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Sample records for family reveals differences

  1. Structural characterization of Helicobacter pylori dethiobiotin synthetase reveals differences between family members

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Klimecka, Maria; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Nicholls, Robert A.; Murzyn, Krzysztof; Cuff, Marianne E.; Xu, Xiaohui; Cymborowski, Marcin; Murshudov, Garib N.; Savchenko, Alexei; Edwards, Aled; Minor, Wladek (MCSG); (UV); (MRC)

    2012-07-11

    Dethiobiotin synthetase (DTBS) is involved in the biosynthesis of biotin in bacteria, fungi, and plants. As humans lack this pathway, DTBS is a promising antimicrobial drug target. We determined structures of DTBS from Helicobacter pylori (hpDTBS) bound with cofactors and a substrate analog, and described its unique characteristics relative to other DTBS proteins. Comparison with bacterial DTBS orthologs revealed considerable structural differences in nucleotide recognition. The C-terminal region of DTBS proteins, which contains two nucleotide-recognition motifs, differs greatly among DTBS proteins from different species. The structure of hpDTBS revealed that this protein is unique and does not contain a C-terminal region containing one of the motifs. The single nucleotide-binding motif in hpDTBS is similar to its counterpart in GTPases; however, isothermal titration calorimetry binding studies showed that hpDTBS has a strong preference for ATP. The structural determinants of ATP specificity were assessed with X-ray crystallographic studies of hpDTBS-ATP and hpDTBS-GTP complexes. The unique mode of nucleotide recognition in hpDTBS makes this protein a good target for H. pylori-specific inhibitors of the biotin synthesis pathway.

  2. Sequence comparisons of odorant receptors among tortricid moths reveal different rates of molecular evolution among family members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colm Carraher

    Full Text Available In insects, odorant receptors detect volatile cues involved in behaviours such as mate recognition, food location and oviposition. We have investigated the evolution of three odorant receptors from five species within the moth genera Ctenopseustis and Planotrotrix, family Tortricidae, which fall into distinct clades within the odorant receptor multigene family. One receptor is the orthologue of the co-receptor Or83b, now known as Orco (OR2, and encodes the obligate ion channel subunit of the receptor complex. In comparison, the other two receptors, OR1 and OR3, are ligand-binding receptor subunits, activated by volatile compounds produced by plants--methyl salicylate and citral, respectively. Rates of sequence evolution at non-synonymous sites were significantly higher in OR1 compared with OR2 and OR3. Within the dataset OR1 contains 109 variable amino acid positions that are distributed evenly across the entire protein including transmembrane helices, loop regions and termini, while OR2 and OR3 contain 18 and 16 variable sites, respectively. OR2 shows a high level of amino acid conservation as expected due to its essential role in odour detection; however we found unexpected differences in the rate of evolution between two ligand-binding odorant receptors, OR1 and OR3. OR3 shows high sequence conservation suggestive of a conserved role in odour reception, whereas the higher rate of evolution observed in OR1, particularly at non-synonymous sites, may be suggestive of relaxed constraint, perhaps associated with the loss of an ancestral role in sex pheromone reception.

  3. Genome-wide characterization of the WRKY gene family in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) reveals its critical functions under different abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Bernard Kinuthia; Fan, Lianxue; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Tang, Mingjia; Wang, Ronghua; Zhang, Fei; Muleke, Everlyne M'mbone; Liu, Liwang

    2017-11-01

    The radish WRKY gene family was genome-widely identified and played critical roles in response to multiple abiotic stresses. The WRKY is among the largest transcription factors (TFs) associated with multiple biological activities for plant survival, including control response mechanisms against abiotic stresses such as heat, salinity, and heavy metals. Radish is an important root vegetable crop and therefore characterization and expression pattern investigation of WRKY transcription factors in radish is imperative. In the present study, 126 putative WRKY genes were retrieved from radish genome database. Protein sequence and annotation scrutiny confirmed that RsWRKY proteins possessed highly conserved domains and zinc finger motif. Based on phylogenetic analysis results, RsWRKYs candidate genes were divided into three groups (Group I, II and III) with the number 31, 74, and 20, respectively. Additionally, gene structure analysis revealed that intron-exon patterns of the WRKY genes are highly conserved in radish. Linkage map analysis indicated that RsWRKY genes were distributed with varying densities over nine linkage groups. Further, RT-qPCR analysis illustrated the significant variation of 36 RsWRKY genes under one or more abiotic stress treatments, implicating that they might be stress-responsive genes. In total, 126 WRKY TFs were identified from the R. sativus genome wherein, 35 of them showed abiotic stress-induced expression patterns. These results provide a genome-wide characterization of RsWRKY TFs and baseline for further functional dissection and molecular evolution investigation, specifically for improving abiotic stress resistances with an ultimate goal of increasing yield and quality of radish.

  4. Family and non-family business differences in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Kirsipuu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to identify differences between family enterprises and non-family enterprises. The concepts of entrepreneurship, entrepreneur and enterprise/business are clarified. The paper contains the results of research conducted by the author among family entrepreneurs in 2007–2012 that can be compared to the research results reached by Wahl (2011. This research demonstrates that there are differences between family entrepreneurs and non-family entrepreneurs, which are primarily caused by that family entrepreneurs value first of all their family members, family traditions and only then profit earning.

  5. Comparative Proteomics of Rubber Latex Revealed Multiple Protein Species of REF/SRPP Family Respond Diversely to Ethylene Stimulation among Different Rubber Tree Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Tong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rubber elongation factor (REF and small rubber particle protein (SRPP are two key factors for natural rubber biosynthesis. To further understand the roles of these proteins in rubber formation, six different genes for latex abundant REF or SRPP proteins, including REF138,175,258 and SRPP117,204,243, were characterized from Hevea brasiliensis Reyan (RY 7-33-97. Sequence analysis showed that REFs have a variable and long N-terminal, whereas SRPPs have a variable and long C-terminal beyond the REF domain, and REF258 has a β subunit of ATPase in its N-terminal. Through two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE, each REF/SRPP protein was separated into multiple protein spots on 2-DE gels, indicating they have multiple protein species. The abundance of REF/SRPP proteins was compared between ethylene and control treatments or among rubber tree clones with different levels of latex productivity by analyzing 2-DE gels. The total abundance of each REF/SRPP protein decreased or changed a little upon ethylene stimulation, whereas the abundance of multiple protein species of the same REF/SRPP changed diversely. Among the three rubber tree clones, the abundance of the protein species also differed significantly. Especially, two protein species of REF175 or REF258 were ethylene-responsive only in the high latex productivity clone RY 8-79 instead of in RY 7-33-97 and PR 107. Some individual protein species were positively related to ethylene stimulation and latex productivity. These results suggested that the specific protein species could be more important than others for rubber production and post-translational modifications might play important roles in rubber biosynthesis.

  6. When family drawings reveal vulnerabilities and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Rachel; Weisbart, Cindy; Dubowitz, Howard; Rowe, Jeffrey; Stein, Martin T

    2010-04-01

    Sonia's mother was concerned about her 9-year old daughter's aggression, defiant behavior, and distractibility. When she was 4-years, she kicked her bother and he lost a tooth as a result of the trauma. At this time, her pediatrician was concerned about hyperactivity, impulsivity, and defiance of authority and recommended a psychological evaluation. Sonia's father refused an evaluation and responded by physically abusing his wife while demanding a transfer to a new physician. Sonia's mother left her husband at this time and moved away with Sonia. Spousal abuse occurred frequently before the separation, and Sonia may have been physically abused as well. Currently, Sonia is in third grade where she is underperforming in many areas. She enjoys drawing and reading, but struggles to sit quietly and stay on task. Her teacher reports frequent vocal and physical disruptions. Homework takes an inordinate amount of time to complete. She does not have a sustained friendship; her mother feels that this is because other kids do not like being bossed by Sonia. Her mother is concerned about Sonia's behavior especially the unremorseful disruptive behavior toward her younger brother and grandmother. Sonia was born after an uneventful full-term pregnancy without evidence of maternal smoking, drugs, alcohol, or medications. Motor and social developmental milestones were achieved at the appropriate time. Language milestones were achieved early; her mother recalls that Sonia learned to read at the age of 3 years. Sonia's medical history is significant for obesity, seasonal allergic rhinitis, and delayed sleep onset with prolonged awakenings associated with nightmares. Her mother reports that Sonia "worries about everything," including thoughts that her brother will turn into a monster. When an argument occurs at home, she "gets scared," bites her nails, and cries. Sonia currently lives with her mother, 2 younger brothers, step-father, and grandparents. Family history is significant for

  7. Crystal structures of the Erp protein family members ErpP and ErpC from Borrelia burgdorferi reveal the reason for different affinities for complement regulator factor H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brangulis, Kalvis; Petrovskis, Ivars; Kazaks, Andris; Akopjana, Inara; Tars, Kaspars

    2015-05-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, which can be acquired after the bite of an infected Ixodes tick. As a strategy to resist the innate immunity and to successfully spread and proliferate, B. burgdorferi expresses a set of outer membrane proteins that are capable of binding complement regulator factor H (CFH), factor H-like protein 1 (CFHL-1) and factor H-related proteins (CFHR) to avoid complement-mediated killing. B. burgdorferi B31 contains three proteins that belong to the Erp (OspE/F-related) protein family and are capable of binding CFH and some CFHRs, namely ErpA, ErpC and ErpP. We have determined the crystal structure of ErpP at 2.53Å resolution and the crystal structure of ErpC at 2.15Å resolution. Recently, the crystal structure of the Erp family member OspE from B. burgdorferi N40 was determined in complex with CFH domains 19-20, revealing the residues involved in the complex formation. Despite the high sequence conservation between ErpA, ErpC, ErpP and the homologous protein OspE (78-80%), the affinity for CFH and CFHRs differs markedly among the Erp family members, suggesting that ErpC may bind only CFHRs but not CFH. A comparison of the binding site in OspE with those of ErpC and ErpP revealed that the extended loop region, which is only observed in the potential binding site of ErpC, plays an important role by preventing the binding of CFH. These results can explain the inability of ErpC to bind CFH, whereas ErpP and ErpA still possess the ability to bind CFH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Who benefits from family support? Work schedule and family differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Kristen S; Sinclair, Robert R; Mohr, Cynthia D

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated the benefits of family-supportive organization perceptions (FSOP) for reducing stress, increasing satisfaction, and increasing worker commitment; however, less research has studied health outcomes or possible differences in the effects of FSOP based on worker characteristics. The present study examined relationships between FSOP and health outcomes, as well as how those relationships may depend on work schedule and family differences. Using a sample of 330 acute care nurses, the findings indicated that FSOP predicted several health and well-being outcomes obtained 9 months later. Further, the relationships between FSOP and the outcome variables depended on some work schedule and family differences. In terms of family differences, FSOP was most strongly related to life satisfaction for those who cared for dependent adults. The relationship between FSOP and health outcomes of depression, musculoskeletal pain, and physical health symptoms were generally significant for workers with dependent children, but not significant for workers with no children. Regarding schedule differences, the relationship between FSOP and life satisfaction was significant for those on nonstandard (evening/night) shifts but not significant for standard day shift workers; however, there were no differences in FSOP relationships by number of hours worked per week. The findings demonstrate that FSOP may benefit some employees more than others. Such differences need to be incorporated into both future work-family theory development and into efforts to document the effectiveness of family-supportive policies, programs, and practices. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Regional differences in family poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Robert K. Triest

    1997-01-01

    Poverty rates vary considerably over regions, as do the demographic characteristics of the poor, but why the extent of poverty varies as much as it does across different regions of the country is not fully understood. This is an unfortunate gap in our knowledge, since it is difficult to analyze how recent changes in federal anti-poverty policy will affect the regional distribution of poverty without a better understanding of current regional differences in the poverty rate.> The main goal of ...

  10. Why offspring in nonhuman families differ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Scott

    2013-07-18

    Offspring within families, both human and nonhuman, often differ. The obvious question is: Why? Work on psychological differences on children within human families has focused primarily on differences in the nonshared environment of contemporary siblings, though the precise location of this nonshared environment is still the subject of much debate. Here I explore the range of explanations for within-brood diversity from the perspective of nonhuman families, particularly birds that share certain key features with human families. I examine the role of social rank in creating a nonshared environment within the family, and present data from a model system (an altricial bird) to illustrate how different the effective environments experienced by offspring sitting side-by-side in the same confined physical space, tended by the same parents, and experiencing similar ecological variability, can be. These broodmates can effectively live in different worlds. I then briefly explore other sources of diversity among offspring in nonhuman families, including within brood genetic differences and non-genetic maternal (parental) effects that often covary with birth / hatching rank. Given the ubiquity and far-reaching consequences of maternal effects in nonhuman families, and some human data suggestive of similar patterns, it would seem worthwhile to explore the potential role of maternal effects in creating phenotypic diversity in psychological traits among children in human families.

  11. Gender Differences in Family Dinnertime Conversations

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    Merrill, Natalie; Gallo, Emily; Fivush, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Family dinnertime conversations are key settings where children learn behavior regulation, narrative skills, and knowledge about the world. In this context, parents may also model and socialize gender differences in language. The present study quantitatively examines gendered language use across a family dinnertime recorded with 37 broadly…

  12. In vitro study revealed different size behavior of different nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudien, Dirk; Knebel, Jan; Creutzenberg, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Toxicity of nanoparticles is depending not only on the size of the primary particles but on the size of their agglomerates. Therefore, further studies are needed to examine the behavior of nanoparticles after they have gotten in contact with cells. The presented study investigated the change of size of different commercially available nanoparticles after applying them to different cell lines such as A549, Calu-3, 16HBE14o and LK004 representative for the different parts of the human lung. The different nanoparticles exhibited differences in behavior of size. TiO 2 P25 showed a tendency to increase, whereas TiO 2 T805 and Printex ® 90 remained more or less at the same size. In contrast, ZnO < 50 nm particles showed a significant decrease of size.

  13. Family-based transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) and case-control association studies reveal surfactant protein A (SP-A) susceptibility alleles for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and possible race differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floros, J.; Fan, R.; Matthews, A.; DiAngelo, S.; Luo, J.; Nielsen, H.; Dunn, M.; Gewolb, I. H.; Koppe, J.; Van Sonderen, L.; Farri-Kostopoulos, L.; Tzaki, M.; Rämet, M.; Merrill, J.

    2001-01-01

    A key cause of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in the prematurely born infant is deficiency of pulmonary surfactant, a lipoprotein complex. Both low levels of surfactant protein A (SP-A) and SP-A alleles have been associated with RDS. Using the candidate gene approach, we performed family-based

  14. Discussions about Racial and Ethnic Differences in Internationally Adoptive Families: Links with Family Engagement, Warmth, & Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kayla N; Rueter, Martha A; Lee, Richard M

    Discussions about racial and ethnic differences may allow international, transracial adoptive families to construct multiracial and/or multiethnic family identities. However, little is known about the ways family communication influences how discussions about racial and ethnic differences occur. This study examined associations between observed family communication constructs, including engagement, warmth, and control, and how adoptive families discuss racial and ethnic differences using a sample of families with adolescent-aged children adopted internationally from South Korea ( N = 111 families, 222 adolescents). Using data collected during mid-adolescence and again during late adolescence, higher levels of maternal control and positive adolescent engagement were independently associated with a greater likelihood that family members acknowledged the importance of racial and ethnic differences and constructed a multiracial and/or multiethnic family identity. Adolescent engagement was also related to a greater likelihood that family members disagreed about the importance of racial and ethnic differences, and did not build a cohesive identity about differences.

  15. Generational Differences in Work-Family Conflict and Synergy

    OpenAIRE

    Beutell, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines differences in work-family conflict and synergy among the four generational groups represented in the contemporary workforce: Generation Y Generation X, Baby Boomers, and Matures using data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (n = 3,502). Significant generational differences were found for work-family conflict (work interfering with family and family interfering with work) but not for work-family synergy. Mental health and job pressure were the best pred...

  16. Differences between Irish and Australian psychiatric nurses' family-focused practice in adult mental health services

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grant, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric nurses\\' practice with parents who have mental illness, their children and families is an important issue internationally. This study provides a comparison of Irish and Australian psychiatric nurses\\' family-focused practices in adult mental health services. Three hundred and forty three nurses across Ireland and 155 from Australia completed the Family Focused Mental Health Practice Questionnaire. Cross-country comparisons revealed significant differences, in terms of family-focused skill, knowledge, confidence and practice. Australian psychiatric nurses engaged in higher family-focused practice compared to Irish nurses. The comparative differences between countries may be attributable to differences in training, workplace support and policy.

  17. Theories of Family Labor as Applied to Gender Differences in Caregiving for Elderly Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Nancy J.

    1989-01-01

    Examined four popular hypotheses of family labor--time-available, socialization/ideology, external-resources, and specialization-of-tasks--to explain gender differences in caregiving to elderly parents. Data from adults with mother over age 70 revealed that these theories of gender differences in divisions of family labor did not adequately…

  18. Visibly ethnically different families in Denmark & Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    to the dominant colorblindness discourse, while later comprise a heated topic challenging poor (global south) adoptee meeting a loving Danish family’ discourse. How do these family members narrate their experiences of societal encounter is the research question, which is answered through two qualitative interview....... Alongside colorblindness, limited/ missing racialisation discussions, the visible bodies of spouses, children in the mixed families and the transnational adoptees are made salient in their everyday lives in interactions with the white majority population through experiences as gaze, curious questions...

  19. Gender Differences in Restricting Work Efforts because of Family Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maume, David J.

    2006-01-01

    In egalitarian families, we might expect that men and women similarly prioritize work and family obligations. Yet, prior research examining gender differences in work-family priorities often use measures that imperfectly reflect those priorities. Drawing two samples of full-time married workers from the 1992 National Study of the Changing…

  20. Generational Differences in Work-Family Conflict and Synergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Beutell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines differences in work-family conflict and synergy among the four generational groups represented in the contemporary workforce: Generation Y Generation X, Baby Boomers, and Matures using data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (n = 3,502. Significant generational differences were found for work-family conflict (work interfering with family and family interfering with work but not for work-family synergy. Mental health and job pressure were the best predictors of work interfering with family conflict for each generational group. Work-family synergy presented a more complex picture. Work-family conflict and synergy were significantly related to job, marital, and life satisfaction. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  1. Generational differences in work-family conflict and synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutell, Nicholas J

    2013-06-19

    This paper examines differences in work-family conflict and synergy among the four generational groups represented in the contemporary workforce: Generation Y Generation X, Baby Boomers, and Matures using data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (n = 3,502). Significant generational differences were found for work-family conflict (work interfering with family and family interfering with work) but not for work-family synergy. Mental health and job pressure were the best predictors of work interfering with family conflict for each generational group. Work-family synergy presented a more complex picture. Work-family conflict and synergy were significantly related to job, marital, and life satisfaction. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  2. Generational Differences in Work-Family Conflict and Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutell, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines differences in work-family conflict and synergy among the four generational groups represented in the contemporary workforce: Generation Y Generation X, Baby Boomers, and Matures using data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (n = 3,502). Significant generational differences were found for work-family conflict (work interfering with family and family interfering with work) but not for work-family synergy. Mental health and job pressure were the best predictors of work interfering with family conflict for each generational group. Work-family synergy presented a more complex picture. Work-family conflict and synergy were significantly related to job, marital, and life satisfaction. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23783221

  3. Are single-parent families different from two-parent families in the treatment of adolescent bulimia nervosa using family-based treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Angela Celio; McLean, Carmen; Washington, Blaine N; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; le Grange, Daniel

    2009-03-01

    To examine whether family-based treatment (FBT) for adolescent bulimia nervosa (BN), which emphasizes family involvement in helping to reduce binge eating and purging behaviors, is differentially efficacious in single-parent families versus two-parent families. Forty-one adolescents (97.6% female; 16.0 +/- 1.7 years old) with either BN (n = 18) or subthreshold BN (n = 23) were randomized to FBT as part of a larger randomized controlled trial studying treatments for adolescent BN. Two-parent (n = 27; 65.9%) and single-parent (n = 14; 34.2%) families were compared on demographic variables, presence of comorbid psychiatric illnesses, and symptoms of BN at baseline, post, and 6-month follow-up. ANOVA and chi-square analyses revealed no statistically significant differences between two-parent and single-parent families on any variables with the exception of ethnicity, for which a greater proportion of Caucasians and Hispanic families had two- parent families compared with African-American families (chi(2) = 8.68, p = .01). These findings suggest that FBT may be an appropriate and efficacious treatment for single-parent families as well as two-parent families, despite the reliance on parental intervention to reduce bulimic symptoms and normalize eating patterns.

  4. [Different approaches to the family in the context of the family health program/strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Edilza Maria

    2004-01-01

    This study presents the scenario that favored the inclusion of the family as a care focus in public policies. The strategies to interrupt the impoverishment and vulnerability of families in the XXth century occur in a different form, according to different "welfare states" in capitalist societies. However, in view of the welfare state crisis and the increasing costs of public and private services and privates, at least a partial family solution is required in terms of reducing its dependency. The Family Health Program (PSF) put the family on the Brazilian social policy agenda in 1994, reflecting interests from the neoliberal model as well as from solidary social forces. This inclusion generated different approaches, such as: family/individual; family/home; family/individual/home; family/community; family/social risk; family/family. These approaches, due to the lack of a mutual dialogue, end up composing an insufficiently identified picture, thus turning care more difficult. The conditions indicated here should be examined as a way of giving a true chance to the family

  5. The Job Costs of Family Demands: Gender Differences in Negative Family-to-Work Spillover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Jennifer Reid; Reynolds, John R.

    2005-01-01

    This article uses the 1992 National Study of the Changing Workforce to examine family and workplace factors contributing to gender differences in negative family-to-work spillover. We focus on spillover as manifested when family demands negatively affect job performance. Among married workers, women were twice as likely as men to report that…

  6. Working with Different Cultural Patterns & Beliefs: Teachers & Families Learning Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell-Gates, Victoria; Lenters, Kimberly; McTavish, Marianne; Anderson, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Rogoff (2003) argues that "Human development is a cultural process….People develop as participants in cultural communities" (p. 3). Children develop within families, and different cultures reflect differences in how they structure activity for this development. For example, middle class North American families generally would not permit…

  7. Kinds of access: Different methods for report reveal different kinds of metacognitive access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Sandberg, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    that there is not only a theoretical, but also an empirical difference between different methods of reporting. We hypothesize that differences in the sensitivity of different scales may reveal that different types of access are used to issue direct reports about experiences and metacognitive reports about...

  8. Family caregivers’ role implementation at different stages of dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huei-Ling; Shyu, Yea-Ing L; Chen, Min-Chi; Huang, Chin-Chang; Kuo, Hung-Chou; Chen, Sien-Tsong; Hsu, Wen-Chuin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore family caregivers’ role-implementation experiences at different stages of dementia. Patients and methods For this cross-sectional, exploratory study, 176 dyads of family caregivers and their community-dwelling elderly relatives with dementia were recruited from the neurological clinics of a medical center in Taiwan. The Family Caregiving Inventory was used to assess family caregivers for caregiving activities, role strain, role preparation, and help from others at different stages of care receivers’ dementia. Results Family caregivers’ caregiving activities were related to patients’ stages of dementia. For patients with mild dementia, caregivers provided more assistance in transportation and housekeeping. In addition to these two activities, family caregivers of patients with moderate dementia provided more assistance with mobility and protection. For patients with severe dementia, family caregivers provided more assistance with personal care, mobility and protection, transportation, and housekeeping. Overall, family caregivers reported having some preparation to provide care; the most difficult caregiving activity was identified as managing behavioral problems. Conclusion This study’s results provide a knowledge base for designing dementia stage-specific interventions in clinical practice and developing community-based, long-term care systems for families of patients with dementia. PMID:25584022

  9. Wage employment and gender differences in work–family role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hypotheses generated for the study were tested at .05 alpha levels using Pearson product Moment Correlation, Chi-Square, Multivariate Analysis and t test statistical methods. The findings of the study revealed that men and women involvement in wage employment has significantly influenced work-family role conflict.

  10. Striking variations in consultation rates with general practice reveal family influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spreeuwenberg Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reasons why patients decide to consult a general practitioner vary enormously. While there may be individual reasons for this variation, the family context has a significant and unique influence upon the frequency of individuals' visits. The objective of this study was to explore which family factors can explain the differences between strikingly high, and correspondingly low, family consultation rates in families with children aged up to 21. Methods Data were used from the second Dutch national survey of general practice. This survey extracted from the medical records of 96 practices in the Netherlands, information on all consultations with patients during 2001. We defined, through multilevel analysis, two groups of families. These had respectively, predominantly high, and low, contact frequencies due to a significant family influence upon the frequency of the individual's first contacts. Binomial logistic regression analyses were used to analyse which of the family factors, related to shared circumstances and socialisation conditions, can explain the differences in consultation rates between the two groups of families. Results In almost 3% of all families, individual consultation rates decrease significantly due to family influence. In 11% of the families, individual consultation rates significantly increase due to family influence. While taking into account the health status of family members, family factors can explain family consultation rates. These factors include circumstances such as their economic status and number of children, as well as socialisation conditions such as specific health knowledge and family beliefs. The chance of significant low frequencies of contact due to family influences increases significantly with factors such as, paid employment of parents in the health care sector, low expectations of general practitioners' care for minor ailments and a western cultural background. Conclusion Family

  11. New insights on the sialidase protein family revealed by a phylogenetic analysis in metazoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Giacopuzzi

    Full Text Available Sialidases are glycohydrolytic enzymes present from virus to mammals that remove sialic acid from oligosaccharide chains. Four different sialidase forms are known in vertebrates: the lysosomal NEU1, the cytosolic NEU2 and the membrane-associated NEU3 and NEU4. These enzymes modulate the cell sialic acid content and are involved in several cellular processes and pathological conditions. Molecular defects in NEU1 are responsible for sialidosis, an inherited disease characterized by lysosomal storage disorder and neurodegeneration. The studies on the biology of sialic acids and sialyltransferases, the anabolic counterparts of sialidases, have revealed a complex picture with more than 50 sialic acid variants selectively present in the different branches of the tree of life. The gain/loss of specific sialoconjugates have been proposed as key events in the evolution of deuterostomes and Homo sapiens, as well as in the host-pathogen interactions. To date, less attention has been paid to the evolution of sialidases. Thus we have conducted a survey on the state of the sialidase family in metazoan. Using an in silico approach, we identified and characterized sialidase orthologs from 21 different organisms distributed among the evolutionary tree: Metazoa relative (Monosiga brevicollis, early Deuterostomia, precursor of Chordata and Vertebrata (teleost fishes, amphibians, reptiles, avians and early and recent mammals. We were able to reconstruct the evolution of the sialidase protein family from the ancestral sialidase NEU1 and identify a new form of the enzyme, NEU5, representing an intermediate step in the evolution leading to the modern NEU3, NEU4 and NEU2. Our study provides new insights on the mechanisms that shaped the substrate specificity and other peculiar properties of the modern mammalian sialidases. Moreover, we further confirm findings on the catalytic residues and identified enzyme loop portions that behave as rapidly diverging regions and may

  12. Does Students' Financial Behaviour Differ Based on Their Family Income?

    OpenAIRE

    Dorjana Nano; Teuta Llukani

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the differences on Financial Behaviour among Albanian university students based on their family income. The main objectives of this study are: i) firstly, to assess the level of financial behaviour of Albanian university students; ii) to examine whether the financial behaviour differs based on the level of students family income; and ii) finally, , to provide some conclusions and policy implications with regard to financial behaviour. An instrument comprised of specifi...

  13. [The physical development of children in families with different financial position].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonova, I A; Khomich, M M

    2010-01-01

    Physical development is one of the important health indices in children. Anthropometric data were analyzed in 660 and 113 children from rich and poor families, respectively. The performed investigation revealed the following features of physical development of children in families with different financial position: (1) impaired physical development is equally common in the families with low (284.85% per hundred) and high (292.04% per hundred) incomes (p > 0.05); (2) the pattern of distribution of different types of physical development is not determined by the financial position of a family; however, it may be noted that there is a preponderance of children with disharmonious development in the high-income families due to excess weight for both average age indices and height. Every seven child from a high-income family has excess weight. Naturally, the lower financial position of a family is, the higher proportion of children with nutritional state below the average low values is; (3) the children in low-income families have lower height. The revealed specific features may be largely accounted for by specific nutritional features and motor activity in children, which should be kept in mind in working out the programs on therapeutic-and-prophylactic work with these population categories.

  14. INTERETHNIC DIFFERENCES OF YOUNG FAMILY NEEDS IN VARIOUS TYPES OF HELP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vladimirovna Anafjanova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Various types of young family needs noted by the author are studied in the article: a need for parents’ help, state support, medical and social services.It is established that needs for medical and social help initially predominate in the structure of requirements of ethnic cohorts of young families both in cities and countryside, increasing according to the period and duration of marriage of a family.Ethnic differences of young family needs are revealed in all studied cohorts in the structure of the less significant types of assistance – parents’ help and state support, undoubtedly, due to the differences in reproductive activity of young ethnic families depending on the area of residence.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-2

  15. Strategy revealing phenotypic differences among synthetic oscillator designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A

    2014-09-19

    Considerable progress has been made in identifying and characterizing the component parts of genetic oscillators, which play central roles in all organisms. Nonlinear interaction among components is sufficiently complex that mathematical models are required to elucidate their elusive integrated behavior. Although natural and synthetic oscillators exhibit common architectures, there are numerous differences that are poorly understood. Utilizing synthetic biology to uncover basic principles of simpler circuits is a way to advance understanding of natural circadian clocks and rhythms. Following this strategy, we address the following questions: What are the implications of different architectures and molecular modes of transcriptional control for the phenotypic repertoire of genetic oscillators? Are there designs that are more realizable or robust? We compare synthetic oscillators involving one of three architectures and various combinations of the two modes of transcriptional control using a methodology that provides three innovations: a rigorous definition of phenotype, a procedure for deconstructing complex systems into qualitatively distinct phenotypes, and a graphical representation for illuminating the relationship between genotype, environment, and the qualitatively distinct phenotypes of a system. These methods provide a global perspective on the behavioral repertoire, facilitate comparisons of alternatives, and assist the rational design of synthetic gene circuitry. In particular, the results of their application here reveal distinctive phenotypes for several designs that have been studied experimentally as well as a best design among the alternatives that has yet to be constructed and tested.

  16. Intergenerational family solidarity: value differences between immigrant groups and generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Eva-Maria; Ozeke-Kocabas, Ezgi; Oort, Frans J; Schuengel, Carlo

    2009-06-01

    Although immigrants may be more dependent on their immediate family for support, they may also experience a wider generation-gap in values regarding intergenerational solidarity, because of processes of acculturation. Based on large scale survey data (N = 2,028), differences between first and second generation immigrants in values regarding intergenerational solidarity were examined among family members in the Netherlands with an immigration background from Turkey, Morocco, Suriname, and The Dutch Antilles. Using a multilevel analytic approach, effects of family and individual characteristics on values regarding intergenerational solidarity were tested, considering the perspectives of two generations. It was found that immigrants with Moroccan and Turkish backgrounds scored higher on values with respect to intergenerational family solidarity than immigrants stemming from Suriname and The Antilles. First generation immigrants placed higher values on family solidarity compared to second generation immigrants. Additionally, religious denomination was a significant predictor of higher values with respect to intergenerational family solidarity. Immigration and acculturation may create great strains in migrant families. Policies to support the fabric of intergenerational solidarity should consider ethnic and religious background and immigration history. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Comparative genome analysis of PHB gene family reveals deep evolutionary origins and diverse gene function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Chao; Xu, Wenying; Su, Zhen; Yuan, Joshua S

    2010-10-07

    PHB (Prohibitin) gene family is involved in a variety of functions important for different biological processes. PHB genes are ubiquitously present in divergent species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Human PHB genes have been found to be associated with various diseases. Recent studies by our group and others have shown diverse function of PHB genes in plants for development, senescence, defence, and others. Despite the importance of the PHB gene family, no comprehensive gene family analysis has been carried to evaluate the relatedness of PHB genes across different species. In order to better guide the gene function analysis and understand the evolution of the PHB gene family, we therefore carried out the comparative genome analysis of the PHB genes across different kingdoms. The relatedness, motif distribution, and intron/exon distribution all indicated that PHB genes is a relatively conserved gene family. The PHB genes can be classified into 5 classes and each class have a very deep evolutionary origin. The PHB genes within the class maintained the same motif patterns during the evolution. With Arabidopsis as the model species, we found that PHB gene intron/exon structure and domains are also conserved during the evolution. Despite being a conserved gene family, various gene duplication events led to the expansion of the PHB genes. Both segmental and tandem gene duplication were involved in Arabidopsis PHB gene family expansion. However, segmental duplication is predominant in Arabidopsis. Moreover, most of the duplicated genes experienced neofunctionalization. The results highlighted that PHB genes might be involved in important functions so that the duplicated genes are under the evolutionary pressure to derive new function. PHB gene family is a conserved gene family and accounts for diverse but important biological functions based on the similar molecular mechanisms. The highly diverse biological function indicated that more research needs to be carried out

  18. A different kind of honor culture : Family honor and aggression in Turks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Osch, Y.M.J.; Breugelmans, S.M.; Zeelenberg, M.; Bölük, P.

    2013-01-01

    Masculine honor has been found to explain the relationship between insults and aggression in the USA. However, detailed accounts of Mediterranean honor cultures suggest that family honor may be more important in explaining cross-cultural differences in aggression. Two studies revealed that people

  19. A different kind of honor culture : Family honor and aggression in Turks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Osch, Yvette; Breugelmans, Seger M.; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Bölük, Pinar

    Masculine honor has been found to explain the relationship between insults and aggression in the USA. However, detailed accounts of Mediterranean honor cultures suggest that family honor may be more important in explaining cross-cultural differences in aggression. Two studies revealed that people

  20. Gender Differences in Career Self-Efficacy: Combining a Career with Home and Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Sue A.; Bonett, Rhonda M.

    1991-01-01

    Piloted Career Attitude Scale, measure of career self-efficacy, with college students (n=130) and examined gender differences in career self-efficacy. Compared to men, women reported greater efficacy in terms of combining traditional career with family and home activities. Women also revealed greater confidence that they could competently handle…

  1. Whole Exome Sequencing Reveals Genetic Predisposition in a Large Family with Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing has become more widely used to reveal genetic defect in monogenic disorders. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP, the leading cause of hereditary blindness worldwide, has been attributed to more than 67 disease-causing genes. Due to the extreme genetic heterogeneity, using general molecular screening alone is inadequate for identifying genetic predispositions in susceptible individuals. In order to identify underlying mutation rapidly, we utilized next-generation sequencing in a four-generation Chinese family with RP. Two affected patients and an unaffected sibling were subjected to whole exome sequencing. Through bioinformatics analysis and direct sequencing confirmation, we identified p.R135W transition in the rhodopsin gene. The mutation was subsequently confirmed to cosegregate with the disease in the family. In this study, our results suggest that whole exome sequencing is a robust method in diagnosing familial hereditary disease.

  2. Comparative analysis of fungal genomes reveals different plant cell wall degrading capacity in fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Fungi produce a variety of carbohydrate activity enzymes (CAZymes) for the degradation of plant polysaccharide materials to facilitate infection and/or gain nutrition. Identifying and comparing CAZymes from fungi with different nutritional modes or infection mechanisms may provide information for better understanding of their life styles and infection models. To date, over hundreds of fungal genomes are publicly available. However, a systematic comparative analysis of fungal CAZymes across the entire fungal kingdom has not been reported. Results In this study, we systemically identified glycoside hydrolases (GHs), polysaccharide lyases (PLs), carbohydrate esterases (CEs), and glycosyltransferases (GTs) as well as carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) in the predicted proteomes of 103 representative fungi from Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. Comparative analysis of these CAZymes that play major roles in plant polysaccharide degradation revealed that fungi exhibit tremendous diversity in the number and variety of CAZymes. Among them, some families of GHs and CEs are the most prevalent CAZymes that are distributed in all of the fungi analyzed. Importantly, cellulases of some GH families are present in fungi that are not known to have cellulose-degrading ability. In addition, our results also showed that in general, plant pathogenic fungi have the highest number of CAZymes. Biotrophic fungi tend to have fewer CAZymes than necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungi. Pathogens of dicots often contain more pectinases than fungi infecting monocots. Interestingly, besides yeasts, many saprophytic fungi that are highly active in degrading plant biomass contain fewer CAZymes than plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, analysis of the gene expression profile of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum revealed that most of the CAZyme genes related to cell wall degradation were up-regulated during plant infection. Phylogenetic analysis also

  3. Kinds of access: different methods for report reveal different kinds of metacognitive access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Morten; Sandberg, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    In experimental investigations of consciousness, participants are asked to reflect upon their own experiences by issuing reports about them in different ways. For this reason, a participant needs some access to the content of her own conscious experience in order to report. In such experiments, the reports typically consist of some variety of ratings of confidence or direct descriptions of one's own experiences. Whereas different methods of reporting are typically used interchangeably, recent experiments indicate that different results are obtained with different kinds of reporting. We argue that there is not only a theoretical, but also an empirical difference between different methods of reporting. We hypothesize that differences in the sensitivity of different scales may reveal that different types of access are used to issue direct reports about experiences and metacognitive reports about the classification process. PMID:22492747

  4. Aquatic insect ecophysiological traits reveal phylogenetically based differences in dissolved cadmium susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwalter, David B; Cain, Daniel J; Martin, Caitrin A; Xie, Lingtian; Luoma, Samuel N; Garland, Theodore

    2008-06-17

    We used a phylogenetically based comparative approach to evaluate the potential for physiological studies to reveal patterns of diversity in traits related to susceptibility to an environmental stressor, the trace metal cadmium (Cd). Physiological traits related to Cd bioaccumulation, compartmentalization, and ultimately susceptibility were measured in 21 aquatic insect species representing the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera. We mapped these experimentally derived physiological traits onto a phylogeny and quantified the tendency for related species to be similar (phylogenetic signal). All traits related to Cd bioaccumulation and susceptibility exhibited statistically significant phylogenetic signal, although the signal strength varied among traits. Conventional and phylogenetically based regression models were compared, revealing great variability within orders but consistent, strong differences among insect families. Uptake and elimination rate constants were positively correlated among species, but only when effects of body size and phylogeny were incorporated in the analysis. Together, uptake and elimination rates predicted dramatic Cd bioaccumulation differences among species that agreed with field-based measurements. We discovered a potential tradeoff between the ability to eliminate Cd and the ability to detoxify it across species, particularly mayflies. The best-fit regression models were driven by phylogenetic parameters (especially differences among families) rather than functional traits, suggesting that it may eventually be possible to predict a taxon's physiological performance based on its phylogenetic position, provided adequate physiological information is available for close relatives. There appears to be great potential for evolutionary physiological approaches to augment our understanding of insect responses to environmental stressors in nature.

  5. Human mast cell tryptase: Multiple cDNAs and genes reveal a multigene serine protease family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderslice, P.; Ballinger, S.M.; Tam, E.K.; Goldstein, S.M.; Craik, C.S.; Caughey, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    Three different cDNAs and a gene encoding human skin mast cell tryptase have been cloned and sequenced in their entirety. The deduced amino acid sequences reveal a 30-amino acid prepropeptide followed by a 245-amino acid catalytic domain. The C-terminal undecapeptide of the human preprosequence is identical in dog tryptase and appears to be part of a prosequence unique among serine proteases. The differences among the three human tryptase catalytic domains include the loss of a consensus N-glycosylation site in one cDNA, which may explain some of the heterogeneity in size and susceptibility to deglycosylation seen in tryptase preparations. All three tryptase cDNAs are distinct from a recently reported cDNA obtained from a human lung mast cell library. A skin tryptase cDNA was used to isolate a human tryptase gene, the exons of which match one of the skin-derived cDNAs. The organization of the ∼1.8-kilobase-pair tryptase gene is unique and is not closely related to that of any other mast cell or leukocyte serine protease. The 5' regulatory regions of the gene share features with those of other serine proteases, including mast cell chymase, but are unusual in being separated from the protein-coding sequence by an intron. High-stringency hybridization of a human genomic DNA blot with a fragment of the tryptase gene confirms the presence of multiple tryptase genes. These findings provide genetic evidence that human mast cell tryptases are the products of a multigene family

  6. Extensive expansion of A1 family aspartic proteinases in fungi revealed by evolutionary analyses of 107 complete eukaryotic proteomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revuelta, M.V.; Kan, van J.A.L.; Kay, J.; Have, ten A.

    2014-01-01

    The A1 family of eukaryotic aspartic proteinases (APs) forms one of the 16 AP families. Although one of the best characterized families, the recent increase in genome sequence data has revealed many fungal AP homologs with novel sequence characteristics. This study was performed to explore the

  7. Gender Differences in the Family Situation of Brazilian Street Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelli, M.; Koller, S. H.; Reppold, C.; Kuschick, M.; Krum, F.; Bandeira, D.; Simoes, C.

    The goal of this analysis was to examine gender differences in the experiences of children and adolescents found on city streets. It has been proposed that girls who leave home to seek their survival on city streets are from more disturbed families than boys, reflecting cultural factors that result in differential norms for male and female…

  8. Racial Differences in Exposure and Reactivity to Daily Family Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, Kelly E.; Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the National Study of Daily Experiences, the authors examined racial differences in exposure and reactivity to daily stressors involving family members. Respondents included African American and European American adults age 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) who participated in 8 days of daily interviews during which they reported on daily…

  9. Intergenerational family solidarity: value differences between immigrant groups and generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, Eva-Maria; Ozeke-Kocabas, Ezgi; Oort, Frans J.; Schuengel, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Although immigrants may be more dependent on their immediate family for support, they may also experience a wider generation-gap in values regarding intergenerational solidarity, because of processes of acculturation. Based on large scale survey data (N = 2,028), differences between first and second

  10. Differences in Family Policies and the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The intergenerational transmission of the risk of divorce is a well-known long-term effect of divorce that has been found in many Western societies. Less known is what effect different family policies and divorce laws have on the intergenerational transmission of divorce. In this paper, the division of Germany into two separate states from 1949 until 1990, with the consequent development of two very different family policies, is regarded as a natural experiment that enables us to investigate the effect of family policy on the mechanisms underlying the social inheritance of divorce. Data from respondents from the former East and West Germany participating in the German Life History Study are analyzed using multivariate event-history methods. The results indicate that the strength of the intergenerational divorce transmission, when adjusted for differences in divorce level, was lower in the East than in the West. Differences in religion, marriage age and timing of first birth, which are partial indicators of family policy, could explain this effect. Furthermore, we did find a tendency towards a reduction in the dynamics of divorce transmission over time, both in East Germany and in West Germany.

  11. Metabolomic Analyses of Leishmania Reveal Multiple Species Differences and Large Differences in Amino Acid Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth D Westrop

    Full Text Available Comparative genomic analyses of Leishmania species have revealed relatively minor heterogeneity amongst recognised housekeeping genes and yet the species cause distinct infections and pathogenesis in their mammalian hosts. To gain greater information on the biochemical variation between species, and insights into possible metabolic mechanisms underpinning visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, we have undertaken in this study a comparative analysis of the metabolomes of promastigotes of L. donovani, L. major and L. mexicana. The analysis revealed 64 metabolites with confirmed identity differing 3-fold or more between the cell extracts of species, with 161 putatively identified metabolites differing similarly. Analysis of the media from cultures revealed an at least 3-fold difference in use or excretion of 43 metabolites of confirmed identity and 87 putatively identified metabolites that differed to a similar extent. Strikingly large differences were detected in their extent of amino acid use and metabolism, especially for tryptophan, aspartate, arginine and proline. Major pathways of tryptophan and arginine catabolism were shown to be to indole-3-lactate and arginic acid, respectively, which were excreted. The data presented provide clear evidence on the value of global metabolomic analyses in detecting species-specific metabolic features, thus application of this technology should be a major contributor to gaining greater understanding of how pathogens are adapted to infecting their hosts.

  12. Sex Differences in Familiality Effects on Neurocognitive Performance in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Monica E.; Ray, Amrita; Gur, Ruben C.; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Light, Gregory A.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D.; Seidman, Larry J.; Siever, Larry J.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Stone, William S.; Sugar, Catherine; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Tsuang, Debby W.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Braff, David L.; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Gur, Raquel E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have documented that patients with schizophrenia show neurocognitive impairments, which are also heritable in schizophrenia families. In view of these findings, the current investigation tested the hypothesis that neurocognitive performance of schizophrenia probands can predict the neurocognitive performance of their unaffected family members. Methods Participants (n=1,967; schizophrenia=369; first-degree relatives=1,072; community comparison subjects=526) in the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) were administered the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB). Results Consistent with prior work, probands showed significant neurocognitive impairment, and neurocognitive ability was significantly heritable, across domains. On average, unaffected relatives did not differ from community comparison subjects in their neurocognitive performance. However, in 6 of 7 domains, probands’ score predicted the performance of their unaffected siblings. Male, but not female, probands’ performance was predictive of their unaffected relatives (siblings and mothers) performance, most consistently in face memory and spatial processing. Conclusions Using a novel approach in which individual probands are paired with their respective unaffected relatives within each family, we found that male probands’ performance predicted both sister and brother performance, an effect that was most powerfully observed for face memory and spatial processing. Results suggest that the familial transmission of sexually dimorphic neurocognitive domains, in which a particular sex tends to show a performance advantage over the other, may not itself be sex specific in schizophrenia families. PMID:23395246

  13. Sex differences in familiality effects on neurocognitive performance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Monica E; Ray, Amrita; Gur, Ruben C; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Light, Gregory A; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D; Seidman, Larry J; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Stone, William S; Sugar, Catherine; Swerdlow, Neal R; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Turetsky, Bruce I; Braff, David L; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Gur, Raquel E

    2013-05-15

    Numerous studies have documented that patients with schizophrenia show neurocognitive impairments, which are also heritable in schizophrenia families. In view of these findings, the current investigation tested the hypothesis that neurocognitive performance of schizophrenia probands can predict the neurocognitive performance of their unaffected family members. Participants (n=1967; schizophrenia=369; first-degree relatives=1072; community comparison subjects=526) in the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia were administered the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery. Consistent with prior work, probands showed significant neurocognitive impairment, and neurocognitive ability was significantly heritable across domains. On average, unaffected relatives did not differ from community comparison subjects in their neurocognitive performance. However, in six of seven domains, proband scores predicted the performance of their unaffected siblings. Male, but not female, proband performance was predictive of their unaffected relatives' (siblings and mothers) performance, most consistently in face memory and spatial processing. Using a novel approach in which individual probands are paired with their respective unaffected relatives within each family, we found that male proband performance predicted both sister and brother performance, an effect that was most powerfully observed for face memory and spatial processing. Results suggest that the familial transmission of sexually dimorphic neurocognitive domains, in which a particular sex tends to show a performance advantage over the other, may not itself be sex specific in schizophrenia families. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of the avian Trojan gene family reveals contrasting evolutionary constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Petrov

    Full Text Available "Trojan" is a leukocyte-specific, cell surface protein originally identified in the chicken. Its molecular function has been hypothesized to be related to anti-apoptosis and the proliferation of immune cells. The Trojan gene has been localized onto the Z sex chromosome. The adjacent two genes also show significant homology to Trojan, suggesting the existence of a novel gene/protein family. Here, we characterize this Trojan family, identify homologues in other species and predict evolutionary constraints on these genes. The two Trojan-related proteins in chicken were predicted as a receptor-type tyrosine phosphatase and a transmembrane protein, bearing a cytoplasmic immuno-receptor tyrosine-based activation motif. We identified the Trojan gene family in ten other bird species and found related genes in three reptiles and a fish species. The phylogenetic analysis of the homologues revealed a gradual diversification among the family members. Evolutionary analyzes of the avian genes predicted that the extracellular regions of the proteins have been subjected to positive selection. Such selection was possibly a response to evolving interacting partners or to pathogen challenges. We also observed an almost complete lack of intracellular positively selected sites, suggesting a conserved signaling mechanism of the molecules. Therefore, the contrasting patterns of selection likely correlate with the interaction and signaling potential of the molecules.

  15. Characterization of the avian Trojan gene family reveals contrasting evolutionary constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Petar; Syrjänen, Riikka; Smith, Jacqueline; Gutowska, Maria Weronika; Uchida, Tatsuya; Vainio, Olli; Burt, David W

    2015-01-01

    "Trojan" is a leukocyte-specific, cell surface protein originally identified in the chicken. Its molecular function has been hypothesized to be related to anti-apoptosis and the proliferation of immune cells. The Trojan gene has been localized onto the Z sex chromosome. The adjacent two genes also show significant homology to Trojan, suggesting the existence of a novel gene/protein family. Here, we characterize this Trojan family, identify homologues in other species and predict evolutionary constraints on these genes. The two Trojan-related proteins in chicken were predicted as a receptor-type tyrosine phosphatase and a transmembrane protein, bearing a cytoplasmic immuno-receptor tyrosine-based activation motif. We identified the Trojan gene family in ten other bird species and found related genes in three reptiles and a fish species. The phylogenetic analysis of the homologues revealed a gradual diversification among the family members. Evolutionary analyzes of the avian genes predicted that the extracellular regions of the proteins have been subjected to positive selection. Such selection was possibly a response to evolving interacting partners or to pathogen challenges. We also observed an almost complete lack of intracellular positively selected sites, suggesting a conserved signaling mechanism of the molecules. Therefore, the contrasting patterns of selection likely correlate with the interaction and signaling potential of the molecules.

  16. Chicken genome analysis reveals novel genes encoding biotin-binding proteins related to avidin family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordlund Henri R

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A chicken egg contains several biotin-binding proteins (BBPs, whose complete DNA and amino acid sequences are not known. In order to identify and characterise these genes and proteins we studied chicken cDNAs and genes available in the NCBI database and chicken genome database using the reported N-terminal amino acid sequences of chicken egg-yolk BBPs as search strings. Results Two separate hits showing significant homology for these N-terminal sequences were discovered. For one of these hits, the chromosomal location in the immediate proximity of the avidin gene family was found. Both of these hits encode proteins having high sequence similarity with avidin suggesting that chicken BBPs are paralogous to avidin family. In particular, almost all residues corresponding to biotin binding in avidin are conserved in these putative BBP proteins. One of the found DNA sequences, however, seems to encode a carboxy-terminal extension not present in avidin. Conclusion We describe here the predicted properties of the putative BBP genes and proteins. Our present observations link BBP genes together with avidin gene family and shed more light on the genetic arrangement and variability of this family. In addition, comparative modelling revealed the potential structural elements important for the functional and structural properties of the putative BBP proteins.

  17. Genomewide mapping reveals a combination of different genetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    could not investigate all kinds of genetic effects, especially epistatic effects, simultaneously on the whole genome. ... consistent with different loci affecting heterosis for different ...... Jones D. F. 1917 Dominance of linked factors as a means of.

  18. Religious Differences in Modernization of the Family: Family Demographics Trends in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Tim B.; Darkwah, Akosua

    2011-01-01

    This research examines trends in a broad set of reproductive and marital behaviors in Ghana, focusing on religious group differences. These comparisons provide evidence of how family trends are constrained by religious identity in a less developed country. Three waves of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys are used to track trends in the age…

  19. The Evolution of Two-Component Systems in Bacteria RevealsDifferent Strategies for Niche Adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Eric; Huang, Katherine; Arkin, Adam

    2006-09-13

    Two-component systems including histidine protein kinasesrepresent the primary signal transduction paradigm in prokaryoticorganisms. To understand how these systems adapt to allow organisms todetect niche-specific signals, we analyzed the phylogenetic distributionof nearly 5000 histidine protein kinases from 207 sequenced prokaryoticgenomes. We found that many genomes carry a large repertoire of recentlyevolved signaling genes, which may reflect selective pressure to adapt tonew environmental conditions. Both lineage-specific gene family expansionand horizontal gene transfer play major roles in the introduction of newhistidine kinases into genomes; however, there are differences in howthese two evolutionary forces act. Genes imported via horizontal transferare more likely to retain their original functionality as inferred from asimilar complement of signaling domains, while gene family expansionaccompanied by domain shuffling appears to be a major source of novelgenetic diversity. Family expansion is the dominantsource of newhistidine kinase genes in the genomes most enriched in signalingproteins, and detailed analysis reveals that divergence in domainstructure and changes in expression patterns are hallmarks of recentexpansions. Finally, while these two modes of gene acquisition arewidespread across bacterial taxa, there are clear species-specificpreferences for which mode is used.

  20. Effective connectivity reveals strategy differences in an expert calculator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Minati

    Full Text Available Mathematical reasoning is a core component of cognition and the study of experts defines the upper limits of human cognitive abilities, which is why we are fascinated by peak performers, such as chess masters and mental calculators. Here, we investigated the neural bases of calendrical skills, i.e. the ability to rapidly identify the weekday of a particular date, in a gifted mental calculator who does not fall in the autistic spectrum, using functional MRI. Graph-based mapping of effective connectivity, but not univariate analysis, revealed distinct anatomical location of "cortical hubs" supporting the processing of well-practiced close dates and less-practiced remote dates: the former engaged predominantly occipital and medial temporal areas, whereas the latter were associated mainly with prefrontal, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate connectivity. These results point to the effect of extensive practice on the development of expertise and long term working memory, and demonstrate the role of frontal networks in supporting performance on less practiced calculations, which incur additional processing demands. Through the example of calendrical skills, our results demonstrate that the ability to perform complex calculations is initially supported by extensive attentional and strategic resources, which, as expertise develops, are gradually replaced by access to long term working memory for familiar material.

  1. Attention: Reaction Time and Accuracy Reveal Different Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzmetal, William; McCool, Christin; Park, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    The authors propose that there are 2 different mechanisms whereby spatial cues capture attention. The voluntary mechanism is the strategic allocation of perceptual resources to the location most likely to contain the target. The involuntary mechanism is a reflexive orienting response that occurs even when the spatial cue does not indicate the…

  2. Correction: Comparative analysis of fungal genomes reveals different plant cell wall degrading capacity in fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The version of this article published in BMC Genomics 2013, 14: 274, contains 9 unpublished genomes (Botryobasidium botryosum, Gymnopus luxurians, Hypholoma sublateritium, Jaapia argillacea, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Conidiobolus coronatus, Laccaria amethystina, Paxillus involutus, and P. rubicundulus) downloaded from JGI website. In this correction, we removed these genomes after discussion with editors and data producers whom we should have contacted before downloading these genomes. Removing these data did not alter the principle results and conclusions of our original work. The relevant Figures 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6; and Table 1 have been revised. Additional files 1, 3, 4, and 5 were also revised. We would like to apologize for any confusion or inconvenience this may have caused. Background Fungi produce a variety of carbohydrate activity enzymes (CAZymes) for the degradation of plant polysaccharide materials to facilitate infection and/or gain nutrition. Identifying and comparing CAZymes from fungi with different nutritional modes or infection mechanisms may provide information for better understanding of their life styles and infection models. To date, over hundreds of fungal genomes are publicly available. However, a systematic comparative analysis of fungal CAZymes across the entire fungal kingdom has not been reported. Results In this study, we systemically identified glycoside hydrolases (GHs), polysaccharide lyases (PLs), carbohydrate esterases (CEs), and glycosyltransferases (GTs) as well as carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) in the predicted proteomes of 94 representative fungi from Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. Comparative analysis of these CAZymes that play major roles in plant polysaccharide degradation revealed that fungi exhibit tremendous diversity in the number and variety of CAZymes. Among them, some families of GHs and CEs are the most prevalent CAZymes that are distributed in all of the fungi analyzed

  3. Simulating fiction: individual differences in literature comprehension revealed with FMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Annabel D; Willems, Roel M

    2015-01-01

    When we read literary fiction, we are transported to fictional places, and we feel and think along with the characters. Despite the importance of narrative in adult life and during development, the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying fiction comprehension are unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how individuals differently employ neural networks important for understanding others' beliefs and intentions (mentalizing), and for sensori-motor simulation while listening to excerpts from literary novels. Localizer tasks were used to localize both the cortical motor network and the mentalizing network in participants after they listened to excerpts from literary novels. Results show that participants who had high activation in anterior medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC; part of the mentalizing network) when listening to mentalizing content of literary fiction, had lower motor cortex activity when they listened to action-related content of the story, and vice versa. This qualifies how people differ in their engagement with fiction: some people are mostly drawn into a story by mentalizing about the thoughts and beliefs of others, whereas others engage in literature by simulating more concrete events such as actions. This study provides on-line neural evidence for the existence of qualitatively different styles of moving into literary worlds, and adds to a growing body of literature showing the potential to study narrative comprehension with neuroimaging methods.

  4. Molecular and morphological analyses reveal phylogenetic relationships of stingrays focusing on the family Dasyatidae (Myliobatiformes.

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    Kean Chong Lim

    Full Text Available Elucidating the phylogenetic relationships of the current but problematic Dasyatidae (Order Myliobatiformes was the first priority of the current study. Here, we studied three molecular gene markers of 43 species (COI gene, 33 species (ND2 gene and 34 species (RAG1 gene of stingrays to draft out the phylogenetic tree of the order. Nine character states were identified and used to confirm the molecularly constructed phylogenetic trees. Eight or more clades (at different hierarchical level were identified for COI, ND2 and RAG1 genes in the Myliobatiformes including four clades containing members of the present Dasyatidae, thus rendering the latter non-monophyletic. The uncorrected p-distance between these four 'Dasytidae' clades when compared to the distance between formally known families confirmed that these four clades should be elevated to four separate families. We suggest a revision of the present classification, retaining the Dasyatidae (Dasyatis and Taeniurops species but adding three new families namely, Neotrygonidae (Neotrygon and Taeniura species, Himanturidae (Himantura species and Pastinachidae (Pastinachus species. Our result indicated the need to further review the classification of Dasyatis microps. By resolving the non-monophyletic problem, the suite of nine character states enables the natural classification of the Myliobatiformes into at least thirteen families based on morphology.

  5. Genomic Comparisons Reveal Microevolutionary Differences in Mycobacterium abscessus Subspecies

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    Joon L. Tan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapid-growing non-tuberculous mycobacterium, has been the cause of sporadic and outbreak infections world-wide. The subspecies in M. abscessus complex (M. abscessus, M. massiliense, and M. bolletii are associated with different biologic and pathogenic characteristics and are known to be among the most frequently isolated opportunistic pathogens from clinical material. To date, the evolutionary forces that could have contributed to these biological and clinical differences are still unclear. We compared genome data from 243 M. abscessus strains downloaded from the NCBI ftp Refseq database to understand how the microevolutionary processes of homologous recombination and positive selection influenced the diversification of the M. abscessus complex at the subspecies level. The three subspecies are clearly separated in the Minimum Spanning Tree. Their MUMi-based genomic distances support the separation of M. massiliense and M. bolletii into two subspecies. Maximum Likelihood analysis through dN/dS (the ratio of number of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site, to the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site identified distinct genes in each subspecies that could have been affected by positive selection during evolution. The results of genome-wide alignment based on concatenated locally-collinear blocks suggest that (a recombination has affected the M. abscessus complex more than mutation and positive selection; (b recombination occurred more frequently in M. massiliense than in the other two subspecies; and (c the recombined segments in the three subspecies have come from different intra-species and inter-species origins. The results lead to the identification of possible gene sets that could have been responsible for the subspecies-specific features and suggest independent evolution among the three subspecies, with recombination playing a more significant role than positive selection in the

  6. Genomic Comparisons Reveal Microevolutionary Differences in Mycobacterium abscessus Subspecies

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    Tan, Joon L.; Ng, Kee P.; Ong, Chia S.; Ngeow, Yun F.

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapid-growing non-tuberculous mycobacterium, has been the cause of sporadic and outbreak infections world-wide. The subspecies in M. abscessus complex (M. abscessus, M. massiliense, and M. bolletii) are associated with different biologic and pathogenic characteristics and are known to be among the most frequently isolated opportunistic pathogens from clinical material. To date, the evolutionary forces that could have contributed to these biological and clinical differences are still unclear. We compared genome data from 243 M. abscessus strains downloaded from the NCBI ftp Refseq database to understand how the microevolutionary processes of homologous recombination and positive selection influenced the diversification of the M. abscessus complex at the subspecies level. The three subspecies are clearly separated in the Minimum Spanning Tree. Their MUMi-based genomic distances support the separation of M. massiliense and M. bolletii into two subspecies. Maximum Likelihood analysis through dN/dS (the ratio of number of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site, to the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site) identified distinct genes in each subspecies that could have been affected by positive selection during evolution. The results of genome-wide alignment based on concatenated locally-collinear blocks suggest that (a) recombination has affected the M. abscessus complex more than mutation and positive selection; (b) recombination occurred more frequently in M. massiliense than in the other two subspecies; and (c) the recombined segments in the three subspecies have come from different intra-species and inter-species origins. The results lead to the identification of possible gene sets that could have been responsible for the subspecies-specific features and suggest independent evolution among the three subspecies, with recombination playing a more significant role than positive selection in the diversification

  7. Gender differences in insomnia and the role of paid work and family responsibilities.

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    Yoshioka, Eiji; Saijo, Yasuaki; Kita, Toshiko; Satoh, Hiroki; Kawaharada, Mariko; Fukui, Tomonori; Kishi, Reiko

    2012-04-01

    A higher prevalence of insomnia in females has been consistently demonstrated across countries and cultures. The aim of this study was to clarify whether gender differences in insomnia could be explained by gender differences in paid work and family responsibilities. Participants were employees at two local governments in Hokkaido, Japan, who underwent annual health checkups from April 2003 to March 2004. All data were obtained via self-administered questionnaires. Insomnia was evaluated by the Athens Insomnia Scale. For work and family characteristics, occupation, working hours, days off, shift work, visual display terminal (VDT) work, occupational stress, marital status, hours spent on household tasks, childcare, and caregiving were chosen. Data from 7,451 participants (5,951 men and 1,500 women) were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis examined how much paid work and family responsibilities explained gender differences in insomnia. The prevalence of insomnia in female subjects (31.0%) was significantly larger than in males (23.2%), but the gender difference disappeared after adjustment for paid work and family responsibilities. The results of stratified analyses revealed that significant gender differences were found only among workers with comparatively favorable work and family conditions, such as non-shift work, less than 6 h/day of VDT work, exposure to low levels of occupational stress, household tasks for less than 1 h/day, and not living with persons who needed care and support. These results suggest that gender differences in insomnia are explained, in the main, by gender differences in work and family characteristics.

  8. Global Analysis of miRNA Gene Clusters and Gene Families Reveals Dynamic and Coordinated Expression

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    Li Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To further understand the potential expression relationships of miRNAs in miRNA gene clusters and gene families, a global analysis was performed in 4 paired tumor (breast cancer and adjacent normal tissue samples using deep sequencing datasets. The compositions of miRNA gene clusters and families are not random, and clustered and homologous miRNAs may have close relationships with overlapped miRNA species. Members in the miRNA group always had various expression levels, and even some showed larger expression divergence. Despite the dynamic expression as well as individual difference, these miRNAs always indicated consistent or similar deregulation patterns. The consistent deregulation expression may contribute to dynamic and coordinated interaction between different miRNAs in regulatory network. Further, we found that those clustered or homologous miRNAs that were also identified as sense and antisense miRNAs showed larger expression divergence. miRNA gene clusters and families indicated important biological roles, and the specific distribution and expression further enrich and ensure the flexible and robust regulatory network.

  9. Genome-wide analysis of the Dof transcription factor gene family reveals soybean-specific duplicable and functional characteristics.

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    Yong Guo

    Full Text Available The Dof domain protein family is a classic plant-specific zinc-finger transcription factor family involved in a variety of biological processes. There is great diversity in the number of Dof genes in different plants. However, there are only very limited reports on the characterization of Dof transcription factors in soybean (Glycine max. In the present study, 78 putative Dof genes were identified from the whole-genome sequence of soybean. The predicted GmDof genes were non-randomly distributed within and across 19 out of 20 chromosomes and 97.4% (38 pairs were preferentially retained duplicate paralogous genes located in duplicated regions of the genome. Soybean-specific segmental duplications contributed significantly to the expansion of the soybean Dof gene family. These Dof proteins were phylogenetically clustered into nine distinct subgroups among which the gene structure and motif compositions were considerably conserved. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of these Dof proteins revealed four major groups, similar to those reported for Arabidopsis and rice. Most of the GmDofs showed specific expression patterns based on RNA-seq data analyses. The expression patterns of some duplicate genes were partially redundant while others showed functional diversity, suggesting the occurrence of sub-functionalization during subsequent evolution. Comprehensive expression profile analysis also provided insights into the soybean-specific functional divergence among members of the Dof gene family. Cis-regulatory element analysis of these GmDof genes suggested diverse functions associated with different processes. Taken together, our results provide useful information for the functional characterization of soybean Dof genes by combining phylogenetic analysis with global gene-expression profiling.

