations into the anatomical diversity of sabellid radiolar photoreceptors and eyes in an evolutionary and functional context. We provide new information on radiolar eye structure in several species of fan worms, and we attempt to organize the various eye types and ocellar structures into meaningful hierarchies. We discuss the developmental, evolutionary, and functional significance of the radiolar eyes and highlight areas of future interest in deciphering their unique nature.

  19. Case study of French and Spanish fan reception of Game of Thrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Bourdaa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The reception of the American TV show Game of Thrones (2011– by French and Spanish fans and nonfans is addressed via a qualitative methodology, the goal of which is to understand how European viewers perceive themselves as fans and what it means for them to be fans. Analysis of characteristics of a specifically European reception helps us learn what fan studies tell us about fans and what fans really think about fandoms.

  20. The Retarding Force on a Fan-Cart Reversing Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under…

  1. Female fans of men's football - a case study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Lenneis, Verena; Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    2013-01-01

    to a 'man's world' and what are their roles in this 'male environment'? The statements of interviewees revealed that female fans have to cope with a measure of sexism, but that they can adopt the men's perspectives in order to be accepted as 'authentic fans'. Other women reacted on men's domination...

  2. Using Fan Fiction to Teach Critical Reading and Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about fan fiction, which is defined by Jenkins (2008) as "original stories and novels which are set in the fictional universe of favorite television series, films, comics, games or other media properties." Fan fiction generally involves writing stories with a combination of established characters and established…

  3. Acoustic Measurements of an Uninstalled Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, L. Danielle; Brown, Clifford A.; Shook, Tony D.; Winkel, James; Kolacz, John S.; Podboy, Devin M.; Loew, Raymond A.; Mirecki, Julius H.

    2012-01-01

    Sound pressure measurements were recorded for a prototype of a spacecraft cabin ventilation fan in a test in the NASA Glenn Acoustical Testing Laboratory. The axial fan is approximately 0.089 m (3.50 in.) in diameter and 0.223 m (9.00 in.) long and has nine rotor blades and eleven stator vanes. At design point of 12,000 rpm, the fan was predicted to produce a flow rate of 0.709 cu m/s (150 cfm) and a total pressure rise of 925 Pa (3.72 in. of water) at 12,000 rpm. While the fan was designed to be part of a ducted atmospheric revitalization system, no attempt was made to throttle the flow or simulate the installed configuration during this test. The fan was operated at six speeds from 6,000 to 13,500 rpm. A 13-microphone traversing array was used to collect sound pressure measurements along two horizontal planes parallel to the flow direction, two vertical planes upstream of the fan inlet and two vertical planes downstream of the fan exhaust. Measurements indicate that sound at blade passing frequency harmonics contribute significantly to the overall audible noise produced by the fan at free delivery conditions.

  4. Procedure for Balancing an Air Distribution System with Decentralised Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunner, Amalie; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders

    2015-01-01

    there is a potential for energy saving. In this study the calculated saving in the power consumption for the main fan was found to be 40%. The results also show that when dampers are replaced with decentralised fans with the same efficiency the overall power saving potential was 16%. In the study a mock-up...

  5. Amateur mythographies: Fan fiction and the myth of myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Willis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on classical scholarship on myth in order to critically examine three ways in which scholars and fans have articulated a relationship between fan fiction and myth. These are (1 the notion of fan fiction as a form of folk culture, reclaiming popular story from corporate ownership; (2 the notion of myth as counterhegemonic, often feminist, discourse; (3 the notion of myth as a commons of story and a universal story world. I argue that the first notion depends on an implicit primitivizing of fan fiction and myth, which draws ultimately on the work of Gottfried von Herder in the 18th century and limits our ability to produce historically and politically nuanced understandings of fan fiction. The second notion, which is visible in the work of Henry Jenkins and Constance Penley, is more helpful because of its attention to the politics of narration. However, it is the third model of myth, as a universal story world, where we find the richest crossover between fan fiction's creative power and contemporary classical scholarship on myth, especially in relation to Sarah Iles Johnston's analysis of hyperserial narrative. I demonstrate this through some close readings of fan fiction from the Greek and Roman Mythology fandom on Archive of Our Own. I conclude the paper by extending Johnston's arguments to show that fan-fictional hyperseriality, specifically, can be seen as mythic because it intervenes not only in the narrative worlds of its source materials but also in the social world of its telling.

  6. Gender constructions and negotiations of female football fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2015-01-01

    aims to give insight into gender constructions and negotiations of female football fans in the stands. Drawing on a social constructivist perspective to gender and Bourdieu's (1984) approaches to field, capital and habitus, we explored the experiences and opinions of female fans. The methods employed...

  7. 76 FR 50739 - Hung Ta Fan: Debarment Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... bases this order on a finding that Mr. Fan was convicted of a felony under Federal law for conduct... law). FDA's finding that debarment is appropriate is based on the felony conviction referenced herein... Thailand, when in fact he knew that the honey originated in China. Mr. Fan's actions allowed him to avoid...

  8. Simpler Variable-Speed Drive for Fan or Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obler, H. D.

    1982-01-01

    Static pressure developed by a fan or pump is used directly to control its speed in a new drive unit. System is simpler and more economical than many other speed controllers, although it is less accurate and has a narrower speed range. However, since very accurate control is not usually required for fans and pumps, unit would work well in many applications.

  9. Facilitating Attuned Interactions: Using the FAN Approach to Family Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkerson, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Erikson Institute's Fussy Baby Network® (FBN) is a national model prevention program known for its approach to family engagement called the FAN (Gilkerson & Gray, 2014; Gilkerson et al., 2012). The FAN is both a conceptual framework and a practical tool to facilitate attunement in helping relationships and promote reflective practice. This…

  10. Energy fan power consumption comparison of subway station HVAC system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGYong; ZHUYingxin

    2003-01-01

    Subway thermal environment control system is a mass energy consumed system. The fan operation is the Key of energy saving. Some feasible fan operation modes are proposed and compared in this paper from the view of energy and operation cost saving. It is concluded that VAV is the optimal operation mode for metro system with highest energy saving.

  11. Nocturnal Fanning Suppresses Downy Mildew Epidemics in Sweet Basil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigal Cohen

    Full Text Available Downy mildew is currently the most serious disease of sweet basil around the world. The oomycete causal agent Peronospora belbahrii requires ≥ 4h free leaf moisture for infection and ≥7.5h of water-saturated atmosphere (relative humidity RH≥95% at night for sporulation. We show here that continued nocturnal fanning (wind speed of 0.4-1.5 m/s from 8pm to 8am dramatically suppressed downy mildew development. In three experiments conducted during 2015, percent infected leaves in regular (non-fanned net-houses reached a mean of 89.9, 94.3 and 96.0% compared to1.2, 1.7 and 0.5% in adjacent fanned net-houses, respectively. Nocturnal fanning reduced the number of hours per night with RH≥95% thus shortened the dew periods below the threshold required for infection or sporulation. In experiments A, B and C, the number of nights with ≥4h of RH≥95% was 28, 10 and 17 in the non-fanned net-houses compared to 5, 0 and 5 in the fanned net-houses, respectively. In the third experiment leaf wetness sensors were installed. Dew formation was strongly suppressed in the fanned net-house as compared to the non-fanned net-house. Healthy potted plants became infected and sporulated a week later if placed one night in the non-fanned house whereas healthy plants placed during that night in the fanned house remained healthy. Infected potted basil plants sporulated heavily after one night of incubation in the non-fanned house whereas almost no sporulation occurred in similar plants incubated that night in the fanned house. The data suggest that nocturnal fanning is highly effective in suppressing downy mildew epidemics in sweet basil. Fanning prevented the within-canopy RH from reaching saturation, reduced dew deposition on the leaves, and hence prevented both infection and sporulation of P. belbahrii.

  12. Variable pitch fan system for NASA/Navy research and technology aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, W. P.; Black, D. M.; Yates, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary design of a shaft driven, variable-pitch lift fan and lift-cruise fan was conducted for a V/STOL Research and Technology Aircraft. The lift fan and lift-cruise fan employed a common rotor of 157.5 cm diameter, 1.18 pressure ratio variable-pitch fan designed to operate at a rotor-tip speed of 284 mps. Fan performance maps were prepared and detailed aerodynamic characteristics were established. Cost/weight/risk trade studies were conducted for the blade and fan case. Structural sizing was conducted for major components and weights determined for both the lift and lift-cruise fans.

  13. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  14. Portable Fan Assembly for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Arthur A.; Roman, Monsi C.

    1999-01-01

    NASA/ Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) is responsible for the design and fabrication of a Portable Fan Assembly (PFA) for the International Space Station (ISS). The PFA will be used to enhance ventilation inside the ISS modules as needed for crew comfort and for rack rotation. The PFA consists of the fan on-orbit replaceable unit (ORU) and two noise suppression packages (silencers). The fan ORU will have a mechanical interface with the Seat Track Equipment Anchor Assembly, in addition to the power supply module which includes a DC-DC converter, on/standby switch, speed control, power cable and connector. This paper provides a brief development history, including the criteria used for the fan, and a detailed description of the PFA operational configurations. Space Station requirements as well as fan performance characteristics are also discussed.

  15. Sediment velocities from sonobuoys: Bengal Fan, Sunda Trench, Andaman Basin, and Nicobar Fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, E.L.; Bachman, R.T.; Curray, J.R.; Moore, D.G.

    1977-07-10

    New measurements of interval compressional wave velocities were made in the first sediment layer using the sonobuoy technique during two expeditions in the Bay of Bengal, in the Andaman Sea, and over the Nicobar Fan and Sunda Trench. Sediment interval velocities from these areas were added to those previously reported, and revised diagrams and regression equations of instantaneous and mean velocity versus one-way travel time are furnished for four areas of the Bengal Fan, and for the Anadman Basin, Nicobar Fan, Sunda Trench. The velocity gradients directly below the sea floor were used to separate the Bengal Fan into four geoacoustic provinces. In the north and west the velocity gradients are 0.86 and 1.28 s/sup -1/, respectively, whereas in the central part of the fan the gradient is 1.87 s/sup -1/. These variations indicate lesser increases of velocity with depth in the sea floor in the north and west, and they are probably due to more rapid deposition, less consolidation, and less lithification near the riverine source areas of the sediments. The near-surface velocity gradients in the other areas are the Andaman Basin, 1.53 s/sup -1/, the Nicobar Fan 1.63 s/sup -1/, and the Sunda Trench, 1.41 s/sup -1/. The linear velocity gradients (from the sediment surface to a given travel time) in 17 areas of the Indian Ocean, Pacific area, Atlantic Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico were averaged at each 0.1 s from 0 to 0.5 s of one-way travel time. These averaged gradients ranged from 1.32 s/sup -1/ at t=0 to 0.76 s/sup -1/ at t=0.5 s. The regression equation for the velocity gradients a, in s/sup -1/, as a function of one-way travel time t, in seconds, is a=1.316-1.117t (for use from t=0 to 0.5 s). These average velocity gradients can be used with sediment surface velocities and one-way travel times (measured from reflection records) to compute sediment layer thickness in areas of turbidites lacking interval velocity measurements in the first sediment layer.

  16. Availability of limited service food outlets surrounding schools in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Day, Meghan

    2012-06-05

    The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of the availability of limited service food outlets surrounding public schools in British Columbia, Canada. Data from the 2010 Canadian Business Data Files were used to identify limited service food outlets including fast food outlets, beverage and snack food stores, delis and convenience stores. The number of food outlets within 800 metres of 1,392 public schools and the distance from schools to the nearest food outlets were assessed. Multivariate regression models examined the associations between food outlet availability and school-level characteristics. In 2010, over half of the public schools in BC (54%) were located within a 10-12 minute walk from at least one limited service food outlet. The median closest distance to a food outlet was just over 1 km (1016 m). Schools comprised of students living in densely populated urban neighbourhoods and neighbourhoods characterized by lower socio-economic status were more likely to have access to limited service food outlets within walking distance. After adjusting for school-level median family income and population density, larger schools had higher odds of exposure to food vendors compared to schools with fewer students. The availability of and proximity to limited service food outlets vary widely across schools in British Columbia and school-level characteristics are significantly associated with food outlet availability. Additional research is needed to understand how food environment exposures inside and surrounding schools impact students' attitudes, food choices and dietary quality.

  17. A new blade element method for calculating the performance of high and intermediate solidity axial flow fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, H. V.

    1978-01-01

    A method is presented to design and predict the performance of axial flow rotors operating in a duct. The same method is suitable for the design of ducted fans and open propellers. The unified method is based on the blade element approach and the vortex theory for determining the three dimensional effects, so that two dimensional airfoil data can be used for determining the resultant force on each blade element. Resolution of this force in the thrust and torque planes and integration allows the total performance of the rotor, fan or propeller to be predicted. Three different methods of analysis, one based on a momentum flow theory; another on the vortex theory of propellers; and a third based on the theory of ducted fans, agree and reduce cascade airfoil data to single line as a function of the loading and induced angle of attack at values of constant inflow angle. The theory applies for any solidity from .01 to over 1 and any blade section camber. The effects of the duct and blade number can be determined so that the procedure applies over the entire range from two blade open propellers, to ducted helicopter tail rotors, to axial flow compressors with or without guide vanes, and to wind tunnel drive fans.

  18. Development of a Fan for Future Space Suit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul. Heather L.; Converse, David; Dionne, Steven; Moser, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    NASA's next generation space suit system will place new demands on the fan used to circulate breathing gas through the ventilation loop of the portable life support system. Long duration missions with frequent extravehicular activities (EVAs), the requirement for significant increases in reliability and durability, and a mission profile that imposes strict limits on weight, volume and power create the basis for a set of requirements that demand more performance than is available from existing fan designs. This paper describes the development of a new fan to meet these needs. A centrifugal fan was designed with a normal operating speed of approximately 39,400 rpm to meet the ventilation flow requirements while also meeting the aggressive minimal packaging, weight and power requirements. The prototype fan also operates at 56,000 rpm to satisfy a second operating condition associated with a single fan providing ventilation flow to two spacesuits connected in series. This fan incorporates a novel nonmetallic "can" to keep the oxygen flow separate from the motor electronics, thus eliminating ignition potential. The nonmetallic can enables a small package size and low power consumption. To keep cost and schedule within project bounds a commercial motor controller was used. The fan design has been detailed and implemented using materials and approaches selected to address anticipated mission needs. Test data is presented to show how this fan performs relative to anticipated ventilation requirements for the EVA portable life support system. Additionally, data is presented to show tolerance to anticipated environmental factors such as acoustics, shock, and vibration. Recommendations for forward work to progress the technology readiness level and prepare the fan for the next EVA space suit system are also discussed.

  19. Alluvial Fan Morphology, distribution and formation on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, S. P. D.; Hayes, A. G.; Howard, A. D.; Moore, J. M.; Radebaugh, J.

    2016-05-01

    Titan is a hydrologically active world, with dozens of alluvial fans that are evidence of sediment transport from high to low elevations. However, the distribution and requirements for the formation of fans on Titan are not well understood. We performed the first global survey of alluvial fans on Titan using Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data, which cover 61% of Titan's surface. We identified 82 fans with areas ranging from 28 km2 to 27,000 km2. A significant fraction (∼60%) of the fans are restricted to latitudes of ±50-80°, suggesting that fluvial sediment transport may have been concentrated in the near-polar terrains in the geologically recent past. The density of fans is also found to be correlated with the latitudes predicted to have the highest precipitation rates by Titan Global Circulation Models. In equatorial regions, observable fans are not generally found in proximity to dune fields. Such observations suggest that sediment transport in these areas is dominated by aeolian transport mechanisms, though with some degree of recent equatorial fluvial activity. The fan area-drainage area relationship on Titan is more similar to that on Earth than on Mars, suggesting that the fans on Titan are smaller than what may be expected, and that the transport of bedload sediment is limited. We hypothesize that this has led to the development of a coarse gravel-lag deposit over much of Titan's surface. Such a model explains both the morphology of the fans and their latitudinal concentration, yielding insight into the sediment transport regimes that operate across Titan today.

  20. Life, death and revival of debris-flow fans on Earth and Mars : fan dynamics and climatic inferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, T.

    2016-01-01

    Alluvial fans are ubiquitous landforms in high-relief regions on Earth and Mars. They have a semi-conical shape and are located at the transition between highlands and adjacent basins. Alluvial fans can form by a range of processes including debris flows, which are water-laden masses of soil and

  1. Life, death and revival of debris-flow fans on Earth and Mars : fan dynamics and climatic inferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, T.

    2016-01-01

    Alluvial fans are ubiquitous landforms in high-relief regions on Earth and Mars. They have a semi-conical shape and are located at the transition between highlands and adjacent basins. Alluvial fans can form by a range of processes including debris flows, which are water-laden masses of soil and roc

  2. Life, death and revival of debris-flow fans on Earth and Mars : fan dynamics and climatic inferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, T.

    2016-01-01

    Alluvial fans are ubiquitous landforms in high-relief regions on Earth and Mars. They have a semi-conical shape and are located at the transition between highlands and adjacent basins. Alluvial fans can form by a range of processes including debris flows, which are water-laden masses of soil and roc

  3. Gastric outlet obstruction secondary to Morgagni hernia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallati, P K; Puri, V; Mittal, S K

    2008-04-01

    An 89-year old female presented to us with symptoms of gastric outlet obstruction which appeared to be secondary to gastric volvulus on preoperative work-up. On laparoscopy the stomach was found to be incarcerated in a right-sided Morgagni hernia with surrounding adhesions. The hernia was reduced after dissecting the adhesions and the diaphragmatic defect was repaired using a biologic mesh onlay patch (Surgisis GOLD, Cook Biotech Inc.). Her postoperative recovery was uneventful and she was doing well at three months follow-up.

  4. Spontaneous epigastric hernia causing gastric outlet obstruction: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arowolo, O A; Ogundiran, T O; Adebamowo, C A

    2006-09-01

    Epigastric hernia, a rare form of ventral abdominal hernia, accounts for 0.4 - 1.5% of all abdominal wall hernias. It usually occurs in middle - aged individuals and is rarely large enough to admit more than a small amount of extra-peritoneal fat. In this case report, we present a 64 years old woman with 6 days history of sudden onset of painful epigastric swelling associated with acute gastric outlet obstruction. We did not find a previous report of a similar case in the medical literature.

  5. Gastric outlet obstruction from duodenal lipoma in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Promise N Wichendu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The duodenum is a rare site for gastrointestinal lipoma with less than 230 cases reported in the literature. Although, peptic ulcer disease remains the most common benign cause of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO, duodenal lipomas remain a rare, but possible cause of GOO and could pose a diagnostic challenge, especially in countries where access to endoscopy and modern imaging techniques poses a challenge. The authors present a case of GOO in a 40-year-old male, secondary to a duodenal lipoma. It was successfully treated by a transduodenal resection through a midline laparotomy. The histology report confirmed it was a submucosal lipoma.

  6. PPOOLEX experiments with a modified blowdown pipe outlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M.; Raesaenen, A. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2009-08-15

    This report summarizes the results of the experiments with a modified blowdown pipe outlet carried out with the PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through a vertical DN200 blowdown pipe to the condensation pool. Four reference experiments with a straight pipe and ten with the Forsmark type collar were carried out. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study the effect of a blowdown pipe outlet collar design on loads caused by chugging phenomena (rapid condensation) while steam is discharged into the condensation pool. The PPOOLEX test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. During the experiments the initial temperature level of the condensation pool water was either 20-25 or 50-55 deg. C. The steam flow rate varied from 400 to 1200 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 142 to 185 deg. C. In the experiments with 20-25 deg. C pool water, even 10 times higher pressure pulses were measured inside the blowdown pipe in the case of the straight pipe than with the collar. In this respect, the collar design worked as planned and removed the high pressure spikes from the blowdown pipe. Meanwhile, there seemed to be no suppressing effect on the loads due to the collar in the pool side in this temperature range. Registered loads in the pool were approximately in the same range (or even a little higher) with the collar as with the straight pipe. In the experiments with 50-55 deg. C pool water no high pressure pulses were measured inside the blowdown pipe either with the straight pipe or with the collar. In this case, more of the suppressing effect is probably due to the warmer pool water than due to the modified pipe outlet. It has been observed already in the earlier experiments with a straight pipe in the POOLEX and PPOOLEX facilities that warm pool water has a diminishing effect on

  7. Thoracic outlet syndrome: a neurological and vascular disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Zachary; Sorenson, Edward; Tubbs, R Shane; Arya, Rahul; Meloy, Patrick; Shah, Rajnil; Shirk, Samuel; Loukas, Marios

    2014-07-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a condition arising from compression of the subclavian vessels and/or brachial plexus as the structures travel from the thoracic outlet to the axilla. Despite the significant pathology associated with TOS, there remains some general disagreement among experts on the specific anatomy, etiology, and pathophysiology of the condition, presumably because of the wide variation in symptoms that manifest in presenting patients, and because of lack of a definitive gold standard for diagnosis. Symptoms associated with TOS have traditionally been divided into vascular and neurogenic categories, a distinction based on the underlying structure(s) implicated. Of the two, neurogenic TOS (nTOS) is more common, and typically presents as compression of the brachial plexus; primarily, but not exclusively, involving its lower trunk. Vascular TOS (vTOS) usually involves compression of the vessel, most commonly the subclavian artery or vein, or is secondary to thrombus formation in the venous vasculature. Any anatomical anomaly in the thoracic outlet has the potential to predispose a patient to TOS. Common anomalies include variations in the insertion of the anterior scalene muscle (ASM) or scalenus minimus muscle, the presence of a cervical rib or of fibrous and muscular bands, variations in insertion of pectoralis minor, and the presence of neurovascular structures, which follow an atypical course. A common diagnostic technique for vTOS is duplex imaging, which has generally replaced more invasive angiographic techniques. In cases of suspected nTOS, electrophysiological nerve studies and ASM blocks provide guidance when screening for patients likely to benefit from surgical decompression of TOS. Surgeons generally agree that the transaxillary approach allows the greatest field of view for first rib excision to relieve compressed vessels. Alternatively, a supraclavicular approach is favored for scalenotomies when the ASM impinges on surrounding

  8. Aerodynamic Modelling and Optimization of Axial Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft

    A numerically efficient mathematical model for the aerodynamics oflow speed axial fans of the arbitrary vortex flow type has been developed.The model is based on a blade-element principle, whereby therotor is divided into a number of annular streamtubes.For each of these streamtubes relations...... for velocity, pressure andradial position are derived from the conservationlaws for mass, tangential momentum and energy.The resulting system of equations is non-linear and, dueto mass conservation and pressure equilibrium far downstream of the rotor,strongly coupled.The equations are solved using the Newton...... distributionsof pitch angle and chord length have been chosen as independent variablesin the optimizations.Besides restricting the geometry of the rotor,constraints have been added to ensure a required pressure rise as well asnon-stalled flow conditions.Optimizations have been performed tomaximize the mean value...

  9. A generalization of Ky Fan's inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    2001-01-01

    defined by f(x,y=0 and 0Fan's inequality. We also present some results on the comparison of Pn,sα(y−Pn,rα(y and Pn,sα(x−Pn,rα(x for s≥r, α∈ℝ.

  10. Failure analysis of air fan blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-qing; JI Zhe; CUI Yong-li; CUI Chun-zhi; SUN Zhi

    2008-01-01

    The failure of all 12 blades of an air fan was investigated by metallurgical and mechanical experiments and an examina-tion of the fracture surface. The experimental results show that the cast aluminium-silicon alloy without any modification had a number of material defects, such as coarse grains, a loose structure, a large number of shrinkage holes, a long and thin bold-pin shaped silicon-phase, poor material strength and serious brittleness. In addition, installed on the spindle without elastic conjunction,blade No. 10 vibrated and inevitably.spun off due to the large centrifugal force. Therefore, blade No. 10 first cracked at the locking handle, then broke at the root, which caused all the other 11 blades to be broken by the crack of blade No.10.

  11. Soap operas and the history of fan discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Ford

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available For decades, fans of U.S. soap operas have formed social networks surrounding their shows, and they did so even before the concept entered the vernacular. Soap fans, who started on a geographically local scale and built their communities through grassroots efforts, have found a variety of venues to connect with one another over the past several decades. This study looks at the pre-Internet development of these social networks to show how that trajectory relates to the current online community of soap opera fans. Although several scholars have studied soap opera fandom, few have taken an historical approach at understanding the trajectory of soap fandom, a view especially necessary in an era where online social networks are at the center of audience studies and where cornerstone U.S. soap operas are struggling to retain relevance and audience. To fill this gap, I argue that understanding fan networks today requires looking back to previous methods of fan networking. Soaps' longevity (the youngest U.S. soap is more than 20 years old and frequency (all U.S. daytime soaps are daily make them crucial texts in demonstrating how the roots of fan social networks in a pre-Internet era helped shape that fandom's transition onto the Internet, and they also illustrate the continued evolution of these networks as fans move online.

  12. Experimental determination of tunnel ventilation axial ducted fan performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šekularac Milan B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate traffic tunnel ventilation flows, a scaled model of a traffic tunnel with longitudinal ventilation system based on ducted fans is used. Flows in tunnels are influenced by tunnel geometry, fan characteristics, ventilation operation scenario, vehicle traffic, atmospheric factors, etc. To analyze flow fields of tunnels in detail, knowledge of tunnel jet-fan properties and turbulent flow characteristics at the fan exit are required, and can be used as input data for CFD boundary conditions of tunnel flow computation. For this purpose experimental measurements were done using the hot wire anemometry technique. The obtained results, trough ensemble-averaged and time averaged profiles of all velocity components, turbulence intensity, turbulent kinetic energy, integral flow length scales, available Reynolds stresses, Turbulent kinetic energy production rates and the fan thrust performance, are presented. These data allow us to analyze in more detail the influence of fan flow on energy and pollutant removal efficiencies of the tunnel ventilation and to evaluate accuracy of CFD studies on fan improvements.

  13. Reactive control of subsonic axial fan noise in a duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Choy, Y S; Huang, L; Cheng, L

    2014-10-01

    Suppressing the ducted fan noise at low frequencies without varying the flow capacity is still a technical challenge. This study examines a conceived device consisting of two tensioned membranes backed with cavities housing the axial fan for suppression of the sound radiation from the axial fan directly. The noise suppression is achieved by destructive interference between the sound fields from the axial fan of a dipole nature and sound radiation from the membrane via vibroacoustics coupling. A two-dimensional model with the flow effect is presented which allows the performance of the device to be explored analytically. The air flow influences the symmetrical behavior and excites the odd in vacuo mode response of the membrane due to kinematic coupling. Such an asymmetrical effect can be compromised with off-center alignment of the axial fan. Tension plays an important role to sustain the performance to revoke the deformation of the membrane during the axial fan operation. With the design of four appropriately tensioned membranes covered by a cylindrical cavity, the first and second blade passage frequencies of the axial fan can be reduced by at least 20 dB. The satisfactory agreement between experiment and theory demonstrates that its feasibility is practical.

  14. Understanding Himalayan erosion and the significance of the Nicobar Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Lisa C.; Dugan, Brandon; Backman, Jan; Pickering, Kevin T.; Pouderoux, Hugo F. A.; Henstock, Timothy J.; Petronotis, Katerina E.; Carter, Andrew; Chemale, Farid; Milliken, Kitty L.; Kutterolf, Steffen; Mukoyoshi, Hideki; Chen, Wenhuang; Kachovich, Sarah; Mitchison, Freya L.; Bourlange, Sylvain; Colson, Tobias A.; Frederik, Marina C. G.; Guèrin, Gilles; Hamahashi, Mari; House, Brian M.; Hüpers, Andre; Jeppson, Tamara N.; Kenigsberg, Abby R.; Kuranaga, Mebae; Nair, Nisha; Owari, Satoko; Shan, Yehua; Song, Insun; Torres, Marta E.; Vannucchi, Paola; Vrolijk, Peter J.; Yang, Tao; Zhao, Xixi; Thomas, Ellen

    2017-10-01

    A holistic view of the Bengal-Nicobar Fan system requires sampling the full sedimentary section of the Nicobar Fan, which was achieved for the first time by International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 362 west of North Sumatra. We identified a distinct rise in sediment accumulation rate (SAR) beginning ∼9.5 Ma and reaching 250-350 m/Myr in the 9.5-2 Ma interval, which equal or far exceed rates on the Bengal Fan at similar latitudes. This marked rise in SAR and a constant Himalayan-derived provenance necessitates a major restructuring of sediment routing in the Bengal-Nicobar submarine fan. This coincides with the inversion of the Eastern Himalayan Shillong Plateau and encroachment of the west-propagating Indo-Burmese wedge, which reduced continental accommodation space and increased sediment supply directly to the fan. Our results challenge a commonly held view that changes in sediment flux seen in the Bengal-Nicobar submarine fan were caused by discrete tectonic or climatic events acting on the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau. Instead, an interplay of tectonic and climatic processes caused the fan system to develop by punctuated changes rather than gradual progradation.

  15. Characterizing subsurface hydraulic heterogeneity of alluvial fan using riverstage fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Li; Yeh, Tian-Chyi Jim; Wen, Jet-Chau; Huang, Shao-Yang; Zha, Yuanyuan; Tsai, Jui-Pin; Hao, Yonghong; Liang, Yue

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate the ability of riverstage tomography to estimate 2-D spatial distribution of hydraulic diffusivity (D) of Zhuoshui River alluvial fan, Taiwan, using groundwater level data from 65 wells and stream stage data from 5 gauging stations. In order to accomplish this objective, wavelet analysis is first conducted to investigate the temporal characteristics of groundwater level, precipitation, and stream stage. The results of the analysis show that variations of groundwater level and stream stage are highly correlated over seasonal and annual periods while that between precipitation is less significant. Subsequently, spatial cross-correlation between seasonal variations of groundwater level and riverstage data is analyzed. It is found that the correlation contour map reflects the pattern of sediment distribution of the fan. This finding is further substantiated by the cross-correlation analysis using both noisy and noise-free groundwater and riverstage data of a synthetic aquifer, where aquifer heterogeneity is known exactly. The ability of riverstage tomography is then tested with these synthetic data sets to estimate D distribution. Finally, the riverstage tomography is applied to the alluvial fan. The results of the application reveal that the apex and southeast of the alluvial fan are regions with relatively high D and the D values gradually decrease toward the shoreline of the fan. In addition, D at northern alluvial fan is slightly larger than that at southern. These findings are consistent with the geologic evolution of this alluvial fan.

  16. Fans of Columbine shooters Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ryan Rico

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On April 20, 1999, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold murdered 12 students and one teacher at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, in what was then the deadliest school shooting in American history. Despite causing a national panic and serving as a flash point for larger narratives on bullying, gun control, and media violence, both boys have gained active online fans. These fandoms dedicated to the Columbine shooters are widely referred to as dark examples of Internet communities, while the fans are also frequently denigrated as unstable and violent outcasts. Such dark online fandoms are yet to permeate mainstream culture or to challenge the preexisting perception of these communities as breeding grounds for the next wave of school shooters. While studies have covered the types of fans and their myriad interests, the field remains focused on more conventional examples of fan communities. In an effort to challenge and expand the object of focus when we study fandom, this qualitative study examines Columbine fans and their activity in order to understand the dominant motives they appear to have for engaging with and around such controversial figures and then concludes by exploring how this community might help us reflect more broadly on our concept of fandom. Redeeming these fans as part of diverse and complex communities of social relevance can demonstrate how even a dark fandom such as that of these Columbine shooters provides valuable cultural insights and benefits the field of fan studies.

  17. Use of booster fans in underground coal mining to advantage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Habibi A; Gillies A D S

    2011-01-01

    A booster fan is an underground main fan which is installed in series with a main surface fan and used to boost the air pressure of the ventilation to overcome mine resistance.Currently booster fans are used in several major coal mining countries including the United Kingdom,Australia,Poland and China.In the United States booster fans are prohibited in coal mines although they are used in several metal and non-metal mines.A study has been undertaken to examine alternatives for ventilating an underground room and pillar coal mine system.A feasibility study of a hypothetical situation has shown that current ventilation facilities are incapable of fulfilling mine air requirements in the future due to increased seam methane levels.A current ventilation network model has been prepared and projected to a mine five years plan.“Ventsim visual” software simulations of different possible ventilation options have been conducted in which varying methane levels are found at working faces.The software can also undertake financial simulations and project present value total costs for the options under study.Several scenarios for improving the ventilation situation such as improving main surface fans,adding intake shafts,adding exhaust shafts and utilizing booster fans have been examined.After taking into account the total capital and operating costs for the five years mine plan the booster fan scenarios are recommended as being the best alternatives for further serious consideration by the mine.The optimum option is a properly sized and installed booster fan system that can be used to create safe work conditions,maintain adequate air quantity with lowest cost,generate a reduction in energy consumption and decrease mine system air leakage.

  18. Technologies for Upgrading Light Water Reactor Outlet Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel S. Wendt; Piyush Sabharwall; Vivek Utgikar

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear energy could potentially be utilized in hybrid energy systems to produce synthetic fuels and feedstocks from indigenous carbon sources such as coal and biomass. First generation nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) technology will most likely be based on conventional light water reactors (LWRs). However, these LWRs provide thermal energy at temperatures of approximately 300°C, while the desired temperatures for many chemical processes are much higher. In order to realize the benefits of nuclear hybrid energy systems with the current LWR reactor fleets, selection and development of a complimentary temperature upgrading technology is necessary. This paper provides an initial assessment of technologies that may be well suited toward LWR outlet temperature upgrading for powering elevated temperature industrial and chemical processes during periods of off-peak power demand. Chemical heat transformers (CHTs) are a technology with the potential to meet LWR temperature upgrading requirements for NHESs. CHTs utilize chemical heat of reaction to change the temperature at which selected heat sources supply or consume thermal energy. CHTs could directly utilize LWR heat output without intermediate mechanical or electrical power conversion operations and the associated thermodynamic losses. CHT thermal characteristics are determined by selection of the chemical working pair and operating conditions. This paper discusses the chemical working pairs applicable to LWR outlet temperature upgrading and the CHT operating conditions required for providing process heat in NHES applications.

  19. A CLINICAL STUDY OF GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION IN ADULT POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Singh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO also known as pyloric obstruction is not a single entity. It is the clinical & pathophysiological consequence of any disease process that produces a mechanical impediment to gastric emptying. MATERIALS AND METHODS 37 patients attending surgical out-patient department of Pt. J. N. M. Medical College, Raipur during the period of March 2015 to September 2016 of GOO with chief complaints of projectile vomiting, visible gastric peristalsis or palpable distended stomach were included in this study. Cases of functional non-mechanical cause of GOO were excluded. Only patients of 20 years & above were included in this study. Saline load test, upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy and routine laboratory investigations done in all cases. RESULTS Age group of 40-59 was maximum sufferer 27%, followed by age group 60-69 years (21.9%. Male-Female ratio was 1.2:1. Antral carcinoma (75.7% cases topped the list followed by cicatrised duodenal ulcer which was seen in 18.9% cases; only two case was due to duodenal adenoma. CONCLUSION This study is a clinical observational study of gastric outlet obstruction, but in vast majority of cases diagnosis can be established clinically. Males are more sufferers and antral carcinoma seems to be main causes of GOO, Proliferative lesion is common finding in UGI.

  20. Surgical treatment of thoracic outlet syndrome; by supraclavicular approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Abd Ellah Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thoracic outlet syndrome comprises a wide spectrum of disorders with different compressive pathologies attributed to the neurovascular bundle passing from the root of the neck to supply the upper extremity. New concepts and advances in diagnosis and treatment are emerging. This study evaluates effectiveness and safety of the supraclavicular approach in management of neurovascular compression at the thoracic outlet. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients (15 females and 5 males with mean age of 20 years (ranging from 18 to 40 years underwent anterior neurovascular decompression procedures because of symptoms of lower plexus compression (C8 - T1. Preoperative plain radiography, MRI and nerve conduction velocity studies confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Nine patients had neck pain, all had sensory deficit and eight had motor deficit. Results: After 35 months of follow-up, 17 patients showed excellent results, two cases had good results and one case had fair results according to the visual analog scale, and nerve conduction velocities. Conclusions: We recommend nerve conduction velocity studies beside clinical assessment for diagnosis and follow-up, and supraclavicular approach in neurogenic decompression which is relatively safe and effective.

  1. TRICHOBEZOAR WITH GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Prasad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Trichobezoar is collection of hairs forming a conglomerated mass. It is a very rare entity mimicking other common causes of gastric outlet obstruction. It is classically seen in adolescent females usually with psychiatric disturbances. Stomach is the most common site of occurrence. Occasionally, it may extend into small intestine (Rapunzel syndrome. Patients present with nonspecific symptoms such as loss of appetite, early satiety and vomiting. It may present as failure to thrive in small children. Diagnosis is frequently delayed due to paucity of symptoms. It is noticed as a slowly growing lump but occasionally may present with complications such as perforation, intestinal obstruction and pancreatitis. Abdominal ultrasonography is inconclusive and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy confirms the diagnosis. Laparotomy and extraction is the standard of treatment in spite of many new minimally invasive techniques. This is a case of gastric trichobezoar in a 16-year-old girl who presented with gastric outlet obstruction, which was successfully removed surgically. Recurrences are frequent due to associated psychiatric disturbances, hence psychiatric counselling must form an integral part of treatment.

  2. Antral hyperplastic polyp causing intermittent gastric outlet obstruction: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtkaya-Yapicier Ozlem

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperplastic polyps are the most common polypoid lesions of the stomach. Rarely, they cause gastric outlet obstruction by prolapsing through the pyloric channel, when they arise in the prepyloric antrum. Case presentation A 62-year-old woman presented with intermittent nausea and vomiting of 4 months duration. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a 30 mm prepyloric sessile polyp causing intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. Following submucosal injection of diluted adrenaline solution, the polyp was removed with a snare. Multiple biopsies were taken from the greater curvature of the antrum and the corpus. Rapid urease test for Helicobacter pylori yielded a negative result. Histopathologic examination showed a hyperplastic polyp without any evidence of malignancy. Biopsies of the antrum and the corpus revealed gastritis with neither atrophic changes nor Helicobacter pylori infection. Follow-up endoscopy after a 12-week course of proton pomp inhibitor therapy showed a complete healing without any remnant tissue at the polypectomy site. The patient has been symptom-free during 8 months of follow-up. Conclusions Symptomatic gastric polyps should be removed preferentially when they are detected at the initial diagnostic endoscopy. Polypectomy not only provides tissue to determine the exact histopathologic type of the polyp, but also achieves radical treatment.

  3. Methodological Approaches to Locating Outlets of the Franchise Retail Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grygorenko Tetyana M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Methodical approaches to selecting strategic areas of managing the future location of franchise retail network outlets are presented. The main stages in the assessment of strategic areas of managing the future location of franchise retail network outlets have been determined and the evaluation criteria have been suggested. Since such selection requires consideration of a variety of indicators and directions of the assessment, the author proposes a scale of evaluation, which allows generalizing and organizing the research data and calculations of the previous stages of the analysis. The most important criteria and sequence of the selection of the potential franchisees for the franchise retail network have been identified, the technique for their evaluation has been proposed. The use of the suggested methodological approaches will allow the franchiser making sound decisions on the selection of potential target markets, minimizing expenditures of time and efforts on the selection of franchisees and hence optimizing the process of development of the franchise retail network, which will contribute to the formation of its structure.

  4. Prolapsing Gastric Polyp Causing Intermittent Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, Hardip Singh; Norfaezan, Abdul Rashid; Razman, Jamin; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2015-06-01

    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if left untreated, may undergo neoplasia to form malignant cells. A distal gastrectomy was an effective choice of treatment, taking into account the polyp size, quantity, and potential for malignancy as opposed to an endoscopic approach, which may not guarantee a complete removal of safer margins and depth. Therefore, surgical excision is favorable for multiple large gastric polyps with risk of malignancy.

  5. Experimental verification of the streamline curvature numerical analysis method applied to the flow through an axial flow fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierzga, M. J.

    1980-05-01

    To verify the results of a streamline curvature numerical analysis method, an investigation has been conducted in which comparisons are made between analytical and experimental data of an axial flow fan. Using loss model calculations to determine the proper outlet flow deviation angles, the flow field in the hub to tip plane of the turbomachine was calculated. These deviation angle calculations allow the inviscid streamline curvature (SLC) analysis to model a real fluid with viscous losses. The verification of this calculated flow field is the primary objective of the investigation; however, in addition to the hub to tip flow field, the numerical analysis of the blade-to-blade flow field was also investigated in some detail. To verify the accuracy of the numerical results, detailed flow surveys were conducted upstream and downstream of the test rotor of the axial flow fan. To obtain the necessary data to verify the blade-to-blade solution, internal blade row data were also collected. The internal blade row measurements were obtained by using a rotating circumferential traversing mechanism which was designed and implemented during this investigation. Along with these two sets of survey data, the static pressure distributions on the pressure and suction surfaces of the test rotor were also obtained.

  6. Female fans of men's football - a case study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Lenneis, Verena; Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Football is an invention by men for men, and today, the majority of players and fans are men. There is an abundance of literature on football and fandom; however, gender is mostly not an issue in these publications. Research about female football supporters and fans is very limited. This is also...... to a ‘man’s world’ and what are their roles in this ‘male environment’? The statements of interviewees revealed that female fans have to cope with a measure of sexism, but that they can adopt the men’s perspectives in order to be accepted as ‘authentic fans’. Other women reacted on men’s domination...

  7. Performance Study and CFD Predictions of a Ducted Fan System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Chang, I-Chung; Bulaga, Robert W.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation was completed in the NASA Ames 7 by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel to study the performance characteristics of a ducted fan. The goal of this effort is to study the effect of ducted fan geometry and utilize Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis to provide a baseline for correlation. A 38-inch diameter, 10-inch chord duct with a five-bladed fixed-pitch fan was tested. Duct performance data were obtained in hover, vertical climb, and forward flight test conditions. This paper will present a description of the test, duct performance results and correlation with CFD predictions.

  8. Introduction of a Cooling-Fan Efficiency Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiavon, S.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2009-01-01

    , while cooling capacity and efficiency of energy use are unknown. To address this knowledge gap, this paper introduces the cooling-fan efficiency (CFE) index, defined as the ratio between the cooling effect (measured with a thermal manikin) generated by the device and its power consumption. The index...... cooling effect and an index for determining fan efficiency, such as the CFE index proposed in this study, need to be developed. The cooling fans generate a nonuniform velocity field around occupants, which cannot be described with a single air-velociry value. Therefore, it is not clear how to apply...

  9. Morphometry of the outlet of the foramen magnum in crania with atlantooccipital fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Lancaster, Jeffrey R; Mortazavi, Martin M; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Chern, Joshua J; Loukas, Marios; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2011-07-01

    Assimilation of the atlas to the occiput may result in symptoms that are often compressive in nature around the outlet of the foramen magnum. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the morphological features of the bone through this foramen. Thirteen adult skulls with atlantooccipital fusion underwent morphometrical analysis of the outlet of the foramen magnum. All specimens but one were found to have a decreased area of the outlet of the foramen magnum. In those 12 specimens, a decrease of 15%-35% was seen. Fusions of the atlas that were based primarily along the anterior rim of the foramen magnum resulted in more obstruction of its outlet. In general, the horizontal diameters of the outlet of these foramina were more decreased from the normal range. These findings demonstrate that in the majority of cases, assimilation of the atlas to the occiput results in a compromised outlet of the foramen magnum.

  10. Life, death and revival of debris-flow fans on Earth and Mars : fan dynamics and climatic inferences

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, T.

    2016-01-01

    Alluvial fans are ubiquitous landforms in high-relief regions on Earth and Mars. They have a semi-conical shape and are located at the transition between highlands and adjacent basins. Alluvial fans can form by a range of processes including debris flows, which are water-laden masses of soil and rock with volumetric sediment concentrations exceeding 40%. In this thesis, I aim to (1) unravel the formative dynamics of debris-flow fans and, building on these insights, to (2) reconstruct hydrolog...

  11. Modeling ice front Dynamics of Greenland outlet glaciers using ISSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlighem, M.; Bondzio, J. H.; Seroussi, H. L.; Rignot, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    The recent increase in the rate of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet is primarily due to the acceleration and thinning of outlet glaciers along the coast. This acceleration is a dynamic response to the retreat of calving fronts, which leads to a loss in resistive stresses. These processes need to be included in ice sheet models in order to be able to accurately reproduce current trends in mass loss, and in the long term reduce the uncertainty in the contribution of ice sheets to sea level rise. Today, the vast majority of ice sheet models that include moving boundaries are one dimensional flow line and vertical flow band models, that are not adapted to the complex geometries of Greenland outlet glaciers, as they do not accurately capture changes in lateral stresses. Here, we use the level set method to track moving boundaries within a 2D plane view model of the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), and investigate the sensitivity of Store Glacier, in western Greenland, to the amount of melting occurring at its calving front. We explore different calving laws and obtain the best results with a new simple calving law adapted from von Mises yield criterion. We show that the ocean circulation near the front and the amount of runoff are able to trigger ice front advance and retreat depending on the amount of melting that they produce at the calving face, but the bed topography controls the stable positions of the ice front. The modeled calving front of Store Glacier, for which we have quality bed topography and sea floor bathymetry data, is particularly stable because of the presence of a large sill at the glacier terminus. If the ice front detaches from this stabilizing sill due to larger amounts of melting at the front or due to large calving events, the glacier front starts to retreat as the bed deepens inland, until it finds another stabilizing feature in the bed topography. The new bed topography maps based on mass conservation make it possible to model more

  12. Is the turbidite facies association scheme valid for interpreting ancient submarine fan environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, G.; Damuth, J. E.; Moiola, R. J.

    1985-04-01

    Although turbidite facies reflect only processes of deposition, turbidite facies associations are routinely used to identify ancient submarine-fan subenvironments (e.g., upper fan, channel, lobe, etc.). The assumption that process of deposition also reflects environment of deposition may not be valid for the following reasons: (1) Mutti and Ricci Lucchi's facies association scheme for submarine fans has been developed exclusively from ancient turbidite sequences; however, the true relationship between such turbidite facies associations and related fan subenvironments has not been confirmed from modern fans; (2) individual channel-levee systems of many modern submarine fans are in many cases large enough to contain the entire ancient fan systems on which these facies associations are based; (3) large channel-levee systems comparable to those of modern fans have not been recognized in outcrops. Consequently, the validity of turbidite facies associations for interpreting ancient submarine-fan subenvironments must be considered tenuous until confirmed in modern fans.

  13. Media outlets and their moguls: why concentrated individual or family ownership is bad for editorial independence

    OpenAIRE

    HANRETTY, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the levels of owner influence in 211 different print and broadcast outlets in 32 different European media markets. Drawing on the literature from industrial organisation, it sets out reasons why we should expect greater levels of influence where ownership of individual outlets is concentrated; where it is concentrated in the hands of individuals or families; and where ownership groups own multiple outlets in the same media market. Conversely, we should expect lower l...

  14. Spatial panel analyses of alcohol outlets and motor vehicle crashes in California: 1999–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Ponicki, William R.; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Remer, Lillian G.

    2013-01-01

    Although past research has linked alcohol outlet density to higher rates of drinking and many related social problems, there is conflicting evidence of density’s association with traffic crashes. An abundance of local alcohol outlets simultaneously encourages drinking and reduces driving distances required to obtain alcohol, leading to an indeterminate expected impact on alcohol-involved crash risk. This study separately investigates the effects of outlet density on (1) the risk of injury cra...

  15. A Model to Predict Stall Inception of Transonic Axial Flow Fan/Compressors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiaofeng; SUN Dakun; YU Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    A stall inception model for transonic fan/compressors is presented in this paper.It can be shown that under some assumptions the solution of unsteady flow field consists of pressure wave which propagates upstream or downstream,vortex wave and entropy wave convected with the mean flow speed.By further using the mode-matching technique and applying the conservation law and conditions reflecting the loss characteristics of a compressor in the inlet and outlet of the rotor or stator blade rows,a group of homogeneous equations can be obtained from which the stability equation can be derived.Based on the analysis of the unsteady phenomenon caused by casing treatments,the function of casing treatments has been modeled by a wall impedance condition which has been included in the stability model through the eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions of the system.Besides,the effect of shock waves in cascade channel on the stability prediction is also considered in the stall inception model.Finally,some numerical analysis and experimental investigation are also conducted with emphasis on the mutual comparison.

  16. PLSS 2.5 Fan Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory; Carra, Michael; Converse, David; Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    NASA is building a high fidelity prototype of an advanced portable life support system (PLSS) as part of the Advanced Exploration Systems Program. This new PLSS, designated as PLSS 2.5, will advance component technologies and systems knowledge in order to inform a future flight program. The oxygen ventilation loop of its predecessor, PLSS 2.0, is driven by a centrifugal fan developed using specifications from the Constellation Program. PLSS technology and system parameters have matured to the point where the existing fan will not perform adequately for the new prototype. In addition, areas of potential improvement have been identified with the existing fan that could be addressed in a new design. As a result, a new fan was designed and tested for the PLSS 2.5.

  17. Autonomous Composite Fan Containment Integrity Monitoring (AUTOCONFIRM) System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New engine fan blade containment structures are being manufactured with advanced composite structures such that they can withstand blade-out events. The use of...

  18. Redefining genderswap fan fiction: A Sherlock case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann McClellan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Using BBC Sherlock (2010– fan fiction as case study, this article looks at how fans use and understand such concepts as biological sex and gender in genderswap fan fiction, arguing that the label often minimizes the importance of the physical body in determining gender identity. The label genderswap, most often used to describe stories where characters have become differently sexed, reflects and reinforces common cultural misunderstandings about differences between sex and gender. By teasing out definitions of genderswap, sex, gender, cisgender, and transgender, the article analyzes what genderswap includes and excludes from discussions of gender and identity within contemporary fan fiction, ultimately arguing for a broader conceptual understanding that grounds the genre within contemporary transgender theory.

  19. Field testing the prototype BNL fan-atomized oil burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.; Celebi, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    BNL has developed a new oil burner design referred to as the Fan Atomized burner System. The primary objective of the field study was to evaluate and demonstrate the reliable operation of the Fan Atomized Burner. The secondary objective was to establish and validate the ability of a low firing rate burner (0.3-0.4 gph) to fully satisfy the heating and domestic hot water load demands of an average household in a climate zone with over 5,000 heating-degree-days. The field activity was also used to evaluate the practicality of side-wall venting with the Fan Atomized Burner with a low stack temperature (300F) and illustrate the potential for very high efficiency with an integrated heating system approach based on the Fan Atomized Burner.

  20. Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACI proposes a design for a Propulsor (Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan) that has wide application in all sectors of Aviation. Propulsor hardware of this...

  1. Why do fans attend world Wrestling Entertainment? | Kruger | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... at a live Smackdown event in July 2011, which was part of the WWE's world tour. ... Therefore, marketing campaigns directed at these fans should be designed ...

  2. Gender constructions and negotiations of female football fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2015-01-01

    While both the media and the academic literature focus primarily on male fans, in particular on violence and the prevention of hooliganism, little is known about female football supporters. This is also true of Denmark, a country that is known for its high degree of gender equality. This article...... "hypermasculinity" nor "emphasised femininity" in their gender performances. Female fans do not only comply with and reproduce the rules of conduct in the stadium but also apply different forms of resistance against sexism and the domination of men in the stadium – both on the field and in the stands. The founding...... aims to give insight into gender constructions and negotiations of female football fans in the stands. Drawing on a social constructivist perspective to gender and Bourdieu's (1984) approaches to field, capital and habitus, we explored the experiences and opinions of female fans. The methods employed...

  3. Modeling and ecodesigning crossflow ventilation fans with Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    Argentini, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of a simple model of crossflow fan is maximized when the geometry depends on a design parameter. The flow field is numerically computed using a Galerkin method for solving a Poisson partial differential equation.

  4. Pathological effects of cyanobacteria on sea fans in southeast Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryu, Y; Landsberg, J H; Peters, E C; Tichenor, E; Burleson, C; Perry, N

    2015-07-01

    In early August 2008, observations by divers indicated that sea fans, particularly Gorgonia ventalina, Gorgonia flabellum, and Iciligorgia schrammi, were being covered by benthic filamentous cyanobacteria. From August 2008 through January 2009 and again in April 2009, tissue samples from a targeted G. ventalina colony affected by cyanobacteria and from a nearby, apparently healthy (without cyanobacteria) control colony, were collected monthly for histopathological examination. The primary cellular response of the sea fan to overgrowth by cyanobacteria was an increase in the number of acidophilic amoebocytes (with their granular contents dispersed) that were scattered throughout the coenenchyme tissue. Necrosis of scleroblasts and zooxanthellae and infiltration of degranulated amoebocytes were observed in the sea fan surface tissues at sites overgrown with cyanobacteria. Fungal hyphae in the axial skeleton were qualitatively more prominent in cyanobacteria-affected sea fans than in controls.