  10. Letter knowledge in parent-child conversations: differences between families differing in socio-economic status.

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    Robins, Sarah; Ghosh, Dina; Rosales, Nicole; Treiman, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children's early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins and Treiman, 2009; Robins et al., 2012, 2014) of parent-child conversations that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provide preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent-child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child's name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms), but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams). Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child's name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent-child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children's early literacy skills and school readiness.

  11. Letter Knowledge in Parent–Child Conversations: Differences between Families Differing in Socio-Economic Status

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    Sarah eRobins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children’s early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins, Treiman, & Rosales, 2014; Robins, Treiman, Rosales, & Otake, 2012; Robins & Treiman, 2009 that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provides preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child’s name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms, but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams. Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child’s name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent–child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children’s early literacy skills and

  12. Impact of community-acquired paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis on family life: data from the REVEAL study.

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    Van der Wielen, Marie; Giaquinto, Carlo; Gothefors, Leif; Huelsse, Christel; Huet, Frédéric; Littmann, Martina; Maxwell, Melanie; Talayero, José M P; Todd, Peter; Vila, Miguel T; Cantarutti, Luigi; Van Damme, Pierre

    2010-03-15

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and the most frequent cause of severe diarrhoea in children aged less than 5 years. Although the epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) is well documented, there are few data on the impact of RVGE on the families of affected children. Data associated with the burden of RVGE, including number of working days lost, levels of parental stress, the need for alternative childcare arrangements and additional nappies used, were extracted from questionnaires completed by parents of children participating in a prospective, multicentre, observational study (Rotavirus gastroenteritis Epidemiology and Viral types in Europe Accounting for Losses in public health and society, REVEAL), conducted during 2004-2005 in selected areas of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom to estimate the incidence of RVGE in children aged less than 5 years seeking medical care as a result of AGE. 1102 children with RVGE were included in the present analysis. The proportion of RVGE cases that required at least one parent or other person to be absent from work was 39%-91% in the hospital setting, 44%-64% in the emergency department, and 20%-64% in primary care. Self-reported levels of parental stress were generally high (mean stress levels, > or = 5 on a 10-point visual analogue scale). Additional childcare arrangements were required in up to 21% of RVGE episodes. The mean number of nappies used per day during RVGE episodes was approximately double that used when the child was not ill. Paediatric RVGE cases cause disruption to families and parental stress. The burden of RVGE on children and their families could be substantially reduced by routine rotavirus vaccination of infants.

  13. Impact of community-acquired paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis on family life: data from the REVEAL study

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    Talayero José MP

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE and the most frequent cause of severe diarrhoea in children aged less than 5 years. Although the epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE is well documented, there are few data on the impact of RVGE on the families of affected children. Methods Data associated with the burden of RVGE, including number of working days lost, levels of parental stress, the need for alternative childcare arrangements and additional nappies used, were extracted from questionnaires completed by parents of children participating in a prospective, multicentre, observational study (Rotavirus gastroenteritis Epidemiology and Viral types in Europe Accounting for Losses in public health and society, REVEAL, conducted during 2004-2005 in selected areas of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom to estimate the incidence of RVGE in children aged less than 5 years seeking medical care as a result of AGE. Results 1102 children with RVGE were included in the present analysis. The proportion of RVGE cases that required at least one parent or other person to be absent from work was 39%-91% in the hospital setting, 44%-64% in the emergency department, and 20%-64% in primary care. Self-reported levels of parental stress were generally high (mean stress levels, ≥ 5 on a 10-point visual analogue scale. Additional childcare arrangements were required in up to 21% of RVGE episodes. The mean number of nappies used per day during RVGE episodes was approximately double that used when the child was not ill. Conclusions Paediatric RVGE cases cause disruption to families and parental stress. The burden of RVGE on children and their families could be substantially reduced by routine rotavirus vaccination of infants.

  14. Whole-Exome Sequencing Reveals Clinically Relevant Variants in Family Affected with Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Jiaxiu Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal microarray (CMA has been suggested as a first tier clinical diagnostic test for ASD. High-throughput sequencing (HTS has associated hundreds of genes associated with ASD. Whole Exome Sequencing (WES was used in combination with CMA to identify clinically-relevant ASD variants. In prior work, a trio-based (father, mother, and proband WGS (Whole Genome Sequencing was used to reveal clinically-relevant de novo, or inherited, rare variants in half (16 / 32 of the ASD families in which all probands had normal, or VOUS (Variant of Uncertain Clinical Significance, CMA results. In this study, after CMA screening chromosome structural abnormalities of a proband affected with ASD, a WES was performed on the patient and parents. Some rare de novo, and inherited, variants were detected using trio-based bioinformatics analysis. ASD variants were ranked by SFARI Gene score, HPO (human phenotype ontology, protein function damage, and manual searching PubMed. Sanger sequencing was used to validated some candidate variants in family members. A de novo homozygous mutation in SPG11 (p.C209F, two inherited, compound-heterozygote mutations in SCN9A (p.Q10R and p.R1893H and BEST1 (p.A135V and p.A297V were confirmed. Heterozygous mutations in TSC1 (p.S487C and SHANK2 (p.Arg569His inherited from mother were also confirmed.

  15. Different levels of food restriction reveal genotype-specific differences in learning a visual discrimination task.

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    Kalina Makowiecki

    Full Text Available In behavioural experiments, motivation to learn can be achieved using food rewards as positive reinforcement in food-restricted animals. Previous studies reduce animal weights to 80-90% of free-feeding body weight as the criterion for food restriction. However, effects of different degrees of food restriction on task performance have not been assessed. We compared learning task performance in mice food-restricted to 80 or 90% body weight (BW. We used adult wildtype (WT; C57Bl/6j and knockout (ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice, previously shown to have a reverse learning deficit. Mice were trained in a two-choice visual discrimination task with food reward as positive reinforcement. When mice reached criterion for one visual stimulus (80% correct in three consecutive 10 trial sets they began the reverse learning phase, where the rewarded stimulus was switched to the previously incorrect stimulus. For the initial learning and reverse phase of the task, mice at 90%BW took almost twice as many trials to reach criterion as mice at 80%BW. Furthermore, WT 80 and 90%BW groups significantly differed in percentage correct responses and learning strategy in the reverse learning phase, whereas no differences between weight restriction groups were observed in ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice. Most importantly, genotype-specific differences in reverse learning strategy were only detected in the 80%BW groups. Our results indicate that increased food restriction not only results in better performance and a shorter training period, but may also be necessary for revealing behavioural differences between experimental groups. This has important ethical and animal welfare implications when deciding extent of diet restriction in behavioural studies.

  16. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes.

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    Iannelli, Andrea M; Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Pinto, Liana Wenersbach

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration.

  17. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Iannelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration.

  18. Homozygosity mapping and targeted sanger sequencing reveal genetic defects underlying inherited retinal disease in families from pakistan.

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    Maleeha Maria

    Full Text Available Homozygosity mapping has facilitated the identification of the genetic causes underlying inherited diseases, particularly in consanguineous families with multiple affected individuals. This knowledge has also resulted in a mutation dataset that can be used in a cost and time effective manner to screen frequent population-specific genetic variations associated with diseases such as inherited retinal disease (IRD.We genetically screened 13 families from a cohort of 81 Pakistani IRD families diagnosed with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA, retinitis pigmentosa (RP, congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB, or cone dystrophy (CD. We employed genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array analysis to identify homozygous regions shared by affected individuals and performed Sanger sequencing of IRD-associated genes located in the sizeable homozygous regions. In addition, based on population specific mutation data we performed targeted Sanger sequencing (TSS of frequent variants in AIPL1, CEP290, CRB1, GUCY2D, LCA5, RPGRIP1 and TULP1, in probands from 28 LCA families.Homozygosity mapping and Sanger sequencing of IRD-associated genes revealed the underlying mutations in 10 families. TSS revealed causative variants in three families. In these 13 families four novel mutations were identified in CNGA1, CNGB1, GUCY2D, and RPGRIP1.Homozygosity mapping and TSS revealed the underlying genetic cause in 13 IRD families, which is useful for genetic counseling as well as therapeutic interventions that are likely to become available in the near future.

  19. Family Functioning Differences Across the Deployment Cycle in British Army Families: The Perceptions of Wives and Children.

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    Pye, Rachel E; Simpson, Leanne K

    2017-09-01

    Military deployment can have an adverse effect on a soldier's family, though little research has looked at these effects in a British sample. We investigated wives' of U.K.-serving soldiers perceptions of marital and family functioning, across three stages of the deployment cycle: currently deployed, postdeployment and predeployed, plus a nonmilitary comparison group. Uniquely, young (aged 3.5-11 years) children's perceptions of their family were also investigated, using the parent-child alliance (PCA) coding scheme of drawings of the family. Two hundred and twenty British military families of regular service personnel from the British Army's Royal Armoured Corps, were sent survey packs distributed with a monthly welfare office newsletter. Wives were asked to complete a series of self-report items, and the youngest child in the family between the ages of 3.5 and 11 years was asked to draw a picture of their family. Complete data were available for 78 military families, and an additional 34 nonmilitary families were recruited via opportunity sampling. Results indicated wives of currently deployed and recently returned personnel were less satisfied with their family and its communication, and children's pictures indicated higher levels of dysfunctional parent-child alliance, whereas predeployed families responded similarly to nonmilitary families. Marital satisfaction was similar across all groups except predeployed families who were significantly more satisfied. Nonmilitary and predeployed families showed balanced family functioning, and currently and recently deployed families demonstrated poor family functioning. In comparison to nonmilitary families, predeployed families showed a large "spike" in the rigidity subscale of the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale IV. Wives' perceptions of family functioning, but not marital satisfaction, differed between the deployment groups. The results from the coded children's drawings correlated with the self

  20. Effect of different children's menu labeling designs on family purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ashley S; Serrano, Elena L; Machin, Jane E; Duetsch, Thomas; Davis, George C

    2013-03-01

    The majority of labeling studies at restaurants have focused on adults, not children, and utilized cross-sectional data with one menu labeling design, typically calorie information. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the effect of three different menu labeling designs for children's meals on total calories and fat selected by families. Each menu was implemented for 2months. Patrons' purchases were tracked from a control menu (with no nutrition information) through all three theoretically-based designs: calorie and fat information; followed by symbols denoting healthier choices; then nutrition bargain price. All menus were created specifically for the study. They featured six combination meals (pre-determined entrees and side items) and a la carte items (entrees and side items that could be ordered separately). Only combination meals contained labeling. Fixed effects models were estimated to detect changes in sales for each menu labeling design compared to the control. Overall, menu labeling did not result in a positive net effect on total calories or fat purchased by families, but resulted in significant shifts in purchases of combination and a la carte meals and healthy and unhealthy options. The most significant impact was seen for nutrition bargain price labeling, the last design. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional interactome of Aquaporin 1 sub-family reveals new physiological functions in Arabidopsis Thaliana

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    Mohamed Ragab Abdel Gawwad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are channel proteins found in plasma membranes and intercellular membranes of different cellular compartments, facilitate the water flux, solutes and gases across the cellular plasma membranes. The present study highlights the sub-family plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP predicting the 3-D structure and analyzing the functional interactome of it homologs. PIP1 homologs integrate with many proteins with different plant physiological roles in Arabidopsis thaliana including; PIP1A and PIP1B: facilitate the transport of water, diffusion of amino acids and/or peptides from the vacuolar compartment to the cytoplasm, play a role in the control of cell turgor and cell expansion and involved in root water uptake respectively. In addition we found that PIP1B plays a defensive role against Pseudomonas syringae infection through the interaction with the plasma membrane Rps2 protein. Another substantial function of PIP1C via the interaction with PIP2E is the response to nematode infection. Generally, PIP1 sub-family interactome controlling many physiological processes in plant cell like; osmoregulation in plants under high osmotic stress such as under a high salt, response to nematode, facilitate the transport of water across cell membrane and regulation of floral initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  2. Differences in glycosyltransferase family 61 accompany variation in seed coat mucilage composition in Plantago spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Jana L.; Tucker, Matthew R.; Khor, Shi Fang; Shirley, Neil; Lahnstein, Jelle; Beahan, Cherie; Bacic, Antony; Burton, Rachel A.

    2016-01-01

    Xylans are the most abundant non-cellulosic polysaccharide found in plant cell walls. A diverse range of xylan structures influence tissue function during growth and development. Despite the abundance of xylans in nature, details of the genes and biochemical pathways controlling their biosynthesis are lacking. In this study we have utilized natural variation within the Plantago genus to examine variation in heteroxylan composition and structure in seed coat mucilage. Compositional assays were combined with analysis of the glycosyltransferase family 61 (GT61) family during seed coat development, with the aim of identifying GT61 sequences participating in xylan backbone substitution. The results reveal natural variation in heteroxylan content and structure, particularly in P. ovata and P. cunninghamii, species which show a similar amount of heteroxylan but different backbone substitution profiles. Analysis of the GT61 family identified specific sequences co-expressed with IRREGULAR XYLEM 10 genes, which encode putative xylan synthases, revealing a close temporal association between xylan synthesis and substitution. Moreover, in P. ovata, several abundant GT61 sequences appear to lack orthologues in P. cunninghamii. Our results indicate that natural variation in Plantago species can be exploited to reveal novel details of seed coat development and polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways. PMID:27856710

  3. Personality traits of a group of young adults from different family structures.

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    Du Toit, J; Nel, E M; Steel, H R

    1992-07-01

    The impact of parental divorce and remarriage and young adults' gender on second-order personality traits, such as extraversion, anxiety, tough poise and independence, was examined. The responses of 227 young adults on the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF; Cattell, Eber, & Tatsuoka, 1970) were subjected to a parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Results revealed significant differences between the anxiety scores of the young men and women as well as between those of the three different family-structure groups, but divorce and remarriage was not associated with either positive or negative personality development in this sample.

  4. Direct sequencing of FAH gene in Pakistani tyrosinemia type 1 families reveals a novel mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Sadaqat; Zahoor, Muhammad Yasir; Imran, Muhammad; Afzal, Sibtain; Bhinder, Munir A; Ullah, Ihsan; Cheema, Huma Arshad; Ramzan, Khushnooda; Shehzad, Wasim

    2016-03-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is a rare inborn error of tyrosine catabolism with a worldwide prevalence of one out of 100,000 live births. HT1 is clinically characterized by hepatic and renal dysfunction resulting from the deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) enzyme, caused by recessive mutations in the FAH gene. We present here the first report on identification of FAH mutations in HT1 patients from Pakistan with a novel one. Three Pakistani families, each having one child affected with HT1, were enrolled over a period of 1.5 years. Two of the affected children had died as they were presented late with acute form. All regions of the FAH gene spanning exons and splicing sites were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mutation analysis was carried out by direct sequencing. Results of sequencing were confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Three different FAH mutations, one in each family, were found to co-segregate with the disease phenotype. Two of these FAH mutations have been known (c.192G>T and c.1062+5G>A [IVS12+5G>A]), while c.67T>C (p.Ser23Pro) was a novel mutation. The novel variant was not detected in any of 120 chromosomes from normal ethnically matched individuals. Most of the HT1 patients die before they present to hospitals in Pakistan, as is indicated by enrollment of only three families in 1.5 years. Most of those with late clinical presentation do not survive due to delayed diagnosis followed by untimely treatment. This tragic condition advocates the establishment of expanded newborn screening program for HT1 within Pakistan.

  5. How Do Families Matter? Age and Gender Differences in Family Influences on Delinquency and Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Van Horn, M. Lee; Antaramian, Susan; Hawkins, J. David

    2010-01-01

    Parenting practices, age, and gender all influence adolescent delinquency and drug use, but few studies have examined how these factors interact to affect offending. Using data from 18,512 students in Grades 6, 8, 10 and 12, this study found that across grades, parents treated girls and boys differently, but neither sex received preferential treatment for all practices assessed, and younger children reported more positive parenting than older students. Family factors were significantly related to delinquency and drug use for both sexes and for all grades. However, particular parenting practices showed gender and age differences in the degree to which they were related to outcomes, which indicates complexities in parent/child interactions that must be taken into account when investigating the causes of adolescent offending and when planning strategies to prevent the development of problem behaviors. PMID:21499537

  6. The Negative Relationship between Work Family Conflict and Career Satisfaction and the Role of Individual Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Mattiullah Butt; Bei Hu; Khurram Shafi; Babur Hayat Malik

    2015-01-01

    This research study investigates the negative relationship between work family conflict and career satisfaction and how the individual differences (like gender and age) may moderate it. Work-family conflict is the inter-role conflict in which responsibilities from the work and family domains are not compatible. Work-family conflict occurs when participation in the family role is made more difficult by participation in the work role. Some time ago, the consequences of work family conflict was ...

  7. Social Policies and Families in Stress: Gender and Educational Differences in Work-Family Conflict from a European Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notten, Natascha; Grunow, Daniela; Verbakel, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    In modern welfare states, family policies may resolve the tension between employment and care-focused demands. However these policies sometimes have adverse consequences for distinct social groups. This study examined gender and educational differences in working parents' perceived work-family conflict and used a comparative approach to test whether family policies, in particular support for child care and leave from paid work, are capable of reducing work-family conflict as well as the gender and educational gaps in work-family conflict. We use data from the European Social Survey 2010 for 20 countries and 5296 respondents (parents), extended with information on national policies for maternity and parental leave and child care support from the OECD Family Database. Employing multilevel analysis, we find that mothers and the higher educated report most work-family conflict. Policies supporting child care reduce the level of experienced work-family conflict; family leave policy appears to have no alleviating impact on working parents' work-family conflict. Our findings indicate that family policies appear to be unable to reduce the gender gap in conflict perception and even widen the educational gap in work-family conflict.

  8. Exome sequences of multiplex, multigenerational families reveal schizophrenia risk loci with potential implications for neurocognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Mark Z; Carless, Melanie A; Peralta, Juan; Curran, Joanne E; Quillen, Ellen E; Almeida, Marcio; Blackburn, August; Blondell, Lucy; Roalf, David R; Pogue-Geile, Michael F; Gur, Ruben C; Göring, Harald H H; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; Gur, Raquel E; Almasy, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness, involving disruptions in thought and behavior, with a worldwide prevalence of about one percent. Although highly heritable, much of the genetic liability of schizophrenia is yet to be explained. We searched for susceptibility loci in multiplex, multigenerational families affected by schizophrenia, targeting protein-altering variation with in silico predicted functional effects. Exome sequencing was performed on 136 samples from eight European-American families, including 23 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. In total, 11,878 non-synonymous variants from 6,396 genes were tested for their association with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Pathway enrichment analyses were conducted on gene-based test results, protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks, and epistatic effects. Using a significance threshold of FDR < 0.1, association was detected for rs10941112 (p = 2.1 × 10 -5 ; q-value = 0.073) in AMACR, a gene involved in fatty acid metabolism and previously implicated in schizophrenia, with significant cis effects on gene expression (p = 5.5 × 10 -4 ), including brain tissue data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project (minimum p = 6.0 × 10 -5 ). A second SNP, rs10378 located in TMEM176A, also shows risk effects in the exome data (p = 2.8 × 10 -5 ; q-value = 0.073). PPIs among our top gene-based association results (p < 0.05; n = 359 genes) reveal significant enrichment of genes involved in NCAM-mediated neurite outgrowth (p = 3.0 × 10 -5 ), while exome-wide SNP-SNP interaction effects for rs10941112 and rs10378 indicate a potential role for kinase-mediated signaling involved in memory and learning. In conclusion, these association results implicate AMACR and TMEM176A in schizophrenia risk, whose effects may be modulated by genes involved in synaptic plasticity and neurocognitive performance. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Not Accepted by the Family: "Being Difficult" or "Being Different"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komter, Aafke; Voorpostel, Marieke; Pels, Trees

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study (NKPS) and combining a quantitative approach and a qualitative approach (N = 8,148 and n = 43, respectively), this study investigates the mechanisms associated with a lack of acceptance by one's family. From the total NKPS sample, 12.1% did not feel (entirely) accepted by their family. The…

  10. What's for dinner? Types of food served at family dinner differ across parent and family characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; MacLehose, Rich; Loth, Katie; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Berge, Jerica

    2014-01-01

    To examine the types of food served at family dinner in the homes of adolescents and correlations with parent and family sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors and meal-specific variables. A cross-sectional population-based survey completed by mail or telephone by parents participating in Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) in 2009-2010. Homes of families with adolescents in Minneapolis/St. Paul urban area, MN, USA. Participants included 1923 parents/guardians (90·8% female; 68·5% from ethnic/racial minorities) of adolescents who participated in EAT 2010. Less than a third (28%) of parents reported serving a green salad at family dinner on a regular basis, but 70% reported regularly serving vegetables (other than potatoes). About one-fifth (21%) of families had fast food at family dinners two or more times per week. Variables from within the sociodemographic domain (low educational attainment) psychosocial domain (high work-life stress, depressive symptoms, low family functioning) and meal-specific domain (low value of family meals, low enjoyment of cooking, low meal planning, high food purchasing barriers and fewer hours in food preparation) were associated with lower healthfulness of foods served at family dinners, in analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. There is a need for interventions to improve the healthfulness of food served at family meals. Interventions need to be suitable for parents with low levels of education; take parent and family psychosocial factors into account; promote more positive attitudes toward family meals; and provide skills to make it easier to plan and prepare healthful family meals.

  11. Examining inter-family differences in intra-family (parent-adolescent) dynamics using grid-sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinberg, Miriam; Fosco, Gregory M; Ram, Nilam

    2017-12-01

    Family systems theorists have forwarded a set of theoretical principles meant to guide family scientists and practitioners in their conceptualization of patterns of family interaction-intra-family dynamics-that, over time, give rise to family and individual dysfunction and/or adaptation. In this article, we present an analytic approach that merges state space grid methods adapted from the dynamic systems literature with sequence analysis methods adapted from molecular biology into a "grid-sequence" method for studying inter-family differences in intra-family dynamics. Using dyadic data from 86 parent-adolescent dyads who provided up to 21 daily reports about connectedness, we illustrate how grid-sequence analysis can be used to identify a typology of intrafamily dynamics and to inform theory about how specific types of intrafamily dynamics contribute to adolescent behavior problems and family members' mental health. Methodologically, grid-sequence analysis extends the toolbox of techniques for analysis of family experience sampling and daily diary data. Substantively, we identify patterns of family level microdynamics that may serve as new markers of risk/protective factors and potential points for intervention in families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. How do gender differences affect families' pro-environmental consumer behaviour?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    Studies of "green" consumer behaviour have often reported differences in male and female environmental concern and participation. This paper looks into the nature of such differences within the family. Husband-wife differences with regard to family participation in a number of environmentally...... that the processes whereby environmentally oriented consumer practices are adopted and transmitted among family members receive closer research attention....

  13. Comparative genome analysis reveals a conserved family of actin-like proteins in apicomplexan parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibley L David

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylum Apicomplexa is an early-branching eukaryotic lineage that contains a number of important human and animal pathogens. Their complex life cycles and unique cytoskeletal features distinguish them from other model eukaryotes. Apicomplexans rely on actin-based motility for cell invasion, yet the regulation of this system remains largely unknown. Consequently, we focused our efforts on identifying actin-related proteins in the recently completed genomes of Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Theileria spp. Results Comparative genomic and phylogenetic studies of apicomplexan genomes reveals that most contain only a single conventional actin and yet they each have 8–10 additional actin-related proteins. Among these are a highly conserved Arp1 protein (likely part of a conserved dynactin complex, and Arp4 and Arp6 homologues (subunits of the chromatin-remodeling machinery. In contrast, apicomplexans lack canonical Arp2 or Arp3 proteins, suggesting they lost the Arp2/3 actin polymerization complex on their evolutionary path towards intracellular parasitism. Seven of these actin-like proteins (ALPs are novel to apicomplexans. They show no phylogenetic associations to the known Arp groups and likely serve functions specific to this important group of intracellular parasites. Conclusion The large diversity of actin-like proteins in apicomplexans suggests that the actin protein family has diverged to fulfill various roles in the unique biology of intracellular parasites. Conserved Arps likely participate in vesicular transport and gene expression, while apicomplexan-specific ALPs may control unique biological traits such as actin-based gliding motility.

  14. Family Structure and Family Processes in Mexican American Families

    OpenAIRE

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2011-01-01

    Despite increases in single-parent families among Mexican Americans (MA), few studies have examined the association of family structure and family adjustment. Utilizing a diverse sample of 738 Mexican American families (21.7% single parent), the current study examined differences across family structure on early adolescent outcomes, family functioning, and parent-child relationship variables. Results revealed that early adolescents in single parent families reported greater school misconduct,...

  15. Do different funding mechanisms produce different results? The implications of family planning for fiscal federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, D R; Meier, K J

    1998-06-01

    The 104th Congress considered massive structural changes in federal aid to the states. Not only would federal categorical grants be consolidated into block grants, but entitlement programs would be converted to block grants too. Using family planning as a case study, this article examines whether program impacts change if different grant mechanisms are employed. Findings from a pooled time series analysis of state family planning expenditures show that categorical funding (here, title X of the Public Health Service Act) is the most cost effective in producing desired outcomes, such as lowering infant mortality. Policies using entitlement grants are generally more cost effective than those that rely upon block grants. We discuss the implications of these findings for health policy more broadly and for fiscal federalism in general.

  16. Social policies and families in stress: Gender and educational differences in work-family conflict from a European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.J.W.R.; Grunow, D.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    In modern welfare states, family policies may resolve the tension between employment and care-focused demands. However these policies sometimes have adverse consequences for distinct social groups. This study examined gender and educational differences in working parents' perceived work-family

  17. Major Differences between RFCl and SNNP Regional State Family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigussie Afesha

    SNNP regional state family law contains detail rules that govern it. ..... Since pension benefits are received upon retirement, divorce that predates .... work.” There is discrepancy between the Amharic and English version of Article 216 of.

  18. Sources of individual differences in depressive symptoms: analysis of two samples of twins and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Walters, E E; Truett, K R; Heath, A C; Neale, M C; Martin, N G; Eaves, L J

    1994-11-01

    Self-reported symptoms of depression are commonly used in mental health research to assess current psychiatric state, yet wide variation in these symptoms among individuals has been found in both clinical and epidemiologic populations. The authors sought to understand, from a genetic-epidemiologic perspective, the sources of individual differences in depressive symptoms. Self-reported symptoms of depression were assessed in two samples of twins and their spouses, parents, siblings, and offspring: one sample contained volunteer twins recruited through the American Association of Retired Persons and their relatives (N = 19,203 individuals) and the other contained twins from a population-based twin registry in Virginia and their relatives (N = 11,242 individuals). Model fitting by an iterative, diagonal, weighted least squares method was applied to the 80 different family relationships in the extended twin-family design. Independent analyses of the two samples revealed that the level of depressive symptoms was modestly familial, and familial resemblance could be explained solely by genetic factors and spousal resemblance. The estimated heritability of depressive symptoms was between 30% and 37%. There was no evidence that the liability to depressive symptoms was environmentally transmitted from parents to offspring or was influenced by environmental factors shared either generally among siblings or specifically between twins. With correction for unreliability of measurement, genetic factors accounted for half of the stable variance in depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms in adulthood partly reflect enduring characteristics of temperament that are substantially influenced by hereditary factors but little, or not at all, by shared environmental experiences in the family of origin.

  19. Comparison of children's self-reports of depressive symptoms among different family interaction types in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Lee-Lan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that family interactions are associated with depressive symptoms in children. However, detailed classifications of family interaction types have not been studied thoroughly. This study aims to understand the types of family interactions children experience and to identify the specific types of family interactions that are associated with a higher risk of depressive symptoms in children. Methods Data used in the study was collected as part of the Child and Adolescent Behavior in Long term Evolution (CABLE project in 2003. CABLE is a longitudinal cohort study that commenced in 2001 and collects data annually from children in Taipei city and Hsinchu county in northern Taiwan. The data analyzed in this study was that obtained from the sixth graders (aged 11 to 12 years old in 2003. Of the 2,449 sixth graders, 51.2% were boys and 48.8% were girls. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to investigate the types of family interactions. One way ANOVA was used to establish the relationship between family interaction types and children's self-reports of depressive symptoms. Results Based on the results of factor analysis, the latent factors for family interactions included supporting activities, psychological control, parental discipline, behavioral supervision, and family conflict. After conducting cluster analysis using factor scores, four types of family interactions were revealed: supervised (29.66%, disciplined (13.56%, nurtured (40.96% and conflict (15.82%. Children from the disciplined or conflict families were more likely to report depressive symptoms. Children from the nurtured families were least likely to report depressive symptoms. Conclusion Family interactions can be classified into four different types, which are related to children's self-reports of depressive symptoms. The creation of a family interaction environment that is beneficial for children's mental health is an important

  20. Genetic analysis of Chinese families reveals a novel truncation allele of the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Hu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To make comprehensive molecular diagnosis for retinitis pigmentosa (RP patients in a consanguineous Han Chinese family using next generation sequencing based Capture-NGS screen technology. METHODS: A five-generation Han Chinese family diagnosed as non-syndromic X-linked recessive RP (XLRP was recruited, including four affected males, four obligate female carriers and eleven unaffected family members. Capture-NGS was performed using a custom designed capture panel covers 163 known retinal disease genes including 47 RP genes, followed by the validation of detected mutation using Sanger sequencing in all recruited family members. RESULTS: Capture-NGS in one affected 47-year-old male reveals a novel mutation, c.2417_2418insG:p.E806fs, in exon ORF15 of RP GTPase regulator (RPGR gene results in a frameshift change that results in a premature stop codon and a truncated protein product. The mutation was further validated in three of four affected males and two of four female carriers but not in the other unaffected family members. CONCLUSION: We have identified a novel mutation, c.2417_2418insG:p.E806fs, in a Han Chinese family with XLRP. Our findings expand the mutation spectrum of RPGR and the phenotypic spectrum of XLRP in Han Chinese families, and confirms Capture-NGS could be an effective and economic approach for the comprehensive molecular diagnosis of RP.

  1. Comparative and functional triatomine genomics reveals reductions and expansions in insecticide resistance-related gene families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, Lucila; Lavore, Andrés; Sierra, Ivana; Palacio, Victorio; Martinez-Barnetche, Jesús; Latorre-Estivalis, José Manuel; Mougabure-Cueto, Gaston; Francini, Flavio; Lorenzo, Marcelo G; Rodríguez, Mario Henry; Ons, Sheila; Rivera-Pomar, Rolando V

    2017-02-01

    Triatomine insects are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan parasite that is the causative agent of Chagas' disease. This is a neglected disease affecting approximately 8 million people in Latin America. The existence of diverse pyrethroid resistant populations of at least two species demonstrates the potential of triatomines to develop high levels of insecticide resistance. Therefore, the incorporation of strategies for resistance management is a main concern for vector control programs. Three enzymatic superfamilies are thought to mediate xenobiotic detoxification and resistance: Glutathione Transferases (GSTs), Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) and Carboxyl/Cholinesterases (CCEs). Improving our knowledge of key triatomine detoxification enzymes will strengthen our understanding of insecticide resistance processes in vectors of Chagas' disease. The discovery and description of detoxification gene superfamilies in normalized transcriptomes of three triatomine species: Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma infestans and Triatoma pallidipennis is presented. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of these superfamilies among the triatomine transcriptomes and the genome of Rhodnius prolixus, also a triatomine vector of Chagas' disease, and other well-studied insect genomes was performed. The expression pattern of detoxification genes in R. prolixus transcriptomes from key organs was analyzed. The comparisons reveal gene expansions in Sigma class GSTs, CYP3 in CYP superfamily and clade E in CCE superfamily. Moreover, several CYP families identified in these triatomines have not yet been described in other insects. Conversely, several groups of insecticide resistance related enzymes within each enzyme superfamily are reduced or lacking in triatomines. Furthermore, our qRT-PCR results showed an increase in the expression of a CYP4 gene in a T. infestans population resistant to pyrethroids. These results could point to an involvement of metabolic detoxification mechanisms on the high

  2. Comparative and functional triatomine genomics reveals reductions and expansions in insecticide resistance-related gene families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Traverso

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Triatomine insects are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan parasite that is the causative agent of Chagas' disease. This is a neglected disease affecting approximately 8 million people in Latin America. The existence of diverse pyrethroid resistant populations of at least two species demonstrates the potential of triatomines to develop high levels of insecticide resistance. Therefore, the incorporation of strategies for resistance management is a main concern for vector control programs. Three enzymatic superfamilies are thought to mediate xenobiotic detoxification and resistance: Glutathione Transferases (GSTs, Cytochromes P450 (CYPs and Carboxyl/Cholinesterases (CCEs. Improving our knowledge of key triatomine detoxification enzymes will strengthen our understanding of insecticide resistance processes in vectors of Chagas' disease.The discovery and description of detoxification gene superfamilies in normalized transcriptomes of three triatomine species: Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma infestans and Triatoma pallidipennis is presented. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of these superfamilies among the triatomine transcriptomes and the genome of Rhodnius prolixus, also a triatomine vector of Chagas' disease, and other well-studied insect genomes was performed. The expression pattern of detoxification genes in R. prolixus transcriptomes from key organs was analyzed. The comparisons reveal gene expansions in Sigma class GSTs, CYP3 in CYP superfamily and clade E in CCE superfamily. Moreover, several CYP families identified in these triatomines have not yet been described in other insects. Conversely, several groups of insecticide resistance related enzymes within each enzyme superfamily are reduced or lacking in triatomines. Furthermore, our qRT-PCR results showed an increase in the expression of a CYP4 gene in a T. infestans population resistant to pyrethroids. These results could point to an involvement of metabolic detoxification mechanisms

  3. Exome sequencing reveals VCP mutations as a cause of familial ALS

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Janel O.; Mandrioli, Jessica; Benatar, Michael; Abramzon, Yevgeniya; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Gibbs, J Raphael; Brunetti, Maura; Gronka, Susan; Wuu, Joanne; Ding, Jinhui; McCluskey, Leo; Martinez-Lage, Maria; Falcone, Dana; Hernandez, Dena G.

    2010-01-01

    Using exome sequencing, we identified a p.R191Q amino acid change in the valosin-containing protein (VCP) gene in an Italian family with autosomal dominantly inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutations in VCP have previously been identified in families with Inclusion Body Myopathy, Paget’s disease and Frontotemporal Dementia (IBMPFD). Screening of VCP in a cohort of 210 familial ALS cases and 78 autopsy-proven ALS cases identified four additional mutations including a p.R155H mut...

  4. Supporting home hospice family caregivers: Insights from different perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Lee; Cloyes, Kristin G; Xu, Jiayun; Bellury, Lanell; Berry, Patricia H; Reblin, Maija; Clayton, Margaret F

    2018-04-01

    ABSTRACTObjective:Our intention was to describe and compare the perspectives of national hospice thought leaders, hospice nurses, and former family caregivers on factors that promote or threaten family caregiver perceptions of support. Nationally recognized hospice thought leaders (n = 11), hospice nurses (n = 13), and former family caregivers (n = 14) participated. Interviews and focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed. Data were coded inductively, and codes were hierarchically grouped by topic. Emergent categories were summarized descriptively and compared across groups. Four categories linked responses from the three participant groups (95%, 366/384 codes): (1) essentials of skilled communication (30.6%), (2) importance of building authentic relationships (28%), (3) value of expert teaching (22.4%), and (4) critical role of teamwork (18.3%). The thought leaders emphasized communication (44.6%), caregivers stressed expert teaching (51%), and nurses highlighted teamwork (35.8%). Nurses discussed teamwork significantly more than caregivers (z = 2.2786), thought leaders discussed communication more than caregivers (z = 2.8551), and caregivers discussed expert teaching more than thought leaders (z = 2.1693) and nurses (z = 2.4718; all values of p nurses, and thought leaders. Hospice teams may benefit from further education and training to help cross the schism of family-centered hospice care as a clinical ideal to one where hospice team members can fully support and empower family caregivers as a hospice team member.

  5. The association of family functioning and psychosis proneness in five countries that differ in cultural values and family structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüsten, Caroline; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-07-01

    For decades, researchers have attributed the better prognosis of psychosis in developing countries to a host of socio-cultural factors, including family functioning. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether family functioning and its association with symptoms differ across countries. This study assessed family functioning (support, satisfaction with family relations, and criticism) and psychosis proneness in community samples from Chile (n =399), Colombia (n=486), Indonesia (n=115), Germany (n=174) and the USA (n=143). Family functioning was compared between prototypical developing countries (Chile, Columbia, Indonesia) and highly industrialized countries (Germany, USA). Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test for the moderating effect of country on the associations between family functioning and psychosis proneness. Participants from developing countries perceived more support and felt more satisfied. However, they also perceived more criticism than participants from highly industrialized countries. Criticism and family satisfaction were significantly associated with psychosis proneness. Moreover, the relationship between criticism and psychosis proneness was significantly stronger in developing countries compared to highly industrialized countries. Generally, family satisfaction and criticism appear to be more relevant to psychosis proneness than the quantity of family support. Moreover, criticism seems to be more closely related to psychosis proneness in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genomewide analysis of MATE-type gene family in maize reveals ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Huasheng Zhu and Jiandong Wu contributed equally to this work. As a group of secondary active transporters, the MATE gene family consists of multiple genes that widely exist in ..... Roots of the stress-treated plants were collected at 0,.

  7. Different antipsychotics elicit different effects on magnocellular oxytocinergic and vasopressinergic neurons as revealed by Fos immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiss, A; Bundzikova, J; Pirnik, Z

    2010-01-01

    rats were injected intraperitoneally with haloperidol (1 mg/kg), clozapine (30 mg/kg), olanzapine (30 mg/kg), risperidone (2mg/kg), and vehicle (5% chremophor) and were sacrificed 60 min later by a fixative. Fos, Fos/OXY, and Fos/AVP labelings were visualized by immunohistochemistry in the SON, 5...... accessory (ACS) cell groups, and 4 distinct PVN subdivisions using a computerized light microscope. Most apparent activation of single Fos, Fos/OXY, and Fos/AVP cells was induced by clozapine and olanzapine; effects of risperidone and haloperidol were substantially lower; no colocalizations were revealed...... of risperidone and haloperidol. Variabilities in Fos distribution in the PVN, SON, and ACS induced by antipsychotics may be helpful to understand more precisely the extent of their extra-forebrain actions with possible presumption of their functional impact and side effect consequences....

  8. Predicting the Proteins of Angomonas deanei, Strigomonas culicis and Their Respective Endosymbionts Reveals New Aspects of the Trypanosomatidae Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Maria Cristina Machado; Martins, Allan Cezar de Azevedo; de Souza, Silvana Sant’Anna; Catta-Preta, Carolina Moura Costa; Silva, Rosane; Klein, Cecilia Coimbra; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; de Lima Cunha, Oberdan; Ciapina, Luciane Prioli; Brocchi, Marcelo; Colabardini, Ana Cristina; de Araujo Lima, Bruna; Machado, Carlos Renato; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria; Probst, Christian Macagnan; de Menezes, Claudia Beatriz Afonso; Thompson, Claudia Elizabeth; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Gradia, Daniela Fiori; Pavoni, Daniela Parada; Grisard, Edmundo C.; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Marchini, Fabricio Klerynton; Rodrigues-Luiz, Gabriela Flávia; Wagner, Glauber; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Elias, Maria Carolina; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Sagot, Marie-France; Pereira, Maristela; Stoco, Patrícia H.; de Mendonça-Neto, Rondon Pessoa; Teixeira, Santuza Maria Ribeiro; Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira; de Oliveira Mendes, Tiago Antônio; Ürményi, Turán P.; de Souza, Wanderley; Schenkman, Sergio; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids have been considered excellent models for the study of cell evolution because the host protozoan co-evolves with an intracellular bacterium in a mutualistic relationship. Such protozoa inhabit a single invertebrate host during their entire life cycle and exhibit special characteristics that group them in a particular phylogenetic cluster of the Trypanosomatidae family, thus classified as monoxenics. In an effort to better understand such symbiotic association, we used DNA pyrosequencing and a reference-guided assembly to generate reads that predicted 16,960 and 12,162 open reading frames (ORFs) in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Angomonas deanei (previously named as Crithidia deanei) and Strigomonas culicis (first known as Blastocrithidia culicis), respectively. Identification of each ORF was based primarily on TriTrypDB using tblastn, and each ORF was confirmed by employing getorf from EMBOSS and Newbler 2.6 when necessary. The monoxenic organisms revealed conserved housekeeping functions when compared to other trypanosomatids, especially compared with Leishmania major. However, major differences were found in ORFs corresponding to the cytoskeleton, the kinetoplast, and the paraflagellar structure. The monoxenic organisms also contain a large number of genes for cytosolic calpain-like and surface gp63 metalloproteases and a reduced number of compartmentalized cysteine proteases in comparison to other TriTryp organisms, reflecting adaptations to the presence of the symbiont. The assembled bacterial endosymbiont sequences exhibit a high A+T content with a total of 787 and 769 ORFs for the Angomonas deanei and Strigomonas culicis endosymbionts, respectively, and indicate that these organisms hold a common ancestor related to the Alcaligenaceae family. Importantly, both symbionts contain enzymes that complement essential host cell biosynthetic pathways, such as those for amino acid, lipid and purine/pyrimidine metabolism

  9. Predicting the proteins of Angomonas deanei, Strigomonas culicis and their respective endosymbionts reveals new aspects of the trypanosomatidae family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Machado Motta

    Full Text Available Endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids have been considered excellent models for the study of cell evolution because the host protozoan co-evolves with an intracellular bacterium in a mutualistic relationship. Such protozoa inhabit a single invertebrate host during their entire life cycle and exhibit special characteristics that group them in a particular phylogenetic cluster of the Trypanosomatidae family, thus classified as monoxenics. In an effort to better understand such symbiotic association, we used DNA pyrosequencing and a reference-guided assembly to generate reads that predicted 16,960 and 12,162 open reading frames (ORFs in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Angomonas deanei (previously named as Crithidia deanei and Strigomonas culicis (first known as Blastocrithidia culicis, respectively. Identification of each ORF was based primarily on TriTrypDB using tblastn, and each ORF was confirmed by employing getorf from EMBOSS and Newbler 2.6 when necessary. The monoxenic organisms revealed conserved housekeeping functions when compared to other trypanosomatids, especially compared with Leishmania major. However, major differences were found in ORFs corresponding to the cytoskeleton, the kinetoplast, and the paraflagellar structure. The monoxenic organisms also contain a large number of genes for cytosolic calpain-like and surface gp63 metalloproteases and a reduced number of compartmentalized cysteine proteases in comparison to other TriTryp organisms, reflecting adaptations to the presence of the symbiont. The assembled bacterial endosymbiont sequences exhibit a high A+T content with a total of 787 and 769 ORFs for the Angomonas deanei and Strigomonas culicis endosymbionts, respectively, and indicate that these organisms hold a common ancestor related to the Alcaligenaceae family. Importantly, both symbionts contain enzymes that complement essential host cell biosynthetic pathways, such as those for amino acid, lipid and purine

  10. Adducin family proteins possess different nuclear export potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Mei; Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Lin, Wan-Yi; Chen, Hong-Chen

    2017-05-10

    The adducin (ADD) family proteins, namely ADD1, ADD2, and ADD3, are actin-binding proteins that play important roles in the stabilization of membrane cytoskeleton and cell-cell junctions. All the ADD proteins contain a highly conserved bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) at the carboxyl termini, but only ADD1 can localize to the nucleus. The reason for this discrepancy is not clear. To avoid the potential effect of cell-cell junctions on the distribution of ADD proteins, HA epitope-tagged ADD proteins and mutants were transiently expressed in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and their distribution in the cytoplasm and nucleus was examined by immunofluorescence staining. Several nuclear proteins were identified to interact with ADD1 by mass spectrometry, which were further verified by co-immunoprecipitation. In this study, we found that ADD1 was detectable both in the cytoplasm and nucleus, whereas ADD2 and ADD3 were detected only in the cytoplasm. However, ADD2 and ADD3 were partially (~40%) sequestered in the nucleus by leptomycin B, a CRM1/exportin1 inhibitor. Upon the removal of leptomycin B, ADD2 and ADD3 re-distributed to the cytoplasm. These results indicate that ADD2 and ADD3 possess functional NLS and are quickly transported to the cytoplasm upon entering the nucleus. Indeed, we found that ADD2 and ADD3 possess much higher potential to counteract the activity of the NLS derived from Simian virus 40 large T-antigen than ADD1. All the ADD proteins appear to contain multiple nuclear export signals mainly in their head and neck domains. However, except for the leucine-rich motif ( 377 FEALMRMLDWLGYRT 391 ) in the neck domain of ADD1, no other classic nuclear export signal was identified in the ADD proteins. In addition, the nuclear retention of ADD1 facilitates its interaction with RNA polymerase II and zinc-finger protein 331. Our results suggest that ADD2 and ADD3 possess functional NLS and shuttle between the cytoplasm and nucleus. The discrepancy in the

  11. Birth Order, Age-Spacing, IQ Differences, and Family Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfouts, Jane H.

    1980-01-01

    Very close age spacing was an obstacle to high academic performance for later borns. In family relations and self-esteem, first borns scored better and performed in school as well as their potentially much more able younger siblings, regardless of age spacing. (Author)

  12. Gender differences in the family-relatedness of relocation decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullrich, J.; Pluut, Helen; Büttgen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a dyadic study design, the present study draws on research into the family-relatedness of work decisions to examine the impact of the spouse's characteristics on an employee's willingness to engage in job-related relocation. With a sample of 1234 employees, the results show that spousal

  13. Ideology, family policy and gender economic inequality: Different models, different tradeoffs

    OpenAIRE

    Mandel, Hadas

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on cross-national differences in patterns of gender economic inequality, revealing their affinity to both welfare state policies and prevailing conceptions of gender equality. By mapping multiple aspects of inequality and assembling them into distinctive profiles, the paper shows that each pattern of state intervention is accompanied by an uneven record of achievements and failures in promoting gender equality. These tradeoffs can best be understood by placing them in the i...

  14. Copy number variants in extended autism spectrum disorder families reveal candidates potentially involved in autism risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Salyakina

    Full Text Available Copy number variations (CNVs are a major cause of genetic disruption in the human genome with far more nucleotides being altered by duplications and deletions than by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. In the multifaceted etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, CNVs appear to contribute significantly to our understanding of the pathogenesis of this complex disease. A unique resource of 42 extended ASD families was genotyped for over 1 million SNPs to detect CNVs that may contribute to ASD susceptibility. Each family has at least one avuncular or cousin pair with ASD. Families were then evaluated for co-segregation of CNVs in ASD patients. We identified a total of five deletions and seven duplications in eleven families that co-segregated with ASD. Two of the CNVs overlap with regions on 7p21.3 and 15q24.1 that have been previously reported in ASD individuals and two additional CNVs on 3p26.3 and 12q24.32 occur near regions associated with schizophrenia. These findings provide further evidence for the involvement of ICA1 and NXPH1 on 7p21.3 in ASD susceptibility and highlight novel ASD candidates, including CHL1, FGFBP3 and POUF41. These studies highlight the power of using extended families for gene discovery in traits with a complex etiology.

  15. Sex differences in factors contributing to family-to-work and work-to-family conflict in Japanese civil servants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Yuko; Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    As the number of dual-earner couples in Japan has increased, work-life balance has become important. This study aimed to examine the factors that contribute to work-family conflict. The participants included 3,594 (2,332 men and 1,262 women) civil servants aged 20-59 working for local government on the west coast of Japan. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate whether work, family, or lifestyle characteristics were associated with work-family conflict. For men, family-to-work conflict was associated with being elderly, having low-grade employment, working long hours, raising children, and sleeping shorter hours. For women, being married and raising children were strong determinants of family-to-work conflict, and being middle-aged, working long hours, and sleeping shorter hours were also associated with this type of conflict. Regarding work-to-family conflict, working long hours was the strongest determinant of conflict in both sexes. In men, being elderly, living with family, eating dinner late, and sleeping shorter hours were also associated with work-to-family conflict. In women, having high-grade employment, being married, raising children, and eating dinner late were associated with work-to-family conflict. This study showed that working long hours was the primary determinant of work-to-family conflict in both sexes and that being married and raising children were strong factors of family-to-work conflict in women only. Sex differences may reflect divergence of the social and domestic roles of men and women in Japanese society. To improve the work-life balance, general and sex-specific health policies may be required.

  16. A Systems Biology Approach Reveals Converging Molecular Mechanisms that Link Different POPs to Common Metabolic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Patricia; Perlina, Ally; Mumtaz, Moiz; Fowler, Bruce A

    2016-07-01

    A number of epidemiological studies have identified statistical associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metabolic diseases, but testable hypotheses regarding underlying molecular mechanisms to explain these linkages have not been published. We assessed the underlying mechanisms of POPs that have been associated with metabolic diseases; three well-known POPs [2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD), 2,2´,4,4´,5,5´-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), and 4,4´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE)] were studied. We used advanced database search tools to delineate testable hypotheses and to guide laboratory-based research studies into underlying mechanisms by which this POP mixture could produce or exacerbate metabolic diseases. For our searches, we used proprietary systems biology software (MetaCore™/MetaDrug™) to conduct advanced search queries for the underlying interactions database, followed by directional network construction to identify common mechanisms for these POPs within two or fewer interaction steps downstream of their primary targets. These common downstream pathways belong to various cytokine and chemokine families with experimentally well-documented causal associations with type 2 diabetes. Our systems biology approach allowed identification of converging pathways leading to activation of common downstream targets. To our knowledge, this is the first study to propose an integrated global set of step-by-step molecular mechanisms for a combination of three common POPs using a systems biology approach, which may link POP exposure to diseases. Experimental evaluation of the proposed pathways may lead to development of predictive biomarkers of the effects of POPs, which could translate into disease prevention and effective clinical treatment strategies. Ruiz P, Perlina A, Mumtaz M, Fowler BA. 2016. A systems biology approach reveals converging molecular mechanisms that link different POPs to common metabolic diseases. Environ

  17. Protein homology network families reveal step-wise diversification of Type III and Type IV secretion systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duccio Medini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available From the analysis of 251 prokaryotic genomes stored in public databases, the 761,260 deduced proteins were used to reconstruct a complete set of bacterial proteic families. Using the new Overlap algorithm, we have partitioned the Protein Homology Network (PHN, where the proteins are the nodes and the links represent homology relationships. The algorithm identifies the densely connected regions of the PHN that define the families of homologous proteins, here called PHN-Families, recognizing the phylogenetic relationships embedded in the network. By direct comparison with a manually curated dataset, we assessed that this classification algorithm generates data of quality similar to a human expert. Then, we explored the network to identify families involved in the assembly of Type III and Type IV secretion systems (T3SS and T4SS. We noticed that, beside a core of conserved functions (eight proteins for T3SS, seven for T4SS, a variable set of accessory components is always present (one to nine for T3SS, one to five for T4SS. Each member of the core corresponds to a single PHN-Family, while accessory proteins are distributed among different pure families. The PHN-Family classification suggests that T3SS and T4SS have been assembled through a step-wise, discontinuous process, by complementing the conserved core with subgroups of nonconserved proteins. Such genetic modules, independently recruited and probably tuned on specific effectors, contribute to the functional specialization of these organelles to different microenvironments.

  18. Increasing organ donation rates by revealing recipient details to families of potential donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David; Gardiner, Dale

    2018-02-01

    Many families refuse to consent to donation from their deceased relatives or over-rule the consent given before death by the patient, but giving families more information about the potential recipients of organs could reduce refusal rates. In this paper, we analyse arguments for and against doing so, and conclude that this strategy should be attempted. While it would be impractical and possibly unethical to give details of actual potential recipients, generic, realistic information about the people who could benefit from organs should be provided to families before they make a decision about donation or attempt to over-rule it. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Diffuse correlation tomography reveals spatial and temporal difference in blood flow changes among murine femoral grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Songfeng; Proctor, Ashley R.; Benoit, Danielle S. W.; Choe, Regine

    2017-07-01

    Diffuse correlation tomography was utilized to noninvasively monitor 3D blood flow changes in three types of healing mouse femoral grafts. Results reveal the spatial and temporal difference among the groups.

  20. Discovering human germ cell mutagens with whole genome sequencing: Insights from power calculations reveal the importance of controlling for between-family variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, R J; Williams, A; Marchetti, F; Yauk, C L

    2018-07-01

    Mutations in germ cells pose potential genetic risks to offspring. However, de novo mutations are rare events that are spread across the genome and are difficult to detect. Thus, studies in this area have generally been under-powered, and no human germ cell mutagen has been identified. Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) of human pedigrees has been proposed as an approach to overcome these technical and statistical challenges. WGS enables analysis of a much wider breadth of the genome than traditional approaches. Here, we performed power analyses to determine the feasibility of using WGS in human families to identify germ cell mutagens. Different statistical models were compared in the power analyses (ANOVA and multiple regression for one-child families, and mixed effect model sampling between two to four siblings per family). Assumptions were made based on parameters from the existing literature, such as the mutation-by-paternal age effect. We explored two scenarios: a constant effect due to an exposure that occurred in the past, and an accumulating effect where the exposure is continuing. Our analysis revealed the importance of modeling inter-family variability of the mutation-by-paternal age effect. Statistical power was improved by models accounting for the family-to-family variability. Our power analyses suggest that sufficient statistical power can be attained with 4-28 four-sibling families per treatment group, when the increase in mutations ranges from 40 to 10% respectively. Modeling family variability using mixed effect models provided a reduction in sample size compared to a multiple regression approach. Much larger sample sizes were required to detect an interaction effect between environmental exposures and paternal age. These findings inform study design and statistical modeling approaches to improve power and reduce sequencing costs for future studies in this area. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. CARCASS QUALITY OF PIGS OF DIFFERENT GENOTYPES ON FAMILY FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petričević

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the project titled “Optimal pig production models on family farms of eastern Croatia”, researches have been curried on in several family farms from three counties. Together with establishing the current state, researches on the possibilities of improvement of reproductive, production and other quality traits of pigs have been started. This improvement should be reached by getting the suitable sires and dams whose crosses (2- and 3-way crossbreeds would give fattening pigs with satisfying lean meat yield. Fattenng pigs as final products of pig productions were monitored in this study. Carcass quality of 1592 fattening pigs from 6 family farms were determined at the slaughter line during 1999 and 2000 year. The highest shares of lean meat determined by “two points” according to current national regulations method (1999 have been founded in Hypor hybrid pigs (55.49%, n=51 and 3-way crossbreeds (SLxLWxP (55.28%, n=692. Markedly lower results have been recorded in GLxSL and SLxGL crossbred pigs (50.37%, n=204; GLxP (50.34%, n=195; GL and GLxP (49.00%, n=96; SLxGL and GLxSL (47.51%, n=354. Poorer results achieved at those four farms could be explained by evidently inapropriate feeding of fattening pigs which should, regarding the genotype, yield in higher share of lean meat.

  2. Probability distributions for first neighbor distances between resonances that belong to two different families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1994-01-01

    For a mixture of two families of resonances, we found the probability distribution for the distance, as first neighbors, between resonances that belong to different families. Integration of this distribution gives the probability of accidental overlapping of resonances of one isotope by resonances of the other, provided that the resonances of each isotope belong to a single family. (author)

  3. Reducing Work-Family Conflict through Different Sources of Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Daalen, Geertje; Willemsen, Tineke M.; Sanders, Karin

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between four sources of social support (i.e., spouse, relatives and friends, supervisor, and colleagues) and time and strain-based work-to-family and family-to-work conflict among 444 dual-earners. Gender differences with respect to the relationship between social support and work-family conflict were…

  4. How do people with different attachment styles balance work and family? A personality perspective on work-family linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, H C; Knight, P A

    2001-08-01

    This study explored whether different models of work-family relationship were possible for individuals with different attachment styles. A mail survey was conducted using employees (N = 481) at a midwestern university in the United States. Results suggested that (a) individuals with a preoccupied attachment pattern were more likely to experience negative spillover from the family/home to the work domain than those with a secure or dismissing style, (b) securely attached individuals experienced positive spillover in both work and family domains more than those in the other groups, and (c) preoccupied individuals were much less likely to use a segmentation strategy than the other 3 attachment groups. However, when the conventional job satisfaction life satisfaction relationship was examined, the data provided unique support for the spillover model. Implications of the findings for both attachment and work family relationship literatures are discussed.

  5. Family Planning Behavior and Small Family Concept Acceptance in Two Different Geographical Characteristics Municipality of South Klaten, Klaten, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Priyono

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aim to know the family planning behaviour, the acceptance small family norm and the influential factors in two villages that have different geographical aspect. The behaviour involve the knowledge, the attitude and the practice where as the influential factors involve education, accupation, values of children, income, children still born and family size desired. The research areas are chosen purposive in two villages that have different geographical aspect, social aspect and cultural aspect. The aspect are: 1 location and topography, 2 socialy  structure, and 3 the achievement of effective acceptor. Based on the three aspects, Ngalas village (developing and Sumberejo (developed are chosen as research areas. The recorded as ative acceptor (recordedin RI/PUS/1991 form. The respondents are chosen by cencus at two neighborhoord association at every village. There are six variables in this research are assumed influence the periode of the contraceptives use, such as education, occupation status, values of children, family income, children still born, and family size desired. There are three variables are assumed influence the small family norm, such as education, occupation status, and values of children. The data was analyzed by frequency table, crosee table, and statistical analysis (Q square and Regresion. The data was always compared between the two villages. The analysis use computer by Microsoft Program.  The research result showed that Sumberejo was better than Ngalas in the knowledge, the attitude, and the practice of family planning. Most of the people who live in Sumberejo understood the contraception device well (52,4%, where as in Ngalas (26,8%. Both of them agreed on using contraception device (more than 70%. The respondent who live in Sumberejo used IUD (40% and MOW/MOP (23,23%. They had used of the contraception device for 4.8 years on an average. Mean  while the respondents in Ngalas use IUD (23,68% and MOW/MOP (2

  6. Work-family conflict and family-work conflict in aspects of sex and intergenerational differences

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Sylwia Lubrańska

    2014-01-01

    Background: This paper presents the results of the study concerning mutual relations between work–family conflict and family– work conflict in the context of age and sex. Material and Methods: The study included 223 subjects (115 women, 108 men, 74 mothers and 61 fathers), aged 21–63. The Work–Family and Family–Work Conflicts Questionnaire and socio-demographic questionnaire were used as the survey tools. To verify hypotheses the correlation analysis and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used. Res...

  7. Striking variations in consultation rates with general practice reveal family influence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardol, M.; Dijk, L. van; Bosch, W.J.H.M. van den; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Bakker, D.H. de; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The reasons why patients decide to consult a general practitioner vary enormously. While there may be individual reasons for this variation, the family context has a significant and unique influence upon the frequency of individuals' visits. The objective of this study was to explore

  8. Striking variations in consultation rates with general practice reveal family influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardol, Mieke; Dijk, Liset van; Bosch, Wil J.H.M. van den; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Bakker, Dinny H. de; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The reasons why patients decide to consult a general practitioner vary enormously. While there may be individual reasons for this variation, the family context has a significant and unique influence upon the frequency of individuals' visits. The objective of this study was to explore

  9. Role conflict and satisfaction in the work-family context: Age differences in the moderating effect of role commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hiu Ching; Jiang, Da; Fung, Helene H

    2015-03-01

    This study examined age differences in the buffering effects of role commitment on the associations between role conflicts and satisfaction from the within-domain and cross-domain perspectives. Eighty-five working mothers participated in the study. Multiple regression analyses revealed that work conflicts were negatively associated with job satisfaction of younger employees but not older employees. Commitment to both work and family buffered against the negative association between family conflicts and family satisfaction for older employees but not younger employees. These findings highlight the importance of role commitment for working mothers across adulthood to cope with the demands in the work-family interface. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Three-Generation Family Households: Differences by Family Structure at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkauskas, Natasha V.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), this study investigated how the share, correlates, transition patterns, and duration of 3-generation households vary by mother's relationship status at birth. Nine percent of married mothers, 17% of cohabiting mothers, and 45% of single mothers lived in a 3-generation…

  11. Different Aspects of Involving Family in School Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blândul Valentin-Cosmin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The school has come to not have a huge credibility even, sometimes being abandoned, primarily because, nowadays, no matter hierarchy and is not perceived as a value. The actual society no longer has trust in the educational establishment, the values acquired and ranked by the amount of learning embedded in it. Such an attitude is reflected by the relationship between “parent - teacher” and “student - teacher”. Based on these findings, the present study aims to investigate the main features of the relationship that is established between school and family, concerned how parents can get involved in school life effectively. The lot of subjects was represented by 212 teachers from secondary schools in Bihor, Romania and the instrument used in the research was a questionnaire consisting of 46 objective and subjective items. The results are very interesting and shows that many respondents argue that parents show indifference to the formal education of their children, not involved in the didactic or extracurricular activities and in school life, not take part in parent meetings or when called for, is difficult to communicate with parents etc. There are some cases when, because of the family economic situation is poor, parents send their children to work, offering less time and interest in their education and instruction.

  12. Revealing Tax Avoidance in the Family-owned Company: Ethnomethodology Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maron, Wempi

    2016-01-01

    This paper dismantles the occurance of Tax Avoidance found in the family company in Malang. The method used in this research is etnomethodology, a method that is used to investigate indexical expressions and other practical actions as a unified settlement that is being done (the organized Tax Avoidance) and how to apprehed their everyday world. It is mentioned in the beginning that there are a number of factors which cause tax avoidance, that is a drive to "enrich" themselves faster, gluttony...

  13. Whole genome sequencing reveals a de novo SHANK3 mutation in familial autism spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio I Nemirovsky

    Full Text Available Clinical genomics promise to be especially suitable for the study of etiologically heterogeneous conditions such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Here we present three siblings with ASD where we evaluated the usefulness of Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS for the diagnostic approach to ASD.We identified a family segregating ASD in three siblings with an unidentified cause. We performed WGS in the three probands and used a state-of-the-art comprehensive bioinformatic analysis pipeline and prioritized the identified variants located in genes likely to be related to ASD. We validated the finding by Sanger sequencing in the probands and their parents.Three male siblings presented a syndrome characterized by severe intellectual disability, absence of language, autism spectrum symptoms and epilepsy with negative family history for mental retardation, language disorders, ASD or other psychiatric disorders. We found germline mosaicism for a heterozygous deletion of a cytosine in the exon 21 of the SHANK3 gene, resulting in a missense sequence of 5 codons followed by a premature stop codon (NM_033517:c.3259_3259delC, p.Ser1088Profs*6.We reported an infrequent form of familial ASD where WGS proved useful in the clinic. We identified a mutation in SHANK3 that underscores its relevance in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

  14. Reverse Conservation Analysis Reveals the Specificity Determining Residues of Cytochrome P450 Family 2 (CYP 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Sung Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of conservation of amino acids is widely used to identify important alignment positions of orthologs. The assumption is that important amino acid residues will be conserved in the protein family during the evolutionary process. For paralog alignment, on the other hand, the opposite concept can be used to identify residues that are responsible for specificity. Assuming that the function-specific or ligand-specific residue positions will have higher diversity since they are under evolutionary pressure to fit the target specificity, these function-specific or ligand-specific residues positions will have a lower degree of conservation than other positions in a highly conserved paralog alignment. This study assessed the ability of reverse conservation analysis to identify function-specific and ligand-specific residue positions in closely related paralog. Reverse conservation analysis of paralog alignments successfully identified all six previously reported substrate recognition sites (SRSs in cytochrome P450 family 2 (CYP 2. Further analysis of each subfamily identified the specificity-determining residues (SDRs that have been experimentally found. New potential SDRs were also predicted and await confirmation by further experiments or modeling calculations. This concept may be also applied to identify SDRs in other protein families.

  15. Perturbation of whole-brain dynamics in silico reveals mechanistic differences between brain states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deco, Gustavo; Cabral, Joana; Saenger, Victor M; Boly, Melanie; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Laufs, Helmut; Van Someren, Eus; Jobst, Beatrice; Stevner, Angus; Kringelbach, Morten L

    2017-01-01

    Human neuroimaging research has revealed that wakefulness and sleep involve very different activity patterns. Yet, it is not clear why brain states differ in their dynamical complexity, e.g. in the level of integration and segregation across brain networks over time. Here, we investigate the

  16. Perturbation of whole-brain dynamics in silico reveals mechanistic differences between brain states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deco, Gustavo; Cabral, Joana; Saenger, Victor M; Boly, Melanie; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Laufs, Helmut; Van Someren, Eus; Jobst, Beatrice M; Stevner, Angus B A; Kringelbach, Morten L

    2018-01-01

    Human neuroimaging research has revealed that wakefulness and sleep involve very different activity patterns. Yet, it is not clear why brain states differ in their dynamical complexity, e.g. in the level of integration and segregation across brain networks over time. Here, we investigate the

  17. A genome-wide phylogenetic reconstruction of family 1 UDP-glycosyltransferases revealed the expansion of the family during the adaptation of plants to life on land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Lorenzo; Malnoy, Mickael; Goremykin, Vadim; Nikiforova, Svetlana; Martens, Stefan

    2012-03-01

    For almost a decade, our knowledge on the organisation of the family 1 UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) has been limited to the model plant A. thaliana. The availability of other plant genomes represents an opportunity to obtain a broader view of the family in terms of evolution and organisation. Family 1 UGTs are known to glycosylate several classes of plant secondary metabolites. A phylogeny reconstruction study was performed to get an insight into the evolution of this multigene family during the adaptation of plants to life on land. The organisation of the UGTs in the different organisms was also investigated. More than 1500 putative UGTs were identified in 12 fully sequenced and assembled plant genomes based on the highly conserved PSPG motif. Analyses by maximum likelihood (ML) method were performed to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships existing between the sequences. The results of this study clearly show that the UGT family expanded during the transition from algae to vascular plants and that in higher plants the clustering of UGTs into phylogenetic groups appears to be conserved, although gene loss and gene gain events seem to have occurred in certain lineages. Interestingly, two new phylogenetic groups, named O and P, that are not present in A. thaliana were discovered. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Family Change and Gender Differences: Implications for Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.

    1988-01-01

    Examines theories of gender differences. Discusses alpha bias, exaggeration of gender opposition, as characteristic of psychodynamic and sex role theories; and beta bias, denial of gender differences, as evident in systems theories. Calls for new model of gender differences which recognizes asymmetry in women's and men's roles and…

  19. Bargmann Symmetry Constraint for a Family of Liouville Integrable Differential-Difference Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xixiang

    2012-01-01

    A family of integrable differential-difference equations is derived from a new matrix spectral problem. The Hamiltonian forms of obtained differential-difference equations are constructed. The Liouville integrability for the obtained integrable family is proved. Then, Bargmann symmetry constraint of the obtained integrable family is presented by binary nonliearization method of Lax pairs and adjoint Lax pairs. Under this Bargmann symmetry constraints, an integrable symplectic map and a sequences of completely integrable finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems in Liouville sense are worked out, and every integrable differential-difference equations in the obtained family is factored by the integrable symplectic map and a completely integrable finite-dimensional Hamiltonian system. (general)

  20. Genetic and environmental influences on the relationships between family connectedness, school connectedness, and adolescent depressed mood: sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, K C; Rowe, D C

    1999-07-01

    This study investigated (a) genetic and environmental contributions to the relationship between family and school environment and depressed mood and (b) potential sex differences in genetic and environmental contributions to both variation in and covariation between family connectedness, school connectedness, and adolescent depressed mood. Data are from 2,302 adolescent sibling pairs (mean age = 16 years) who were part of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Although genetic factors appeared to be important overall, model-fitting analyses revealed that the best-fitting model was a model that allowed for different parameters for male and female adolescents. Genetic contributions to variation in all 3 variables were greater among female adolescents than male adolescents, especially for depressed mood. Genetic factors also contributed to the correlations between family and school environment and adolescent depressed mood, although, again, these factors were stronger for female than for male adolescents.

  1. Age Differences in the Longitudinal Relationship between Work-Family Conflict and Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Jennifer M.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use has generally shown small effects possibly due to failure to include important individual differences relevant to the experience of work-family conflict and alcohol use, notably age. This study examined whether the relationships between aspects of work-family conflict and alcohol use variables differed by age. Participants were 543 individuals (51.2% women) from a community sample of working adults in the greater Chicag...

  2. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed structural differences among WRKY domain-DNA interaction in barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Bharati; Grover, Abhinav; Sharma, Pradeep

    2018-02-12

    The WRKY transcription factors are a class of DNA-binding proteins involved in diverse plant processes play critical roles in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Genome-wide divergence analysis of WRKY gene family in Hordeum vulgare provided a framework for molecular evolution and functional roles. So far, the crystal structure of WRKY from barley has not been resolved; moreover, knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of WRKY domain is pre-requisites for exploring the protein-DNA recognition mechanisms. Homology modelling based approach was used to generate structures for WRKY DNA binding domain (DBD) and its variants using AtWRKY1 as a template. Finally, the stability and conformational changes of the generated model in unbound and bound form was examined through atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for 100 ns time period. In this study, we investigated the comparative binding pattern of WRKY domain and its variants with W-box cis-regulatory element using molecular docking and dynamics (MD) simulations assays. The atomic insight into WRKY domain exhibited significant variation in the intermolecular hydrogen bonding pattern, leading to the structural anomalies in the variant type and differences in the DNA-binding specificities. Based on the MD analysis, residual contribution and interaction contour, wild-type WRKY (HvWRKY46) were found to interact with DNA through highly conserved heptapeptide in the pre- and post-MD simulated complexes, whereas heptapeptide interaction with DNA was missing in variants (I and II) in post-MD complexes. Consequently, through principal component analysis, wild-type WRKY was also found to be more stable by obscuring a reduced conformational space than the variant I (HvWRKY34). Lastly, high binding free energy for wild-type and variant II allowed us to conclude that wild-type WRKY-DNA complex was more stable relative to variants I. The results of our study revealed complete dynamic and structural information

  3. Complete mitochondrial genomes reveal phylogeny relationship and evolutionary history of the family Felidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W Q; Zhang, M H

    2013-09-03

    Many mitochondrial DNA sequences are used to estimate phylogenetic relationships among animal taxa and perform molecular phylogenetic evolution analysis. With the continuous development of sequencing technology, numerous mitochondrial sequences have been released in public databases, especially complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Using multiple sequences is better than using single sequences for phylogenetic analysis of animals because multiple sequences have sufficient information for evolutionary process reconstruction. Therefore, we performed phylogenetic analyses of 14 species of Felidae based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences, with Canis familiaris as an outgroup, using neighbor joining, maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian inference methods. The consensus phylogenetic trees supported the monophyly of Felidae, and the family could be divided into 2 subfamilies, Felinae and Pantherinae. The genus Panthera and species tigris were also studied in detail. Meanwhile, the divergence of this family was estimated by phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian method with a relaxed molecular clock, and the results shown were consistent with previous studies. In summary, the evolution of Felidae was reconstructed by phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial genome sequences. The described method may be broadly applicable for phylogenetic analyses of anima taxa.

  4. A holistic approach to dissecting SPARC family protein complexity reveals FSTL-1 as an inhibitor of pancreatic cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viloria, Katrina; Munasinghe, Amanda; Asher, Sharan; Bogyere, Roberto; Jones, Lucy; Hill, Natasha J

    2016-11-25

    SPARC is a matricellular protein that is involved in both pancreatic cancer and diabetes. It belongs to a wider family of proteins that share structural and functional similarities. Relatively little is known about this extended family, but evidence of regulatory interactions suggests the importance of a holistic approach to their study. We show that Hevin, SPOCKs, and SMOCs are strongly expressed within islets, ducts, and blood vessels, suggesting important roles for these proteins in the normal pancreas, while FSTL-1 expression is localised to the stromal compartment reminiscent of SPARC. In direct contrast to SPARC, however, FSTL-1 expression is reduced in pancreatic cancer. Consistent with this, FSTL-1 inhibited pancreatic cancer cell proliferation. The complexity of SPARC family proteins is further revealed by the detection of multiple cell-type specific isoforms that arise due to a combination of post-translational modification and alternative splicing. Identification of splice variants lacking a signal peptide suggests the existence of novel intracellular isoforms. This study underlines the importance of addressing the complexity of the SPARC family and provides a new framework to explain their controversial and contradictory effects. We also demonstrate for the first time that FSTL-1 suppresses pancreatic cancer cell growth.

  5. Profession differences in family focused practice in the adult mental health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybery, Darryl; Goodyear, Melinda; O'Hanlon, Brendan; Cuff, Rose; Reupert, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    There is a large gulf between what psychiatric services should (or could) provide and what they do in practice. This article sought to determine practice differences between the differing professions working in adult mental health services in terms of their family focused work. Three hundred and seven adult mental health professionals completed a cross-sectional survey of family focused practices in adult mental health services. Findings highlight that social workers engaged in more family focused practice compared to psychiatric nurses, who performed consistently the lowest on direct family care, compared to both social workers and psychologists. Clear skill, knowledge, and confidence differences are indicated between the professions. The article concludes by offering direction for future profession education and training in family focused practices. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  6. The Different Effects of Family on Objective Career Success across Gender: A Test of Alternative Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchmeyer, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Gender gaps in achieved rank and salary, common indicators of objective success, often are attributed to the different family roles and responsibilities of men and women. This study tested three explanations for the different effects of family on careers: that is, choice, performance, and signaling explanations. In a sample of American doctoral…

  7. Different families, same love: Challenges of the 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The year 2008 by all means will be remembered by several events, which contributed to significant progress in the domain of legal recognition of various aspects of same sex communities. There were also several initiatives contributing to making the political will necessary for legal changes. The most visible one probably was the May recognition of same sex marriage by the Supreme Court of California, which was valid only 5 months before it was cancelled by the referendum held in November 2008. Since this American state has 38 million inhabitants, more than the whole Balkan region, the event was visible by the whole world. The paper provides further analysis of mostly European events, e.g. decisions of European courts in Strasbourg and Luxembourg, political interventions by the EU Parliament Intercrop, releases of the ILGA-Europe, gay pride marches, other public activities, e.g. exhibition in the EU Parliament regarding the International Day of Human Rights, adoption of various documents relevant for the EU member states and permanent changes in internal legal provisions of the member states. The UN Declaration against discrimination on the ground of sexual orientation and gender identity concluded the year. The paper also comprises analysis of a few typical cases of implementation of family relations among same sex partners.

  8. Multilocus phylogeny of the avian family Alaudidae (larks) reveals complex morphological evolution, non-monophyletic genera and hidden species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alström, Per; Barnes, Keith N; Olsson, Urban; Barker, F Keith; Bloomer, Paulette; Khan, Aleem Ahmed; Qureshi, Masood Ahmed; Guillaumet, Alban; Crochet, Pierre-André; Ryan, Peter G

    2013-12-01

    The Alaudidae (larks) is a large family of songbirds in the superfamily Sylvioidea. Larks are cosmopolitan, although species-level diversity is by far largest in Africa, followed by Eurasia, whereas Australasia and the New World have only one species each. The present study is the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Alaudidae. It includes 83.5% of all species and representatives from all recognised genera, and was based on two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci (in total 6.4 kbp, although not all loci were available for all species). In addition, a larger sample, comprising several subspecies of some polytypic species was analysed for one of the mitochondrial loci. There was generally good agreement in trees inferred from different loci, although some strongly supported incongruences were noted. The tree based on the concatenated multilocus data was overall well resolved and well supported by the data. We stress the importance of performing single gene as well as combined data analyses, as the latter may obscure significant incongruence behind strong nodal support values. The multilocus tree revealed many unpredicted relationships, including some non-monophyletic genera (Calandrella, Mirafra, Melanocorypha, Spizocorys). The tree based on the extended mitochondrial data set revealed several unexpected deep divergences between taxa presently treated as conspecific (e.g. within Ammomanes cinctura, Ammomanes deserti, Calandrella brachydactyla, Eremophila alpestris), as well as some shallow splits between currently recognised species (e.g. Certhilauda brevirostris-C. semitorquata-C. curvirostris; Calendulauda barlowi-C. erythrochlamys; Mirafra cantillans-M. javanica). Based on our results, we propose a revised generic classification, and comment on some species limits. We also comment on the extraordinary morphological adaptability in larks, which has resulted in numerous examples of parallel evolution (e.g. in Melanocorypha mongolica and Alauda leucoptera [both

  9. Lineage-specific evolution of the vertebrate Otopetrin gene family revealed by comparative genomic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Joseph F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the Otopetrin 1 gene (Otop1 in mice and fish produce an unusual bilateral vestibular pathology that involves the absence of otoconia without hearing impairment. The encoded protein, Otop1, is the only functionally characterized member of the Otopetrin Domain Protein (ODP family; the extended sequence and structural preservation of ODP proteins in metazoans suggest a conserved functional role. Here, we use the tools of sequence- and cytogenetic-based comparative genomics to study the Otop1 and the Otop2-Otop3 genes and to establish their genomic context in 25 vertebrates. We extend our evolutionary study to include the gene mutated in Usher syndrome (USH subtype 1G (Ush1g, both because of the head-to-tail clustering of Ush1g with Otop2 and because Otop1 and Ush1g mutations result in inner ear phenotypes. Results We established that OTOP1 is the boundary gene of an inversion polymorphism on human chromosome 4p16 that originated in the common human-chimpanzee lineage more than 6 million years ago. Other lineage-specific evolutionary events included a three-fold expansion of the Otop genes in Xenopus tropicalis and of Ush1g in teleostei fish. The tight physical linkage between Otop2 and Ush1g is conserved in all vertebrates. To further understand the functional organization of the Ushg1-Otop2 locus, we deduced a putative map of binding sites for CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF, a mammalian insulator transcription factor, from genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq data in mouse and human embryonic stem (ES cells combined with detection of CTCF-binding motifs. Conclusions The results presented here clarify the evolutionary history of the vertebrate Otop and Ush1g families, and establish a framework for studying the possible interaction(s of Ush1g and Otop in developmental pathways.

  10. Comparative genomic analysis of the Lipase3 gene family in five plant species reveals distinct evolutionary origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Zhang, Lin; Hu, JunFeng; Gao, Dianshuai; Liu, Xin; Sha, Yan

    2018-04-01

    Lipases are physiologically important and ubiquitous enzymes that share a conserved domain and are classified into eight different families based on their amino acid sequences and fundamental biological properties. The Lipase3 family of lipases was reported to possess a canonical fold typical of α/β hydrolases and a typical catalytic triad, suggesting a distinct evolutionary origin for this family. Genes in the Lipase3 family do not have the same functions, but maintain the conserved Lipase3 domain. There have been extensive studies of Lipase3 structures and functions, but little is known about their evolutionary histories. In this study, all lipases within five plant species were identified, and their phylogenetic relationships and genetic properties were analyzed and used to group them into distinct evolutionary families. Each identified lipase family contained at least one dicot and monocot Lipase3 protein, indicating that the gene family was established before the split of dicots and monocots. Similar intron/exon numbers and predicted protein sequence lengths were found within individual groups. Twenty-four tandem Lipase3 gene duplications were identified, implying that the distinctive function of Lipase3 genes appears to be a consequence of translocation and neofunctionalization after gene duplication. The functional genes EDS1, PAD4, and SAG101 that are reportedly involved in pathogen response were all located in the same group. The nucleotide diversity (Dxy) and the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions rates (Ka/Ks) of the three genes were significantly greater than the average across the genomes. We further observed evidence for selection maintaining diversity on three genes in the Toll-Interleukin-1 receptor type of nucleotide binding/leucine-rich repeat immune receptor (TIR-NBS LRR) immunity-response signaling pathway, indicating that they could be vulnerable to pathogen effectors.

  11. Birth Order, Sibling IQ Differences, and Family Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfouts, Jane H.

    The differential impact of birth order and IQ on sibling roles were examined with particular interest focused on achievement outcomes. Subjects were a stratified sample of 37 pairs of near-in-age siblings, all within the normal range in personality and IQ, but differing significantly in scores on the Slosson IQ Test. Results indicate that when the…

  12. Explaining Couple Cohesion in Different Types of Gay Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eeden-Moorefield, Brad; Pasley, Kay; Crosbie-Burnett, Margaret; King, Erin

    2012-01-01

    This Internet-based study used data from a convenience sample of 176 gay men in current partnerships to examine differences in outness, cohesion, and relationship quality between three types of gay male couples: first cohabiting partnerships, repartnerships, and gay stepfamilies. Also, we tested whether relationship quality mediated the link…

  13. Reconstitution of a fungal meroterpenoid biosynthesis reveals the involvement of a novel family of terpene cyclases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Takayuki; Tokunaga, Kinya; Matsuda, Yudai; Fujii, Isao; Abe, Ikuro; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Kushiro, Tetsuo

    2010-10-01

    Meroterpenoids are hybrid natural products of both terpenoid and polyketide origin. We identified a biosynthetic gene cluster that is responsible for the production of the meroterpenoid pyripyropene in the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus through reconstituted biosynthesis of up to five steps in a heterologous fungal expression system. The cluster revealed a previously unknown terpene cyclase with an unusual sequence and protein primary structure. The wide occurrence of this sequence in other meroterpenoid and indole-diterpene biosynthetic gene clusters indicates the involvement of these enzymes in the biosynthesis of various terpenoid-bearing metabolites produced by fungi and bacteria. In addition, a novel polyketide synthase that incorporated nicotinyl-CoA as the starter unit and a prenyltransferase, similar to that in ubiquinone biosynthesis, was found to be involved in the pyripyropene biosynthesis. The successful production of a pyripyropene analogue illustrates the catalytic versatility of these enzymes for the production of novel analogues with useful biological activities.

  14. Investigating the relative importance of individual differences on the work-family interface and the moderating role of boundary preference for segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Jesse S; Clark, Malissa A

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the relative importance of individual differences in relation to perceptions of work-family conflict and facilitation, as well as the moderating role of boundary preference for segmentation on these relationships. Relative importance analyses, based on a diverse sample of 380 employees from the USA, revealed that individual differences were consistently predictive of self-reported work-family conflict and facilitation. Conscientiousness, neuroticism, negative affect and core self-evaluations were consistently related to both directions of work-family conflict, whereas agreeableness predicted significant variance in family-to-work conflict only. Positive affect and core self-evaluations were consistently related to both directions of work-family facilitation, whereas agreeableness and neuroticism predicted significant variance in family-to-work facilitation only. Collectively, individual differences explained 25-28% of the variance in work-family conflict (primarily predicted by neuroticism and negative affect) and 11-18% of the variance in work-family facilitation (primarily predicted by positive affect and core self-evaluations). Moderated regression analyses showed that boundary preference for segmentation strengthened many of the relationships between individual differences and work-family conflict and facilitation. Implications for addressing the nature of work and family are discussed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Family Wide Molecular Adaptations to Underground Life in African Mole-Rats Revealed by Phylogenomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kalina T J; Bennett, Nigel C; Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Rossiter, Stephen J; Faulkes, Christopher G

    2015-12-01

    During their evolutionary radiation, mammals have colonized diverse habitats. Arguably the subterranean niche is the most inhospitable of these, characterized by reduced oxygen, elevated carbon dioxide, absence of light, scarcity of food, and a substrate that is energetically costly to burrow through. Of all lineages to have transitioned to a subterranean niche, African mole-rats are one of the most successful. Much of their ecological success can be attributed to a diet of plant storage organs, which has allowed them to colonize climatically varied habitats across sub-Saharan Africa, and has probably contributed to the evolution of their diverse social systems. Yet despite their many remarkable phenotypic specializations, little is known about molecular adaptations underlying these traits. To address this, we sequenced the transcriptomes of seven mole-rat taxa, including three solitary species, and combined new sequences with existing genomic data sets. Alignments of more than 13,000 protein-coding genes encompassed, for the first time, all six genera and the full spectrum of ecological and social variation in the clade. We detected positive selection within the mole-rat clade and along ancestral branches in approximately 700 genes including loci associated with tumorigenesis, aging, morphological development, and sociality. By combining these results with gene ontology annotation and protein-protein networks, we identified several clusters of functionally related genes. This family wide analysis of molecular evolution in mole-rats has identified a suite of positively selected genes, deepening our understanding of the extreme phenotypic traits exhibited by this group. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. Mutational and structural analyses of Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus Man5B reveal novel active site residues for family 5 glycoside hydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Takuji; Schmitz, George E; Dodd, Dylan; Han, Yejun; Burnett, Alanna; Nagasawa, Naoko; Mackie, Roderick I; Nakamura, Haruki; Morikawa, Kosuke; Cann, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    CpMan5B is a glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 enzyme exhibiting both β-1,4-mannosidic and β-1,4-glucosidic cleavage activities. To provide insight into the amino acid residues that contribute to catalysis and substrate specificity, we solved the structure of CpMan5B at 1.6 Å resolution. The structure revealed several active site residues (Y12, N92 and R196) in CpMan5B that are not present in the active sites of other structurally resolved GH5 enzymes. Residue R196 in GH5 enzymes is thought to be strictly conserved as a histidine that participates in an electron relay network with the catalytic glutamates, but we show that an arginine fulfills a functionally equivalent role and is found at this position in every enzyme in subfamily GH5_36, which includes CpMan5B. Residue N92 is required for full enzymatic activity and forms a novel bridge over the active site that is absent in other family 5 structures. Our data also reveal a role of Y12 in establishing the substrate preference for CpMan5B. Using these molecular determinants as a probe allowed us to identify Man5D from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii as a mannanase with minor endo-glucanase activity.

  17. Mutational and structural analyses of Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus Man5B reveal novel active site residues for family 5 glycoside hydrolases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Oyama

    Full Text Available CpMan5B is a glycoside hydrolase (GH family 5 enzyme exhibiting both β-1,4-mannosidic and β-1,4-glucosidic cleavage activities. To provide insight into the amino acid residues that contribute to catalysis and substrate specificity, we solved the structure of CpMan5B at 1.6 Å resolution. The structure revealed several active site residues (Y12, N92 and R196 in CpMan5B that are not present in the active sites of other structurally resolved GH5 enzymes. Residue R196 in GH5 enzymes is thought to be strictly conserved as a histidine that participates in an electron relay network with the catalytic glutamates, but we show that an arginine fulfills a functionally equivalent role and is found at this position in every enzyme in subfamily GH5_36, which includes CpMan5B. Residue N92 is required for full enzymatic activity and forms a novel bridge over the active site that is absent in other family 5 structures. Our data also reveal a role of Y12 in establishing the substrate preference for CpMan5B. Using these molecular determinants as a probe allowed us to identify Man5D from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii as a mannanase with minor endo-glucanase activity.

  18. Differences in School Behavior and Achievement between Children from Intact, Reconstituted, and Single-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, Darin R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Analyzed differences in school behavior and achievement among students (n=530) in grades six through nine from intact, reconstituted, and single-parent families. Students from intact, two-parent families had fewer absences and tardies, higher grade point averages, and fewer negative and more positive teacher behavioral ratings than did those from…

  19. Analyzing Individual Differences in Vocational, Leisure, and Family Interests: A Multitrait-Multimethod Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudron, Jean-Philippe; Vautier, Stephane

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the latent structure of individual differences in vocational, leisure, and family interests. The participants consisted of 302 French adults who rated their like or dislike for activities based on Holland's RIASEC typology and presented in three life domains: work, family and leisure. The multitrait-multimethod model…

  20. Perceptions of Family Relations when Mothers and Fathers Are Depicted with Different Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillicuddy-De Lisi, Ann V.; De Lisi, Richard

    2007-01-01

    College students (N = 125) reported their perceptions of family relations in response to vignettes that presented 5 different parenting styles. Participants viewed family relations as most positive when parents were portrayed as authoritative or permissive and as most negative when parents were portrayed as uninvolved-neglecting or authoritarian.…

  1. Reducing work-family conflict through different sources of social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Daalen, G.; van Daalen, Geertje; Willemsen, Tineke M.; Sanders, Karin

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between four sources of social support (i.e., spouse, relatives and friends, supervisor, and colleagues) and time and strain-based work-to-family and family-to-work conflict among 444 dual-earners. Gender differences with respect to the relationship

  2. Handsome wants as handsome does: physical attractiveness and gender differences in revealed sexual preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Elizabeth Aura

    2011-01-01

    In this article I evaluate the effect of physical attractiveness on young adults' sexual and romantic outcomes to reveal gender differences in acted preferences. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a probability sample of young adults (n = 14,276), I investigate gender differences in desired sexual partner accumulation, relationship status, and timing of sexual intercourse. I find gender differences in sexual and romantic strategies consistent with those predicted by the double standard of sexuality and evolutionary theory. Specifically, compared to men, women pursue more committed relationships, fewer sexual partners, and delayed sexual intercourse.

  3. RNA-Seq Analysis Reveals MAPKKK Family Members Related to Drought Tolerance in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wen; Yang, Fengling; He, Hang; Zhao, Jiuran

    2015-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is an evolutionarily conserved signal transduction pathway that is involved in plant development and stress responses. As the first component of this phosphorelay cascade, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) act as adaptors linking upstream signaling steps to the core MAPK cascade to promote the appropriate cellular responses; however, the functions of MAPKKKs in maize are unclear. Here, we identified 71 MAPKKK genes, of which 14 were novel, based on a computational analysis of the maize (Zea mays L.) genome. Using an RNA-seq analysis in the leaf, stem and root of maize under well-watered and drought-stress conditions, we identified 5,866 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 8 MAPKKK genes responsive to drought stress. Many of the DEGs were enriched in processes such as drought stress, abiotic stimulus, oxidation-reduction, and metabolic processes. The other way round, DEGs involved in processes such as oxidation, photosynthesis, and starch, proline, ethylene, and salicylic acid metabolism were clearly co-expressed with the MAPKKK genes. Furthermore, a quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis was performed to assess the relative expression levels of MAPKKKs. Correlation analysis revealed that there was a significant correlation between expression levels of two MAPKKKs and relative biomass responsive to drought in 8 inbred lines. Our results indicate that MAPKKKs may have important regulatory functions in drought tolerance in maize. PMID:26599013

  4. Adolescent-Parent Communication in a Digital World: Differences by Family Communication Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudi, Jessie H.; Walkner, Amy; Dworkin, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    We examined how family communication patterns (FCPs) are associated with frequency of adolescent-parent communication in person, over the phone, via text message, and via email. Adolescents (N = 195) aged 13 to 18 completed an online survey assessing FCPs and frequency of communication methods used with parents. The results revealed that both…

  5. Childrearing style in families of anxiety-disordered children: between-family and within-family differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhout, Ingeborg E; Markus, Monica Th; Borst, Sophie R; Hoogendijk, Thea H G; Dingemans, Peter M A J; Boer, Frits

    2009-06-01

    This study examined whether (1) parents of anxiety-disordered (AD) children differed from those of non-clinical controls in their childrearing style, and whether (2) the child-rearing style of parents towards AD children is different from that towards their siblings. A clinical sample of 25 AD children, age range 8-13 years, was compared with 25 siblings and a non-clinical control group (n = 25). Childrearing was assessed by means of parental self-report, child report and through an expressed emotion interview measure. AD children perceived more parental rejection than non-clinical control children or the AD children's siblings. High-expressed emotion was scored significantly more often towards AD children than non-clinical control children, or their siblings. On [Symbol: see text]care' and [Symbol: see text]control' parental self-report showed some differences regarding AD children on the one hand and non-clinical control children or siblings of AD children on the other. These results suggest that the rearing of AD children differs significantly both from the rearing of their siblings and that of non-clinical control children.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF family in Musa species reveals divergence and neofunctionalisation during evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhwani, Deepika; Pandey, Ashutosh; Dhar, Yogeshwar Vikram; Bag, Sumit Kumar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Asif, Mehar Hasan

    2016-01-06

    AP2/ERF domain containing transcription factor super family is one of the important regulators in the plant kingdom. The involvement of AP2/ERF family members has been elucidated in various processes associated with plant growth, development as well as in response to hormones, biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we carried out genome-wide analysis to identify members of AP2/ERF family in Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome) and changes leading to neofunctionalisation of genes. Analysis identified 265 and 318 AP2/ERF encoding genes in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana respectively which were further classified into ERF, DREB, AP2, RAV and Soloist groups. Comparative analysis indicated that AP2/ERF family has undergone duplication, loss and divergence during evolution and speciation of the Musa A and B genomes. We identified nine genes which are up-regulated during fruit ripening and might be components of the regulatory machinery operating during ethylene-dependent ripening in banana. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the genes suggests that different regulatory mechanisms might be involved in peel and pulp ripening process through recruiting specific ERFs in these tissues. Analysis also suggests that MaRAV-6 and MaERF026 have structurally diverged from their M. balbisiana counterparts and have attained new functions during ripening.

  7. Heterologous expression and transcript analysis of gibberellin biosynthetic genes of grasses reveals novel functionality in the GA3ox family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Stephen; Huttly, Alison K; Prosser, Ian M; Li, Yi-dan; Vaughan, Simon P; Gallova, Barbora; Patil, Archana; Coghill, Jane A; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Hedden, Peter; Phillips, Andrew L

    2015-06-05

    The gibberellin (GA) pathway plays a central role in the regulation of plant development, with the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-ODDs: GA20ox, GA3ox, GA2ox) that catalyse the later steps in the biosynthetic pathway of particularly importance in regulating bioactive GA levels. Although GA has important impacts on crop yield and quality, our understanding of the regulation of GA biosynthesis during wheat and barley development remains limited. In this study we identified or assembled genes encoding the GA 2-ODDs of wheat, barley and Brachypodium distachyon and characterised the wheat genes by heterologous expression and transcript analysis. The wheat, barley and Brachypodium genomes each contain orthologous copies of the GA20ox, GA3ox and GA2ox genes identified in rice, with the exception of OsGA3ox1 and OsGA2ox5 which are absent in these species. Some additional paralogs of 2-ODD genes were identified: notably, a novel gene in the wheat B genome related to GA3ox2 was shown to encode a GA 1-oxidase, named as TaGA1ox-B1. This enzyme is likely to be responsible for the abundant 1β-hydroxylated GAs present in developing wheat grains. We also identified a related gene in barley, located in a syntenic position to TaGA1ox-B1, that encodes a GA 3,18-dihydroxylase which similarly accounts for the accumulation of unusual GAs in barley grains. Transcript analysis showed that some paralogs of the different classes of 2-ODD were expressed mainly in a single tissue or at specific developmental stages. In particular, TaGA20ox3, TaGA1ox1, TaGA3ox3 and TaGA2ox7 were predominantly expressed in developing grain. More detailed analysis of grain-specific gene expression showed that while the transcripts of biosynthetic genes were most abundant in the endosperm, genes encoding inactivation and signalling components were more highly expressed in the seed coat and pericarp. The comprehensive expression and functional characterisation of the multigene families encoding the 2-ODD

  8. Family Legacy or Family Pioneer? Social Class Differences in the Way Adolescents Construct College-Going

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenkamp, Amy G.; Shifrer, Dara

    2018-01-01

    In an era of heightened educational expectations, it can be difficult to discern why would-be first-generation college-going adolescents are less likely to enroll in college than non-first generation adolescents. This article draws from cultural sociology to interpret differences in the way that adolescents socially construct the transition into…

  9. RNA-SEQ reveals transcriptional level changes of poplar roots in different forms of nitrogen treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunpu eQu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Poplar has emerged as a model plant for understanding molecular mechanisms of tree growth, development and response to environment. Long-term application of different forms of nitrogen (such as NO3--N and NH4+-N may cause morphological changes of poplar roots; however, the molecular level changes are still not well known. In this study, we analyzed the expression profiling of poplar roots treated by three forms of nitrogen: S1 (NH4+, S2 (NH4NO3 and S3 (NO3- by using RNA-SEQ technique. We found 463 genes significantly differentially expressed in roots by different N treatments, of which a total of 116 genes were found to differentially express between S1 and S2, 173 genes between S2 and S3, and 327 genes between S1 and S3. A cluster analysis shows significant difference in many transcription factor families and functional genes family under different N forms. Through an analysis of Mapman metabolic pathway, we found that the significantly differentially expressed genes are associated with fermentation, glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA, secondary metabolism, hormone metabolism, and transport processing. Interestingly, we did not find significantly differentially expressed genes in N metabolism pathway, mitochondrial electron transport / ATP synthesis and mineral nutrition. We also found abundant candidate genes (20 transcription factors and 30 functional genes regulating morphology changes of poplar roots under the three N forms. The results obtained are beneficial to a better understanding of the potential molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating root morphology changes under different N treatments.

  10. Different reasons, different results: implications of migration by gender and family status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Claudia; McManus, Patricia A

    2012-02-01

    Previous research on migration and gendered career outcomes centers on couples and rarely examines the reason for the move. The implicit assumption is usually that households migrate in response to job opportunities. Based on a two-year panel from the Current Population Survey, this article uses stated reasons for geographic mobility to compare earnings outcomes among job migrants, family migrants, and quality-of-life migrants by gender and family status. We further assess the impact of migration on couples' internal household economy. The effects of job-related moves that we find are reduced substantially in the fixed-effects models, indicating strong selection effects. Married women who moved for family reasons experience significant and substantial earnings declines. Consistent with conventional models of migration, we find that household earnings and income and gender specialization increase following job migration. Married women who are secondary earners have increased odds of reducing their labor supply following migration for job or family reasons. However, we also find that migrating women who contributed as equals to the household economy before the move are no more likely than nonmigrant women to exit work or to work part-time. Equal breadwinner status may protect women from becoming tied movers.

  11. Gender Differences in Relations among Perceived Family Characteristics and Risky Health Behaviors in Urban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kimberly M; Carey, Kate B; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Eckert, Tanya L; Park, Aesoon; Vanable, Peter A; Ewart, Craig K; Carey, Michael P

    2017-06-01

    Research regarding the role of gender in relations between family characteristics and health risk behaviors has been limited. This study aims to investigate gender differences in associations between family processes and risk-taking in adolescents. Adolescents (N = 249; mean age = 14.5 years) starting their first year at an urban high school in the northeastern USA completed self-report measures that assessed family characteristics (i.e., parental monitoring, family social support, family conflict) and health behaviors (i.e., tobacco use, alcohol use, marijuana use, sex initiation) as part of a prospective, community-based study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate gender differences in associations between the family characteristics and health behaviors. Among males, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of using tobacco and having ever engaged in sex. Among females, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of marijuana use, alcohol use, and having ever engaged in sex. However, in contrast to males, among females (a) higher levels of perceived family social support were associated with lower odds of alcohol use and having ever engaged in sex and (b) higher levels of perceived family conflict were associated with higher odds of marijuana use and having ever engaged in sex. Family processes were more strongly related to health behaviors among adolescent females than adolescent males. Interventions that increase parental monitoring and family social support as well as decrease family conflict may help to protect against adolescent risk taking, especially for females.

  12. Metabolomics reveals variation and correlation among different tissues of olive (Olea europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Guodong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolites in olives are associated with nutritional value and physiological properties. However, comprehensive information regarding the olive metabolome is limited. In this study, we identified 226 metabolites from three different tissues of olive using a non-targeted metabolomic profiling approach, of which 76 named metabolites were confirmed. Further statistical analysis revealed that these 76 metabolites covered different types of primary metabolism and some of the secondary metabolism pathways. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA statistical assay was performed to calculate the variations within the detected metabolites, and levels of 65 metabolites were differentially expressed in different samples. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA dendrograms showed variations among different tissues that were similar to the metabolite profiles observed in new leaves and fruit. Additionally, 5776 metabolite-metabolite correlations were detected by a Pearson correlation coefficient approach. Screening of the calculated correlations revealed 3136, 3025, and 5184 were determined to metabolites and had significant correlations in three different combinations, respectively. This work provides the first comprehensive metabolomic of olive, which will provide new insights into understanding the olive metabolism, and potentially help advance studies in olive metabolic engineering.

  13. Structural-Functional Analysis Reveals a Specific Domain Organization in Family GH20 Hexosaminidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Cid, Cristina; Biarnés, Xevi; Faijes, Magda; Planas, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Hexosaminidases are involved in important biological processes catalyzing the hydrolysis of N-acetyl-hexosaminyl residues in glycosaminoglycans and glycoconjugates. The GH20 enzymes present diverse domain organizations for which we propose two minimal model architectures: Model A containing at least a non-catalytic GH20b domain and the catalytic one (GH20) always accompanied with an extra α-helix (GH20b-GH20-α), and Model B with only the catalytic GH20 domain. The large Bifidobacterium bifidum lacto-N-biosidase was used as a model protein to evaluate the minimal functional unit due to its interest and structural complexity. By expressing different truncated forms of this enzyme, we show that Model A architectures cannot be reduced to Model B. In particular, there are two structural requirements general to GH20 enzymes with Model A architecture. First, the non-catalytic domain GH20b at the N-terminus of the catalytic GH20 domain is required for expression and seems to stabilize it. Second, the substrate-binding cavity at the GH20 domain always involves a remote element provided by a long loop from the catalytic domain itself or, when this loop is short, by an element from another domain of the multidomain structure or from the dimeric partner. Particularly, the lacto-N-biosidase requires GH20b and the lectin-like domain at the N- and C-termini of the catalytic GH20 domain to be fully soluble and functional. The lectin domain provides this remote element to the active site. We demonstrate restoration of activity of the inactive GH20b-GH20-α construct (model A architecture) by a complementation assay with the lectin-like domain. The engineering of minimal functional units of multidomain GH20 enzymes must consider these structural requirements.

  14. Analysis of plant LTR-retrotransposons at the fine-scale family level reveals individual molecular patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingues Douglas S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane is an important crop worldwide for sugar production and increasingly, as a renewable energy source. Modern cultivars have polyploid, large complex genomes, with highly unequal contributions from ancestral genomes. Long Terminal Repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs are the single largest components of most plant genomes and can substantially impact the genome in many ways. It is therefore crucial to understand their contribution to the genome and transcriptome, however a detailed study of LTR-RTs in sugarcane has not been previously carried out. Results Sixty complete LTR-RT elements were classified into 35 families within four Copia and three Gypsy lineages. Structurally, within lineages elements were similar, between lineages there were large size differences. FISH analysis resulted in the expected pattern of Gypsy/heterochromatin, Copia/euchromatin, but in two lineages there was localized clustering on some chromosomes. Analysis of related ESTs and RT-PCR showed transcriptional variation between tissues and families. Four distinct patterns were observed in sRNA mapping, the most unusual of which was that of Ale1, with very large numbers of 24nt sRNAs in the coding region. The results presented support the conclusion that distinct small RNA-regulated pathways in sugarcane target the lineages of LTR-RT elements. Conclusions Individual LTR-RT sugarcane families have distinct structures, and transcriptional and regulatory signatures. Our results indicate that in sugarcane individual LTR-RT families have distinct behaviors and can potentially impact the genome in diverse ways. For instance, these transposable elements may affect nearby genes by generating a diverse set of small RNA's that trigger gene silencing mechanisms. There is also some evidence that ancestral genomes contribute significantly different element numbers from particular LTR-RT lineages to the modern sugarcane cultivar genome.

  15. CO I barcoding reveals new clades and radiation patterns of Indo-Pacific sponges of the family Irciniidae (Demospongiae: Dictyoceratida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Pöppe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding is a promising tool to facilitate a rapid and unambiguous identification of sponge species. Demosponges of the order Dictyoceratida are particularly challenging to identify, but are of ecological as well as biochemical importance.Here we apply DNA barcoding with the standard CO1-barcoding marker on selected Indo-Pacific specimens of two genera, Ircinia and Psammocinia of the family Irciniidae. We show that the CO1 marker identifies several species new to science, reveals separate radiation patterns of deep-sea Ircinia sponges and indicates dispersal patterns of Psammocinia species. However, some species cannot be unambiguously barcoded by solely this marker due to low evolutionary rates.We support previous suggestions for a combination of the standard CO1 fragment with an additional fragment for sponge DNA barcoding.

  16. Gender difference in work-family conflict among Japanese information technology engineers with preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watai, Izumi; Nishikido, Noriko; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2008-01-01

    Since the Family Policy Act, which requires companies to develop action plans to support their employees who have children in an attempt to reverse the declining birthrate in Japan, was enacted in 2003, many Japanese organizations and occupational health staff have become interested in work-family conflict (WFC), especially WFC in employees with young children. A cross-sectional survey of regularly employed information technology (IT) engineers with preschool children in Japan was conducted to examine the gender difference in WFC, relationship of WFC with outcomes, and predictors of WFC by gender. Data from 78 male and 102 female respondents were analyzed. There was no significant gender difference in total level of WFC. However, the level of work interference with family (WIF) was significantly higher in males than in females and the level of family interference with work (FIW) was significantly higher in females. Regarding outcomes, WIF was significantly related to depression and fatigue in both genders. Moreover, different predictors were related to WIF and FIW by gender. A family-friendly culture in the company was related to WIF only in males. To prevent depression and cumulative fatigue in employees with young children, occupational practitioners have to pay attention to not only employees' work stress but also their family stress or amount of family role in both genders.

  17. Comprehensive Analysis of ETS Family Members in Melanoma by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Reveals Recurrent ETV1 Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Rohit; Dhanasekaran, Saravana M; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Vats, Pankaj; Cao, Xuhong; Kim, Jung H; Kim, David SL; Johnson, Timothy; Fullen, Douglas R; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2013-01-01

    E26 transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factors are known to be involved in gene aberrations in various malignancies including prostate cancer; however, their role in melanoma oncogenesis has yet to be fully explored. We have completed a comprehensive fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based screen for all 27 members of the ETS transcription factor family on two melanoma tissue microarrays, representing 223 melanomas, 10 nevi, and 5 normal skin tissues. None of the melanoma cases demonstrated ETS fusions; however, 6 of 114 (5.3%) melanomas were amplified for ETV1 using a break-apart FISH probe. For the six positive cases, locus-controlled FISH probes revealed that two of six cases were amplified for the ETV1 region, whereas four cases showed copy gains of the entire chromosome 7. The remaining 26 ETS family members showed no chromosomal aberrations by FISH. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed an average 3.4-fold (P value = .00218) increased expression of ETV1 in melanomas, including the FISH ETV1-amplified cases, when compared to other malignancies (prostate, breast, and bladder carcinomas). These data suggest that a subset of melanomas overexpresses ETV1 and amplification of ETV1 may be one mechanism for achieving high gene expression. PMID:23908683

  18. Adolescents who assault their parents:a different family profile of young offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Lourdes; Cano, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Some authors have proposed that the mechanisms underlying adolescent-to-parent abuse seem to be different from other forms of juvenile delinquency. Given that this aggression is exerted within the family setting, our study was aimed to explore if there was a differential family profile for those adolescents who commit a parent abuse offense compared to those who commit other types of offenses. Judicial files of 1,046 young offenders from the Juvenile Justice Service of Jaén (Spain) were examined. The final sample (654 young offenders) was divided into 2 groups: those who had committed offenses against a parent (parent abuse group) and those who had committed other types of offenses (other offenses group). Results showed that families with parent abuse have differential characteristics, especially regarding the family size, type of household, parenting styles, and the patterns of interactions between the family members.

  19. Distinguishing Family from Friends : Implicit Cognitive Differences Regarding General Dispositions, Attitude Similarity, and Group Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Rick; Roberts, Ruth

    2017-09-01

    Kinship and friendship are key human relationships. Increasingly, data suggest that people are not less altruistic toward friends than close kin. Some accounts suggest that psychologically we do not distinguish between them; countering this is evidence that kinship provides a unique explanatory factor. Using the Implicit Association Test, we examined how people implicitly think about close friends versus close kin in three contexts. In Experiment 1, we examined generic attitudinal dispositions toward friends and family. In Experiment 2, attitude similarity as a marker of family and friends was examined, and in Experiments 3 and 4, strength of in-group membership for family and friends was examined. Findings show that differences exist in implicit cognitive associations toward family and friends. There is some evidence that people hold more positive general dispositions toward friends, associate attitude similarity more with friends, consider family as more representative of the in-group than friends, but see friends as more in-group than distant kin.

  20. Perceptions of family relations when mothers and fathers are depicted with different parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillicuddy-De Lisi, Ann V; De Lisi, Richard

    2007-12-01

    College students (N = 125) reported their perceptions of family relations in response to vignettes that presented 5 different parenting styles. Participants viewed family relations as most positive when parents were portrayed as authoritative or permissive and as most negative when parents were portrayed as uninvolved-neglecting or authoritarian. Student gender and parent gender effects qualified these findings. Female students reported family relations to be less positive than did male students when parents were depicted as authoritarian or as uninvolved-neglecting, and they rated family relations more positively than did male students when parents were depicted as permissive. Participants viewed family relations as more positive when mothers rather than fathers were presented as permissive and when fathers rather than mothers were depicted as authoritarian. The authors discuss the findings of the study in relation to theories of beliefs about children and implications for future parenting styles of male and female college students.

  1. Common brain regions underlying different arithmetic operations as revealed by conjunct fMRI-BOLD activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Thorsten; Code, Chris; Herrmann, Manfred

    2007-10-03

    The issue of how and where arithmetic operations are represented in the brain has been addressed in numerous studies. Lesion studies suggest that a network of different brain areas are involved in mental calculation. Neuroimaging studies have reported inferior parietal and lateral frontal activations during mental arithmetic using tasks of different complexities and using different operators (addition, subtraction, etc.). Indeed, it has been difficult to compare brain activation across studies because of the variety of different operators and different presentation modalities used. The present experiment examined fMRI-BOLD activity in participants during calculation tasks entailing different arithmetic operations -- addition, subtraction, multiplication and division -- of different complexities. Functional imaging data revealed a common activation pattern comprising right precuneus, left and right middle and superior frontal regions during all arithmetic operations. All other regional activations were operation specific and distributed in prominently frontal, parietal and central regions when contrasting complex and simple calculation tasks. The present results largely confirm former studies suggesting that activation patterns due to mental arithmetic appear to reflect a basic anatomical substrate of working memory, numerical knowledge and processing based on finger counting, and derived from a network originally related to finger movement. We emphasize that in mental arithmetic research different arithmetic operations should always be examined and discussed independently of each other in order to avoid invalid generalizations on arithmetics and involved brain areas.

  2. Focus Groups Reveal Differences in Career Experiences Between Male and Female Geoscientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oconnell, S.; Frey, C. D.; Holmes, M.

    2003-12-01

    We conducted twelve telephone focus groups of geoscientists to discover what motivates geoscientists to enter our field and stay in our field. There were separate male and female groups from six different professional categories: administrators, full and associate professors, non-tenure track personnel, assistant professors, post-docs and PhD candidates, Bachelor's and Master's candidates. A total of 96 geoscientists participated. Specifically, respondents were asked what initially brought them into the geosciences. Three dominant themes emerged: the subject matter itself, undergraduate experiences, and relationships. A total of 51 responses to this question related to the subject matter itself. Approximately 61 percent (31) of those responses were given by male focus group participants. Across all focus groups, participants brought up issues such as a general appreciation of the outdoors, weather, rocks, and dinosaurs. Following closely behind the general subject matter is undergraduate events. Fifty-one responses mentioned something about undergraduate experiences such as an introductory class, a laboratory experience, or field experiences. While both female and male participants discussed the role of interpersonal relationships in their decision to become a geoscientist, females were slightly more likely to bring up relevant relationships (26 times for females compared to 21 for males). These relationships varied in both groups from a parent or grandparents influence to camping trips with professors. When respondents were asked whether they had ever considered leaving the geosciences and under what circumstances, there was a striking difference between males and females: males were far less likely to have ever considered leaving. Younger males were more likely to consider leaving than older geoscientists. They feel challenged by the financial constraints of graduate school and the time constraints of academic vs. family life. Many females considered leaving at

  3. Family Migration and Labor Force Outcomes: Sex Differences in Occupational Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shauman, Kimberlee A.; Noonan, Mary C.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical analyses of sex differences in the career consequences of family migration have focused on adjudicating between the human capital and the gender-role explanations but have ignored the potential influence of gender inequality in the structure of the labor market. In this paper we estimate conditional difference-in-difference models with…

  4. A family history of DUX4: phylogenetic analysis of DUXA, B, C and Duxbl reveals the ancestral DUX gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewitt Jane E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DUX4 is causally involved in the molecular pathogenesis of the neuromuscular disorder facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD. It has previously been proposed to have arisen by retrotransposition of DUXC, one of four known intron-containing DUX genes. Here, we investigate the evolutionary history of this multi-member double-homeobox gene family in eutherian mammals. Results Our analysis of the DUX family shows the distribution of different homologues across the mammalian class, including events of secondary loss. Phylogenetic comparison, analysis of gene structures and information from syntenic regions confirm the paralogous relationship of Duxbl and DUXB and characterize their relationship with DUXA and DUXC. We further identify Duxbl pseudogene orthologues in primates. A survey of non-mammalian genomes identified a single-homeobox gene (sDUX as a likely representative homologue of the mammalian DUX ancestor before the homeobox duplication. Based on the gene structure maps, we suggest a possible mechanism for the generation of the DUX gene structure. Conclusions Our study underlines how secondary loss of orthologues can obscure the true ancestry of individual gene family members. Their relationships should be considered when interpreting the relevance of functional data from DUX4 homologues such as Dux and Duxbl to FSHD.

  5. Are Adult Children of Dysfunctional Families with Alcoholism Different from Adult Children of Dysfunctional Families without Alcoholism? A Look at Committed, Intimate Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Christine M.; Metzler, April E.

    1997-01-01

    Compared adult children from dysfunctional families (with and without alcoholism) and adult children of functional families to gauge current relationship satisfaction. No significant differences emerged between the two dysfunctional groups. Analyses connected dysfunction in the family of origin to global distress and to difficulties with…

  6. Knock-down of transcript abundance of a family of Kunitz proteinase inhibitor genes in white clover (Trifolium repens) reveals a redundancy and diversity of gene function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Afsana; Leung, Susanna; Burgess, Elisabeth P J; Laing, William A; Richardson, Kim A; Hofmann, Rainer W; Dijkwel, Paul P; McManus, Michael T

    2015-12-01

    The transcriptional regulation of four phylogenetically distinct members of a family of Kunitz proteinase inhibitor (KPI) genes isolated from white clover (Trifolium repens; designated Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5) has been investigated to determine their wider functional role. The four genes displayed differential transcription during seed germination, and in different tissues of the mature plant, and transcription was also ontogenetically regulated. Heterologous over-expression of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5 in Nicotiana tabacum retarded larval growth of the herbivore Spodoptera litura, and an increase in the transcription of the pathogenesis-related genes PR1 and PR4 was observed in the Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI4 over-expressing lines. RNA interference (RNAi) knock-down lines in white clover displayed significantly altered vegetative growth phenotypes with inhibition of shoot growth and a stimulation of root growth, while knock-down of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2 and Tr-KPI5 transcript abundance also retarded larval growth of S. litura. Examination of these RNAi lines revealed constitutive stress-associated phenotypes as well as altered transcription of cellular signalling genes. These results reveal a functional redundancy across members of the KPI gene family. Further, the regulation of transcription of at least one member of the family, Tr-KPI2, may occupy a central role in the maintenance of a cellular homeostasis. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Work, family, and personal characteristics explain occupational and gender differences in work-family conflict among Japanese civil servants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, U; Sekine, M; Yamada, M; Tatsuse, T

    2017-12-01

    A high level of work-family conflict (WFC) is an important risk factor for physical and mental health problems. Although individual work-related factors for WFC have been extensively studied, relatively little is known about whether occupation and gender affect WFC and how such effects might be generated. Cross-sectional study. This study surveyed 3053 civil servants aged 20-65 years working in a local government in the west coast of Japan in 2003. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether there are occupational and gender differences in WFC and to clarify the factors underlying these differences. WFC was higher in professional and technical workers compared with other occupations for both men and women, with age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for these workers of 1.29 in men and 2.58 in women. In men, occupational differences in WFC disappeared after adjusting for work and family characteristics (OR = 1.15). In women, significant occupational differences remained in the final model, but after adjusting for work characteristics the adjusted OR for professional and technical workers was reduced to 1.69. Women were more likely than men to experience high WFC (OR = 2.52). After controlling for work characteristics, the gender difference was considerably reduced (OR = 1.68). Work characteristics play a fundamental role in the difference in WFC between not only occupational but also gender differences. Stressful work characteristics among professional and technical workers and among women in all work roles should be addressed to reduce occupational and gender differences in WFC in Japan. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The complete genome and proteome of Laribacter hongkongensis reveal potential mechanisms for adaptations to different temperatures and habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Tse, Herman; Teng, Jade L L; Curreem, Shirly O T; Tsang, Alan K L; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Wong, Gilman K M; Huang, Yi; Loman, Nicholas J; Snyder, Lori A S; Cai, James J; Huang, Jian-Dong; Mak, William; Pallen, Mark J; Lok, Si; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2009-03-01

    Laribacter hongkongensis is a newly discovered Gram-negative bacillus of the Neisseriaceae family associated with freshwater fish-borne gastroenteritis and traveler's diarrhea. The complete genome sequence of L. hongkongensis HLHK9, recovered from an immunocompetent patient with severe gastroenteritis, consists of a 3,169-kb chromosome with G+C content of 62.35%. Genome analysis reveals different mechanisms potentially important for its adaptation to diverse habitats of human and freshwater fish intestines and freshwater environments. The gene contents support its phenotypic properties and suggest that amino acids and fatty acids can be used as carbon sources. The extensive variety of transporters, including multidrug efflux and heavy metal transporters as well as genes involved in chemotaxis, may enable L. hongkongensis to survive in different environmental niches. Genes encoding urease, bile salts efflux pump, adhesin, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and other putative virulence factors-such as hemolysins, RTX toxins, patatin-like proteins, phospholipase A1, and collagenases-are present. Proteomes of L. hongkongensis HLHK9 cultured at 37 degrees C (human body temperature) and 20 degrees C (freshwater habitat temperature) showed differential gene expression, including two homologous copies of argB, argB-20, and argB-37, which encode two isoenzymes of N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK)-NAGK-20 and NAGK-37-in the arginine biosynthesis pathway. NAGK-20 showed higher expression at 20 degrees C, whereas NAGK-37 showed higher expression at 37 degrees C. NAGK-20 also had a lower optimal temperature for enzymatic activities and was inhibited by arginine probably as negative-feedback control. Similar duplicated copies of argB are also observed in bacteria from hot springs such as Thermus thermophilus, Deinococcus geothermalis, Deinococcus radiodurans, and Roseiflexus castenholzii, suggesting that similar mechanisms for temperature adaptation may be employed by other

  9. Selective localization of different types of opiate receptors in hippocampus as revealed by in vitro autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duka, T.; Wuester, M.; Schubert, P.; Stoiber, R.; Herz, A.

    1981-01-01

    The visualization of opiate binding sites within the hippocampus of the rat has been achieved by means of an in vitro autoradiography. In line with the concept of multiple opiate receptors, different opioid agonists revealed a particular distribution pattern. Whereas the selective delta-receptor agonist [ 3 H]D-Ala 2 , D-Leu 5 -enkephalin specifically labelled binding sites in the CA 2 area, [ 3 H]etorphine grains displayed a uniform dense distribution throughout the pyramidal cell layers from CA 1 to CA 4 . (Auth.)

  10. Filial care and the relationship with the elderly in families of different nationalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Jossiana Wilke; Zilly, Adriana; Alvarez, Angela Maria; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2017-01-01

    identify how filial care and the relationship with the elderly occur in families of different nationalities. qualitative study carried out in a town on the triple frontier of Paraná, comprising 33 elderly people of five different nationalities, adopting the Symbolic Interactionism and the Grounded Theory as theoretical-methodological strategy. among Lebanese people, the Muslim religion teaches children to obey and respect parents; among French, distant family relationships and institutions for the elderly stand out. Paraguayans hold close family relationships; Chinese people consider filial care as a tacit obligation; Brazilians, in turn, tend to embrace and take care of their parents in old age. family care prevailed, but the traditions of each society lead the actions of that care, demanding health professionals' capacity of recognizing in which context the elderly is inserted.

  11. [Gender differences in career motivation: female doctors' ambitions benefit from family friendly work environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pas, B R; Lagro-Janssen, A L M; Doorewaard, J A C M; Eisinga, R N; Peters, C P

    2008-10-04

    To determine gender differences in career motivation and the effect of a family friendly work environment. Cross-sectional pilot investigation. A web survey among male and female doctors (n = 107; 72 women and 35 men) in different specialties, including surgical, internal medicine and general practitioners, was used to gather information on different dimensions of career motivation and perceptions of the family friendliness of the work environment. Differences were analysed by means of t-tests and regression analyses. Male doctors had higher scores on career identity and on career planning than female doctors. However, male and female doctors did not differ in their willingness to achieve top positions. Female doctors were more determined concerning their career goals than their male counterparts. The family friendliness of the work environment had an overall positive effect on career motivation for both male and female doctors. However, a family friendly work environment had a negative effect on the career identity of male doctors. For male and female doctors alike, support to achieve career goals and elimination of career barriers lead to increased career identity. Male and female doctors differed in certain dimensions of career motivation. Offering support for career goals and taking away career barriers leads to a higher career motivation than offering a family friendly work environment.

  12. Cultural similarities and differences in couples' adjustment to competing family and work demands

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhiyun; Perrez, Meinrad

    2011-01-01

    Conflicting work and family demands can lead to individual and interpersonal stress in close relationships. The literature suggests that individuals from various cultural contexts differ in how they organize domestic work in the family and in the support they receive from other persons. At the same time, past findings suggest effects of culture on individuals’ emotional behaviors and expression, and on the regulation of negative emotions. Although these topics are likely strongly interconnect...

  13. Gender differences in the association between family conflict and adolescent substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeer, Margie R; McCormick, Marie C; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Buka, Stephen L; Gilman, Stephen E

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to examine whether the association between childhood family conflict and the risk of substance use disorders (SUDs) in adolescence differs by gender, and (2) to determine whether anxious/depressive symptoms and conduct problems explain this association among adolescent males and females. Data were obtained from 1,421 children aged 10-16 years at the time of enrollment in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. We assessed gender differences in the association between childhood family conflict and adolescent SUDs by fitting a logistic regression model that included the interaction of gender and family conflict. We also investigated whether conduct problems and anxious/depressive symptoms explained the association between family conflict and SUDs differently for males and females through gender-specific mediation analyses. The association between childhood family conflict and SUDs in adolescence differed by gender (p = .04). Family conflict was significantly associated with SUDs among females (OR: 1.61; CI: 1.20-2.15), but not among males (OR: 1.00; CI: .76-1.32). The elevated risk of SUDs among females exposed to family conflict was partly explained by girls' conduct problems, but not by anxious/depressive symptoms. Females living in families with elevated levels of conflict were more likely to engage in acting out behaviors, which was associated with the development of SUDs. Future epidemiologic research is needed to help determine when this exposure is most problematic with respect to subsequent mental health outcomes and the most crucial time to intervene. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Why are children in the same family so different from one another?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert; Daniels, Denise

    2011-06-01

    One of the most important findings that has emerged from human behavioral genetics involves the environment rather than heredity, providing the best available evidence for the importance of environmental influences on personality, psychopathology, and cognition. The research also converges on the remarkable conclusion that these environmental influences make two children in the same family as different from one another as are pairs of children selected randomly from the population. The theme of the target article is that environmental differences between children in the same family (called "nonshared environment") represent the major source of environmental variance for personality, psychopathology, and cognitive abilities. One example of the evidence that supports this conclusion involves correlations for pairs of adopted children reared in the same family from early in life. Because these children share family environment but not heredity, their correlation directly estimates the importance of shared family environment. For most psychological characteristics, correlations for adoptive "siblings" hover near zero, which implies that the relevant environmental influences are not shared by children in the same family. Although it has been thought that cognitive abilities represent an exception to this rule, recent data suggest that environmental variance that affects IQ is also of the nonshared variety after adolescence. The article has three goals: (1) To describe quantitative genetic methods and research that lead to the conclusion that nonshared environment is responsible for most environmental variation relevant to psychological development, (2) to discuss specific nonshared environmental influences that have been studied to date, and (3) to consider relationships between nonshared environmental influences and behavioral differences between children in the same family. The reason for presenting this article in BBS is to draw attention to the far

  15. The Role of Family Influences on Adolescent Smoking in Different Racial/Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Gordon, Judith S.; Khoury, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Although differing levels of family influences may explain some of the varying racial/ethnic trends in adolescent smoking behavior, clarification of which influences are protective against smoking may aid in the development of future ethnic-specific smoking prevention interventions. We sought to identify and compare the association of family influences on adolescent smoking among Black, Hispanic, and White adolescents in a cross-sectional national sample. Methods: Data from 6,426 parent–child dyads from Round 1 of the National Survey of Parents and Youth were analyzed. The association of family influences with ever-smokers and recent smokers was evaluated. Multinomial logistic regression using SUDAAN software was used. Results: While all measures of family influences except for parent–adolescent activities and intention to monitor were significantly protective against recent smoking and ever smoking among Whites, ethnic-specific family influence predictors of smoking were found in Blacks and Hispanics. Higher parental monitoring, higher intention to monitor, and higher connectedness were protective among Hispanics, while higher parental punishment and favorable attitude toward monitoring were protective against smoking among Blacks. For family influences significantly associated with protection against smoking, consistently greater protection was afforded against recent smoking than against ever smoking. Conclusions: Higher levels of family influences are protective against smoking among all racial/ethnic groups. There are consistencies in family influences on youth smoking; however, there may be specific family influences that should be differentially emphasized within racial/ethnic groups in order to protect against smoking behavior. Our results offer insight for designing strategies for preventing smoking in youth of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. PMID:22180584

  16. Comparing expressed and revealed preferences for risk reduction: different hazards and question frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniels, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Studies often note the wide differences that exist in costs per death avoided across US federal programs and regulatory contexts. This paper explores two new, related explanations for these differences. First, it argues that the patterns of revealed preferences (public allocations) may be related to public values, which are measured here through subjects' expressed preference responses to a contingent valuation survey regarding risk reduction. Subjects' expressed values are compared to actual (and proposed) costs of safety regulations for a similar set of hazards. The authors discover strong congruence in the ranking of expressed values and actual values. Second, the paper presents the results of a subsequent survey that investigates why the patterns observed in the first survey might occur. It suggests that one reason for the observed similarities between revealed and expressed preferences may be in how choices are framed. The paper hypothesizes that both subjects and decision makers may frame valuation decisions in the same way: as percentage changes from the reference point provided by the base rate of deaths for that hazard

  17. Similarities and Differences between Parents and Children with Respect to Gender Prejudice: the Intertwinement between Family and Cultural Stereotype Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Alfieri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the similarities and differences in gender prejudice between parents and their offspring. This work is divided into two phases: our goal in Phase I was to investigate whether any similarity exists in the prejudice response profiles of parents and their young adult offspring. Phase II sought to uncover the levels of unique similarity between parents and child in gender prejudice (cultural stereotype effect. Participants were 293 Italian families (young adult child, mother and father, for a total of 879 people. Each participants completed the Ambivalent Sexism (Glick & Fiske, 1996 and Ambivalence toward Men (Glick & Fiske, 1999 scales. As our research included family data, specific analysis were used, such dyadic indexes (Kenny, Kashy & Cook, 2006. Results reveal that (1 the response profiles of parents and offspring are dissimilar, and (2 the slight shared variance between them is determined by the cultural stereotype effect.