  5. Noise Generation by Fans with Supersonic Tip Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glegg, Stewart; Envia, Edmane (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Fan noise continues to be a significant issue for commercial aircraft engines and there still exists a requirement for improved understanding of the fundamental issues associated with fan noise source mechanisms. At the present time, most of the prediction methods identify the dominant acoustic sources to be associated with the stator vanes or blade trailing edges which are downstream of the fan face. However recent studies have shown that acoustic waves are significantly attenuated as they propagate upstream through a rotor, and if the appropriate corrections are applied, sound radiation from the engine inlet is significantly underpredicted. The prediction models can only be applied to fans with subsonic tip speeds. In contrast, most aircraft engines have fan tip speeds which are transonic and this implies an even higher attenuation for upstream propagating acoustic waves. Consequently understanding how sound propagates upstream through the fan is an important, and not well understood phenomena. The objective of this study is to provide improved insight into the upstream propagation effects through a rotor which are relevant to full scale engines. The focus of this study is on broadband fan noise generated by boundary layer turbulence interacting with the trailing edges of the fan blades. If this source mechanism is important upstream of the fan, the sound must propagate upstream through a transonic non uniform flow which includes large gradients and non linearities. Developing acoustic propagation models in this type of flow is challenging and currently limited to low frequency applications, where the frequency is of the same order as the blade passing frequency of the fan. For trailing edge noise, much higher frequencies are relevant and so a suitable approach needs to be developed, which is not limited by an unacceptably large computational effort. In this study we are in the process of developing a computational method which applies for the high frequencies of

  6. Should electric fans be used during a heat wave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Ollie; Cramer, Matthew N; Ravanelli, Nicholas M; Hodder, Simon G

    2015-01-01

    Heat waves continue to claim lives, with the elderly and poor at greatest risk. A simple and cost-effective intervention is an electric fan, but public health agencies warn against their use despite no evidence refuting their efficacy in heat waves. A conceptual human heat balance model can be used to estimate the evaporative requirement for heat balance, the potential for evaporative heat loss from the skin, and the predicted sweat rate, with and without an electrical fan during heat wave conditions. Using criteria defined by the literature, it is clear that fans increase the predicted critical environmental limits for both the physiological compensation of endogenous/exogenous heat, and the onset of cardiovascular strain by an air temperature of ∼3-4 °C, irrespective of relative humidity (RH) for the young and elderly. Even above these critical limits, fans would apparently still provide marginal benefits at air temperatures as high as 51.1 °C at 10%RH for young adults and 48.1 °C at 10%RH for the elderly. Previous concerns that dehydration would be exacerbated with fan use do not seem likely, except under very hot (>40 °C) and dry (conditions, when predicted sweat losses are only greater with fans by a minor amount (∼20-30 mL/h). Relative to the peak outdoor environmental conditions reported during ten of the most severe heat waves in recent history, fan use would be advisable in all of these situations, even when reducing the predicted maximum sweat output for the elderly. The protective benefit of fans appears to be underestimated by current guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  7. On the Optimal Selection of Electrical Machines Fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălin Costin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analytic relationship for electrical machine fan design has been developed. In the particularly case of salient poles synchronous machine (with salient poles – for electromagnetic field excitation or surface mounded permanent magnet, this approach allowed to express the fan power as a function of machine middle axe air gap. This analytic foundation developed may leads to different optimization criteria as specific active materials or costs. Numerical simulations confirm our approach.

  8. Sport Fan Motivation: Are You Going To The Game?

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes A. Wiid; Cant, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Every individual or group consume sporting events for different reasons and are therefore motivated in different ways. People consuming sport events can be referred to as sport fans, someone who is enthusiastic about a particular sport, an athlete or someone who is motivated to make the effort to attend a live sporting event. Research on sport consumption motivation had led to the development of the Sport Fan Motivation Scale (SFMS), which consists of eight motives namely, eustress, self-este...

  9. Community organization moderates the effect of alcohol outlet density on violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex; Grubesic, Tony H

    2012-12-01

    There is growing evidence from multiple disciplines that alcohol outlet density is associated with community levels of assault. Based on the theoretical and empirical literatures on social organization and crime, we tested the hypothesis that the association between alcohol outlet density and neighbourhood violence rates is moderated by social organization. Using geocoded police data on assaults, geocoded data on the location of alcohol outlets, and controlling for several structural factors thought to be associated with violence rates, we tested this hypothesis employing negative binomial regression with our sample of 298 block groups in Cincinnati. Our results revealed direct effects of alcohol outlet density and social organization on assault density, and these effects held for different outlet types (i.e., off-premise, bars, restaurants) and levels of harm (i.e., simple and aggravated assaults). More importantly, we found that the strength of the outlet-assault association was significantly weaker in more socially organized communities. Subsequent analyses by level of organization revealed no effects of alcohol outlet density on aggravated assaults in organized block groups, but significant effects in disorganized block groups. We found no association between social (dis)organization and outlet density. These results clarify the community-level relationship between alcohol outlets and violence and have important implications for municipal-level alcohol policies.

  10. Socioeconomic area disparities in tobacco retail outlet density: a Western Australian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lisa J; Pereira, Gavin; Middleton, Nick; Foster, Sarah

    2013-05-20

    To examine the association between tobacco outlet density and area socioeconomic status (SES) in Western Australia. Ecological cross-sectional study investigating the relationship between the area SES of, and the density of tobacco retail outlets in, WA suburbs and towns for the Perth metropolitan area, and at the regional and state level. SES was determined using the 2006 Australian Bureau of Statistics Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD) and classified into quartiles (very low, low, high and very high); tobacco outlet data were sourced from the WA Department of Health register of retailers licensed to sell tobacco at May 2011. Tobacco outlet density rate (per 10 000 residents). In WA overall, suburbs and towns with a very low IRSAD had more than four times the number of tobacco outlets compared with those with a very high IRSAD (P> number of tobacco outlets than those with a very high IRSAD (P> first Australian evidence of a strong relationship between area SES and tobacco outlet density. Findings are consistent with a number of United States studies that report higher tobacco outlet densities in lower SES or minority neighbourhoods. The results underscore the importance of policy approaches to limit the number of tobacco retail licences granted, and to reduce the geographic density of outlets in more disadvantaged suburbs and towns.

  11. Supraclavicular scalenectomy for thoracic outlet syndrome--functional outcomes assessed using the DASH scoring system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, Ronan W

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate supraclavicular scalenectomy ± cervical rib excision for thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS), employing Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scoring for functional assessment post-decompression.

  12. Simulation of fan topography and soil profile using a coupled soilscape-landscape evolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welivitiya, Dimuth; Willgoose, Garry; Hancock, Greg

    2017-04-01

    In this study the evolution of a fluvial fan, its topography and soil profile grading under erosion and deposition and soil profile weathering was simulated using SSPAM coupled soil-landscape evolution model. A constant rainfall was simulated on a synthetic landform and a fluvial fan depositional structure was allowed to form at the latter part of the landform. At each time step the geomorphological and particle size distribution information of the fan was recorded. Using this recorded information, the evolutionary characteristics of the fan as well as the surface and subsurface sediment characteristics was examined and compared with experimental and field observation data. Different fan profile sections were also derived from the recorded data and analysed. The simulation produced a fluvial fan semicircular in shape, with concave up long profiles and convex up cross profiles. The surface sediment sizes of the simulated fan were coarsest near the fan apex and fines toward the fan toe with coarse grained sediment filaments extending radially from the fan apex. These geomorphological features and surface sediment distribution agrees well with field observations of natural fans. The results of the simulation also show that the fan develops as a result of the channel bringing sediments in to the fan and periodically changing its path due to steepening of channel gradient by sediment deposition. The position of the channel is fixed at the fan apex and the channel path constantly changes along any radial direction form the fan apex. This process is remarkably similar to the process of "Fan head trenching" described in literature which is the dominant process in fluvial fan development in the field. Finally, the analysis of fan cross-sections revealed complex sediment layering patterns in the fan profile. The simulation results of the SSSPAM coupled soilscape-landscape evolution model provide qualitatively correct geomorphological and sedimentary characterization of the

  13. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of a 60cm Diameter Bladeless Fan

    OpenAIRE

    mohammad jafari; Hossein Afshin; Bijan Farhanieh; Hamidreza bozorgasareh

    2016-01-01

    Bladeless fan is a novel type of fan with an unusual geometry and unique characteristics. This type of fan has been recently developed for domestic applications in sizes typically up to 30cm diameter. In the present study, a Bladeless fan with a diameter of 60cm was designed and constructed, in order to investigate feasibility of its usage in various industries with large dimensions. Firstly, flow field passed through this fan was studied by 3D modeling. Aerodynamic and aeroacoust...

  14. North Atlantic warming and the retreat of Greenland's outlet glaciers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straneo, Fiammetta; Heimbach, Patrick

    2013-12-05

    Mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet quadrupled over the past two decades, contributing a quarter of the observed global sea-level rise. Increased submarine melting is thought to have triggered the retreat of Greenland's outlet glaciers, which is partly responsible for the ice loss. However, the chain of events and physical processes remain elusive. Recent evidence suggests that an anomalous inflow of subtropical waters driven by atmospheric changes, multidecadal natural ocean variability and a long-term increase in the North Atlantic's upper ocean heat content since the 1950s all contributed to a warming of the subpolar North Atlantic. This led, in conjunction with increased runoff, to enhanced submarine glacier melting. Future climate projections raise the potential for continued increases in warming and ice-mass loss, with implications for sea level and climate.

  15. Report of two cases of double outlet left ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chul Soon; Lim, Tae Hwan; Park, Jae Hyung; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Double outlet left ventricle (DOLV), even defined as origins or both great vessels from left ventricle, implies varieties of morphology in concern with loop pattern, location of ventricular septal defect, conotruncal anatomy, and presence or absence of pulmonary stenosis. With the improvement of surgical technique, corrective surgery of DOLV become possible, and preoperative diagnosis and determination of the accurate anatomical relationship between great vessels, ventricular septal defect, and ventricles is very important in surgical implication. Authors have recently experienced two cases of DOLV. The one is with subpulmonic conus, subpulmonic ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and preductal type coarctation of aorta. The other is with bilateral coni and subaortic ventricular septal defect. Loop patterns are [S, D, D]in both cases.

  16. Complete vaginal outlet stenosis in a patient with Sheehan's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Minji; Park, Hana; Yi, Kyong Wook

    2016-11-01

    We present a case of complete vaginal stenosis in a woman diagnosed with Sheehan's syndrome. The patient delivered at full-term 5 months prior, and experienced massive postpartum bleeding at that time. During evaluation of persistent amenorrhea, we found that her vaginal orifice was completely adhesive and obstructed. Prior to corrective surgery, we managed the patient with an oral contraceptive to induce uterine bleeding into the vaginal outflow tract. After three cycles of an oral contraceptive, we could confirm that there was no stenotic lesion in the vaginal cavity as a hematocolpos was created. Adhesiolysis with scar revision for the vaginal stenosis was successfully performed; it was found that the lesion was limited to only the distal part of the vaginal outlet. Complete vaginal stenosis in reproductive age women with hypopituitarism has not been reported. The artificial induction of hematometrocolpos before surgery was useful in determining the extent of the stenotic lesion, and assured safety.

  17. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R.; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E.; Rose, Shyanika W.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living. PMID:26963859

  18. Access to alcohol outlets, alcohol consumption and mental health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Pereira

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate residential exposure to alcohol outlets in relation to alcohol consumption and mental health morbidity (anxiety, stress, and depression. This was a cross-sectional study of 6,837 adults obtained from a population representative sample for the period 2006-2009 in Perth, Western Australia. The number of alcohol outlets was ascertained for a 1600 m service area surrounding the residential address. Zero-inflated negative binomial and logistic regression were used to assess associations with total alcohol consumption, harmful alcohol consumption (7-10 drinks containing 10 g of alcohol for men, 5-6 drinks for women and medically diagnosed and hospital contacts (for anxiety, stress, and depression, respectively. The rate ratio for the number of days of harmful consumption of alcohol per month and the number of standard drinks of alcohol consumed per drinking day was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.11 and 1.01 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.03 for each additional liquor store within a 1600 m service area, respectively. The odds ratio of hospital contact for anxiety, stress, or depression was 1.56 (95% CI: 0.98, 2.49 for those with a liquor store within the service area compared to those without. We observed strong evidence for a small association between residential exposure to liquor stores and harmful consumption of alcohol, and some support for a moderate-sized effect on hospital contacts for anxiety, stress, and depression.

  19. Rare causes of gastric outlet obstruction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiexiong; Gu, Weizhong; Li, Minju; Yuan, Jiyan; Weng, Yizhen; Wei, Minfa; Zhou, Xuefeng

    2005-08-01

    Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) presenting beyond the newborn period is a relatively rare condition, when infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is excluded. This report describes the clinical features, evaluation and management of 18 patients with GOO which was not caused by IHPS. The sex, age, and main presenting features were recorded on admission. Hemoglobin estimation, serum chemistry and blood gas analysis were also assessed in these patients. The diagnosis was confirmed with gastrointestinal barium, B ultrasound, gastroscopy, or at surgery. Some of them underwent gastroscopy with biopsy sampling for rapid urease test or histologic examination with Giemsa stains for Helicobacter pylori. Thirteen patients had peptic ulcer disease, of which six were successfully treated with medications. While the other seven needed operative management which included Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty, gastroduodenostomy or gastrojejunostomy, respectively. All the patients who had Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty or gastrojejunostomy developed bile reflux gastritis that could be alleviated with omeprazol. None of the patients developed dumping syndrome, failing to thrive, or anemia. Three children with antral diaphragm recovered without any complications by diaphragm excision with Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty. The pylorus was compressed by fibrotic band in one 30-month boy, and he recovered uneventfully with Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty during 10-year follow-up. Gastric outlet obstruction secondary to ingestion of sulfuric acid was noted in one patient, and he was successfully treated with gastroduodenostomy. Our data suggests that the satisfactory results could be expected in children with GOO with different therapeutic modalities based on the specific cause and degree of obstruction.

  20. Clinical Observation of Acupuncture in Treating Contracted Pelvic Outlet Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茵萍

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical efficacy of acupuncture in the treatment of contracted pelvic outlet syndrome. Methods: Fifty subjects were randomized in visit sequence into two groups; treatment group in which 27 cases were treated by anatomical needling at Ashi points and control group in which 23 cases were treated by electroacupuncture at Ashi points, Chengfu (BL 50), Chengshan (BL 57) and Yanglingquan (GB 34); the treatment was given once a day and 5 treatments made up one course; the clinical efficacy was observed after 1-2 courses. Results: The first pain-easing effects and clinical efficacy were better in treatment group than in control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Anatomical acupuncture has more advantages over electroacupuncture in the treatment of contracted pelvic outlet syndrome.%目的:观察解剖针刺法治疗盆腔出口狭窄综合征的临床疗效.方法:50例患者按就诊顺序分为治疗组27例和对照组23例.治疗组选阿是穴,采用多针、多层次或多角度的解剖针刺法;对照组选阿是穴、承扶、承山、阳陵泉,进针得气后接电针.每天治疗1次,治疗5次为一个疗程,治疗1~2个疗程后比较疗效.结果:治疗组首次镇痛效果及总体效果均优于对照组,P<0.05.结论:解剖针刺法治疗盆腔出口狭窄综合征比电针更有优势.

  1. Analysis on Combined Ventilation System Containing Both Jet Fan and Air Duct Used for Railway Tunnel%铁路隧道射流与洞口风道组合式通风效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾艳华; 周小涵; 袁建刚

    2013-01-01

    Consisting of both jet fan and portal air duct,the combined ventilation system is a critical scientific subject which is focused on all the time by both academic circle and engineering circle.In an internal combustion traction tunnel of more than 5 km long,it is impossible to achieve ideal designed ventilation efficiency only by using jet fans,because the jet fans cannot effectively stop the outflow of the air current from tunnel portal.For this reason,through establishing three-dimensional mechanical model by using FLUENT software of CFD series,this paper researched the influences of critical factors,including the connection ways of jet fans installed at the portal cross-section,the wind velocity of air supply outlet of axial flow fan,and the number of jet fans.The research shows that,after setting up a transition section at the place where the jet fans are,the air current blown from the jet fans can enter into the tunnel smoothly,that is to say,the fresh air can be effectively led into tunnel from the portal.On condition of the same air supply volume,the wind resistance will change with the change of wind velocity at the air supply outlet,which has effect on the fresh air importing from the portal,so the wind velocity should be appropriately weakened at the air supply outlet during design.On condition of the same jet fans,the situation of air current within tunnel portal is different when air supply volume from axial-flow air duct is different; and when the air supply volume rises up to a certain extent,the air current will outflow from the tunnel portal,so the number of jet fans at the portal should be adjusted according to the air supply volume of air duct during design.%射流风机与洞口风道组合通风效果一直是学术界和工程界关注的关键科学问题,在长度超过5km的内燃牵引隧道中,射流风机并未有效阻止风流从洞口隧道内流出,未达到设计通风效果.采用CFD计算软件FLUENT建立三维非线性力学模

  2. Damage-Tolerant Fan Casings for Jet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    All turbofan engines work on the same principle. A large fan at the front of the engine draws air in. A portion of the air enters the compressor, but a greater portion passes on the outside of the engine this is called bypass air. The air that enters the compressor then passes through several stages of rotating fan blades that compress the air more, and then it passes into the combustor. In the combustor, fuel is injected into the airstream, and the fuel-air mixture is ignited. The hot gasses produced expand rapidly to the rear, and the engine reacts by moving forward. If there is a flaw in the system, such as an unexpected obstruction, the fan blade can break, spin off, and harm other engine components. Fan casings, therefore, need to be strong enough to contain errant blades and damage-tolerant to withstand the punishment of a loose blade-turned-projectile. NASA has spearheaded research into improving jet engine fan casings, ultimately discovering a cost-effective approach to manufacturing damage-tolerant fan cases that also boast significant weight reduction. In an aircraft, weight reduction translates directly into fuel burn savings, increased payload, and greater aircraft range. This technology increases safety and structural integrity; is an attractive, viable option for engine manufacturers, because of the low-cost manufacturing; and it is a practical alternative for customers, as it has the added cost saving benefits of the weight reduction.

  3. Potential Global Benefits of Improved Ceiling Fan Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Nakul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-31

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, both in an absolute sense and as a proportion of household consumption in many locations, especially in developing countries in warm climates. However, there has been little detailed assessment of the costs and benefits of efficiency improvement options for ceiling fans and the potential resulting electricity consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. We analyze the costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans and assess the global potential for electricity savings and GHG emission reductions with more detailed assessments for India, China, and the U.S. We find that ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terrawatt hours per year (TWh/year) could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize this savings potential.

  4. Broadband Liner Optimization for the Source Diagnostic Test Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with the utilization of increased bypass ratio and advanced fan designs. Thus, while the attenuation of fan tones remains paramount, the ability to simultaneously reduce broadband fan noise levels has become more appealing. This paper describes a broadband acoustic liner optimization study for the scale model Source Diagnostic Test fan. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical fan source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over a number of flow conditions for three liner locations in the bypass duct. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design liners aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. Design selection is based on an acceptance criterion that provides the ability to apply increased weighting to specific frequencies and/or operating conditions. Typical tonal liner designs targeting single frequencies at one operating condition are first produced to provide baseline performance information. These are followed by multiple broadband design approaches culminating in a broadband liner targeting the full range of frequencies and operating conditions. The broadband liner is found to satisfy the optimum impedance objectives much better than the tonal liner designs. In addition, the broadband liner is found to provide better attenuation than the tonal designs over the full range of frequencies and operating conditions considered. Thus, the current study successfully establishes a process for the initial design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  5. THz Beam Shaper Realizing Fan-Out Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, K.; Rachon, M.; Siemion, A.; Suszek, J.; But, D.; Knap, W.; Sypek, M.

    2017-08-01

    Fan-out elements create an array of beams radiating at particular angles along the propagation axis. Therefore, they are able to form a matrix of equidistant spots in the far-field diffraction region. In this work, we report on the first fan-out structures designed for the THz range of radiation. Two types of light-dividing fan-out structures are demonstrated: (i) the 3×1 matrix fan-out structure based on the optimized binary phase grating and (ii) the 3×3 fan-out structure designed on the basis of the well-known Dammann grating. The structures were generated numerically and manufactured using the 3D printing technique with polyamide PA12. To obtain equal powers and symmetry of diffracted beams, the computer-aided optimization algorithm was used. Diffractive optical elements designed for 140 and 282 GHz were evaluated experimentally at both these frequencies using illumination with the wavefront coming from the point-like source. Described fan-out elements formed uniform intensity and equidistant energy distribution in agreement with the numerical simulations.

  6. Fan Ky不等式的一个改进%A Refinement of Fan Ky's Inequality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周昱; 高明哲

    2007-01-01

    利用改进的H(o)lder不等式并借助于正交矩阵的行列式的积分表示法建立了Fan Ky不等式的一个有意义的改进.当A,B为n阶非奇异矩阵时,给出了新创建不等式的一个推广.特别当n=1时,得到了Young不等式的一个很强的结果.

  7. Dynamic Bowtie for Fan-beam CT

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Fenglin; Cong, Wenxiang; Hsieh, Scott; Pelc, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    A bowtie is a filter used to shape an x-ray beam and equalize its flux reaching different detector channels. For development of spectral CT with energy-discriminative photon-counting (EDPC) detectors, here we propose and evaluate a dynamic bowtie for performance optimization based on a patient model or a scout scan. Our dynamic bowtie modifies an x-ray beam intensity profile by mechanical rotation and adaptive adjustment of the x-ray source flux. First, a mathematical model for dynamic bowtie filtering is established for an elliptical section in fan-beam geometry, and the contour of the optimal bowtie is derived. Then, numerical simulation is performed to compare the performance of the dynamic bowtie in the cases of an ideal phantom and a realistic cross-section relative to the counterparts without any bowtie and with a fixed bowtie respectively. Our dynamic bowtie can equalize the expected numbers of photons in the case of an ideal phantom. In practical cases, our dynamic bowtie can effectively reduce the dy...

  8. Characterisation of fan-beam collimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareto, D; Pavía, J; Falcón, C; Juvells, I; Cot, A; Ros, D

    2001-02-01

    Fan-beam collimators offer a good balance between resolution and noise. The collimator response may be included in iterative reconstruction algorithms in order to improve single-photon emission tomography (SPET) resolution. To this end, accurate determination of the focal region and characterisation of the collimator response as a function of the source co-ordinates must be performed. In this paper, a method to characterise fanbeam collimators is evaluated. First, we calculated the real focal region and the accuracy of the collimator convergence. Then, we confirmed the hypothesis that Gaussian distributions adequately fit the collimator responses, although no individualised treatment was performed for the tails of detector response which are associated with scattering and septal penetration. Finally, analytical functions were used to model the resolution and sensitivity. The parameter values in these functions were obtained from experimental measures by non-linear regression fitting. Our findings show differences of 1.43% between nominal and real focal length and standard deviations of 2.5 mm in the x-direction and 7.1 mm in the y-direction for the focal convergence. The correlation coefficients between experimental and predicted values were 0.994 for resolution and 0.991 for sensitivity. As a consequence, the proposed method can be used to characterise the collimator response.

  9. Review: Bettina Fritzsche (2003. Pop-Fans. Studie einer Mädchenkultur [Pop-Fans: Study of a Girl Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Mikos

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the "girl culture" created by fans of boy groups and girl groups. The central case study is used to examine fan practices as cultural practices using reconstructive and documentary methodologies, and to assess the normative demands placed on young people. The study centers on the question of gender socialization by mediated symbolic resources, and shows that fan culture is a self-determined space in which girls can negotiate normative demands and engage with questions of gender, sexuality and the body, testing conformity and obstinacy. Fan activities are presented as part of the self-empowerment of girls. The study makes an important contribution to the research of a specific girl culture. It shows in a brilliant way how media representations are used as symbolic material in everyday cultural practices. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0603187

  10. Out-of-home food outlets and area deprivation: case study in Glasgow, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummins Steven

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a popular belief that out-of-home eating outlets, which typically serve energy dense food, may be more commonly found in more deprived areas and that this may contribute to higher rates of obesity and related diseases in such areas. Methods We obtained a list of all 1301 out-of-home eating outlets in Glasgow, UK, in 2003 and mapped these at unit postcode level. We categorised them into quintiles of area deprivation using the 2004 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and computed mean density of types of outlet (restaurants, fast food restaurants, cafes and takeaways, and all types combined, per 1000 population. We also estimated odds ratios for the presence of any outlets in small areas within the quintiles. Results The density of outlets, and the likelihood of having any outlets, was highest in the second most affluent quintile (Q2 and lowest in the second most deprived quintile (Q4. Mean outlets per 1,000 were 4.02 in Q2, 1.20 in Q4 and 2.03 in Q5. With Q2 as the reference, Odds Ratios for having any outlets were 0.52 (CI 0.32–0.84 in Q1, 0.50 (CI 0.31 – 0.80 in Q4 and 0.61 (CI 0.38 – 0.98 in Q5. Outlets were located in the City Centre, West End, and along arterial roads. Conclusion In Glasgow those living in poorer areas are not more likely to be exposed to out-of-home eating outlets in their neighbourhoods. Health improvement policies need to be based on empirical evidence about the location of fast food outlets in specific national and local contexts, rather than on popular 'factoids'.