  18. Partitioning the heritability of Tourette syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder reveals differences in genetic architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea K Davis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The direct estimation of heritability from genome-wide common variant data as implemented in the program Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA has provided a means to quantify heritability attributable to all interrogated variants. We have quantified the variance in liability to disease explained by all SNPs for two phenotypically-related neurobehavioral disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and Tourette Syndrome (TS, using GCTA. Our analysis yielded a heritability point estimate of 0.58 (se = 0.09, p = 5.64e-12 for TS, and 0.37 (se = 0.07, p = 1.5e-07 for OCD. In addition, we conducted multiple genomic partitioning analyses to identify genomic elements that concentrate this heritability. We examined genomic architectures of TS and OCD by chromosome, MAF bin, and functional annotations. In addition, we assessed heritability for early onset and adult onset OCD. Among other notable results, we found that SNPs with a minor allele frequency of less than 5% accounted for 21% of the TS heritability and 0% of the OCD heritability. Additionally, we identified a significant contribution to TS and OCD heritability by variants significantly associated with gene expression in two regions of the brain (parietal cortex and cerebellum for which we had available expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs. Finally we analyzed the genetic correlation between TS and OCD, revealing a genetic correlation of 0.41 (se = 0.15, p = 0.002. These results are very close to previous heritability estimates for TS and OCD based on twin and family studies, suggesting that very little, if any, heritability is truly missing (i.e., unassayed from TS and OCD GWAS studies of common variation. The results also indicate that there is some genetic overlap between these two phenotypically-related neuropsychiatric disorders, but suggest that the two disorders have distinct genetic architectures.

  19. A FBN1 mutation association with different phenotypes of Marfan syndrome in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yapeng; Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Mingjie; Du, Binbin; Li, Qiaoli; Xing, Qinghe; Zhang, Yanzhou

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that patients with different FBN1 mutations often present more considerable phenotypic variation compared to different members of the related family carrying a same mutation. The purpose of our study was to identify pathogenic mutation and provide more information about genotype-phenotypic correlations in a large Chinese family with Marfan syndrome. 15 related family members from a Chinese 4-generation pedigree with Marfan syndrome underwent physical, ophthalmologic, radiological and cardiovascular examinations. The propositus has De Bakey III aortic dissection and didn't fulfill the revised Ghent criteria for Marfan syndrome. Nine family members have ectopia lentis and their echocardiogram was normal. Five other family members have no evidence of Marfan syndrome. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood leukocytes. The exome sequencing was employed on the propositus, then the Sanger sequencing was conducted for mutation verification in other 14 participants of this family. The causative mutation in FBN1 discovered in the propositus was a known heterozygous missense mutation, c.1633T>G (p.R545C), in exon 14 (NM 000138). This same mutation was also identified in all 9 ectopia lentis patients and one unaffected 8-year-old girl. However, the same mutation was not discovered in other 4 unaffected family members. Our data enhance the information of genotype-phenotype correlation owing to FBN1 mutations. To our current knowledge, we firstly reported that the same FBN1 mutation, c. 1633C>T (Arg545Cys), was detected simultaneously in three different cardinal phenotypes (ectopia lentis, aortic dissection and unaffected) within one family. The unaffected girl with FBN1 mutation may presumably represent a rare case of nonpenetrance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Whole genome comparisons of Fragaria, Prunus and Malus reveal different modes of evolution between Rosaceous subfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sook; Cestaro, Alessandro; Troggio, Michela; Main, Dorrie; Zheng, Ping; Cho, Ilhyung; Folta, Kevin M; Sosinski, Bryon; Abbott, Albert; Celton, Jean-Marc; Arús, Pere; Shulaev, Vladimir; Verde, Ignazio; Morgante, Michele; Rokhsar, Daniel; Velasco, Riccardo; Sargent, Daniel James

    2012-04-04

    Rosaceae include numerous economically important and morphologically diverse species. Comparative mapping between the member species in Rosaceae have indicated some level of synteny. Recently the whole genome of three crop species, peach, apple and strawberry, which belong to different genera of the Rosaceae family, have been sequenced, allowing in-depth comparison of these genomes. Our analysis using the whole genome sequences of peach, apple and strawberry identified 1399 orthologous regions between the three genomes, with a mean length of around 100 kb. Each peach chromosome showed major orthology mostly to one strawberry chromosome, but to more than two apple chromosomes, suggesting that the apple genome went through more chromosomal fissions in addition to the whole genome duplication after the divergence of the three genera. However, the distribution of contiguous ancestral regions, identified using the multiple genome rearrangements and ancestors (MGRA) algorithm, suggested that the Fragaria genome went through a greater number of small scale rearrangements compared to the other genomes since they diverged from a common ancestor. Using the contiguous ancestral regions, we reconstructed a hypothetical ancestral genome for the Rosaceae 7 composed of nine chromosomes and propose the evolutionary steps from the ancestral genome to the extant Fragaria, Prunus and Malus genomes. Our analysis shows that different modes of evolution may have played major roles in different subfamilies of Rosaceae. The hypothetical ancestral genome of Rosaceae and the evolutionary steps that lead to three different lineages of Rosaceae will facilitate our understanding of plant genome evolution as well as have a practical impact on knowledge transfer among member species of Rosaceae.

  1. Whole genome comparisons of Fragaria, Prunus and Malus reveal different modes of evolution between Rosaceous subfamilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Sook

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rosaceae include numerous economically important and morphologically diverse species. Comparative mapping between the member species in Rosaceae have indicated some level of synteny. Recently the whole genome of three crop species, peach, apple and strawberry, which belong to different genera of the Rosaceae family, have been sequenced, allowing in-depth comparison of these genomes. Results Our analysis using the whole genome sequences of peach, apple and strawberry identified 1399 orthologous regions between the three genomes, with a mean length of around 100 kb. Each peach chromosome showed major orthology mostly to one strawberry chromosome, but to more than two apple chromosomes, suggesting that the apple genome went through more chromosomal fissions in addition to the whole genome duplication after the divergence of the three genera. However, the distribution of contiguous ancestral regions, identified using the multiple genome rearrangements and ancestors (MGRA algorithm, suggested that the Fragaria genome went through a greater number of small scale rearrangements compared to the other genomes since they diverged from a common ancestor. Using the contiguous ancestral regions, we reconstructed a hypothetical ancestral genome for the Rosaceae 7 composed of nine chromosomes and propose the evolutionary steps from the ancestral genome to the extant Fragaria, Prunus and Malus genomes. Conclusion Our analysis shows that different modes of evolution may have played major roles in different subfamilies of Rosaceae. The hypothetical ancestral genome of Rosaceae and the evolutionary steps that lead to three different lineages of Rosaceae will facilitate our understanding of plant genome evolution as well as have a practical impact on knowledge transfer among member species of Rosaceae.

  2. Life Satisfaction among Children in Different Family Structures: A Comparative Study of 36 Western Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Bendtsen, Pernille; Arnarsson, Arsaell M.; Borup, Ina; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Lofstedt, Petra; Haapasalo, Ilona; Niclasen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines differences in life satisfaction among children in different family structures in 36 western, industrialised countries (n = 184 496). Children living with both biological parents reported higher levels of life satisfaction than children living with a single parent or parent-step-parent. Children in joint physical custody…

  3. [Gender differences in career motivation: female doctors' ambitions benefit from family friendly work environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, B.R.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.; Eisinga, R.N.; Peters, P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine gender differences in career motivation and the effect of a family friendly work environment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional pilot investigation. METHOD: A web survey among male and female doctors (n = 107; 72 women and 35 men) in different specialties, including surgical, internal

  4. Metatranscriptomics reveal differences in in situ energy and nitrogen metabolism among hydrothermal vent snail symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, J G; Beinart, R A; Stewart, F J; Delong, E F; Girguis, P R

    2013-08-01

    Despite the ubiquity of chemoautotrophic symbioses at hydrothermal vents, our understanding of the influence of environmental chemistry on symbiont metabolism is limited. Transcriptomic analyses are useful for linking physiological poise to environmental conditions, but recovering samples from the deep sea is challenging, as the long recovery times can change expression profiles before preservation. Here, we present a novel, in situ RNA sampling and preservation device, which we used to compare the symbiont metatranscriptomes associated with Alviniconcha, a genus of vent snail, in which specific host-symbiont combinations are predictably distributed across a regional geochemical gradient. Metatranscriptomes of these symbionts reveal key differences in energy and nitrogen metabolism relating to both environmental chemistry (that is, the relative expression of genes) and symbiont phylogeny (that is, the specific pathways employed). Unexpectedly, dramatic differences in expression of transposases and flagellar genes suggest that different symbiont types may also have distinct life histories. These data further our understanding of these symbionts' metabolic capabilities and their expression in situ, and suggest an important role for symbionts in mediating their hosts' interaction with regional-scale differences in geochemistry.

  5. Integrated Analysis of Alzheimer's Disease and Schizophrenia Dataset Revealed Different Expression Pattern in Learning and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Xing; Dai, Shao-Xing; Liu, Jia-Qian; Wang, Qian; Li, Gong-Hua; Huang, Jing-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and schizophrenia (SZ) are both accompanied by impaired learning and memory functions. This study aims to explore the expression profiles of learning or memory genes between AD and SZ. We downloaded 10 AD and 10 SZ datasets from GEO-NCBI for integrated analysis. These datasets were processed using RMA algorithm and a global renormalization for all studies. Then Empirical Bayes algorithm was used to find the differentially expressed genes between patients and controls. The results showed that most of the differentially expressed genes were related to AD whereas the gene expression profile was little affected in the SZ. Furthermore, in the aspects of the number of differentially expressed genes, the fold change and the brain region, there was a great difference in the expression of learning or memory related genes between AD and SZ. In AD, the CALB1, GABRA5, and TAC1 were significantly downregulated in whole brain, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and hippocampus. However, in SZ, only two genes CRHBP and CX3CR1 were downregulated in hippocampus, and other brain regions were not affected. The effect of these genes on learning or memory impairment has been widely studied. It was suggested that these genes may play a crucial role in AD or SZ pathogenesis. The different gene expression patterns between AD and SZ on learning and memory functions in different brain regions revealed in our study may help to understand the different mechanism between two diseases.

  6. Revealing metabolomic variations in Cortex Moutan from different root parts using HPLC-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chaoni; Wu, Man; Chen, Yongyong; Zhang, Yajun; Zhao, Xinfeng; Zheng, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of metabolites in the different root parts of Cortex Moutan (the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews) is not well understood, therefore, scientific evidence is not available for quality assessment of Cortex Moutan. To reveal metabolomic variations in Cortex Moutan in order to gain deeper insights to enable quality control. Metabolomic variations in the different root parts of Cortex Moutan were characterised using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and multivariate data analysis. The discriminating metabolites in different root parts were evaluated by the one-way analysis of variance and a fold change parameter. The metabolite profiles of Cortex Moutan were largely dominated by five primary and 41 secondary metabolites . Higher levels of malic acid, gallic acid and mudanoside-B were mainly observed in the second lateral roots, whereas dihydroxyacetophenone, benzoyloxypaeoniflorin, suffruticoside-A, kaempferol dihexoside, mudanpioside E and mudanpioside J accumulated in the first lateral and axial roots. The highest contents of paeonol, galloyloxypaeoniflorin and procyanidin B were detected in the axial roots. Accordingly, metabolite compositions of Cortex Moutan were found to vary among different root parts. The axial roots have higher quality than the lateral roots in Cortex Moutan due to the accumulation of bioactive secondary metabolites associated with plant physiology. These findings provided important scientific evidence for grading Cortex Moutan on the general market. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Similarities and differences between families who have frequent and infrequent family meals: A qualitative investigation of low-income and minority households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Draxten, Michelle; Trofholz, Amanda; Hanson-Bradley, Carrie; Justesen, Kathryn; Slattengren, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    Numerous quantitative studies have examined the association between family meal frequency and child/adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors. However, limited qualitative research has been conducted to identify mealtime characteristics (e.g., child behavior during meals, rules/expectations, family dynamics) that occur during family meals that may explain why some families engage in frequent family meals and others do not. This is particularly important within racially/ethnically diverse households, as these demographic groups are at higher risk for weight-related problems. The current study aimed to identify similarities and differences in mealtime characteristics between households that have frequent and infrequent family meals within a low-income and minority population. This qualitative study included 118 parents who participated in Family Meals, LIVE!, a mixed-methods, cross-sectional study. Parents (90% female; mean age = 35) were racially/ethnically diverse (62% African American, 19% White, 4% Native American, 4% Asian, 11% Mixed/Other) and from low-income (73% eating, involving family members in meal preparation) between households having frequent and infrequent family meals. Additionally, several differences in mealtime characteristics were identified between households having frequent (i.e., importance of family meals, flexibility in the definition of family meals, family meal rules, no pressure-to-eat feeding practices) versus infrequent family meals (i.e., pressure-to-eat parent feeding practices, family meals are dinner meals only, and difficult meal time behaviors). Study findings may be useful for developing intervention targets for low-income and racially/ethnically diverse households so more families can benefit from the protective nature of family meals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nomadic lifestyle of Lactobacillus plantarum revealed by comparative genomics of 54 strains isolated from different habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Maria Elena; Bayjanov, Jumamurat R; Caffrey, Brian E; Wels, Michiel; Joncour, Pauline; Hughes, Sandrine; Gillet, Benjamin; Kleerebezem, Michiel; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Leulier, François

    2016-12-01

    The ability of bacteria to adapt to diverse environmental conditions is well-known. The process of bacterial adaptation to a niche has been linked to large changes in the genome content, showing that many bacterial genomes reflect the constraints imposed by their habitat. However, some highly versatile bacteria are found in diverse habitats that almost share nothing in common. Lactobacillus plantarum is a lactic acid bacterium that is found in a large variety of habitat. With the aim of unravelling the link between evolution and ecological versatility of L. plantarum, we analysed the genomes of 54 L. plantarum strains isolated from different environments. Comparative genome analysis identified a high level of genomic diversity and plasticity among the strains analysed. Phylogenomic and functional divergence studies coupled with gene-trait matching analyses revealed a mixed distribution of the strains, which was uncoupled from their environmental origin. Our findings revealed the absence of specific genomic signatures marking adaptations of L. plantarum towards the diverse habitats it is associated with. This suggests fundamentally similar trends of genome evolution in L. plantarum, which occur in a manner that is apparently uncoupled from ecological constraint and reflects the nomadic lifestyle of this species. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Sex differences in functional activation patterns revealed by increased emotion processing demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Geoffrey B C; Witelson, Sandra F; Szechtman, Henry; Nahmias, Claude

    2004-02-09

    Two [O(15)] PET studies assessed sex differences regional brain activation in the recognition of emotional stimuli. Study I revealed that the recognition of emotion in visual faces resulted in bilateral frontal activation in women, and unilateral right-sided activation in men. In study II, the complexity of the emotional face task was increased through tje addition of associated auditory emotional stimuli. Men again showed unilateral frontal activation, in this case to the left; whereas women did not show bilateral frontal activation, but showed greater limbic activity. These results suggest that when processing broader cross-modal emotional stimuli, men engage more in associative cognitive strategies while women draw more on primary emotional references.

  10. Students’ performance in the different clinical skills assessed in OSCE: what does it reveal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong Hiong Sim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare students’ performance in the different clinical skills (CSs assessed in the objective structured clinical examination. Methods: Data for this study were obtained from final year medical students’ exit examination (n=185. Retrospective analysis of data was conducted using SPSS. Means for the six CSs assessed across the 16 stations were computed and compared. Results: Means for history taking, physical examination, communication skills, clinical reasoning skills (CRSs, procedural skills (PSs, and professionalism were 6.25±1.29, 6.39±1.36, 6.34±0.98, 5.86±0.99, 6.59±1.08, and 6.28±1.02, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed there was a significant difference in the means of the six CSs assessed [F(2.980, 548.332=20.253, p<0.001]. Pairwise multiple comparisons revealed significant differences between the means of the eight pairs of CSs assessed, at p<0.05. Conclusions: CRSs appeared to be the weakest while PSs were the strongest, among the six CSs assessed. Students’ unsatisfactory performance in CRS needs to be addressed as CRS is one of the core competencies in medical education and a critical skill to be acquired by medical students before entering the workplace. Despite its challenges, students must learn the skills of clinical reasoning, while clinical teachers should facilitate the clinical reasoning process and guide students’ clinical reasoning development.

  11. Probabilistic Inference: Task Dependency and Individual Differences of Probability Weighting Revealed by Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Moritz; Seer, Caroline; Lange, Florian; Kopp, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive determinants of probabilistic inference were examined using hierarchical Bayesian modeling techniques. A classic urn-ball paradigm served as experimental strategy, involving a factorial two (prior probabilities) by two (likelihoods) design. Five computational models of cognitive processes were compared with the observed behavior. Parameter-free Bayesian posterior probabilities and parameter-free base rate neglect provided inadequate models of probabilistic inference. The introduction of distorted subjective probabilities yielded more robust and generalizable results. A general class of (inverted) S-shaped probability weighting functions had been proposed; however, the possibility of large differences in probability distortions not only across experimental conditions, but also across individuals, seems critical for the model's success. It also seems advantageous to consider individual differences in parameters of probability weighting as being sampled from weakly informative prior distributions of individual parameter values. Thus, the results from hierarchical Bayesian modeling converge with previous results in revealing that probability weighting parameters show considerable task dependency and individual differences. Methodologically, this work exemplifies the usefulness of hierarchical Bayesian modeling techniques for cognitive psychology. Theoretically, human probabilistic inference might be best described as the application of individualized strategic policies for Bayesian belief revision.

  12. Second Harmonic Generation Reveals Subtle Fibrosis Differences in Adult and Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Zhao, Jing-Min; Rao, Hui-Ying; Yu, Wei-Miao; Zhang, Wei; Theise, Neil D; Wee, Aileen; Wei, Lai

    2017-11-20

    Investigate subtle fibrosis similarities and differences in adult and pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) using second harmonic generation (SHG). SHG/two-photon excitation fluorescence imaging quantified 100 collagen parameters and determined qFibrosis values by using the nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) Clinical Research Network (CRN) scoring system in 62 adult and 36 pediatric NAFLD liver specimens. Six distinct parameters identified differences among the NASH CRN stages with high accuracy (area under the curve, 0835-0.982 vs 0.885-0.981, adult and pediatric). All portal region parameters showed similar changes across early stages 0, 1C, and 2, in both groups. Parameter values decreased in adults with progression from stage 1A/B to 2 in the central vein region. In children, aggregated collagen parameters decreased, but nearly all distributed collagen parameters increased from stage 1A/B to 2. SHG analysis accurately reproduces NASH CRN staging in NAFLD, as well as reveals differences and similarities between adult and pediatric collagen deposition not captured by currently available quantitative methods. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Probabilistic inference: Task dependency and individual differences of probability weighting revealed by hierarchical Bayesian modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz eBoos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive determinants of probabilistic inference were examined using hierarchical Bayesian modelling techniques. A classic urn-ball paradigm served as experimental strategy, involving a factorial two (prior probabilities by two (likelihoods design. Five computational models of cognitive processes were compared with the observed behaviour. Parameter-free Bayesian posterior probabilities and parameter-free base rate neglect provided inadequate models of probabilistic inference. The introduction of distorted subjective probabilities yielded more robust and generalizable results. A general class of (inverted S-shaped probability weighting functions had been proposed; however, the possibility of large differences in probability distortions not only across experimental conditions, but also across individuals, seems critical for the model’s success. It also seems advantageous to consider individual differences in parameters of probability weighting as being sampled from weakly informative prior distributions of individual parameter values. Thus, the results from hierarchical Bayesian modelling converge with previous results in revealing that probability weighting parameters show considerable task dependency and individual differences. Methodologically, this work exemplifies the usefulness of hierarchical Bayesian modelling techniques for cognitive psychology. Theoretically, human probabilistic inference might be best described as the application of individualized strategic policies for Bayesian belief revision.

  14. Sex differences in neural and behavioral signatures of cooperation revealed by fNIRS hyperscanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph M.; Liu, Ning; Cui, Xu; Vrticka, Pascal; Saggar, Manish; Hosseini, S. M. Hadi; Reiss, Allan L.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers from multiple fields have sought to understand how sex moderates human social behavior. While over 50 years of research has revealed differences in cooperation behavior of males and females, the underlying neural correlates of these sex differences have not been explained. A missing and fundamental element of this puzzle is an understanding of how the sex composition of an interacting dyad influences the brain and behavior during cooperation. Using fNIRS-based hyperscanning in 111 same- and mixed-sex dyads, we identified significant behavioral and neural sex-related differences in association with a computer-based cooperation task. Dyads containing at least one male demonstrated significantly higher behavioral performance than female/female dyads. Individual males and females showed significant activation in the right frontopolar and right inferior prefrontal cortices, although this activation was greater in females compared to males. Female/female dyad’s exhibited significant inter-brain coherence within the right temporal cortex, while significant coherence in male/male dyads occurred in the right inferior prefrontal cortex. Significant coherence was not observed in mixed-sex dyads. Finally, for same-sex dyads only, task-related inter-brain coherence was positively correlated with cooperation task performance. Our results highlight multiple important and previously undetected influences of sex on concurrent neural and behavioral signatures of cooperation. PMID:27270754

  15. Family, money, and health: Regional differences in the determinants of life satisfaction over the life course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Rachel; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    We examine how family, money, and health explain variation in life satisfaction over the life cycle across seven global regions using data from the World Values Survey. With a life domain approach, we study whether the importance of the life domains varies by region and age groups and whether the variation explained by each factor is due to the magnitude or prevalence of each factor. Globally, family, money, and health explain a substantial fraction of life satisfaction, increasing from 12 percent in young adulthood to 15 percent in mature adulthood. Health is the most important factor, and its importance increases with age. Income is unimportant above age 50. Remarkably, the contribution of family is small across ages. Across regions health is most important in the wealthier, and income in the poorer regions of the world. Family explains a substantial fraction of life satisfaction only in Western Europe and Anglophone countries. Findings highlight that the population-level importance of family, money, and health in explaining variation in life satisfaction across regions is mainly attributable to the individual-level life satisfaction differences between people of different statuses rather than differences in the distribution of various states such as poor health across regions. PMID:24796263

  16. Multivariate pattern analysis reveals anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated differences of clinical signs and functional brain network organizations between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE, but the anatomical connectivity differences underlying functional variance between the left and right mTLE remain uncharacterized. We examined 43 (22 left, 21 right mTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis and 39 healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging. After the whole-brain anatomical networks were constructed for each subject, multivariate pattern analysis was applied to classify the left mTLE from the right mTLE and extract the anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mTLE patients. The classification results reveal 93.0% accuracy for the left mTLE versus the right mTLE, 93.4% accuracy for the left mTLE versus controls and 90.0% accuracy for the right mTLE versus controls. Compared with the right mTLE, the left mTLE exhibited a different connectivity pattern in the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum. The majority of the most discriminating anatomical connections were located within or across the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum, thereby indicating that these disease-related anatomical network alterations may give rise to a portion of the complex of emotional and memory deficit between the left and right mTLE. Moreover, the orbitofrontal gyrus, cingulate cortex, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which exhibit high discriminative power in classification, may play critical roles in the pathophysiology of mTLE. The current study demonstrated that anatomical connectivity differences between the left mTLE and the right mTLE may have the potential to serve as a neuroimaging biomarker to guide personalized diagnosis of the left and right mTLE.

  17. Multivariate pattern analysis reveals anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Peng; An, Jie; Zeng, Ling-Li; Shen, Hui; Chen, Fanglin; Wang, Wensheng; Qiu, Shijun; Hu, Dewen

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated differences of clinical signs and functional brain network organizations between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), but the anatomical connectivity differences underlying functional variance between the left and right mTLE remain uncharacterized. We examined 43 (22 left, 21 right) mTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis and 39 healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging. After the whole-brain anatomical networks were constructed for each subject, multivariate pattern analysis was applied to classify the left mTLE from the right mTLE and extract the anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mTLE patients. The classification results reveal 93.0% accuracy for the left mTLE versus the right mTLE, 93.4% accuracy for the left mTLE versus controls and 90.0% accuracy for the right mTLE versus controls. Compared with the right mTLE, the left mTLE exhibited a different connectivity pattern in the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum. The majority of the most discriminating anatomical connections were located within or across the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum, thereby indicating that these disease-related anatomical network alterations may give rise to a portion of the complex of emotional and memory deficit between the left and right mTLE. Moreover, the orbitofrontal gyrus, cingulate cortex, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which exhibit high discriminative power in classification, may play critical roles in the pathophysiology of mTLE. The current study demonstrated that anatomical connectivity differences between the left mTLE and the right mTLE may have the potential to serve as a neuroimaging biomarker to guide personalized diagnosis of the left and right mTLE.

  18. Karyotypic evolution in family Hipposideridae (Chiroptera, Mammalia) revealed by comparative chromosome painting, G- and C-banding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiu-Guang; Wang, Jin-Huan; Su, Wei-Ting; Wang, Ying-Xiang; Yang, Feng-Tang; Nie, Wen-Hui

    2010-10-01

    Comparing to its sister-family (Rhinolophidae), Hipposideridae was less studied by cytogenetic approaches. Only a few high-resolution G-banded karyotypes have been reported so far, and most of the conclusions on the karyotypic evolution in Hipposideridae were based on conventional Giemsa-staining. In this study, we applied comparative chromosome painting, a method of choice for genome-wide comparison at the molecular level, and G- and C-banding to establish comparative map between five hipposiderid species from China, using a whole set of chromosome-specific painting probes from one of them (Aselliscus stoliczkanus). G-band and C-band comparisons between homologous segments defined by chromosome painting revealed that Robertsonian translocations, paracentric inversions and heterochromatin addition could be the main mechanism of chromosome evolution in Hipposideridae. Comparative analysis of the conserved chromosomal segments among five hipposiderid species and outgroup species suggests that bi-armed chromosomes should be included into the ancestral karyotype of Hipposideridae, which was previously believed to be exclusively composed of acrocentric chromosomes.

  19. Structure of Human cGAS Reveals a Conserved Family of Second-Messenger Enzymes in Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Kranzusch

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune recognition of foreign nucleic acids induces protective interferon responses. Detection of cytosolic DNA triggers downstream immune signaling through activation of cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS. We report here the crystal structure of human cGAS, revealing an unanticipated zinc-ribbon DNA-binding domain appended to a core enzymatic nucleotidyltransferase scaffold. The catalytic core of cGAS is structurally homologous to the RNA-sensing enzyme, 2′-5′ oligo-adenylate synthase (OAS, and divergent C-terminal domains account for specific ligand-activation requirements of each enzyme. We show that the cGAS zinc ribbon is essential for STING-dependent induction of the interferon response and that conserved amino acids displayed within the intervening loops are required for efficient cytosolic DNA recognition. These results demonstrate that cGAS and OAS define a family of innate immunity sensors and that structural divergence from a core nucleotidyltransferase enables second-messenger responses to distinct foreign nucleic acids.

  20. Thyroid transcriptome analysis reveals different adaptive responses to cold environmental conditions between two chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shanshan; Yang, Xukai; Wang, Dehe; Zhu, Feng; Yang, Ning; Hou, Zhuocheng; Ning, Zhonghua

    2018-01-01

    Selection for cold tolerance in chickens is important for improving production performance and animal welfare. The identification of chicken breeds with higher cold tolerance and production performance will help to target candidates for the selection. The thyroid gland plays important roles in thermal adaptation, and its function is influenced by breed differences and transcriptional plasticity, both of which remain largely unknown in the chicken thyroid transcriptome. In this study, we subjected Bashang Long-tail (BS) and Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens to either cold or warm environments for 21 weeks and investigated egg production performance, body weight changes, serum thyroid hormone concentrations, and thyroid gland transcriptome profiles. RIR chickens had higher egg production than BS chickens under warm conditions, but BS chickens produced more eggs than RIRs under cold conditions. Furthermore, BS chickens showed stable body weight gain under cold conditions while RIRs did not. These results suggested that BS breed is a preferable candidate for cold-tolerance selection and that the cold adaptability of RIRs should be improved in the future. BS chickens had higher serum thyroid hormone concentrations than RIRs under both environments. RNA-Seq generated 344.3 million paired-end reads from 16 sequencing libraries, and about 90% of the processed reads were concordantly mapped to the chicken reference genome. Differential expression analysis identified 46-1,211 genes in the respective comparisons. With regard to breed differences in the thyroid transcriptome, BS chickens showed higher cell replication and development, and immune response-related activity, while RIR chickens showed higher carbohydrate and protein metabolism activity. The cold environment reduced breed differences in the thyroid transcriptome compared with the warm environment. Transcriptional plasticity analysis revealed different adaptive responses in BS and RIR chickens to cope with the cold

  1. Autozygosity mapping of a large consanguineous Pakistani family reveals a novel non-syndromic autosomal recessive mental retardation locus on 11p15-tel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehman, Shoaib ur; Baig, Shahid Mahmood; Eiberg, Hans

    2011-01-01

    done in all sampled individuals in the family. The nuclear central loop in the five generation family showed homozygosity for a 6-Mb telomeric region on 11p15, whereas all other linkage regions were excluded by calculation of logarithm of odds (LOD) for the SNP microarray data. A maximum LOD score of Z......Autosomal recessive inherited mental retardation is an extremely heterogeneous disease and accounts for approximately 25% of all non-syndromic mental retardation cases. Autozygosity mapping of a large consanguineous Pakistani family revealed a novel locus for non-syndromic autosomal recessive...

  2. Comparative Analysis of Membrane Vesicles from Three Piscirickettsia salmonis Isolates Reveals Differences in Vesicle Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia I Tandberg

    Full Text Available Membrane vesicles (MVs are spherical particles naturally released from the membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Bacterial MV production is associated with a range of phenotypes including biofilm formation, horizontal gene transfer, toxin delivery, modulation of host immune responses and virulence. This study reports comparative profiling of MVs from bacterial strains isolated from three widely disperse geographical areas. Mass spectrometry identified 119, 159 and 142 proteins in MVs from three different strains of Piscirickettsia salmonis isolated from salmonids in Chile (LF-89, Norway (NVI 5692 and Canada (NVI 5892, respectively. MV comparison revealed several strain-specific differences related to higher virulence capability for LF-89 MVs, both in vivo and in vitro, and stronger similarities between the NVI 5692 and NVI 5892 MV proteome. The MVs were similar in size and appearance as analyzed by electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The MVs from all three strains were internalized by both commercial and primary immune cell cultures, which suggest a potential role of the MVs in the bacterium's utilization of leukocytes. When MVs were injected into an adult zebrafish infection model, an upregulation of several pro-inflammatory genes were observed in spleen and kidney, indicating a modulating effect on the immune system. The present study is the first comparative analysis of P. salmonis derived MVs, highlighting strain-specific vesicle characteristics. The results further illustrate that the MV proteome from one bacterial strain is not representative of all bacterial strains within one species.

  3. DNA entropy reveals a significant difference in complexity between housekeeping and tissue specific gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David; Finan, Chris; Newport, Melanie J; Jones, Susan

    2015-10-01

    The complexity of DNA can be quantified using estimates of entropy. Variation in DNA complexity is expected between the promoters of genes with different transcriptional mechanisms; namely housekeeping (HK) and tissue specific (TS). The former are transcribed constitutively to maintain general cellular functions, and the latter are transcribed in restricted tissue and cells types for specific molecular events. It is known that promoter features in the human genome are related to tissue specificity, but this has been difficult to quantify on a genomic scale. If entropy effectively quantifies DNA complexity, calculating the entropies of HK and TS gene promoters as profiles may reveal significant differences. Entropy profiles were calculated for a total dataset of 12,003 human gene promoters and for 501 housekeeping (HK) and 587 tissue specific (TS) human gene promoters. The mean profiles show the TS promoters have a significantly lower entropy (pentropy distributions for the 3 datasets show that promoter entropies could be used to identify novel HK genes. Functional features comprise DNA sequence patterns that are non-random and hence they have lower entropies. The lower entropy of TS gene promoters can be explained by a higher density of positive and negative regulatory elements, required for genes with complex spatial and temporary expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Different Silk Yields of Two Silkworm Strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    Full Text Available Cocoon and silk yields are the most important characteristics of sericulture. However, few studies have examined the genes that modulate these features. Further studies of these genes will be useful for improving the products of sericulture. JingSong (JS and Lan10 (L10 are two strains having significantly different cocoon and silk yields. In the current study, RNA-Seq and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR were performed on both strains in order to determine divergence of the silk gland, which controls silk biosynthesis in silkworms. Compared with L10, JS had 1375 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; 738 up-regulated genes and 673 down-regulated genes. Nine enriched gene ontology (GO terms were identified by GO enrichment analysis based on these DEGs. KEGG enrichment analysis results showed that the DEGs were enriched in three pathways, which were mainly associated with the processing and biosynthesis of proteins. The representative genes in the enrichment pathways and ten significant DEGs were further verified by qPCR, the results of which were consistent with the RNA-Seq data. Our study has revealed differences in silk glands between the two silkworm strains and provides a perspective for understanding the molecular mechanisms determining silk yield.

  5. Secretomes of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare reveal differences associated to pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Jéssica A; Lorenzatto, Karina R; de Moraes, Sofia N; Moura, Hercules; Barr, John R; Ferreira, Henrique B

    2017-02-10

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare cohabit the porcine respiratory tract. However, M. hyopneumoniae causes the porcine enzootic pneumonia, while M. flocculare is a commensal bacterium. Comparative analyses demonstrated high similarity between these species, which includes the sharing of all predicted virulence factors. Nevertheless, studies related to soluble secretomes of mycoplasmas were little known, although they are important for bacterial-host interactions. The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis between the soluble secreted proteins repertoires of the pathogenic Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and its closely related commensal Mycoplasma flocculare. For that, bacteria were cultured in medium with reduced serum concentration and secreted proteins were identified by a LC-MS/MS proteomics approach. Altogether, 62 and 26 proteins were identified as secreted by M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare, respectively, being just seven proteins shared between these bacteria. In M. hyopneumoniae secretome, 15 proteins described as virulence factors were found; while four putative virulence factors were identified in M. flocculare secretome. For the first time, clear differences related to virulence were found between these species, helping to elucidate the pathogenic nature of M. hyopneumoniae to swine hosts. For the first time, the secretomes of two porcine respiratory mycoplasmas, namely the pathogenic M. hyopneumoniae and the commensal M. flocculare were compared. The presented results revealed previously unknown differences between these two genetically related species, some of which are associated to the M. hyopneumoniae ability to cause porcine enzootic pneumonia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Paths towards Family-friendly Working Time Arrangements: Comparing Workplaces in Different Countries and Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiß, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    Although studies have examined the distribution and conditions of employer-provided work-family arrangements, we still lack a systematic investigation of how these vary for different countries and industries. Based on the European Working Conditions Survey 2010, this study examines the conditions under which firms provide family-friendly working time arrangements and what the differences are across four countries (Austria, Denmark, Italy and the UK) and four industries. The impact of employee representatives, employee involvement, manager support and female managers varies across countries and industries because of the institutional environment (prevailing family model, industrial relations) and workforce composition (gender). The impact of employee representatives depends on their co-determination rights, and the direction of their effect on the prevailing family model (e.g. negative in conservative countries such as Austria) and the gender composition of the workforce (negative in male-dominated production, but positive in services). Employee involvement in the work organization is significantly positive in Austria and Denmark (both with co-operative industrial relations), while manager support has the strongest effect in the UK (liberal regime). At the industry level, female supervisors are positively associated with family-friendly working time arrangements only in the male-dominated production industry. These findings suggest that the effects of agency variables and their direction vary depending on the institutional context.

  7. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Greater Polygenic Loading for Schizophrenia in Cases With a Family History of Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdeli, Tim B.; Ripke, Stephan; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Lee, Sang Hong; Wray, Naomi R.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Rietschel, Marcella; Cichon, Sven; St Clair, David; Corvin, Aiden; Kirov, George; McQuillin, Andrew; Gurling, Hugh; Rujescu, Dan; Andreassen, Ole A.; Werge, Thomas; Blackwood, Douglas H.R.; Pato, Carlos N.; Pato, Michele T.; Malhotra, Anil K.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Fanous, Ayman H.

    2018-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia have yielded more than 100 common susceptibility variants, and strongly support a substantial polygenic contribution of a large number of small allelic effects. It has been hypothesized that familial schizophrenia is largely a consequence of inherited rather than environmental factors. We investigated the extent to which familiality of schizophrenia is associated with enrichment for common risk variants detectable in a large GWAS. We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for cases reporting a family history of psychotic illness (N = 978), cases reporting no such family history (N = 4,503), and unscreened controls (N = 8,285) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC1) study of schizophrenia. We used a multinomial logistic regression approach with model-fitting to detect allelic effects specific to either family history subgroup. We also considered a polygenic model, in which we tested whether family history positive subjects carried more schizophrenia risk alleles than family history negative subjects, on average. Several individual SNPs attained suggestive but not genome-wide significant association with either family history subgroup. Comparison of genome-wide polygenic risk scores based on GWAS summary statistics indicated a significant enrichment for SNP effects among family history positive compared to family history negative cases (Nagelkerke’s R2 = 0.0021; P = 0.00331; P-value threshold history positive compared to family history negative cases (0.32 and 0.22, respectively; P = 0.031).We found suggestive evidence of allelic effects detectable in large GWAS of schizophrenia that might be specific to particular family history subgroups. However, consideration of a polygenic risk score indicated a significant enrichment among family history positive cases for common allelic effects. Familial illness might, therefore, represent a more heritable form of schizophrenia, as suggested by

  8. Expression of cytokeratins in odontogenic jaw cysts: monoclonal antibodies reveal distinct variation between different cyst types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormia, M; Ylipaavalniemi, P; Nagle, R B; Virtanen, I

    1987-08-01

    Immunostaining with monoclonal antibodies was used to study and compare the cytokeratin content of odontogenic cysts and normal gingival epithelium. Two monoclonal antibodies, PKK2 and KA1, stained the whole epithelium in all cyst samples. In gingiva, PKK2 gave a suprabasal staining and KA1 reacted with all epithelial cell layers. Antibodies PKK1, KM 4.62 and KS 8.12 gave a heterogeneous staining in follicular and radicular cysts. In keratocysts and in gingiva PKK1 and KM 4.62 reacted mainly with basal cells and KS 8.12 gave a suprabasal staining. Antibodies reacting with the simple epithelial cytokeratin polypeptide No. 18 (PKK3, KS 18.18) recognized in gingiva only solitary cells compatible with Merkel cells. In a case of follicular ameloblastoma a distinct staining of tumor epithelium was revealed with these antibodies. In 2 follicular cysts, but not in other cyst types, a layer of cytokeratin 18-positive cells was revealed. KA5 and KK 8.60 antibodies, reacting exclusively with keratinizing epithelia, including normal gingiva, gave no reaction in radicular cysts, keratocysts and ameloblastoma. Two of the follicular cysts, were negative for PKK3 and KS 18.18, but reacted strongly with KA5 and KK 8.60. The present results show that odontogenic jaw cysts have distinct differences in their cytokeratin content. With the exception of some follicular cysts, they lack signs of keratinizing epithelial differentiation. Only follicular cysts appear to share with some types of ameloblastoma the expression of cytokeratin polypeptide No. 18.

  9. Parenting Practices and Child Adjustment in Different Types of Households: A Study of African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Chen, Yi-Fu; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene; Cutrona, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    This article uses a sample of 867 African American households to investigate differences in parenting practices and child outcomes by type of household. Results indicate that mothers provide similar levels of parenting regardless of family structure. Secondary caregivers, however, show a great deal of variation in quality of parenting. Fathers and…

  10. Family Support Makes a Difference with a Deafblind Child: Orion's Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Heather

    2016-01-01

    While some people feel that an infant who will never see or hear can bring only heartache, Orion's family knew differently. Deafblindness is not just about the absence of sight and sound. It is so much more than the sum of these two parts. What one learns from experiencing the collaboration between a teacher of the deaf and a teacher of the…

  11. Arguments and Relationships within the Family: Differences in Young Children's Disputes with Mother and Sibling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomkowski, Cheryl L.; Dunn, Judy

    1992-01-01

    A study of 33-month-old children, their mothers, and their older siblings concentrated on arguments used when 2 family members were in conflict with a third. There were some direct relationships between partners' arguments. Arguments children used with their mothers differed from those they used with their siblings. (BG)

  12. Longing for belonging: Adolescents' experiences of living with HIV in different types of families in Swaziland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shabalala, F.S.

    2017-01-01

    This study illuminates adolescents’ everyday life experiences of living with HIV in different family contexts in the Manzini region in Swaziland, and the tactics they used to navigate the social and health system environments in their management of the HIV illness and disease. A significant

  13. Gender differences in the impact of family background on leaving the parental home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer, M.; Mulder, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    We address the question to what extent characteristics of the family of origin influence the timing of leaving the parental home and to what extent these effects differ between men and women. We use data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study to examine the effects of parental resources,

  14. What’s for dinner? Types of food served at family dinner differ across parent and family characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; MacLehose, Rich; Loth, Katie; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Berge, Jerica

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the types of food served at family dinner in the homes of adolescents and correlations with parent and family sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, and meal-specific variables. Design A cross-sectional population-based survey completed by mail or telephone by parents participating in Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) in 2009–2010. Setting Homes of families with adolescents in Minneapolis/St Paul urban area. Subjects Participants included 1,923 parents/guardians (90.8% female; 68.5% from ethnic/racial minorities) of adolescents who participated in EAT 2010. Results Less than a third (28%) of parents reported serving a green salad at family dinner on a regular basis, but 70% reported regularly serving vegetables (other than potatoes). About one-fifth (21%) of families had fast food at family dinners two or more times a week. Variables from within the sociodemographic domain (low educational attainment); psychosocial domain (high work-life stress, depressive symptoms, low family functioning); and meal-specific domain (low value of family meals, low enjoyment of cooking, low meal planning, high food purchasing barriers, and fewer hours in food preparation) were associated with lower healthfulness of foods served at family dinners, in analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions There is a need for interventions to improve the healthfulness of food served at family meals. Interventions need to be suitable for parents with low levels of education; take parent and family psychosocial factors into account; promote more positive attitudes toward family meals; and provide skills to make it easier to plan and prepare healthful family meals. PMID:23083836

  15. Associations between Discussions of Racial and Ethnic Differences in Internationally Adoptive Families and Delinquent Behavior among Korean Adopted Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kayla N; Lee, Richard M; Rueter, Martha A; Kim, Oh Myo

    2015-04-01

    Internationally adopted adolescents may have more delinquent behavior than non-adopted adolescents. One explanation is these adolescents experience discrimination and loss of culture, and adoptive parents are not adequately addressing these experiences. However, studies have not examined the effects of family discussions of racial and ethnic differences within adoptive families on adopted adolescents' delinquent behavior. To test this relationship, this study utilized data from 111 U.S. internationally adoptive families with 185 South Korean adopted adolescents (55% female, M age = 17.75). During an observational assessment, families discussed the importance of their racial and ethnic differences, and adolescents completed a delinquent behavior questionnaire. Analysis of covariance showed differences in adolescent delinquent behavior across three ways adoptive families discussed racial and ethnic differences; adolescents whose families acknowledged differences had the fewest mean delinquent behaviors. There were no significant differences in delinquent behavior between adolescents whose families acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. However, adopted adolescents whose families held discrepant views of differences had significantly more problem behavior than adolescents whose families either acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. Clinicians, adoption professionals, and other parenting specialists should focus on building cohesive family identities about racial and ethnic differences, as discrepant views of differences are associated with the most adoptee delinquent behavior.

  16. Insight into pattern of codon biasness and nucleotide base usage in serotonin receptor gene family from different mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, J Febin Prabhu; Sudandiradoss, C

    2012-07-15

    5-HT (5-Hydroxy-tryptamine) or serotonin receptors are found both in central and peripheral nervous system as well as in non-neuronal tissues. In the animal and human nervous system, serotonin produces various functional effects through a variety of membrane bound receptors. In this study, we focus on 5-HT receptor family from different mammals and examined the factors that account for codon and nucleotide usage variation. A total of 110 homologous coding sequences from 11 different mammalian species were analyzed using relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), correspondence analysis (COA) and hierarchical cluster analysis together with nucleotide base usage frequency of chemically similar amino acid codons. The mean effective number of codon (ENc) value of 37.06 for 5-HT(6) shows very high codon bias within the family and may be due to high selective translational efficiency. The COA and Spearman's rank correlation reveals that the nucleotide compositional mutation bias as the major factors influencing the codon usage in serotonin receptor genes. The hierarchical cluster analysis suggests that gene function is another dominant factor that affects the codon usage bias, while species is a minor factor. Nucleotide base usage was reported using Goldman, Engelman, Stietz (GES) scale reveals the presence of high uracil (>45%) content at functionally important hydrophobic regions. Our in silico approach will certainly help for further investigations on critical inference on evolution, structure, function and gene expression aspects of 5-HT receptors family which are potential antipsychotic drug targets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbial community diversity of the eastern Atlantic Ocean reveals geographic differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedline, C. J.; Franklin, R. B.; McCallister, S. L.; Rivera, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    Prokaryotic communities are recognized as major drivers of the biogeochemical processes in the oceans. However, the genetic diversity and composition of those communities is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the eubacterial communities in three different water layers: surface (2-20 m), deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM; 28-90 m), and deep (100-4600 m) at nine stations along the eastern Atlantic Ocean from 42.8° N to 23.7° S. In order to describe the dynamics of the eubacterial assemblages in relation to depth, associated environmental properties, and Longhurstian ecological provinces community DNA was extracted from 16 samples, from which the V6 region of 16s rDNA was PCR-amplified with eubacteria-specific primers, and the PCR amplicons were pyrosequenced. A total of 352 029 sequences were generated; after quality filtering and processing, 257 260 sequences were clustered into 2871 normalized Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) using a definition of 97% sequence identity. Comparisons of the phylogenetic affiliation of those 2871 OTUs show more than 54% of them were assigned to the Proteobacteria, with the Alphaproteobacteria representing 4% of the total Proteobacteria OTUs, and the Gammaproteobacteria representing 22%. Within the Alphaproteobacteria-affiliated OTUs, 44% of the OTUs were associated with the ubiquitous SAR11 clade. The phylum Cyanobacteria represent 10% of the reads, with the majority of those reads among the GpIIa family including Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. Among the Gammaproteobacteria, a single OTU affiliated to Alteromonas comprises ~3% of the abundance. The phyla Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes represent approximately 7%, 0.8%, 2%, and 0.05% of the read abundance, respectively. Community ecology statistical analyses and a novel implementation of Bayesian inference suggests that eastern Atlantic Ocean eubacterial assemblages are vertically stratified and associated with water layers

  18. Reversal to air-driven sound production revealed by a molecular phylogeny of tongueless frogs, family Pipidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaw Frank

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary novelties often appear by conferring completely new functions to pre-existing structures or by innovating the mechanism through which a particular function is performed. Sound production plays a central role in the behavior of frogs, which use their calls to delimit territories and attract mates. Therefore, frogs have evolved complex vocal structures capable of producing a wide variety of advertising sounds. It is generally acknowledged that most frogs call by moving an air column from the lungs through the glottis with the remarkable exception of the family Pipidae, whose members share a highly specialized sound production mechanism independent of air movement. Results Here, we performed behavioral observations in the poorly known African pipid genus Pseudhymenochirus and document that the sound production in this aquatic frog is almost certainly air-driven. However, morphological comparisons revealed an indisputable pipid nature of Pseudhymenochirus larynx. To place this paradoxical pattern into an evolutionary framework, we reconstructed robust molecular phylogenies of pipids based on complete mitochondrial genomes and nine nuclear protein-coding genes that coincided in placing Pseudhymenochirus nested among other pipids. Conclusions We conclude that although Pseudhymenochirus probably has evolved a reversal to the ancestral non-pipid condition of air-driven sound production, the mechanism through which it occurs is an evolutionary innovation based on the derived larynx of pipids. This strengthens the idea that evolutionary solutions to functional problems often emerge based on previous structures, and for this reason, innovations largely depend on possibilities and constraints predefined by the particular history of each lineage.

  19. Different concepts and models of information for family-relevant genetic findings: comparison and ethical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Christian; Frommeld, Debora

    2015-08-01

    Genetic predispositions often concern not only individual persons, but also other family members. Advances in the development of genetic tests lead to a growing number of genetic diagnoses in medical practice and to an increasing importance of genetic counseling. In the present article, a number of ethical foundations and preconditions for this issue are discussed. Four different models for the handling of genetic information are presented and analyzed including a discussion of practical implications. The different models' ranges of content reach from a strictly autonomous position over self-governed arrangements in the practice of genetic counseling up to the involvement of official bodies and committees. The different models show a number of elements which seem to be very useful for the handling of genetic data in families from an ethical perspective. In contrast, the limitations of the standard medical attempt regarding confidentiality and personal autonomy in the context of genetic information in the family are described. Finally, recommendations for further ethical research and the development of genetic counseling in families are given.

  20. The interaction properties of the human Rab GTPase family--comparative analysis reveals determinants of molecular binding selectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Stein

    Full Text Available Rab GTPases constitute the largest subfamily of the Ras protein superfamily. Rab proteins regulate organelle biogenesis and transport, and display distinct binding preferences for effector and activator proteins, many of which have not been elucidated yet. The underlying molecular recognition motifs, binding partner preferences and selectivities are not well understood.Comparative analysis of the amino acid sequences and the three-dimensional electrostatic and hydrophobic molecular interaction fields of 62 human Rab proteins revealed a wide range of binding properties with large differences between some Rab proteins. This analysis assists the functional annotation of Rab proteins 12, 14, 26, 37 and 41 and provided an explanation for the shared function of Rab3 and 27. Rab7a and 7b have very different electrostatic potentials, indicating that they may bind to different effector proteins and thus, exert different functions. The subfamily V Rab GTPases which are associated with endosome differ subtly in the interaction properties of their switch regions, and this may explain exchange factor specificity and exchange kinetics.We have analysed conservation of sequence and of molecular interaction fields to cluster and annotate the human Rab proteins. The analysis of three dimensional molecular interaction fields provides detailed insight that is not available from a sequence-based approach alone. Based on our results, we predict novel functions for some Rab proteins and provide insights into their divergent functions and the determinants of their binding partner selectivity.

  1. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; Rao, Jun; Shi, Jianxin; Hu, Chaoyang; Cheng, Fang; Wilson, Zoe A; Zhang, Dabing; Quan, Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world's major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While "omics" studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especially in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetically related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Lin; Jun Rao; Jianxin Shi; Chaoyang Hu; Fang Cheng; Zoe AWilson; Dabing Zhang; Sheng Quan

    2014-01-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world’s major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While “omics”studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especial y in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetical y related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield.

  3. Experimental evolution reveals differences between phenotypic and evolutionary responses to population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, K B; Simmons, L W

    2017-09-01

    Group living can select for increased immunity, given the heightened risk of parasite transmission. Yet, it also may select for increased male reproductive investment, given the elevated risk of female multiple mating. Trade-offs between immunity and reproduction are well documented. Phenotypically, population density mediates both reproductive investment and immune function in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. However, the evolutionary response of populations to these traits is unknown. We created two replicated populations of P. interpunctella, reared and mated for 14 generations under high or low population densities. These population densities cause plastic responses in immunity and reproduction: at higher numbers, both sexes invest more in one index of immunity [phenoloxidase (PO) activity] and males invest more in sperm. Interestingly, our data revealed divergence in PO and reproduction in a different direction to previously reported phenotypic responses. Males evolving at low population densities transferred more sperm, and both males and females displayed higher PO than individuals at high population densities. These positively correlated responses to selection suggest no apparent evolutionary trade-off between immunity and reproduction. We speculate that the reduced PO activity and sperm investment when evolving under high population density may be due to the reduced population fitness predicted under increased sexual conflict and/or to trade-offs between pre- and post-copulatory traits. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Capturing Between- and Within-Family Differences in Parental Support to Adult Children: A Typology Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmin; Fingerman, Karen L; Birditt, Kira S; Zarit, Steven H

    2016-11-01

    Families differ widely in the support they provide to adult offspring, both with regard to the overall level as well as the extent to which support is evenly distributed across offspring. This study addressed these dynamics by creating family profiles based on the average level and differentiation of support among children. We also examined demographic and psychological factors that predict typology membership. We utilized data from 431 middle-aged parents (aged 40-60) with at least two adult children. Parents provided separate ratings of support given to each child. Latent profile analysis was applied to two indicators of within-family support: mean level and differentiation among offspring. Latent profile analysis identified four patterns of parental support: (a) high support-low differentiation (52%), (b) medium support-high differentiation (26%), (c) low support-low differentiation (17%), and (d) low support-very high differentiation (5%). These patterns reflected distinct family characteristics, such as parental resources, parental beliefs (i.e., equal treatment, obligation), and offspring characteristics. Our findings emphasize the need to capture dynamics of support exchanges among multiple offspring at the level of family. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Difficulties in social functioning of adolescents with different family and intellectual status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelić Marija M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind limited effects of interventions focused on the child and its limitations the attention of researches is more and more directed to immediate and wider ambience factors in the prevention of negative forms of behaviour of children. The aim of the research was to determine the level of connectedness of family and intellectual status of adolescents and different aspects of their social functioning. The sample of 416 adolescents, aged 12 to 18, was divided into two groups. The group without parental care included 210 respondents (130 with typical development - TD and 80 with mild intellectual disability - MID, and the group with parental care (130 TD and 76 MID. We used Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire with subscales: behavioral problems, emotional problems and problems with peers. Family problems were divided in socioeconomic problems, partners' problem, mental health of parents, abuse, and neglect. The results confirmed that the young without parental care showed more problems in behavior than their peers with parental care, and that family status affects behavior more than intellectual status. Family is the protective factor for the development of emotional problems of the young TD students, while it is risky for MID students. Problems with peers are not significantly connected with family or intellectual status. Some implications of the results are stressed.

  6. Differents conceptions about family in situation of assessment of candidates to the adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Serra Zanetti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The family is an institution whose life models and the links between its members come from turning over time. Starting from a psychosocial analysis that aims to contextualize what we call now “contemporary family”, this will relate to the context of adoption, which in turn will be increased by contributions from authors of the psychoanalytic approach. This is because this article aims to present different conceptions of family psychologist performance and relevance to the professional practice of theirs, especially in front of their decisions to the applicants’ adoption. For a sampling of these technicians, it was considered the years of professional experience, and therefore were interviewed two techniques, one with over 20 years experience and the other with only 5 years. We used a methodology clinical qualitative that considers senses and meanings of phenomena. As a synthesis discussion, we elucidated that, currently, although the new family configurations seeks social acceptability and legal existence, still carry the stereotype of the new and unknown. Therefore, we believe that the work of professional Justice in evaluating applicants with the adoption goes through a moment of reflection on the contemporary family, on changes in the Justice and about their own internalized values derived from models of family.

  7. Differences in lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofan; Zheng, Liqiang; Li, Yang; Yu, Shasha; Sun, Guozhe; Yang, Hongmei; Zhou, Xinghu; Zhang, Xingang; Sun, Zhaoqing; Sun, Yingxian

    2012-10-02

    Pediatric obesity has become a global public health problem. Data on the lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors of overweight and obese children and adolescents are limited. The present study aims to compare health-related factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional study consisted of 4262 children and adolescents aged 5-18 years old from rural areas of the northeast China. Anthropometric measurements and self-reported information on health-related variables, such as physical activities, sleep duration, dietary habits, family income, and recognition of weight status from the views of both children and parents, were collected by trained personnel. The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 15.3 and 6.4%, respectively. Compared to girls, boys were more commonly overweight (17.5% vs. 12.9%) and obese (9.5% vs. 3.1%). Approximately half of the parents with an overweight or obese child reported that they failed to recognize their child's excess weight status, and 65% of patients with an overweight child reported that they would not take measures to decrease their child's body weight. Obese children and adolescents were more likely to be nonsnackers [odds ratio (OR): 1.348; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.039-1.748] and to have a family income of 2000 CNY or more per month (OR: 1.442; 95% CI: 1.045-1.99) and less likely to sleep longer (≥7.5 h) (OR: 0.475; 95% CI: 0.31-0.728) than the normal-weight participants. Our study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large Chinese pediatric population. Differences in sleep duration, snacking, family income, and parental recognition of children's weight status among participants in different weight categories were observed, which should be considered when planning prevention and treatment programs for pediatric obesity.

  8. Transgenic zebrafish reveal tissue-specific differences in estrogen signaling in response to environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Daniel A; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Hung, Alice L; Blazer, Vicki S; Halpern, Marnie E

    2014-04-01

    Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) are exogenous chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones such as estrogens. Previous studies using a zebrafish transgenic reporter demonstrated that the EEDs bisphenol A and genistein preferentially activate estrogen receptors (ERs) in the larval heart compared with the liver. However, it was not known whether the transgenic zebrafish reporter was sensitive enough to detect estrogens from environmental samples, whether environmental estrogens would exhibit tissue-specific effects similar to those of BPA and genistein, or why some compounds preferentially target receptors in the heart. We tested surface water samples using a transgenic zebrafish reporter with tandem estrogen response elements driving green fluorescent protein expression (5xERE:GFP). Reporter activation was colocalized with tissue-specific expression of ER genes by RNA in situ hybridization. We observed selective patterns of ER activation in transgenic fish exposed to river water samples from the Mid-Atlantic United States, with several samples preferentially activating receptors in embryonic and larval heart valves. We discovered that tissue specificity in ER activation was due to differences in the expression of ER subtypes. ERα was expressed in developing heart valves but not in the liver, whereas ERβ2 had the opposite profile. Accordingly, subtype-specific ER agonists activated the reporter in either the heart valves or the liver. The use of 5xERE:GFP transgenic zebrafish revealed an unexpected tissue-specific difference in the response to environmentally relevant estrogenic compounds. Exposure to estrogenic EEDs in utero was associated with adverse health effects, with the potentially unanticipated consequence of targeting developing heart valves.

  9. Regulation of development and function of different T cell subtypes by Rel/NF-κB family members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallabhapurapu, S.

    2004-09-01

    This study reveals the requirement of distinct members of the Rel/NF-κB family in both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells for the development of thymic NKT cells. Activation of NF-κB via the classical IκBα-regulated pathway is required within the NKT precursors for their efficient maturation from NK1.1 - precursors to mature NK1.1 + NKT cells. The Rel/NF-κB family member RelB, on the other hand, is required in thymic stromal cells for the generation of very early NK1.1 - precursors. NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) has also been shown to be required in thymic stromal cells for NKT cell development and this study demonstrates that NIK specifically regulates both constitutive and signal-induced DNA binding of RelB, but not RelA. Moreover, NIK-induced DNA binding of RelB depends on the processing of inhibitory p100 to p52, revealing an alternate pathway of NF-κB induction. Thus, Rel/NF-κB complexes activated by the classical IκBα-regulated pathway in NKT precursors and an alternate NIK/p100/RelB pathway in thymic stromal cells regulate different stages of NKT cell development. (orig.)

  10. Regulation of development and function of different T cell subtypes by Rel/NF-{kappa}B family members

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallabhapurapu, S.

    2004-09-01

    This study reveals the requirement of distinct members of the Rel/NF-{kappa}B family in both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells for the development of thymic NKT cells. Activation of NF-{kappa}B via the classical I{kappa}B{alpha}-regulated pathway is required within the NKT precursors for their efficient maturation from NK1.1{sup -} precursors to mature NK1.1{sup +} NKT cells. The Rel/NF-{kappa}B family member RelB, on the other hand, is required in thymic stromal cells for the generation of very early NK1.1{sup -} precursors. NF-{kappa}B-inducing kinase (NIK) has also been shown to be required in thymic stromal cells for NKT cell development and this study demonstrates that NIK specifically regulates both constitutive and signal-induced DNA binding of RelB, but not RelA. Moreover, NIK-induced DNA binding of RelB depends on the processing of inhibitory p100 to p52, revealing an alternate pathway of NF-{kappa}B induction. Thus, Rel/NF-{kappa}B complexes activated by the classical I{kappa}B{alpha}-regulated pathway in NKT precursors and an alternate NIK/p100/RelB pathway in thymic stromal cells regulate different stages of NKT cell development. (orig.)

  11. Whole-genome sequencing reveals mutational landscape underlying phenotypic differences between two widespread Chinese cattle breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Xu

    Full Text Available Whole-genome sequencing provides a powerful tool to obtain more genetic variability that could produce a range of benefits for cattle breeding industry. Nanyang (Bos indicus and Qinchuan (Bos taurus are two important Chinese indigenous cattle breeds with distinct phenotypes. To identify the genetic characteristics responsible for variation in phenotypes between the two breeds, in the present study, we for the first time sequenced the genomes of four Nanyang and four Qinchuan cattle with 10 to 12 fold on average of 97.86% and 98.98% coverage of genomes, respectively. Comparison with the Bos_taurus_UMD_3.1 reference assembly yielded 9,010,096 SNPs for Nanyang, and 6,965,062 for Qinchuan cattle, 51% and 29% of which were novel SNPs, respectively. A total of 154,934 and 115,032 small indels (1 to 3 bp were found in the Nanyang and Qinchuan genomes, respectively. The SNP and indel distribution revealed that Nanyang showed a genetically high diversity as compared to Qinchuan cattle. Furthermore, a total of 2,907 putative cases of copy number variation (CNV were identified by aligning Nanyang to Qinchuan genome, 783 of which (27% encompassed the coding regions of 495 functional genes. The gene ontology (GO analysis revealed that many CNV genes were enriched in the immune system and environment adaptability. Among several CNV genes related to lipid transport and fat metabolism, Lepin receptor gene (LEPR overlapping with CNV_1815 showed remarkably higher copy number in Qinchuan than Nanyang (log2 (ratio = -2.34988; P value = 1.53E-102. Further qPCR and association analysis investigated that the copy number of the LEPR gene presented positive correlations with transcriptional expression and phenotypic traits, suggesting the LEPR CNV may contribute to the higher fat deposition in muscles of Qinchuan cattle. Our findings provide evidence that the distinct phenotypes of Nanyang and Qinchuan breeds may be due to the different genetic variations including SNPs

  12. A Clinical and Molecular Genetic Study of 50 Families with Autosomal Recessive Parkinsonism Revealed Known and Novel Gene Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Shaghayegh; Chaouni, Rita; Tafakhori, Abbas; Azcona, Luis J; Firouzabadi, Saghar Ghasemi; Omrani, Mir Davood; Jamshidi, Javad; Emamalizadeh, Babak; Shahidi, Gholam Ali; Ahmadi, Mona; Habibi, Seyed Amir Hassan; Ahmadifard, Azadeh; Fazeli, Atena; Motallebi, Marzieh; Petramfar, Peyman; Askarpour, Saeed; Askarpour, Shiva; Shahmohammadibeni, Hossein Ali; Shahmohammadibeni, Neda; Eftekhari, Hajar; Shafiei Zarneh, Amir Ehtesham; Mohammadihosseinabad, Saeed; Khorrami, Mehdi; Najmi, Safa; Chitsaz, Ahmad; Shokraeian, Parasto; Ehsanbakhsh, Hossein; Rezaeidian, Jalal; Ebrahimi Rad, Reza; Madadi, Faranak; Andarva, Monavvar; Alehabib, Elham; Atakhorrami, Minoo; Mortazavi, Seyed Erfan; Azimzadeh, Zahra; Bayat, Mahdis; Besharati, Amir Mohammad; Harati-Ghavi, Mohammad Ali; Omidvari, Samareh; Dehghani-Tafti, Zahra; Mohammadi, Faraz; Mohammad Hossein Pour, Banafsheh; Noorollahi Moghaddam, Hamid; Esmaili Shandiz, Ehsan; Habibi, Arman; Taherian-Esfahani, Zahra; Darvish, Hossein; Paisán-Ruiz, Coro

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the role of known Parkinson's disease (PD) genes was examined in families with autosomal recessive (AR) parkinsonism to assist with the differential diagnosis of PD. Some families without mutations in known genes were also subject to whole genome sequencing with the objective to identify novel parkinsonism-related genes. Families were selected from 4000 clinical files of patients with PD or parkinsonism. AR inheritance pattern, consanguinity, and a minimum of two affected individuals per family were used as inclusion criteria. For disease gene/mutation identification, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, quantitative PCR, linkage, and Sanger and whole genome sequencing assays were carried out. A total of 116 patients (50 families) were examined. Fifty-four patients (46.55%; 22 families) were found to carry pathogenic mutations in known genes while a novel gene, not previously associated with parkinsonism, was found mutated in a single family (2 patients). Pathogenic mutations, including missense, nonsense, frameshift, and exon rearrangements, were found in Parkin, PINK1, DJ-1, SYNJ1, and VAC14 genes. In conclusion, variable phenotypic expressivity was seen across all families.

  13. The role of individual differences in particular autonomy-connectedness in women's and men's work-family balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Marrie H J; Willemse, Jolanda J P; De Goeij, Jacqueline W J M

    2010-05-01

    Individual differences are increasingly considered important in the relationship between work-family balance and health. The present study examined the role of autonomy-connectedness in positive and negative work-family interaction and family-work interaction. We also investigated the relationship of work-family interaction and family-work interaction with positive and negative affect, coping patterns, and demographic characteristics. All variables under study were measured with questionnaires in a Dutch sample of 205 respondents. As expected, the individual difference factors were substantially associated with work-family interaction and family-work interaction; together they accounted for 10 to 39% of their variance. In particular, negative affect and the autonomy-connectedness components Sensitivity to others and Capacity for managing new situations appeared to be strongly related to work-family interactions. Health implications of the findings are discussed and recommendations for further research are presented.

  14. Genome-wide association study reveals greater polygenic loading for schizophrenia in cases with a family history of illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigdeli, Tim B.; Ripke, Stephan; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia have yielded more than 100 common susceptibility variants, and strongly support a substantial polygenic contribution of a large number of small allelic effects. It has been hypothesized that familial schizophrenia is largely a consequence...... of inherited rather than environmental factors. We investigated the extent to which familiality of schizophrenia is associated with enrichment for common risk variants detectable in a large GWAS. We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for cases reporting a family history of psychotic illness (N...... history subgroup. Comparison of genome-wide polygenic risk scores based on GWAS summary statistics indicated a significant enrichment for SNP effects among family history positive compared to family history negative cases (Nagelkerke's R2=0.0021; P=0.00331; P-value threshold

  15. Multilocus Sequence Analysis of Cercospora spp. from Different Host Plant Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floreta Fiska Yuliarni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the genus Cercospora is still complicated due to the host preferences often being used as the main criteria to propose a new name. We determined the relationship between host plants and multilocus sequence variations (ITS rDNA including 5.8S rDNA, elongation factor 1-α, and calmodulin in Cercospora spp. to investigate the host specificity. We used 53 strains of Cercospora spp. infecting 12 plant families for phylogenetic analysis. The sequences of 23 strains of Cercospora spp. infecting the plant families of Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, and Solanaceae were determined in this study. The sequences of 30 strains of Cercospora spp. infecting the plant families of Fabaceae, Amaranthaceae, Apiaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Malvaceae, Cistaceae, Plantaginaceae, Lamiaceae, and Poaceae were obtained from GenBank. The molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that the majority of Cercospora species lack host specificity, and only C. zinniicola, C. zeina, C. zeae-maydis, C. cocciniae, and C. mikaniicola were found to be host-specific. Closely related species of Cercospora could not be distinguished using molecular analyses of ITS, EF, and CAL gene regions. The topology of the phylogenetic tree based on the CAL gene showed a better topology and Cercospora species separation than the trees developed based on the ITS rDNA region or the EF gene.

  16. Structure of the first representative of Pfam family PF09410 (DUF2006) reveals a structural signature of the calycin superfamily that suggests a role in lipid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Skerra, Arne; Lomize, Andrei; Carlton, Dennis; Miller, Mitchell D.; Krishna, S. Sri; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Bedem, Henry van den; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2009-01-01

    NE1406, the first structural representative of PF09410, reveals a lipocalin-like fold with features that suggest involvement in lipid metabolism. In addition, NE1406 provides potential structural templates for two other protein families (PF07143 and PF08622). The first structural representative of the domain of unknown function DUF2006 family, also known as Pfam family PF09410, comprises a lipocalin-like fold with domain duplication. The finding of the calycin signature in the N-terminal domain, combined with remote sequence similarity to two other protein families (PF07143 and PF08622) implicated in isoprenoid metabolism and the oxidative stress response, support an involvement in lipid metabolism. Clusters of conserved residues that interact with ligand mimetics suggest that the binding and regulation sites map to the N-terminal domain and to the interdomain interface, respectively

  17. Differences between Mothers' and Fathers' Ratings of Family Functioning with the Family Assessment Device: The Validity of Combined Parent Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Dawson; Marais, Ida; Cavanagh, Robert; Kendall, Garth; Priddis, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the General Functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device were examined using the Rasch Model (N = 237 couples). Mothers' and fathers' ratings of the General Functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device are recommended, provided these are analyzed separately. More than a quarter of…

  18. Proteomic Profiles Reveal the Function of Different Vegetative Tissues of Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zou, Qiong; Wang, Jinxing; Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Zeping; Chen, Xiaoyang

    2016-12-01

    Moringa oleifera is a rich source of bioactive compounds and is widely used in traditional medicine and food for its nutritional value; however, the protein and peptide components of different tissues are rarely discussed. Here, we describe the first investigation of M. oleifera proteomes using mass spectrometry and bioinformatics methods. We aimed to elucidate the protein profiles of M. oleifera leaves, stem, bark, and root. Totally 202 proteins were identified from four vegetative organs. We identified 101 proteins from leaves, 51 from stem, 94 from bark and 67 from root, finding that only five proteins existed in both four vegetative parts. The calculated pI of most of the proteins is distributed in 5-10 and the molecular weight distributed below 100 kDa. Functional classification analysis revealed that proteins which are involved in catalytic activities are the most abundant both in leaves, stem, bark and root. Identification of several heat shock proteins in four vegetative tissues might be adaptive for resistance to high temperature environmental stresses of tropical or subtropical areas. Some enzymes involved in antioxidant processes were also identified in M. oleifera leaves, stem, bark and root. Among the four tissues studies here, leaves protein content and molecular diversity were the highest. The identification of the flocculating protein MO2.1 and MO2.2 in the bark and root provides clue to clarify the antimicrobial molecular mechanisms of root and bark. This study provides information on the protein compositions of M. oleifera vegetative tissues that will be beneficial for potential drug and food supplement development and plant physiology research.

  19. Regional Atmospheric CO2 Inversion Reveals Seasonal and Geographic Differences in Amazon Net Biome Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Caroline B.; Miller, John B.; Gatti, Luciana V.; Gloor, Manuel M.; Guan, Kaiyu; Michalak, Anna M.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid; Touma, Danielle; Andrews, Arlyn; Basso, Luana G.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Understanding tropical rainforest carbon exchange and its response to heat and drought is critical for quantifying the effects of climate change on tropical ecosystems, including global climate carbon feedbacks. Of particular importance for the global carbon budget is net biome exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere (NBE), which represents nonfire carbon fluxes into and out of biomass and soils. Subannual and sub-Basin Amazon NBE estimates have relied heavily on process-based biosphere models, despite lack of model agreement with plot-scale observations. We present a new analysis of airborne measurements that reveals monthly, regional-scale (Approx.1-8 x 10(exp -6) km2) NBE variations. We develop a regional atmospheric CO2 inversion that provides the first analysis of geographic and temporal variability in Amazon biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange and that is minimally influenced by biosphere model-based first guesses of seasonal and annual mean fluxes. We find little evidence for a clear seasonal cycle in Amazon NBE but do find NBE sensitivity to aberrations from long-term mean climate. In particular, we observe increased NBE (more carbon emitted to the atmosphere) associated with heat and drought in 2010, and correlations between wet season NBE and precipitation (negative correlation) and temperature (positive correlation). In the eastern Amazon, pulses of increased NBE persisted through 2011, suggesting legacy effects of 2010 heat and drought. We also identify regional differences in postdrought NBE that appear related to long-term water availability. We examine satellite proxies and find evidence for higher gross primary productivity (GPP) during a pulse of increased carbon uptake in 2011, and lower GPP during a period of increased NBE in the 2010 dry season drought, but links between GPP and NBE changes are not conclusive. These results provide novel evidence of NBE sensitivity to short-term temperature and moisture extremes in the Amazon, where monthly and sub

  20. Strategies Used by Foreign-Born Family Therapists to Connect Across Cultural Differences: A Thematic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño, Alba; Kissil, Karni; Davey, Maureen P

    2016-01-01

    With the growing diversity in the United States among both clinicians and clients, many therapeutic encounters are cross-cultural, requiring providers to connect across cultural differences. Foreign-born therapists have many areas of differences to work through. Thus, exploring how foreign-born family therapists in the United States connect to their clients can uncover helpful strategies that all therapists can use to establish stronger cross-cultural therapeutic connections. A thematic analysis was conducted to understand strategies 13 foreign-born therapists used during therapeutic encounters. Four themes were identified: making therapy a human-to-human connection, dealing with stereotypes, what really matters, and flexibility. Findings suggest that developing a deep therapeutic connection using emotional attunement and human-to-human engagement is crucial for successful cross-cultural therapy. Clinical and training implications are provided. © 2015 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  1. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea M. Iannelli; Simone Gonçalves Assis; Liana Wernersbach Pinto

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children an...

  2. Work-Family Conflict and the Sex Difference in Depression Among Training Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guille, Constance; Frank, Elena; Zhao, Zhuo; Kalmbach, David A; Nietert, Paul J; Mata, Douglas A; Sen, Srijan

    2017-12-01

    Depression is common among training physicians and may disproportionately affect women. The identification of modifiable risk factors is key to reducing this disease burden and its negative impact on patient care and physician career attrition. To determine the presence and magnitude of a sex difference in depressive symptoms and work-family conflict among training physicians; and if work-family conflict impacts the sex difference in depressive symptoms among training physicians. A prospective longitudinal cohort study of medical internship in the United States during the 2015 to 2016 academic year in which 3121 interns were recruited across all specialties from 44 medical institutions. Prior to and during their internship year, participants reported the degree to which work responsibilities interfered with family life using the Work Family Conflict Scale and depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Mean (SD) participant age was 27.5 (2.7) years, and 1571 participants (49.7%) were women. Both men and women experienced a marked increase in depressive symptoms during their internship year, with the increase being statistically significantly greater for women (men: mean increase in PHQ-9, 2.50; 95% CI, 2.26-2.73 vs women: mean increase, 3.20; 95% CI, 2.97-3.43). When work-family conflict was accounted for, the sex disparity in the increase in depressive symptoms decreased by 36%. Our study demonstrates that depressive symptoms increase substantially during the internship year for men and women, but that this increase is greater for women. The study also identifies work-family conflict as an important potentially modifiable factor that is associated with elevated depressive symptoms in training physicians. Systemic modifications to alleviate conflict between work and family life may improve physician mental health and reduce the disproportionate depression disease burden for female physicians. Given that depression among physicians is

  3. Parenting stress among child welfare involved families: Differences by child placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-JenKins, Jessica; Marcenko, Maureen O.

    2014-01-01

    The intersection of parenting stress and maltreatment underscores the importance of understanding the factors associated with parenting stress among child welfare involved families. This study takes advantage of a statewide survey of child welfare involved families to examine parent and child characteristics and concrete resources, in relation to parenting stress. Separate multivariate analyses were conducted by placement status given the difference in day-to-day parenting responsibilities for families receiving in-home supervision compared to those whose children are in out-of-home care. Across both groups, parenting stress was predicted by child mental health, a finding with critical implications for intervention to this vulnerable group of families. Parent mental health also predicted parenting stress for the in-home group and food insecurity predicted parenting stress in the out-of-home group. Findings confirm that stress varies by context and that a multi-dimensional framework, considering both psychosocial and concrete resources, is required to capture contributors to parenting stress. PMID:26170514

  4. Parenting stress among child welfare involved families: Differences by child placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-JenKins, Jessica; Marcenko, Maureen O

    2014-11-01

    The intersection of parenting stress and maltreatment underscores the importance of understanding the factors associated with parenting stress among child welfare involved families. This study takes advantage of a statewide survey of child welfare involved families to examine parent and child characteristics and concrete resources, in relation to parenting stress. Separate multivariate analyses were conducted by placement status given the difference in day-to-day parenting responsibilities for families receiving in-home supervision compared to those whose children are in out-of-home care. Across both groups, parenting stress was predicted by child mental health, a finding with critical implications for intervention to this vulnerable group of families. Parent mental health also predicted parenting stress for the in-home group and food insecurity predicted parenting stress in the out-of-home group. Findings confirm that stress varies by context and that a multi-dimensional framework, considering both psychosocial and concrete resources, is required to capture contributors to parenting stress.

  5. Screening for large genomic rearrangements in the FANCA gene reveals extensive deletion in a Finnish breast cancer family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solyom, Szilvia; Winqvist, Robert; Nikkilä, Jenni; Rapakko, Katrin; Hirvikoski, Pasi; Kokkonen, Hannaleena; Pylkäs, Katri

    2011-03-28

    A portion of familial breast cancer cases are caused by mutations in the same genes that are inactivated in the downstream part of Fanconi anemia (FA) signaling pathway. Here we have assessed the FANCA gene for breast cancer susceptibility by examining blood DNA for aberrations from 100 Northern Finnish breast cancer families using the MLPA method. We identified a novel heterozygous deletion, removing the promoter and 12 exons of the gene in one family. This allele was absent from 124 controls. We conclude that FANCA deletions might contribute to breast cancer susceptibility, potentially in combination with other germline mutations. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting a large deletion in an upstream FA gene in familial breast cancer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impacts of parasites in early life: contrasting effects on juvenile growth for different family members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Reed

    Full Text Available Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control might predispose young to respond to infection in different ways. Here we show that parasites can have different consequences for offspring depending on their position in the family hierarchy. We experimentally treated European Shag (Phalacrocorax aristoteli nestlings with the broad-spectrum anti-parasite drug ivermectin and compared their growth rates with nestlings from control broods. Average growth rates measured over the period of linear growth (10 days to 30 days of age and survival did not differ for nestlings from treated and control broods. However, when considering individuals within broods, parasite treatment reversed the patterns of growth for individual family members: last-hatched nestlings grew significantly slower than their siblings in control nests but grew faster in treated nests. This was at the expense of their earlier-hatched brood-mates, who showed an overall growth rate reduction relative to last-hatched nestlings in treated nests. These results highlight the importance of exploring individual variation in the costs of infection and suggest that parasites could be a key factor modulating within-family dynamics, sibling competition and developmental trajectories from an early age.

  7. Familial differences in the effects of mercury on reproduction in zebra finches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varian-Ramos, Claire W.; Swaddle, John P.; Cristol, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Ecotoxicologists often implicitly assume that populations are homogenous entities in which all individuals have similar responses to a contaminant. However, genetically variable responses occur within populations. This variation can be visualized using dose–response curves of genetically related groups, similar to the way that evolutionary biologists construct reaction norms. We assessed the variation in reproductive success of full-sibling families of captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) experimentally exposed to methylmercury. We found significant variation among families in the effects of methylmercury on several reproductive parameters. This variation suggests that there may be strong responses to selection for resistant genotypes in contaminated areas. This has important implications for the evolution of tolerance as well as risk assessment and wildlife conservation efforts on sites with legacy contamination. -- Highlights: •Dose-response curves can visualize genetic differences in response to pollutants. •Families of zebra finch respond differently to mercury contamination. •Differences in reproductive success can lead to selection for resistant genotypes. •Resistance to contamination has implications for risk assessment and conservation. -- Genetic variation in response to contaminants can lead to adaptation on long-term contaminated sites, with implications for risk assessment and conservation of impacted populations

  8. Family socioeconomic status, household tobacco smoke, and asthma attack among children below 12 years of age: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Carol; Chang, Ly-Yun

    2014-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated the negative impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) or parental cigarette smoking on pediatric asthma. Little is known, however, regarding whether there is a gender difference in the effect of household ETS on pediatric asthma. Using a nationwide survey in Taiwan, we examined the relationship between asthma prevalence in the past year and household ETS among children below 12 years of age (N = 3761). We used multivariate regression models to assess odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of household ETS and asthma attacks by gender. In about 3% of the sample, parents reported that their children had an asthma attack in the past year, confirmed by physicians. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that household ETS predicted asthma attacks for girls (OR = 3.11, 95%CI = 1.24-7.76) but not for boys. Father's education was significantly associated with asthma attack for both girls (OR = 1.24, 95%CI = 1.04-1.47) and boys (OR = 1.15, 95%CI = 1.05-1.26). Girls with lower family income were more likely to have had an asthma attack in the last year (OR = .48, 95%CI = .27-.87). The impact of household ETS and family socioeconomic status on asthma attacks differs by gender among children below 12 years. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Application of Solid-State NMR to Reveal Structural Differences in Cefazolin Sodium Pentahydrate From Different Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Tian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state Nuclear magnetic resonance, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were combined with theoretical calculation to investigate different crystal packings of α-cefazolin sodium obtained from three different vendors and conformational polymorphism was identified to exist in α-cefazolin sodium. Marginal differences observed among cefazolin sodium pentahydrate 1, 2, and 3 were speculated as being caused by the proportion of conformation 2.

  10. Revealing the Differences Between Free and Complexed Enzyme Mechanisms and Factors Contributing to Cell Wall Recalcitrance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resch, Michael G.; Donohoe, Byron; Ciesielski, Peter; Nill, Jennifer; McKinney, Kellene; Mittal, Ashutosh; Katahira, Rui; Himmel, Michael; Biddy, Mary; Beckham, Gregg; Decker, Steve

    2014-09-08

    Enzymatic depolymerization of polysaccharides is a key step in the production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass, and discovery of synergistic biomass-degrading enzyme paradigms will enable improved conversion processes. Historically, revealing insights into enzymatic saccharification mechanisms on plant cell walls has been hindered by uncharacterized substrates and low resolution.

  11. Analysis of IDR(s Family of Solvers for Reservoir Simulations on Different Parallel Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seignole Vincent

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution consists in providing a detailed analysis of several realizations of the IDR(s family of solvers, under different facets: robustness, performance and implementation on different parallel environments in regards of sequential IDR(s resolution implementation tested through several industrial geologically and structurally coherent 3D-field case reservoir models. This work is the result of continuous efforts towards time-response improvement of Storengy’s reservoir three-dimensional simulator named Multi, dedicated to gas-storage applications.

  12. Maternity care and maternal serum screening. Do male and female family physicians care for women differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, C A; Carroll, J C; Ryan, G; Reid, A J; Permaul-Woods, J A; Arbitman, S; Domb, S B; Fallis, B; Kilthei, J

    1997-06-01

    To examine whether male and female family physicians practise maternity care differently, particularly regarding the maternal serum screening (MSS) program. Mailed survey fielded between October 1994 and March 1995. Ontario family practices. Random sample of 2000 members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada who care for pregnant women. More than 90% of eligible physicians responded. Attitudes toward, knowledge about, and behaviour toward MSS. Women physicians were more likely than men to practise part time, in groups, and in larger communities. Men physicians were more likely to perform deliveries; women were more likely to do shared care. Despite a shorter work week, on average, female physicians cared for more pregnant women than male physicians did. Among those providing intrapartum care, women performed more deliveries, on average, than men. Women physicians were more likely than men to offer MSS to all pregnant patients. Although average time spent discussing MSS before the test was similar, women physicians had better knowledge of when best to do the test and its true-positive rate. All differences reported were statistically significant (P women, women physicians cared for more pregnant women than men did. Both spent similar time discussing MSS with their patients before offering screening, but more women physicians offered MSS to all their patients and were more knowledgeable about MSS than men physicians.

  13. Differences between previously married and never married 'gay' men: family background, childhood experiences and current attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Daryl J

    2004-01-01

    Despite a large body of literature on the development of sexual orientation, little is known about why some gay men have been (or remain) married to a woman. In the current study, a self-selected sample of 43 never married gay men ('never married') and 26 gay men who were married to a woman ('previously married') completed a self-report questionnaire. Hypotheses were based on five possible explanations for gay men's marriages: (a) differences in sexual orientation (i.e., bisexuality); (b) internalized homophobia; (c) religious intolerance; (d) confusion created because of childhood/adolescent sexual experiences; and/or (e) poor psychological adjustment. Previously married described their families' religious beliefs as more fundamentalist than never married. No differences were found between married' and never married' ratings of their sexual orientation and identity, and levels of homophobia and self-depreciation. Family adaptability and family cohesion and the degree to which respondents reported having experienced child maltreatment did not distinguish between previously married and never married. The results highlight how little is understood of the reasons why gay men marry, and the need to develop an adequate theoretical model.

  14. Online participation: a content analysis of differences in utilization of two online cancer communities by men and women, patients and family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginossar, Tamar

    2008-01-01

    The Internet provides a new modality for health communication by facilitating the creation of virtual communities. These communities have the potential to influence health behavior beyond traditional FTF support groups. This study utilized content analysis of 1,424 e-mail messages posted to 2 online cancer communities to examine uses of these groups. Findings revealed (a) similarities in the content of communication in the 2 virtual communities, (b) gender differences in participation, and (c) differences in utilization of these online groups between patients and family members. These results are discussed in light of the diverse uses of online cancer communities that they reveal, the role of family members in support seeking and provision, and gender communication styles in health computer-mediated communication.

  15. Systematic Identification, Evolution and Expression Analysis of the Zea mays PHT1 Gene Family Reveals Several New Members Involved in Root Colonization by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Xu, Yunjian; Jiang, Huanhuan; Jiang, Chaosheng; Du, Yibin; Gong, Cheng; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Suwen; Han, Guomin; Cheng, Beijiu

    2016-06-13

    The Phosphate Transporter1 (PHT1) family of genes plays pivotal roles in the uptake of inorganic phosphate from soils. However, there is no comprehensive report on the PHT1 family in Zea mays based on the whole genome. In the present study, a total of 13 putative PHT1 genes (ZmPHT1;1 to 13) were identified in the inbred line B73 genome by bioinformatics methods. Then, their function was investigated by a yeast PHO84 mutant complementary experiment and qRT-PCR. Thirteen ZmPHT1 genes distributed on six chromosomes (1, 2, 5, 7, 8 and 10) were divided into two paralogues (Class A and Class B). ZmPHT1;1/ZmPHT1;9 and ZmPHT1;9/ZmPHT1;13 are produced from recent segmental duplication events. ZmPHT1;1/ZmPHT1;13 and ZmPHT1;8/ZmPHT1;10 are produced from early segmental duplication events. All 13 putative ZmPHT1s can completely or partly complement the yeast Pi-uptake mutant, and they were obviously induced in maize under low Pi conditions, except for ZmPHT1;1 (p < 0.01), indicating that the overwhelming majority of ZmPHT1 genes can respond to a low Pi condition. ZmPHT1;2, ZmPHT1;4, ZmPHT1;6, ZmPHT1;7, ZmPHT1;9 and ZmPHT1;11 were up-regulated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), implying that these genes might participate in mediating Pi absorption and/or transport. Analysis of the promoters revealed that the MYCS and P1BS element are widely distributed on the region of different AMF-inducible ZmPHT1 promoters. In light of the above results, five of 13 ZmPHT1 genes were newly-identified AMF-inducible high-affinity phosphate transporters in the maize genome. Our results will lay a foundation for better understanding the PHT1 family evolution and the molecular mechanisms of inorganic phosphate transport under AMF inoculation.

  16. Application of Solid-State NMR to Reveal Structural Differences in Cefazolin Sodium Pentahydrate from Different Manufacturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Wang, Wei D.; Zou, Wen-Bo; Qian, Jian-Qin; Hu, Chang-Qin

    2018-04-01

    The solid form of an active pharmaceutical ingredient is important when developing a new chemical entity. A solid understanding of the crystal structure and morphology that affect the mechanical and physical characteristics of pharmaceutical powders determines the manufacturing process. Solid-state NMR, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were combined with theoretical calculation to investigate different crystal packings of α-cefazolin sodium from three different vendors and conformational polymorphism was identified to exist in the α-cefazolin sodium. Marginal differences observed among CEZ-Na pentahydrate 1, 2, and 3 were speculated as the proportion of conformation 2. Understanding the differences in the polymorphic structure of α-cefazolin sodium may help with making modifications to incorporate new knowledge with a product’s development.

  17. Characterization of the polyphenol oxidase gene family reveals a novel microRNA involved in posttranscriptional regulation of PPOs in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caili; Li, Dongqiao; Li, Jiang; Shao, Fenjuan; Lu, Shanfa

    2017-03-17

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is a well-known material of traditional Chinese medicine. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of phenolic acid biosynthesis and metabolism are important for S. miltiorrhiza quality improvement. We report here that S. miltiorrhiza contains 19 polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), forming the largest PPO gene family in plant species to our knowledge. Analysis of gene structures and sequence features revealed the conservation and divergence of SmPPOs. SmPPOs were differentially expressed in plant tissues and eight of them were predominantly expressed in phloem and xylem, indicating that some SmPPOs are functionally redundant, whereas the others are associated with different physiological processes. Expression patterns of eighteen SmPPOs were significantly altered under MeJA treatment, and twelve were yeast extract and Ag + -responsive, suggesting the majority of SmPPOs are stress-responsive. Analysis of high-throughput small RNA sequences and degradome data showed that miR1444-mediated regulation of PPOs existing in P. trichocarpa is absent from S. miltiorrhiza. Instead, a subset of SmPPOs was posttranscriptionally regulated by a novel miRNA, termed Smi-miR12112. It indicates the specificity and significance of miRNA-mediated regulation of PPOs. The results shed light on the regulation of SmPPO expression and suggest the complexity of SmPPO-associated phenolic acid biosynthesis and metabolism.

  18. Seeking Medical Information Using Mobile Apps and the Internet: Are Family Caregivers Different from the General Public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunmin; Paige Powell, M; Bhuyan, Soumitra S; Bhuyan, Soumitra Sudip

    2017-03-01

    Family caregivers play an important role to care cancer patients since they exchange medical information with health care providers. However, relatively little is known about how family caregivers seek medical information using mobile apps and the Internet. We examined factors associated with medical information seeking by using mobile apps and the Internet among family caregivers and the general public using data from the 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey 4 Cycle 1. The study sample consisted of 2425 family caregivers and 1252 non-family caregivers (the general public). Guided by Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking (CMIS), we examined related factors' impact on two outcome variables for medical information seeking: mobile apps use and Internet use with multivariate logistic regression analyses. We found that online medical information seeking is different between family caregivers and the general public. Overall, the use of the Internet for medical information seeking is more common among family caregivers, while the use of mobile apps is less common among family caregivers compared with the general public. Married family caregivers were less likely to use mobile apps, while family caregivers who would trust cancer information were more likely to use the Internet for medical information seeking as compared to the general public. Medical information seeking behavior among family caregivers can be an important predictor of both their health and the health of their cancer patients. Future research should explore the low usage of mobile health applications among family caregiver population.

  19. The Well-Being of Maryland Parents and Their Children: Differences by Income Status and Family Structure. Research Brief. Publication #2009-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Richard; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Kahn, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Research studies based on statistics for the United States as a whole have documented differences in child and family well-being between children in low-income families and children in more affluent families and between children in single-parent families and children in two-parent families. However, researchers have not explored differences in…

  20. Comparative analysis of CDPK family in maize, Arabidopsis, rice and sorghum revealed potential targets for drought tolerance improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Shikha; Mallikarjuna, Mallana Gowdra; Rao, Atmakuri R.; Jain, Prashant A.; Dash, Prasanta K.; Thirunavukkarasu, Nepolean

    2017-12-01

    Calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play major role in regulation of plant growth and development in response to various stresses including drought. A set of 32 CDPK genes identified in maize were further used for searching of orthologs in the model plant Arabidopsis (72) and major food crops such as rice (78) and sorghum (91). We comprehensively investigated the phylogenetic relationship, annotations, gene duplications, gene structure, divergence time, 3-D protein structures and tissue-specific drought induced expression of CDPK genes in all four species. Variation in intron frequency among these species likely contributed to the functional diversity of CDPK genes to various stress responses. Protein kinase and protein kinase C phosphorylation site domains were the most conserved motifs identified in all species. Four groups were identified from the sequence-based phylogenetic analysis, in which maize CDPKs were clustered in group III. The time of divergence (Ka/Ks) analysis revealed that the CDPKs were evolved through stabilizing selection. Expression data showed that the CDPK genes were highly expressed in leaf of maize, rice, and sorghum whereas in Arabidopsis the maximum expression was observed in root. 3-D protein structure were predicted for the nine genes (Arabidopsis: 2, maize: 2, rice: 3 and sorghum: 2) showing differential expression in at least three species. The predicted 3-D structures were further evaluated and validated by Ramachandran plot, ANOLEA, ProSA and Verify-3D. The superimposed 3-D structure of drought-related orthologous proteins retained similar folding pattern owing to their conserved nature. Functional annotation revealed the involvement of CDPK genes in various pathways such as osmotic homeostasis, cell protection and root growth. The interactions of CDPK genes in various pathways play crucial role in imparting drought tolerance through different ABA and MAPK signalling cascades. Our studies suggest that these selected candidate

  1. Structures of the first representatives of Pfam family PF06938 (DUF1285) reveal a new fold with repeated structural motifs and possible involvement in signal transduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Gye Won; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Miller, Mitchell D.; Kumar, Abhinav; Carlton, Dennis; Najmanovich, Rafael J.; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ernst, Dustin; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Johnson, Hope A.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; Bedem, Henry van den; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structures of SPO0140 and Sbal-2486 revealed a two-domain structure that adopts a novel fold. Analysis of the interdomain cleft suggests a nucleotide-based ligand with a genome context indicating signaling as a possible role for this family. The crystal structures of SPO0140 and Sbal-2486 were determined using the semiautomated high-throughput pipeline of the Joint Center for Structural Genomics (JCSG) as part of the NIGMS Protein Structure Initiative (PSI). The structures revealed a conserved core with domain duplication and a superficial similarity of the C-terminal domain to pleckstrin homology-like folds. The conservation of the domain interface indicates a potential binding site that is likely to involve a nucleotide-based ligand, with genome-context and gene-fusion analyses additionally supporting a role for this family in signal transduction, possibly during oxidative stress

  2. Multiple endocrine neoplasia phenocopy revealed as a co-occurring neuroendocrine tumor and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovden, Silje; Jespersen, Marie Louise; Nissen, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 3 should be considered as differential diagnosis in patients with suspected primary hyperparathyroidism and/or suspected multiple neoplasia syndrome, as correct diagnosis will spare the patients for going through multiple futile parathyroidectomies...... and for the worry of being diagnosed with a cancer susceptibility syndrome....

  3. Transcriptome analyses of the Dof-like gene family in grapevine reveal its involvement in berry, flower and seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Danielle Costenaro; da Silveira Falavigna, Vítor; Fasoli, Marianna; Buffon, Vanessa; Porto, Diogo Denardi; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; Pezzotti, Mario; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Revers, Luís Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Dof (DNA-binding with one finger) protein family spans a group of plant transcription factors involved in the regulation of several functions, such as plant responses to stress, hormones and light, phytochrome signaling and seed germination. Here we describe the Dof-like gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), which consists of 25 genes coding for Dof. An extensive in silico characterization of the VviDofL gene family was performed. Additionally, the expression of the entire gene family was assessed in 54 grapevine tissues and organs using an integrated approach with microarray (cv Corvina) and real-time PCR (cv Pinot Noir) analyses. The phylogenetic analysis comparing grapevine sequences with those of Arabidopsis, tomato, poplar and already described Dof genes in other species allowed us to identify several duplicated genes. The diversification of grapevine DofL genes during evolution likely resulted in a broader range of biological roles. Furthermore, distinct expression patterns were identified between samples analyzed, corroborating such hypothesis. Our expression results indicate that several VviDofL genes perform their functional roles mainly during flower, berry and seed development, highlighting their importance for grapevine growth and production. The identification of similar expression profiles between both approaches strongly suggests that these genes have important regulatory roles that are evolutionally conserved between grapevine cvs Corvina and Pinot Noir.

  4. Next-generation sequencing reveals a novel NDP gene mutation in a Chinese family with Norrie disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Tian, Mao; Li, Jiankang; Cui, Ling; Li, Min; Zhang, Jianguo

    2017-11-01

    Norrie disease (ND) is a rare X-linked genetic disorder, the main symptoms of which are congenital blindness and white pupils. It has been reported that ND is caused by mutations in the NDP gene. Although many mutations in NDP have been reported, the genetic cause for many patients remains unknown. In this study, the aim is to investigate the genetic defect in a five-generation family with typical symptoms of ND. To identify the causative gene, next-generation sequencing based target capture sequencing was performed. Segregation analysis of the candidate variant was performed in additional family members using Sanger sequencing. We identified a novel missense variant (c.314C>A) located within the NDP gene. The mutation cosegregated within all affected individuals in the family and was not found in unaffected members. By happenstance, in this family, we also detected a known pathogenic variant of retinitis pigmentosa in a healthy individual. c.314C>A mutation of NDP gene is a novel mutation and broadens the genetic spectrum of ND.

  5. Next-generation sequencing reveals a novel NDP gene mutation in a Chinese family with Norrie disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Norrie disease (ND is a rare X-linked genetic disorder, the main symptoms of which are congenital blindness and white pupils. It has been reported that ND is caused by mutations in the NDP gene. Although many mutations in NDP have been reported, the genetic cause for many patients remains unknown. In this study, the aim is to investigate the genetic defect in a five-generation family with typical symptoms of ND. Methods: To identify the causative gene, next-generation sequencing based target capture sequencing was performed. Segregation analysis of the candidate variant was performed in additional family members using Sanger sequencing. Results: We identified a novel missense variant (c.314C>A located within the NDP gene. The mutation cosegregated within all affected individuals in the family and was not found in unaffected members. By happenstance, in this family, we also detected a known pathogenic variant of retinitis pigmentosa in a healthy individual. Conclusion: c.314C>A mutation of NDP gene is a novel mutation and broadens the genetic spectrum of ND.

  6. Characterization of the polyphenol oxidase gene family reveals a novel microRNA involved in posttranscriptional regulation of PPOs in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Caili; Li, Dongqiao; Li, Jiang; Shao, Fenjuan; Lu, Shanfa

    2017-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is a well-known material of traditional Chinese medicine. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of phenolic acid biosynthesis and metabolism are important for S. miltiorrhiza quality improvement. We report here that S. miltiorrhiza contains 19 polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), forming the largest PPO gene family in plant species to our knowledge. Analysis of gene structures and sequence features revealed the conservation and divergence of SmPPOs. SmPPOs were differentially exp...

  7. bZIPs and WRKYs: two large transcription factor families executing two different functional strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles eMarco Llorca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available bZIPs and WRKYs are two important plant transcription factor families regulating diverse developmental and stress-related processes. Since a partial overlap in these biological processes is obvious, it can be speculated that they fulfill non-redundant functions in a complex regulatory network. Here, we focus on the regulatory mechanisms that are so far described for bZIPs and WRKYs. bZIP factors need to heterodimerize for DNA-binding and regulation of transcription, and based on a bioinformatics approach, bZIPs can build up more than the double of protein interactions than WRKYs. In contrast, an enrichment of the WRKY DNA-binding motifs can be found in WRKY promoters, a phenomenon which is not observed for the bZIP family. Thus, the two transcription factor families follow two different functional strategies in which WRKYs regulate each other’s transcription in a transcriptional network whereas bZIP action relies on intensive heterodimerization.

  8. A differential-difference Kadomtsev-Petviashvili family possesses a common Kac-Moody-Virasoro symmetry algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaoyan; Qian Xianmin; Ding Wei

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the Kac-Moody-Virasoro symmetry algebra of the differential-difference Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation, a differential-difference Kadomtsev-Petviashvili family is constructed and the corresponding invariant solutions are obtained

  9. Large differences in the genome organization of different plant Trypanosomatid parasites (Phytomonas spp.) reveal wide evolutionary divergences between taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, C; Dollet, M; Pagès, M; Bastien, P

    2009-03-01

    All currently known plant trypanosomes have been grouped in the genus Phytomonas spp., although they can differ greatly in terms of both their biological properties and effects upon the host. Those parasitizing the phloem sap are specifically associated with lethal syndromes in Latin America, such as, phloem necrosis of coffee, 'Hartrot' of coconut and 'Marchitez sorpresiva' of oil palm, that inflict considerable economic losses in endemic countries. The genomic organization of one group of Phytomonas (D) considered as representative of the genus has been published previously. The present work presents the genomic structure of two representative isolates from the pathogenic phloem-restricted group (H) of Phytomonas, analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis followed by hybridization with chromosome-specific DNA markers. It came as a surprise to observe an extremely different genomic organization in this group as compared with that of group D. Most notably, the chromosome number is 7 in this group (with a genome size of 10 Mb) versus 21 in the group D (totalling 25 Mb). These data unravel an unsuspected genomic diversity within plant trypanosomatids, that may justify a further debate about their division into different genera.

  10. Gender Differences in How Family Income and Parental Education Relate to Reading Achievement in China: The Mediating Role of Parental Expectation and Parental Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Guo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of social economic status (SES on children's academic outcomes has been well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood. Furthermore, the process by which SES relates to academic achievement needs to be studied separately for boys and girls. Using a sample of 598 Chinese children (299 boys, 299 girls in grades 4 to 6 and their parents, this study examined the process of how family SES, specifically family income and parental education, indirectly relates to children's reading achievement through parental expectation and parental involvement and whether this process differs between boys and girls. The results revealed that parental expectation and specific parental involvement behaviors played critical mediating roles between family SES and reading achievement. Moreover, the exact nature of these links differed by the gender of children. For boys, both the effect of parental education and the effect of family income were partially mediated by parental expectation and parent-child communication orderly. For girls, the effect of parental education was partially mediated by three separate pathways: (1 home monitoring; (2 parent-child communication; and (3 parental expectation followed by parent-child communication, while the effect of family income was fully mediated by parent-child communication. These findings suggest a process through which SES factors are related to children's academic development and identify a context under which these associations may differ. The practical implications of these findings are discussed, along with possible future research directions.

  11. Gender Differences in How Family Income and Parental Education Relate to Reading Achievement in China: The Mediating Role of Parental Expectation and Parental Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaolin; Lv, Bo; Zhou, Huan; Liu, Chunhui; Liu, Juan; Jiang, Kexin; Luo, Liang

    2018-01-01

    The impact of social economic status (SES) on children's academic outcomes has been well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood. Furthermore, the process by which SES relates to academic achievement needs to be studied separately for boys and girls. Using a sample of 598 Chinese children (299 boys, 299 girls) in grades 4 to 6 and their parents, this study examined the process of how family SES, specifically family income and parental education, indirectly relates to children's reading achievement through parental expectation and parental involvement and whether this process differs between boys and girls. The results revealed that parental expectation and specific parental involvement behaviors played critical mediating roles between family SES and reading achievement. Moreover, the exact nature of these links differed by the gender of children. For boys, both the effect of parental education and the effect of family income were partially mediated by parental expectation and parent-child communication orderly. For girls, the effect of parental education was partially mediated by three separate pathways: (1) home monitoring; (2) parent-child communication; and (3) parental expectation followed by parent-child communication, while the effect of family income was fully mediated by parent-child communication. These findings suggest a process through which SES factors are related to children's academic development and identify a context under which these associations may differ. The practical implications of these findings are discussed, along with possible future research directions.

  12. The Association between Adolescent Life Satisfaction, Family Structure, Family Affluence and Gender Differences in Parent-Child Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate Ann; Dallago, Lorenza; Currie, Candace

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to examine young people's life satisfaction in the context of the family environment, using data from the 2006 HBSC: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland (N = 5,126). Multilevel linear regression analyses were carried out for 11-, 13- and 15-year old boys and girls, with outcome measure ridit-transformed life satisfaction. The…

  13. Parent-Child Interactions Among Low-Income Mexican American Parents and Preschoolers: Do Clinic-Referred Families Differ From Nonreferred Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Kristen; Yeh, May; Lau, Anna; Argote, Carolina Bertely; Liang, June

    2009-01-01

    This study compared low-income Mexican American parents of young children referred for behavior problems to their nonreferred counterparts on an observational measure of parent-child interactions. Referred Mexican American parents demonstrated more negative behaviors than their nonreferred counterparts in both nondirective and highly directive situations. However, no differences were found at moderate levels of directiveness. The most and least directive situations in the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System best differentiated referred from nonreferred Mexican American families, and families differed more in their negative behaviors than positive behaviors. Many of the parenting behaviors that have been found to differ between referred and nonreferred Caucasian families were also observed to differ between their Mexican American counterparts. PMID:20171330

  14. Asymmetric biotic interactions and abiotic niche differences revealed by a dynamic joint species distribution model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lany, Nina K; Zarnetske, Phoebe L; Schliep, Erin M; Schaeffer, Robert N; Orians, Colin M; Orwig, David A; Preisser, Evan L

    2018-05-01

    A species' distribution and abundance are determined by abiotic conditions and biotic interactions with other species in the community. Most species distribution models correlate the occurrence of a single species with environmental variables only, and leave out biotic interactions. To test the importance of biotic interactions on occurrence and abundance, we compared a multivariate spatiotemporal model of the joint abundance of two invasive insects that share a host plant, hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA; Adelges tsugae) and elongate hemlock scale (EHS; Fiorina externa), to independent models that do not account for dependence among co-occurring species. The joint model revealed that HWA responded more strongly to abiotic conditions than EHS. Additionally, HWA appeared to predispose stands to subsequent increase of EHS, but HWA abundance was not strongly dependent on EHS abundance. This study demonstrates how incorporating spatial and temporal dependence into a species distribution model can reveal the dependence of a species' abundance on other species in the community. Accounting for dependence among co-occurring species with a joint distribution model can also improve estimation of the abiotic niche for species affected by interspecific interactions. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Sex differences in physical and mental functioning of Japanese civil servants: explanations from work and family characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Michikazu; Chandola, Tarani; Martikainen, Pekka; Marmot, Michael; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2010-12-01

    Poor physical and mental functioning are more common among women than men and those with disadvantaged work and family characteristics. This study aims to clarify whether sex differences in health functioning can be explained by sex differences in work and family characteristics. The subjects were 3787 civil servants (2525 men and 1262 women), aged 20-65, working in a local government on the west coast of Japan. A questionnaire survey was conducted in January 2003. Low employment grade, high demands, long work hours, shift work, being unmarried, having no young children, high family-to-work conflict and high work-to-family conflict were more common among women than men and were independently associated with poor physical and mental functioning. The age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of women for poor health functioning were 1.80 for poor physical functioning and 1.77 for poor mental functioning. When adjusted for employment grade and work characteristics (control, demand, support, work hours, and shift work), the sex differences in health functioning attenuated. When adjusted for family characteristics (family structure and work-family conflicts), the sex differences in health functioning further attenuated and were no longer statistically significant. Sex differences in family characteristics contributed more to sex difference in mental functioning than sex differences in work characteristics. Japan belongs to conservative welfare regimes. In such countries, men are able to concentrate on their work with relative freedom from their family tasks and responsibilities, whereas women feel difficulties in maintaining their work-life balances. Such sex differences in work- and family-related stresses may contribute to sex difference in health. Longitudinal research is necessary to clarify the causal nature of these associations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Does shared family background influence the impact of educational differences on early mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Grethe; Mortensen, Laust H; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms behind social differences in mortality rates have been debated. The authors examined the extent to which shared family background and health in early life could explain the association between educational status and all-cause mortality rates using a sibling design. The study......-cause mortality that was strongest for males, increased with younger birth cohorts, and tended to be strongest in the analyses of death before 45 years of age. The associations were attenuated slightly in the intersibling analyses and after adjustment for serious health conditions in early life. Hence, health...

  17. Construction of Short-length High-rates Ldpc Codes Using Difference Families

    OpenAIRE

    Deny Hamdani; Ery Safrianti

    2007-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) code is linear-block error-correcting code defined by sparse parity-check matrix. It isdecoded using the massage-passing algorithm, and in many cases, capable of outperforming turbo code. This paperpresents a class of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes showing good performance with low encoding complexity.The code is constructed using difference families from combinatorial design. The resulting code, which is designed tohave short code length and high code r...

  18. Analysis of ZP1 gene reveals differences in zona pellucida composition in carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moros-Nicolás, C; Leza, A; Chevret, P; Guillén-Martínez, A; González-Brusi, L; Boué, F; Lopez-Bejar, M; Ballesta, J; Avilés, M; Izquierdo-Rico, M J

    2018-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular envelope that surrounds mammalian oocytes. This coat participates in the interaction between gametes, induction of the acrosome reaction, block of polyspermy and protection of the oviductal embryo. Previous studies suggested that carnivore ZP was formed by three glycoproteins (ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4), with ZP1 being a pseudogene. However, a recent study in the cat found that all four proteins were expressed. In the present study, in silico and molecular analyses were performed in several carnivores to clarify the ZP composition in this order of mammals. The in silico analysis demonstrated the presence of the ZP1 gene in five carnivores: cheetah, panda, polar bear, tiger and walrus, whereas in the Antarctic fur seal and the Weddell seal there was evidence of pseudogenisation. Molecular analysis showed the presence of four ZP transcripts in ferret ovaries (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4) and three in fox ovaries (ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4). Analysis of the fox ZP1 gene showed the presence of a stop codon. The results strongly suggest that all four ZP genes are expressed in most carnivores, whereas ZP1 pseudogenisation seems to have independently affected three families (Canidae, Otariidae and Phocidae) of the carnivore tree.

  19. High diversity of picornaviruses in rats from different continents revealed by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thomas Arn; Mollerup, Sarah; Nguyen, Nam-Phuong; White, Nicole E; Coghlan, Megan; Alquezar-Planas, David E; Joshi, Tejal; Jensen, Randi Holm; Fridholm, Helena; Kjartansdóttir, Kristín Rós; Mourier, Tobias; Warnow, Tandy; Belsham, Graham J; Bunce, Michael; Willerslev, Eske; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Vinner, Lasse; Hansen, Anders Johannes

    2016-08-17

    Outbreaks of zoonotic diseases in humans and livestock are not uncommon, and an important component in containment of such emerging viral diseases is rapid and reliable diagnostics. Such methods are often PCR-based and hence require the availability of sequence data from the pathogen. Rattus norvegicus (R. norvegicus) is a known reservoir for important zoonotic pathogens. Transmission may be direct via contact with the animal, for example, through exposure to its faecal matter, or indirectly mediated by arthropod vectors. Here we investigated the viral content in rat faecal matter (n=29) collected from two continents by analyzing 2.2 billion next-generation sequencing reads derived from both DNA and RNA. Among other virus families, we found sequences from members of the Picornaviridae to be abundant in the microbiome of all the samples. Here we describe the diversity of the picornavirus-like contigs including near-full-length genomes closely related to the Boone cardiovirus and Theiler's encephalomyelitis virus. From this study, we conclude that picornaviruses within R. norvegicus are more diverse than previously recognized. The virome of R. norvegicus should be investigated further to assess the full potential for zoonotic virus transmission.

  20. Co-localisation studies of Arabidopsis SR splicing factors reveal different types of speckles in plant cell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorkovic, Zdravko J.; Hilscher, Julia; Barta, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    SR proteins are multidomain splicing factors which are important for spliceosome assembly and for regulation of alternative splicing. In mammalian nuclei these proteins localise to speckles from where they are recruited to transcription sites. By using fluorescent protein fusion technology and different experimental approaches it has been shown that Arabidopsis SR proteins, in addition to diffuse nucleoplasmic staining, localise into an irregular nucleoplasmic network resembling speckles in mammalian cells. As Arabidopsis SR proteins fall into seven conserved sub-families we investigated co-localisation of members of the different sub-families in transiently transformed tobacco protoplast. Here we demonstrate the new finding that members of different SR protein sub-families localise into distinct populations of nuclear speckles with no, partial or complete co-localisation. This is particularly interesting as we also show that these proteins do interact in a yeast two-hybrid assay as well as in pull-down and in co-immunopreciptiation assays. Our data raise the interesting possibility that SR proteins are partitioned into distinct populations of nuclear speckles to allow a more specific recruitment to the transcription/pre-mRNA processing sites of particular genes depending on cell type and developmental stage

  1. EEG neural oscillatory dynamics reveal semantic and response conflict at difference levels of conflict awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, J.; Zhang, Q.; van Gaal, S.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous work has shown that conflict can be detected in the absence of awareness, it is unknown how different sources of conflict (i.e., semantic, response) are processed in the human brain and whether these processes are differently modulated by conflict awareness. To explore this issue,

  2. Evolution, functional differentiation, and co-expression of the RLK gene family revealed in Jilin ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanping; Wang, Kangyu; Li, Xiangyu; Sun, Chunyu; Yin, Rui; Wang, Yanfang; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Meiping

    2018-02-21

    Most genes in a genome exist in the form of a gene family; therefore, it is necessary to have knowledge of how a gene family functions to comprehensively understand organismal biology. The receptor-like kinase (RLK)-encoding gene family is one of the most important gene families in plants. It plays important roles in biotic and abiotic stress tolerances, and growth and development. However, little is known about the functional differentiation and relationships among the gene members within a gene family in plants. This study has isolated 563 RLK genes (designated as PgRLK genes) expressed in Jilin ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), investigated their evolution, and deciphered their functional diversification and relationships. The PgRLK gene family is highly diverged and formed into eight types. The LRR type is the earliest and most prevalent, while only the Lec type originated after P. ginseng evolved. Furthermore, although the members of the PgRLK gene family all encode receptor-like protein kinases and share conservative domains, they are functionally very diverse, participating in numerous biological processes. The expressions of different members of the PgRLK gene family are extremely variable within a tissue, at a developmental stage and in the same cultivar, but most of the genes tend to express correlatively, forming a co-expression network. These results not only provide a deeper and comprehensive understanding of the evolution, functional differentiation and correlation of a gene family in plants, but also an RLK genic resource useful for enhanced ginseng genetic improvement.

  3. Multilocus phylogeny of the avian family Alaudidae (larks) reveals complex morphological evolution, non-monophyletic genera and hidden species diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Alström, Per; Barnes, Keith N.; Barker, F. Keith; Olsson, Urban; Bloomer, Paulette; Khan, Aleem Ahmed; Qureshi, Masood Ahmed; Guillaumet, Alban; Crochet, Pierre-André; Ryan, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    The Alaudidae (larks) is a large family of songbirds in the superfamily Sylvioidea. Larks are cosmopolitan, although species-level diversity is by far largest in Africa, followed by Eurasia, whereas Australasia and the New World have only one species each. The present study is the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Alaudidae. It includes 83.5% of all species and representatives from all recognised genera, and was based on two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci (in total 6.4 kbp, although ...

  4. Reasons for discontinuation of contraceptive methods among couples with different family size and educational status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Farwa; Irfan, Ghazia

    2012-01-01

    High rates of contraceptive discontinuation for reasons other than the desire for pregnancy are a public health concern because of their association with negative reproductive health outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine reasons for discontinuation of contraceptive methods among couples with different family size and educational status. This cross-sectional study was carried out at the Obstetrics/Gynaecology Out-Patient Department of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad from April-September 2012. Patients (241) were selected by consecutive sampling after informed written consent and acquiring approval of Ethical Committee. The survey interview tool was a semi-structured questionnaire. Majority (68%) of women belonged to urban, and the rest were from rural areas. Mean age of these women was 29.43 +/- 5.384 year. Reasons for discontinuation of contraceptives included fear of injectable contraceptives (2.9%), contraceptive failure/pregnancy (7.46%), desire to become pregnant (63.48%), husband away at job (2.49%), health concerns/side effects (16.18%), affordability (0.83%), inconvenient to use (1.24%), acceptability (0.83%) and accessibility/lack of information (4.56%). Association of different reasons of discontinuation (chi square test) with the family size (actual number of children) was significant (p = 0.019) but was not significant with husband's or wife's educational status (p = 0.33 and 0.285 respectively). Keeping in mind the complex socioeconomic conditions in our country, Family planning programmers and stake holders need to identify women who strongly want to avoid a pregnancy and finding ways to help the couples successfully initiate and maintain appropriate contraceptive use.

  5. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RADIO-LOUD AND RADIO-QUIET γ -RAY PULSARS AS REVEALED BY FERMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, C. Y.; Lee, Jongsu [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Takata, J. [Institute of Particle physics and Astronomy, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (China); Ng, C. W.; Cheng, K. S., E-mail: cyhui@cnu.ac.kr, E-mail: takata@hust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2017-01-10

    By comparing the properties of non-recycled radio-loud γ -ray pulsars and radio-quiet γ -ray pulsars, we have searched for the differences between these two populations. We found that the γ -ray spectral curvature of radio-quiet pulsars can be larger than that of radio-loud pulsars. Based on the full sample of non-recycled γ -ray pulsars, their distributions of the magnetic field strength at the light cylinder are also found to be different. We note that this might result from an observational bias. By reexamining the previously reported difference of γ -ray-to-X-ray flux ratios, we found that the significance can be hampered by their statistical uncertainties. In the context of the outer gap model, we discuss the expected properties of these two populations and compare with the possible differences that are identified in our analysis.

  6. EEG neural oscillatory dynamics reveal semantic and response conflict at difference levels of conflict awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Jiang; Qinglin Zhang; Simon Van Gaal

    2015-01-01

    Although previous work has shown that conflict can be detected in the absence of awareness, it is unknown how different sources of conflict (i.e., semantic, response) are processed in the human brain and whether these processes are differently modulated by conflict awareness. To explore this issue, we extracted oscillatory power dynamics from electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded while human participants performed a modified version of the Stroop task. Crucially, in this task conflict a...

  7. U.S. masters track participation reveals a stable sex difference in competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaner, Robert O; Addona, Vittorio; Mead, Michael P

    2014-10-06

    It is well established that men are more likely than women to engage in direct competition, but it is unclear if this reflects social structural conditions or evolved predispositions. These hypotheses can be addressed by quantifying competitiveness in sports and testing if the sex difference is decreasing over time in the U.S., a society where social roles have converged. Study 1 assessed participation and the occurrence of relatively fast performances by masters runners (40-74 years old) at recent road races and track meets. Fast performances occurred over 20 times more often at track meets than at road races. Women comprised 55% of finishers at roads races but only 15-28% of finishers at track meets. Thus, the sex difference in masters track participation can serve as a measure of the sex difference in competitiveness. Study 2 used data from national championship meets and yearly rankings lists to test whether the sex difference in masters track participation decreased from 1988-2012. The sex difference decreased overall, but there was no evidence of change since the late 1990s. Therefore, the sex difference in the willingness to engage in direct sports competition appears to reflect both social structural conditions and evolved predispositions.

  8. Structural differences between yeast and mammalian microtubules revealed by cryo-EM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, Stuart C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Biophysics Graduate Group; Geyer, Elisabeth A. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biophysics; Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry; LaFrance, Benjamin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular and Cell Biology Graduate Program; Zhang, Rui [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Howard Hughes Medical Inst.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division; Kellogg, Elizabeth H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Howard Hughes Medical Inst.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division; Westermann, Stefan [Univ. of Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany). Dept. of Molecular Genetics, Center for Medical Biotechnology; Rice, Luke M. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biophysics; Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry; Nogales, Eva [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Howard Hughes Medical Inst.; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular Biology and California Inst. for Quantitative Biosciences; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division

    2017-06-26

    Microtubules are polymers of αβ-tubulin heterodimers essential for all eukaryotes. Despite sequence conservation, there are significant structural differences between microtubules assembled in vitro from mammalian or budding yeast tubulin. Yeast MTs were not observed to undergo compaction at the interdimer interface as seen for mammalian microtubules upon GTP hydrolysis. Lack of compaction might reflect slower GTP hydrolysis or a different degree of allosteric coupling in the lattice. The microtubule plus end–tracking protein Bim1 binds yeast microtubules both between αβ-tubulin heterodimers, as seen for other organisms, and within tubulin dimers, but binds mammalian tubulin only at interdimer contacts. At the concentrations used in cryo-electron microscopy, Bim1 causes the compaction of yeast microtubules and induces their rapid disassembly. In conclusion, our studies demonstrate structural differences between yeast and mammalian microtubules that likely underlie their differing polymerization dynamics. These differences may reflect adaptations to the demands of different cell size or range of physiological growth temperatures.

  9. Somatic sex-specific transcriptome differences in Drosophila revealed by whole transcriptome sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbeitman Michelle N

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding animal development and physiology at a molecular-biological level has been advanced by the ability to determine at high resolution the repertoire of mRNA molecules by whole transcriptome resequencing. This includes the ability to detect and quantify rare abundance transcripts and isoform-specific mRNA variants produced from a gene. The sex hierarchy consists of a pre-mRNA splicing cascade that directs the production of sex-specific transcription factors that specify nearly all sexual dimorphism. We have used deep RNA sequencing to gain insight into how the Drosophila sex hierarchy generates somatic sex differences, by examining gene and transcript isoform expression differences between the sexes in adult head tissues. Results Here we find 1,381 genes that differ in overall expression levels and 1,370 isoform-specific transcripts that differ between males and females. Additionally, we find 512 genes not regulated downstream of transformer that are significantly more highly expressed in males than females. These 512 genes are enriched on the × chromosome and reside adjacent to dosage compensation complex entry sites, which taken together suggests that their residence on the × chromosome might be sufficient to confer male-biased expression. There are no transcription unit structural features, from a set of features, that are robustly significantly different in the genes with significant sex differences in the ratio of isoform-specific transcripts, as compared to random isoform-specific transcripts, suggesting that there is no single molecular mechanism that generates isoform-specific transcript differences between the sexes, even though the sex hierarchy is known to include three pre-mRNA splicing factors. Conclusions We identify thousands of genes that show sex-specific differences in overall gene expression levels, and identify hundreds of additional genes that have differences in the abundance of isoform

  10. The difference in the family background, school inclusion and Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Fonsêca de Queiroz Marcelino

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on discussions and studies carried out on the topic, the text talks about the stigma of disability,the family, and the investment in children`s schooling under the guidance of some authors who discuss such issues. Stigma is a term that was once considered as reference for a evidence body, but it is widely used to mean discomfort with difference and exclusion. The concepts of identity and difference are important in the discussion about disability, they are interdependent and inseparable, and they will constitute the identity of the self-other relationship. In the scenario of education, the development stages of care for people with disabilities are exclusion, institutional segregation, integration, and inclusion. The occupational therapist is a professional who holds great commitment in his work with the inclusion of schoolchildren and their future in their insertion in the labor market. Professional support often facilitates the deconstruction of concepts and ideas related to the impossibility of social inclusion of disabled people and it plays an important role in the family investment.

  11. Comparative Analysis of CDPK Family in Maize, Arabidopsis, Rice, and Sorghum Revealed Potential Targets for Drought Tolerance Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Mittal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPKs play significant role in regulation of plant growth and development in response to various stresses including drought. A set of 32 CDPK genes identified in maize were further used for searching of orthologs in the model plant Arabidopsis (72 and major food crops such as rice (78 and sorghum (91. We comprehensively studied the phylogenetic relationship, annotations, gene duplications, gene structure, divergence time, 3-D protein structures and tissue-specific drought induced expression of CDPK genes in all four species. Variation in intron frequency in the studied species was one of the reasons for the functional diversity of CDPK genes to various stress responses. Protein kinase and protein kinase C phosphorylation site domains were the most conserved motifs identified in all species. Four groups were identified from the sequence-based phylogenetic analysis, in which maize CDPKs were clustered in group III. Expression data showed that the CDPK genes were highly expressed in leaf of maize, rice, and sorghum whereas in Arabidopsis the maximum expression was observed in root. The expression assay showed 5, 6, 11, and 9 were the commonly and differentially expressed drought-related orthologous genes in maize, Arabidopsis, rice, and sorghum, respectively. 3-D protein structure were predicted for the nine genes (Arabidopsis: 2, maize: 2, rice: 3, and sorghum: 2 showing differential expression in at least three species. The predicted 3-D structures were further evaluated and validated by Ramachandran plot, ANOLEA, ProSA, and Verify-3D. The superimposed 3-D structure of drought-related orthologous proteins retained similar folding pattern owing to their conserved nature. Functional annotation revealed the involvement of CDPK genes in various pathways such as osmotic homeostasis, cell protection, and root growth. The interactions of CDPK genes in various pathways play crucial role in imparting drought tolerance

  12. Different patterns of auditory cortex activation revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formisano, E; Pepino, A; Bracale, M [Department of Electronic Engineering, Biomedical Unit, Universita di Napoli, Federic II, Italy, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Di Salle, F [Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Radiologucal Unit, Universita di Napoli, Federic II, Italy, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Lanfermann, H; Zanella, F E [Department of Neuroradiology, J.W. Goethe Universitat, Frankfurt/M. (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    In the last few years, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has been widely accepted as an effective tool for mapping brain activities in both the sensorimotor and the cognitive field. The present work aims to assess the possibility of using fMRI methods to study the cortical response to different acoustic stimuli. Furthermore, we refer to recent data collected at Frankfurt University on the cortical pattern of auditory hallucinations. Healthy subjects showed broad bilateral activation, mostly located in the transverse gyrus of Heschl. The analysis of the cortical activation induced by different stimuli has pointed out a remarkable difference in the spatial and temporal features of the auditory cortex response to pulsed tones and pure tones. The activated areas during episodes of auditory hallucinations match the location of primary auditory cortex as defined in control measurements with the same patients and in the experiments on healthy subjects. (authors) 17 refs., 4 figs.

  13. DNA-methylation profiling of fetal tissues reveals marked epigenetic differences between chorionic and amniotic samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Eckmann-Scholz

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation are supposed to play a key role in fetal development. Here we have investigated fetal DNA-methylation levels of 27,578 CpG loci in 47 chorionic villi (CVS and 16 amniotic cell (AC samples. Methylation levels differed significantly between karyotypically normal AC and CVS for 2,014 genes. AC showed more extreme DNA-methylation levels of these genes than CVS and the differentially methylated genes are significantly enriched for processes characteristic for the different cell types sampled. Furthermore, we identified 404 genes differentially methylated in CVS with trisomy 21. These genes were significantly enriched for high CG dinucleotid (CpG content and developmental processes associated with Down syndrome. Our study points to major tissue-specific differences of fetal DNA-methylation and gives rise to the hypothesis that part of the Down syndrome phenotype is epigenetically programmed in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  14. Evolutionary engineering reveals divergent paths when yeast is adapted to different acidic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Eugene; Feizi, Amir; Bisschops, Markus M. M.

    2017-01-01

    Tolerance of yeast to acid stress is important for many industrial processes including organic acid production. Therefore, elucidating the molecular basis of long term adaptation to acidic environments will be beneficial for engineering production strains to thrive under such harsh conditions....... Previous studies using gene expression analysis have suggested that both organic and inorganic acids display similar responses during short term exposure to acidic conditions. However, biological mechanisms that will lead to long term adaptation of yeast to acidic conditions remains unknown and whether...... factor in the evolutionary process since cells evolved on two different carbon sources (raffinose and glucose) generated a different set of mutations in response to the presence of lactic acid. Therefore, different strategies are required for a rational design of low pH tolerant strains depending...

  15. Different patterns of auditory cortex activation revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formisano, E.; Pepino, A.; Bracale, M.; Di Salle, F.; Lanfermann, H.; Zanella, F.E.

    1998-01-01

    In the last few years, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has been widely accepted as an effective tool for mapping brain activities in both the sensorimotor and the cognitive field. The present work aims to assess the possibility of using fMRI methods to study the cortical response to different acoustic stimuli. Furthermore, we refer to recent data collected at Frankfurt University on the cortical pattern of auditory hallucinations. Healthy subjects showed broad bilateral activation, mostly located in the transverse gyrus of Heschl. The analysis of the cortical activation induced by different stimuli has pointed out a remarkable difference in the spatial and temporal features of the auditory cortex response to pulsed tones and pure tones. The activated areas during episodes of auditory hallucinations match the location of primary auditory cortex as defined in control measurements with the same patients and in the experiments on healthy subjects. (authors)

  16. Single-vesicle imaging reveals different transport mechanisms between glutamatergic and GABAergic vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsi, Zohreh; Preobraschenski, Julia; van den Bogaart, Geert; Riedel, Dietmar; Jahn, Reinhard; Woehler, Andrew

    2016-02-26

    Synaptic transmission is mediated by the release of neurotransmitters, which involves exo-endocytotic cycling of synaptic vesicles. To maintain synaptic function, synaptic vesicles are refilled with thousands of neurotransmitter molecules within seconds after endocytosis, using the energy provided by an electrochemical proton gradient. However, it is unclear how transmitter molecules carrying different net charges can be efficiently sequestered while maintaining charge neutrality and osmotic balance. We used single-vesicle imaging to monitor pH and electrical gradients and directly showed different uptake mechanisms for glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) operating in parallel. In contrast to glutamate, GABA was exchanged for protons, with no other ions participating in the transport cycle. Thus, only a few components are needed to guarantee reliable vesicle filling with different neurotransmitters. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Feature-Based Change Detection Reveals Inconsistent Individual Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Joseph P; Wijeakumar, Sobanawartiny; Buss, Aaron T; Spencer, John P

    2016-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is a key cognitive system that enables people to hold visual information in mind after a stimulus has been removed and compare past and present to detect changes that have occurred. VWM is severely capacity limited to around 3-4 items, although there are robust individual differences in this limit. Importantly, these individual differences are evident in neural measures of VWM capacity. Here, we capitalized on recent work showing that capacity is lower for more complex stimulus dimension. In particular, we asked whether individual differences in capacity remain consistent if capacity is shifted by a more demanding task, and, further, whether the correspondence between behavioral and neural measures holds across a shift in VWM capacity. Participants completed a change detection (CD) task with simple colors and complex shapes in an fMRI experiment. As expected, capacity was significantly lower for the shape dimension. Moreover, there were robust individual differences in behavioral estimates of VWM capacity across dimensions. Similarly, participants with a stronger BOLD response for color also showed a strong neural response for shape within the lateral occipital cortex, intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and superior IPS. Although there were robust individual differences in the behavioral and neural measures, we found little evidence of systematic brain-behavior correlations across feature dimensions. This suggests that behavioral and neural measures of capacity provide different views onto the processes that underlie VWM and CD. Recent theoretical approaches that attempt to bridge between behavioral and neural measures are well positioned to address these findings in future work.