  11. Impurity profiling of trinitrotoluene using vacuum-outlet gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brust, H.; Willemse, S.; Zeng, T.; Asten, A. van; Koeberg, M.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Bolck, A.; Schoenmakers, P.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a reliable and robust vacuum-outlet gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method is introduced for the identification and quantification of impurities in trinitrotoluene (TNT). Vacuum-outlet GC-MS allows for short analysis times the analysis of impurities in TNT was performed in

  12. Impurity profiling of trinitrotoluene using vacuum-​outlet gas chromatography-​mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brust, H.; Willemse, S.; Zeng, T.; van Asten, A.; Koeberg, M.; van der Heijden, A.; Bolck, A.; Schoenmakers, P.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a reliable and robust vacuum-​outlet gas chromatog.-​mass spectrometry (GC-​MS) method is introduced for the identification and quantification of impurities in trinitrotoluene (TNT)​. Vacuum-​outlet GC-​MS allows for short anal. times; the anal. of impurities in TNT was performed in 4

  13. Impurity profiling of trinitrotoluene using vacuum-outlet gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brust, H.; Willemse, S.; Zeng, T.; Asten, A. van; Koeberg, M.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Bolck, A.; Schoenmakers, P.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a reliable and robust vacuum-outlet gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method is introduced for the identification and quantification of impurities in trinitrotoluene (TNT). Vacuum-outlet GC-MS allows for short analysis times the analysis of impurities in TNT was performed in

  14. Validation of presence of supermarkets and fast-food outlets in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida M; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    We examined the quality of food outlet addresses provided by secondary sources and determined whether they could be physically located in the field.......We examined the quality of food outlet addresses provided by secondary sources and determined whether they could be physically located in the field....

  15. A systematic approach to preventing chilled-food waste at the retail outlet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, Seth Oscar; Haijema, René; Rijgersberg, Hajo; Vorst, van der Jack G.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a systematic overview of interventions for preventing chilled-food waste at retail outlets, and to assess the impact of these interventions for a particular case of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce at a Dutch retail outlet. The structure of the simulation model as

  16. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Electrical Systems § 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. (a) Outdoor.../or air conditioning equipment located outside the manufactured home, shall have permanently affixed, adjacent to the outlet, a metal tag which reads: This Connection Is for Air Conditioning Equipment Rated at...

  17. Dimensionless study on outlet flow characteristics of an air-driven booster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan SHI; Mao-lin CAI

    2012-01-01

    Air-driven boosters are widely used to obtain high-pressure gas.Through analysis of the boosting process of an air-driven booster,the basic mathematical model of working processes can be set up.By selecting the appropriate reference values,the basic mathematical model is transformed to a dimensionless expression.Using MATLAB/Simulink for simulation and studying the booster experimentally,the dimensionless outlet flow characteristics of the booster were obtained and the simulation results agree well with the experimental results.Through analysis,it can be seen that the dimensionless outlet flow of the booster is mainly determined by the dimensionless input pressure of the driving chamber,the dimensionless outlet condition pressure of the booster and the dimensionless area of the piston in the driving chamber.The dimensionless average outlet flow becomes larger with an increasing dimensionless input pressure of the driving chamber,but it becomes smaller with an increase in the dimensionless outlet condition pressure of the booster.Especially when the dimensionless outlet condition pressure is approximately 1.4,the dimensionless average outlet flow reaches zero.With an increase in the dimensionless area of the piston in the driving chamber,the dimensionless average outlet flow increases and peaks at approximately 1.89,and after this peak,it starts to decrease.This research can be referred to in the design of air-driven boosters.

  18. Alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schonlau

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between alcohol availability, as measured by the density of off-premise alcohol outlets, and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana, USA. Consumption information was collected through a telephone survey of 2,881 households in Los Angeles county and pre-Katrina southern Louisiana, nested within 220 census tracts. Respondents’ addresses were geo-coded and both neighbourhood (census tracts and buffers of varying sizes and individual (network distance to the closest alcohol outlet estimates of off-sale alcohol outlet density were computed. Alcohol outlet density was not associated with the percentage of people who were drinkers in either site. Alcohol outlet density was associated with the quantity of consumption among drinkers in Louisiana but not in Los Angeles. Outlet density within a one-mile buffer of the respondent’s home was more strongly associated with alcohol consumption than outlet density in the respondent’s census tract. The conclusion is that the relationship between neighbourhood alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption is complex and may vary due to differences in neighbourhood design and travel patterns.

  19. Numerical and experimental investigation on aerodynamic performance of small axial flow fan with hollow blade root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhang; Jin, Yingzi; Huashu, Dou; Yuzhen, Jin

    2013-10-01

    To reduce the influence of adverse flow conditions at the fan hub and improve fan aerodynamic performance, a modification of conventional axial fan blades with numerical and experimental investigation is presented. Hollow blade root is manufactured near the hub. The numerical and experimental results show that hollow blade root has some effect on the static performance. Static pressure of the modified fan is generally the same with that of the datum fan, while, the efficiency curve of the modified fan has a different trend with that of the datum fan. The highest efficiency of the modified fan is 10% greater than that of the datum fan. The orthogonal experimental results of fan noise show that hollow blade root is a feasible method of reducing fan noise, and the maximum value of noise reduction is about 2 dB. The factors affecting the noise reduction of hollow blade root are in the order of importance as follows: hollow blade margin, hollow blade height and hollow blade width. The much smoother pressure distribution of the modified fan than that of the datum fan is the main mechanism of noise reduction of hollow blade root. The research results will provide the proof of the parameter optimization and the structure design for high performance and low noise small axial fans.

  20. A CLINICAL STUDY OF GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION IN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushruta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available From the standpoint of pathology, the term pyloric stenosis is usually inaccurate at least in adult patients, since the site of obstruction is rarely situated at the pylorus itself but is more often placed immediately proximal to the sphincter where the diagnosis of carcinoma is most probable or more dista lly in the duodenal bulb where the cause is almost invariably a duodenal ulcer. This study has been taken up to review the changes in presentation of gastric outlet obstruction in view of changing trends in the aetiology analysing the occurrence of benign and malignant causes, signs and symptoms, investigatory modalities, management and their results. The present study is an observational study a total of 50 cases were studied with Cicatrised duodenal ulcer and carcinoma pyloric antrum being the major cause s. Clinical profile, investigations and treatment outcomes were analysed. The majority of patients had malignant gastric outlet obstruction with 32[64%] patients presenting with Gastric cancer and 18[36%] patients presenting with cicatrised duodenal ulcer. In this study most patients were in the fifth and seventh decades of life. Men outnumbered women by 3: 1. The clinical presentation is not different from those in other studies with non - bilious vomiting being common to all the patients with dehydration. V isible gastric peristalsis and succussion splash were more prominent in Cicatrised Duodenal Ulcer. All cases were subjected to serum electrolyte estimation. Out of them 20 cases [40%] showed electrolyte imbalance barium meal, ultrasound abdomen pelvis and CT scan abdomen being the other investigating tools. Blood group ‘O’ was common in cicatrized duodenal ulcer patients [77.7%] followed by blood group ‘A’ [11.1%]. Upper GI endoscopy was done in all cases [100%]. 32[64%] cases had pyloric antral Carcinoma i n which 23 cases had fungating growth and the rest 9 had ulcerative growth and 18[36%] had cicatrized duodenal ulcer. 100

  1. Duodenal stenting for malignant gastric outlet obstruction:Prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eduardo Guimar(a)es Hourneaux Moura; Flávio Coelho Ferreira; Spencer Cheng; Diogo Turiani Hourneaux Moura; Paulo Sakai; Bruno Zilberstain

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the results of duodenal stenting for palliation of gastroduodenal malignant obstruction by using a gastric outlet obstruction score (GOOS).METHODS:A prospective,non-randomized study was performed at a tertiary center between August 2005 and April 2010.Patients were eligible if they had malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) and were not candidates for surgical treatment.Medical history and patient demographics were collected at baseline.Scheduled interviews were made on the day of the procedure and 15,30,90 and 180 d later or unscheduled as necessary.RESULTS:Fifteen patients (6 male,9 female; median age 61 years) with GOO who had undergone duodenal stenting were evaluated.Ten patients had metastasis at baseline (66.6%) and 14 were unable to accept oral intake (93.33%),including 7 patients who were using a feeding tube.Laboratory data showed biliary obstruction in eight cases (53.33%); all were submitted to biliary drainage.Two patients developed obstructive symptoms due to tumor ingrowth after 30 d and another due to tumor overgrowth after 180 d.Two cases of stent migration occurred.A good response to treatment was observed,with a mean time of approximately 1 d (19 h) until toleration of a liquid diet and slightly more than 2 d for both soft solids (51 h) and a solid food/normal diet (55 h).The mean time to first failure to maintain liquid intake (GOOS ≥ 1) was 93 d.During follow-up,the mean time to first failure to maintain the previously achieved GOOS of 2-3 (solid/semi-solid food),considered technical failure,was 71 d.On the basis of oral intake a GOOS is defined:0 for no oral intake; 1 for liquids only; 2 for soft solids only; 3 for lowresidue or full diet.CONCLUSION:Enteral stenting to alleviate gastroduodenal malignant obstruction improves quality of life in patients with limited life expectancy,which can be evaluated by using a GOO scoring system.

  2. Effects of Inlet/Outlet Ducts on Acoustic Attenuation Characteristics of Circular Expansion Chambers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-bo; GE Yun-shan; JI Zhen-lin; ZHANG Wen-ping; SONG Yan-rong; HAN Xiu-kun; ZHANG Xue-min

    2006-01-01

    The effect of coaxial, offset and extended inlet/outlet on the acoustic attenuation characteristics of circular expansion chambers are studied by the three-dimensional finite element method. The numerical results of transmission loss are compared with experiment results to verify the necessary of using three-dimensional methods. Maps of acoustic pressure level distribution inside of chambers and inlet/outlet ducts are given at a frequency to demonstrate the difference of acoustic wave propagation behavior caused by locations of inlet/outlet ducts. For the chambers of the same length, the chamber with extended inlet/outlet duct has higher attenuation ability than coaxial and offset inlet/outlet duct over middle frequencies.

  3. Investigation of the Flow Physics Driving Stall-Side Flutter in Advanced Forward Swept Fan Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Albert J.; Liu, Jong S.; Panovsky, Josef; Bakhle, Milind A.; Stefko, George; Srivastava, Rakesh

    2003-01-01

    capability. A recent experimental program (Sanders et al., 2002) was aimed at providing the necessary unsteady aerodynamic and vibratory response data needed to validate TURBO-AE for fan flutter predictions. A comparison of numerical TURBO-AE simulations with the benchmark flutter data is given in Sanders et al. (2003), with the data used to guide the validation of the code and define best practices for performing accurate unsteady simulations. The agreement between the analyses and the predictions was quite remarkable, demonstrating the ability of the analysis to accurately model the unsteady flow processes driving stall-side flutter.

  4. Fan-structure wave as a source of earthquake instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Boris

    2015-04-01

    Today frictional shear resistance along pre-existing faults is considered to be the lower limit on rock shear strength at confined compression corresponding to the seismogenic layer. This determines the lithospheric strength and the primary earthquake mechanism associated with frictional stick-slip instability on pre-existing faults. This paper introduces a recently identified shear rupture mechanism providing a paradoxical feature of hard rocks - the possibility of shear rupture propagation through the highly confined intact rock mass at shear stress levels significantly less than frictional strength. In the new mechanism the rock failure, associated with consecutive creation of small slabs (known as 'domino-blocks') from the intact rock in the rupture tip, is driven by a fan-shaped domino structure representing the rupture head. The fan-head combines such unique features as: extremely low shear resistance (below the frictional strength), self-sustaining stress intensification in the rupture tip (providing easy formation of new domino-blocks), and self-unbalancing conditions in the fan-head (making the failure process inevitably spontaneous and violent). An important feature of the fan-mechanism is the fact that for the initial formation of the fan-structure an enhanced local shear stress is required, however, after completion of the fan-structure it can propagate as a dynamic wave through intact rock mass at shear stresses below the frictional strength. Paradoxically low shear strength of pristine rocks provided by the fan-mechanism determines the lower limit of the lithospheric strength and favours the generation of new faults in pristine rocks in preference to frictional stick-slip instability along pre-existing faults. The new approach reveals an alternative role of pre-existing faults in earthquake activity: they represent local stress concentrates in pristine rock adjoining the fault where special conditions for the fan-mechanism nucleation are created

  5. Numerical Study of Transition of an Annular Lift Fan Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at studying the transition of annular lift fan aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The oscillations of lift and drag, the optimization for the figure of merit, and the characteristics of drag, yawing, rolling and pitching moments in transition are studied. The results show that a two-stage upper and lower fan lift system can generate oscillations of lift and drag in transition, while a single-stage inner and outer fan lift system can eliminate the oscillations. The characteristics of momentum drag of the single-stage fans in transition are similar to that of the two-stage fans, but with the peak of drag lowered from 0.63 to 0.4 of the aircraft weight. The strategy to start transition from a negative angle of attack −21° further reduces the peak of drag to 0.29 of the weight. The strategy also reduces the peak of pitching torque, which needs upward extra thrusts of 0.39 of the weight to eliminate. The peak of rolling moment in transition needs differential upward thrusts of 0.04 of the weight to eliminate. The requirements for extra thrusts in transition lead to a total thrust–weight ratio of 0.7, which makes the aircraft more efficient for high speed cruise flight (higher than 0.7 Ma.

  6. Bifurcation analysis of fan casing under rotating air flow excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温登哲; 陈予恕

    2014-01-01

    A fan casing model of cantilever circular thin shell is constructed based on the geometric characteristics of the thin-walled structure of aero-engine fan casing. According to Donnelly’s shell theory and Hamilton’s principle, the dynamic equations are established. The dynamic behaviors are investigated by a multiple-scale method. The effects of casing geometric parameters and motion parameters on the natural frequency of the system are studied. The transition sets and bifurcation diagrams of the system are obtained through a singularity analysis of the bifurcation equation, showing that various modes of the system such as the bifurcation and hysteresis will appear in different parameter regions. In accordance with the multiple relationship of the fan speed and stator vibration frequency, the fan speed interval with the casing vibration sudden jump is calculated. The dynamic reasons of casing cracks are investigated. The possibility of casing cracking hysteresis interval is analyzed. The results show that cracking is more likely to appear in the hysteresis interval. The research of this paper provides a theoretical basis for fan casing design and system parameter optimization.

  7. Numerical Analysis of Erosion Caused by Biomimetic Axial Fan Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Qiu Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage caused by erosion has been reported in several industries for a wide range of situations. In the present work, a new method is presented to improve the erosion resistance of machine components by biomimetic method. A numerical investigation of solid particle erosion in the standard and biomimetic configuration blade of axial fan is presented. The analysis consists in the application of the discrete phase model, for modeling the solid particles flow, and the Eulerian conservation equations to the continuous phase. The numerical study employs computational fluid dynamics (CFD software, based on a finite volume method. User-defined function was used to define wear equation. Gas/solid flow axial fan was simulated to calculate the erosion rate of the particles on the fan blades and comparatively analyzed the erosive wear of the smooth surface, the groove-shaped, and convex hull-shaped biomimetic surface axial flow fan blade. The results show that the groove-shaped biomimetic blade antierosion ability is better than that of the other two fan blades. Thoroughly analyze of antierosion mechanism of the biomimetic blade from many factors including the flow velocity contours and flow path lines, impact velocity, impact angle, particle trajectories, and the number of collisions.

  8. Topological invariants of a fan associated to a toric variety

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, T J

    1995-01-01

    Associated to a toric variety X of dimension r over a field k is a fan \\Delta on \\Bbb R^r. The fan \\Delta is a finite set of cones which are in one-to-one correspondence with the orbits of the torus action on X. The fan \\Delta inherits the Zariski topology from X. In this article some cohomological invariants of X are studied in terms of whether or not they depend only on \\Delta and not k. Secondly some numerical invariants of X are studied in terms of whether or not they are topological invariants of the fan \\Delta. That is, whether or not they depend only on the finite topological space defined on \\Delta. The invariants with which we are mostly concerned are the class group of Weil divisors, the Picard group, the Brauer group and the dimensions of the torsion free part of the \\'etale cohomology groups with coefficients in the sheaf of units. The notion of an open neighborhood of a fan is introduced and examples are given for which the above invariants are sufficiently fine to give nontrivial stratifications...

  9. "I'm Buffy, and you're history": Putting fan studies into history [editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Reagin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay kicks off the special historical issue of Transformative Works and Cultures by offering an overview of the ways in which fan communities have been studied by academic historians, and how fan studies has written the history of fan communities. The essay discusses historical work done by amateur fan historians throughout the 20th century; what academic historians can offer fan communities; why academic historians could benefit from studying fandoms as part of the history of popular culture; and what fan studies as a discipline might gain from a broader historical analysis of fandoms.

  10. Combustor cap having non-round outlets for mixing tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael John; Boardman, Gregory Allen; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Arguinzoni, Carlo Antonio

    2016-12-27

    A system includes a a combustor cap configured to be coupled to a plurality of mixing tubes of a multi-tube fuel nozzle, wherein each mixing tube of the plurality of mixing tubes is configured to mix air and fuel to form an air-fuel mixture. The combustor cap includes multiple nozzles integrated within the combustor cap. Each nozzle of the multiple nozzles is coupled to a respective mixing tube of the multiple mixing tubes. In addition, each nozzle of the multiple nozzles includes a first end and a second end. The first end is coupled to the respective mixing tube of the multiple mixing tubes. The second end defines a non-round outlet for the air-fuel mixture. Each nozzle of the multiple nozzles includes an inner surface having first and second portions, the first portion radially diverges along an axial direction from the first end to the second end, and the second portion radially converges along the axial direction from the first end to the second end.

  11. [Anatomy and embriology of double outlet right ventricle (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, P; Leachman, R D

    1978-01-01

    After formulating the definition of double outlet right ventricle (DORV) as the persistence origin of the trunco-conal structures from the right ventricle, 64 autopsy cases meeting this definition were reviewed. A wide spectrum of anatomic variations of DORV were found. A classification is proposed based upon the type of relationship between the great vessels and upon the presence and type of ventricular septal defect. Twenty-five cases had normally crossed great arteries (13 of which had pulmonic stenosis), nine cases had transposed vessels and 23 cases had a double muscular conus and a side-by-side arrangement of the great vessels in the frontal view, a relationship called "partial distortion" or atypical transposition. Seven cases had absent trunco-conal septum (common truncus). Only one case had intact ventricular septum. Anterior ventricular septal defect was found only in cases with partial distortion or common truncus. Angiographic and surgical correlations are presented. Because of their great heterogeneity, the need for detailed description of the anatomy of the individual case of DORV is emphasized.

  12. Surgical palliation of gastric outlet obstruction in advanced malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potz, Brittany A; Miner, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a common problem associated with advanced malignancies of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Palliative treatment of patients’ symptoms who present with GOO is an important aspect of their care. Surgical palliation of malignancy is defined as a procedure performed with the intention of relieving symptoms caused by an advanced malignancy or improving quality of life. Palliative treatment for GOO includes operative (open and laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy) and non-operative (endoscopic stenting) options. The performance status and medical condition of the patient, the extent of the cancer, the patients prognosis, the availability of a curative procedure, the natural history of symptoms of the disease (primary and secondary), the durability of the procedure, and the quality of life and life expectancy of the patient should always be considered when choosing treatment for any patient with advanced malignancy. Gastrojejunostomy appears to be associated with better long term symptom relief while stenting appears to be associated with lower immediate procedure related morbidity. PMID:27648158

  13. [Neurological Signs and Symptoms of True Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashihara, Mana; Konoeda, Fumie; Sonoo, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a well-known disorder, but many aspects of its pathology, including its definition, has been disputed. True neurogenic TOS (TN-TOS) is a rare but well-defined clinical condition. TN-TOS results from the compression of the C8/T1 roots (dominant for the T1 root) or the proximal lower trunk of the brachial plexus by a fibrous band. The band extends from the first rib to either the tip of an elongated C7 transverse process or a rudimentary cervical rib. The most common presenting symptoms of TN-TOS are insidious-onset atrophy and weakness of the intrinsic hand muscles, predominantly in the thenar eminence and radial digit flexors. Nerve conduction studies demonstrate pathognomonic findings: severely attenuated compound muscle action potential of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, and usually, loss of the sensory nerve action potential of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve. Numbness and sensory loss are typically observed, mainly in the medial forearm, although they are usually mild, and may be absent in some patients. Severe pain or paresthesia proximal to the elbow is not observed. The classical concept of TOS underlie nonspecific neurogenic TOS. It has been primarily diagnosed using provocative maneuvers. However, there is controversy regarding its pathological conceptualization and existence, as objective evidence of the disease is still lacking.

  14. Electronic Cigarette Retail Outlets and Proximity to Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Begley, Kathy; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Johnson, Andrew O; Mundy, Monica E; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-01-01

    To compare the retail distribution and density per population of electronic and conventional cigarettes in smoke-free communities with and without e-cigarette restrictions. A cross-sectional study with field observations of retail tobacco stores. Two Central Kentucky counties with 100% smoke-free workplace regulations; counties selected on the basis of whether e-cigarette use was restricted. Fifty-seven tobacco retailers in two counties, including conventional retailers and stand-alone e-cigarette stores. Type and location of store and products sold; addresses of stores and schools geocoded with ArcGIS. Bivariate comparisons between counties, rates and confidence intervals for frequency of tobacco retailers and e-cigarette stores per population. Fifty-three percent of tobacco retailers sold e-cigarettes. E-cigarette availability did not differ by whether smoke-free regulation covered e-cigarettes. Rates of tobacco retailers and e-cigarette distributors per 10,000 were 8.29 and 4.40, respectively, in the two-county area. Of the 40 schools, 88% had a tobacco retailer and 68% had an e-cigarette distributor within 1 mile. In this exploratory study, e-cigarette use restriction was not related to store availability. For a relatively new product, e-cigarettes were readily available in retail outlets and close to schools.

  15. Difficulties and Outlets: On Paradigm of China's Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haimin; Lin, Dan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the paradigm of China's pedagogy means a way of thinking followed and adhered to by Chinese educationists from the establishment of New China till now when they consider, study and conceive problems of pedagogy. This way of thinking guides educationists to have particular study directions, unique modes of pedagogy establishment and…

  16. Effect of Number of Blades on Performance of Ceiling Fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeeb Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of number of blades on ceiling fan performance is discussed. This approach helps to satisfy tradeoff between high air flow (performance and power consumption (energy efficiency. Specifically, variation from two to six blades is considered with nonlinear forward sweep profile. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS technique is used to model the flow field induced by the ceiling fan inside a generic room. The performance is gauged through response parameters namely volumetric flow rate, mass flow rate, torque and energy efficiency. The results indicate that mass and volumetric flow rates are maximized for six blade configuration and energy efficiency is maximized for two blade configuration. The study indicates the importance of tradeoff between high air flow through ceiling fan and associated energy efficiency.

  17. Performance and Stability Analysis of a Shrouded-Fan UAV

    CERN Document Server

    de Divitiis, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of the performance and stability for a shrouded-fan unmanned rotorcraft whose mission profile also prescribes the flight in ground effect. The not so simple estimation of the aerodynamic coefficients and of the thrust in the various situations makes the performance calculation and the stability analysis difficult tasks. This is due to the strong interaction between the fan flow and shroud that causes quite different flow structures about the airframe depending on flight conditions. A further difficulty is related to the ground effect which produces substantial modifications in the rotor thrust and aerodynamic coefficients. To evaluate performance and stability, two models have been developed. One determines the aerodynamic coefficients of the shroud, whereas the other one calculates thrust and moment of the rotors system. Both models take into account the mutual interference between fan flow and fuselage and ground effect. Performance and stability are then discussed with ...

  18. Using Mobile Marketing to Engage NASCAR Fans and Increase Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARK DODDS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile marketing displays engage the consumer. This sponsorship activation tactic is highly visible at NASCAR races. Some common elements include show cars, interactive race simulators, video games and race suit/equipment displays. The authors of this study argue that by using mobile marketing effectively as a sponsorship activation tactic, the race fans derive more enjoyment from the race experience. This increased enjoyment links to higher product sales for the sponsor. The implications of this study show that sponsors in other sports should use mobile marketing to increase the fan satisfaction of the game experience in order to increase their product sales. Additionally, event mangers should support mobile marketing as a sponsorship activation tactic with the intention of increasing fan enjoyment and improving attendance.

  19. Particle trajectories and acceleration during 3D fan reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Dalla, S; 10.1051/0004-6361:200809771

    2008-01-01

    Context. The primary energy release in solar flares is almost certainly due to magnetic reconnection, making this a strong candidate as a mechanism for particle acceleration. While particle acceleration in 2D geometries has been widely studied, investigations in 3D are a recent development. Two main classes of reconnection regimes at a 3D magnetic null point have been identified: fan and spine reconnection Aims. Here we investigate particle trajectories and acceleration during reconnection at a 3D null point, using a test particle numerical code, and compare the efficiency of the fan and spine regimes in generating an energetic particle population. Methods. We calculated the time evolution of the energy spectra. We discuss the geometry of particle escape from the two configurations and characterise the trapped and escaped populations. Results. We find that fan reconnection is less efficent than spine reconnection in providing seed particles to the region of strong electric field where acceleration is possible...

  20. Reflection on Chinese boys' love fans: An insider's view [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Junhui Yi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The fandom of BL, as it is known in China, celebrates explicit homoerotic relationships between boys or men—fictional characters taken from mainstream media, real-life celebrities, and male personifications of day-to-day objects and animals, as well as original characters. Mainstream media reports on BL fandom and BL fan girls in China have never been favorable; this subculture and the fans within it are constantly represented in a negative and biased light. But because I am a BL fan girl myself, I can offer an insider's perspective. This essay is a reflection on my personal experiences and observations as a member of BL fandom, and a response to erroneous, stigmatizing claims and moral panic about this community in China.

  1. A velocity parameter for the correlation of axial fan noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, T.

    1982-08-01

    An aerodynamic parameter that relates subsonic axial fan noise to the fundamental flow behavior in the blade row of a fan is proposed. The parameter is the peak or maximum blade surface velocity in the rotating reference frame and includes, either explicitly or implicitly, the influence of tip speed, volume flow rate, pressure rise, shaft horsepower and efficiency. Correlation of the noise associated with a very broad range of axial fans yields good agreement and collapse of data when compared to currently used correlation methods. Use of this parameter, rather than those based on overall performance, allows trade-off studies to be made within a given performance requirement so that a minimum noise configuration may be designed or selected.

  2. Effect of inlet box on performance of axial flow fans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingyin LI; Hua TIAN; Xiaofang YUAN

    2008-01-01

    Numerical investigations on 3D flow fields in an axial flow fan with and without an inlet box have been extensively conducted, focusing on the variation of fan performance caused by the internal flow fields and the velocity evenness at the exit of the inlet box. It is interest-ing to find that although the inlet box is well designed in accordance with basic design principles, there is a flow separation region in it. Furthermore, this flow separation and the resulting uneven velocity distribution at the exit lead to some decrease in the efficiency and an increase in the total pressure rise of the fan. This research shows that the inlet box needs further improvement and such a check on the flow fields is of value for the design of inlet boxes.