  18. Cortical Silent Period Reveals Differences Between Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia and Muscle Tension Dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samargia, Sharyl; Schmidt, Rebekah; Kimberley, Teresa Jacobson

    2016-03-01

    The pathophysiology of adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD), like other focal dystonias, is largely unknown. The purposes of this study were to determine (a) cortical excitability differences between AdSD, muscle tension dysphonia (MTD), and healthy controls; (b) distribution of potential differences in cranial or skeletal muscle; and (c) if cortical excitability measures assist in the differential diagnosis of AdSD and MTD. Ten participants with adductor spasmodic dysphonia, 8 with muscle tension dysphonia, and 10 healthy controls received single and paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the primary motor cortex contralateral to tested muscles, first dorsal interosseus (FDI), and masseter. We tested the hypothesis that cortical excitability measures in AdSD would be significantly different from those in MTD and healthy controls. In addition, we hypothesized that there would be a correlation between cortical excitability measures and clinical voice severity in AdSD. Cortical silent period duration in masseter and FDI was significantly shorter in AdSD than MTD and healthy controls. Other measures failed to demonstrate differences. There are differences in cortical excitability between AdSD, MTD, and healthy controls. These differences in the cortical measure of both the FDI and masseter muscles in AdSD suggest widespread dysfunction of the GABAB mechanism may be a pathophysiologic feature of AdSD, similar to other forms of focal dystonia. Further exploration of the use of TMS to assist in the differential diagnosis of AdSD and MTD is warranted. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Reproducible isolation of lymph node stromal cells reveals site-dependent differences in fibroblastic reticular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L Fletcher

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Within lymph nodes, non-hematopoietic stromal cells organize and interact with leukocytes in an immunologically important manner. In addition to organizing T and B cell segregation and expressing lymphocyte survival factors, several recent studies have shown that lymph node stromal cells shape the naïve T cell repertoire, expressing self-antigens which delete self-reactive T cells in a unique and non-redundant fashion. A fundamental role in peripheral tolerance, in addition to an otherwise extensive functional portfolio, necessitates closer study of lymph node stromal cell subsets using modern immunological techniques; however this has not routinely been possible in the field, due to difficulties reproducibly isolating these rare subsets. Techniques were therefore developed for successful ex vivo and in vitro manipulation and characterization of lymph node stroma. Here we discuss and validate these techniques in mice and humans, and apply them to address several unanswered questions regarding lymph node composition. We explored the steady-state stromal composition of lymph nodes isolated from mice and humans, and found that marginal reticular cells and lymphatic endothelial cells required lymphocytes for their normal maturation in mice. We also report alterations in the proportion and number of fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs between skin-draining and mesenteric lymph nodes. Similarly, transcriptional profiling of FRCs revealed changes in cytokine production from these sites. Together, these methods permit highly reproducible stromal cell isolation, sorting, and culture.

  20. Reproducible isolation of lymph node stromal cells reveals site-dependent differences in fibroblastic reticular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Anne L; Malhotra, Deepali; Acton, Sophie E; Lukacs-Kornek, Veronika; Bellemare-Pelletier, Angelique; Curry, Mark; Armant, Myriam; Turley, Shannon J

    2011-01-01

    Within lymph nodes, non-hematopoietic stromal cells organize and interact with leukocytes in an immunologically important manner. In addition to organizing T and B cell segregation and expressing lymphocyte survival factors, several recent studies have shown that lymph node stromal cells shape the naïve T cell repertoire, expressing self-antigens which delete self-reactive T cells in a unique and non-redundant fashion. A fundamental role in peripheral tolerance, in addition to an otherwise extensive functional portfolio, necessitates closer study of lymph node stromal cell subsets using modern immunological techniques; however this has not routinely been possible in the field, due to difficulties reproducibly isolating these rare subsets. Techniques were therefore developed for successful ex vivo and in vitro manipulation and characterization of lymph node stroma. Here we discuss and validate these techniques in mice and humans, and apply them to address several unanswered questions regarding lymph node composition. We explored the steady-state stromal composition of lymph nodes isolated from mice and humans, and found that marginal reticular cells and lymphatic endothelial cells required lymphocytes for their normal maturation in mice. We also report alterations in the proportion and number of fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) between skin-draining and mesenteric lymph nodes. Similarly, transcriptional profiling of FRCs revealed changes in cytokine production from these sites. Together, these methods permit highly reproducible stromal cell isolation, sorting, and culture.

  1. Genetic differences among Haplorchis taichui populations in Indochina revealed by mitochondrial COX1 sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaenkham, U; Phuphisut, O; Nuamtanong, S; Yoonuan, T; Sa-Nguankiat, S; Vonghachack, Y; Belizario, V Y; Dung, D T; Dekumyoy, P; Waikagul, J

    2017-09-01

    Haplorchis taichui is an intestinal heterophyid fluke that is pathogenic to humans. It is widely distributed in Asia, with a particularly high prevalence in Indochina. Previous work revealed that the lack of gene flow between three distinct populations of Vietnamese H. taichui can be attributed to their geographic isolation with no interconnected river basins. To test the hypothesis that interconnected river basins allow gene flow between otherwise isolated populations of H. taichui, as previously demonstrated for another trematode, Opisthorchis viverrini, we compared the genetic structures of seven populations of H. taichui from various localities in the lower Mekong Basin, in Thailand and Laos, with those in Vietnam, using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene. To determine the gene flow between these H. taichui populations, we calculated their phylogenetic relationships, genetic distances and haplotype diversity. Each population showed very low nucleotide diversity at this locus. However, high levels of genetic differentiation between the populations indicated very little gene flow. A phylogenetic analysis divided the populations into four clusters that correlated with the country of origin. The negligible gene flow between the Thai and Laos populations, despite sharing the Mekong Basin, caused us to reject our hypothesis. Our data suggest that the distribution of H. taichui populations was incidentally associated with national borders.

  2. Different migration patterns of sea urchin and mouse sperm revealed by a microfluidic chemotaxis device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixin Chang

    Full Text Available Chemotaxis refers to a process whereby cells move up or down a chemical gradient. Sperm chemotaxis is known to be a strategy exploited by marine invertebrates such as sea urchins to reach eggs efficiently in moving water. Less is understood about how or whether chemotaxis is used by mammalian sperm to reach eggs, where fertilization takes place within the confinement of a reproductive tract. In this report, we quantitatively assessed sea urchin and mouse sperm chemotaxis using a recently developed microfluidic model and high-speed imaging. Results demonstrated that sea urchin Arbacia punctulata sperm were chemotactic toward the peptide resact with high chemotactic sensitivity, with an average velocity Vx up the chemical gradient as high as 20% of its average speed (238 μm/s, while mouse sperm displayed no statistically significant chemotactic behavior in progesterone gradients, which had been proposed to guide mammalian sperm toward eggs. This work demonstrates the validity of a microfluidic model for quantitative sperm chemotaxis studies, and reveals a biological insight that chemotaxis up a progesterone gradient may not be a universal strategy for mammalian sperm to reach eggs.

  3. Limited tryptic proteolysis of the benzodiazepine binding proteins in different species reveals structural homologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, W; Lentes, K U; Schmitz, E; Propping, P; Hebebrand, J

    1988-12-01

    Peptide mapping can be used to elucidate further the structural similarities of the benzodiazepine binding proteins in different vertebrate species. Crude synaptic membrane preparations were photoaffinity-labeled with [3H]flunitrazepam and subsequently degraded with various concentrations of trypsin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by fluorography allowed a comparison of the molecular weights of photolabeled peptides in different species. Tryptic degradation led to a common peptide of 40K in all species investigated, a finding indicating that the benzodiazepine binding proteins are structurally homologous in higher bony fishes and tetrapods.

  4. Infant Temperament in Russia, United States of America, and Israel: Differences and Similarities between Russian-Speaking Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartstein, Maria A.; Peleg, Yana; Young, Brandi N.; Slobodskaya, Helena R.

    2009-01-01

    The present study addresses cross-cultural differences between infants born to families of Russian immigrants in USA and Israel, as well as Russian families residing in Russia, with the emphasis on evaluating the impact of immigration and acculturation. Community samples of primary caregivers of infants between 3 and 12 months of age were…

  5. Developmental Trajectories of African American Adolescents' Family Conflict: Differences in Mental Health Problems in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Family conflict is a salient risk factor for African American adolescents' mental health problems. No study we are aware of has estimated trajectories of their family conflict and whether groups differ in internalizing and externalizing problems during the transition to young adulthood, a critical antecedent in adult mental health and…

  6. Family medicine training in Saudi Arabia: Are there any variations among different regions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar R Abu Zuhairah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to compare Eastern, Makkah, and Asir regions in term of residents′ perception of the achievement of training objectives, and to assess various rotations based on residents′ perception. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was done among family medicine residents in the Eastern, Makkah, and Asir regions. Methodology: A questionnaire was developed by the investigator and validated by two experts. All residents, except R1 residents, were included. All data were collected by the investigator by direct contact with the residents. Statistical Analysis Used: Cronbach′s alpha, analysis of variance, t-test, and univariate regression model as appropriate, were used. Results: Reliability of the questionnaire was found to be 75.4%. One hundred and seven (response rate: 83.6% residents completed the questionnaire. There were 51 (47.7%, 27 (25.2%, and 29 (27.1% residents in the program in the Eastern region, Makkah, and Asir, respectively. The mean age was 29.1 ± 2.5 years; half of the residents were male, most of (83.2% were married, and more than half (54.2% of had worked in primary health care before joining the program. Overall, 45% of the residents perceived that they had achieved the training objectives. The highest rotations as perceived by the residents were psychiatry and otolaryngology while the lowest were orthopedics and ophthalmology. There were significant differences among the study regions with regard to the rotations in family medicine, internal medicine, orthopedics, general surgery, and emergency medicine. Conclusions: Overall, a good percentage of the residents perceived that they had achieved the training objectives. The rotations differed in the studied regions. Psychiatry and otolaryngology had the highest percentage of family medicine residents who perceived that they had achieved the training objectives while lowest was in internal medicine and obstetrics and gynecology. The highest rotations as

  7. Microstructure and physicochemical properties reveal differences between high moisture buffalo and bovine Mozzarella cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hanh T H; Ong, Lydia; Lopez, Christelle; Kentish, Sandra E; Gras, Sally L

    2017-12-01

    Mozzarella cheese is a classical dairy product but most research to date has focused on low moisture products. In this study, the microstructure and physicochemical properties of both laboratory and commercially produced high moisture buffalo Mozzarella cheeses were investigated and compared to high moisture bovine products. Buffalo and bovine Mozzarella cheeses were found to significantly differ in their microstructure, chemical composition, organic acid and proteolytic profiles but had similar hardness and meltability. The buffalo cheeses exhibited a significantly higher ratio of fat to protein and a microstructure containing larger fat patches and a less dense protein network. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry detected the presence of only β-casein variant A2 and a single β-lactoglobulin variant in buffalo products compared to the presence of both β-casein variants A1 and A2 and β-lactoglobulin variants A and B in bovine cheese. These differences arise from the different milk composition and processing conditions. The differences in microstructure and physicochemical properties observed here offer a new approach to identify the sources of milk used in commercial cheese products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Individual differences in decision making competence revealed by multivariate fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Tanveer; Román, Francisco J; Operskalski, Joachim T; Zwilling, Christopher E; Barbey, Aron K

    2018-06-01

    While an extensive literature in decision neuroscience has elucidated the neurobiological foundations of decision making, prior research has focused primarily on group-level effects in a sample population. Due to the presence of inherent differences between individuals' cognitive abilities, it is also important to examine the neural correlates of decision making that explain interindividual variability in cognitive performance. This study therefore investigated how individual differences in decision making competence, as measured by the Adult Decision Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, are related to functional brain connectivity patterns derived from resting-state fMRI data in a sample of 304 healthy participants. We examined connectome-wide associations, identifying regions within frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital cortex that demonstrated significant associations with decision making competence. We then assessed whether the functional interactions between brain regions sensitive to decision making competence and seven intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) were predictive of specific facets of decision making assessed by subtests of the A-DMC battery. Our findings suggest that individual differences in specific facets of decision making competence are mediated by ICNs that support executive, social, and perceptual processes, and motivate an integrative framework for understanding the neural basis of individual differences in decision making competence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Teacher Knowledge for Active-Learning Instruction: Expert-Novice Comparison Reveals Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, A. J.; Higgins, M.; Brickman, P.; Andrews, T. C.

    2018-01-01

    Active-learning strategies "can" improve science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) undergraduates' abilities to learn fundamental concepts and skills. However, the results instructors achieve vary substantially. One explanation for this is that instructors commonly implement active learning differently than intended. An…

  10. Transcriptome-wide survey of mouse CNS-derived cells reveals monoallelic expression within novel gene families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierra M Li

    Full Text Available Monoallelic expression is an integral component of regulation of a number of essential genes and gene families. To probe for allele-specific expression in cells of CNS origin, we used next-generation sequencing (RNA-seq to analyze four clonal neural stem cell (NSC lines derived from Mus musculus C57BL/6 (B6×Mus musculus molossinus (JF1 adult female mice. We established a JF1 cSNP library, then ascertained transcriptome-wide expression from B6 vs. JF1 alleles in the NSC lines. Validating the assay, we found that 262 of 268 X-linked genes evaluable in at least one cell line showed monoallelic expression (at least 85% expression of the predominant allele, p-value<0.05. For autosomal genes 170 of 7,198 genes (2.4% of the total showed monoallelic expression in at least 2 evaluable cell lines. The group included eight known imprinted genes with the expected pattern of allele-specific expression. Among the other autosomal genes with monoallelic expression were five members of the glutathione transferase gene superfamily, which processes xenobiotic compounds as well as carcinogens and cancer therapeutic agents. Monoallelic expression within this superfamily thus may play a functional role in the response to diverse and potentially lethal exogenous factors, as is the case for the immunoglobulin and olfactory receptor superfamilies. Other genes and gene families showing monoallelic expression include the annexin gene family and the Thy1 gene, both linked to inflammation and cancer, as well as genes linked to alcohol dependence (Gabrg1 and epilepsy (Kcnma1. The annotated set of genes will provide a resource for investigation of mechanisms underlying certain cases of these and other major disorders.

  11. Diversifying Selection in the Wheat Stem Rust Fungus Acts Predominantly on Pathogen-Associated Gene Families and Reveals Candidate Effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana eSperschneider

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogens cause severe losses to crop plants and threaten global food production. One striking example is the wheat stem rust fungus, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, which can rapidly evolve new virulent pathotypes in response to resistant host lines. Like several other filamentous fungal and oomycete plant pathogens, its genome features expanded gene families that have been implicated in host-pathogen interactions, possibly encoding effector proteins that interact directly with target host defence proteins. Previous efforts to understand virulence largely relied on the prediction of secreted, small and cysteine-rich proteins as candidate effectors and thus delivered an overwhelming number of candidates. Here, we implement an alternative analysis strategy that uses the signal of adaptive evolution as a line of evidence for effector function, combined with comparative information and expression data. We demonstrate that in planta up-regulated genes that are rapidly evolving are found almost exclusively in pathogen-associated gene families, affirming the impact of host-pathogen co-evolution on genome structure and the adaptive diversification of specialised gene families. In particular, we predict 42 effector candidates that are conserved only across pathogens, induced during infection and rapidly evolving. One of our top candidates has recently been shown to induce genotype-specific hypersensitive cell death in wheat. This shows that comparative genomics incorporating the evolutionary signal of adaptation is powerful for predicting effector candidates for laboratory verification. Our system can be applied to a wide range of pathogens and will give insight into host-pathogen dynamics, ultimately leading to progress in strategies for disease control.

  12. Next-generation sequencing reveals a novel NDP gene mutation in a Chinese family with Norrie disease

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Tian, Mao; Li, Jiankang; Cui, Ling; Li, Min; Zhang, Jianguo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Norrie disease (ND) is a rare X-linked genetic disorder, the main symptoms of which are congenital blindness and white pupils. It has been reported that ND is caused by mutations in the NDP gene. Although many mutations in NDP have been reported, the genetic cause for many patients remains unknown. In this study, the aim is to investigate the genetic defect in a five-generation family with typical symptoms of ND. Methods: To identify the causative gene, next-generation sequencing bas...

  13. Genus-wide comparison of Pseudovibrio bacterial genomes reveal diverse adaptations to different marine invertebrate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Anoop; Antunes, Agostinho

    2018-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudovibrio have been frequently found in association with a wide variety of marine eukaryotic invertebrate hosts, indicative of their versatile and symbiotic lifestyle. A recent comparison of the sponge-associated Pseudovibrio genomes has shed light on the mechanisms influencing a successful symbiotic association with sponges. In contrast, the genomic architecture of Pseudovibrio bacteria associated with other marine hosts has received less attention. Here, we performed genus-wide comparative analyses of 18 Pseudovibrio isolated from sponges, coral, tunicates, flatworm, and seawater. The analyses revealed a certain degree of commonality among the majority of sponge- and coral-associated bacteria. Isolates from other marine invertebrate host, tunicates, exhibited a genetic repertoire for cold adaptation and specific metabolic abilities including mucin degradation in the Antarctic tunicate-associated bacterium Pseudovibrio sp. Tun.PHSC04_5.I4. Reductive genome evolution was simultaneously detected in the flatworm-associated bacteria and the sponge-associated bacterium P. axinellae AD2, through the loss of major secretion systems (type III/VI) and virulence/symbioses factors such as proteins involved in adhesion and attachment to the host. Our study also unraveled the presence of a CRISPR-Cas system in P. stylochi UST20140214-052 a flatworm-associated bacterium possibly suggesting the role of CRISPR-based adaptive immune system against the invading virus particles. Detection of mobile elements and genomic islands (GIs) in all bacterial members highlighted the role of horizontal gene transfer for the acquisition of novel genetic features, likely enhancing the bacterial ecological fitness. These findings are insightful to understand the role of genome diversity in Pseudovibrio as an evolutionary strategy to increase their colonizing success across a wide range of marine eukaryotic hosts.

  14. Hemoglobin analyses in the Netherlands reveal more than 80 different variants including six novel ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zwieten, Rob; Veldthuis, Martijn; Delzenne, Barend; Berghuis, Jeffrey; Groen, Joke; Ait Ichou, Fatima; Clifford, Els; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Stroobants, An K

    2014-01-01

    More than 20,000 blood samples of individuals living in The Netherlands and suspected of hemolytic anemia or diabetes were analyzed by high resolution cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Besides common disease-related hemoglobins (Hbs), rare variants were also detected. The variant Hbs were retrospectively analyzed by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and by isoelectric focusing (IEF). For unambiguous identification, the globin genes were sequenced. Most of the 80 Hb variants detected by initial screening on HPLC were also separated by capillary electrophoresis (CE), but a few variants were only detectable with one of these methods. Some variants were unstable, had thalassemic properties or increased oxygen affinity, and some interfered with Hb A2 measurement, detection of sickle cell Hb or Hb A1c quantification. Two of the six novel variants, Hb Enschede (HBA2: c.308G  > A, p.Ser103Asn) and Hb Weesp (HBA1: c.301C > T, p.Leu101Phe), had no clinical consequences. In contrast, two others appeared clinically significant: Hb Ede (HBB: c.53A > T, p.Lys18Met) caused thalassemia and Hb Waterland (HBB: c.428C > T, pAla143Val) was related to mild polycytemia. Hb A2-Venlo (HBD: c.193G > A, p.Gly65Ser) and Hb A2-Rotterdam (HBD: c.38A > C, p.Asn13Thr) interfered with Hb A2 quantification. This survey shows that HPLC analysis followed by globin gene sequencing of rare variants is an effective method to reveal Hb variants.

  15. Lead isotopes reveal different sources of lead in balsamic and other vinegars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndung'u, Kuria; Hibdon, Sharon; Veron, Alain; Flegal, A. Russell

    2011-01-01

    Fifty-eight brands of balsamic vinegars were analyzed for lead concentrations and isotopic compositions ( 204 Pb, 206 Pb, 207 Pb, and 208 Pb) to test the findings of a previous study indicating relatively high levels of lead contamination in some of those vinegars - more than two thirds (70%) of them exceeded California's State Maximum Level (34 μg/L) based on consumption rates ≥ 0.5 μg Pb per day. The Lead isotopic fingerprints of all those vinegars with high lead concentrations were then found to be primarily anthropogenic. This isotopic analysis unquestionably reveals multiple contamination sources including atmospheric pollutant Pb and an unidentified contamination source, likely occurring after grape harvest. Organically grown grape vinegars display the same Pb content and isotopic signatures as other vinegars. This implies that pesticides might not be a significant source of pollutant Pb in vinegars. A significant post-harvest contamination would be inherited from chemicals added during production and/or material used during transport, processing or storage of these vinegars. This is consistent with the highest Pb levels being found in aged vinegars (112 ± 112 μg/L) in contrast to other vinegars (41.6 ± 28.9 μg/L) suggesting contamination during storage. It is, therefore, projected that lead levels in most vinegars, especially aged balsamic and wine vinegars, will decrease with improvements in their manufacture and storage processes consequential to recent concerns of elevated levels of lead in some vinegars. - Highlights: → First extensive study on content and possible sources of lead in balsamic vinegars. → Half of the vinegars exceed California's State Maximum Level for human consumption. → Lead content in vinegars seems to be mainly post-harvest from industrial processes.

  16. Tracking of plus-ends reveals microtubule functional diversity in different cell types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaebani, M. Reza; Pasula, Aravind; Ott, Albrecht; Santen, Ludger

    2016-07-01

    Many cellular processes are tightly connected to the dynamics of microtubules (MTs). While in neuronal axons MTs mainly regulate intracellular trafficking, they participate in cytoskeleton reorganization in many other eukaryotic cells, enabling the cell to efficiently adapt to changes in the environment. We show that the functional differences of MTs in different cell types and regions is reflected in the dynamic properties of MT tips. Using plus-end tracking proteins EB1 to monitor growing MT plus-ends, we show that MT dynamics and life cycle in axons of human neurons significantly differ from that of fibroblast cells. The density of plus-ends, as well as the rescue and catastrophe frequencies increase while the growth rate decreases toward the fibroblast cell margin. This results in a rather stable filamentous network structure and maintains the connection between nucleus and membrane. In contrast, plus-ends are uniformly distributed along the axons and exhibit diverse polymerization run times and spatially homogeneous rescue and catastrophe frequencies, leading to MT segments of various lengths. The probability distributions of the excursion length of polymerization and the MT length both follow nearly exponential tails, in agreement with the analytical predictions of a two-state model of MT dynamics.

  17. Integrated analysis of ischemic stroke datasets revealed sex and age difference in anti-stroke targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Xing Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is a common neurological disorder and the burden in the world is growing. This study aims to explore the effect of sex and age difference on ischemic stroke using integrated microarray datasets. The results showed a dramatic difference in whole gene expression profiles and influenced pathways between males and females, and also in the old and young individuals. Furthermore, compared with old males, old female patients showed more serious biological function damage. However, females showed less affected pathways than males in young subjects. Functional interaction networks showed these differential expression genes were mostly related to immune and inflammation-related functions. In addition, we found ARG1 and MMP9 were up-regulated in total and all subgroups. Importantly, IL1A, ILAB, IL6 and TNF and other anti-stroke target genes were up-regulated in males. However, these anti-stroke target genes showed low expression in females. This study found huge sex and age differences in ischemic stroke especially the opposite expression of anti-stroke target genes. Future studies are needed to uncover these pathological mechanisms, and to take appropriate pre-prevention, treatment and rehabilitation measures.

  18. Continuous place avoidance task reveals differences in spatial navigation in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimadevilla, J M; Fenton, A A; Bures, J

    2000-01-01

    A new place navigation test was used to estimate the spatial orientation abilities of male and female rats. Animals had to avoid a room frame defined area on a rotating arena, entering of which was punished by mild footshock, i.e. rats had to avoid the same place in the room but different parts of the floor, which was rotated through the punished zone. Because of the rotation of the arena (one revolution per min), animals could not rely on intramaze cues and only extramaze landmarks could be used for accurate navigation. During 8 consecutive days rats were exposed to daily 40-min sessions, consisting of 20-min acquisition and 20-min extinction (shock discontinued). The position of the punished sector centered around one of the four mutually perpendicular azimuths was daily changed in a predetermined sequence. The results showed no male female differences during acquisition and better performance of males during extinction. The performance of females was not affected by estral cycle-related hormonal changes. The findings are discussed in the light of controversial results of research into sex differences in spatial abilities.

  19. Snf2 family gene distribution in higher plant genomes reveals DRD1 expansion and diversification in the tomato genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargsten, Joachim W; Folta, Adam; Mlynárová, Ludmila; Nap, Jan-Peter

    2013-01-01

    As part of large protein complexes, Snf2 family ATPases are responsible for energy supply during chromatin remodeling, but the precise mechanism of action of many of these proteins is largely unknown. They influence many processes in plants, such as the response to environmental stress. This analysis is the first comprehensive study of Snf2 family ATPases in plants. We here present a comparative analysis of 1159 candidate plant Snf2 genes in 33 complete and annotated plant genomes, including two green algae. The number of Snf2 ATPases shows considerable variation across plant genomes (17-63 genes). The DRD1, Rad5/16 and Snf2 subfamily members occur most often. Detailed analysis of the plant-specific DRD1 subfamily in related plant genomes shows the occurrence of a complex series of evolutionary events. Notably tomato carries unexpected gene expansions of DRD1 gene members. Most of these genes are expressed in tomato, although at low levels and with distinct tissue or organ specificity. In contrast, the Snf2 subfamily genes tend to be expressed constitutively in tomato. The results underpin and extend the Snf2 subfamily classification, which could help to determine the various functional roles of Snf2 ATPases and to target environmental stress tolerance and yield in future breeding.

  20. Bioinformatic Analysis Reveals Conservation of Intrinsic Disorder in the Linker Sequences of Prokaryotic Dual-family Immunophilin Chaperones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sailen

    2018-01-01

    The two classical immunophilin families, found essentially in all living cells, are: cyclophilin (CYN) and FK506-binding protein (FKBP). We previously reported a novel class of immunophilins that are natural chimera of these two, which we named dual-family immunophilin (DFI). The DFIs were found in either of two conformations: CYN-linker-FKBP (CFBP) or FKBP-3TPR-CYN (FCBP). While the 3TPR domain can serve as a flexible linker between the FKBP and CYN modules in the FCBP-type DFI, the linker sequences in the CFBP-type DFIs are relatively short, diverse in sequence, and contain no discernible motif or signature. Here, I present several lines of computational evidence that, regardless of their primary structure, these CFBP linkers are intrinsically disordered. This report provides the first molecular foundation for the model that the CFBP linker acts as an unstructured, flexible loop, allowing the two flanking chaperone modules function independently while linked in cis , likely to assist in the folding of multisubunit client complexes.

  1. Structure-guided functional characterization of DUF1460 reveals a highly specific NlpC/P60 amidase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingping; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Patin, Delphine; Grant, Joanna C; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M; Wilson, Ian A

    2014-12-02

    GlcNAc-1,6-anhydro-MurNAc-tetrapeptide is a major peptidoglycan degradation intermediate and a cytotoxin. It is generated by lytic transglycosylases and further degraded and recycled by various enzymes. We have identified and characterized a highly specific N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase (AmiA) from Bacteroides uniformis, a member of the DUF1460 protein family, that hydrolyzes GlcNAc-1,6-anhydro-MurNAc-peptide into disaccharide and stem peptide. The high-resolution apo structure at 1.15 Å resolution shows that AmiA is related to NlpC/P60 γ-D-Glu-meso-diaminopimelic acid amidases and shares a common catalytic core and cysteine peptidase-like active site. AmiA has evolved structural adaptations that reconfigure the substrate recognition site. The preferred substrates for AmiA were predicted in silico based on structural and bioinformatics data, and subsequently were characterized experimentally. Further crystal structures of AmiA in complexes with GlcNAc-1,6-anhydro-MurNAc and GlcNAc have enabled us to elucidate substrate recognition and specificity. DUF1460 is highly conserved in structure and defines another amidase family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Snf2 family gene distribution in higher plant genomes reveals DRD1 expansion and diversification in the tomato genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim W Bargsten

    Full Text Available As part of large protein complexes, Snf2 family ATPases are responsible for energy supply during chromatin remodeling, but the precise mechanism of action of many of these proteins is largely unknown. They influence many processes in plants, such as the response to environmental stress. This analysis is the first comprehensive study of Snf2 family ATPases in plants. We here present a comparative analysis of 1159 candidate plant Snf2 genes in 33 complete and annotated plant genomes, including two green algae. The number of Snf2 ATPases shows considerable variation across plant genomes (17-63 genes. The DRD1, Rad5/16 and Snf2 subfamily members occur most often. Detailed analysis of the plant-specific DRD1 subfamily in related plant genomes shows the occurrence of a complex series of evolutionary events. Notably tomato carries unexpected gene expansions of DRD1 gene members. Most of these genes are expressed in tomato, although at low levels and with distinct tissue or organ specificity. In contrast, the Snf2 subfamily genes tend to be expressed constitutively in tomato. The results underpin and extend the Snf2 subfamily classification, which could help to determine the various functional roles of Snf2 ATPases and to target environmental stress tolerance and yield in future breeding.

  3. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT PRE-GERMINATIVE METHODS FOR THREE TREE SPECIES OF THE FABACEAE FAMILY IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Costa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. and Cassia grandis L.f. species belong to the Fabaceae family, are characterized by their seeds present a dormant state, which limits the germination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of pre-germination treatments to overcome dormancy these species. Seeds were collected from matrix trees, located in Agreste of Alagoas and the research developed at the Federal University of Alagoas – Campus de Arapiraca. Overcoming of dormancy was studied in laboratory and greenhouse, where they were employed eight treatments with four replications of 25 seeds, in a completely randomized design: immersion in sulfuric acid (in three periods of immersion, depending on species, scarification with sandpaper, immersion in hot water at 80 °C (2.5 and 5 minutes, imbibition for 24 hours in distilled water and control (seeds without the application of any treatment. The evaluation of the results was made through of germination and emergence percentage; germination and emergence speed index and germination and emergence average time. The pre-germination treatments, mechanical scarification with sandpaper and chemical scarification with sulfuric acid in different immersion times were the most efficient to overcome the seeds dormancy of Sesbania virgata, Mimosa caesalpiniifolia and Cassia grandis Independent of the studied environments.

  4. New Comparative Analysis Based on the Secondary Structure of SSU-rRNA Gene Reveals the Evolutionary Trend and the Family-Genus Characters of Mobilida (Ciliophora, Peritrichia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Yuan-Jun; Wang, Qin; Tang, Fa-Hui

    2015-08-01

    In order to reveal the structural evolutionary trend of Mobilida ciliates, twenty-six SSU-rRNA sequences of mobilid species, including seven ones newly sequenced in the present work, were used for comparative phylogenic analysis based on the RNA secondary structure. The research results indicate that all the secondary structures except domains Helix 10, Helix 12, and Helix 37 could be regarded as the criterions in classification between the family Trichodinidae and Urceolariida, and four regions including Helix E10-1, Helix 29, Helix 43, and Helix 45-Helix 46 could be as criterions in classification between the genus Trichodinella and Trichodina in family Trichodinidae. After the analysis of common structural feature within the Mobilida, it was found that the secondary structure of V6 could prove the family Urceolariidae primitive status. This research has further suggested that the genus Trichodina could be divergent earlier than Trichodinella in the family Trichodinidae. In addition, the relationship between the secondary structure and topology of phylogenic tree that the branching order of most clades corresponds with the secondary structure of species within each clade of phylogenetic tree was first uncovered and discussed in the present study.

  5. Deep RNA-Seq profile reveals biodiversity, plant-microbe interactions and a large family of NBS-LRR resistance genes in walnut (Juglans regia) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Britton, Monica; Martínez-García, P J; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2016-03-01

    Deep RNA-Seq profiling, a revolutionary method used for quantifying transcriptional levels, often includes non-specific transcripts from other co-existing organisms in spite of stringent protocols. Using the recently published walnut genome sequence as a filter, we present a broad analysis of the RNA-Seq derived transcriptome profiles obtained from twenty different tissues to extract the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in the walnut ecosystem in California. Since the residual nature of the transcripts being analyzed does not provide sufficient information to identify the exact strain, inferences made are constrained to the genus level. The presence of the pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora was detected in the root through the presence of a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Cryptococcus, the causal agent of cryptococcosis, was found in the catkins and vegetative buds, corroborating previous work indicating that the plant surface supported the sexual cycle of this human pathogen. The RNA-Seq profile revealed several species of the endophytic nitrogen fixing Actinobacteria. Another bacterial species implicated in aerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (Methylibium petroleiphilum) is also found in the root. RNA encoding proteins from the pea aphid were found in the leaves and vegetative buds, while a serine protease from mosquito with significant homology to a female reproductive tract protease from Drosophila mojavensis in the vegetative bud suggests egg-laying activities. The comprehensive analysis of RNA-seq data present also unraveled detailed, tissue-specific information of ~400 transcripts encoded by the largest family of resistance (R) genes (NBS-LRR), which possibly rationalizes the resistance of the specific walnut plant to the pathogens detected. Thus, we elucidate the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in several walnut (Juglans regia) tissues in California using deep RNA-Seq profiling.

  6. Sequence-based Screening for Rare Enzymes: New Insights into the World of AMDases Reveal a Conserved Motif and 58 Novel Enzymes Clustering in Eight Distinct Families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Maimanakos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Arylmalonate-Decarboxylases (AMDases, EC 4.1.1.76 are very rare and mostly underexplored enzymes. Currently only four known and biochemically characterized representatives exist. However, their ability to decarboxylate α-disubstituted malonic acid derivatives to optically pure products without cofactors makes them attractive and promising candidates for the use as biocatalysts in industrial processes. Until now, AMDases could not be separated from other members of the aspartate/glutamate racemase superfamily based on their gene sequences. Within this work, a search algorithm was developed that enables a reliable prediction of AMDase activity for potential candidates. Based on specific sequence patterns and screening methods 58 novel AMDase candidate genes could be identified in this work. Thereby, AMDases with the conserved sequence pattern of Bordetella bronchiseptica’s prototype appeared to be limited to the classes of Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria. Amino acid homologies and comparison of gene surrounding sequences enabled the classification of eight enzyme clusters. Particularly striking is the accumulation of genes coding for different transporters of the TTT family, TRAP transporters and ABC transporters as well as genes coding for mandelate racemases/muconate lactonizing enzymes that might be involved in substrate uptake or degradation of AMDase products. Further, three novel AMDases were characterized which showed a high enantiomeric excess (>99% of the (R-enantiomer of flurbiprofen. These are the recombinant AmdA and AmdV from Variovorax sp. strains HH01 and HH02, originated from soil, and AmdP from Polymorphum gilvum found by a data base search. Altogether our findings give new insights into the class of AMDases and reveal many previously unknown enzyme candidates with high potential for bioindustrial processes.

  7. Autonomously folding protein fragments reveal differences in the energy landscapes of homologous RNases H.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Rosen

    Full Text Available An important approach to understanding how a protein sequence encodes its energy landscape is to compare proteins with different sequences that fold to the same general native structure. In this work, we compare E. coli and T. thermophilus homologs of the protein RNase H. Using protein fragments, we create equilibrium mimics of two different potential partially-folded intermediates (I(core and I(core+1 hypothesized to be present on the energy landscapes of these two proteins. We observe that both T. thermophilus RNase H (ttRNH fragments are folded and have distinct stabilities, indicating that both regions are capable of autonomous folding and that both intermediates are present as local minima on the ttRNH energy landscape. In contrast, the two E. coli RNase H (ecRNH fragments have very similar stabilities, suggesting that the presence of additional residues in the I(core+1 fragment does not affect the folding or structure as compared to I(core. NMR experiments provide additional evidence that only the I(core intermediate is populated by ecRNH. This is one of the biggest differences that has been observed between the energy landscapes of these two proteins. Additionally, we used a FRET experiment in the background of full-length ttRNH to specifically monitor the formation of the I(core+1 intermediate. We determine that the ttRNH I(core+1 intermediate is likely the intermediate populated prior to the rate-limiting barrier to global folding, in contrast to E. coli RNase H for which I(core is the folding intermediate. This result provides new insight into the nature of the rate-limiting barrier for the folding of RNase H.

  8. Large-scale transcriptome analysis reveals arabidopsis metabolic pathways are frequently influenced by different pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenhong; He, Fei; Zhang, Ziding

    2017-07-01

    Through large-scale transcriptional data analyses, we highlighted the importance of plant metabolism in plant immunity and identified 26 metabolic pathways that were frequently influenced by the infection of 14 different pathogens. Reprogramming of plant metabolism is a common phenomenon in plant defense responses. Currently, a large number of transcriptional profiles of infected tissues in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have been deposited in public databases, which provides a great opportunity to understand the expression patterns of metabolic pathways during plant defense responses at the systems level. Here, we performed a large-scale transcriptome analysis based on 135 previously published expression samples, including 14 different pathogens, to explore the expression pattern of Arabidopsis metabolic pathways. Overall, metabolic genes are significantly changed in expression during plant defense responses. Upregulated metabolic genes are enriched on defense responses, and downregulated genes are enriched on photosynthesis, fatty acid and lipid metabolic processes. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) identifies 26 frequently differentially expressed metabolic pathways (FreDE_Paths) that are differentially expressed in more than 60% of infected samples. These pathways are involved in the generation of energy, fatty acid and lipid metabolism as well as secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Clustering analysis based on the expression levels of these 26 metabolic pathways clearly distinguishes infected and control samples, further suggesting the importance of these metabolic pathways in plant defense responses. By comparing with FreDE_Paths from abiotic stresses, we find that the expression patterns of 26 FreDE_Paths from biotic stresses are more consistent across different infected samples. By investigating the expression correlation between transcriptional factors (TFs) and FreDE_Paths, we identify several notable relationships. Collectively, the current study

  9. Heritable differences in schooling behavior among threespine stickleback populations revealed by a novel assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail R Wark

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the proximate and ultimate mechanisms of social behavior remains a major goal of behavioral biology. In particular, the complex social interactions mediating schooling behavior have long fascinated biologists, leading to theoretical and empirical investigations that have focused on schooling as a group-level phenomenon. However, methods to examine the behavior of individual fish within a school are needed in order to investigate the mechanisms that underlie both the performance and the evolution of schooling behavior. We have developed a technique to quantify the schooling behavior of an individual in standardized but easily manipulated social circumstances. Using our model school assay, we show that threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus from alternative habitats differ in behavior when tested in identical social circumstances. Not only do marine sticklebacks show increased association with the model school relative to freshwater benthic sticklebacks, they also display a greater degree of parallel swimming with the models. Taken together, these data indicate that marine sticklebacks exhibit a stronger tendency to school than benthic sticklebacks. We demonstrate that these population-level differences in schooling tendency are heritable and are shared by individuals within a population even when they have experienced mixed-population housing conditions. Finally, we begin to explore the stimuli that elicit schooling behavior in these populations. Our data suggest that the difference in schooling tendency between marine and benthic sticklebacks is accompanied by differential preferences for social vs. non-social and moving vs. stationary shelter options. Our study thus provides novel insights into the evolution of schooling behavior, as well as a new experimental approach to investigate the genetic and neural mechanisms that underlie this complex social behavior.

  10. Different responses to heat shock stress revealed heteromorphic adaptation strategy of Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qijun; Zhu, Zhenggang; Zhu, Zhujun; Yang, Rui; Qian, Feijian; Chen, Haimin; Yan, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Pyropia has a unique heteromorphic life cycle with alternation stages between thallus and conchocelis, which lives at different water temperatures in different seasons. To better understand the different adaptation strategies for temperature stress, we tried to observe comparative biochemical changes of Pyropia haitanensis based on a short term heat shock model. The results showed that: (1) At normal temperature, free-living conchocelis contains significantly higher levels of H2O2, fatty acid-derived volatiles, the copy number of Phrboh and Phhsp70 genes,the activities of NADPH oxidase and floridoside than those in thallus. The released H2O2 and NADPH oxidase activity of conchocelis were more than 7 times higher than those of thallus. The copy number of Phrboh in conchocelis was 32 times that in thallus. (2) After experiencing heat shock at 35°C for 30 min, the H2O2 contents, the mRNA levels of Phrboh and Phhsp70, NADPH oxidase activity and the floridoside content in thallus were all significantly increased. The mRNA levels of Phrboh increased 5.78 times in 5 min, NADPH oxidase activity increased 8.45 times in 20 min. (3) Whereas, in conchocelis, the changes in fatty acids and their down-stream volatiles predominated, significantly increasing levels of saturated fatty acids and decreasing levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids occurred, and the 8-carbon volatiles were accumulated. However, the changes in H2O2 content and expression of oxidant-related genes and enzymatic activity were not obvious. Overall, these results indicate that conchocelis maintains a high level of active protective apparatus to endure its survival at high temperature, while thallus exhibit typical stress responses to heat shock. It is concluded that Pyropia haitanensis has evolved a delicate strategy for temperature adaptation for its heteromorphic life cycle.

  11. Different responses to heat shock stress revealed heteromorphic adaptation strategy of Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Luo

    Full Text Available Pyropia has a unique heteromorphic life cycle with alternation stages between thallus and conchocelis, which lives at different water temperatures in different seasons. To better understand the different adaptation strategies for temperature stress, we tried to observe comparative biochemical changes of Pyropia haitanensis based on a short term heat shock model. The results showed that: (1 At normal temperature, free-living conchocelis contains significantly higher levels of H2O2, fatty acid-derived volatiles, the copy number of Phrboh and Phhsp70 genes,the activities of NADPH oxidase and floridoside than those in thallus. The released H2O2 and NADPH oxidase activity of conchocelis were more than 7 times higher than those of thallus. The copy number of Phrboh in conchocelis was 32 times that in thallus. (2 After experiencing heat shock at 35°C for 30 min, the H2O2 contents, the mRNA levels of Phrboh and Phhsp70, NADPH oxidase activity and the floridoside content in thallus were all significantly increased. The mRNA levels of Phrboh increased 5.78 times in 5 min, NADPH oxidase activity increased 8.45 times in 20 min. (3 Whereas, in conchocelis, the changes in fatty acids and their down-stream volatiles predominated, significantly increasing levels of saturated fatty acids and decreasing levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids occurred, and the 8-carbon volatiles were accumulated. However, the changes in H2O2 content and expression of oxidant-related genes and enzymatic activity were not obvious. Overall, these results indicate that conchocelis maintains a high level of active protective apparatus to endure its survival at high temperature, while thallus exhibit typical stress responses to heat shock. It is concluded that Pyropia haitanensis has evolved a delicate strategy for temperature adaptation for its heteromorphic life cycle.

  12. Sequence analysis of chromosome 1 revealed different selection patterns between Chinese wild mice and laboratory strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuyi; Hu, Shixian; Chao, Tianzhu; Wang, Maochun; Li, Kai; Zhou, Yuxun; Xu, Hongyan; Xiao, Junhua

    2017-10-01

    Both natural and artificial selection play a critical role in animals' adaptation to the environment. Detection of the signature of selection in genomic regions can provide insights for understanding the function of specific phenotypes. It is generally assumed that laboratory mice may experience intense artificial selection while wild mice more natural selection. However, the differences of selection signature in the mouse genome and underlying genes between wild and laboratory mice remain unclear. In this study, we used two mouse populations: chromosome 1 (Chr 1) substitution lines (C1SLs) derived from Chinese wild mice and mouse genome project (MGP) sequenced inbred strains and two selection detection statistics: Fst and Tajima's D to identify the signature of selection footprint on Chr 1. For the differentiation between the C1SLs and MGP, 110 candidate selection regions containing 47 protein coding genes were detected. A total of 149 selection regions which encompass 7.215 Mb were identified in the C1SLs by Tajima's D approach. While for the MGP, we identified nearly twice selection regions (243) compared with the C1SLs which accounted for 13.27 Mb Chr 1 sequence. Through functional annotation, we identified several biological processes with significant enrichment including seven genes in the olfactory transduction pathway. In addition, we searched the phenotypes associated with the 47 candidate selection genes identified by Fst. These genes were involved in behavior, growth or body weight, mortality or aging, and immune systems which align well with the phenotypic differences between wild and laboratory mice. Therefore, the findings would be helpful for our understanding of the phenotypic differences between wild and laboratory mice and applications for using this new mouse resource (C1SLs) for further genetics studies.

  13. Electrophysiological signals associated with fluency of different levels of processing reveal multiple contributions to recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Taylor, Jason R; Wang, Wei; Gao, Chuanji; Guo, Chunyan

    2017-08-01

    Processing fluency appears to influence recognition memory judgements, and the manipulation of fluency, if misattributed to an effect of prior exposure, can result in illusory memory. Although it is well established that fluency induced by masked repetition priming leads to increased familiarity, manipulations of conceptual fluency have produced conflicting results, variously affecting familiarity or recollection. Some recent studies have found that masked conceptual priming increases correct recollection (Taylor & Henson, 2012), and the magnitude of this behavioural effect correlates with analogous fMRI BOLD priming effects in brain regions associated with recollection (Taylor, Buratto, & Henson, 2013). However, the neural correlates and time-courses of masked repetition and conceptual priming were not compared directly in previous studies. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify and compare the electrophysiological correlates of masked repetition and conceptual priming and investigate how they contribute to recognition memory. Behavioural results were consistent with previous studies: Repetition primes increased familiarity, whereas conceptual primes increased correct recollection. Masked repetition and conceptual priming also decreased the latency of late parietal component (LPC). Masked repetition priming was associated with an early P200 effect and a later parietal maximum N400 effect, whereas masked conceptual priming was only associated with a central-parietal maximum N400 effect. In addition, the topographic distributions of the N400 repetition priming and conceptual priming effects were different. These results suggest that fluency at different levels of processing is associated with different ERP components, and contributes differentially to subjective recognition memory experiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Microstructural differences between two Zr(C,N) coatings revealed by analytical transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dörfel, Ilona; Rooch, Heidemarie; Österle, Werner

    2012-01-01

    The microstructures of two samples of a Zr(C,N) coating on steel, which unexpectedly differed in their tribological properties, were investigated by analytical transmission electron microscopy. The samples were produced by a cathodic arc evaporation process in two commercial coating devices under similar coating conditions with the exception of the number of Zr targets. The source of the differing tribological properties of the samples was detected by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), energy filtering TEM (EFTEM), electron diffraction, high resolution electron microscopy, and high angel annular dark field. The TEM preparation and the results of the TEM investigations are shown in detail. The origin of the unexpected behavior was determined to be a nano-scale multilayer structure that existed only in the tribologically superior specimen. EDX and EFTEM investigations indicated enrichment in oxygen at the interface between coating and steel substrate in the tribologically inferior sample. Findings of the microstructural configuration were obtained by taking a closer look at the structure and comparing the results of the several analytical TEM techniques. This allows the allocation of the concentration fluctuations in N, C, and Zr to the two thickness fractions of the nano multilayers and a local correlation of the identified minority phase Zr 3 (C,N) 4 to the higher N content in the narrower type of the multilayer fraction of the sample with the excellent tribological properties. The minority phase Zr 3 (C,N) 4 is randomly distributed in the sample with the defective tribological properties. Coating conditions are not topic of this work, but after discussion of the TEM results, the fact that one of the coating devices worked with one Zr target and the other one with two, could be identified as cause for the formation of the nano multilayer structure in the sample with the superior tribological

  15. Parental education and family income affect birthweight, early longitudinal growth and body mass index development differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramsved, Rebecka; Regber, Susann; Novak, Daniel; Mehlig, Kirsten; Lissner, Lauren; Mårild, Staffan

    2018-01-07

    This study investigated the effects of two parental socio-economic characteristics, education and income, on growth and risk of obesity in children from birth to 8 years of age. Longitudinal growth data and national register-based information on socio-economic characteristics were available for 3,030 Swedish children. The development of body mass index (BMI) and height was compared in groups dichotomised by parental education and income. Low parental education was associated with a higher BMI from 4 years of age, independent of income, immigrant background, maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy. Low family income was associated with a lower birthweight, but did not independently predict BMI development. At 8 years of age, children from less educated families had a three times higher risk of obesity, independent of parental income. Children whose parents had fewer years of education but high income had significantly higher height than all other children. Parental education protected against childhood obesity, even after adjusting for income and other important parental characteristics. Income-related differences in height, despite similar BMIs, raise questions about body composition and metabolic risk profiles. The dominant role of education underscores the value of health literacy initiatives for the parents of young children. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Educational differences in cardiovascular mortality: The role of shared family factors and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjøllesdal, M K R; Ariansen, I; Mortensen, L H; Davey Smith, G; Næss, Ø

    2016-12-01

    To explore the confounding effects of early family factors shared by siblings and cardiovascular risk factors in midlife on the educational differences in mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Data from national and regional health surveys in Norway (1974-2003) were linked with data from the Norwegian Family Based Life Course Study, the National Educational Registry and the Cause of Death Registry. The study population consisted of participants with at least one full sibling among the health survey participants ( n=271,310). Data were available on CVD risk factors, including weight, height, blood pressure, total cholesterol and smoking. The hazards ratio (HR) of CVD mortality was 3.44 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.98-3.96) in the lowest educational group relative to the highest. The HRs were little altered in the within-sibship analyses. Adjusted for risk factors, the HR for CVD mortality in the cohort analyses was 2.05 (CI 1.77-2.37) in the lowest educational group relative to the highest. The respective HR in the within-sibship analyses was 2.46 (CI 1.48-2.24). Using a sibling design, we did not find that the association between education and CVD mortality was confounded by early life factors shared by siblings, but it was explained to a large extent by CVD risk factors. These results suggest that reducing levels of CVD risk factors could have the greatest effect on mortality in less well-educated people.

  17. Ancient DNA reveals differences in behaviour and sociality between brown bears and extinct cave bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Gloria G; Grandal-d'Anglade, Aurora; Kolbe, Ben; Fernandes, Daniel; Meleg, Ioana N; García-Vázquez, Ana; Pinto-Llona, Ana C; Constantin, Silviu; de Torres, Trino J; Ortiz, Jose E; Frischauf, Christine; Rabeder, Gernot; Hofreiter, Michael; Barlow, Axel

    2016-10-01

    Ancient DNA studies have revolutionized the study of extinct species and populations, providing insights on phylogeny, phylogeography, admixture and demographic history. However, inferences on behaviour and sociality have been far less frequent. Here, we investigate the complete mitochondrial genomes of extinct Late Pleistocene cave bears and middle Holocene brown bears that each inhabited multiple geographically proximate caves in northern Spain. In cave bears, we find that, although most caves were occupied simultaneously, each cave almost exclusively contains a unique lineage of closely related haplotypes. This remarkable pattern suggests extreme fidelity to their birth site in cave bears, best described as homing behaviour, and that cave bears formed stable maternal social groups at least for hibernation. In contrast, brown bears do not show any strong association of mitochondrial lineage and cave, suggesting that these two closely related species differed in aspects of their behaviour and sociality. This difference is likely to have contributed to cave bear extinction, which occurred at a time in which competition for caves between bears and humans was likely intense and the ability to rapidly colonize new hibernation sites would have been crucial for the survival of a species so dependent on caves for hibernation as cave bears. Our study demonstrates the potential of ancient DNA to uncover patterns of behaviour and sociality in ancient species and populations, even those that went extinct many tens of thousands of years ago. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Students' performance in the different clinical skills assessed in OSCE: what does it reveal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Joong Hiong; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Mansor, Azura; Vijayananthan, Anushya; Foong, Chan Choong; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare students' performance in the different clinical skills (CSs) assessed in the objective structured clinical examination. Data for this study were obtained from final year medical students' exit examination (n=185). Retrospective analysis of data was conducted using SPSS. Means for the six CSs assessed across the 16 stations were computed and compared. Means for history taking, physical examination, communication skills, clinical reasoning skills (CRSs), procedural skills (PSs), and professionalism were 6.25±1.29, 6.39±1.36, 6.34±0.98, 5.86±0.99, 6.59±1.08, and 6.28±1.02, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed there was a significant difference in the means of the six CSs assessed [F(2.980, 548.332)=20.253, pskill to be acquired by medical students before entering the workplace. Despite its challenges, students must learn the skills of clinical reasoning, while clinical teachers should facilitate the clinical reasoning process and guide students' clinical reasoning development.

  19. EEG neural oscillatory dynamics reveal semantic and response conflict at difference levels of conflict awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Qinglin; Van Gaal, Simon

    2015-07-14

    Although previous work has shown that conflict can be detected in the absence of awareness, it is unknown how different sources of conflict (i.e., semantic, response) are processed in the human brain and whether these processes are differently modulated by conflict awareness. To explore this issue, we extracted oscillatory power dynamics from electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded while human participants performed a modified version of the Stroop task. Crucially, in this task conflict awareness was manipulated by masking a conflict-inducing color word preceding a color patch target. We isolated semantic from response conflict by introducing four color words/patches, of which two were matched to the same response. We observed that both semantic as well as response conflict were associated with mid-frontal theta-band and parietal alpha-band power modulations, irrespective of the level of conflict awareness (high vs. low), although awareness of conflict increased these conflict-related power dynamics. These results show that both semantic and response conflict can be processed in the human brain and suggest that the neural oscillatory mechanisms in EEG reflect mainly "domain general" conflict processing mechanisms, instead of conflict source specific effects.

  20. EEG neural oscillatory dynamics reveal semantic and response conflict at difference levels of conflict awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Qinglin; Van Gaal, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Although previous work has shown that conflict can be detected in the absence of awareness, it is unknown how different sources of conflict (i.e., semantic, response) are processed in the human brain and whether these processes are differently modulated by conflict awareness. To explore this issue, we extracted oscillatory power dynamics from electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded while human participants performed a modified version of the Stroop task. Crucially, in this task conflict awareness was manipulated by masking a conflict-inducing color word preceding a color patch target. We isolated semantic from response conflict by introducing four color words/patches, of which two were matched to the same response. We observed that both semantic as well as response conflict were associated with mid-frontal theta-band and parietal alpha-band power modulations, irrespective of the level of conflict awareness (high vs. low), although awareness of conflict increased these conflict-related power dynamics. These results show that both semantic and response conflict can be processed in the human brain and suggest that the neural oscillatory mechanisms in EEG reflect mainly “domain general” conflict processing mechanisms, instead of conflict source specific effects. PMID:26169473

  1. Infrared spectroscopy reveals both qualitative and quantitative differences in equine subchondral bone during maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrina, Yevgeniya; Isaksson, Hanna; Sinisaari, Miikka; Rieppo, Lassi; Brama, Pieter A.; van Weeren, René; Helminen, Heikki J.; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Saarakkala, Simo

    2010-11-01

    The collagen phase in bone is known to undergo major changes during growth and maturation. The objective of this study is to clarify whether Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, coupled with cluster analysis, can detect quantitative and qualitative changes in the collagen matrix of subchondral bone in horses during maturation and growth. Equine subchondral bone samples (n = 29) from the proximal joint surface of the first phalanx are prepared from two sites subjected to different loading conditions. Three age groups are studied: newborn (0 days old), immature (5 to 11 months old), and adult (6 to 10 years old) horses. Spatial collagen content and collagen cross-link ratio are quantified from the spectra. Additionally, normalized second derivative spectra of samples are clustered using the k-means clustering algorithm. In quantitative analysis, collagen content in the subchondral bone increases rapidly between the newborn and immature horses. The collagen cross-link ratio increases significantly with age. In qualitative analysis, clustering is able to separate newborn and adult samples into two different groups. The immature samples display some nonhomogeneity. In conclusion, this is the first study showing that FTIR spectral imaging combined with clustering techniques can detect quantitative and qualitative changes in the collagen matrix of subchondral bone during growth and maturation.

  2. Event-related potentials reveal the relations between feature representations at different levels of abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Samuel D; Shedden, Judith M; Brooks, Lee R; Grundy, John G

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we use behavioural methods and event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the relations between informational and instantiated features, as well as the relation between feature abstraction and rule type. Participants are trained to categorize two species of fictitious animals and then identify perceptually novel exemplars. Critically, two groups are given a perfectly predictive counting rule that, according to Hannah and Brooks (2009. Featuring familiarity: How a familiar feature instantiation influences categorization. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale, 63, 263-275. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.1037/a0017919), should orient them to using abstract informational features when categorizing the novel transfer items. A third group is taught a feature list rule, which should orient them to using detailed instantiated features. One counting-rule group were taught their rule before any exposure to the actual stimuli, and the other immediately after training, having learned the instantiations first. The feature-list group were also taught their rule after training. The ERP results suggest that at test, the two counting-rule groups processed items differently, despite their identical rule. This not only supports the distinction that informational and instantiated features are qualitatively different feature representations, but also implies that rules can readily operate over concrete inputs, in contradiction to traditional approaches that assume that rules necessarily act on abstract inputs.

  3. BMI and breast cancer prognosis benefit: mammography screening reveals differences between normal weight and overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispo, Anna; Grimaldi, Maria; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Rinaldo, Massimo; Capasso, Immacolata; Amore, Alfonso; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; Giudice, Aldo; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Montella, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    Few studies are available on the potential impact of body weight on breast cancer prognosis in screen-detected patients. Moreover, it is not known whether body mass index (BMI) could have a different prognostic impact in screen-detected versus symptomatic breast cancer patients. To investigate these unsolved issues, we carried out a retrospective study evaluating the effect of BMI on breast cancer prognosis in screen-detected vs symptomatic breast cancer patients. We conducted a follow-up study on 448 women diagnosed with incident, histologically-confirmed breast cancer. Patients were categorized according to their BMI as normal weight, overweight and obese. Disease free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and BMI curves were compared according to mode of cancer detection. Among screen-detected patients, higher BMI was associated with a significant lower DFS, whereas no significant difference was observed among symptomatic patients. OS showed similar results. In the multivariate analysis adjusting for age, education, tumor size, nodal status, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and menopausal status, the risk for high level of BMI among screen-detected patients did not reach the statistical significance for either recurrence or survival. Our study highlights the potential impact of high bodyweight in breast cancer prognosis, the findings confirm that obesity plays a role in women breast cancer prognosis independently from diagnosis mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular and Cellular Profiling of Scalp Psoriasis Reveals Differences and Similarities Compared to Skin Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Juan; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Shemer, Avner; Oliva, Margeaux

    2016-01-01

    Scalp psoriasis shows a variable clinical spectrum and in many cases poses a great therapeutic challenge. However, it remains unknown whether the immune response of scalp psoriasis differs from understood pathomechanisms of psoriasis in other skin areas. We sought to determine the cellular and molecular phenotype of scalp psoriasis by performing a comparative analysis of scalp and skin using lesional and nonlesional samples from 20 Caucasian subjects with untreated moderate to severe psoriasis and significant scalp involvement and 10 control subjects without psoriasis. Our results suggest that even in the scalp, psoriasis is a disease of the inter-follicular skin. The immune mechanisms that mediate scalp psoriasis were found to be similar to those involved in skin psoriasis. However, the magnitude of dysregulation, number of differentially expressed genes, and enrichment of the psoriatic genomic fingerprint were more prominent in skin lesions. Furthermore, the scalp transcriptome showed increased modulation of several gene-sets, particularly those induced by interferon-gamma, compared with that of skin psoriasis, which was mainly associated with activation of TNFα/L-17/IL-22-induced keratinocyte response genes. We also detected differences in expression of gene-sets involving negative regulation, epigenetic regulation, epidermal differentiation, and dendritic cell or Th1/Th17/Th22-related T-cell processes. PMID:26849645

  5. Metabolomics Reveals Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Obese Individuals Differ in their Response to a Caloric Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Badoud

    Full Text Available To determine if metabolically healthy obese (MHO individuals have a different metabolic response to a standardized diet compared to lean healthy (LH and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO individuals.Thirty adults (35-70 yrs were classified as LH, MHO, and MUO according to anthropometric and clinical measurements. Participants consumed a standardized high calorie meal (~1330 kcal. Blood glucose and insulin were measured at fasting, and 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min postprandially. Additional blood samples were collected for the targeted analysis of amino acids (AAs and derivatives, and fatty acids (FAs.The postprandial response (i.e., area under the curve, AUC for serum glucose and insulin were similar between MHO and LH individuals, and significantly lower than MUO individuals (p < 0.05. Minor differences were found in postprandial responses for AAs between MHO and MUO individuals, while three polyunsaturated FAs (linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid showed smaller changes in serum after the meal in MHO individuals compared to MUO. Fasting levels for various AAs (notably branched-chain AA and FAs (e.g., saturated myristic and palmitic acids were found to correlate with glucose and insulin AUC.MHO individuals show preserved insulin sensitivity and a greater ability to adapt to a caloric challenge compared to MUO individuals.

  6. Electrophysiological Evidence reveals Differences between the Recognition of Microexpressions and Macroexpressions

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    Xunbing Shen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Microexpressions are fleeting facial expressions that are important for judging people’s true emotions. Little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying the recognition of microexpressions (with duration of less than 200 ms and macroexpressions (with duration of greater than 200 ms. We used an affective priming paradigm in which a picture of a facial expression is the prime and an emotional word is the target, and electroencephalogram (EEG and event-related potentials (ERPs to examine neural activities associated with recognizing microexpressions and macroexpressions. The results showed that there were significant main effects of duration and valence for N170/VPP. The main effect of congruence for N400 is also significant. Further, sLORETA showed that the brain regions responsible for these significant differences included the inferior temporal gyrus and widespread regions of the frontal lobe. Furthermore, the results suggested that the left hemisphere was more involved than the right hemisphere in processing a microexpression. The main effect of duration for the event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP was significant, and the theta oscillations (4 Hz to 8 Hz increased in recognizing expressions with a duration of 40 ms compared with 300 ms. Thus, there are different EEG/ERPs neural mechanisms for recognizing microexpressions compared to recognizing macroexpressions.

  7. Knockout of the PKN Family of Rho Effector Kinases Reveals a Non-redundant Role for PKN2 in Developmental Mesoderm Expansion

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    Ivan Quétier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In animals, the protein kinase C (PKC family has expanded into diversely regulated subgroups, including the Rho family-responsive PKN kinases. Here, we describe knockouts of all three mouse PKN isoforms and reveal that PKN2 loss results in lethality at embryonic day 10 (E10, with associated cardiovascular and morphogenetic defects. The cardiovascular phenotype was not recapitulated by conditional deletion of PKN2 in endothelial cells or the developing heart. In contrast, inducible systemic deletion of PKN2 after E7 provoked collapse of the embryonic mesoderm. Furthermore, mouse embryonic fibroblasts, which arise from the embryonic mesoderm, depend on PKN2 for proliferation and motility. These cellular defects are reflected in vivo as dependence on PKN2 for mesoderm proliferation and neural crest migration. We conclude that failure of the mesoderm to expand in the absence of PKN2 compromises cardiovascular integrity and development, resulting in lethality.

  8. Motor cortical representation in two different strength-training modalities revealed by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rune Refsgaard; Osuna-Florentz, Patrick; Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas

    2017-01-01

    stimulation was used for mapping motor cortical representations (MAP) of VL and BF in an active state (~5-10% of a squat). The stimulation intensity used was slightly above active motor threshold (~105%). Results The MAP area for VL was significantly larger for the explosively trained than for the resistance...... trained (8448 ± 6121 μV and 3350 ± 1920 μV, respectively, p= 0.04). There was no difference in MAP area for BF. Discussion The larger cortical map area for VL in the explosively trained group may be due to the training of their leg muscles being more structured and frequent (i.e., number of times the leg...

  9. Mechanistic Differences in Neuropathic Pain Modalities Revealed by Correlating Behavior with Global Expression Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique J. Cobos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic neuropathic pain is a major morbidity of neural injury, yet its mechanisms are incompletely understood. Hypersensitivity to previously non-noxious stimuli (allodynia is a common symptom. Here, we demonstrate that the onset of cold hypersensitivity precedes tactile allodynia in a model of partial nerve injury, and this temporal divergence was associated with major differences in global gene expression in innervating dorsal root ganglia. Transcripts whose expression change correlates with the onset of cold allodynia were nociceptor related, whereas those correlating with tactile hypersensitivity were immune cell centric. Ablation of TrpV1 lineage nociceptors resulted in mice that did not acquire cold allodynia but developed normal tactile hypersensitivity, whereas depletion of macrophages or T cells reduced neuropathic tactile allodynia but not cold hypersensitivity. We conclude that neuropathic pain incorporates reactive processes of sensory neurons and immune cells, each leading to distinct forms of hypersensitivity, potentially allowing drug development targeted to each pain type.

  10. Functional MRI reveals expert-novice differences during sport-related anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael J; Bishop, Daniel T; Jackson, Robin C; Abernethy, Bruce

    2010-01-27

    We examined the effect of expertise on cortical activation during sports anticipation using functional MRI. In experiment 1, recreational players predicted badminton stroke direction and the pattern of active clusters was consistent with a proposed perception-of-action network. This pattern was not replicated in a stimulus-matched, action-unrelated control task. In experiment 2, players of three different skill levels anticipated stroke direction from clips occluded either 160 ms before or 80 ms after racquet-shuttle contact. Early-occluded sequences produced more activation than late-occluded sequences overall, in most cortical regions of interest, but experts showed an additional enhancement in medial, dorsolateral and ventrolateral frontal cortex. Anticipation in open-skill sports engages cortical areas integral to observing and understanding others' actions; such activity is enhanced in experts.

  11. [Different uses of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (buckwheat) in Japan and China: what ancient medical documents reveal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Nami; Marui, Eiji

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate that buckwheat has been recognized, both in Japan and China, as a crop that is useful in many ways: as an agricultural crop, and for the healing powers and properties that, according to traditional Chinese medicine, it has. A comparative study of ancient documents pertaining to medicine in these countries has made it clear that this is the case. Buckwheat, however, has been used quite differently in each country. As is shown in some ancient Chinese documents pertaining to medicine, China has treated buckwheat primarily as a medicine for clinical use rather than as an edible crop. Nowadays, buckwheat is eaten only in some regions of China. Although it came to Japan from China as a medicine, in Japan buckwheat gradually became a popular food crop. It has become an important component of traditional Japanese cuisine thanks in part to government support and the strong demand that developed in Japanese society.

  12. Cultivation-independent methods reveal differences among bacterial gut microbiota in triatomine vectors of Chagas disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Faria da Mota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a trypanosomiasis whose agent is the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to humans by hematophagous bugs known as triatomines. Even though insecticide treatments allow effective control of these bugs in most Latin American countries where Chagas disease is endemic, the disease still affects a large proportion of the population of South America. The features of the disease in humans have been extensively studied, and the genome of the parasite has been sequenced, but no effective drug is yet available to treat Chagas disease. The digestive tract of the insect vectors in which T. cruzi develops has been much less well investigated than blood from its human hosts and constitutes a dynamic environment with very different conditions. Thus, we investigated the composition of the predominant bacterial species of the microbiota in insect vectors from Rhodnius, Triatoma, Panstrongylus and Dipetalogaster genera. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Microbiota of triatomine guts were investigated using cultivation-independent methods, i.e., phylogenetic analysis of 16s rDNA using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and cloned-based sequencing. The Chao index showed that the diversity of bacterial species in triatomine guts is low, comprising fewer than 20 predominant species, and that these species vary between insect species. The analyses showed that Serratia predominates in Rhodnius, Arsenophonus predominates in Triatoma and Panstrongylus, while Candidatus Rohrkolberia predominates in Dipetalogaster. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The microbiota of triatomine guts represents one of the factors that may interfere with T. cruzi transmission and virulence in humans. The knowledge of its composition according to insect species is important for designing measures of biological control for T. cruzi. We found that the predominant species of the bacterial microbiota in triatomines form a group of low

  13. Teacher Knowledge for Active-Learning Instruction: Expert-Novice Comparison Reveals Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, A J; Higgins, M; Brickman, P; Andrews, T C

    2018-01-01

    Active-learning strategies can improve science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) undergraduates' abilities to learn fundamental concepts and skills. However, the results instructors achieve vary substantially. One explanation for this is that instructors commonly implement active learning differently than intended. An important factor affecting how instructors implement active learning is knowledge of teaching and learning. We aimed to discover knowledge that is important to effective active learning in large undergraduate courses. We developed a lesson-analysis instrument to elicit teacher knowledge, drawing on the theoretical construct of teacher noticing. We compared the knowledge used by expert ( n = 14) and novice ( n = 29) active-learning instructors as they analyzed lessons. Experts and novices differed in what they noticed, with experts more commonly considering how instructors hold students accountable, topic-specific student difficulties, whether the instructor elicited and responded to student thinking, and opportunities students had to generate their own ideas and work. Experts were also better able to support their lesson analyses with reasoning. This work provides foundational knowledge for the future design of preparation and support for instructors adopting active learning. Improving teacher knowledge will improve the implementation of active learning, which will be necessary to widely realize the potential benefits of active learning in undergraduate STEM. © 2018 A. J. Auerbach et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2018 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  14. Automated decoding of facial expressions reveals marked differences in children when telling antisocial versus prosocial lies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanette, Sarah; Gao, Xiaoqing; Brunet, Megan; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Lee, Kang

    2016-10-01

    The current study used computer vision technology to examine the nonverbal facial expressions of children (6-11years old) telling antisocial and prosocial lies. Children in the antisocial lying group completed a temptation resistance paradigm where they were asked not to peek at a gift being wrapped for them. All children peeked at the gift and subsequently lied about their behavior. Children in the prosocial lying group were given an undesirable gift and asked if they liked it. All children lied about liking the gift. Nonverbal behavior was analyzed using the Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT), which employs the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), to automatically code children's facial expressions while lying. Using CERT, children's facial expressions during antisocial and prosocial lying were accurately and reliably differentiated significantly above chance-level accuracy. The basic expressions of emotion that distinguished antisocial lies from prosocial lies were joy and contempt. Children expressed joy more in prosocial lying than in antisocial lying. Girls showed more joy and less contempt compared with boys when they told prosocial lies. Boys showed more contempt when they told prosocial lies than when they told antisocial lies. The key action units (AUs) that differentiate children's antisocial and prosocial lies are blink/eye closure, lip pucker, and lip raise on the right side. Together, these findings indicate that children's facial expressions differ while telling antisocial versus prosocial lies. The reliability of CERT in detecting such differences in facial expression suggests the viability of using computer vision technology in deception research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Differences between urban and rural hedges in England revealed by a citizen science project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Laura; Sparks, Tim H; Araya, Yoseph; Harvey, Martin; Ansine, Janice

    2016-07-22

    Hedges are both ecologically and culturally important and are a distinctive feature of the British landscape. However the overall length of hedges across Great Britain is decreasing. Current challenges in studying hedges relate to the dominance of research on rural, as opposed to urban, hedges, and their variability and geographical breadth. To help address these challenges and to educate the public on the importance of hedge habitats for wildlife, in 2010 the Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) programme coordinated a hedge-focused citizen science survey. Results from 2891 surveys were analysed. Woody plant species differed significantly between urban and rural areas. Beech, Holly, Ivy, Laurel, Privet and Yew were more commonly recorded in urban hedges whereas Blackthorn, Bramble, Dog Rose, Elder and Hawthorn were recorded more often in rural hedges. Urban and rural differences were shown for some groups of invertebrates. Ants, earwigs and shieldbugs were recorded more frequently in urban hedges whereas blowflies, caterpillars, harvestmen, other beetles, spiders and weevils were recorded more frequently in rural hedges. Spiders were the most frequently recorded invertebrate across all surveys. The presence of hard surfaces adjacent to the hedge was influential on hedge structure, number and diversity of plant species, amount of food available for wildlife and invertebrate number and diversity. In urban hedges with one adjacent hard surface, the food available for wildlife was significantly reduced and in rural hedges, one adjacent hard surface affected the diversity of invertebrates. This research highlights that urban hedges may be important habitats for wildlife and that hard surfaces may have an impact on both the number and diversity of plant species and the number and diversity of invertebrates. This study demonstrates that citizen science programmes that focus on hedge surveillance can work and have the added benefit of educating the public on the importance of

  16. The complete genome sequence of Staphylothermus marinus reveals differences in sulfur metabolism among heterotrophic Crenarchaeota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, iain J.; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Rodriguez, Jason; Hooper, Sean; Porat, Iris; Ulrich, Luke E.; Elkins, James G.; Mavromatis, Kostas; Sun, Hui; Land, Miriam; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Barry, Kerrie; Huber, Harald; Zhulin, Igor B.; Whitman, William B.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2008-09-05

    Staphylothermus marinus is an anaerobic, sulfur-reducing peptide fermenter of the archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota. It is the third heterotrophic, obligate sulfur reducing crenarchaeote to be sequenced and provides an opportunity for comparative analysis of the three genomes. The 1.57 Mbp genome of the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeote Staphylothermus marinus has been completely sequenced. The main energy generating pathways likely involve 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductases and ADP-forming acetyl-CoA synthases. S. marinus possesses several enzymes not present in other crenarchaeotes including a sodium ion-translocating decarboxylase likely to be involved in amino acid degradation. S. marinus lacks sulfur-reducing enzymes present in the other two sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes that have been sequenced - Thermofilum pendens and Hyperthermus butylicus. Instead it has three operons similar to the mbh and mbx operons of Pyrococcus furiosus, which may play a role in sulfur reduction and/or hydrogen production. The two marine organisms, S. marinus and H. butylicus, possess more sodium-dependent transporters than T. pendens and use symporters for potassium uptake while T. pendens uses an ATP-dependent potassium transporter. T. pendens has adapted to a nutrient-rich environment while H. butylicus is adapted to a nutrient-poor environment, and S. marinus lies between these two extremes. The three heterotrophic sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes have adapted to their habitats, terrestrial vs. marine, via their transporter content, and they have also adapted to environments with differing levels of nutrients. Despite the fact that they all use sulfur as an electron acceptor, they are likely to have different pathways for sulfur reduction.

  17. Cultivation-independent methods reveal differences among bacterial gut microbiota in triatomine vectors of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Mota, Fabio Faria; Marinho, Lourena Pinheiro; Moreira, Carlos José de Carvalho; Lima, Marli Maria; Mello, Cícero Brasileiro; Garcia, Eloi Souza; Carels, Nicolas; Azambuja, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is a trypanosomiasis whose agent is the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to humans by hematophagous bugs known as triatomines. Even though insecticide treatments allow effective control of these bugs in most Latin American countries where Chagas disease is endemic, the disease still affects a large proportion of the population of South America. The features of the disease in humans have been extensively studied, and the genome of the parasite has been sequenced, but no effective drug is yet available to treat Chagas disease. The digestive tract of the insect vectors in which T. cruzi develops has been much less well investigated than blood from its human hosts and constitutes a dynamic environment with very different conditions. Thus, we investigated the composition of the predominant bacterial species of the microbiota in insect vectors from Rhodnius, Triatoma, Panstrongylus and Dipetalogaster genera. Microbiota of triatomine guts were investigated using cultivation-independent methods, i.e., phylogenetic analysis of 16s rDNA using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and cloned-based sequencing. The Chao index showed that the diversity of bacterial species in triatomine guts is low, comprising fewer than 20 predominant species, and that these species vary between insect species. The analyses showed that Serratia predominates in Rhodnius, Arsenophonus predominates in Triatoma and Panstrongylus, while Candidatus Rohrkolberia predominates in Dipetalogaster. The microbiota of triatomine guts represents one of the factors that may interfere with T. cruzi transmission and virulence in humans. The knowledge of its composition according to insect species is important for designing measures of biological control for T. cruzi. We found that the predominant species of the bacterial microbiota in triatomines form a group of low complexity whose structure differs according to the vector genus.

  18. Early stages of functional diversification in the Rab GTPase gene family revealed by genomic and localization studies in Paramecium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Lydia J; Gout, Jean-Francois; Lynch, Michael

    2017-04-15

    New gene functions arise within existing gene families as a result of gene duplication and subsequent diversification. To gain insight into the steps that led to the functional diversification of paralogues, we tracked duplicate retention patterns, expression-level divergence, and subcellular markers of functional diversification in the Rab GTPase gene family in three Paramecium aurelia species. After whole-genome duplication, Rab GTPase duplicates are more highly retained than other genes in the genome but appear to be diverging more rapidly in expression levels, consistent with early steps in functional diversification. However, by localizing specific Rab proteins in Paramecium cells, we found that paralogues from the two most recent whole-genome duplications had virtually identical localization patterns, and that less closely related paralogues showed evidence of both conservation and diversification. The functionally conserved paralogues appear to target to compartments associated with both endocytic and phagocytic recycling functions, confirming evolutionary and functional links between the two pathways in a divergent eukaryotic lineage. Because the functionally diversifying paralogues are still closely related to and derived from a clade of functionally conserved Rab11 genes, we were able to pinpoint three specific amino acid residues that may be driving the change in the localization and thus the function in these proteins. © 2017 Bright et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  19. TP53 germline mutation testing in 180 families suspected of Li-Fraumeni syndrome: mutation detection rate and relative frequency of cancers in different familial phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, M.W.G.; Verhoef, S.; Rookus, M.A.; Pruntel, R.; van der Hout, A.H.; Hogervorst, F.B.L.; Kluijt, I.; Sijmons, R.H.; Aalfs, C.M.; Wagner, A.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; van Asperen, C.J.; Gómez García, E.B.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; ten Kate, L.P.; Menko, F.H.; van 't Veer, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome. Most families fulfilling the classical diagnostic criteria harbour TP53 germline mutations. However, TP53 germline mutations may also occur in less obvious phenotypes. As a result, different criteria

  20. Torque measurements reveal large process differences between materials during high solid enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmqvist Benny

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common trend in the research on 2nd generation bioethanol is the focus on intensifying the process and increasing the concentration of water insoluble solids (WIS throughout the process. However, increasing the WIS content is not without problems. For example, the viscosity of pretreated lignocellulosic materials is known to increase drastically with increasing WIS content. Further, at elevated viscosities, problems arise related to poor mixing of the material, such as poor distribution of the enzymes and/or difficulties with temperature and pH control, which results in possible yield reduction. Achieving good mixing is unfortunately not without cost, since the power requirements needed to operate the impeller at high viscosities can be substantial. This highly important scale-up problem can easily be overlooked. Results In this work, we monitor the impeller torque (and hence power input in a stirred tank reactor throughout high solid enzymatic hydrolysis (Arundo donax and spruce. Two different process modes were evaluated, where either the impeller speed or the impeller power input was kept constant. Results from hydrolysis experiments at a fixed impeller speed of 10 rpm show that a very rapid decrease in impeller torque is experienced during hydrolysis of pretreated arundo (i.e. it loses its fiber network strength, whereas the fiber strength is retained for a longer time within the spruce material. This translates into a relatively low, rather WIS independent, energy input for arundo whereas the stirring power demand for spruce is substantially larger and quite WIS dependent. By operating the impeller at a constant power input (instead of a constant impeller speed it is shown that power input greatly affects the glucose yield of pretreated spruce whereas the hydrolysis of arundo seems unaffected. Conclusions The results clearly highlight the large differences between the arundo and spruce materials, both in terms of

  1. Different heating systems for single family house: Energy and economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turanjanin Valentina M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing building stock energy consumption accounts for about 38% of final energy consumption in Republic of Serbia. 70% of that energy is consumed by residential sector, mostly for space heating. This research is addressed to the single family house building placed in the Belgrade city. The house has ground and first floor with total heating area of 130 m2 and pellet as space heating source. The aim of this paper is to evaluate energy and economic analysis for different heating systems. Several homeheating were compared: Option 1 (biomass combustion boiler using pellet as a fuel, Option 2 (gas combustion boiler and Option 3 (heat pump. The building performance was evaluated by TRNSYS 17 simulation code. Results show estimated savings using renewable energy sources. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III42008

  2. Different clinical phenotypes in familial severe congenital neutropenia cases with same mutation of the ELANE gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hye-Kyung; Jeon, In Sang

    2014-03-01

    Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is a heterogeneous group of disorders with a defect in granulopoiesis causing marked neutropenia and severe bacterial infections. A 17-month-old girl (patient 1) was admitted due to cervical lymphadenitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, with neutropenia. She had Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis and peritonitis with perforated appendicitis at 8-month of age. Her sister, a 37-month-old girl (patient 2), had recurrent stomatitis with profound neutropenia, and her mother, a 32-yr-old woman (patient 3), had had recurrent stomatitis until her early 20s with neutropenia. We found an ELANE gene mutation (c.597+1G > A) from them in direct DNA sequencing analysis. Patients 1 and 2 did not respond to granulocyte colony stimulating factor and patient 1 was treated with prolonged antibiotics and excision. We demonstrated inherited SCN cases showing different severity even with the same mutation of the ELANE gene in a family.

  3. Construction of Short-Length High-Rates LDPC Codes Using Difference Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deny Hamdani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Low-density parity-check (LDPC code is linear-block error-correcting code defined by sparse parity-check matrix. It is decoded using the massage-passing algorithm, and in many cases, capable of outperforming turbo code. This paper presents a class of low-density parity-check (LDPC codes showing good performance with low encoding complexity. The code is constructed using difference families from  combinatorial design. The resulting code, which is designed to have short code length and high code rate, can be encoded with low complexity due to its quasi-cyclic structure, and performs well when it is iteratively decoded with the sum-product algorithm. These properties of LDPC code are quite suitable for applications in future wireless local area network.

  4. Characterization of multiple light damage paradigms reveals regional differences in photoreceptor loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer L; Nelson, Craig M; Luo, Xixia; Hyde, David R; Thummel, Ryan

    2012-04-01

    Zebrafish provide an attractive model to study the retinal response to photoreceptor apoptosis due to its remarkable ability to spontaneously regenerate retinal neurons following damage. There are currently two widely-used light-induced retinal degeneration models to damage photoreceptors in the adult zebrafish. One model uses constant bright light, whereas the other uses a short exposure to extremely intense ultraviolet light. Although both models are currently used, it is unclear whether they differ in regard to the extent of photoreceptor damage or the subsequent regeneration response. Here we report a thorough analysis of the photoreceptor damage and subsequent proliferation response elicited by each individual treatment, as well as by the concomitant use of both treatments. We show a differential loss of rod and cone photoreceptors with each treatment. Additionally, we show that the extent of proliferation observed in the retina directly correlates with the severity of photoreceptor loss. We also demonstrate that both the ventral and posterior regions of the retina are partially protected from light damage. Finally, we show that combining a short ultraviolet exposure followed by a constant bright light treatment largely eliminates the neuroprotected regions, resulting in widespread loss of rod and cone photoreceptors and a robust regenerative response throughout the retina. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic variability of garlic accessions as revealed by agro-morphological traits evaluated under different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerheide, E S S; Azevedo Filho, J A; Vencovsky, R; Zucchi, M I; Zago, B W; Pinheiro, J B

    2017-05-31

    The cultivated garlic (Allium sativum L.) displays a wide phenotypic diversity, which is derived from natural mutations and phenotypic plasticity, due to dependence on soil type, moisture, latitude, altitude and cultural practices, leading to a large number of cultivars. This study aimed to evaluate the genetic variability shown by 63 garlic accessions belonging to Instituto Agronômico de Campinas and the Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" germplasm collections. We evaluated ten quantitative characters in experimental trials conducted under two localities of the State of São Paulo: Monte Alegre do Sul and Piracicaba, during the agricultural year of 2007, in a randomized blocks design with five replications. The Mahalanobis distance was used to measure genetic dissimilarities. The UPGMA method and Tocher's method were used as clustering procedures. Results indicated significant variation among accessions (P < 0.01) for all evaluated characters, except for the percentage of secondary bulb growth in MAS, indicating the existence of genetic variation for bulb production, and germplasm evaluation considering different environments is more reliable for the characterization of the genotypic variability among garlic accessions, since it diminishes the environmental effects in the clustering of genotypes.

  6. Mixed infections reveal virulence differences between host-specific bee pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Ellen G; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Welker, Dennis L; James, Rosalind R

    2015-07-01

    Dynamics of host-pathogen interactions are complex, often influencing the ecology, evolution and behavior of both the host and pathogen. In the natural world, infections with multiple pathogens are common, yet due to their complexity, interactions can be difficult to predict and study. Mathematical models help facilitate our understanding of these evolutionary processes, but empirical data are needed to test model assumptions and predictions. We used two common theoretical models regarding mixed infections (superinfection and co-infection) to determine which model assumptions best described a group of fungal pathogens closely associated with bees. We tested three fungal species, Ascosphaera apis, Ascosphaera aggregata and Ascosphaera larvis, in two bee hosts (Apis mellifera and Megachile rotundata). Bee survival was not significantly different in mixed infections vs. solo infections with the most virulent pathogen for either host, but fungal growth within the host was significantly altered by mixed infections. In the host A. mellifera, only the most virulent pathogen was present in the host post-infection (indicating superinfective properties). In M. rotundata, the most virulent pathogen co-existed with the lesser-virulent one (indicating co-infective properties). We demonstrated that the competitive outcomes of mixed infections were host-specific, indicating strong host specificity among these fungal bee pathogens. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Discrimination task reveals differences in neural bases of tinnitus and hearing impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima T Husain

    Full Text Available We investigated auditory perception and cognitive processing in individuals with chronic tinnitus or hearing loss using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our participants belonged to one of three groups: bilateral hearing loss and tinnitus (TIN, bilateral hearing loss without tinnitus (HL, and normal hearing without tinnitus (NH. We employed pure tones and frequency-modulated sweeps as stimuli in two tasks: passive listening and active discrimination. All subjects had normal hearing through 2 kHz and all stimuli were low-pass filtered at 2 kHz so that all participants could hear them equally well. Performance was similar among all three groups for the discrimination task. In all participants, a distributed set of brain regions including the primary and non-primary auditory cortices showed greater response for both tasks compared to rest. Comparing the groups directly, we found decreased activation in the parietal and frontal lobes in the participants with tinnitus compared to the HL group and decreased response in the frontal lobes relative to the NH group. Additionally, the HL subjects exhibited increased response in the anterior cingulate relative to the NH group. Our results suggest that a differential engagement of a putative auditory attention and short-term memory network, comprising regions in the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices and the anterior cingulate, may represent a key difference in the neural bases of chronic tinnitus accompanied by hearing loss relative to hearing loss alone.

  8. Hierarchical compression of Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion reveals phenotypic differences in the organization of behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Marin, Alex; Stephens, Greg J; Brown, André E X

    2016-08-01

    Regularities in animal behaviour offer insights into the underlying organizational and functional principles of nervous systems and automated tracking provides the opportunity to extract features of behaviour directly from large-scale video data. Yet how to effectively analyse such behavioural data remains an open question. Here, we explore whether a minimum description length principle can be exploited to identify meaningful behaviours and phenotypes. We apply a dictionary compression algorithm to behavioural sequences from the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans freely crawling on an agar plate both with and without food and during chemotaxis. We find that the motifs identified by the compression algorithm are rare but relevant for comparisons between worms in different environments, suggesting that hierarchical compression can be a useful step in behaviour analysis. We also use compressibility as a new quantitative phenotype and find that the behaviour of wild-isolated strains of C. elegans is more compressible than that of the laboratory strain N2 as well as the majority of mutant strains examined. Importantly, in distinction to more conventional phenotypes such as overall motor activity or aggregation behaviour, the increased compressibility of wild isolates is not explained by the loss of function of the gene npr-1, which suggests that erratic locomotion is a laboratory-derived trait with a novel genetic basis. Because hierarchical compression can be applied to any sequence, we anticipate that compressibility can offer insights into the organization of behaviour in other animals including humans. © 2016 The Authors.

  9. Physical abuse during adolescence: Gender differences in the adolescents' perceptions of family functioning and parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunday, Suzanne; Labruna, Victor; Kaplan, Sandra; Pelcovitz, David; Newman, Jennifer; Salzinger, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    To examine the relationship between physical abuse of adolescents and parenting by mothers and fathers and whether the association differs by gender. Subjects were adolescents, 51 girls and 45 boys, documented by Child Protective Services (CPS) as physically abused during adolescence. Comparison subjects were non-abused adolescents, 47 girls and 48 boys, from the same suburban communities. Subjects completed the following: Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale, Parental Bonding Instrument, modified Conflict Tactics Scale (assessing physical abuse/punishment by each parent). Although CPS generally cited fathers as the abuse perpetrators, abused boys and girls often reported experiencing physical maltreatment from both parents. Not surprisingly, comparison subjects rated parents more positively than abused subjects. For both groups, mothers were perceived as more caring and less controlling, were reported to have closer relationships with their adolescents, and were less likely to use abuse/harsh punishment than were fathers. Differences between the adolescents' perceptions of mothers and fathers were more pronounced for abused than for comparison subjects. Boys' and girls' perceptions of parenting were generally similar except that girls, especially the abused girls, reported feeling less close to fathers. Abused girls also viewed mothers as less caring than the other groups viewed mothers. Abused girls were also less likely than abused boys to perceive that either parent, but particularly fathers, had provided them with an optimum style of parenting. Adolescents who experienced relatively mild physical abuse reported dysfunctional family relationships, which may place them at risk of poor adult outcomes. Adolescents' reports suggest that CPS reports may underestimate physical maltreatment by mothers.

  10. Methodological decisions and the evaluation of possible effects of different family structures on children: The new family structures survey (NFSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Walter R

    2012-11-01

    Every social science researcher must make a number of methodological decisions when planning and implementing research projects. Each such decision carries with it both advantages and limitations. The decisions faced and made by Regnerus (2012) are discussed here in the wider context of social science literature regarding same-sex parenting. Even though the apparent outcomes of Regnerus's study were unpopular, the methodological decisions he made in the design and implementation of the New Family Structures Survey were not uncommon among social scientists, including many progressive, gay and lesbian scholars. These decisions and the research they produced deserve considerable and continued discussion, but criticisms of the underlying ethics and professionalism are misplaced because nearly every methodological decision that was made has ample precedents in research published by many other credible and distinguished scholars. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Dengue and Zika Outbreaks Reveals Differences by Setting and Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Funk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The pacific islands of Micronesia have experienced several outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases over the past decade. In outbreaks on small islands, the susceptible population is usually well defined, and there is no co-circulation of pathogens. Because of this, analysing such outbreaks can be useful for understanding the transmission dynamics of the pathogens involved, and particularly so for yet understudied pathogens such as Zika virus. Here, we compared three outbreaks of dengue and Zika virus in two different island settings in Micronesia, the Yap Main Islands and Fais, using a mathematical model of transmission dynamics and making full use of commonalities in disease and setting between the outbreaks. We found that the estimated reproduction numbers for Zika and dengue were similar when considered in the same setting, but that, conversely, reproduction number for the same disease can vary considerably by setting. On the Yap Main Islands, we estimated a reproduction number of 8.0-16 (95% Credible Interval (CI for the dengue outbreak and 4.8-14 (95% CI for the Zika outbreak, whereas for the dengue outbreak on Fais our estimate was 28-102 (95% CI. We further found that the proportion of cases of Zika reported was smaller (95% CI 1.4%-1.9% than that of dengue (95% CI: 47%-61%. We confirmed these results in extensive sensitivity analysis. They suggest that models for dengue transmission can be useful for estimating the predicted dynamics of Zika transmission, but care must be taken when extrapolating findings from one setting to another.

  12. Molecular Subtyping of Primary Prostate Cancer Reveals Specific and Shared Target Genes of Different ETS Rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Paulo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate whether ETS transcription factors frequently involved in rearrangements in prostate carcinomas (PCa, namely ERG and ETV1, regulate specific or shared target genes. We performed differential expression analysis on nine normal prostate tissues and 50 PCa enriched for different ETS rearrangements using exon-level expression microarrays, followed by in vitro validation using cell line models. We found specific deregulation of 57 genes in ERG-positive PCa and 15 genes in ETV1-positive PCa, whereas deregulation of 27 genes was shared in both tumor subtypes. We further showed that the expression of seven tumor-associated ERG target genes (PLA1A, CACNA1D, ATP8A2, HLA-DMB, PDE3B, TDRD1, and TMBIM1 and two tumor-associated ETV1 target genes (FKBP10 and GLYATL2 was significantly affected by specific ETS silencing in VCaP and LNCaP cell line models, respectively, whereas the expression of three candidate ERG and ETV1 shared targets (GRPR, KCNH8, and TMEM45B was significantly affected by silencing of either ETS. Interestingly, we demonstrate that the expression of TDRD1, the topmost overexpressed gene of our list of ERG-specific candidate targets, is inversely correlated with the methylation levels of a CpG island found at -66 bp of the transcription start site in PCa and that TDRD1 expression is regulated by direct binding of ERG to the CpG island in VCaP cells. We conclude that ETS transcription factors regulate specific and shared target genes and that TDRD1, FKBP10, and GRPR are promising therapeutic targets and can serve as diagnostic markers for molecular subtypes of PCa harboring specific fusion gene rearrangements.

  13. Genetic diversity and relationships among different tomato varieties revealed by EST-SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korir, N K; Diao, W; Tao, R; Li, X; Kayesh, E; Li, A; Zhen, W; Wang, S

    2014-01-08

    The genetic diversity and relationship of 42 tomato varieties sourced from different geographic regions was examined with EST-SSR markers. The genetic diversity was between 0.18 and 0.77, with a mean of 0.49; the polymorphic information content ranged from 0.17 to 0.74, with a mean of 0.45. This indicates a fairly high degree of diversity among these tomato varieties. Based on the cluster analysis using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA), all the tomato varieties fell into 5 groups, with no obvious geographical distribution characteristics despite their diverse sources. The principal component analysis (PCA) supported the clustering result; however, relationships among varieties were more complex in the PCA scatterplot than in the UPGMA dendrogram. This information about the genetic relationships between these tomato lines helps distinguish these 42 varieties and will be useful for tomato variety breeding and selection. We confirm that the EST-SSR marker system is useful for studying genetic diversity among tomato varieties. The high degree of polymorphism and the large number of bands obtained per assay shows that SSR is the most informative marker system for tomato genotyping for purposes of rights/protection and for the tomato industry in general. It is recommended that these varieties be subjected to identification using an SSR-based manual cultivar identification diagram strategy or other easy-to-use and referable methods so as to provide a complete set of information concerning genetic relationships and a readily usable means of identifying these varieties.

  14. A tobacco cDNA reveals two different transcription patterns in vegetative and reproductive organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. da Silva

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify genes expressed in the pistil that may have a role in the reproduction process, we have established an expressed sequence tags project to randomly sequence clones from a Nicotiana tabacum stigma/style cDNA library. A cDNA clone (MTL-8 showing high sequence similarity to genes encoding glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins was chosen for further characterization. Based on the extensive identity of MTL-8 to the RGP-1a sequence of N. sylvestris, a primer was defined to extend the 5' sequence of MTL-8 by RT-PCR from stigma/style RNAs. The amplification product was sequenced and it was confirmed that MTL-8 corresponds to an mRNA encoding a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein. Two transcripts of different sizes and expression patterns were identified when the MTL-8 cDNA insert was used as a probe in RNA blots. The largest is 1,100 nucleotides (nt long and markedly predominant in ovaries. The smaller transcript, with 600 nt, is ubiquitous to the vegetative and reproductive organs analyzed (roots, stems, leaves, sepals, petals, stamens, stigmas/styles and ovaries. Plants submitted to stress (wounding, virus infection and ethylene treatment presented an increased level of the 600-nt transcript in leaves, especially after tobacco necrosis virus infection. In contrast, the level of the 1,100-nt transcript seems to be unaffected by the stress conditions tested. Results of Southern blot experiments have suggested that MTL-8 is present in one or two copies in the tobacco genome. Our results suggest that the shorter transcript is related to stress while the larger one is a flower predominant and nonstress-inducible messenger.

  15. Tip-of-the-tongue states reveal age differences in the syllable frequency effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Meagan T; Abrams, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Syllable frequency has been shown to facilitate production in some languages but has yielded inconsistent results in English and has never been examined in older adults. Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states represent a unique type of production failure where the phonology of a word is unable to be retrieved, suggesting that the frequency of phonological forms, like syllables, may influence the occurrence of TOT states. In the current study, we investigated the role of first-syllable frequency on TOT incidence and resolution in young (18-26 years of age), young-old (60-74 years of age), and old-old (75-89 years of age) adults. Data from 3 published studies were compiled, where TOTs were elicited by presenting definition-like questions and asking participants to respond with "Know," "Don't Know," or "TOT." Young-old and old-old adults, but not young adults, experienced more TOTs for words beginning with low-frequency first syllables relative to high-frequency first syllables. Furthermore, age differences in TOT incidence occurred only for words with low-frequency first syllables. In contrast, when a prime word with the same first syllable as the target was presented during TOT states, all age groups resolved more TOTs for words beginning with low-frequency syllables. These findings support speech production models that allow for bidirectional activation between conceptual, lexical, and phonological forms of words. Furthermore, the age-specific effects of syllable frequency provide insight into the progression of age-linked changes to phonological processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Interspecies introgressive hybridization in spiny frogs Quasipaa (Family Dicroglossidae) revealed by analyses on multiple mitochondrial and nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Peng; Hu, Wen-Fang; Zhou, Ting-Ting; Kong, Shen-Shen; Liu, Zhi-Fang; Zheng, Rong-Quan

    2018-01-01

    Introgression may lead to discordant patterns of variation among loci and traits. For example, previous phylogeographic studies on the genus Quasipaa detected signs of genetic introgression from genetically and morphologically divergent Quasipaa shini or Quasipaa spinosa . In this study, we used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data to verify the widespread introgressive hybridization in the closely related species of the genus Quasipaa , evaluate the level of genetic diversity, and reveal the formation mechanism of introgressive hybridization. In Longsheng, Guangxi Province, signs of asymmetrical nuclear introgression were detected between Quasipaa boulengeri and Q. shini . Unidirectional mitochondrial introgression was revealed from Q. spinosa to Q. shini . By contrast, bidirectional mitochondrial gene introgression was detected between Q. spinosa and Q. shini in Lushan, Jiangxi Province. Our study also detected ancient hybridizations between a female Q. spinosa and a male Q. jiulongensis in Zhejiang Province. Analyses on mitochondrial and nuclear genes verified three candidate cryptic species in Q. spinosa , and a cryptic species may also exist in Q. boulengeri . However, no evidence of introgressive hybridization was found between Q. spinosa and Q. boulengeri . Quasipaa exilispinosa from all the sampling localities appeared to be deeply divergent from other communities. Our results suggest widespread introgressive hybridization in closely related species of Quasipaa and provide a fundamental basis for illumination of the forming mechanism of introgressive hybridization, classification of species, and biodiversity assessment in Quasipaa .

  17. Comprehensive functional characterization of the glycoside hydrolase family 3 enzymes from Cellvibrio japonicus reveals unique metabolic roles in biomass saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Cassandra E; Attia, Mohamed A; Rogowski, Artur; Morland, Carl; Brumer, Harry; Gardner, Jeffrey G

    2017-12-01

    Lignocellulose degradation is central to the carbon cycle and renewable biotechnologies. The xyloglucan (XyG), β(1→3)/β(1→4) mixed-linkage glucan (MLG) and β(1→3) glucan components of lignocellulose represent significant carbohydrate energy sources for saprophytic microorganisms. The bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus has a robust capacity for plant polysaccharide degradation, due to a genome encoding a large contingent of Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZymes), many of whose specific functions remain unknown. Using a comprehensive genetic and biochemical approach, we have delineated the physiological roles of the four C. japonicus glycoside hydrolase family 3 (GH3) members on diverse β-glucans. Despite high protein sequence similarity and partially overlapping activity profiles on disaccharides, these β-glucosidases are not functionally equivalent. Bgl3A has a major role in MLG and sophorose utilization, and supports β(1→3) glucan utilization, while Bgl3B underpins cellulose utilization and supports MLG utilization. Bgl3C drives β(1→3) glucan utilization. Finally, Bgl3D is the crucial β-glucosidase for XyG utilization. This study not only sheds the light on the metabolic machinery of C. japonicus, but also expands the repertoire of characterized CAZymes for future deployment in biotechnological applications. In particular, the precise functional analysis provided here serves as a reference for informed bioinformatics on the genomes of other Cellvibrio and related species. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Comprehensive functional characterization of the Glycoside Hydrolase Family 3 enzymes from Cellvibrio japonicus reveals unique metabolic roles in biomass saccharification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Cassandra E.; Attia, Mohamed A.; Rogowski, Artur; Morland, Carl; Brumer, Harry; Gardner, Jeffrey G.

    2017-01-01

    Here, lignocellulose degradation is central to the carbon cycle and renewable biotechnologies. The xyloglucan (XyG), β(1!3)/β(1!4) mixed-linkage glucan (MLG), and β(1!3) glucan components of lignocellulose represent significant carbohydrate energy sources for saprophytic microorganisms. The bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus has a robust capacity for plant polysaccharide degradation, due to a genome encoding a large contingent of Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes), many of whose specific functions remain unknown. Using a comprehensive genetic and biochemical approach we have delineated the physiological roles of the four C. japonicus Glycoside Hydrolase Family 3 (GH3) members on diverse β-glucans. Despite high protein sequence similarity and partially overlapping activity profiles on disaccharides, these β-glucosidases are not functionally equivalent. Bgl3A has a major role in MLG and sophorose utilization, and supports β(1!3) glucan utilization, while Bgl3B underpins cellulose utilization and supports MLG utilization. Bgl3C drives β(1!3) glucan utilization. Finally, Bgl3D is the crucial β-glucosidase for XyG utilization. This study not only sheds the light on the metabolic machinery of C. japonicus, but also expands the repertoire of characterized CAZymes for future deployment in biotechnological applications. In particular, the precise functional analysis provided here serves as a reference for informed bioinformatics on the genomes of other Cellvibrio and related species.

  19. Sex and Employment-Setting Differences in Work-Family Conflict in Athletic Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M; Pitney, William A; Mueller, Megan N

    2015-09-01

    Work-family conflict (WFC) has received much attention in athletic training, yet several factors related to this phenomenon have not been examined, specifically a practitioner's sex, occupational setting, willingness to leave the profession, and willingness to use work-leave benefits. To examine how sex and occupational differences in athletic training affect WFC and to examine willingness to leave the profession and use work-leave benefits. Cross-sectional study. Multiple occupational settings, including clinic/outreach, education, collegiate, industrial, professional sports, secondary school, and sales. A total of 246 athletic trainers (ATs) (men = 110, women = 136) participated. Of these, 61.4% (n = 151) were between 20 and 39 years old. Participants responded to a previously validated and reliable WFC instrument. We created and validated a 3-item instrument that assessed willingness to use work-leave benefits, which demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.88), as well as a single question about willingness to leave the profession. The mean (± SD) WFC score was 16.88 ± 4.4 (range = 5 [least amount of conflict] to 25 [highest amount of conflict]). Men scored 17.01 ± 4.5, and women scored 16.76 ± 4.36, indicating above-average WFC. We observed no difference between men and women based on conflict scores (t244 = 0.492, P = .95) or their willingness to leave the profession (t244 = -1.27, P = .21). We noted differences among ATs in different practice settings (F8,245 = 5.015, P work-leave benefits (2-tailed r = -0.533, P work-leave benefits was different among practice settings (F8,245 = 3.01, P = .003). The ATs employed in traditional practice settings reported higher levels of WFC. Male and female ATs had comparable experiences of WFC and willingness to leave the profession.

  20. Polymorphic light eruption and IL-1 family members: any difference with allergic contact dermatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, S; Caiazzo, G; Balato, N; Monfrecola, G; Patra, V; Wolf, P; Balato, A

    2017-09-13

    Polymorphic light eruption (PLE) is described as a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTHR) toward a de novo light-induced antigen, yet to be identified. In effect, the inflammatory pathways of PLE and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) share common patterns in terms of the mediators involved from the innate and adaptive immune system participating in the DTHR. As we have previously highlighted the role of interleukin (IL)-1 family members in ACD, we hypothesised that the same mediators could have similar functions in PLE. Our research aimed to assess the expression of certain IL-1family members in PLE patients vs. controls, and to compare it with ACD. The study population comprised 17 patients with PLE, 5 affected by ACD and 10 healthy controls in the same age range. Lesional and healthy skin samples were collected respectively from patients and donors. IL-36α, IL-36β, IL-36γ, IL-36 receptor antagonist (Ra), IL-1β, IL-33 gene and protein expressions were evaluated through RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Circulating proteins in the PLE patients were analysed by using western blot. The IL-36γ gene expression was significantly increased in PLE lesions compared to that in healthy controls and ACD lesions (***p PLE lesions compared to those of the healthy samples (***p PLE patients vs. controls (*p PLE with distinct differences from those in ACD, in particular with regard to IL-36γ mRNA regulation. Their role as activators of the local, and perhaps systemic, immune response, or as inhibitors of the immune tolerance machinery, needs further investigation.

  1. Functional Genomics Reveals That a Compact Terpene Synthase Gene Family Can Account for Terpene Volatile Production in Apple1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J.; Green, Sol A.; Chen, Xiuyin; Bailleul, Estelle J.D.; Matich, Adam J.; Wang, Mindy Y.; Atkinson, Ross G.

    2013-01-01

    Terpenes are specialized plant metabolites that act as attractants to pollinators and as defensive compounds against pathogens and herbivores, but they also play an important role in determining the quality of horticultural food products. We show that the genome of cultivated apple (Malus domestica) contains 55 putative terpene synthase (TPS) genes, of which only 10 are predicted to be functional. This low number of predicted functional TPS genes compared with other plant species was supported by the identification of only eight potentially functional TPS enzymes in apple ‘Royal Gala’ expressed sequence tag databases, including the previously characterized apple (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase. In planta functional characterization of these TPS enzymes showed that they could account for the majority of terpene volatiles produced in cv Royal Gala, including the sesquiterpenes germacrene-D and (E)-β-caryophyllene, the monoterpenes linalool and α-pinene, and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Relative expression analysis of the TPS genes indicated that floral and vegetative tissues were the primary sites of terpene production in cv Royal Gala. However, production of cv Royal Gala floral-specific terpenes and TPS genes was observed in the fruit of some heritage apple cultivars. Our results suggest that the apple TPS gene family has been shaped by a combination of ancestral and more recent genome-wide duplication events. The relatively small number of functional enzymes suggests that the remaining terpenes produced in floral and vegetative and fruit tissues are maintained under a positive selective pressure, while the small number of terpenes found in the fruit of modern cultivars may be related to commercial breeding strategies. PMID:23256150

  2. Conflict between work and family roles and satisfaction among nurses in different shift systems in Croatia: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunić, Ana; Gregov, Ljiljana

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perception of conflict between work and family roles and job, family, and life satisfaction among nurses in Croatia. One hundred and twenty-nine nurses (married mothers) working in hospitals in Zadar, Šibenik, and Split were divided in four groups according to their worktime schedule. The participants completed a survey, which included a set of sociodemographic-type questions, questions about the level and allocation of family responsibilities between spouses, and scales measuring the perceived negative effects of worktime, psychological demands of the work, work-family conflict, and semantic differential scales for measuring the affective and cognitive-evaluative component of job, family, and life satisfaction. This was the first study in Croatia to deal with work-family conflict among nurses or workers with different shift systems.The results of this study indicate that nurses working morning shifts only experienced less conflict between work and family than other groups of nurses, who worked the morning, afternoon, and the night shift. The cognitive-evaluative component of job satisfaction was the highest among morning shift nurses and the lowest in nurses who worked 12-hour shifts, while the affective component of life satisfaction was the lowest in nurses working irregular and backward rotated shifts. These results confirm that shiftwork makes the work-family role conflict even worse. They also support the view that the type of shift rotation matters.

  3. Social Skills, Social Support and Well-Being in Adolescents of Different Family Configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Barbosa Romera Leme; Zilda Aparecida Perreira Del Prette; Susana Coimbra

    2015-01-01

    There is no consensus in the literature regarding the influence of family configuration on the psychological well-being of adolescents. Based on the perception of adolescents, this study evaluates the influence of family configuration, social skills and social support appraisals as potential predictors of adolescent psychological well-being. The participants were 454 adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years from nuclear, separated and remarried families. The adolescents were students in the f...

  4. Comparative genomic analysis of SET domain family reveals the origin, expansion, and putative function of the arthropod-specific SmydA genes as histone modifiers in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Liu, Qing; Wang, Yanli; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Huimin; Song, Tianqi; Yang, Meiling; Wang, Xianhui; Kang, Le

    2017-06-01

    The SET domain is an evolutionarily conserved motif present in histone lysine methyltransferases, which are important in the regulation of chromatin and gene expression in animals. In this study, we searched for SET domain-containing genes (SET genes) in all of the 147 arthropod genomes sequenced at the time of carrying out this experiment to understand the evolutionary history by which SET domains have evolved in insects. Phylogenetic and ancestral state reconstruction analysis revealed an arthropod-specific SET gene family, named SmydA, that is ancestral to arthropod animals and specifically diversified during insect evolution. Considering that pseudogenization is the most probable fate of the new emerging gene copies, we provided experimental and evolutionary evidence to demonstrate their essential functions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis and in vitro methyltransferase activity assays showed that the SmydA-2 gene was transcriptionally active and retained the original histone methylation activity. Expression knockdown by RNA interference significantly increased mortality, implying that the SmydA genes may be essential for insect survival. We further showed predominantly strong purifying selection on the SmydA gene family and a potential association between the regulation of gene expression and insect phenotypic plasticity by transcriptome analysis. Overall, these data suggest that the SmydA gene family retains essential functions that may possibly define novel regulatory pathways in insects. This work provides insights into the roles of lineage-specific domain duplication in insect evolution. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Gender-Differentiated Parenting Revisited: Meta-Analysis Reveals Very Few Differences in Parental Control of Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endendijk, Joyce J.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Mesman, Judi

    2016-01-01

    Although various theories describe mechanisms leading to differential parenting of boys and girls, there is no consensus about the extent to which parents do treat their sons and daughters differently. The last meta-analyses on the subject were conducted more than fifteen years ago, and changes in gender-specific child rearing in the past decade are quite plausible. In the current set of meta-analyses, based on 126 observational studies (15,034 families), we examined mothers’ and fathers’ differential use of autonomy-supportive and controlling strategies with boys and girls, and the role of moderators related to the decade in which the study was conducted, the observational context, and sample characteristics. Databases of Web of Science, ERIC, PsychInfo, Online Contents, Picarta, and Proquest were searched for studies examining differences in observed parental control of boys and girls between the ages of 0 and 18 years. Few differences were found in parents’ use of control with boys and girls. Parents were slightly more controlling with boys than with girls, but the effect size was negligible (d = 0.08). The effect was larger, but still small, in normative groups and in samples with younger children. No overall effect for gender-differentiated autonomy-supportive strategies was found (d = 0.03). A significant effect of time emerged: studies published in the 1970s and 1980s reported more autonomy-supportive strategies with boys than toward girls, but from 1990 onwards parents showed somewhat more autonomy-supportive strategies with girls than toward boys. Taking into account parents’ gender stereotypes might uncover subgroups of families where gender-differentiated control is salient, but based on our systematic review of the currently available large data base we conclude that in general the differences between parenting of boys versus girls are minimal. PMID:27416099

  6. Gender-Differentiated Parenting Revisited: Meta-Analysis Reveals Very Few Differences in Parental Control of Boys and Girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce J Endendijk

    Full Text Available Although various theories describe mechanisms leading to differential parenting of boys and girls, there is no consensus about the extent to which parents do treat their sons and daughters differently. The last meta-analyses on the subject were conducted more than fifteen years ago, and changes in gender-specific child rearing in the past decade are quite plausible. In the current set of meta-analyses, based on 126 observational studies (15,034 families, we examined mothers' and fathers' differential use of autonomy-supportive and controlling strategies with boys and girls, and the role of moderators related to the decade in which the study was conducted, the observational context, and sample characteristics. Databases of Web of Science, ERIC, PsychInfo, Online Contents, Picarta, and Proquest were searched for studies examining differences in observed parental control of boys and girls between the ages of 0 and 18 years. Few differences were found in parents' use of control with boys and girls. Parents were slightly more controlling with boys than with girls, but the effect size was negligible (d = 0.08. The effect was larger, but still small, in normative groups and in samples with younger children. No overall effect for gender-differentiated autonomy-supportive strategies was found (d = 0.03. A significant effect of time emerged: studies published in the 1970s and 1980s reported more autonomy-supportive strategies with boys than toward girls, but from 1990 onwards parents showed somewhat more autonomy-supportive strategies with girls than toward boys. Taking into account parents' gender stereotypes might uncover subgroups of families where gender-differentiated control is salient, but based on our systematic review of the currently available large data base we conclude that in general the differences between parenting of boys versus girls are minimal.

  7. Gender-Differentiated Parenting Revisited: Meta-Analysis Reveals Very Few Differences in Parental Control of Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endendijk, Joyce J; Groeneveld, Marleen G; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Mesman, Judi

    2016-01-01

    Although various theories describe mechanisms leading to differential parenting of boys and girls, there is no consensus about the extent to which parents do treat their sons and daughters differently. The last meta-analyses on the subject were conducted more than fifteen years ago, and changes in gender-specific child rearing in the past decade are quite plausible. In the current set of meta-analyses, based on 126 observational studies (15,034 families), we examined mothers' and fathers' differential use of autonomy-supportive and controlling strategies with boys and girls, and the role of moderators related to the decade in which the study was conducted, the observational context, and sample characteristics. Databases of Web of Science, ERIC, PsychInfo, Online Contents, Picarta, and Proquest were searched for studies examining differences in observed parental control of boys and girls between the ages of 0 and 18 years. Few differences were found in parents' use of control with boys and girls. Parents were slightly more controlling with boys than with girls, but the effect size was negligible (d = 0.08). The effect was larger, but still small, in normative groups and in samples with younger children. No overall effect for gender-differentiated autonomy-supportive strategies was found (d = 0.03). A significant effect of time emerged: studies published in the 1970s and 1980s reported more autonomy-supportive strategies with boys than toward girls, but from 1990 onwards parents showed somewhat more autonomy-supportive strategies with girls than toward boys. Taking into account parents' gender stereotypes might uncover subgroups of families where gender-differentiated control is salient, but based on our systematic review of the currently available large data base we conclude that in general the differences between parenting of boys versus girls are minimal.

  8. Voxel-based morphometry analysis reveals frontal brain differences in participants with ADHD and their unaffected siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralten, Janita; Greven, Corina U.; Franke, Barbara; Mennes, Maarten; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Rommelse, Nanda N.J.; Hartman, Catharina; van der Meer, Dennis; O’Dwyer, Laurence; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on structural brain alterations in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been inconsistent. Both ADHD and brain volumes have a strong genetic loading, but whether brain alterations in patients with ADHD are familial has been underexplored. We aimed to detect structural brain alterations in adolescents and young adults with ADHD compared with healthy controls. We examined whether these alterations were also found in their unaffected siblings, using a uniquely large sample. Methods We performed voxel-based morphometry analyses on MRI scans of patients with ADHD, their unaffected siblings and typically developing controls. We identified brain areas that differed between participants with ADHD and controls and investigated whether these areas were different in unaffected siblings. Influences of medication use, age, sex and IQ were considered. Results Our sample included 307 patients with ADHD, 169 unaffected siblings and 196 typically developing controls (mean age 17.2 [range 8–30] yr). Compared with controls, participants with ADHD had significantly smaller grey matter volume in 5 clusters located in the precentral gyrus, medial and orbitofrontal cortex, and (para)cingulate cortices. Unaffected siblings showed intermediate volumes significantly different from controls in 4 of these clusters (all except the precentral gyrus). Medication use, age, sex and IQ did not have an undue influence on the results. Limitations Our sample was heterogeneous, most participants with ADHD were taking medication, and the comparison was cross-sectional. Conclusion Brain areas involved in decision making, motivation, cognitive control and motor functioning were smaller in participants with ADHD than in controls. Investigation of unaffected siblings indicated familiality of 4 of the structural brain differences, supporting their potential in molecular genetic analyses in ADHD research. PMID:26679925

  9. Family-based Association Analyses of Imputed Genotypes Reveal Genome-Wide Significant Association of Alzheimer’s disease with OSBPL6, PTPRG and PDCL3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Christine; Hooli, Basavaraj V.; Mullin, Kristina; Liu, Tian; Roehr, Johannes T; Mattheisen, Manuel; Parrado, Antonio R.; Bertram, Lars; Lange, Christoph; Tanzi, Rudolph E.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic basis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is complex and heterogeneous. Over 200 highly penetrant pathogenic variants in the genes APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 cause a subset of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (EOFAD). On the other hand, susceptibility to late-onset forms of AD (LOAD) is indisputably associated to the ε4 allele in the gene APOE, and more recently to variants in more than two-dozen additional genes identified in the large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and meta-analyses reports. Taken together however, although the heritability in AD is estimated to be as high as 80%, a large proportion of the underlying genetic factors still remain to be elucidated. In this study we performed a systematic family-based genome-wide association and meta-analysis on close to 15 million imputed variants from three large collections of AD families (~3,500 subjects from 1,070 families). Using a multivariate phenotype combining affection status and onset age, meta-analysis of the association results revealed three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that achieved genome-wide significance for association with AD risk: rs7609954 in the gene PTPRG (P-value = 3.98·10−08), rs1347297 in the gene OSBPL6 (P-value = 4.53·10−08), and rs1513625 near PDCL3 (P-value = 4.28·10−08). In addition, rs72953347 in OSBPL6 (P-value = 6.36·10−07) and two SNPs in the gene CDKAL1 showed marginally significant association with LOAD (rs10456232, P-value: 4.76·10−07; rs62400067, P-value: 3.54·10−07). In summary, family-based GWAS meta-analysis of imputed SNPs revealed novel genomic variants in (or near) PTPRG, OSBPL6, and PDCL3 that influence risk for AD with genome-wide significance. PMID:26830138

  10. The structure of the first representative of Pfam family PF09836 reveals a two-domain organization and suggests involvement in transcriptional regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Debanu; Grishin, Nick V.; Kumar, Abhinav; Carlton, Dennis; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Miller, Mitchell D.; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Burra, Prasad; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Chiu, Michelle; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Ernst, Dustin; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grzechnik, Anna; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Grant, Joanna C.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Johnson, Hope A.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Paulsen, Jessica; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; Bedem, Henry van den; Weekes, Dana; Wooten, Tiffany; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of the NGO1945 gene product from N. gonorrhoeae (UniProt Q5F5IO) reveals that the N-terminal domain assigned as a domain of unknown function (DUF2063) is likely to bind DNA and that the protein may be involved in transcriptional regulation. Proteins with the DUF2063 domain constitute a new Pfam family, PF09836. The crystal structure of a member of this family, NGO1945 from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, has been determined and reveals that the N-terminal DUF2063 domain is likely to be a DNA-binding domain. In conjunction with the rest of the protein, NGO1945 is likely to be involved in transcriptional regulation, which is consistent with genomic neighborhood analysis. Of the 216 currently known proteins that contain a DUF2063 domain, the most significant sequence homologs of NGO1945 (∼40–99% sequence identity) are from various Neisseria and Haemophilus species. As these are important human pathogens, NGO1945 represents an interesting candidate for further exploration via biochemical studies and possible therapeutic intervention

  11. [Important differences between faculties of medicine. Implications for family and community medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Lopez-Valcarcel, Beatriz; Ortún, Vicente; Barber, Patricia; Harris, Jeffrey E

    2014-03-01

    To determine if there are significant differences between universities in the proclivity to choose Family and Community Medicine (FCM), given the constraints imposed by the number of choice. To test the hypothesis that the Schools of Medicine that have the FCM as a compulsory subject in the degree (3 of 27) had the highest preference for this specialty. Observational study on the data file of all the individuals taking the MIR examination between 2003 and 2011. Spain. All those who sat the examinations called by MIR 2003-2011. Position in the ranking of each candidate, elected position (specialty and center), post code of residence, sex, nationality and university in which they studied, and post code location for the residence chosen. The percentage electing FCM is highly correlated with the position in the ranking: 8% of graduates for the 'best' college, 46% for the worst. Very noticeable and consistent differences in the preparation for the MIR among the 27 medical schools. Ranking in the exam, female and foreigner, help predict the choice of FCM. The FCM compulsory curriculum from three universities does not seem to exert any influence. The convenient yardstick competition between the schools of medicine, FCM in their curriculum and the emphasis on the most attractive attributes of the specialty can contribute to the necessary renewal of FCM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Anchored enrichment dataset for true flies (order Diptera) reveals insights into the phylogeny of flower flies (family Syrphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrew Donovan; Lemmon, Alan R; Skevington, Jeffrey H; Mengual, Ximo; Ståhls, Gunilla; Reemer, Menno; Jordaens, Kurt; Kelso, Scott; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Hauser, Martin; De Meyer, Marc; Misof, Bernhard; Wiegmann, Brian M

    2016-06-29

    Anchored hybrid enrichment is a form of next-generation sequencing that uses oligonucleotide probes to target conserved regions of the genome flanked by less conserved regions in order to acquire data useful for phylogenetic inference from a broad range of taxa. Once a probe kit is developed, anchored hybrid enrichment is superior to traditional PCR-based Sanger sequencing in terms of both the amount of genomic data that can be recovered and effective cost. Due to their incredibly diverse nature, importance as pollinators, and historical instability with regard to subfamilial and tribal classification, Syrphidae (flower flies or hoverflies) are an ideal candidate for anchored hybrid enrichment-based phylogenetics, especially since recent molecular phylogenies of the syrphids using only a few markers have resulted in highly unresolved topologies. Over 6200 syrphids are currently known and uncovering their phylogeny will help us to understand how these species have diversified, providing insight into an array of ecological processes, from the development of adult mimicry, the origin of adult migration, to pollination patterns and the evolution of larval resource utilization. We present the first use of anchored hybrid enrichment in insect phylogenetics on a dataset containing 30 flower fly species from across all four subfamilies and 11 tribes out of 15. To produce a phylogenetic hypothesis, 559 loci were sampled to produce a final dataset containing 217,702 sites. We recovered a well resolved topology with bootstrap support values that were almost universally >95 %. The subfamily Eristalinae is recovered as paraphyletic, with the strongest support for this hypothesis to date. The ant predators in the Microdontinae are sister to all other syrphids. Syrphinae and Pipizinae are monophyletic and sister to each other. Larval predation on soft-bodied hemipterans evolved only once in this family. Anchored hybrid enrichment was successful in producing a robustly supported

  13. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Gene Family in Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) Reveal the Role of AcABCG38 in Pollen Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Piaojuan; Li, Yi; Zhao, Lihua; Hou, Zhimin; Yan, Maokai; Hu, Bingyan; Liu, Yanhui; Azam, Syed Muhammad; Zhang, Ziyan; Rahman, Zia Ur; Liu, Liping; Qin, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Pineapple ( Ananas comosus L .) cultivation commonly relies on asexual reproduction which is easily impeded by many factors in agriculture production. Sexual reproduction might be a novel approach to improve the pineapple planting. However, genes controlling pineapple sexual reproduction are still remain elusive. In different organisms a conserved superfamily proteins known as ATP binding cassette (ABC) participate in various biological processes. Whereas, till today the ABC gene family has not been identified in pineapple. Here 100 ABC genes were identified in the pineapple genome and grouped into eight subfamilies (5 ABCAs , 20 ABCB s, 16 ABCCs , 2 ABCDs , one ABCEs , 5 ABCFs , 42 ABCGs and 9 ABCIs ). Gene expression profiling revealed the dynamic expression pattern of ABC gene family in various tissues and different developmental stages. AcABCA5, AcABCB6, AcABCC4 , AcABCC7 , AcABCC9 , AcABCG26 , AcABCG38 and AcABCG42 exhibited preferential expression in ovule and stamen. Over-expression of AcABCG38 in the Arabidopsis double mutant abcg1-2abcg16-2 partially restored its pollen abortion defects, indicating that AcABCG38 plays important roles in pollen development. Our study on ABC gene family in pineapple provides useful information for developing sexual pineapple plantation which could be utilized to improve pineapple agricultural production.

  14. Does the Cognitive Architecture of Simplex and Multiplex ASD Families Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerlemans, Anoek M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2016-01-01

    Children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their unaffected siblings from 54 simplex (SPX, one individual in the family affected) and 59 multiplex (MPX, two or more individuals affected) families, and 124 controls were assessed on intelligence, social cognition and executive functions. SPX and MPX ASD probands displayed similar cognitive…

  15. Does the cognitive architecture of simplex and multiplex ASD families differ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, A.M.; Hartman, C.A.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their unaffected siblings from 54 simplex (SPX, one individual in the family affected) and 59 multiplex (MPX, two or more individuals affected) families, and 124 controls were assessed on intelligence, social cognition and executive functions. SPX

  16. Does the cognitive architecture of simplex and multiplex ASD families differ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, Anoek M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    Children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their unaffected siblings from 54 simplex (SPX, one individual in the family affected) and 59 multiplex (MPX, two or more individuals affected) families, and 124 controls were assessed on intelligence, social cognition and executive functions. SPX

  17. Difference in aneurysm characteristics between patients with familial and sporadic aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensing, Liselore A.; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Vlak, Monique H M; Van Der Schaaf, Irene C.; Ruigrok, Ynte M.

    2016-01-01

    Object Patients with familial intracranial aneurysms (IA) have a higher risk of rupture than patients with sporadic IA. We compared geometric and morphological risk factors for aneurysmal rupture between patients with familial and sporadic aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) to analyse if

  18. Learning from Families Experiencing Homelessness--How School Leaders Can Make a Difference through Transformative Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warke, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Homelessness is a growing phenomenon, especially among women and children (Hulchanski, 2009). This study was conducted because of the increase in families experiencing homelessness registering in my school. In none of the current studies about homelessness have the researchers spoken to the families and children experiencing homelessness. This…

  19. Families' Experiences in Different Homeless and Highly Mobile Settings: Implications for School and Community Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Family homelessness has been on the rise throughout the United States in recent years. As a result, more schools and communities than ever are challenged to serve students whose lives are touched by instability, uncertainty, and crisis. To date, there has been little inquiry into how families' particular places of homelessness might shape school…

  20. Ethnic Differences in Relations between Family Process and Child Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendlinski, Matthew; Silk, Jennifer S.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Lane, Tonya J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Family process variables have been linked to child problem behavior, but recent research suggests that child ethnicity may moderate relations between family process and child outcomes. The current study examined how ethnicity moderates relations between parent conflict, parent-child relationship quality, and internalizing problems.…

  1. Psychological Characteristics of Adolescents Orphans with Different Experience of Living in a Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, Tatyana I.; Savchenko, Daria D.; Filinkova, Evgeniya B.