  3. Fan filmmaking and copyright in a global world: Warhammer 40,000 fan films and the case of Damnatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walliss

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed a proliferation, both online and off-line, of films produced by amateurs inspired by mainstream films, TV shows, and novels. As with much other fan production, fan films exist in, at best, a legally gray area since they are produced by amateurs, rather than by the media companies that own the copyrights to the films and novels that provide both their inspiration and settings. I examine the phenomenon of fan filmmaking, focusing on films produced by fans of the Warhammer 40,000 (W40K tabletop battle game. In particular, I examine the case of Damnatus: The Enemy Within (Damnatus: Feind Im Innern, 2005, a German-made fan film set in the W40K universe, which was banned from release by the game's rights holder, the UK company Games Workshop, in 2007. Damnatus offers an interesting case study in both the ongoing struggle between rights holders and textual poachers and the tensions that can exist between different legal understandings of copyright in an increasingly globalized world.

  4. The Reasonable Explanation of Annihilation (fanā in Mysticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abulfazel Kiashemshaki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak : Para mistikus melampaui tahap-tahap (derajat kesempurnaan mistik dan maqam spiritual dalam perjalanan mereka menuju Allah yang sulit dimengerti oleh non-mistikus. Karena itu, sebagian besar kalangan reflektif berusaha mengandalkan prinsip-prinsip intelektual dan teoritis mereka untuk memperoleh penjelasan atas pengalaman mistis dan ekstasi. Namun, keberhasilan penjelasannya sepenuhnya berada di bawah kuasa dan kekuatan dari prinsip-prinsip tersebut. (Fanā atau kesirnaan adalah salah satu tahap mistis atau keadaan yang sulit dimengerti oleh non-mistikus sehingga memunculkan berbagai teori yang berbeda untuk menjelaskannya. Pencapaian prestasi ilmiah dan filosofis merupakan penjelasan yang tepat atas fanā. Bagaimanapun upaya yang dilakukan dalam artikel ini membuktikan bahwa satu-satunya penjelasan yang sukses adalah penjelasan yang didasarkan pada prinsip-prinsip teosofi transendental dan mistisisme teoritis.Kata kunci : Fanā, Mistisisme, Penjelasan rasional, Mistisisme teoretis, Filsafat transendentalAbstract : Mystics are passing through stages (degrees of mystic perfection and esoteric abodes (spiritual stations in their spiritual journey to Allah which is difficult for unmystics to understand. Because of this, most of the reflective people are trying to rely on their intellectual and theoretical principles to obtain an understandable explanation of mystical experiences and ecstasy. However the success of such explanation completely lies in the power and strength of the above mentioned principles. (Fanā or annihilation is one of the mystical stages or states which unmystics find very difficult to reasonably understand, hence various and different theories have been provided for its explanation. Various scientific and philosophical achievements are appropriate explanations of annihilation (fanā which is valuable in its place; however effort had been made in this article to prove that the only successful explanation is an

  5. Neighborhood Characteristics Associated with the Availability of Alcohol Outlets in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ngamini Ngui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objectives of this study were to examine the spatial accessibility to alcohol outlets in Quebec and to assess the association between neighborhood level characteristics and availability of alcohol outlets. Methods. The Tobit Model was used to assess the association between neighborhood level characteristics and the availability of alcohol outlets within 500, 1000, 2000, and 3000 metres, respectively. Results. Alcohol outlets were found to be most available in the two largest metropolitan areas of the province of Quebec (Montréal and Québec City. Within 1000 metres, alcohol outlets are more available in neighbourhoods with the following characteristics: highest concentration of men, least materially deprived highest concentration of persons aged 20 years or more, and location either in a metropolitan area or in a small town. Finally, the number of bars with video lottery terminals increases with the level of social and material deprivation. Conclusion. In Québec, there is no rule governing the location of alcohol outlets. Thus, there is an abundant literature indicating that the regulation of alcohol outlet density could be an effective means of controlling risk attributable to alcohol consumption.

  6. Tobacco advertising and sales practices in licensed retail outlets after the Food and Drug Administration regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Ryan G; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-10-01

    To assess retailer compliance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations on tobacco sales and advertising practices, including point-of-sale advertisements, in two distinct Columbus, Ohio neighborhood groups by income. Data were gathered from a random sample of 129 licensed tobacco retailers, which included data on both exterior and interior advertisements as well as sales practices. Descriptive analyses compared retail outlets by high and low income neighborhood locations. Compliance with FDA regulations was high in the random sample of urban tobacco retail outlets. None of the retail outlets sold loose cigarettes or offered free items with purchase. Less than 10% of the outlets surveyed offered self-service access to cigarettes or smokeless tobacco products. From all surveyed retail outlets 95% had cigarette, 57% had smokeless, and 57% had cigar advertisements at the point-of-sale. There were no significant differences in compliance by income, but the mean number of advertisements on the building and self-service access to cigars was significantly different by neighborhood income. There was a high degree of compliance with the new FDA regulation on tobacco marketing and sales practices in urban retail tobacco outlets in Columbus, Ohio. Tobacco advertising and marketing remain highly prevalent in retail outlets, with some significant differences between high and low income neighborhoods.

  7. The Boundary Layer Interaction with Shock Wave and Expansion Fan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaratA.Goldfeld; RomanV.Nestoulia; 等

    2000-01-01

    The results of experimental investigation of a turbulent boundary layer on compression and expansion surfaces are presented.They include the study of the shock wave and /or expansion fan action upon the boundary layer,boundary layer sepqartion and its relaxation.Complex events of paired interactions and the flow on compression convex-concave surfaces were studied.The posibility and conditions of the boundary layer relaminarization behind the expansion fan and its effect on the relaxation length are presented.Different model configurations for wide range conditions were investigated.Comparison of results for different interactions was carried out.

  8. Novel stator design of fan motors using soft magnetic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Sheng; Tsai, Mi-Ching; Hsieh, Min-Fu

    2008-04-01

    Cooling fans are an important device needed in consumer electronic products. To enhance the performance of cooling fans, this paper presents a novel brushless dc motor with a three dimensional stator structure using soft magnetic composite to reduce the hub size and allow more airflow. Four models are designed and their output characteristics are compared using finite element simulation. From the results, one of them is selected for prototyping whose performance appears to meet the requirement. The prototype has a 10% smaller diameter than that of conventional types. Moreover, the operation test shows that the required performance is achieved.

  9. On a Fixed Point Theorem of Ky Fan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DE BLASI Francesco S.; GEORGIEV Pando Gr.

    2002-01-01

    We generalize a theorem of Ky Fan about the nearest distance between a closed convex setD in a Banach space E and its image by a function f: D → E, in several directions: (1) for noncompactsets D, when f(D) precompact; (2) for compact D and upper semicontinuous multifunction f; andmore generally, (3) for noncompact D and upper semicontinuous multifunction f with f(D) Hausdorffprecompact.In particular, we prove a version of the fixed point theorem of Kakutani-Ky Fan for multifunctions,whose values are convex closed bounded, thus not necessarily compact.

  10. Supersonic stall flutter of high-speed fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, J. J.; Stevans, W.; Jutras, R.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical model is proposed for predicting the onset of supersonic stall bending flutter in high-speed rotors. The analysis is based on a modified two-dimensional, compressible, unsteady actuator disk theory. The stability boundary predicted by the analysis is shown to be in good agreement with the measured boundary of a high speed fan. The prediction that the flutter mode would be a forward traveling wave sensitive to wheel speed and aerodynamic loading is confirmed by experimental measurements. In addition, the analysis shows that reduced frequency and dynamic head also play a significant role in establishing the supersonic stall bending flutter boundary of an unshrouded fan.

  11. The Female Vikings, a women's fan group in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, football and fandom have been male domains and celebrations of masculinity. So far there has been some sociological and historical research on women's football; however, little is known about women's fandom, in particular about its formation and development. This article focuses...... on the historical development of a Danish women-only fan group called 'The Female Vikings', which support a professional football club, Lyngby Boldklub (BK), in a city north of Copenhagen. The article explores the backgrounds and motivations of female fans, as well as their ways of staging femininity in a man...

  12. The Female Vikings, a women's fan group in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, football and fandom have been male domains and celebrations of masculinity. So far there has been some sociological and historical research on women's football; however, little is known about women's fandom, in particular about its formation and development. This article focuses......'s world. Drawing on available information about football and fans in Denmark, we have reconstructed the developments of both Lyngby BK and its supporters. Special focus was placed on the histories and cultures as well as the experiences of female fans in this club. Insights into the foundation...

  13. Performance evaluation methods and instrumentation for mine ventilation fans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Man; WANG Xue-rong

    2009-01-01

    Ventilation fans are one of the most important pieces of equipment in coal mines. Their performance plays an important role in the safety of staff and production. Given the actual requirements of coal mine production, we instituted a research project on the measurement methods of key performance parameters such as wind pressure, amount of ventilation and power. At the end a virtual instrument for mine ventilation fans performance evaluation was developed using a USB interface. The practical perform-ance and analytical results of our experiments show that it is feasible, reliable and effective to use the proposed instrumentation for mine ventilation performance evaluation.

  14. "Cultural acupuncture": Fan activism and the Harry Potter Alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Jenkins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fan activists have struggled to defend series from cancellation, defend themselves from cease and desist orders, promote alternative representations, and raise money for charity. Building on this background, this article examines how the Harry Potter Alliance encourages young people to speak out as fans on a broad range of human rights and social justice issues through what the group's leader, Andrew Slack, calls "cultural acupuncture." The group's practice of mapping the fictional content world onto real-world concerns helps empower young people to become civicly engaged and politically active.

  15. Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Jennifer S; Sharkey, Joseph R; McIntosh, Alex; Anding, Jenna; Huber, J Charles

    2008-01-01

    Background Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores. In rural areas, these nontraditional fast-food outlets may provide most of the opportunities for procurement of fast foods. Methods Using all traditional and nontraditio nal fast-food outlets identified in six counties in rural Texas, the type and number of regular and healthiermenu options were surveyed using on-site observation in all food venues that were primarily fast food, supermarket/grocery store, and convenience store and compared with 2005 Dietary Guidelines. Results Traditional fast-food outlets represented 84 (41%) of the 205 opportunities for procurement of fast food; 109 (53.2%) were convenience stores and 12 (5.8%) supermarkets/grocery stores. Although a s imilar variety of regular breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées were available in traditional fast-food outlets and convenience stores, the variety of healthier breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées was significantly greater in fast food outlets. Compared with convenience stores, supermarkets/grocery stores provided a greater variety of regular and healthier entrées and lunch/dinner side dishes. Conclusion Convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores more than double the potential access to fast foods in this rural area than traditional fast-food outlets alone; however, traditional fast food outlets offer greater opportunity for healthier fast food options than convenience stores. A complete picture of fast food environment and the availability of healthier fast food options are essential to understand environmental influences on diet and health outcomes, and identify

  16. Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntosh Alex

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores. In rural areas, these nontraditional fast-food outlets may provide most of the opportunities for procurement of fast foods. Methods Using all traditional and nontraditio nal fast-food outlets identified in six counties in rural Texas, the type and number of regular and healthiermenu options were surveyed using on-site observation in all food venues that were primarily fast food, supermarket/grocery store, and convenience store and compared with 2005 Dietary Guidelines. Results Traditional fast-food outlets represented 84 (41% of the 205 opportunities for procurement of fast food; 109 (53.2% were convenience stores and 12 (5.8% supermarkets/grocery stores. Although a s imilar variety of regular breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées were available in traditional fast-food outlets and convenience stores, the variety of healthier breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées was significantly greater in fast food outlets. Compared with convenience stores, supermarkets/grocery stores provided a greater variety of regular and healthier entrées and lunch/dinner side dishes. Conclusion Convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores more than double the potential access to fast foods in this rural area than traditional fast-food outlets alone; however, traditional fast food outlets offer greater opportunity for healthier fast food options than convenience stores. A complete picture of fast food environment and the availability of healthier fast food options are essential to understand environmental influences on diet and health

  17. Totally Endoscopic (VATS) First Rib Resection for Thoracic Outlet Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Robert S; Milton, Richard; Chaudhuri, Nilanjan; Kefaloyannis, Emmanuel; Papagiannopoulos, Kostas

    2017-01-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) causes neurologic symptoms in 95% of cases and vascular symptoms in 5% of cases. Surgical resection is curative. Endoscopic-assisted transaxillary first rib resection has been previously reported. In this study we report a totally endoscopic video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) approach using tailored endoscopic instruments. Ten patients (8 women; average age, 32.3 ± 5.6 years) with TOS underwent VATS first rib resection following failure of symptom improvement with physiotherapy. Symptoms were: unilateral neurogenic (n = = 7), bilateral neurogenic (n = = 2), and bilateral arterial compression (n = = 1). Three standard VATS ports were utilized. The parietal pleura and periosteum overlying the first rib were stripped avoiding injury to the neurovascular bundle. The rib was transected with an endoscopic rib cutter and resected completely in a piecemeal fashion using endoscopic bone nibblers. All periosteal remnants were trimmed releasing the neurovascular bundle completely. Patients were discharged within 72 hours following surgery. One patient had the contralateral side treated 18 months later and another patient is awaiting the second surgery. At follow-up, 9 patients had complete resolution of their main symptoms. One patient with neurogenic TOS developed mild functional and sensational loss of the non-dominant hand that improved within 8 months with physiotherapy. VATS first rib resection for TOS provides, unlike the classic approaches, a superior, magnified, and well-illuminated view of the thoracic inlet. It allows good posterior trimming of the first rib, release of brachial plexus, and an aesthetically pleasing result, especially in female patients. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Boundary layer models for calving marine outlet glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schoof

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the flow of marine-terminating outlet glaciers that are laterally confined in a channel of prescribed width. In that case, the drag exerted by the channel side walls on a floating ice shelf can reduce extensional stress at the grounding line. If ice flux through the grounding line increases with both ice thickness and extensional stress, then a longer shelf can reduce ice flux by decreasing extensional stress. Consequently, calving has an effect on flux through the grounding line by regulating the length of the shelf. In the absence of a shelf, it plays a similar role by controlling the above-flotation height of the calving cliff. Using two calving laws, one due to Nick et al. (2010 based on a model for crevasse propagation due to hydrofracture and the other simply asserting that calving occurs where the glacier ice becomes afloat, we pose and analyse a flowline model for a marine-terminating glacier by two methods: direct numerical solution and matched asymptotic expansions. The latter leads to a boundary layer formulation that predicts flux through the grounding line as a function of depth to bedrock, channel width, basal drag coefficient, and a calving parameter. By contrast with unbuttressed marine ice sheets, we find that flux can decrease with increasing depth to bedrock at the grounding line, reversing the usual stability criterion for steady grounding line location. Stable steady states can then have grounding lines located on retrograde slopes. We show how this anomalous behaviour relates to the strength of lateral versus basal drag on the grounded portion of the glacier and to the specifics of the calving law used.

  19. Gastric Outlet Obstruction Palliation: A Novel Stent-Based Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha M. Rueth

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO after esophagectomy is a morbid outcome and significantly hinders quality of life for end-stage esophageal cancer patients. In the pre-stent era, palliation consisted of chemotherapy, radiation, tumor ablation, or stricture dilation. In the current era, palliative stenting has emerged as an additional tool; however, migration and tumor ingrowth are ongoing challenges. To mitigate these challenges, we developed a novel, hybrid, stent-based approach for the palliative management of GOO. We present a patient with esophageal cancer diagnosed with recurrent, metastatic disease 1 year after esophagectomy. She developed dehydration and intractable emesis, which significantly interfered with her quality of life. For palliation, we dilated the stenosis and proceeded with our stent-based solution. Using a combined endoscopic and fluoroscopic approach, we placed a 12-mm silicone salivary bypass tube across the pylorus, where it kinked slightly because of local tumor biology. To bridge this defect and ensure luminal patency, we placed a nitinol tracheobronchial stent through the silicone stent. Clinically, the patient had immediate relief from her pre-operative symptoms and was discharged home on a liquid diet. In conclusion, GOO and malignant dysphagia after esophagectomy are significant challenges for patients with end-stage disease. Palliative stenting is a viable option, but migration and tumor ingrowth are common complications. The hybrid approach presented here provides a unique solution to these potential pitfalls. The flared silicone tube minimized the chance of migration and impaired tumor ingrowth. The nitinol stent aided with patency and overcame the challenges of the soft tube. This novel strategy achieved palliation, describing another endoscopic option in the treatment of malignant GOO.

  20. Towards a three-component model of fan loyalty: a case study of Chinese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-xiao; Liu, Li; Zhao, Xian; Zheng, Jian; Yang, Meng; Zhang, Ji-qi

    2015-01-01

    The term "fan loyalty" refers to the loyalty felt and expressed by a fan towards the object of his/her fanaticism in both everyday and academic discourses. However, much of the literature on fan loyalty has paid little attention to the topic from the perspective of youth pop culture. The present study explored the meaning of fan loyalty in the context of China. Data were collected by the method of in-depth interviews with 16 young Chinese people aged between 19 and 25 years who currently or once were pop fans. The results indicated that fan loyalty entails three components: involvement, satisfaction, and affiliation. These three components regulate the process of fan loyalty development, which can be divided into four stages: inception, upgrade, zenith, and decline. This model provides a conceptual explanation of why and how young Chinese fans are loyal to their favorite stars. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  1. ON A KIND OF GENERALIZED QUASI-VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES AND FAN's MINIMAX INEQUALITY WITHOUT CONVEXITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives a Fan,s type minimax theorem, a nearst point theorem and two existence theorems of solutions for a kind of generalized quasi-variational inequalities in H-spaces without any linear structure.

  2. Towards a three-component model of fan loyalty: a case study of Chinese youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-xiao Zhang

    Full Text Available The term "fan loyalty" refers to the loyalty felt and expressed by a fan towards the object of his/her fanaticism in both everyday and academic discourses. However, much of the literature on fan loyalty has paid little attention to the topic from the perspective of youth pop culture. The present study explored the meaning of fan loyalty in the context of China. Data were collected by the method of in-depth interviews with 16 young Chinese people aged between 19 and 25 years who currently or once were pop fans. The results indicated that fan loyalty entails three components: involvement, satisfaction, and affiliation. These three components regulate the process of fan loyalty development, which can be divided into four stages: inception, upgrade, zenith, and decline. This model provides a conceptual explanation of why and how young Chinese fans are loyal to their favorite stars. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  3. Experimental investigation of the noise emission of axial fans under distorted inflow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger, Florian J.; Renz, Andreas; Becher, Marcus; Becker, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    An experimental investigation on the noise emission of axial fans under distorted inflow conditions was conducted. Three fans with forward-skewed fan blades and three fans with backward-skewed fan blades and a common operating point were designed with a 2D element blade method. Two approaches were adopted to modify the inflow conditions: first, the inflow turbulence intensity was increased by two different rectangular grids and second, the inflow velocity profile was changed to an asymmetric characteristic by two grids with a distinct bar stacking. An increase in the inflow turbulence intensity affects both tonal and broadband noise, whereas a non-uniform velocity profile at the inlet influences mainly tonal components. The magnitude of this effect is not the same for all fans but is dependent on the blade skew. The impact is greater for the forward-skewed fans than for the backward-skewed and thus directly linked to the fan blade geometry.

  4. Design and Research of Intelligent Remote Control Fan Based on Single Chip Microcomputer and Bluetooth Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xue-Xia Zhang; You-Yun Dang; An-Ying Fu

    2017-01-01

    This paper is designed for intelligent remote control fans. The design of the microcontroller as the core, the sensor, Bluetooth and Andrews system applied to the design of intelligent remote control fan...

  5. Giant bladder diverticulum: A rare cause of bladder outlet obstruction in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Appeadu-Mensah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant bladder diverticula are rare causes of bladder outlet obstruction in children and have rarely been reported. [1] In this paper, we present three children with giant bladder diverticula who presented with bladder outlet obstruction within a year. Micturating cystourethrogram is important for investigating bladder outlet obstruction in children and was used to confirm the diagnosis in all the patients. The relationship between the diverticula and ureters varied, with the ureters running either through the wall of the diverticulum and opening directly into the bladder, or opening into the diverticulum. In one patient, there was a recurrence, which was excised successfully. Excision is important to reduce the risk of recurrence.

  6. Obesity-promoting food environments and the spatial clustering of food outlets around schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Peter L; Pearce, Jamie

    2011-02-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in school-aged children is potentially linked to contextual influences such as the food environment around schools. The proximity of fast-food and convenience stores to schools may enhance access to unhealthy foods and have a negative impact on diet. This study used spatial cluster analysis to determine whether food outlets are clustered around schools and evaluated the extent of food outlet clustering by school and school neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics. The locations in 2008 of all schools, fast-food outlets, and convenience stores in five urban regions across New Zealand were geocoded. Using GIS analysis conducted in 2009, the number and proportion of outlets within 400-m and 800-m road distance around each school was calculated. The spatial clustering of food outlets within 1.5 km of schools was determined using a multi-type K-function. Food outlet type, school level, SES, the degree of population density, and commercial land use zoning around each school were compared. Primary/intermediate schools had a total proportion of 19.3 outlets per 1000 students within 800 m compared to 6.6 for secondary schools. The most socially deprived quintile of schools had three times the number and proportion of food outlets compared to the least-deprived quintile. There was a high degree of clustering of food outlets around schools, with up to 5.5 times more outlets than might be expected. Outlets were most clustered up to 800 m from schools and around secondary schools, socially deprived schools, and schools in densely populated and commercially zoned areas. Food environments in New Zealand within walking proximity to schools are characterized by a high density of fast-food outlets and convenience stores, particularly in more-socially deprived settings. These obesogenic environments provide ready access to obesity-promoting foods that may have a negative impact on student diet and contribute to inequalities in

  7. 16 CFR Appendix D to Part 436 - Sample Item 20(3) Table-Status of Franchise Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sample Item 20(3) Table-Status of Franchise Outlets D Appendix D to Part 436 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES... Item 20(3) Table—Status of Franchise Outlets Status of Franchise Outlets For years 2004 to 2006...

  8. 16 CFR Appendix C to Part 436 - Sample Item 20(2) Table-Transfers of Franchised Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Franchised Outlets C Appendix C to Part 436 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION... 436—Sample Item 20(2) Table—Transfers of Franchised Outlets Transfers of Franchised Outlets from Franchisees to New Owners (other than the Franchisor) For years 2004 to 2006 Column 1State Column 2Year...

  9. Process sedimentology of submarine fan deposits - new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, George

    2017-04-01

    To link submarine fan process sedimentology with sand distribution, sand body architecture, texture and fabric, the field geologist studies sedimentary facies, facies associations (fan elements) and stratigraphy. Facies analysis resides on factual knowledge of modern fan morphodynamics and physical modelling of en-masse sediment transport. Where do we stand after 55 years of submarine research, i.e. the date when the first submarine fan model was launched by Arnold Bouma in 1962? Since that date students of submarine fans have worked on a number of important, recurring questions concerned with facies analysis of submarine successions in outcrop and core: 1. What type of sediment transport produced the beds? 2. What facies can be related to initial flow conditions? 3. What is the significance of grain size jumps and bounding surface hierarchy in beds consisting of crude and spaced stratification (traction carpets)? Do these point to multi flow events or to flow pulsations by one and the same event? 4. What facies associations relate to the basic elements of submarine fans? 5. What are the autogenic and allogenic signatures in submarine fans? Particularly in the last decade, the enormous technical advancement helped to obtain high-quality data from observations of density flows in modern canyons, deep basins and deep-water delta slopes (refs 1,2,3). In combination with both physical (refs 4,5) and numerical modelling (ref 6) these studies broke new ground into our understanding of density flow processes in various submarine environments and have led to new concepts of submarine fan building by super- and subcritical high-density flow (ref 7). Do these new concepts provide better answers to our recurrent questions related to the morphodynamics of submarine fans and prediction of sand body architecture? In discussing this open question, I shall 1. apply the new concepts to a modern and ancient example of a channel-lobe-transition-zone (ref 8); 2. raise the problem of

  10. A Critical Review of Computational Methods and Their Application in Industrial Fan Design

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Corsini; Giovanni Delibra; Sheard, Anthony G.

    2013-01-01

    Members of the aerospace fan community have systematically developed computational methods over the last five decades. The complexity of the developed methods and the difficulty associated with their practical application ensured that, although commercial computational codes date back to the 1980s, they were not fully exploited by industrial fan designers until the beginning of the 2000s. The application of commercial codes proved to be problematic as, unlike aerospace fans, industrial fans i...

  11. Debris-flow dominance of alluvial fans masked by runoff reworking and weathering.

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, T.; Ventra, D.; Carbonneau, P. E.; Kleinhans, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Arid alluvial fan aggradation is highly episodic and fans often comprise active and inactive sectors. Hence the morphology and texture of fan surfaces are partly determined by secondary processes of weathering and erosion in addition to primary processes of aggradation. This introduces considerable uncertainty in the identification of formative processes of terrestrial and Martian fans from aerial and satellite imagery. The objectives of this study are (i) to develop a model to describe the s...

  12. A secondary source configuration for control of a ventilation fan noise in ducts

    OpenAIRE

    Čudina, Mirko; Prezelj, Jurij

    2015-01-01

    The main noise source in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems is usually a ventilating fan. Noise, generated by the ventilating fan is transmitted through the duct into the living and working environment. A typical fan noise spectrum consists of a broadband noise, which is superimposed with pure tones. Different methods are available to reduce a transmission of such noise from the ventilating fan into the living and working environment. In this article it is demonstrated how a f...

  13. Surface morphology of fans in the high-Arctic periglacial environment of Svalbard : Controls and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Tjalling; Kleinhans, Maarten G.; Carbonneau, Patrice E.; Rubensdotter, Lena; Hauber, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Fan-shaped landforms occur in all climatic regions on Earth. They have been extensively studied in many of these regions, but there are few studies on fans in periglacial, Arctic and Antarctic regions. Fans in such regions are exposed to many site-specific environmental conditions in addition to the

  14. 30 CFR 75.313 - Main mine fan stoppage with persons underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fan stoppage with persons underground... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.313 Main mine fan stoppage with persons underground. (a) If a main mine fan stops while anyone is underground...

  15. Debris-flow dominance of alluvial fans masked by runoff reworking and weathering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, Tjalling; Ventra, Dario; Carbonneau, Patrice E.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.

    2014-01-01

    Arid alluvial fan aggradation is highly episodic and fans often comprise active and inactive sectors. Hence the morphology and texture of fan surfaces are partly determined by secondary processes of weathering and erosion in addition to primary processes of aggradation. This introduces considerable

  16. Investigation of Inlet Guide Vane Wakes in a F109 Turbofan Engine with and without Flow Control

    OpenAIRE

    Kozak, Jeffrey D

    2000-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted in a F109 turbofan engine to investigate the unsteady wake profiles of an Inlet Guide Vane (IGV) at a typical spacing to the downstream fan at subsonic and transonic relative blade velocities. The sharp trailing-edge vanes were designed to produce a wake profile consistent with modern IGV. Time averaged baseline measurements were first performed with the IGV located upstream of the aerodynamic influence of the fan. Unsteady experiments were performed ...

  17. Palaeoflow reconstruction from fan delta morphology on Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.; Kasteele, H.E. van de; Hauber, E.

    2010-01-01

    Alluvial fans and deltas on Mars record past hydrological conditions. Until now these conditions have been inferred from the morphology of the feeder channels and the deposits from images and digital terrain models (DTMs), and from calculations of the bulk fluxes of water and sediment based on the d

  18. KKM and KY fan theorems in modular function spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In modular function spaces, we introduce Knaster-Kuratowski-Mazurkiewicz mappings (in short KKM-mappings and prove an analogue to Ky Fan s fixed point theorem. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary 46B20, 47H09; Secondary 47H10.

  19. The Nonrelativistic Scattering States of the Deng-Fan Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentol Hoda Yazarloo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The approximately analytical scattering state solution of the Schrodinger equation is obtained for the Deng-Fan potential by using an approximation scheme to the centrifugal term. Energy eigenvalues, normalized wave functions, and scattering phase shifts are calculated. We consider and verify two special cases: the l=0 and the s-wave Hulthén potential.

  20. Modeling Fan Effects on the Time Course of Associative Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Darryl W.; Anderson, John R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the time course of associative recognition using the response signal procedure, whereby a stimulus is presented and followed after a variable lag by a signal indicating that an immediate response is required. More specifically, we examined the effects of associative fan (the number of associations that an item has with other items…

  1. Investigation of Cross Flow Fan Propulsion for Lightweight VTOL Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    the aircraft longitudinal axis due to the total length of the unit. A total fan span of 20.6 inches is required to produce 690 lbf of thrust when...which are mounted parallel to the aircraft longitudinal axis and rest perpendicular, would be actuated as required to provide yaw control and aft

  2. Studying a Spacecraft Ventilation Fan: Progress and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, L. Denielle

    2011-01-01

    This document describes a presentation delivered to the Acoustics Technical Working Group at a meeting held in Cleveland, Ohio on April 21-22, 2011. The information contained in this presentation is considered to be preliminary, intended to begin a general discussion among audience members on the challenges associated with spacecraft ventilation fans and possible avenues of continued research.

  3. Propellers And Fans Based On The Moebius Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiner, John Milton; Gilinsky, Mikhail Markovich

    1996-01-01

    Moebius strip proposed as basis for optimally shaped airplane and boat propellers, fans, helicopter rotors, mixing screws, coffee grinders, and concrete mixers. Basic idea of optimal shaping of such device to increase working efficiency by increasing area for capture of still medium without increasing power needed for rotation.

  4. Intermittent Flow Regimes in a Transonic Fan Airfoil Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lepicovsky

    2004-01-01

    velocity.To date, this flow behavior has only been observed in a linear transonic cascade. Further research is necessary to confirm this phenomenon occurs in actual transonic fans and is not the by-product of an endwall restricted linear cascade.

  5. Energy efficient engine shroudless, hollow fan blade technology report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Shroudless, Hollow Fan Blade Technology program was structured to support the design, fabrication, and subsequent evaluation of advanced hollow and shroudless blades for the Energy Efficient Engine fan component. Rockwell International was initially selected to produce hollow airfoil specimens employing the superplastic forming/diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) fabrication technique. Rockwell demonstrated that a titanium hollow structure could be fabricated utilizing SPF/DB manufacturing methods. However, some problems such as sharp internal cavity radii and unsatisfactory secondary bonding of the edge and root details prevented production of the required quantity of fatigue test specimens. Subsequently, TRW was selected to (1) produce hollow airfoil test specimens utilizing a laminate-core/hot isostatic press/diffusion bond approach, and (2) manufacture full-size hollow prototype fan blades utilizing the technology that evolved from the specimen fabrication effort. TRW established elements of blade design and defined laminate-core/hot isostatic press/diffusion bonding fabrication techniques to produce test specimens. This fabrication technology was utilized to produce full size hollow fan blades in which the HIP'ed parts were cambered/twisted/isothermally forged, finish machined, and delivered to Pratt & Whitney Aircraft and NASA for further evaluation.

  6. SOME GENERALIZATIONS OF KY FAN'S BEST APPROXIMATION THEOREM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.R.Khan; N.Hussain; A.B.Thaheem

    2004-01-01

    We pressent new Ky Fan type best approximation theorems for a discontinuous multivalued map on metrizable topological vector spaces and hyperconvex spaces. In addition, fixed point results are derived for the map studied. Our work generalizes severl results in approximation theory.

  7. Così fan tutte: Brilliance or Buffoonery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Whitfield

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hardly any opera has endured more scrutiny and self-preserving apology than Mozart’s Così fan tutte. Flagrant opposition and a long string of “rescue” attempts shroud the receptive history of the work. Since its premiere, Così fan tutte has long been recognized as a problem opera. Many critics found it implausible that Mozart—the consummate composer and man that warranted their idolization—could have stooped so low as to agree to such an immoral plot. The great beauty in Mozart’s musical parody is that it at once mocks and transforms the supposed superficial experiment of Lorenzo Da Ponte’s libretto. The parody in Così fan tutte must be correctly interpreted. It is rampant, but it exists for much more than a perfunctory laugh. The beauty of Mozart’s music—in both moments of wild parody and heartfelt emotion—succeeds in giving Così fan tutte a depth that is both challenging and transforming.

  8. Outlet plenum flow stratification studies for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novendstern, E.H.; Woods, M.D.; Andreychek, T.S.; Flannigan, L.J.; Carr, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    The transient temperature behavior during a simulated reactor trip was studied in a 1/3 sector, 0.55 scale model of the reactor outlet plenum of the CRBRP. Buoyancy effects were simulated using water and salt solution. Effects of variations in Richardson Number (ratio of buoyancy/inertia forces) and Froude Number (ratio of inertia/viscous forces) were evaluated. Effects of geometrical changes of a component in the outlet plenum called the Upper Internals Structure on transient temperature response were studied; both height of the structure and leakage under this component were experimentally varied. The test results confirm that flow stratification occurs in the outlet plenum following a reactor trip. The colder, denser fluid issuing from the core assemblies during the transient fills the lower portion of the plenum while the hotter fluid is trapped in the region above the outlet nozzles.

  9. Evaluation of microbial contents of table eggs at retail outlets in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2015-02-23

    Feb 23, 2015 ... Keywords: Bacterial isolation, Microbial contents, Retail outlets, Sokoto, Table eggs. Received: ... very nutritious and a cheap source of protein. (Blumenthal ... The possible transmission of such toxic residues to edible eggs.

  10. 7 CFR 987.43 - Outlets and specifications for marketable dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE....12 to reflect new major outlets and regulatory requirements needed because of changes in marketing... processing, Export dates, and Product dates....

  11. Analysis and control of computer cooling fan noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam

    This thesis is divided into three parts: the study of the source mechanisms and their separation, passive noise control, and active noise control. The mechanisms of noise radiated by a typical computer cooling fan is investigated both theoretically and experimentally focusing on the dominant rotor-stator interaction. The unsteady force generated by the aerodynamic interaction between the rotor blades and struts is phase locked with the blade rotation and radiates tonal noise. Experimentally, synchronous averaging with the rotation signal extracts the tones made by the deterministic part of the rotor-strut interaction mechanism. This averaged signal is called the rotary noise. The difference between the overall noise and rotary noise is defined as random noise which is broadband in the spectrum. The deterministic tonal peaks are certainly more annoying than the broadband, so the suppression of the tones is the focus of this study. Based on the theoretical study of point force formulation, methods are devised to separate the noise radiated by the two components of drag and thrust forces on blades and struts. The source separation is also extended to the leading and higher order modes of the spinning pressure pattern. By using the original fan rotor and installing it in various casings, the noise sources of the original fan are decomposed into elementary sources through directivity measurements. Details of the acoustical directivity for the original fan and its various modifications are interpreted. For the sample fan, two common features account for most of the tonal noise radiated. The two features are the inlet flow distortion caused by the square fan casing, and the large strut carrying the electric wires for the motor. When the inlet bellmouth is installed and the large strut is trimmed down to size, a significant reduction of 12 dB in tonal sound power is achieved. These structural corrections constitute the passive noise control. However, the end product still

  12. First Test of Fan Active Noise Control (ANC) Completed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    With the advent of ultrahigh-bypass engines, the space available for passive acoustic treatment is becoming more limited, whereas noise regulations are becoming more stringent. Active noise control (ANC) holds promise as a solution to this problem. It uses secondary (added) noise sources to reduce or eliminate the offending noise radiation. The first active noise control test on the low-speed fan test bed was a General Electric Company system designed to control either the exhaust or inlet fan tone. This system consists of a "ring source," an induct array of error microphones, and a control computer. Fan tone noise propagates in a duct in the form of spinning waves. These waves are detected by the microphone array, and the computer identifies their spinning structure. The computer then controls the "ring source" to generate waves that have the same spinning structure and amplitude, but 180 out of phase with the fan noise. This computer generated tone cancels the fan tone before it radiates from the duct and is heard in the far field. The "ring source" used in these tests is a cylindrical array of 16 flat-plate acoustic radiators that are driven by thin piezoceramic sheets bonded to their back surfaces. The resulting source can produce spinning waves up to mode 7 at levels high enough to cancel the fan tone. The control software is flexible enough to work on spinning mode orders from -6 to 6. In this test, the fan was configured to produce a tone of order 6. The complete modal (spinning and radial) structure of the tones was measured with two builtin sets of rotating microphone rakes. These rakes provide a measurement of the system performance independent from the control system error microphones. In addition, the far-field noise was measured with a semicircular array of 28 microphones. This test represents the first in a series of tests that demonstrate different active noise control concepts, each on a progressively more complicated modal structure. The tests are

  13. PIV measurement at the blowdown pipe outlet. [Particle Image Velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puustinen, M.; Laine, J.; Raesaenen, A.; Pyy, L.; Telkkae, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2013-04-15

    This report summarizes the findings of the PIV measurement tests carried out in January - February 2013 with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility at LUT. The main objective of the tests was to find out the operational limits of the PIV system regarding suitable test conditions and correct values of different adjustable PIV parameters. An additional objective was to gather CFD grade data for verification/validation of numerical models. Both water and steam injection tests were carried out. PIV measurements with cold water injection succeeded well. Raw images were of high quality, averaging over the whole measurement period could be done and flow fields close to the blowdown pipe outlet could be determined. In the warm water injection cases the obtained averaged velocity field images were harder to interpret, especially if the blowdown pipe was also filled with warm water in the beginning of the measurement period. The absolute values of the velocity vectors seemed to be smaller than in the cold water injection cases. With very small steam flow rates the steam/water interface was inside the blowdown pipe and quite stable in nature. The raw images were of good quality but due to some fluctuation in the velocity field averaging of the velocity images over the whole measured period couldn't be done. Condensation of steam in the vicinity of the pipe exit probably caused these fluctuations. A constant outflow was usually followed by a constant inflow towards the pipe exit. Vector field images corresponding to a certain phase of the test could be extracted and averaged but this would require a very careful analysis so that the images could be correctly categorized. With higher steam flow rates rapid condensation of large steam bubbles created small gas bubbles which were in front of the measurement area of the PIV system. They disturbed the measurements by reflecting laser light like seeding particles and therefore the raw images were of poor quality and they couldn

  14. Deployment Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    family/unit briefings (to include POA/wills/ consumer law /insurance war clauses) - Provide fill-in-blank sheets to send coordinators of pre- deployment...services. 2. SGLI designations and "By Law" implications. 3. Wills for both spouses. 4. Powers of Attorney. 5. Consumer law issues. 1-7 B. Typically...Relief Act JA 261 Real Property Guide JA 262 Wills Guide JA 263 Family Law Guide JA 265 Consumer Law Guide JA 267 Legal Assistance Office Directory

  15. Spatial panel analyses of alcohol outlets and motor vehicle crashes in California: 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponicki, William R; Gruenewald, Paul J; Remer, Lillian G

    2013-06-01

    Although past research has linked alcohol outlet density to higher rates of drinking and many related social problems, there is conflicting evidence of density's association with traffic crashes. An abundance of local alcohol outlets simultaneously encourages drinking and reduces driving distances required to obtain alcohol, leading to an indeterminate expected impact on alcohol-involved crash risk. This study separately investigates the effects of outlet density on (1) the risk of injury crashes relative to population and (2) the likelihood that any given crash is alcohol-involved, as indicated by police reports and single-vehicle nighttime status of crashes. Alcohol outlet density effects are estimated using Bayesian misalignment Poisson analyses of all California ZIP codes over the years 1999-2008. These misalignment models allow panel analysis of ZIP-code data despite frequent redefinition of postal-code boundaries, while also controlling for overdispersion and the effects of spatial autocorrelation. Because models control for overall retail density, estimated alcohol-outlet associations represent the extra effect of retail establishments selling alcohol. The results indicate a number of statistically well-supported associations between retail density and crash behavior, but the implied effects on crash risks are relatively small. Alcohol-serving restaurants have a greater impact on overall crash risks than on the likelihood that those crashes involve alcohol, whereas bars primarily affect the odds that crashes are alcohol-involved. Off-premise outlet density is negatively associated with risks of both crashes and alcohol involvement, while the presence of a tribal casino in a ZIP code is linked to higher odds of police-reported drinking involvement. Alcohol outlets in a given area are found to influence crash risks both locally and in adjacent ZIP codes, and significant spatial autocorrelation also suggests important relationships across geographical units

  16. Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-11-01

    The installed performance of cooking exhaust fans was evaluated through residential field experiments conducted on a sample of 15 devices varying in design and other characteristics. The sample included two rear downdraft systems, two under-cabinet microwave over range (MOR) units, three different installations of an under-cabinet model with grease screens across the bottom and no capture hood, two devices with grease screens covering the bottom of a large capture hood (one under-cabinet, one wall-mount chimney), four under-cabinet open hoods, and two open hoods with chimney mounts over islands. Performance assessment included measurement of airflow and sound levels across fan settings and experiments to quantify the contemporaneous capture efficiency for the exhaust generated by natural gas cooking burners.Capture efficiency is defined as the fraction of generated pollutants that are removed through the exhaust and thus not available for inhalation of household occupants. Capture efficiency (CE) was assessed for various configurations of burner use (e.g., single front, single back, combination of one front and one back, oven) and fan speed setting. Measured airflow rates were substantially lower than the levels noted in product literature for many of the units. This shortfall was observed for several units costing in excess of $1000. Capture efficiency varied widely (from<5percent to roughly 100percent) across devices and across conditions for some devices. As expected, higher capture efficiencies were achieved with higher fan settings and the associated higher air flow rates. In most cases, capture efficiencies were substantially higher for rear burners than for front burners. The best and most consistent performance was observed for open hoods that covered all cooktop burners and operated at higher airflow rates. The lowest capture efficiencies were measured when a front burner was used with a rear backdraft system or with lowest fan setting for above the range

  17. Design of a Low Speed Fan Stage for Noise Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, W. N.; Elliot, D. B.; Nickols, K. L.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the design of a low tip speed, moderate pressure rise fan stage for demonstration of noise reduction concepts. The fan rotor is a fixed-pitch configuration delivering a design pressure ratio of 1.378 at a specific flow of 43.1 lbm/sec/sq ft. Four exit stator configurations were provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of circumferential and axial sweep in reducing rotor-stator interaction tone noise. The fan stage design was combined with an axisymmetric inlet, conical convergent nozzle, and nacelle to form a powered fan-nacelle subscale model. This model has a 22-inch cylindrical flow path and employs a rotor with a 0.30 hub-to-tip radius ratio. The design is fully compatible with an existing NASA force balance and rig drive system. The stage aerodynamic and structural design is described in detail. Three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools were used to define optimum airfoil sections for both the rotor and stators. A fan noise predictive system developed by Pratt & Whitney under contract to NASA was used to determine the acoustic characteristics of the various stator configurations. Parameters varied included rotor-to-stator spacing and vane leading edge sweep. The structural analysis of the rotor and stator are described herein. An integral blade and disk configuration was selected for the rotor. Analysis confirmed adequate low cycle fatigue life, vibratory endurance strength, and aeroelastic suitability. A unique load carrying stator arrangement was selected to minimize generation of tonal noise due to sources other than rotor-stator interaction. Analysis of all static structural components demonstrated adequate strength, fatigue life, and vibratory characteristics.

  18. Development of a solenoid actuated planar valveless micropump with single and multiple inlet-outlet arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; George, D.; Sajeesh, P.; Manivannan, P. V.; Sen, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    We report a planar solenoid actuated valveless micropump with multiple inlet-outlet configurations. The self-priming characteristics of the multiple inlet-multiple outlet micropump are studied. The filling dynamics of the micropump chamber during start-up and the effects of fluid viscosity, voltage and frequency on the dynamics are investigated. Numerical simulations for multiple inlet-multiple outlet micropumps are carried out using fluid structure algorithm. With DI water and at 5.0 Vp-p, 20 Hz frequency, the two inlet-two outlet micropump provides a maximum flow rate of 336 μl min-1 and maximum back pressure of 441 Pa. Performance characteristics of the two inlet-two outlet micropump are studied for aqueous fluids of different viscosity. Transport of biological cell lines and diluted blood samples are demonstrated; the flow rate-frequency characteristics are studied. Viability of cells during pumping with multiple inlet multiple outlet configuration is also studied in this work, which shows 100% of cells are viable. Application of the proposed micropump for simultaneous pumping, mixing and distribution of fluids is demonstrated. The proposed integrated, standalone and portable micropump is suitable for drug delivery, lab-on-chip and micro-total-analysis applications.

  19. The ecology of domestic violence: the role of alcohol outlet density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Livingston

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies have consistently found positive associations between the density of alcohol outlets and levels of violence in areas. Few studies have examined whether this relationship holds for domestic violence. This study assesses whether alcohol outlet density is related to domestic violence and whether this relationship is due to alcohol availability or to co-occurring economic disadvantage and social disorganisation. Cross-sectional data on family incidents, liquor outlets and socio-demographic characteristics were obtained for 217 postcodes in Melbourne, Australia. These data were used to construct models assessing the association between alcohol outlet density and domestic violence, both with and without controlling for socio-demographic factors. Models were tested for spatial autocorrelation, and spatial- error models were developed to control for its influence. Outlet density was significantly associated with rates of domestic violence, even controlling for socio-demographic factors. The density of hotels (pubs was positively associated with domestic violence rates and the density of restaurants and bars was negatively associated with domestic violence. Socio-economic disadvantage was also associated with domestic violence rates. The density of packaged liquor outlets was not associated with rates of domestic violence. The results present a mixed picture, and further study is required to develop a clearer understanding of the links between alcohol availability and domestic violence.

  20. Digital Technology in the protection of cultural heritage Bao Fan Temple mural digital mapping survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Peng Xi county, Sichuan province, the Bao Fan temple mural digitization survey mapping project: we use three-dimensional laserscanning, multi-baseline definition digital photography, multi-spectral digital image acquisition and other technologies for digital survey mapping. The purpose of this project is to use modern mathematical reconnaissance mapping means to obtain accurate mural shape, color, quality and other data. Combined with field investigation and laboratory analysis results, and based on a comprehensive survey and study, a comprehensive analysis of the historical Bao Fan Temple mural artistic and scientific value was conducted. A study of the mural's many qualities (structural, material, technique, preservation environment, degradation, etc.) reveal all aspects of the information carried by the Bao Fan Temple mural. From multiple angles (archeology, architecture, surveying, conservation science and other disciplines) an assessment for the Bao Fan Temple mural provides basic data and recommendations for conservation of the mural. In order to achieve the conservation of cultural relics in the Bao Fan Temple mural digitization survey mapping process, we try to apply the advantages of three-dimensional laser scanning equipment. For wall murals this means obtaining three-dimensional scale data from the scan of the building and through the analysis of these data to help determine the overall condition of the settlement as well as the deformation of the wall structure. Survey analysis provides an effective set of conclusions and suggestions for appropriate mural conservation. But before data collection, analysis and research need to first to select the appropriate scanning equipment, set the appropriate scanning accuracy and layout position of stations necessary to determine the scope of required data. We use the fine features of the three-dimensional laser scanning measuring arm to scan the mural surface deformation degradation to reflect the actual state of

  1. Is adolescent smoking related to the density and proximity of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising near schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C; Schleicher, Nina C; Cowling, David W; Kline, Randolph S; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2008-08-01

    To examine the quantity (density) and location (proximity) of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising in high school neighborhoods and their association with school smoking prevalence. Data from the 135 high schools that participated in the 2005-2006 California Student Tobacco Survey were combined with retailer licensing data about the location of tobacco outlets within walking distance (1/2 mi or 805 m) of the schools and with observations about the quantity of cigarette advertising in a random sample of those stores (n=384). Multiple regressions, adjusting for school and neighborhood demographics, tested the associations of high school smoking prevalence with the density of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising and with the proximity of tobacco outlets to schools. The prevalence of current smoking was 3.2 percentage points higher at schools in neighborhoods with the highest tobacco outlet density (>5 outlets) than in neighborhoods without any tobacco outlets. The density of retail cigarette advertising in school neighborhoods was similarly associated with high school smoking prevalence. However, neither the presence of a tobacco outlet within 1000 ft of a high school nor the distance to the nearest tobacco outlet from school was associated with smoking prevalence. Policy efforts to reduce adolescent smoking should aim to reduce the density of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising in school neighborhoods. This may be achieved through local zoning ordinances, including limiting the proximity of tobacco outlets to schools.

  2. Fans and their applications in General Topology, Functional Analysis and Topological Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Banakh, Taras

    2016-01-01

    A family of closed subsets of a topological space $X$ is called a (strict) $Cld$-fan in $X$ if this family is (strictly) compact-finite but not locally finite in $X$. Applications of (strict) $Cld$-fans are based on a simple observation that $k$-spaces contain no $Cld$-fan and Ascoli spaces contain no strict $Cld$-fan. In this paper we develop the machinery of (strict) fans and apply it to detecting the $k$-space and Ascoli properties in spaces that naturally appear in General Topology, Funct...

  3. Numerical investigation of geometric parameter effects on the aerodynamic performance of a Bladeless fan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Jafari; Hossein Afshin; Bijan Farhanieh; Atta Sojoudi

    2016-01-01

    Aerodynamic performance of a Bladeless fan is numerically investigated considering the effect of five geometric parameters. Airflow through this fan was analyzed by simulating a Bladeless fan within a 2 m × 2 m × 4 m room. Analysis of the flow field inside the fan and the evaluation of its performance were obtained by solving conservations of mass and momentum equations for the aerodynamic investigations. In order to design the Bladeless fan an Eppler 473 airfoil profile was used as the cross...

  4. Reverse Flow Engine Core Having a Ducted Fan with Integrated Secondary Flow Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisska, Michael K. (Inventor); Princen, Norman H. (Inventor); Kuehn, Mark S. (Inventor); Cosentino, Gary B. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Secondary air flow is provided for a ducted fan having a reverse flow turbine engine core driving a fan blisk. The fan blisk incorporates a set of thrust fan blades extending from an outer hub and a set of integral secondary flow blades extending intermediate an inner hub and the outer hub. A nacelle provides an outer flow duct for the thrust fan blades and a secondary flow duct carries flow from the integral secondary flow blades as cooling air for components of the reverse flow turbine engine.

  5. On the design and structural analysis of jet engine fan blade structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoo, Leye M.

    2013-07-01

    Progress in the design and structural analysis of commercial jet engine fan blades is reviewed and presented. This article is motivated by the key role fan blades play in the performance of advanced gas turbine jet engines. The fundamentals of the associated physics are emphasized. Recent developments and advancements have led to an increase and improvement in fan blade structural durability, stability and reliability. This article is intended as a high level review of the fan blade environment and current state of structural design to aid further research in developing new and innovative fan blade technologies.

  6. Gas Turbine Engine Having Fan Rotor Driven by Turbine Exhaust and with a Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has a core engine incorporating a core engine turbine. A fan rotor is driven by a fan rotor turbine. The fan rotor turbine is in the path of gases downstream from the core engine turbine. A bypass door is moveable from a closed position at which the gases from the core engine turbine pass over the fan rotor turbine, and moveable to a bypass position at which the gases are directed away from the fan rotor turbine. An aircraft is also disclosed.

  7. On-chip grating coupler array on the SOI platform for fan-in/fan-out of MCFs with low insertion loss and crosstalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Ye, Feihong; Peucheret, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    We report the design and fabrication of a compact multi-core fiber fan-in/fan-out using a grating coupler array on the SOI platform. The grating couplers are fully-etched, enabling the whole circuit to be fabricated in a single lithography and etching step. Thanks to the apodized design for the g......We report the design and fabrication of a compact multi-core fiber fan-in/fan-out using a grating coupler array on the SOI platform. The grating couplers are fully-etched, enabling the whole circuit to be fabricated in a single lithography and etching step. Thanks to the apodized design...

  8. Aeroelastic Calculations of Quiet High- Speed Fan Performed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Srivastava, Rakesh; Mehmed, Oral; Min, James B.