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of settling adolescents-orphans in foster families and significant number of break-downs in these families are the problems which determine the relevance of current research. Many adolescent orphans get in social institutions repeatedly, because their psychological features lead to difficulties that their foster parents are unable…

  2. Cognitive Impairments Are Different in Single-Incidence and Multi-Incidence ADHD Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerlemans, Anoek M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Bruijn, Yvette G. E.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We may improve our understanding of the role of common versus unique risk factors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by examining ADHD-related cognitive deficits in single- (SPX), and multi-incidence (MPX) families. Given that individuals from multiplex (MPX) families are likely to share genetic vulnerability for the…

  3. Family-centred service: differences in what parents of children with cerebral palsy rate important

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwiel, M.; Alsem, M. W.; Siebes, R. C.; Bieleman, K.; Verhoef, M.; Ketelaar, M.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundA family-centred approach to services of children with disabilities is widely accepted as the foundational approach to service delivery in paediatric health care. The 56 items of the Measure of Processes of Care questionnaire (MPOC-56) all reflect elements of family-centred service. In

  4. LEVEL OF COMPETENCIES OF FAMILY PHYSICIANS IN KOSOVO FROM DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojaj, Gazmend; Skeraj, Fitim; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Burazeri, Genc

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this analysis was to compare the level of self-perceived competencies of primary health care physicians in Kosovo with patients' viewpoint, as well as the necessary (required) level of such competencies from decision-makers' standpoint. Three cross-sectional studies were carried out in Kosovo in 2013 including: i) a representative sample of 1340 primary health care users aged ≥18 years (49% men; overall mean age: 50.5±17.9 years; response rate: 89%); ii) a representative sample of 597 primary health care physicians (49% men; overall mean age: 46.0±9.4 years; response rate: 90%), and; iii) a nationwide representative sample of 100 decision-makers operating at different primary health care institutions or public health agencies in Kosovo (63% men; mean age: 47.7±5.7 years). A structured self-administered questionnaire (consisting of 37 items) was used in the three surveys in order to assess physicians' competencies regarding different domains of the quality of health care. There was a significant gap in the level of self-perceived physicians' competencies and patients' perspective in transitional Kosovo. Furthermore, there was a gap in the level of self-perceived physicians' competencies and the necessary (required) level of physicians' competencies from decision-makers perspective which was less evident in Prishtina, but considerable in the other regions of Kosovo. Our analysis provides valuable evidence about the level of competencies of primary health care physicians in Kosovo from different stakeholders' perspectives. There is an urgent need for continuous professional development of family physicians in post-war Kosovo.

  5. Analysis of biostimulated microbial communities from two field experiments reveals temporal and spatial differences in proteome profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callister, S.J.; Wilkins, M.J.; Nicora, C.D.; Williams, K.H.; Banfield, J.F.; VerBerkmoes, N.C.; Hettich, R.L.; NGuessan, A.L.; Mouser, P.J.; Elifantz, H.; Smith, R.D.; Lovley, D.R.; Lipton, M.S.; Long, P.E.

    2010-07-15

    Stimulated by an acetate-amendment field experiment conducted in 2007, anaerobic microbial populations in the aquifer at the Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Colorado reduced mobile U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). During this experiment, planktonic biomass was sampled at various time points to quantitatively evaluate proteomes. In 2008, an acetate-amended field experiment was again conducted in a similar manner to the 2007 experiment. As there was no comprehensive metagenome sequence available for use in proteomics analysis, we systematically evaluated 12 different organism genome sequences to generate sets of aggregate genomes, or “pseudo-metagenomes”, for supplying relative quantitative peptide and protein identifications. Proteomics results support previous observations of the dominance of Geobacteraceae during biostimulation using acetate as sole electron donor, and revealed a shift from an early stage of iron reduction to a late stage of iron reduction. Additionally, a shift from iron reduction to sulfate reduction was indicated by changes in the contribution of proteome information contributed by different organism genome sequences within the aggregate set. In addition, the comparison of proteome measurements made between the 2007 field experiment and 2008 field experiment revealed differences in proteome profiles. These differences may be the result of alterations in abundance and population structure within the planktonic biomass samples collected for analysis.

  6. Morphometric differences in planum temporale in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder revealed by statistical analysis of Labeled Cortical Depth Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Tilak eRatnanather

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Differences in cortical thickness in the lateral temporal lobe, including the planum temporale (PT, have been reported in MRI studies of schizophrenia (SCZ and bipolar disorder (BPD patients. Most of these studies have used a single-valued global or local measure for thickness. However, additional and complementary information can be obtained by generating Labelled Cortical Depth Maps (LCDMs, which are distances of labeled gray matter voxels from the nearest point on the gray/white matter (inner cortical surface. Statistical analyses of pooled and censored LCDM distances reveal subtle differences in PT between SCZ and BPD groups from data generated by Ratnanather et al. (Schizophrenia Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2013.08.014. These results confirm that the left PT (LPT is more sensitive than the right PT in distinguishing between SCZ, BPD and healthy controls. Also confirmed is a strong gender effect, with a thicker PT seen in males than in females. The differences between groups at smaller distances in the LPT revealed by pooled and censored LCDM analysis suggest that SCZ and BPD have different effects on the cortical mantle close to the gray/white matter surface. This is consistent with reported subtle changes in the cortical mantle observed in postmortem studies.

  7. Sex differences in the development of perceived family cohesion and depressive symptoms in Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Tat-Ming; Hsieh, Pei-Jung; Lin, Sieh-Hwa; Chen, I-Jung

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the progression of family cohesion perceptions and depressive symptoms during the character development stage in adolescents. Data were used from the Taiwan Youth Project. The final sample comprised 2,690 adolescents with 1,312 girls (48.8%; M age = 13.0 yr., SD = 0.5). Latent curve growth analysis was employed to explore these developments. Seventh-grade girls reported greater family cohesion and more depressive symptoms than boys, and boys reported greater growth in family cohesion than girls. However, progression of depressive symptoms was not associated with the child's sex. Higher perceived family cohesion in Grade 7 correlated with less increase of depressive symptoms from Grades 9 to 11. The long-term positive influence of family cohesion on depressive symptoms is discussed.

  8. Associations Between Family Adversity and Brain Volume in Adolescence: Manual vs. Automated Brain Segmentation Yields Different Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Lyden

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Associations between brain structure and early adversity have been inconsistent in the literature. These inconsistencies may be partially due to methodological differences. Different methods of brain segmentation may produce different results, obscuring the relationship between early adversity and brain volume. Moreover, adolescence is a time of significant brain growth and certain brain areas have distinct rates of development, which may compromise the accuracy of automated segmentation approaches. In the current study, 23 adolescents participated in two waves of a longitudinal study. Family aggression was measured when the youths were 12 years old, and structural scans were acquired an average of 4 years later. Bilateral amygdalae and hippocampi were segmented using three different methods (manual tracing, FSL, and NeuroQuant. The segmentation estimates were compared, and linear regressions were run to assess the relationship between early family aggression exposure and all three volume segmentation estimates. Manual tracing results showed a positive relationship between family aggression and right amygdala volume, whereas FSL segmentation showed negative relationships between family aggression and both the left and right hippocampi. However, results indicate poor overlap between methods, and different associations between early family aggression exposure and brain volume depending on the segmentation method used.

  9. Associations between Family Adversity and Brain Volume in Adolescence: Manual vs. Automated Brain Segmentation Yields Different Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyden, Hannah; Gimbel, Sarah I; Del Piero, Larissa; Tsai, A Bryna; Sachs, Matthew E; Kaplan, Jonas T; Margolin, Gayla; Saxbe, Darby

    2016-01-01

    Associations between brain structure and early adversity have been inconsistent in the literature. These inconsistencies may be partially due to methodological differences. Different methods of brain segmentation may produce different results, obscuring the relationship between early adversity and brain volume. Moreover, adolescence is a time of significant brain growth and certain brain areas have distinct rates of development, which may compromise the accuracy of automated segmentation approaches. In the current study, 23 adolescents participated in two waves of a longitudinal study. Family aggression was measured when the youths were 12 years old, and structural scans were acquired an average of 4 years later. Bilateral amygdalae and hippocampi were segmented using three different methods (manual tracing, FSL, and NeuroQuant). The segmentation estimates were compared, and linear regressions were run to assess the relationship between early family aggression exposure and all three volume segmentation estimates. Manual tracing results showed a positive relationship between family aggression and right amygdala volume, whereas FSL segmentation showed negative relationships between family aggression and both the left and right hippocampi. However, results indicate poor overlap between methods, and different associations were found between early family aggression exposure and brain volume depending on the segmentation method used.

  10. Professional Success and Gender in Family Medicine: Design of Scales and Examination of Gender Differences in Subjective and Objective Success Among Family Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ana; Saletti-Cuesta, Lorena; López-Fernández, Luis Andrés; Toro-Cárdenas, Silvia; Luna del Castillo, Juan de Dios

    2016-03-01

    Two components of professional success have been defined: objective career success (OCS) and subjective career success (SCS). Despite the increasing number of women practicing medicine, gender inequalities persist. The objectives of this descriptive, cross-sectional, and multicenter study were (a) to construct and validate OCS and SCS scales, (b) to determine the relationships between OCS and SCS and between each scale and professional/family characteristics, and (c) to compare these associations between male and female family physicians (FPs). The study sample comprised 250 female and 250 male FPs from urban health centers in Andalusia (Spain). Data were gathered over 6 months on gender, age, care load, professional/family variables, and family-work balance, using a self-administered questionnaire. OSC and SCS scales were examined by using exploratory factorial analysis and Cronbach's α, and scores were compared by gender-stratified bivariate and multiple regression analyses. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated using a multilevel analysis. The response rate was 73.6%. We identified three OCS factors and two SCS factors. Lower scores were obtained by female versus male FPs in the OCS dimensions, but there were no gender differences in either SCS dimension. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Workload, Work-to-Family Conflict, and Health : Gender Differences and the Influence of Private Life Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhoven, Marc J P M; Beijer, Susanne E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences in work-to-family conflict, and the latter's linkages with workload and health, has largely ignored the influence of private life context. Here, it is hypothesized that gender differences vary across private life contexts. A multiple-group analysis (SEM) is

  12. Homozygosity mapping reveals new nonsense mutation in the FAM161A gene causing autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in a Palestinian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobor, Ditta; Balousha, Ghassan; Baumann, Britta; Wissinger, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogenous group of inherited retinal degenerations caused by mutations in at least 45 genes. Recently, the FAM161A gene was identified as the causative gene for RP28, an autosomal recessive form of RP. We performed a clinical and molecular genetic study of a consanguineous Palestinian family with two three siblings affected with retinitis pigmentosa. DNA samples were collected from the index patient, his father, his affected sister, and two non-affected brothers. DNA sample from the index was subjected to high resolution genome-wide SNP array. Assuming identity-by-descent in this consanguineous family we applied homozygosity mapping to identify disease causing genes. The index patient reported night blindness since the age of 20 years, followed by moderate disease progression with decrease of peripheral vision, the development of photophobia and later on reduced central vision. At the age of 40 his visual acuity was counting fingers (CF) for both eyes, color discrimination was not possible and his visual fields were severely constricted. Funduscopic examination revealed a typical appearance of advanced RP with optic disc pallor, narrowed retinal vessels, bone-spicule like pigmentary changes in the mid-periphery and atrophic changes in the macula. His younger affected brother (37 years) was reported with overall milder symptoms, while the youngest sister (21 years) reported problems only with night vision. Applying high-density SNP arrays we identified several homozygous genomic regions one of which included the recently identified FAM161A gene mutated in RP28-linked autosomal recessive RP. Sequencing analysis revealed the presence of a novel homozygous nonsense mutation, c.1003C>T/p.R335X in the index patient and the affected sister. We identified an RP28-linked RP family in the Palestinian population caused by a novel nonsense mutation in FAM161A. RP in this family shows a typical disease onset with moderate to rapid progression

  13. Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces coelicoflavus ZG0656 reveals the putative biosynthetic gene cluster of acarviostatin family α-amylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Geng, P; Bai, F; Bai, G; Sun, T; Li, X; Shi, L; Zhong, Q

    2012-08-01

    The aims of this study are to obtain the draft genome sequence of Streptomyces coelicoflavus ZG0656, which produces novel acarviostatin family α-amylase inhibitors, and then to reveal the putative acarviostatin-related gene cluster and the biosynthetic pathway. The draft genome sequence of S. coelicoflavus ZG0656 was generated using a shotgun approach employing a combination of 454 and Solexa sequencing technologies. Genome analysis revealed a putative gene cluster for acarviostatin biosynthesis, termed sct-cluster. The cluster contains 13 acarviostatin synthetic genes, six transporter genes, four starch degrading or transglycosylation enzyme genes and two regulator genes. On the basis of bioinformatic analysis, we proposed a putative biosynthetic pathway of acarviostatins. The intracellular steps produce a structural core, acarviostatin I00-7-P, and the extracellular assemblies lead to diverse acarviostatin end products. The draft genome sequence of S. coelicoflavus ZG0656 revealed the putative biosynthetic gene cluster of acarviostatins and a putative pathway of acarviostatin production. To our knowledge, S. coelicoflavus ZG0656 is the first strain in this species for which a genome sequence has been reported. The analysis of sct-cluster provided important insights into the biosynthesis of acarviostatins. This work will be a platform for producing novel variants and yield improvement. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. The differences in self-efficacy in career decision-making and decision-making styles among secondary school students with different patterns of family attachment

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    Suvajdžić Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The decision on the choice of profession is one of the most important life decisions, which is influenced by many factors. One of them which has a very important role is the family. The aim of this study is to examine whether there are differences in self-efficacy in career decision-making and decision-making styles among secondary school students who have different patterns of family attachment, as well as to determine whether self-efficacy in making career decisions can be predicted on the basis of different decision-making styles. The study included 216 fourth-year secondary school students, 39% of boys and 61% of girls. The questionnaire PAVb, made by Brenen and associates and modified by Kamenov and Jelic, was used for the evaluation of family attachment. Decision-making styles were operationalized through the scale of General Decision Making Styles Questionnaire by Scott and Bruce, while a shortened version of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale, made by Betz et al., was used for measuring self-efficacy in making career decisions. The research results have shown that there are no significant differences in self-efficacy in making career decisions regarding the patterns of family attachment. However, there are significant differences in the styles of decision-making. The rational style is the most dominant among the students who have a secure form of family attachment, the avoidant style is characteristic of those with the occupied form, while the spontaneous style is most commonly used by the students who have the fearful form of family attachment. The results suggest that 31% of the variance of self-efficacy in making career decisions can be explained based on decision-making styles. The rational and intuitive styles of decision-making are positive predictors, while the dependent and avoidant styles are negative predictors of self-efficacy in making career decisions.

  15. 'Ogura'-based 'CMS' lines with different nuclear backgrounds of cabbage revealed substantial diversity at morphological and molecular levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, Chander; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Rajender; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Satish; Dey, Shyam Sundar; Bhatia, Reeta; Kumar, Raj

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive study on characterization and genetic diversity analysis was carried out in 16 'Ogura'-based 'CMS' lines of cabbage using 14 agro-morphological traits and 29 SSR markers. Agro-morphological characterization depicted considerable variations for different horticultural traits studied. The genotype, ZHA-2, performed better for most of the economically important quantitative traits. Further, gross head weight (0.76), head length (0.60) and head width (0.83) revealed significant positive correlation with net head weight. Dendrogram based on 10 quantitative traits exhibited considerable diversity among different CMS lines and principle component analysis (PCA) indicated that net and gross head weight, and head length and width are the main components of divergence between 16 CMS lines of cabbage. In molecular study, a total of 58 alleles were amplified by 29 SSR primers, averaging to 2.0 alleles in each locus. High mean values of Shannon's Information index (0.62), expected (0.45) and observed (0.32) heterozygosity and polymorphic information content (0.35) depicted substantial polymorphism. Dendrogram based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient constructed two major groups and eight sub-groups, which revealed substantial diversity among different CMS lines. In overall, based on agro-morphological and molecular studies genotype RRMA, ZHA-2 and RCA were found most divergent. Hence, they have immense potential in future breeding programs for the high-yielding hybrid development in cabbage.

  16. A Novel Family of Cell Wall-Related Proteins Regulated Differently during the Yeast Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Peña, José Manuel; Cid, Víctor J.; Arroyo, Javier; Nombela, César

    2000-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ygr189c, Yel040w, and Ylr213c gene products show significant homologies among themselves and with various bacterial β-glucanases and eukaryotic endotransglycosidases. Deletion of the corresponding genes, either individually or in combination, did not produce a lethal phenotype. However, the removal of YGR189c and YEL040w, but not YLR213c, caused additive sensitivity to compounds that interfere with cell wall construction, such as Congo red and Calcofluor White, and overexpression of YEL040w led to resistance to these compounds. These genes were renamed CRH1 and CRH2, respectively, for Congo red hypersensitive. By site-directed mutagenesis we found that the putative glycosidase domain of CRH1 was critical for its function in complementing hypersensitivity to the inhibitors. The involvement of CRH1 and CRH2 in the development of cell wall architecture was clearly shown, since the alkali-soluble glucan fraction in the crh1Δ crh2Δ strain was almost twice the level in the wild-type. Interestingly, the three genes were subject to different patterns of transcriptional regulation. CRH1 and YLR213c (renamed CRR1, for CRH related) were found to be cell cycle regulated and also expressed under sporulation conditions, whereas CRH2 expression did not vary during the mitotic cycle. Crh1 and Crh2 are localized at the cell surface, particularly in chitin-rich areas. Consistent with the observed expression patterns, Crh1–green fluorescent protein was found at the incipient bud site, around the septum area in later stages of budding, and in ascospore envelopes. Crh2 was found to localize mainly at the bud neck throughout the whole budding cycle, in mating projections and zygotes, but not in ascospores. These data suggest that the members of this family of putative glycosidases might exert a common role in cell wall organization at different stages of the yeast life cycle. PMID:10757808

  17. Observed Mother- and Father-Child Interaction Differences in Families with Medically Assisted Reproduction-Conceived Twins and Singletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kayla N; Rueter, Martha A; Connor, Jennifer J; Koh, Bibiana D

    2017-12-01

    Increased medically assisted reproduction (MAR) use to treat infertility has resulted in a growing twin birth rate. Little is known about parent-child relationships for twin relative to singleton children in middle childhood. This study fills this gap by examining parent-child relationships in 57 families with eighty 6- to 12-year-old MAR twin and singleton children using observational data (warm and supportive communication, control, and hostility). Nested ANCOVAs indicate that while mothers exhibit similar interactional behaviors toward twins and singletons, fathers have less optimum behaviors toward twins relative to singletons. Twins displayed less engaged behavior with mothers and fathers relative to singletons. Given the vitality of parent-child relationships for family and child adjustment, future studies should examine determinants and outcomes of twin-singleton relationship differences to bolster twins' and their families' functioning. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  18. Differences in contraceptive use between family planning providers and the U.S. population: results of a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Lisa F; Simons, Hannah R; Kohn, Julia E; Debevec, Elie J; Morfesis, Johanna M; Patel, Ashlesha A

    2015-06-01

    To describe contraceptive use among U.S. female family planning providers and to compare their contraceptive choices to the general population. We surveyed a convenience sample of female family planning providers ages 25-44 years, including physicians and advanced practice clinicians, via an internet-based survey from April to May 2013. Family planning providers were compared to female respondents ages 25-44 years from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth. A total of 488 responses were eligible for analysis; 331 respondents (67.8%) were using a contraceptive method. Providers' contraceptive use differed markedly from that of the general population, with providers significantly more likely to use intrauterine contraception, an implant, and the vaginal ring. Providers were significantly less likely to use female sterilization and condoms. There were no significant differences between providers and the general population in use of partner vasectomy or the pill. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) use was significantly higher among providers than in the general population (41.7% vs. 12.1%, pfamily planning providers differed significantly from the general population. These findings have implications for clinical practice, patient education, and health policy. Family planning providers report higher use of LARC than the general population. This may reflect differences in preferences and access. Providers might consider sharing these findings with patients, while maintaining patient choice and autonomy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Structural Analyses of Avocado sunblotch viroid Reveal Differences in the Folding of Plus and Minus RNA Strands

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    Clémentine Delan-Forino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viroids are small pathogenic circular single-stranded RNAs, present in two complementary sequences, named plus and minus, in infected plant cells. A high degree of complementarities between different regions of the RNAs allows them to adopt complex structures. Since viroids are naked non-coding RNAs, interactions with host factors appear to be closely related to their structural and catalytic characteristics. Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd, a member of the family Avsunviroidae, replicates via a symmetric RNA-dependant rolling-circle process, involving self-cleavage via hammerhead ribozymes. Consequently, it is assumed that ASBVd plus and minus strands adopt similar structures. Moreover, by computer analyses, a quasi-rod-like secondary structure has been predicted. Nevertheless, secondary and tertiary structures of both polarities of ASBVd remain unsolved. In this study, we analyzed the characteristic of each strand of ASBVd through biophysical analyses. We report that ASBVd transcripts of plus and minus polarities exhibit differences in electrophoretic mobility under native conditions and in thermal denaturation profiles. Subsequently, the secondary structures of plus and minus polarities of ASBVd were probed using the RNA-selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE method. The models obtained show that both polarities fold into different structures. Moreover, our results suggest the existence of a kissing-loop interaction within the minus strand that may play a role in in vivo viroid life cycle.

  20. Assessment of small RNA sorting into different extracellular fractions revealed by high-throughput sequencing of breast cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosar, Juan Pablo; Gámbaro, Fabiana; Sanguinetti, Julia; Bonilla, Braulio; Witwer, Kenneth W.; Cayota, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Intercellular communication can be mediated by extracellular small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs). Circulating sRNAs are being intensively studied for their promising use as minimally invasive disease biomarkers. To date, most attention is centered on exosomes and microRNAs as the vectors and the secreted species, respectively. However, this field would benefit from an increased understanding of the plethora of sRNAs secreted by different cell types in different extracellular fractions. It is still not clear if specific sRNAs are selected for secretion, or if sRNA secretion is mostly passive. We sequenced the intracellular sRNA content (19–60 nt) of breast epithelial cell lines (MCF-7 and MCF-10A) and compared it with extracellular fractions enriched in microvesicles, exosomes and ribonucleoprotein complexes. Our results are consistent with a non-selective secretion model for most microRNAs, although a few showed secretion patterns consistent with preferential secretion. On the contrary, 5′ tRNA halves and 5′ RNA Y4-derived fragments of 31–33 were greatly and significantly enriched in the extracellular space (even in non-mammary cell lines), where tRNA halves were detected as part of ∼45 kDa ribonucleoprotein complexes. Overall, we show that different sRNA families have characteristic secretion patterns and open the question of the role of these sRNAs in the extracellular space. PMID:25940616

  1. Comparing Affiliate Stigma Between Family Caregivers of People With Different Severe Mental Illness in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Cheng; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Jang, Fong-Lin; Su, Jian-An; Lin, Chung-Ying

    2017-07-01

    The family caregivers of people with mental illness may internalize the public stereotypes into the affiliate stigma (i.e., the self-stigma of family members). This study aimed to compare the affiliate stigma across schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder, and to investigate potential factors associated with affiliate stigma. Each caregiver of family members with schizophrenia (n = 215), bipolar disorder (n = 85), and major depressive disorder (n = 159) completed the Affiliate Stigma Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Caregiver Burden Inventory, Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire, and Beck Anxiety Inventory. After controlling for potential confounders, the hierarchical regression models showed that caregivers of a family member with schizophrenia had a higher level of affiliate stigma than those of bipolar disorder (β = -0.109; p stigma. The affiliate stigma of caregivers is associated with their self-esteem, caregiver burden, and by the diagnosis.

  2. Physicians' perceptions of and approaches to woman abuse. Does certification in family medicine make a difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Tudiver, F.; Permaul-Woods, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To discover whether family physicians who go through residency training and The College of Family Physicians of Canada's (CFPC) certification process are more responsive than other physicians to woman abuse, whether they perceive and approach such abuse more appropriately, and whether they seek out more education on the subject. DESIGN: A national survey using a pretested 43-item mailed questionnaire to examine perceptions of and approaches to detection and management of woman abus...

  3. Surgical Management of Familial Trigeminal Neuralgia With Different Inheritance Patterns: A Case Report

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    Claudia Cervera-Martinez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionTrigeminal neuralgia is a disorder characterized by unilateral electric shock-like pain, distributed in one or more trigeminal nerve branches and triggered by usually innocuous stimuli. Among the few case reports and literature reviews on familial trigeminal neuralgia (FTN, the results of several suggest the involvement of genes associated with biochemical alterations or atherosclerotic vascular malformations.BackgroundWe present four cases of FTN within two families (family A: two brothers; family B: two sisters. All patients were submitted to surgical treatment by the same surgeon.DiscussionCases 1 and 2 (family A exhibited FTN with an uncommon autosomal recessive pattern and clinical features consistent with previous literature reviews and case reports. However, in cases 3 and 4 (family B, we found FTN with a dominant autosomal pattern and an unusual physiopathology characterized by arachnoid adhesions.ConclusionWe conclude, in this case report, that there are several inheritance patterns as well as physiopathology that may be involved in FTN, and that both patterns described in our reported cases were successfully managed with surgery.

  4. A Case–control and a family-based association study revealing an association between CYP2E1 polymorphisms and nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk in Cantonese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei-Hua; Pan, Qing-Hua; Qin, Hai-De; Xu, Ya-Fei; Shen, Guo-Ping; Chen, Lina; Chen, Li-Zhen; Feng, Qi-Sheng; Hong, Ming-Huang; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Shugart, Yin Yao

    2009-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is rare in most parts of the world but is more prevalent in Southern China, especially in Guangdong. The cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) has been recognized as one of the critically important enzymes involved in oxidizing carcinogens and is probably to be associated with NPC carcinogenesis. To systematically investigate the association between genetic variants in CYP2E1 and NPC risk in Cantonese, two independent studies, a family-based association study and a case–control study, were conducted using the haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphism approach. A total of 2499 individuals from 546 nuclear families were initially genotyped for the family-based association study. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs9418990, rs915908, rs8192780, rs1536826, rs3827688 and one haplotype h2 (CGTGTTAA) were revealed to be significantly associated with the NPC phenotype (P = 0.045–0.003 and P = 0.003, respectively). To follow up the initial study, a case–control study including 755 cases and 755 controls was conducted. Similar results were observed in the case–control study in individuals <46 years of age and had a history of cigarette smoking, with odds ratios (ORs) of specific genotypes ranging from 1.88 to 2.99 corresponding to SNP rs9418990, rs3813865, rs915906, rs2249695, rs8192780, rs1536826, rs3827688 and of haplotypes h2 with OR = 1.65 (P = 0.026), h5 (CCCGTTAA) with OR = 2.58 (P = 0.007). The values of false-positive report probability were <0.015 for six SNPs, suggesting that the reported associations are less probably to be false. This study provides robust evidence for associations between genetic variants of CYP2E1 and NPC risk. PMID:19805575

  5. Ethnic differences in psychological well-being in adolescence in the context of time spent in family activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Maria J; Harding, Seeromanie

    2010-01-01

    In Britain and elsewhere there is ethnic variation in mental health in adulthood but less is known about adolescence. Few studies examining the role of family life in adolescent mental well-being have been based on a multi-ethnic UK sample. We explored whether family activities explain ethnic differences in mental health among adolescents in London, UK. These analyses are based on 4,349 Black Caribbean, Black African, Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi and White UK boys and girls aged 11-13, in 51 schools. Psychological well-being was measured as the total difficulties score from Goodman's strengths and difficulties questionnaire (increasing score represents increasing difficulties). Participation in family activities varied by ethnicity. Compared with the White UK group, all minority groups were more likely to visit friends and relatives and go other places as a family. Black Caribbeans and Nigerian/Ghanaians were less likely and South Asian groups more likely to eat a meal together as a family. In multivariate analyses all minority groups had better well-being scores compared to Whites, independent of family type and socio-economic status (SES). Although adjusting for family activities slightly attenuated the association for South Asians, the minority ethnic advantage in psychological well-being remained [regression coefficients for Black Caribbeans = -0.66 (95% CI = -1.13, -0.20); Nigerian/Ghanaians = -1.27 (-1.81, -0.74); Other Africans = -1.43 (-2.00, -0.86); Indians = -1.15 (-1.73, -0.58); Pakistani/Bangladeshis = -0.66 (-1.20, -0.12)]. In analyses based on the whole group, all activity variables were independent correlates of psychological well-being. Multivariate models, stratified by ethnicity, showed that family meals was associated with poorer mental health for all groups, except Black Caribbeans, independent of family type and SES. Despite ethnic patterning of the frequency of family activities, adjusting for differences in these variables did not

  6. Amygdala subnuclei connectivity in response to violence reveals unique influences of individual differences in psychopathic traits in a nonforensic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Keith J; Porges, Eric C; Decety, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Atypical amygdala function and connectivity have reliably been associated with psychopathy. However, the amygdala is not a unitary structure. To examine how psychopathic traits in a nonforensic sample are linked to amygdala response to violence, this study used probabilistic tractography to classify amygdala subnuclei based on anatomical projections to and from amygdala subnuclei in a group of 43 male participants. The segmentation identified the basolateral complex (BLA; lateral, basal, and accessory basal subnuclei) and the central subnucleus (CE), which were used as seeds in a functional connectivity analysis to identify differences in neuronal coupling specific to observed violence. While a full amygdala seed showed significant connectivity only to right middle occipital gyrus, subnuclei seeds revealed unique connectivity patterns. BLA showed enhanced coupling with anterior cingulate and prefrontal regions, while CE showed increased connectivity with the brainstem, but reduced connectivity with superior parietal and precentral gyrus. Further, psychopathic personality factors were related to specific patterns of connectivity. Fearless Dominance scores on the psychopathic personality inventory predicted increased coupling between the BLA seed and sensory integration cortices, and increased connectivity between the CE seed and posterior insula. Conversely, Self-Centered Impulsivity scores were negatively correlated with coupling between BLA and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and Coldheartedness scores predicted increased functional connectivity between BLA and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Taken together, these findings demonstrate how subnuclei segmentations reveal important functional connectivity differences that are otherwise inaccessible. Such an approach yields a better understanding of amygdala dysfunction in psychopathy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Comparative Genomics Revealed Genetic Diversity and Species/Strain-Level Differences in Carbohydrate Metabolism of Three Probiotic Bifidobacterial Species

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    Toshitaka Odamaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strains of Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium animalis are widely used as probiotics in the food industry. Although numerous studies have revealed the properties and functionality of these strains, it is uncertain whether these characteristics are species common or strain specific. To address this issue, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of 49 strains belonging to these three bifidobacterial species to describe their genetic diversity and to evaluate species-level differences. There were 166 common clusters between strains of B. breve and B. longum, whereas there were nine common clusters between strains of B. animalis and B. longum and four common clusters between strains of B. animalis and B. breve. Further analysis focused on carbohydrate metabolism revealed the existence of certain strain-dependent genes, such as those encoding enzymes for host glycan utilisation or certain membrane transporters, and many genes commonly distributed at the species level, as was previously reported in studies with limited strains. As B. longum and B. breve are human-residential bifidobacteria (HRB, whereas B. animalis is a non-HRB species, several of the differences in these species’ gene distributions might be the result of their adaptations to the nutrient environment. This information may aid both in selecting probiotic candidates and in understanding their potential function as probiotics.

  8. Genome-wide linkage in a highly consanguineous pedigree reveals two novel loci on chromosome 7 for non-syndromic familial Premature Ovarian Failure.

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    Sandrine Caburet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human condition known as Premature Ovarian Failure (POF is characterized by loss of ovarian function before the age of 40. A majority of POF cases are sporadic, but 10-15% are familial, suggesting a genetic origin of the disease. Although several causal mutations have been identified, the etiology of POF is still unknown for about 90% of the patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report a genome-wide linkage and homozygosity analysis in one large consanguineous Middle-Eastern POF-affected family presenting an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. We identified two regions with a LOD(max of 3.26 on chromosome 7p21.1-15.3 and 7q21.3-22.2, which are supported as candidate regions by homozygosity mapping. Sequencing of the coding exons and known regulatory sequences of three candidate genes (DLX5, DLX6 and DSS1 included within the largest region did not reveal any causal mutations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We detect two novel POF-associated loci on human chromosome 7, opening the way to the identification of new genes involved in the control of ovarian development and function.

  9. Crystal structure of the enzyme-product complex reveals sugar ring distortion during catalysis by family 63 inverting α-glycosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takatsugu; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Tonozuka, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    Glycoside hydrolases are divided into two groups, known as inverting and retaining enzymes, based on their hydrolytic mechanisms. Glycoside hydrolase family 63 (GH63) is composed of inverting α-glycosidases, which act mainly on α-glucosides. We previously found that Escherichia coli GH63 enzyme, YgjK, can hydrolyze 2-O-α-d-glucosyl-d-galactose. Two constructed glycosynthase mutants, D324N and E727A, which catalyze the transfer of a β-glucosyl fluoride donor to galactose, lactose, and melibiose. Here, we determined the crystal structures of D324N and E727A soaked with a mixture of glucose and lactose at 1.8- and 2.1-Å resolutions, respectively. Because glucose and lactose molecules are found at the active sites in both structures, it is possible that these structures mimic the enzyme-product complex of YgjK. A glucose molecule found at subsite -1 in both structures adopts an unusual 1 S 3 skew-boat conformation. Comparison between these structures and the previously determined enzyme-substrate complex structure reveals that the glucose pyranose ring might be distorted immediately after nucleophilic attack by a water molecule. These structures represent the first enzyme-product complex for the GH63 family, as well as the structurally-related glycosidases, and it may provide insight into the catalytic mechanism of these enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Conserved Lipid and Small-Molecule Modulation of COQ8 Reveals Regulation of the Ancient Kinase-like UbiB Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenbach, Andrew G; Kemmerer, Zachary A; Aydin, Deniz; Jochem, Adam; McDevitt, Molly T; Hutchins, Paul D; Stark, Jaime L; Stefely, Jonathan A; Reddy, Thiru; Hebert, Alex S; Wilkerson, Emily M; Johnson, Isabel E; Bingman, Craig A; Markley, John L; Coon, Joshua J; Dal Peraro, Matteo; Pagliarini, David J

    2018-02-15

    Human COQ8A (ADCK3) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Coq8p (collectively COQ8) are UbiB family proteins essential for mitochondrial coenzyme Q (CoQ) biosynthesis. However, the biochemical activity of COQ8 and its direct role in CoQ production remain unclear, in part due to lack of known endogenous regulators of COQ8 function and of effective small molecules for probing its activity in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that COQ8 possesses evolutionarily conserved ATPase activity that is activated by binding to membranes containing cardiolipin and by phenolic compounds that resemble CoQ pathway intermediates. We further create an analog-sensitive version of Coq8p and reveal that acute chemical inhibition of its endogenous activity in yeast is sufficient to cause respiratory deficiency concomitant with CoQ depletion. Collectively, this work defines lipid and small-molecule modulators of an ancient family of atypical kinase-like proteins and establishes a chemical genetic system for further exploring the mechanistic role of COQ8 in CoQ biosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genome-wide Comparative Analyses Reveal the Dynamic Evolution of Nucleotide-Binding Leucine-Rich Repeat Gene Family among Solanaceae Plants

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    Eunyoung Seo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved an elaborate innate immune system against invading pathogens. Within this system, intracellular nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR immune receptors are known play critical roles in effector-triggered immunity (ETI plant defense. We performed genome-wide identification and classification of NLR-coding sequences from the genomes of pepper, tomato, and potato using fixed criteria. We then compared genomic duplication and evolution features. We identified intact 267, 443, and 755 NLR-encoding genes in tomato, potato, and pepper genomes, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses and classification of Solanaceae NLRs revealed that the majority of NLR super family members fell into 14 subgroups, including a TIR-NLR (TNL subgroup and 13 non-TNL subgroups. Specific subgroups have expanded in each genome, with the expansion in pepper showing subgroup-specific physical clusters. Comparative analysis of duplications showed distinct duplication patterns within pepper and among Solanaceae plants suggesting subgroup- or species-specific gene duplication events after speciation, resulting in divergent evolution. Taken together, genome-wide analyses of NLR family members provide insights into their evolutionary history in Solanaceae. These findings also provide important foundational knowledge for understanding NLR evolution and will empower broader characterization of disease resistance genes to be used for crop breeding.

  12. Driving south: a multi-gene phylogeny of the brown algal family Fucaceae reveals relationships and recent drivers of a marine radiation

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    Cánovas Fernando G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the processes driving speciation in marine ecosystems remained a challenge until recently, due to the unclear nature of dispersal boundaries. However, recent evidence for marine adaptive radiations and ecological speciation, as well as previously undetected patterns of cryptic speciation is overturning this view. Here, we use multi-gene phylogenetics to infer the family-level evolutionary history of Fucaceae (intertidal brown algae of the northern Pacific and Atlantic in order to investigate recent and unique patterns of radiative speciation in the genus Fucus in the Atlantic, in contrast with the mainly monospecific extant genera. Results We developed a set of markers from 13 protein coding genes based on polymorphic cDNA from EST libraries, which provided novel resolution allowing estimation of ancestral character states and a detailed reconstruction of the recent radiative history. Phylogenetic reconstructions yielded similar topologies and revealed four independent trans-Arctic colonization events by Fucaceae lineages, two of which also involved transitions from hermaphroditism to dioecy associated with Atlantic invasions. More recently, reversion of dioecious ancestral lineages towards hermaphroditism has occurred in the genus Fucus, particularly coinciding with colonization of more extreme habitats. Novel lineages in the genus Fucus were also revealed in association with southern habitats. These most recent speciation events occurred during the Pleistocene glaciations and coincided with a shift towards selfing mating systems, generally southward shifts in distribution, and invasion of novel habitats. Conclusions Diversification of the family occurred in the Late-Mid Miocene, with at least four independent trans-Artic lineage crossings coincident with two reproductive mode transitions. The genus Fucus arose in the Pliocene but radiated within a relatively short time frame about 2.5 million years ago

  13. Phenotypic diversity of diploid and haploid Emiliania huxleyi cells and of cells in different growth phases revealed by comparative metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausz, Michaela A; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-01-01

    In phytoplankton a high species diversity of microalgae co-exists at a given time. But diversity is not only reflected by the species composition. Within these species different life phases as well as different metabolic states can cause additional diversity. One important example is the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Diploid cells play an important role in marine ecosystems since they can form massively abundant algal blooms but in addition the less abundant haploid life phase of E. huxleyi occurs in lower quantities. Both life phases may fulfill different functions in the plankton. We hypothesize that in addition to the functional diversity caused by this life phase transition the growth stage of cells can also influence the metabolic composition and thus the ecological impact of E. huxleyi. Here we introduce a metabolomic survey in dependence of life phases as well as different growth phases to reveal such changes. The comparative metabolomic approach is based on the extraction of intracellular metabolites from intact microalgae, derivatization and analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Automated data processing and statistical analysis using canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) revealed unique metabolic profiles for each life phase. Concerning the correlations of metabolites to growth phases, complex patterns were observed. As for example the saccharide mannitol showed its highest concentration in the exponential phase, whereas fatty acids were correlated to stationary and sterols to declining phase. These results are indicative for specific ecological roles of these stages of E. huxleyi and are discussed in the context of previous physiological and ecological studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Email communication in a developing country: different family physician and patient perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarem, Nisrine N; Antoun, Jumana

    2016-01-01

    Email communication between physicians and patients could improve access to and delivery of health care. Most of the literature studies about email communication between physicians and patients have been conducted in developing countries. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the practices, attitudes, and barriers of both physicians' and patients' use of email within the same health care setting of a developing country. A cross-sectional paper-based survey was conducted among 39 physicians and 500 patients at the Family Medicine clinics of the American University of Beirut, a tertiary academic medical center. Most of the surveyed patients and physicians reported that they would like to communicate through email and agreed that it is useful. However, only 19% of the patients have ever communicated with their physicians via email, and only 5.1% of physicians have often communicated with their patients via email. Almost half of the patients surveyed were unaware of the possibility of this form of communication, and only 17% reported that their physician offered them his or her email address. In addition, physicians and patients did not agree on the services to be provided by email communication. For instance, almost half of the patients indicated consultation for an urgent medical matter as suitable for email communication. The use of email communication in health care is still scarce. Patients and physicians have different perspectives of its use and importance. Further rigorous research is needed to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of this form of communication, especially in the developing world. Interested physicians are encouraged to establish appropriate personal policies for email communication with adequate announcement and patient education plans.

  15. Cytogenetical and morphological features reveal significant differences among Venezuelan and Brazilian samples of Mugil curema (Teleostei: Mugilidae

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    Mauro Nirchio

    Full Text Available Karyotype of M. curema from the Gulf of Mexico and Brazil have been reported as possessing chromosome complement with 2n=28 and FN=48, whereas specimens from Venezuela has been reported as possessing a diploid number 2n=24 and a conserved FN (48. Although at first sight this variation suggests the presence of a chromosomal intraspecific (interpopulational variability, the possibility that we are dealing with two different species was examined. This work revisit the karyotypes of M. curema from Venezuela and Brazil, including new data on C-banding, and NOR localization, and compares morphologic characteristics of samples from both localities. Thus, besides diploid number, the constitutive heterochromatin distribution and NORs location, mark other differences between M. curema Cytotype 1 (2n=28; FN=48 and Cytotype 2 (2n=24; NF=48. Moreover, morphologic comparison revealed differences in the scale counts and pectoral fin rays: 35 scales in the middle body line and 15 pectoral fin rays in specimens possessing the karyotype 2n=28, compared with 37-39 scales in the middle body line and 17 pectoral fin rays in specimens with the karyotype 2n=24. These differences lead us to suggest that both cytotypes are not related merely to geographic polytipic variations but could correspond to different species.

  16. Family-centred service: differences in what parents of children with cerebral palsy rate important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwiel, M; Alsem, M W; Siebes, R C; Bieleman, K; Verhoef, M; Ketelaar, M

    2017-09-01

    A family-centred approach to services of children with disabilities is widely accepted as the foundational approach to service delivery in paediatric health care. The 56 items of the Measure of Processes of Care questionnaire (MPOC-56) all reflect elements of family-centred service. In this study, we investigated which elements of family-centred service are rated important by parents of children with cerebral palsy by adding a question on importance to each item of the MPOC-56 (MPOC-56-I). In total, 175 parents of children with cerebral palsy completed the MPOC-56-I. For each MPOC item, parents were asked to rate the importance on a 5-point scale ranging from 0 (not important at all) up to and including 4 (very important). We used Spearman's rank correlation coefficient to further explore the variation in parents' importance ratings. Parents' importance ratings of the MPOC-56 items varied. The percentage of parents rating an item important (importance rating 3 or 4) varied between 43.8% and 96.8%. The percentage of parents rating an item unimportant (rating 0 or 1) varied between 0.0% and 20.3%, and the percentage of parents rating an item neutral (rating 2) varied between 3.0% and 36.0%. Most diverse importance ratings were found for five items concerning the provision of general information. Three correlations between these items and child and parent characteristics were found. Six items were rated important by almost all (≥95%) parents. These items concern elements of specific information about the child, co-ordinated and comprehensive care for child and family and enabling and partnership. Parents rate the importance of family-centred services for their situation in various ways. These findings endorse that family-centred services should recognize the uniqueness of families and should be tailored to what parents find important. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Children's sugar-sweetened beverages consumption: associations with family and home-related factors, differences within ethnic groups explored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Gaar, V M; van Grieken, A; Jansen, W; Raat, H

    2017-02-14

    The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) may contribute to the development of overweight among children. The present study aimed to evaluate associations between family and home-related factors and children's SSB consumption. We explored associations within ethnic background of the child. Cross-sectional data from the population-based 'Water Campaign' study were used. Parents (n = 644) of primary school children (6-13 years) completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, family and home-related factors and child's SSB intake. The family and home-related factors under study were: cognitive variables (e.g. parental attitude, subjective norm), environmental variables (e.g. availability of SSB, parenting practices), and habitual variables (e.g. habit strength, taste preference). Regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between family and home-related factors and child's SSB intake (p ethnic background, with the explained variance of the full models ranging from 8.7% for children from Moroccan or Turkish ethnic background to 44.4% for children with Dutch ethnic background. Our results provide support for interventions targeting children's SSB intake focussing on the identified family and home-related factors, with active participation of parents. Also, the relationships between these factors and the child's SSB intake differed for children with distinct ethnic backgrounds. Therefore, we would recommend to tailor interventions taking into account the ethnic background of the family. Number NTR3400 ; date April 4th 2012; retrospectively registered.

  18. Multigene phylogeny of the scyphozoan jellyfish family Pelagiidae reveals that the common U.S. Atlantic sea nettle comprises two distinct species (Chrysaora quinquecirrha and C. chesapeakei

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    Keith M. Bayha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Species of the scyphozoan family Pelagiidae (e.g., Pelagia noctiluca, Chrysaora quinquecirrha are well-known for impacting fisheries, aquaculture, and tourism, especially for the painful sting they can inflict on swimmers. However, historical taxonomic uncertainty at the genus (e.g., new genus Mawia and species levels hinders progress in studying their biology and evolutionary adaptations that make them nuisance species, as well as ability to understand and/or mitigate their ecological and economic impacts. Methods We collected nuclear (28S rDNA and mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase I and 16S rDNA sequence data from individuals of all four pelagiid genera, including 11 of 13 currently recognized species of Chrysaora. To examine species boundaries in the U.S. Atlantic sea nettle Chrysaora quinquecirrha, specimens were included from its entire range along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts, with representatives also examined morphologically (macromorphology and cnidome. Results Phylogenetic analyses show that the genus Chrysaora is paraphyletic with respect to other pelagiid genera. In combined analyses, Mawia, sampled from the coast of Senegal, is most closely related to Sanderia malayensis, and Pelagia forms a close relationship to a clade of Pacific Chrysaora species (Chrysaora achlyos, Chrysaora colorata, Chrysaora fuscescens, and Chrysaora melanaster. Chrysaora quinquecirrha is polyphyletic, with one clade from the U.S. coastal Atlantic and another in U.S. Atlantic estuaries and Gulf of Mexico. These genetic differences are reflected in morphology, e.g., tentacle and lappet number, oral arm length, and nematocyst dimensions. Caribbean sea nettles (Jamaica and Panama are genetically similar to the U.S. Atlantic estuaries and Gulf of Mexico clade of Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Discussion Our phylogenetic hypothesis for Pelagiidae contradicts current generic definitions, revealing major disagreements between DNA-based and

  19. The prediction of preschool children's weight from family environment factors: gender-linked differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Line; Rinaldi, Christina M

    2010-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to test an explanatory model predicting preschool girls' and boys' body weight from certain child variables (food intake, sedentary behaviors, and eating habits), as well as family variables (interaction during mealtime and level of family financial resources allocated to meeting children's eating needs). A randomized stratified subsample of parents was selected from a larger study (Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, QLSCD-1998-2002), with a breakdown of 581 girls and 611 boys of 4 years of age. Children's skin fold ratio, weight, height, and Body Mass Index (BMI) were recorded. Questionnaires were administered to parents (usually the mother). Using structural equation modeling (SEM) separately for girls and boys, the family environment model of healthy weight development was tested. Results yielded a good fit of the model for both genders. For boys, significant predictors of body weight in the model were family food insecurity and conflicts during mealtime. Healthy eating was predicted by food insecurity, mealtime conflicts, and sedentary behaviors. Mealtime conflicts predicted sedentary behaviors. For girls, none of the variables predicted body weight, however food insecurity predicted less healthy eating. These results outline the importance of prevention and intervention within families with young children. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Social Skills, Social Support and Well-Being in Adolescents of Different Family Configurations

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    Vanessa Barbosa Romera Leme

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is no consensus in the literature regarding the influence of family configuration on the psychological well-being of adolescents. Based on the perception of adolescents, this study evaluates the influence of family configuration, social skills and social support appraisals as potential predictors of adolescent psychological well-being. The participants were 454 adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years from nuclear, separated and remarried families. The adolescents were students in the first and second years of public high school. The data were collectively obtained in the classroom using the Social Skills Inventory for Adolescents, the Social Support Appraisal Scale and the Psychological Well-being Scale. The results indicated that family configuration is not associated with the psychological well-being of adolescents. The social skills of empathy, self-control, civility, social resourcefulness and affective approach as well as the social support appraisals from friends and family were the best predictors of adolescent psychological well-being. The implications of the results are discussed with respect to future research and interventions.

  1. Family and personal characteristics of aggressive Nigerian boys: differences from and similarities with Western findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, C C; Grantham-McGregor, S

    1998-11-01

    To identify the family and child determinants of aggressive behaviour in Nigerian elementary school boys and to compare the findings with previous ones from Western studies. Forty-seven aggressive boys from four elementary schools in Lagos, Nigeria were compared with 47 matched pro-social boys. Teacher rating and peer nomination were combined to select subjects. The subjects and their parents were given structured questionnaires to obtain information on possible risk factors for aggression. Compared with pro-social boys, it was found that significantly more aggressive boys came from polygamous families and crowded homes, had more siblings, received less parental affection, were more physically punished, less supervised at home, witnessed more domestic conflicts, did poorly at school, had poorer verbal intelligence and attributed malice more readily than pro-social boys. Logistic regression indicated that the independent family predictors of aggression were crowding, little paternal affection, and corporal punishment. The independent child predictors were biased attribution and poor school achievement. Corporal punishment at school was also an independent predictor of aggression. The family and child determinants of aggressive behaviour in Nigeria are similar to those found in Western studies except for the small contribution of family instability and overwhelming influence of corporal punishment in our sample. Models of intervention developed in the West may therefore be cautiously applied to Nigerian children.

  2. Comparison at the peptide level with post-translational modification consideration reveals more differences between two unenriched samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jianrui; Shao, Chen; Jia, Lulu; Gao, Youhe

    2014-06-30

    In shotgun strategies, peptide sequences are first identified from tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra, and the existence and abundance of the proteins are then inferred from the peptide information. However, the protein inference step can produce errors and a loss of information. To identify the information that is lost using the traditional approaches, this study compared the proteomic data of two leukemia cell lines (Jurkat and K562) at the peptide level with consideration of post-translational modifications (PTMs). The raw files from the two cell lines were searched against the decoy IPI-human database version 3.68, which contains forward and reverse sequences. Then the observed modification name in the results was matched with the modification classification on the Unimod website by a manual search. Only the peptides with 'post-translational' modifications were compared between the two cell lines. After searching the database with consideration of PTMs, a total of 44046 non-redundant peptides were identified in both the Jurkat and K562 cell lines. Of these peptides, even without specific PTM enrichment, 11.43% of them (with at least two spectra in one cell line) existed in different PTM forms between the two cell lines, and 1.73% of the peptides were modified in both cell lines, but with different modifications or possibly on different sites. Comparing proteomic data at the peptide level with consideration of PTMs can reveal more differences between two unenriched samples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Different localization patterns of anthocyanin species in the pericarp of black rice revealed by imaging mass spectrometry.

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    Yukihiro Yoshimura

    Full Text Available Black rice (Oryza sativa L. Japonica contains high levels of anthocyanins in the pericarp and is considered an effective health-promoting food. Several studies have identified the molecular species of anthocyanins in black rice, but information about the localization of each anthocyanin species is limited because methodologies for investigating the localization such as determining specific antibodies to anthocyanin, have not yet been developed Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS is a suitable tool for investigating the localization of metabolites. In this study, we identified 7 species of anthocyanin monoglycosides and 2 species of anthocyanin diglycosides in crude extracts from black rice by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS analysis. We also analyzed black rice sections by MALDI-IMS and found 2 additional species of anthocyanin pentosides and revealed different localization patterns of anthocyanin species composed of different sugar moieties. Anthocyanin species composed of a pentose moiety (cyanidin-3-O-pentoside and petunidin-3-O-pentoside were localized in the entire pericarp, whereas anthocyanin species composed of a hexose moiety (cyanidin-3-O-hexoside and peonidin-3-O-hexoside were focally localized in the dorsal pericarp. These results indicate that anthocyanin species composed of different sugar moieties exhibit different localization patterns in the pericarp of black rice. This is the first detailed investigation into the localization of molecular species of anthocyanins by MALDI-IMS.

  4. Quantitative proteomics of seed filling in castor: comparison with soybean and rapeseed reveals differences between photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic seed metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Norma L; Hajduch, Martin; Thelen, Jay J

    2009-10-01

    Seed maturation or seed filling is a phase of development that plays a major role in the storage reserve composition of a seed. In many plant seeds photosynthesis plays a major role in this process, although oilseeds, such as castor (Ricinus communis), are capable of accumulating oil without the benefit of photophosphorylation to augment energy demands. To characterize seed filling in castor, a systematic quantitative proteomics study was performed. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to resolve and quantify Cy-dye-labeled proteins expressed at 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks after flowering in biological triplicate. Expression profiles for 660 protein spot groups were established, and of these, 522 proteins were confidently identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry by mining against the castor genome. Identified proteins were classified according to function, and the most abundant groups of proteins were involved in protein destination and storage (34%), energy (19%), and metabolism (15%). Carbon assimilatory pathways in castor were compared with previous studies of photosynthetic oilseeds, soybean (Glycine max) and rapeseed (Brassica napus). These comparisons revealed differences in abundance and number of protein isoforms at numerous steps in glycolysis. One such difference was the number of enolase isoforms and their sum abundance; castor had approximately six times as many isoforms as soy and rapeseed. Furthermore, Rubisco was 11-fold less prominent in castor compared to rapeseed. These and other differences suggest some aspects of carbon flow, carbon recapture, as well as ATP and NADPH production in castor differs from photosynthetic oilseeds.

  5. Approach for discrimination and quantification of electroactive species: kinetics difference revealed by higher harmonics of Fourier transformed sinusoidal voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yishan; Huang, Xinjian; Wang, Lishi

    2015-01-06

    Discrimination and quantification of electroactive species are traditionally realized by a potential difference which is mainly determined by thermodynamics. However, the resolution of this approach is limited to tens of millivolts. In this paper, we described an application of Fourier transformed sinusoidal voltammetry (FT-SV) that provides a new approach for discrimination and quantitative evaluation of electroactive species, especially thermodynamic similar ones. Numerical simulation indicates that electron transfer kinetics difference between electroactive species can be revealed by the phase angle of higher order harmonics of FT-SV, and the difference can be amplified order by order. Thus, even a very subtle kinetics difference can be amplified to be distinguishable at a certain order of harmonics. This method was verified with structurally similar ferrocene derivatives which were chosen as the model systems. Although these molecules have very close redox potential (harmonics. The results demonstrated the feasibility and reliability of the method. It was also implied that the combination of the traditional thermodynamic method and this kinetics method can form a two-dimension resolved detection method, and it has the potential to extend the resolution of voltammetric techniques to a new level.

  6. HLA-DR Genotyping and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Reveal the Presence of Family Burials in a Fourth Century Romano-British Christian Cemetery

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    Canh P. Voong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In Colchester, Britain's oldest recorded town, during the Roman period there were areas which were clearly used solely as cemeteries. One of the most significant is at Butt Road, which includes a late Roman probable Christian cemetery with an associated building, apparently a church, that overlies and developed from a pagan inhumation cemetery. DNA was extracted from the long bones (femurs of 29 individuals, mostly from a large complex of burials centered on two timber vaults. These were thought to comprise a number of family groupings, deduced from osteological analysis, stratigraphical and other considerations. The use of a modified version of the silica-based purification method recovered nanogram quantities of DNA/gram of bone. Two-stage amplification, incorporating primer-extension preamplification-polymerase chain reaction, permitted simultaneous amplification of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes yielded human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR typing of seven samples, with four revealing the infrequent HLA-DR10 genotype. Examination of the control region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA by direct sequencing revealed polymorphisms yet to be reported in the modern population. HLA-DRB typing and mtDNA analysis affirmatively supported kinship among some, if not all, individuals in the “vault complex” and demonstrate a continental European origin of the individuals investigated.

  7. Mycophilic or mycophobic? Legislation and guidelines on wild mushroom commerce reveal different consumption behaviour in European countries.

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    Ursula Peintner

    Full Text Available Mycophiles forage for and pick vast quantities of a wide variety of wild mushroom species. As a result, mushroom intoxications are comparatively frequent in such countries with mycophiles. Thus, national governments are forced to release guidelines or enact legislation in order to ensure the safe commerce of wild mushrooms due to food safety concerns. It is in these guidelines and laws that one can observe whether a country is indeed mycophobic or mycophilic. Furthermore, these laws and guidelines provide valuable information on mushroom preferences and on the consumption habits of each country. As such we were interested in the questions as to whether mushroom consumption behaviour was different within Europe, and if it was possible to discover the typical or distinctive culinary preferences of Slavic or Romanic speaking people, people from special geographical regions or from different zones. This work is based on the analysis of edible mushroom lists available in specific guidelines or legislation related to the consumption and commerce of mushrooms in 27 European countries. The overall diversity of edible mushrooms authorised to be commercialised in Europe is very high. However, only 60 out of a total 268 fungal species can be cultivated. This highlights the importance of guidelines or legislation for the safe commerce of wild mushrooms. The species richness and composition of the mushrooms listed for commerce is very heterogeneous within Europe. The consumption behaviour is not only language-family-related, but is strongly influenced by geographical location and neighbouring countries. Indicator species were detected for different European regions; most of them are widespread fungi, and thus prove culture-specific preferences for these mushrooms. Our results highlight tradition and external input such as trade and cultural exchange as strong factors shaping mushroom consumption behaviour.

  8. Advanced x-ray stress analysis method for a single crystal using different diffraction plane families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imafuku, Muneyuki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Sueyoshi, Kazuyuki; Akita, Koichi; Ohya, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-01

    Generalized formula of the x-ray stress analysis for a single crystal with unknown stress-free lattice parameter was proposed. This method enables us to evaluate the plane stress states with any combination of diffraction planes. We can choose and combine the appropriate x-ray sources and diffraction plane families, depending on the sample orientation and the apparatus, whenever diffraction condition is satisfied. The analysis of plane stress distributions in an iron single crystal was demonstrated combining with the diffraction data for Fe{211} and Fe{310} plane families

  9. DNA polymorphisms revealed by the RAPD technique show differences between radionuclide-contaminated and uncontaminated mosquitofish populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorakis, C.W.; Shugart, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    In 1977, approximately 250 Mosquitofish (Gambusia affines) were transplanted from a relatively uncontaminated site into a small pond on the Oak Ridge Reservation that is heavily contaminated with radionuclides. DNA polymorphisms, using the RAPD technique, were examined in order to determine if any genetic differentiation had occurred between the two populations. Also, fish from another radionuclide-contaminated population (White Oak Lake) and two unrelated non-contaminated populations were also examined. The RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) technique uses the polymerase chain reaction with a short oligonucleotide primer to produce DNA fragments of various lengths. When analyzed by gel electrophoresis, these fragments form banding patterns similar to DNA fingerprints. A total of 26 primers were used to produce DNA band patterns, many of which revealed population differences. In addition several primers revealed banding patterns which differentiated between the Crystal Springs and Pond 3513 populations. Furthermore, bands found at high frequency in Pond 3513 and White Oak Lake populations were absent or present at a lower frequency in the non-contaminated populations. For some primers, the contaminated populations showed more DNA bands per individual, and fish with more bands had fewer DNA strand breaks than the fish with fewer bands. These data will be discussed with relation to biomonitoring programs and evolution of resistance to genotoxins in natural populations

  10. Glycoprotein profiles of macrophages at different stages of activation as revealed by lectin binding after electrophoretic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimura, T; North, S M; Nicolson, G L

    1987-01-01

    Glycoprotein profiles of rat macrophages (M phi) at different stages of activation were studied by examining the reactivity of various lectins to the glycoproteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Ricinus communis agglutinin 1 (RCA1) revealed several components including glycoproteins of Mr 160 kDa and 65 kDa prominent in resident M phi. A pokeweed mitogen (PWM) isolectin, Pa-4, recognizes branched poly(N-acetyllactosamine)-type carbohydrate chains, and revealed a significant increase in glycoproteins of Mr ranging from 70 kDa to 150 kDa on thioglycolate-elicited M phi. Increased reactivity of PWM to thioglycolate-elicited M phi was observed by direct binding of 125I-labeled Pa-4 to intact or glutaraldehyde-fixed M phi. Histochemical staining of formaldehyde-fixed M phi in vitro with biotinylated Pa-4 was consistent with the gel analysis, that is, resident M phi had no reactivity while thioglycolate-elicited M phi showed slight reactivity. Alveolar and intratumoral M phi bound more Pa-4 than resident or thioglycolate-elicited M phi. The PWM isolectin may therefore serve as a marker for an early stage of M phi activation.

  11. Ultrasonic vocalizations in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) reveal modest sex differences and nonlinear signals of sexual motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Vargas, Marcela; Johnston, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Vocal signaling is one of many behaviors that animals perform during social interactions. Vocalizations produced by both sexes before mating can communicate sex, identity and condition of the caller. Adult golden hamsters produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) after intersexual contact. To determine whether these vocalizations are sexually dimorphic, we analyzed the vocal repertoire for sex differences in: 1) calling rates, 2) composition (structural complexity, call types and nonlinear phenomena) and 3) acoustic structure. In addition, we examined it for individual variation in the calls. The vocal repertoire was mainly composed of 1-note simple calls and at least half of them presented some degree of deterministic chaos. The prevalence of this nonlinear phenomenon was confirmed by low values of harmonic-to-noise ratio for most calls. We found modest sexual differences between repertoires. Males were more likely than females to produce tonal and less chaotic calls, as well as call types with frequency jumps. Multivariate analysis of the acoustic features of 1-note simple calls revealed significant sex differences in the second axis represented mostly by entropy and bandwidth parameters. Male calls showed lower entropy and inter-quartile bandwidth than female calls. Because the variation of acoustic structure within individuals was higher than among individuals, USV could not be reliably assigned to the correct individual. Interestingly, however, this high variability, augmented by the prevalence of chaos and frequency jumps, could be the result of increased vocal effort. Hamsters motivated to produce high calling rates also produced longer calls of broader bandwidth. Thus, the sex differences found could be the result of different sex preferences but also of a sex difference in calling motivation or condition. We suggest that variable and complex USV may have been selected to increase responsiveness of a potential mate by communicating sexual arousal and

  12. Ultrasonic vocalizations in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus reveal modest sex differences and nonlinear signals of sexual motivation.

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    Marcela Fernández-Vargas

    Full Text Available Vocal signaling is one of many behaviors that animals perform during social interactions. Vocalizations produced by both sexes before mating can communicate sex, identity and condition of the caller. Adult golden hamsters produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV after intersexual contact. To determine whether these vocalizations are sexually dimorphic, we analyzed the vocal repertoire for sex differences in: 1 calling rates, 2 composition (structural complexity, call types and nonlinear phenomena and 3 acoustic structure. In addition, we examined it for individual variation in the calls. The vocal repertoire was mainly composed of 1-note simple calls and at least half of them presented some degree of deterministic chaos. The prevalence of this nonlinear phenomenon was confirmed by low values of harmonic-to-noise ratio for most calls. We found modest sexual differences between repertoires. Males were more likely than females to produce tonal and less chaotic calls, as well as call types with frequency jumps. Multivariate analysis of the acoustic features of 1-note simple calls revealed significant sex differences in the second axis represented mostly by entropy and bandwidth parameters. Male calls showed lower entropy and inter-quartile bandwidth than female calls. Because the variation of acoustic structure within individuals was higher than among individuals, USV could not be reliably assigned to the correct individual. Interestingly, however, this high variability, augmented by the prevalence of chaos and frequency jumps, could be the result of increased vocal effort. Hamsters motivated to produce high calling rates also produced longer calls of broader bandwidth. Thus, the sex differences found could be the result of different sex preferences but also of a sex difference in calling motivation or condition. We suggest that variable and complex USV may have been selected to increase responsiveness of a potential mate by communicating sexual

  13. Linking Mother-Father Differences in Parenting to a Typology of Family Parenting Styles and Adolescent Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Conger, Rand D.

    2007-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from a sample of 451 families with a child in eighth grade at the time of study, three research questions have been addressed: First, the study explored the ways in which mothers and fathers differ with regard to four parenting styles. Second, the study examined the manner in which individual parenting styles combine to…

  14. Fathers' Involvement with Their Preschool-Age Children: How Fathers Spend Time with Their Children in Different Family Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halme, Nina; Astedt-Kurki, Paivi; Tarkka, Marja-Terttu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how fathers (n = 263) spent time with their preschool-age children and to compare it in different family structures. Data were gathered by structured questionnaires. The instrument included five categories of variables for the time spent: the quantity of time, physical activities, fathers' attitude towards…

  15. Cultural Differences in Parents' Facilitation of Mathematics Learning: A Comparison of Euro-American and Chinese-American Families