    2002-01-01

    An advanced high-speed fan was recently designed under a cooperative effort between the NASA Glenn Research Center and Honeywell Engines & Systems. The principal design goals were to improve performance and to reduce fan noise at takeoff. Scale models of the Quiet High-Speed Fan were tested for operability, performance, and acoustics. During testing, the fan showed significantly improved noise characteristics, but a self-excited aeroelastic vibration known as flutter was encountered in the operating range. Flutter calculations were carried out for the Quiet High-Speed Fan using a three-dimensional, unsteady aerodynamic, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbomachinery code named "TURBO." The TURBO code can accurately model the viscous flow effects that can play an important role in various aeroelastic problems such as flutter with flow separation, flutter at high loading conditions near the stall line (stall flutter), and flutter in the presence of shock and boundary-layer interaction. Initially, calculations were performed with no blade vibrations. These calculations were at a constant rotational speed and a varying mass flow rate. The mass flow rate was varied by changing the backpressure at the exit boundary of the computational domain. These initial steady calculations were followed by aeroelastic calculations in which the blades were prescribed to vibrate harmonically in a natural mode, at a natural frequency, and with a fixed interblade phase angle between adjacent blades. The AE-prep preprocessor was used to interpolate the in-vacuum mode shapes from the structural dynamics mesh onto the computational fluid dynamics mesh and to smoothly propagate the grid deformations from the blade surface to the interior points of the grid. The aeroelastic calculations provided the unsteady aerodynamic forces on the blade surface due to blade vibrations. These forces were vector multiplied with the structural dynamic mode shape to calculate the work done on the blade during

  9. Quantitative analysis of the geometry of submarine channels: Implications for the classification of submarine fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. D.; Kenyon, N. H.; Pickering, K. T.

    1992-07-01

    Certain attributes of submarine channels measured from GLORIA sidescan sonar data from 16 different submarine fans indicate similarities with fluviatile systems. Channel width, depth, meander radius and wavelength, sinuosity, and gradient were measured. This approach makes it possible to identify high- sinuosity, low-gradient (e.g., Indus Fan channels) and low-sinuosity, high- gradient (e.g., Porcupine Seabight channels) channel systems as end members. Current classifications of submarine fans relate fan shape to grain size or sediment caliber and therefore are inadequate, principally because the shape of the fan is strongly controlled by the shape of the receiving basin, which in turn is dependent upon parameters such as tectonics and diapirism. Overall fan shape is almost invariably independent of the physics of sediment transport. Rather than fan shape, the geometry and other characteristics of submarine channels and canyons provide a more promising means of differentiating deep- marine turbidite systems.

  10. Submarine-fan facies associations of the Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene Gottero Sandstone, Ligurian Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Tor H.; Abbate, Ernesto

    1984-06-01

    The Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene Gottero Sandstone was deposited as a small deep-sea fan on ophiolitic crust in a trench-slope basin. It was thrust northeastward as an allochthonous sheet in Early and Middle Cenozoic time. The Gottero, as thick as 1500 m, was probably derived from erosion of Hercynian granites and associated metamorphic rocks in northern Corsica. Outcrops of inner-fan channel, middle-fan channel and interchannel, outer-fan lobe, fan-fringe, and basin-plain facies associations indicate that the depositional model of Mutti and Ricci Lucchi for mixed-sediment deep-sea fans can be used. The original fan had a radius of 30 to 50 km.

  11. Human KIAA1018/FAN1 nuclease is a new mitotic substrate of APC/CCdh1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fenju Lai; Kaishun Hu; Yuanzhong Wu; Jianjun Tang; Yi Sang; Jingying Cao; Tiebang Kang

    2012-01-01

    A recently identified protein,FAN1 (FANCD2-associated nuclease 1,previously known as KIAA1018),is a novel nuclease associated with monoubiquitinated FANCD2 that is required for cellular resistance against DNA interstrand crosslinking (ICL) agents.The mechanisms of FAN1 regulation have not yet been explored.Here,we provide evidence that FAN1 is degraded during mitotic exit,suggesting that FAN1 may be a mitotic substrate of the anaphase-promoting cyclosome complex (APC/C).Indeed,.Cdh1,but not Cdc20,was capable of regulating the protein level of FAN1 through the KEN box and the D-box.Moreover,the up- and down-regulation of FAN1 affected the progression to mitotic exit.Collectively,these data suggest that FAN1 may be a new mitotic substrate of APC/CCdh1 that plays a key role during mitotic e xit.

  12. Functional/activity network (FAN) analysis of gene-phenotype connectivity liaised by grape polyphenol resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tze-Chen; Wu, Sheng-Tang; Bennett, Dylan John; Doonan, Barbara B; Wu, Erxi; Wu, Joseph M

    2016-06-21

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol that has witnessed an unprecedented yearly growth in PubMed citations since the late 1990s. Based on the diversity of cellular processes and diseases resveratrol reportedly affects and benefits, it is likely that the interest in resveratrol will continue, although uncertainty regarding its mechanism in different biological systems remains.We hypothesize that insights on disease-modulatory activities of resveratrol might be gleaned by systematically dissecting the publicly available published data on chemicals and drugs. In this study, we tested our hypothesis by querying DTome (Drug-Target Interactome), a web-based tool containing data compiled from open-source databases including DrugBank, PharmGSK, and Protein Interaction Network Analysis (PINA). Four direct protein targets (DPT) and 219 DPT-associated genes were identified for resveratrol. The DPT-associated genes were scrutinized by WebGestalt (WEB-based Gene SeT Analysis Toolkit). This enrichment analysis resulted in 10 identified KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways. Refined analysis of KEGG pathways showed that 2 - one linked to p53 and a second to prostate cancer - have functional connectivity to resveratrol and its four direct protein targets. These results suggest that a functional activity network (FAN) approach may be considered as a new paradigm for guiding future studies of resveratrol. FAN analysis resembles a BioGPS, with capability for mapping a Web-based scientific track that can productively and cost effectively connect resveratrol to its primary and secondary target proteins and to its biological functions.

  13. Modal analysis of an aircraft engine fan noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodkova, Natalia; Chursin, Valeriy; Bersenev, Yuliy; Burdakov, Ruslan; Siner, Aleksandr; Viskova, Tatiana

    2016-10-01

    The fan is one of the main noise sources of an aircraft engine. To reduce fan noise and provide liner optimization in the inlet it is necessary to research modal structure of the fan noise. The present paper contains results of acoustic tests on installation for mode generation that consists of 34-channel generator and the inlet updated for mounting of 100 microphones, the experiments were provided in new anechoic chamber of Perm National Research Polytechnic University, the engine with the same inlet was also tested in the open test bench conditions, and results of the fan noise modal structure are presented. For modal structure educting, all 100 channels were synchronously registered in a given frequency range. The measured data were analyzed with PULSE analyzer using fast Fourier transform with a frequency resolution 8..16 Hz. Single modes with numbers from 0 to 35 at frequencies 500; 630; 800; 1000; 1250; 1600 Hz and different combinations of modes at frequencies 1000, 1600, 2000, 2500 Hz were set during tests. Modes with small enough numbers are generated well on the laboratory installation, high-number modes generate additional modes caused by a complicated interference pattern of sound field in the inlet. Open test bench results showed that there are also a lot of harmonic components at frequencies lower than fan BPF. Under 0.65 of cut off there is only one distinct mode, other modes with close and less numbers appear from 0.7 of cut off and above. At power regimes 0.76 and 0.94 of cut off the highest mode also changes from positive to negative mode number area. Numbers of the highest modes change smoothly enough with the growth of power regime. At power regimes with Mach>1 (0.7 of cut off and above) on circumference of blade wheel there is a well-defined noise of shock waves at rotor frequency harmonics that appears at the range between the first rotor frequency and fan blade passing frequency (BPF). It is planned to continue researching of sound field

  14. Analysis of Axial Flow Ventilation Fans by Vortex - Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Richard Anthony

    A steady vortex-lattice method is used to solve the lifting surface equation for an axial flow fan. The type of fan studied is designed for industrial and ventilation applications and in thermofluid systems such as cooling towers. The fan blades are thin cambered surfaces manufactured from metal sheets. The numerical approach is inviscid and results in a boundary value problem with viscous effects partially accounted for by application of drag coefficient data. A non-linear wake alignment procedure is used to account for the effects of vorticity shedding in the wake and variation in wake geometry with operating conditions. The wake alignment procedure is semi-free with wake input parameters required for accurate use of the technique. A study of the wake parameters was conducted and gave trends in the variation of their values with flow rate. At "free-air" conditions, flow visualization estimates of these parameters were found to agree with those from the computations. Comparisons are made between the measured and predicted fan performance with and without a surrounding duct. The comparison of the results were especially good at the "free-air" condition using wake parameters determined from flow visualization and an inlet velocity profile measured using hot-wire anemometry. To enable better understanding of basic flow phenomena and to provide data for verification of numerical analyses, a method for measuring unsteady surface pressure on a rotating axial-flow fan blade was devised. Unsteadiness of pressure on the blade surfaces is due to the effects of upstream fan motor supports and other installation features. A pressure transducer and signal amplification circuit were mounted on a circuit board at the rotating hub with signals taken off the rotating shaft through copper disk-mercury slip rings. The pressure difference across the blade was determined and the data were corrected for time lag and distortion caused by the length of tubing. The pressure difference

  15. Evidence for validity of five secondary data sources for enumerating retail food outlets in seven American Indian Communities in North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischhacker Sheila E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies on the local food environment have used secondary sources to describe the food environment, such as government food registries or commercial listings (e.g., Reference USA. Most of the studies exploring evidence for validity of secondary retail food data have used on-site verification and have not conducted analysis by data source (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA or by food outlet type (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA for convenience stores. Few studies have explored the food environment in American Indian communities. To advance the science on measuring the food environment, we conducted direct, on-site observations of a wide range of food outlets in multiple American Indian communities, without a list guiding the field observations, and then compared our findings to several types of secondary data. Methods Food outlets located within seven State Designated Tribal Statistical Areas in North Carolina (NC were gathered from online Yellow Pages, Reference USA, Dun & Bradstreet, local health departments, and the NC Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. All TIGER/Line 2009 roads (>1,500 miles were driven in six of the more rural tribal areas and, for the largest tribe, all roads in two of its cities were driven. Sensitivity, positive predictive value, concordance, and kappa statistics were calculated to compare secondary data sources to primary data. Results 699 food outlets were identified during primary data collection. Match rate for primary data and secondary data differed by type of food outlet observed, with the highest match rates found for grocery stores (97%, general merchandise stores (96%, and restaurants (91%. Reference USA exhibited almost perfect sensitivity (0.89. Local health department data had substantial sensitivity (0.66 and was almost perfect when focusing only on restaurants (0.91. Positive predictive value was substantial for Reference USA (0.67 and moderate for local health

  16. Investigation of Advanced Counterrotation Blade Configuration Concepts for High Speed Turboprop Systems. Task 3: Advanced Fan Section Grid Generator Final Report and Computer Program User's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Andrew J.; Delaney, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    A procedure is studied for generating three-dimensional grids for advanced turbofan engine fan section geometries. The procedure constructs a discrete mesh about engine sections containing the fan stage, an arbitrary number of axisymmetric radial flow splitters, a booster stage, and a bifurcated core/bypass flow duct with guide vanes. The mesh is an h-type grid system, the points being distributed with a transfinite interpolation scheme with axial and radial spacing being user specified. Elliptic smoothing of the grid in the meridional plane is a post-process option. The grid generation scheme is consistent with aerodynamic analyses utilizing the average-passage equation system developed by Dr. John Adamczyk of NASA Lewis. This flow solution scheme requires a series of blade specific grids each having a common axisymmetric mesh, but varying in the circumferential direction according to the geometry of the specific blade row.

  17. 基于内部流场分析的小型轴流风扇结构优化%Small Axial Fan Structure Optimization Research Based on the Analysis of the Internal Flow Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵屹; 金英子; 吴文浩; 张立; 钱红玉

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, the authors apply theories of isolated blade design method, CFD technology, genetic algorithm, and use self-made software to optimize the hub ratio of axial flow fan. The optimization objective is fan flow. Then the authors comparatively analyze the fan internal flow field, including static characteristic, blade surface static pressure distribution and meridian plane vortex quantity distribution, etc. , to make sure the feasibility of this optimization method, and conclude the effect of hub ratio to the fan performance. The results show that the energy loss brought by vortex is reduced on fan blades and hub surface after optimization, while the vortex and energy loss on tip are increased slightly. In different flow, there are varied improvements on fan static pressure and outlet velocity after optimization. Under the rating conditions, the fan performance, static characteristic and internal flow field have good improvement.%采用孤立叶型设计法、CFD技术、遗传算法等理论,运用自编软件对某一轴流风扇轮毂比参数进行结构优化设计,优化目标为风扇流量.对比分析优化前后风扇内部流场,如风扇的静特性、叶片表面静压分布、子午面涡量分布等信息.由此验证优化方法的可行性,并总结轮毂比参数对此风扇性能的影响.结果表明:优化后风扇叶片和轮毂表面减小了因涡流带来的能量损失,但叶顶间隙处的涡流增大,能量损失略有增大;在不同流量下,优化后风扇静压有不同程度的提高;优化后风扇的出口速度均比优化前大幅提高;风扇在额定工况下性能、静特性及内部流场都得到了很好的改善.

  18. Active Control of Fan Noise: Feasibility Study. Volume 3; Active Fan Noise Cancellation in the NASA Lewis Active Noise Control Fan Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, Frederic G.; Hu, Ziqiang; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Active Noise Cancellation (ANC) System designed by General Electric and tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center's (LERC) 48 inch Active Noise Control Fan (ANCF). The goal of this study is to assess the feasibility of using wall mounted secondary acoustic sources and sensors within the duct of a high bypass turbofan aircraft engine for global active noise cancellation of fan tones. The GE ANC system is based on a modal control approach. A known acoustic mode propagating in the fan duct is canceled using an array of flush-mounted compact sound sources. The canceling modal signal is generated by a modal controller. Inputs to the controller are signals from a shaft encoder and from a microphone array which senses the residual acoustic mode in the duct. The key results are that the (6,0) was completely eliminated at the 920 Hz design frequency and substantially reduced elsewhere. The total tone power was reduced 6.8 dB (out of a possible 9.8 dB). Farfield reductions of 15 dB (SPL) were obtained. The (4,0) and (4,1) modes were reduced simultaneously yielding a 15 dB PWL decrease. The results indicate that global attenuation of PWL at the target frequency was obtained in the aft quadrant using an ANC actuator and sensor system totally contained within the duct. The quality of the results depended on precise mode generation. High spillover into spurious modes generated by the ANC actuator array caused less than optimum levels of PWL reduction. The variation in spillover is believed to be due to calibration procedure, but must be confirmed in subsequent tests.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE AND EXIT FLOW FIELD OF LOW PRESSURE AXIAL FLOW FAN WITH CIRCUMFERENTIAL SKEWED BLADES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the low pressure axial flow fan with circumferential skewed rotor blade, including the radial blade, the forward-skewed blade and the backward-skewed blade, was studied with experimental methods. The aerodynamic performance of the rotors was measured. At the design condition at outlet of the rotors, detailed flow measurements were performed with a five-hole probe and a Hot-Wire Anemometer (HWA). The results show that compared to the radial rotor, the forward-skewed rotor demonstrates a wider Stable Operating Range (SOR), is able to reduce the total pressure loss in the hub region and make main loading of blade accumulating in the mid-span region. There is a wider wake in the upper mid-span region of the forward-skewed rotor. Compared to the radial rotor, in the backward-skewed rotor there is higher total pressure loss near the hub and shroud regions and lower loss in the mid-span region. In addition, the velocity deficit in the wake is lower at mid-span of the backward-skewed rotor than the forward-skewed rotor.

  20. Unsteady flowfield simulation of ducted prop-fan configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, J. M.; Horstman, Howard Z.; Whitfield, David L.

    1992-01-01

    A technique for the simulation of unsteady flows in and around complex rotating machinery is presented. Additional domain decomposition mechanisms are introduced which extend the range of applicability of software developed for the time-accurate simulation of rotating machinery flowfields. The flow models uses the unsteady 3D Euler equations, discretized as a finite-volume method, utilizing a high-resolution approximate Riemann solver for cell interface flux definitions. Multiblock domain decomposition is used to partition the field radially, axially, as well as circumferentially into an ordered arrangement of blocks which exhibit varying degrees of similarity. A general high-order numerical scheme is applied to satisfy the geometric conservation law. Two configurations are presented - ducted single rotation prop-fan and a rotor-deswirl vane combination which form a single stage fan. Comparisons are made to other numerical solutions for these geometries and to available experimental data.

  1. Pattern recognition: A dialogue on racism in fan communities [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TWC Editor

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In early 2009, science fiction fandom's online landscape erupted with discussions of race. A post regarding cultural appropriation on author Elizabeth Bear's blog sparked a wide-ranging conversation that soon became acrimonious, with professional science fiction and fantasy writers and fans of science fiction literature and media weighing in. More recently, criticisms of Patricia C. Wrede's decision to set her young adult novel, The Thirteenth Child (2009, in an America empty of indigenous people have spearheaded new waves of discussion. Often the more widely read summaries of these debates have focused on what they mean for writers and aspiring writers who plan to represent minority cultures in their works. But what has their significance been for members of fan communities?

  2. Compressor-fan unitary structure for air conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiman, N.

    2015-08-01

    An extremely compact, therefore space saving unitary structure of short axial length is produced by radial integration of a revolving piston rotary compressor and an impeller of a centrifugal fan. The unitary structure employs single motor to run as the compressor so the airflow fan and eliminates duality of motors, related power supply and control elements. Novel revolving piston rotary compressor which provides possibility for such integration comprises the following: a suction gas delivery system which provides cooling of the motor and supplies refrigerant into the suction chamber under higher pressure (supercharged); a modified discharge system and lubricating oil supply system. Axial passages formed in the stationary crankshaft are used to supply discharge gas to a condenser, to return vaporized cooling agent from the evaporator to the suction cavity of the compressor, to pass a lubricant and to accommodate wiring supplying power to the unitary structure driver -external rotor electric motor.

  3. Wake Management Strategies for Reduction of Turbomachinery Fan Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitz, Ian A.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of our work was to evaluate and test several wake management schemes for the reduction of turbomachinery fan noise. Throughout the course of this work we relied on several tools. These include 1) Two-dimensional steady boundary-layer and wake analyses using MISES (a thin-shear layer Navier-Stokes code), 2) Two-dimensional unsteady wake-stator interaction simulations using UNSFLO, 3) Three-dimensional, steady Navier-Stokes rotor simulations using NEWT, 4) Internal blade passage design using quasi-one-dimensional passage flow models developed at MIT, 5) Acoustic modeling using LINSUB, 6) Acoustic modeling using VO72, 7) Experiments in a low-speed cascade wind-tunnel, and 8) ADP fan rig tests in the MIT Blowdown Compressor.

  4. Experimental investigation of unsteady fan flow interaction with downstream struts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, W. F.; Obrien, W. F.; Olsen, T. L.

    1986-07-01

    In the present study of the unsteady pressure field produced on fan rotor blades by interaction with downstream struts, a single stage, low speed axial-flow fan was instrumented with blade-mounted high frequency pressure transducers. In addition, stationary pressure problems were used to map out the flowfield. Fluctuating pressure measurements are presented for blade midspan and 85-percent span on both the suction and pressure surfaces of the rotor blades at several positions of the downstream struts, and for two different flow coefficients. The strut is found to produce an effect on the unsteady pressure field on the rotor blades; this effect exceeds that due to the stator at design rotor-stator-strut spacing, but it rapidly declines as the struts are moved downstream.

  5. Advanced Trailing Edge Blowing Concepts for Fan Noise Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar RIZEA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study documents trailing edge blowing research performed to reduce rotor / stator interaction noise in turbofan engines. The existing technique of filling every velocity deficit requires a large amount of air and is therefore impractical. The purpose of this research is to investigate new blowing configurations in order to achieve noise reduction with lesser amounts of air. Using the new configurations air is not injected into every fan blade, but is instead varied circumferentially. For example, blowing air may be applied to alternating fan blades. This type of blowing configuration both reduces the amount of air used and changes the spectral shape of the tonal interaction noise. The original tones at the blade passing frequency and its harmonics are reduced and new tones are introduced between them. This change in the tonal spectral shape increases the performance of acoustic liners used in conjunction with trailing edge blowing.

  6. Euler/Navier-Stokes Solvers Applied to Ducted Fan Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Srivastava, Rakesh

    1997-01-01

    Due to noise considerations, ultra high bypass ducted fans have become a more viable design. These ducted fans typically consist of a rotor stage containing a wide chord fan and a stator stage. One of the concerns for this design is the classical flutter that keeps occurring in various unducted fan blade designs. These flutter are catastrophic and are to be avoided in the flight envelope of the engine. Some numerical investigations by Williams, Cho and Dalton, have suggested that a duct around a propeller makes it more unstable. This needs to be further investigated. In order to design an engine to safely perform a set of desired tasks, accurate information of the stresses on the blade during the entire cycle of blade motion is required. This requirement in turn demands that accurate knowledge of steady and unsteady blade loading be available. Aerodynamic solvers based on unsteady three-dimensional analysis will provide accurate and fast solutions and are best suited for aeroelastic analysis. The Euler solvers capture significant physics of the flowfield and are reasonably fast. An aerodynamic solver Ref. based on Euler equations had been developed under a separate grant from NASA Lewis in the past. Under the current grant, this solver has been modified to calculate the aeroelastic characteristics of unducted and ducted rotors. Even though, the aeroelastic solver based on three-dimensional Euler equations is computationally efficient, it is still very expensive to investigate the effects of multiple stages on the aeroelastic characteristics. In order to investigate the effects of multiple stages, a two-dimensional multi stage aeroelastic solver was also developed under this task, in collaboration with Dr. T. S. R. Reddy of the University of Toledo. Both of these solvers were applied to several test cases and validated against experimental data, where available.

  7. Instrumentation for propulsion systems development. [high speed fans and turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshawsky, I.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus and techniques developed or used by NASA-Lewis to make steady state or dynamic measurements of gas temperature, pressure, and velocity and of the temperature, tip clearance, and vibration of the blades of high-speed fans or turbines are described. The advantages and limitations of each instrument and technique are discussed and the possibility of modifying them for use in developing various propulsion systems is suggested.

  8. GENERALIZATIONS OF KY FAN'S THEOREM ON BEST APPROXIMATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.D.Narang

    2009-01-01

    In 1969, Ky Fan[3] proved that for any continuous function f from a compact convex subset M of a normed linear space X into X, there exists x ∈ M such that ||f(x)-x|| = dist(f(x),M). Since then, there have appeared several generalizations, extensions and applications of this result. This paper also deals with some extensions and generalizations of this result when the underlying spaces are convex metric spaces.

  9. The Diagonal Compression Field Method using Circular Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new design method, which is a modification of the diagonal compression field method, the modification consisting of the introduction of circular fan stress fields. The traditional method does not allow changes of the concrete compression direction throughout a given beam...... fields may be used whenever changes in the concrete compression direction are desired. To illustrate the new design method, a specific example of a prestressed concrete beam is calculated....

  10. Fans of Columbine shooters Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Ryan Rico

    2015-01-01

    On April 20, 1999, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold murdered 12 students and one teacher at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, in what was then the deadliest school shooting in American history. Despite causing a national panic and serving as a flash point for larger narratives on bullying, gun control, and media violence, both boys have gained active online fans. These fandoms dedicated to the Columbine shooters are widely referred to as dark examples of Internet communities, while t...

  11. Aerodynamic optimisation of an industrial axial fan blade

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Numerical optimisation methods have successfully been used for a variety of aerodynamic design problems over quite a few years. However the application of these methods to the aerodynamic blade shape optimisation of industrial axial fans has received much less attention in the literature probably given the fact that the majority of resources available to develop these automated design approaches is to be found in the aerospace field. This work presents the develo...

  12. Dual Fan Separator within the Universal Waste Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Tom; Converse, Dave; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Since NASA's new spacecraft in development for both LEO and Deep Space capability have considerable crew volume reduction in comparison to the Space Shuttle, the need became apparent for a smaller commode. In response the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS) was designed, resulting in an 80% volume reduction from the last US commode, while enhancing performance. The ISS WMS and previous shuttle commodes have a fan supplying air flow to capture feces and a separator to capture urine and separate air from the captured air/urine mixture. The UWMS combined both rotating equipment components into a single unit, referred to at the Dual Fan Separator (DFS). The combination of these components resulted in considerable packaging efficiency and weight reduction, removing inter-component plumbing, individual mounting configurations and required only a single motor and motor controller, in some of the intended UWMS platform applications the urine is pumped to the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) system. It requires the DFS to include less than 2.00% air inclusion, by volume, in the delivered urine. The rotational speed needs to be kept as low as possible in centrifugal urine separators to reduce air inclusion in the pumped fluid, while fans depend on rotational speed to develop delivered head. To satisfy these conflicting requirements, a gear reducer was included, allowing the fans to rotate at a much higher speed than the separator. This paper outlines the studies and analysis performed to develop the DFS configuration. The studies included a configuration trade study, dynamic stability analysis of the rotating bodies and a performance analysis of included labyrinth seals. NASA is considering a program to fly the UWMS aboard the ISS as a flight experiment. The goal of this activity is to advance the Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of the DFS and determine if the concept is ready to be included as part of the flight experiment deliverable.

  13. Stable fan filter design using two-variable reactance functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruton, L. T.; Bartley, N. R.

    1982-03-01

    Two-variable reactance transformation (as proposed by King et al., 1982) for the design of stable two-dimensional recursive fan filters with narrow stopbands is compared with the design method proposed by Bruton et al. (1981) using numerical optimization of a resistively terminated (2 + n sub 1 + n sub 2)-port network. The method of King et al. is found to be definitely more simple to design.

  14. iFan iphone风力充电器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    你还在每天为了寻找为iPhone充电的电源而烦恼么?这里有一款非常给力的iPhone手机配件——iFan iPhone风力充电器。在充当保护套之外它头顶上的风扇可以收集风能转化为电能给iPhone充电。

  15. Evaluation of Retrofit Variable-Speed Furnace Fan Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.; Williamson, J.

    2014-01-01

    In conjunction with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG), the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) has evaluated the Concept 3 (tm) replacement motors for residential furnaces. These brushless, permanent magnet (BPM) motors can use much less electricity than their PSC (permanent split capacitor) predecessors. This evaluation focuses on existing homes in the heating-dominated climate of upstate New York with the goals of characterizing field performance and cost-effectiveness. The results of this study are intended to be useful to home performance contractors, HVAC contractors, and home efficiency program stakeholders. The project includes eight homes in and near Syracuse, NY. Tests and monitoring was performed both before and after fan motors were replaced. Average fan power reductions were approximately 126 Watts during heating and 220 Watts during cooling operation. Over the course of entire heating and cooling seasons, these translated into average electric energy savings of 163 kWh. Average cost savings were $20 per year. Homes where the fan was used outside of heating and cooling mode saved an additional $42 per year on average. Results indicate that BPM replacement motors will be most cost-effective in HVAC systems with longer run times and relatively low duct static pressures. More dramatic savings are possible if occupants use the fan-only setting when there is no thermal load. There are millions of cold-climate, U.S. homes that meet these criteria, but the savings in most homes tested in this study were modest.

  16. Streaming Scholarship: Using Fan Vids to Teach "Harry Potter"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Sarah Fiona

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Harry Potter fan vids can be used in the classroom as works of secondary criticism about J. K. Rowling's primary text. It makes two claims: the first is that vids can be read as criticism of a particular text (in this case Harry Potter) alongside other critical essays on that text; the second is that the practice of…

  17. Streaming Scholarship: Using Fan Vids to Teach "Harry Potter"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Sarah Fiona

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Harry Potter fan vids can be used in the classroom as works of secondary criticism about J. K. Rowling's primary text. It makes two claims: the first is that vids can be read as criticism of a particular text (in this case Harry Potter) alongside other critical essays on that text; the second is that the practice of…

  18. Numerical Study of Outlet Boundary Conditions for Unsteady Turbulent Internal Flows Using the NCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Shih, Tsan-Hsing

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of studies on the outlet boundary conditions for turbulent internal flow simulations. Several outlet boundary conditions have been investigated by applying the National Combustion Code (NCC) to the configuration of a LM6000 single injector flame tube. First of all, very large eddy simulations (VLES) have been performed using the partially resolved numerical simulation (PRNS) approach, in which both the nonlinear and linear dynamic subscale models were employed. Secondly, unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier- Stokes (URANS) simulations have also been performed for the same configuration to investigate the effects of different outlet boundary conditions in the context of URANS. Thirdly, the possible role of the initial condition is inspected by using three different initial flow fields for both the PRNS/VLES simulation and the URANS simulation. The same grid is used for all the simulations and the number of mesh element is about 0.5 million. The main purpose of this study is to examine the long-time behavior of the solution as determined by the imposed outlet boundary conditions. For a particular simulation to be considered as successful under the given initial and boundary conditions, the solution must be sustainable in a physically meaningful manner over a sufficiently long period of time. The commonly used outlet boundary condition for steady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation is a fixed pressure at the outlet with all the other dependent variables being extrapolated from the interior. The results of the present study suggest that this is also workable for the URANS simulation of the LM6000 injector flame tube. However, it does not work for the PRNS/VLES simulation due to the unphysical reflections of the pressure disturbances at the outlet boundary. This undesirable situation can be practically alleviated by applying a simple unsteady convection equation for the pressure disturbances at the outlet boundary. The

  19. Fan Atomized Burner design advances & commercial development progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, B. [Heat-Wise, Inc., Ridge, NY (United States); Butcher, T.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-07-01

    As a part of the Oil Heat Research and Development program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has an on-going interest in advanced combustion technologies. This interest is aimed at: improving the initial efficiency of heating equipment, reducing long term fouling and efficiency degradation, reducing air pollutant emissions, and providing practical low-firing rate technologies which may lead to new, high efficiency oil-fired appliances. The Fan-Atomized Burner (FAB) technology is being developed at BNL as part of this general goal. The Fan-Atomized Burner uses a low pressure, air atomizing nozzle in place of the high pressure nozzle used in conventional burners. Because it is air-atomized the burner can operate at low firing rates without the small passages and reliability concerns of low input pressure nozzles. Because it uses a low pressure nozzle the burner can use a fan in place of the small compressor used in other air-atomized burner designs. High initial efficiency of heating equipment is achieved because the burner can operate at very low excess air levels. These low excess air levels also reduce the formation of sulfuric acid in flames. Sulfuric acid is responsible for scaling and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces.

  20. Auxiliary lift propulsion system with oversized front fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castells, O.T.; Johnson, J.E.; Rundell, D.J.

    1980-09-16

    A propulsion system for use primarily in V/STOL aircraft is provided with a variable cycle, double bypass gas turbofan engine and a remote augmenter to produce auxiliary lift. The fan is oversized in air-pumping capability with respect to the cruise flight requirements of the remainder of the engine and a variable area, low pressure turbine is capable of supplying varying amounts of rotational energy to the oversized fan, thereby modulating its speed and pumping capability. During powered lift flight, the variable cycle engine is operated in the single bypass mode with the oversized fan at its maximum pumping capability. In this mode, substantially all of the bypass flow is routed as an auxiliary airstream to the remote augmenter where it is mixed with fuel, burned and exhausted through a vectorable nozzle to produce thrust for lifting. Additional lift is generated by the high energy products of combustion of the variable cycle engine which are further energized in an afterburner and exhausted through a thrust vectorable nozzle at the rear of the engine.

  1. Characteristics of tip-leakage flow in an axial fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keuntae; Choi, Haecheon; Choi, Seokho; Sa, Yongcheol

    2014-11-01

    An axial fan with a shroud generates complicated vortical structures by the interaction of the axial flow with the fan blades and shroud near the blade tips. Large eddy simulation (LES) is performed for flow through a forward-swept axial fan, operating at the design condition of Re = 547,000 based on the radius of blade tip and the tip velocity. A dynamic global model (Lee et al. 2010) is used for a subgrid-scale model, and an immersed boundary method in a non-inertial reference frame (Kim & Choi 2006) is adopted for the present simulation. It is found that two vortical structures are formed near the blade tip: the main tip leakage vortex (TLV) and the auxiliary TLV. The main TLV is initiated near the leading edge, develops downstream, and impinges on the pressure surface of the next blade, where the pressure fluctuations and turbulence intensity become high. On the other hand, the auxiliary TLV is initiated at the aft part of the blade but is relatively weak such that it merges with the main TLV. Supported by the KISTI Supercomputing Center (KSC-2014-C2-014).

  2. Investigation of fatigue fracture of generator-rotor fan blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sameezadeh, Mahmood; Farhangi, Hassan [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Univ. of Tehran (Iran); Soltani, Nasser [School of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Tehran (Iran); Ataei, Peyman [Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, South Tehran Branch of Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran)

    2009-11-15

    The failure of a rotating axial flow fan of a 123 MW electric power generator unit is analyzed. The fan was mounted on the generator-rotor at the turbine end. Initial investigations showed that three fan blades had fractured just about 11 h after resuming operation following the last overhaul, causing extensive damage to the unit. The failure of the blades was investigated using fractographic and microstructural characterization techniques as well as mechanical evaluations. Based on fractographic observations high cycle fatigue was identified as the failure mechanism. Formation of multiple primary cracks which coalesced during crack growth to form shallow and semi-elliptical crack geometry was indicative of the influence of additional bending stresses, probably resulting from excessive vibrations. Using fracture mechanics principles, the magnitude of the maximum stress at the time of final fracture of the first broken blade was estimated to be more than 3 times higher than the design operating stress. Furthermore, crack growth lifetime of the blades was evaluated using FRANC3D software. It was found that an operating period of just about one hour was required for small initial cracks to propagate to final failure under the action of excessive bending stresses. (orig.)

  3. Effects of Bifurcations on Aft-Fan Engine Nacelle Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Farassat, Fereidoun; Pope, D. Stuart; Vatsa, Veer N.

    2004-01-01

    Aft-fan engine nacelle noise is a significant factor in the increasingly important issue of aircraft community noise. The ability to predict such noise within complex duct geometries is a valuable tool in studying possible noise attenuation methods. A recent example of code development for such predictions is the ducted fan noise propagation and radiation code CDUCT-LaRC. This work focuses on predicting the effects of geometry changes (i.e. bifurcations, pylons) on aft fan noise propagation. Beginning with simplified geometries, calculations show that bifurcations lead to scattering of acoustic energy into higher order modes. In addition, when circumferential mode number and the number of bifurcations are properly commensurate, bifurcations increase the relative importance of the plane wave mode near the exhaust plane of the bypass duct. This is particularly evident when the bypass duct surfaces include acoustic treatment. Calculations involving more complex geometries further illustrate that bifurcations and pylons clearly affect modal content, in both propagation and radiation calculations. Additionally, results show that consideration of acoustic radiation results may provide further insight into acoustic treatment effectiveness for situations in which modal decomposition may not be straightforward. The ability of CDUCT-LaRC to handle complex (non-axisymmetric) multi-block geometries, as well as axially and circumferentially segmented liners, allows investigation into the effects of geometric elements (bifurcations, pylons).

  4. Bursting Events in Pressure Flushing with Expanding Bottom Outlet Channel within Dam Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    soheila Tofighi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Currently, large dams in the world, due to the high amount of sediments in the reservoir, especially around the intake, have operational problems. One of the solutions for this problem is pressure flushing. In this type of flushing, a mixture of water and sediment is removed from bottom outlets form dam reservoir and a funnel shaped crater is created in the vicinity of the outlet opening. In laboratory experiments carried out in this study, pressure flushing with the expansion of bottom outlet within the reservoir and its statistical analysis of bursting events were investigated. The structure of the turbulent flow is not fully understood due to their complexity and random nature. Klein et al. Introduced the turbulence bursting in this kind of flow and Nezo and Nakagora suggested that the events resulting from turbulence bursting has a significant effect of transferring the sediment particles. Materials and Methods: For the purposes of this study, the experiments were conducted with a physical model with 7m length, 1.4m width, and 1.5m height, consisting of three parts namely the inlet of the model, the main reservoir, and settling basin. The main reservoir of the model was 5m long and the sediments were placed within this part of the model. The sediment particles were non-cohesive silica with uniform size and with median diameter (d50 1.15mm and geometrics standard deviation (σg 1.37. Experiments carried out with different discharges and water depths above the bottom outlet in different expansion size of outlet channel in constant sediment level of 20cm above the center of the outlet channel. The model was slowly filled with water until the water surface elevation reached to a desired level. The bottom outlet was manually opened, after a while sedimentwere discharged with the water flow in very high concentrations through the outlet channel (sudden discharge and a funnel shaped crater was formed in front of it. After the run of

  5. Using ZIP code business patterns data to measure alcohol outlet density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Stephen A; McCarthy, John D; Rafail, Patrick S

    2011-07-01

    Some states maintain high-quality alcohol outlet databases but quality varies by state, making comprehensive comparative analysis across US communities difficult. This study assesses the adequacy of using ZIP Code Business Patterns (ZIP-BP) data on establishments as estimates of the number of alcohol outlets by ZIP code. Specifically we compare ZIP-BP alcohol outlet counts with high-quality data from state and local records surrounding 44 college campus communities across 10 states plus the District of Columbia. Results show that a composite measure is strongly correlated (R=0.89) with counts of alcohol outlets generated from official state records. Analyses based on Generalized Estimation Equation models show that community and contextual factors have little impact on the concordance between the two data sources. There are also minimal inter-state differences in the level of agreement. To validate the use of a convenient secondary data set (ZIP-BP) it is important to have a high correlation with the more complex, high quality and more costly data product (i.e., datasets based on the acquisition and geocoding of state and local records) and then to clearly demonstrate that the discrepancy between the two to be unrelated to relevant explanatory variables. Thus our overall findings support the adequacy of using a conveniently available data set (ZIP-BP data) to estimate alcohol outlet densities in ZIP code areas in future research.

  6. KORELASI PENGGUNAAN BAHASA INGGRIS DALAM PENAMAAN FACTORY OUTLET (FO DI BANDUNG TERHADAP KEPUTUSAN PEMBELIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gartika Rahmasari

    2016-03-01

        Abstrak - Bahasa Inggris merupakan bahasa yang memiliki prestise atau kedudukan yang tinggi, bahkan di Indonesia yang memiliki bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa nasional. Bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa internasional mendapatkan apresiasi lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan bahasa Indonesia, khususnya di bidang pariwisata. Bandung sebagai salah satu tujuan pariwisata, khususnya wisata kuliner dan tujuan belanja, tidak terkecuali mendapat pengaruh yang besar dalam hal penggunaan bahasa Inggris. Hal ini dapat dilihat dari penggunaan sejumlah nama Factory Outlet yang ada di Bandung, yang hampir sebagian besar menggunakan bahasa Ingris atau serapan bahasa Inggris sebagai “brand” atau nama yang digunakan oleh Factory Outlet yang tersebar di seluruh Bandung. Jurnal ini merupakan study literatur yang meneliti tentang hubungan penggunaan bahasa Asing dalam nama Factory Outlet  (FO terhadap keputusan pembelian. Yang menjadi responden yang diteliti dalam penelitian ini adalah mahasiswa Ilmu Komunikasi, Universitas Telkom sebanyak 55 responden, dengan rentang usia 17-20 tahun. Dari hasil penelitian, diketahui bahwa secara umum, penggunaan bahasa Inggris dalam penamaan Factory Outlet (FO mempengaruhi keputusan responden untuk berbelanja ke FO tersebut.   Kata Kunci: Keputusan Pembelian, Factory Outlet, FO, Bahasa Inggris.

  7. Communicating Ebola through social media and electronic news media outlets: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Househ, Mowafa

    2016-09-01

    Social media and electronic news media activity are an important source of information for the general public. Yet, there is a dearth of research exploring the use of Twitter and electronic news outlets during significant worldly events such as the recent Ebola Virus scare. The purpose of this article is to investigate the use of Twitter and electronic news media outlets in communicating Ebola Virus information. A cross-sectional survey of Twitter data and Google News Trend data from 30 September till 29 October, 2014 was conducted. Between 30 September and 29 October, there were approximately 26 million tweets (25,925,152) that contained the word Ebola. The highest number of correlated activity for Twitter and electronic news outlets occurred on 16 October 2014. Other important peaks in Twitter data occurred on 1 October, 6 October, 8 October, and 12 October, 2014. The main influencers of the Twitter feeds were news media outlets. The study reveals a relationship between electronic news media publishing and Twitter activity around significant events such as Ebola. Healthcare organizations should take advantage of the relationship between electronic news media and trending events on social media sites such as Twitter and should work on developing social media campaigns in co-operation with leading electronic news media outlets (e.g. CNN, Yahoo, Reuters) that can have an influence on social media activity.

  8. Examining the interaction between food outlets and outdoor food advertisements with primary school food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Mat; Pearce, Jamie; Day, Peter

    2009-09-01

    Schools are commonly seen as a site of intervention to improve children's nutrition, and prevent excess weight gain. Schools may have limited influence over children's diets; however, with home and community environments also exerting an influence within schools. This study considered the environment of food outlets and outdoor food advertisements surrounding four case study primary schools in New Zealand, and the impact of that external environment on within-school food environments. The shortest travel route between school and home addresses, and the number of food outlets and advertisements passed on that route, was calculated for each student. Interviews with school management were conducted. The schools with a higher percentage of students passing food outlets and advertisements considered that their presence impacted on efforts within schools to improve the food environment. Limiting students' exposure to food outlets and outdoor food adverts through travel route planning, reducing advertising, or limiting the location of food outlets surrounding schools could be explored as intervention options to support schools in promoting nutrition.

  9. Energy consumption of large space atrium under nozzle outlet during winter season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵惠忠; 林志芬; 陈飞; 黄晨; 张敏; 王丽慧

    2009-01-01

    Based on the thermal and velocity layer’s theory,the experimental setup was established on large space atrium under nozzle outlet. A series of winter experiments were accomplished and the following conclusions could be drawn. At the sunny day of winter in Shanghai,the thermal and velocity layer are similar. The height of the both layer is 10-30 mm,and the temperature gratitude is 5-10 ℃ /m. Decreasing the angle of the nozzle outlet can increase the layer height dramatically. The maximum temperature difference of the occupant zone has relation with the angle of the nozzle outlet. The less the angle of the nozzle outlet is set,the greater the temperature difference is. The occupant temperature differences at these angles of the nozzle outlet are 5.1-4.4 ℃. The velocity of the wind is 0.02 and 0.17 m/s and they can accord with design demand. So,it can decrease the temperature gratitude by about 30% and it can save 10%-15% energy consumption.

  10. Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E.; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Liese, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fast food outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fast food outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy). PMID:23933445

  11. Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Archana P; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Liese, Angela D

    2013-09-01

    A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fast food outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fast food outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy).

  12. River terraces and alluvial fans: The case for an integrated Quaternary fluvial archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, A. E.; Stokes, M.; Whitfield, E.

    2017-06-01

    The fluvial archive literature is dominated by research on river terraces with appropriate mention of adjacent environments such as lakes. Despite modern sedimentary basins comprising a significant (>88%) volume of distributive fluvial systems, of which alluvial fans (>1 km, archive community. Published literature is used to examine both thematic and geographical based benefits of alluvial fan research that can assist understanding of Quaternary fluvial archives. 3 regional case studies are presented that illustrate the interaction between alluvial fan and river terrace archives at Quaternary time-scales at 3 different stages of landscape evolution. These are i) continuous mountain front alluvial fans interacting with a non incising but laterally eroding axial fluvial system; ii) alluvial fans which transition into fluvial terraces as sedimentary basins shift from net aggradation to net incision and iii) tributary-junction alluvial fans that develop predominantly within incising river valley systems. A simple conceptual model is proposed to summarise the dynamic role of alluvial fans within this landscape context. The alluvial fans act as potential 'buffers' between hillslopes and river terrace records under 'top down' climate-driven high sediment supply and alluvial fan aggradation, and 'couplers' during periods of less sediment (in relation to water) discharge and alluvial fan incision. These dynamics will change with the addition of 'bottom up' controls such as main river incision, which will typically enhance the coupling effect of both systems.

  13. The Conceptual Design of High Pressure Reversible Axial Tunnel Ventilation Fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Sheard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunnel ventilation fans, classically, must have the ability to both supply and extract air from a tunnel system, with the operator's choice dependent on the tunnel ventilation system's operating mode most appropriate at any given point in time. Consequently, tunnel ventilation fans must incorporate a reversible aerodynamic design which limits the maximum fan pressure rise. This paper presents three high pressure reversible fan concepts. These comprise a two-stage counter rotating fan, a single-stage high speed fan, and a two-stage fan with a single motor and impeller on each end of the motor shaft. The authors consider the relative merits of each concept. The third concept offers the most compact fan, transform, silencer, and damper package size. The authors discuss the mechanical design challenges that occur with a two-stage fan with a single motor and impeller on each end of the motor shaft. They present and consider a selected motor bearing arrangement and casing design for maintainability. Finally, the authors present both prototype fan and full-scale package aerodynamic and acoustic performance, before discussing the challenges presented by high temperature certification in accordance with the requirements of EN 12101-3: 2012.

  14. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of a 60cm Diameter Bladeless Fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad jafari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladeless fan is a novel type of fan with an unusual geometry and unique characteristics. This type of fan has been recently developed for domestic applications in sizes typically up to 30cm diameter. In the present study, a Bladeless fan with a diameter of 60cm was designed and constructed, in order to investigate feasibility of its usage in various industries with large dimensions. Firstly, flow field passed through this fan was studied by 3D modeling. Aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance of the fan were considered via solving the conservation of mass and momentum equations in their unsteady form. To validate the acoustic code, NACA 0012 airfoil was simulated in a two dimension domain and the emitted noise was calculated for Re=2×105. Good agreement between numerical and experimental results was observed by applying FW-H equations for predicting noise of the fan. To validate the simulated aerodynamic results, a Bladeless fan with a 60cm diameter was constructed and experimentally tested. In addition, the difference between the experimental and numerical results was acceptable for this fan. Moreover, the experimental results in the present study showed that this fan is capable to be designed and used for various industrial applications.

  15. Health assessment of cooling fan bearings using wavelet-based filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qiang; Tang, Chao; Liang, Wei; Pecht, Michael

    2012-12-24

    As commonly used forced convection air cooling devices in electronics, cooling fans are crucial for guaranteeing the reliability of electronic systems. In a cooling fan assembly, fan bearing failure is a major failure mode that causes excessive vibration, noise, reduction in rotation speed, locked rotor, failure to start, and other problems; therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on the health assessment of cooling fan bearings. This paper presents a vibration-based fan bearing health evaluation method using comblet filtering and exponentially weighted moving average. A new health condition indicator (HCI) for fan bearing degradation assessment is proposed. In order to collect the vibration data for validation of the proposed method, a cooling fan accelerated life test was conducted to simulate the lubricant starvation of fan bearings. A comparison between the proposed method and methods in previous studies (i.e., root mean square, kurtosis, and fault growth parameter) was carried out to assess the performance of the HCI. The analysis results suggest that the HCI can identify incipient fan bearing failures and describe the bearing degradation process. Overall, the work presented in this paper provides a promising method for fan bearing health evaluation and prognosis.

  16. Health Assessment of Cooling Fan Bearings Using Wavelet-Based Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Miao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As commonly used forced convection air cooling devices in electronics, cooling fans are crucial for guaranteeing the reliability of electronic systems. In a cooling fan assembly, fan bearing failure is a major failure mode that causes excessive vibration, noise, reduction in rotation speed, locked rotor, failure to start, and other problems; therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on the health assessment of cooling fan bearings. This paper presents a vibration-based fan bearing health evaluation method using comblet filtering and exponentially weighted moving average. A new health condition indicator (HCI for fan bearing degradation assessment is proposed. In order to collect the vibration data for validation of the proposed method, a cooling fan accelerated life test was conducted to simulate the lubricant starvation of fan bearings. A comparison between the proposed method and methods in previous studies (i.e., root mean square, kurtosis, and fault growth parameter was carried out to assess the performance of the HCI. The analysis results suggest that the HCI can identify incipient fan bearing failures and describe the bearing degradation process. Overall, the work presented in this paper provides a promising method for fan bearing health evaluation and prognosis.

  17. Large scale application of vibration sensors for fan monitoring at commercial layer hen houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Ni, Ji-Qin; Diehl, Claude A; Heber, Albert J; Bogan, Bill W; Chai, Li-Long

    2010-01-01

    Continuously monitoring the operation of each individual fan can significantly improve the measurement quality of aerial pollutant emissions from animal buildings that have a large number of fans. To monitor the fan operation by detecting the fan vibration is a relatively new technique. A low-cost electronic vibration sensor was developed and commercialized. However, its large scale application has not yet been evaluated. This paper presents long-term performance results of this vibration sensor at two large commercial layer houses. Vibration sensors were installed on 164 fans of 130 cm diameter to continuously monitor the fan on/off status for two years. The performance of the vibration sensors was compared with fan rotational speed (FRS) sensors. The vibration sensors exhibited quick response and high sensitivity to fan operations and therefore satisfied the general requirements of air quality research. The study proved that detecting fan vibration was an effective method to monitor the on/off status of a large number of single-speed fans. The vibration sensor itself was $2 more expensive than a magnetic proximity FRS sensor but the overall cost including installation and data acquisition hardware was $77 less expensive than the FRS sensor. A total of nine vibration sensors failed during the study and the failure rate was related to the batches of product. A few sensors also exhibited unsteady sensitivity. As a new product, the quality of the sensor should be improved to make it more reliable and acceptable.

  18. Increasing Access to Subsidized Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy through Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabra Michael

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, many people seek malaria treatment from retail drug sellers. The National Malaria Control Program identified the accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO program as a private sector mechanism to supplement the distribution of subsidized artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs from public facilities and increase access to the first-line antimalarial in rural and underserved areas. The ADDO program strengthens private sector pharmaceutical services by improving regulatory and supervisory support, dispenser training, and record keeping practices. Methods The government's pilot program made subsidized ACTs available through ADDOs in 10 districts in the Morogoro and Ruvuma regions, covering about 2.9 million people. The program established a supply of subsidized ACTs, created a price system with a cost recovery plan, developed a plan to distribute the subsidized products to the ADDOs, trained dispensers, and strengthened the adverse drug reactions reporting system. As part of the evaluation, 448 ADDO dispensers brought their records to central locations for analysis, representing nearly 70% of ADDOs operating in the two regions. ADDO drug register data were available from July 2007-June 2008 for Morogoro and from July 2007-September 2008 for Ruvuma. This intervention was implemented from 2007-2008. Results During the pilot, over 300,000 people received treatment for malaria at the 448 ADDOs. The percentage of ADDOs that dispensed at least one course of ACT rose from 26.2% during July-September 2007 to 72.6% during April-June 2008. The number of malaria patients treated with ACTs gradually increased after the start of the pilot, while the use of non-ACT antimalarials declined; ACTs went from 3% of all antimalarials sold in July 2007 to 26% in June 2008. District-specific data showed substantial variation among the districts in ACT uptake through ADDOs, ranging from ACTs representing 10% of all antimalarial sales

  19. Study on the performance improvement of multiblade fans. Effects of suction cones; Tayoku fan no seino kaizen ni kansuru kenkyu. Suction cone no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuratani, F.; Ogawa, T. [Hyogo University of Teacher Education, Hyogo (Japan); Yamamoto, S.

    1999-07-25

    In order to improve the performance of a multiblade fan, the effects of three types of suction cones of the fan casing on the fan efficiency and noise are investigated experimentally. The first type of the suction cone is the insertion type, which is inserted into the inside of the fan impeller. The second type is the extrusion type, which extrudes outside from the casing surface. The third type is the combination type of two types. The results of those three types are compared with those of the commonly used suction cone. The followings are made clear: (1) The insertion type and the extrusion type are effective in improving the efficiency and reducing noise. (2) The optimal lengths of the insertion and the extrusion exist. (3) The combination type is more effective in improving the efficiency. (4) The combination type with the skewed cutoff of the fan casing shows the best effect. (author)

  20. Surgical treatment of a Morgagni hernia causing intermittent gastric outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Ewen A; Ellis, Andrew; Mohamed, Ahmed; Tam, Eddie; Ball, Chris S

    2010-11-05

    A Morgagni hernia is a rare diaphragmatic hernia which develops through a congenital defect in the retrosternal area, usually on the right hand side. Because of its congenital aetiology, Morgagni hernias are rarely considered in the differential diagnosis of gastric outlet obstruction symptoms in adults. We present a patient with an incarcerated Morgagni hernia who presented with gastric outlet obstruction. A 77-year-old woman presented with symptoms and signs of gastric outlet obstruction, dehydration and acute renal impairment. She was treated by fluid resuscitation and nasogastric tube insertion. Radiological imaging showed a Morgagni hernia containing stomach, omentum and colon. This was treated surgically via an abdominal approach and the defect was closed with mesh. The patient recovered well from this procedure and was discharged. We discuss the anatomy, clinical presentation and surgical treatment of this rare diaphragmatic hernia to raise awareness among surgeons and surgical trainees.